Assignment Topic: Effects of heredity and environment on development of personality.

Answer: Introduction: Personality is a set of qualities or attributes that make a person (or thing) distinct from another. According to Feildman, Personality is the pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiates a person the pattern of behavior that makes each individual unique. While Crider et. al said the unique patterning of behavioral and mental process that characterizes an individual and his/her interactions with the environment. So, it can be said, personality is total characteristics of a person that influence a person s behavioral and mental process and makes him different or identifiable from other people. Now question arises, how a person develops personality and if heredity and environment effects the development of personality. In fact, there are numbers of factors determine a person s personality. These include environment and genetics. Our personality is the product of the interaction of these two factors; Heredity & Environment. Effect of heredity in psychological development: Hereditary, or the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring, determines personality to a certain extent. Hereditary characteristics manifest at birth such as hair and eye color, skin color and body type. Hereditary also includes aptitude or the capacity to learn a skill or inclination for a particular body of knowledge. It establishes the limits of one s personality traits that can be developed. This aptitude creates the desire for a person to learn something. For instance, the son of a sports hero like a boxer superstar is expected to inherit the genes of his father. His capacity for growth in the boxing arena is immense because he is born with the ability. Behavioral geneticists, Dr. David Reiss and colleagues from George Washington University, conducted a thorough and long-term study on the effects of genetics to a person s personality. The result of their study revealed that it seems that genetic influences are largely responsible for how adjusted kids are: how well they do in school, how they get along with their peers, whether they engage in dangerous or delinquent behavior . Behavioral geneticists believe that the genes do not act as the exact blueprints that determine every detail of our personality and behavior; rather, they think that heredity or these genes reveal through a person s actual interactions with the environment. The genetic make-up of a person brings out particular reactions to things and people which in turn determine the person s personality.

behaviors. which could leave an enduring mark on the child's personality. one that wants new sensations and one that is slow to react. Most experts believe that child's experiences in the family are important for his/her personality development. on the contrary. Carl Rogers. Conclusion: Personality is a board concept and has many implications. Effect of environment on personality development: Apart from heredity. For example. The ability to choose reactions though increases as a person grows older. These include whether a child's basic needs are well met and how a child is brought up. friendly and cooperative and the other is group is. put a lot of emphasis on how childhood experiences affect one's personality. Many psychologists believe that there are certain critical periods in personality development. attitudes. Personality under the broadest definition is a set of traits. and mental schemas an individual possesses. an individual's gene and the environment are not just independent sources of influence that add together to form an individual's personality. Interaction and influence of heredity and environment with each other form a person's personality. The degree of effect of what happens to a child when he/she is at a developing stage on his/her personality development depends on when it happens. but it can be definitely said that personality does not solely come from our relationships and experiences. In different situations. assertive. Of these items. As seen from the above. However. a famous psychologist. children are also affected by siblings. beliefs. Members of two New Guinea tribes are of the same racial store and live in the same area. 60 to 70% of human behaviors deemed "personality" is due to genetic predisposition while rest 30%-40% is influenced by the environment. children who are toilet trained too early or have their toilet training carried out too strictly may become rebellious. hostile and competitive. The genotype is in correlation with the environment. by identifying with their same-sex parent. it is important to know how DNA works. An individual's genes also shape the environment. one group is peaceful. environment also effects the development of personality. children react according to the one that would be most suitable for their genotype or genetic endowment.To further explain this. An American anthropologist Margaret Mead has shown how a social and cultural factor has an important influence in personality development. which are periods when the child will be more sensitive to certain environmental happenings. The DNA of a person is responsible for a certain kind of nervous system such as one that is alarmed at new situations. children can learn appropriate behavior to their sex especially when there is a good relationship with that parent. .

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