20 &mpk.

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Famous Leaders in The 20th Century

20 &mpk.emrnfausmyf *k Kd~ vf}uD;rsm;
Famous Leaders in The 20th Century (Burmese version)
Drum Publication Group
P.O Box 66
Kanchanaburi 71000
Thailand
drum@drumpublications.org
www.drumpublications.org
September, 2008
ISBN 978-974-362-328-8
II

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l muif;a*stm(&f) (Martin Luther King Jr.)
e,fvqifrif'v
J m; (Nelson Mandela)
tJvED ¶kd pk bJh (Eleanor Roosevelt)
a';Apfbifu&l ,
D ef (David Ben-Gurion)
rm*&ufpif*g (Margaret Higgin Sanger)
vuf(cf)0,f(vf)pm (Lech Walesa)
z&efŒuvif;'DvmEd¶k pk bJ(h Franklin Delano Roosevelt)
bv,fwrD mvDeif (Vladimir Lenin)
oDt'kd ¶kd pk bJh (Theodore Roosevelt)
rg*&ufoufcsm (Margaret Thatcher)
r[wWr*END (Mahatama Gandhi)
yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;*|eaf ygvf (II) (Pope John Paul II)
qm(&f)0ifpwefcsyaf cs;(vf) (Winston Churchill)
rDac;vfa*:bmacsm(h Af) (Mikhail Gorbachev)
t,mwdv
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[dck srD if; (Ho Chi Minh)
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t'd;k zf[pfwvm (Adolf Hitler)
a&mfe,f(vf)&D*if (Ronald Wilson Reagan
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(The Tank Man or Unknown Rebel)

III

IV

1
10
15
19
23
28
32
38
46
51
58
65
71
75
80
84
94
102
112
119

1

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rsm;jzpfonf±h yk ±f iS ±f /kH pm;aomufqikd rf sm;ESi[
hf w
kd ,frsm;Y tom;ta&mifcJG
jcm;jcif;rSmw&m;Oya'udck sKd ;azmufonf[k jyXge;f cJo
h nf? xd@k twltvky±f iS f
rsm;udv
k nf;vltm;vH;k tay:om wlnrD #tvkyv
f yk cf iG ahf y;&rnf[k vnf;yg
-6-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

±So
d nf? Edik if aH wmf&efyakH iGEiS t
hf vkyv
f yk af qmifaomvkyif ef;rsm;wGif vlwpfO;D
wpfa,muf.tom;ta&/ vlrsKd ; od@k r[kwf Edik if t
H ay:tajccHaomcGjJ cm;r_
rsm;tay: oufaotaxmuftxm;±Syd gu xd&k efyakH iGrsm;udk &yfqikd ;f ypfEikd f
ygonf?
aemufyikd ;f uif;uz,f'&,fraJ y;ydik cf iG t
hf cGit
hf a&;Oya'xnfo
h iG ;f a&;t
ay:tm±Hpk ;l pdu
k cf o
hJ nf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f jynfe,fwpfcpk w
D iG f rnfonfjh ynfe,f
ole,fom;rsm;tcGit
hf a&;ay;Edik o
f nf [laomuef@owfcsuv
f yk Ef ikd o
f nfh
tcGit
hf a&;±So
d nf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh awmifyikd ;f jynfe,frsm;wGif tar&d
uefvrl nf;rsm;udk rJay;cGirhf ay;acs? awmifyikd ;f a'o±SEd ikd if aH &;orm;rsm;u
qef@usi=f uaomfvnf; v$waf wmftrwftrsm;pku (333rJ 48 rJ) jzift
h Edik f
&IrJay;ydik cf iG t
hf ufOya'jyXge;f a&;ESiq
hf ;D edwv
f w
$ af wmfrS (77 rJ 19rJ) jzift
h
Edik &f ±SI
d rJqENay;Edik cf iG t
hf ufOya'udjk yXge;f Edik cf o
hJ nf? Tw&m;Oya'uEdik if H
awmftpd;k &u a'ocHjynfe,frsm;urJay;&eftwGuef mrnfpm&if;wifoiG ;f
ray;olrsm;udk emrnfpm&if;rsm;a&;rSwaf y;onf?
uif;uTta&;}u;D aomw&m;Oya'ESp&f yfujkd yXge;f Edik &f ef }uKd ;pm;+y;D aemuf
qif;&Jom;rsm;udu
k n
l &D ef }udK;pm;tm;xkwcf yhJ gonf? uif;uvlrsKd ;pkEiS phf ;D
yGg;a&;tcGit
hf a&;rsm;rSmeD;pyfr±_ +dS y;D t+r'J eG w
f aJG eaoma=umifh uif;uypPn;f
OpPmrsm;udk vltrsm;twGujf zef@jzL;ay;&ef vdt
k yfa=umif;a[majymcJo
h nf?
uif;utmz&duef-tar&duefrsm;ESiq
hf if;&Jom;vljzLrsm;rS&aJ bmf&zJ ufrsm;
jzpf+yD; ,if;wd@k twlwuGvufwv
JG yk af qmifygu vlrt
_ zG@J tpnf;udak jymif;
vJEikd af =umif;tm;ay;wdu
k w
f eG ;f cJyh gonf? uif;utmvfbm;rm;±Spd v
J rf m
wGiT
f od@k red @f ceG ;f ajym=um;cJyh gonf? “vGecf w
hJ hJ 12 ESpw
f ek ;f uwd@k awG[mjyef
vnfjyKjyifa&;v_yf±Sm;r_awGrSmyg0ifcJh+yD; ('gayrJhtck) wdk@awG[macwf
topfwpfcak &mufvm+y;D / 'Dacwftopfuakd wmfveS af &;acwfv@kd ac:&r,f”
rdrd.}uD;xGm;vmaom tajccHususwpfzufpGef;pdwfudk vSpf[jyocJhyg
onf?
-7-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

1967 ckEpS {f +yDv 3 &ufae@wiG f rmwifvo
l muif;a*stm(&f)rS tb,f
a=umifAh ,
D uferfppfyu
JG q
kd ef@usi&f onft
h a=umif;rsm;udk az: jyxm;ygonf?
Trde@f ceG ;f udak jym+yD;onfah emuf =oZmv$r;f rd;k r_±adS omyk*K~d vfwpfcsKd @u uif;
udk 1968 ckEpS o
f rRwa±G;aumufyw
JG iG f wwd,ygwt
D jzpf0ifa&mufyg0if&ef
wdu
k w
f eG ;f E_;d aqmf=uonf? uif;uTt}uHay;csuu
f ykd ,fcscahJ omfvnf;AD
,uferfppfyt
JG ay: qef@usiv
f y_ ±f mS ;r_ukd qufvufaqmif±u
G cf o
hJ nf? uif;
uAD,uferfppfyt
JG ay: qef@usiaf oma=umifrh ed @f ceG ;f rsm;pwifajymcJo
h jzifh
tpd;k &u,if;tay:rESpo
f ufvrkd r_ sm;±Scd o
hJ nfuakd wG@&rnf?
rwfv 28 &ufae@ 1968 ckEpS w
f iG f uif;utvkyo
f rm;tcGit
hf a&;twGuf
uln&D efrif;zd(pf) (Memphis) ±Sq
d ENjyyGu
J kd ud,
k w
f ikd Of ;D aqmifcsw
D ufco
hJ nf?
csw
D ufyOJG ;D aqmiforl sm;ucsw
D uforl sm;udk t=urf;zufrv
_ yk if ef;rsm;a±Smif
usO&f eftrde@f ay;aomfvnf; vli,fwpfprk sm;rSm vrf;!$ecf surf sm;udek m;r
axmifyJ +rKd @awmfcef;rod@k csw
D uf&mvrf;wpfav#muf±q
dS ikd rf sm;udk zsuq
f ;D ypf
cJo
h nf? touf 16 ESpt
f ±G,o
f m±Sad o;aomvm&Dzif; (Larry Payne)[l
aomaumifuav;wpfa,mufuykd v
k yd u
f vk,ufot
l jzpfpyG pf +JG y;D ypfowf
cJo
h nf? od@k aomfrsujf rifoufaorsm;u vm&Duykd v
k yd f rsm;ypfowfcsed w
f iG f
ol.vufudkajr‡mufxm;onf[kajym=uonf?
uif;ucsw
D ufyw
JG iG f xdo
k @kd t=urf;zufrv
_ yk &f yfrsm;jzpf&jcif;rSm tpd;k &.&efp
v_@H aqmforl sm;jzpfonf[k tcdik t
f rm,H=k unfco
hJ nf? xdn
k uuif;uol.
emrnfausm=f um;qH;k rde@f ceG ;f jzpfaom “u|eaf wmfw@kd awmifxyd af y:a&mufchJ
w,f” [laomrde@f ceG ;f udk rde@f =um;cJo
h nf? ol@red @f ceG ;f udk Tod@k tqH;k owfchJ
onf? “'Dae@up+y;D bmawGjzpfvmrvJqw
kd mrodygb;l ? 'gayrJt
h a±Sr› mS cuf
cJwahJ e@&ufawG±adS evdrrhf ,f? 'gayrJ'h t
D &mawG[m u|eaf wmft
h wGub
f mrSr
jzpfavmufawmhygb;l ? bmjzpfv@kd vq
J akd wmh u|eaf wmfawmifxyd u
f akd &muf
cJ+h yD;? awmifay:uvSr;f =unfv
h u
kd w
f t
hJ cg uwday;xm;wJeh ,fajrudk awG@&
-8-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

w,f? 'De,fajrrSm cifAsm;wd@k e@J twlra&mufaumif;ra&mufEikd b
f ;l ? 'gayrJh
cifAsm;wd@k tm;vH;k udo
k ad pcsiw
f mu wd@k awGvrl sKd ;pkwpfcv
k ;kH taeeJ@'u
D wd
ay;xm;wJah jrudk a&mufrmS rkcsjzpfw,fqw
kd mudk odapcsiyf gw,f? 'gah =umifh
vJu|efawmfwu,faysmfygw,f?”
aemufwpfae@rmS yJuif;u ol&[
hJ w
kd ,favomaqmifrmS &yfaewke;f typf
owfccH &hJ w,f? olaoqH;k oGm;onfah emufqufwt
JG jzpf+rdK@ 125 +rdK@wiG q
f l
ylaomif;use;f r_rsm;jzpfay:vm+yD; vlav;q,fajcmufa,muftowfccH &hJ
onf? ESpv
f t=umwGi*f srd ;f t,f(vf)a&; (James Earl Ray) qdo
k nfh olukd
vef'ef+rKd @wiG zf rf;qD;+y;D tar&duefo@kd y@kd vu
kd o
f nf? xdo
k t
l m;uif;udv
k yk }f uH
r_twGuaf xmifxu
J ;kd q,fu
h ;kd ESpcf svu
kd o
f nf?
rmwifvo
l muif;towfc&H onft
h ay: pHpk rf;axmufvrS ;f r_rsm;rsm;pGmjyK
vkycf +hJ y;D tar&dueftpd;k &ESit
hf ufzb
f t
D ikd f (FBI) wd@k rS ,if;vky}f urH .
_ aemuf
uG,w
f iG ±f o
dS nf[k xifjrifcsu±f =dS uonf? tjcm;pdw0f ifpm;p&mtcsuw
f pf
ckrS *srd ;f udv
k ef'efwiG o
f v
J eG pf ±SmIzrf;qD;cJo
h rl mS tufzb
f t
D ikd rf [kwb
f J
uae'gyv
k yd rf sm;jzpfonfuo
dk ±d &dS onf?
1988 ckEpS w
f iG f axmifxw
J iG t
f usO;f cscaH e&aom*srd ;f udk ±kyjf rifo=H um;awG@
qHak r;jref;cef;jyKvkycf &hJ mwGio
f u
l FBI at;*sirhf sm;u ol@uu
kd if;tm;owf
&ef0efccH ikd ;f +yD; tu,fI0efrcHygu ol.zcifEiS n
hf t
D pfuw
kd pfa,mufukd
axmifxcJ srnf[+k crd ;f ajcmufco
hJ nfuakd jymcJo
h nf? *srd ;f uolukd FBI uuif;
tm;owfjzwfrt
_ wGut
f uGuq
f ifzrf;cJo
h nf[q
k o
kd nf?
1983 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duefjynfaxmifpu
k eG *f &ufu tar&duef.jynfo@l t
cGit
hf a&;v_y±f mS ;r_acgi;f aqmifrsm;xJrS wpfa,mufjzpfonfrh mwifvo
l m
uif;udk *k%jf yKaomtm;jzifh Zefe0g&v
D wwd,ywfwevFmae@ukd rmwifvl
omuif;ae@[kowfrSwfcJhonf?
-9-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]uRefawmfwdkUwdkif;jynfrSmaxmifuscH&NyD;wJhaemufrSmor®wjzpfvmrSmjzpfw,f/}}
“In my country we go to prison first and then become President.”

]]b0rSm*kPf,lp&mtaumif;qHk;[m wpfcgrSmrvJuswmr[kwfbl;/
'gayrJhudk,fvJuswJhtcgwdkif;jyefxjcif;jzpfw,f/}}
“The Greatest glory in living lies not in never falling,
but in rising every time we fall.”

]]wpdwfwa'ovGwfvyfrIqdkwmr½Sdbl;/}}
“There is no such thing as part freedom.”

e,fvqifrif'v
J m; (1918 -

)

e,f

vqifrif'v
J m; (Nelson Mandela)
onfvjl zLvlrnf;cGjJ cm;a&;0g'±Sad om
awmiftmz&duEdik if u
H kd vlrsKd ;aygi;f pH±k adS om 'Dru
kd
a&pDEikd if t
H jzpfajymif;vJ&eftwGuf OD;aqmifco
hJ jl zpfyg
onf? olonf 27 ESp=f umaxmifoiG ;f tusO;f csccH &hJ
+yD;aemuf ol.wdik ;f jynfY yxrOD;qH;k vlro
J rRwjzpfchJ
onf?
±kv
d v
D mvmrif'v
J m;onf 1918 ckEpS Zf v
l ikd v
f 18 &ufae@wiG f vlrnf;wd@k .
arG;&yfajrjzpfaomx&efpuD (Transkei) wGiaf rG;zGm;cJo
h nf? ol.zcif[ife&D
rSm oifbel ef;rsKd ;eef;EG,f (Thembu Royal Family) .tav;pm;cH&aomt
}uHay;yk*Kd~ vfwpfa,mufjzpfonf? ol.emrnfjzpfaom±dv
k v
D mvm.t
"dyg` ,rf mS “'kuaQ y;ol” [kt"dyg` ,&f onf? xd@k a=umifh ol.rlvwef;ausmif;
q&muol@emrnfukd e,fvqif[ak jymif;ac:cJo
h nf?
rif'v
J m;.i,fpOfb0wGif +idr;f csr;f pGmaexdik cf &hJ +yD; rsm;aomtm;jzifEh mG ;
ausmif;jcif;ESit
hf rd t
f vkyrf sm;udv
k yk &f onf? od@k aomfo.
l zcifu,
G v
f eG f
-10-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

oGm;+yD;onfah emuf oifbrl sKd ;;EG,t
f wGuf ud,
k pf m;tkycf sKyfa&;wm0ef,&l
aom =oZmv$r;f rd;k r_±o
dS nfah qGrsKd ;wpfa,mufEiS o
hf mG ;ae&onf? od@k aomf
vnf; azg(h wf)[J(&f) (Fort Have) omoemjyKaumvdyaf usmif;rSxu
G o
f mG ;
+yD;aemuf ausmif;om;rsm;.vljzLudv
k ekd t
D yk cf sKyfa&;tay: qENjyjcif;rsm;
wGiyf g0ifco
hJ nfrpS I rdr.
d ud,
k yf ikd v
f w
G af jrmufa&;ESit
hf rsKd ;om;v$waf jrmuf
a&;twGuf v_@H aqmfrc_ &D;±Snu
f pkd wifco
hJ nf?
rif'v
J m;onf 1942 ckEpS w
f iG f 0d0gwm;(pf)&Jew
f uUov
kd f (University of
f ya'bmomjzifah tmifjrifco
hJ nf? olonftmz&d
Witwatersrand) wGiO
ueftrsKd ;om;uGeu
f &uf–African National Congress (ANC) .vkyif ef;
rsm;wGifyg0ifv_yf±Sm;r_rsm;wdk;yGm;vmcJhonf? ANC onfvlrsdK;aygif;pHkrS
awmiftmz&duEdik if o
H @kd Edik if aH &;t&ajymif;vJrr_ sm;±Sv
d matmif v_y±f mS ;
aqmif±u
G af omtzG@J tpnf;jzpfonf?
1948 ckEpS w
f iG f trsKd ;om;ygwu
D tm%m&±S+d y;D “vljzLvlrnf;cGjJ cm;a&;0g'”
ay:vpDukd pwiftaumiftxnfaz: jcif; od@k r[kwf vlrsKd ;a&;tay:rlwnf
IoD;oef@cjJG cm;jcif;rsm;udk twif;t=uyfvyk af qmifco
hJ nf? ANC url T
vlrsdK;cGJjcm;a&;0g'tay: qef@usifa&;v_yf±Sm;r_vkyfief;rsm;udk pwifvkyf
aqmifco
hJ nf? 1952 ckEpS w
f iG f rif'v
J m;u ANC .vufaxmufOuUXwpf
a,mufjzpfco
hJ nf? 1950 ckEpS f ESpu
f ek yf ikd ;f wGif tpd;k &.zdEydS q
f ufqrH r_ sm;jym;
vmaoma=umifh rif'v
J m;ESio
hf .
l oli,fcsi;f tdv
k AD mxrfbkd (Oliver Tamhf jcm;olw@kd u ANC udyk I
kd tajccHusaom ajymif;vJrr_ sm;bufo@kd
-bo) ESit
OD;wnfco
hJ nf? 1956 ckEpS w
f iG f rif'v
J m;udk wdik ;f jynftay:opPmazgurf j_ zifh
pGypf cJG +hJ yD; axmifxw
J iG f ig;ESpu
f s+yD;aemufw&m;aov$waf y;cJo
h nf?
1960 ckEpS rf wfvwGif vljzLvlrnf;cGjJ cm;a&;0g'udk qef@usiaf omvlrnf;
69 a,muftm; ykvyd rf sm;u ±Syzf b
J ;D vf (Sharpeville) wGio
f wfjzwfvu
kd f
-11-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

onf? tpd;k &u wdik ;f jynfwiG ;f ta&;ay: tajctaexkwjf yef+y;D ANC udyk w
d f
qd@k co
hJ nf? Ttcsuu
f w
kd @kH jyefonft
h aeESihf ANC u t=urf;rzufa&;ay:
vpDupkd eG @f y,fI rif'v
J m;u ANC twGuf “Umkhonto we Zizwe” od@k r
[kwf “The Spear of the Nation–wdik ;f jynf.vSw” [kac:onfv
h ufeuf
udik w
f yfz@JG uzkd @JG pnf;cJo
h nf? xd@k aemuf ol@uAkd v
kd cf sKyfrLS ;}uD;tjzpfcef@tyfjcif;
cH&+yD;aemuf ppfoifwef;wufciG &hf &efEiS hf ANC twGut
f axmuftyHrh sm;
±SmazG&eftwGuf Edik if jH cm;wdik ;f jynfrsm;od@k c&D;xGucf o
hJ nf?
ol@Eikd if o
H @kd jyefvmonft
h csed w
f iG t
f zrf;cH&+y;D tusO;f axmifxJ ig;ESpt
f usO;f
cstrde@f ay;cHc&hJ onf? 1963 ckEpS w
f iG f rif'v
J m;ESit
hf jcm;aom ANC acgi;f
aqmifrsm;tpd;k &udk t=urf;enf;jzifx
h w
k yf ,f&ef v#Kd @0u
S t
f }uHtpnfrsm;
a&;qGcJ o
hJ nf? aemifwpfEpS rf mS yif rif'v
J m;udk wpfoufwpfu|e;f us&eft
rde@f ay;cJo
h nf? xd@k twGuf oluTtrde@f twGuf rdru
d ,
kd u
f ckd ck u
H muG,f
aomed*;kH csKyfpum;rSm atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf?
“u|eaf wmf&b
hJ 0oufwmwpfcv
k ;kH udk tmz&duefvrl sKd ;awG&v
hJ y_ ±f mS ;r_awG
xJrS epfjrKyfxm;ygw,f? u|eaf wmf[m v$r;f rd;k csKyfuikd w
f v
hJ jl zLawGukd awmf
vSew
f u
kd cf u
kd o
f vdk vlrnf;tkypf ;kd olawGuv
kd nf; awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd rf mS jzpf
w,f? u|eaf wmf[m 'Dru
kd a&pDe@J val wGtm;vH;k o[mZmwjzpfatmif ae
xdik +f y;D tcGit
hf a&;om wlnrD #&±Sw
d hJ vGwv
f yfwv
hJ rl t
_ zG@J tpnf;tawG;t
ac:yHpk u
H kd vdck siw
f mjzpfw,f? 'DtawG;tac:udk u|eaf wmfu zG@H +zdK;wd;k wuf
vmatmifvyk cf siw
f mjzpfw,f? 'gayrJv
h t
kd yfvm&if 'DtawG;tac:eJ@vJ
ud,
k t
hf oufay;+yD;paw;Edik yf gw,f?”
ol@uckd yd af xmif; (Cape Town) urf;±d;k tjyifbufY±Sad om a&mhbifu|e;f rSm
axmifoiG ;f tusO;f cs+yD; aemufq;kH jynfrxJrmS ±Sw
d zhJ ;kd vfprd;k tusO;f axmif
xJo@kd ajymif;a±$@co
hJ nf? olaxmifxu
J saepOftwGi;f olonfEikd if w
H umvl
-12-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

jzLvlrnf;cGjJ cm;r_ukd qef@usio
f nf[t
k rSwt
f om;wckjzpfvmonf?
axmifxw
J iG f ESpaf ygi;f ESpq
f ,fausmu
f sc+H y;D aemuf rif'v
J m;u wpfcsKd @aom
ta&;}uD;onft
h a&;udprP sm;wGif acgi;f aqmifuqH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk ud,
k f
wdik cf s&rnf[t
k cdik t
f rm,H=k unfonft
h wGuf enf;vrf;topfwpfcu
k o
kd ;kH
&efq;kH jzwfco
hJ nf? Tod@k jzifh 'kucQ }H uKd ;pm;r_rsm;a=umifh urBmay:wGief mrnf
t}uD;qH;k t usO;f om;udOk ;D aqmifI orRw±H;k wGiaf wG@qakH qG;aEG;yGu
J kd v#Kd @
0Supf mG usi;f ycJo
h nf? xdt
k ajctwifaqG;aEG;yGw
J iG f ol@uv
kd w
$ af y;&efomr
u Edik if x
H ±J v
dS jl zLvlrnf;cGjJ cm;a&;pepfukd 'Dru
kd a&pDpepfo@kd ajymif;vJ&ef}udK;
pm;cJo
h nf? 1990 ckEpS af zaz:0g&v
D 2 &ufae@wiG af wmiftmz&dutpd;k &rS
jynfwiG ;f jynfyzdtm;ay;r_rsm;udk wH@k jyefjcif;tm;jzifh rif'v
J m;udk v$waf y;
vdu
k +f yD;onfw
h pf+ydKifeuf ANC tay: ydwq
f @kd ru
_ v
kd J &yfpv
J u
kd o
f nf? 1991
ckEpS w
f iG rf if'v
J m;u ANC .acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpfvmonf?
1993 ckEpS w
f iG f rif'v
J m;udk xdt
k csed u
f awmiftmz&du.orRwjzpfaom
FW De Klerk ESiw
hf zJG ufI Edb
k ,fv+f idr;f csr;f a&;qluckd s;D jr‡ichf o
hJ nf? aemuf
qufwEJG pS rf mS yif awmiftmz&duonf ,if;.yxrOD;qH;k vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHak ±G;
aumufyu
JG si;f y+y;D rif'v
J m;udak wmiftmz&du.yxrOD;qH;k vlrnf;orRw
tjzpfa±G;cs,v
f u
kd o
f nf? 1998 ckEpS f *a&;pmrufcs(J vf) (Graca Machel)ESihf
wwd,t}udrv
f ufxyfvu
kd o
f nf? olronfu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;+yD;jzpfonfrh kd
ZrfbpforRw.ZeD;onfjzpfonf? rif'v
J m;ESihf 1958 ckEpS w
f iG f vufxyf+y;D
1996 ckEpS w
f iG u
f mG ±Si;f cJo
h nf'hf w
k ,
d ZeD;onfjzpfaom 0ifeo
D nf vljzLvl
rnf;cGJjcm;r_ qef@usifa&;v_yf±Sm;olwpfOD;tjzpf qufvufaqmif±GufcJh
onf? 1997 ckEpS w
f iG f ol.orRwoufwrf;rSmvnf;ukeq
f ;kH oGm;cJo
h nf?
rif'v
J m;onf txl;ojzift
h yd cf st
f ikd Af –DG attdik 'f t
D ufpq
f ef@usiaf &;v_yf
±Sm;r_EiS hf tjcm;v_y±f mS ;r_ rsm;wGiv
f nf; wpfwyfwpftm;qufvufI ulnD
-13-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

yHyh ;kd cJo
h nf? 2004 ckEpS w
f iG f rif'v
J m;rSjynfov
l x
l t
k a±Sw
› iG f v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;rS
&yfem;awmhrnfjzpfa=umif;a=ujim+y;D wjznf;jznf;vlpak ±Sw
› iG f ol@uakd wG@&r_
enf;vmavonf?
Zlvikd v
f 18 &uf 2007 ckEpS w
f iG ef ,fvqifrif'v
J m;/ *a&;pmrufcs(J vf)ESihf
'ufprGew
f ;l wl;wd@k onf urBmay:±Sd ouf}u;D ±G,t
f rkd sm;tzG@J tpnf;ta0;udk
*sKd [ef;bwf (Johannesburg) wGiaf c:,lI rdrw
d @kd .twwfynmESiv
hf w
G f
vyfaom acgi;f aqmifEikd rf w
_ @kd ut
kd oH;k csI urBm}uD;.tcufcq
J ;kH jy\em
rsm;udk ulnaD jz±Si;f &ef&nf±,
G cf o
hJ nf? e,fvqif.touf 89 ESpaf jrmuf
arG;ae@wiG f e,fvqifu ol. “The Elders”–ouf}uD;±G,t
f rkd sm;-[l
aomtzG@J opfudk wnfaxmifvu
dk af =umif;a=ujimcJo
h nf?
“'DtzG@J [m olw@kd &t
hJ jrifukd vGwv
f yfpmG eJ@&&J ifph mG xkwaf z:ajymrSmjzpf+yD;
vlpt
k a±Sr› mS yJjzpfap/ aemuf uG,rf mS yJjzpfap vdt
k yfwt
hJ a&;,laqmif±u
G rf _
awGukd jyKvyk rf mS jzpfw,f? u|ew
f @kd wawGvufw+JG y;D a=umuf±@HG ra_ wGe@J jynfph kH
wJah e&mawGrmS &J&ifw
h phJ w
d af wG±v
dS matmif/ yËdyuQ±w
dS ahJ e&mrSmoabmwl
nDra_ wG±v
dS matmife@J pdw"f gwu
f swahJ e&mrSar#mv
f ifch suaf wG±v
dS matmif
tm;ay;wdu
k w
f eG ;f ay;rSmjzpfygw,f?” [lIajym=um;cJo
h nf?
=o*kwv
f 29 &uf 2007 ckEpS w
f iG f e,fvqifrif'v
J m;±kyw
f u
k kd vef'ef+rKd @±ydS g
vDrefpuGw
J iG pf u
kd x
f cl yhJ gonf?

-14-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]][kwfw,f? wwfEdkifw,f vdkUajymEdkifzdkUtmPmr½SdwJhvlawGudk
]r[kwfbl;? rwwfEdkifbl;} vdkUajymcGifhray;ygeJU/}}
“Never allow a person to tell you ‘no’ who doesn’t have
the power to say yes.”

]]oifoabmrwlyJeJU oifhudkb,folrSudk,fhudkudk,ftxifao;atmifrvkygEdkifbl;/}}
“No one can make you feel inferior without your consent.”

]]urÇmay:rSm rkef;wD;jcif;eJUtwif;tBuyfcdkif;apjcif;wdkU[m oD;oefU½SdaeNyD;
tjcm;t&mawGay:rSm oufa&mufrIr½Sdbl;qdkwmrjzpfEdkifygbl;/}}
“Hate and force cannot be in just a part of the world without
having an effect on the rest of it.”

tJvDEdk±kpbJh (1884–1962)

t

ar&dueforRwz&ef@uvif;±kpbJ.
h ZeD;ESihf Edik if H
a&;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm; vkyaf qmifcahJ om tJvED ±kd pk bJh
(Eleanor Roosevelt) onf jynfo@l tcGit
hf a&;ESihf trsKd ;
orD;v_y±f mS ;r_vyk if ef;rsm;wGif a±Sq
› ;kH rSO;D aqmifyg0ifco
hJ l
wpfO;D jzpfonf?

tJvED ±kd pk bJo
h nf 1884ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mv 11&ufae@wiG f e,l;a,mufpD
wD;+rKd @Y zGm;jrifco
hJ nf? olr.zcif {vd,uf±pk bJh (Elliott Roosevelt) onf
,cif (1901–1909) wGif orRwjzpfczhJ ;l aom oDt'kd ±kd pk bJh (Theodore
Roosevelt) .nDtpfujkd zpfonf?
tJvED t
kd ouf±pS Ef pS t
f ±G,w
f iG f olr.rdcifrmS qHq
k @kd emESiahf oqH;k oGm;cJ+h yD;
olrESit
hf jcm;tpfuEkd iS ahf rmifrsm;udk rdcifbufrt
S zGm;jzpfaom rm&Dvwfvkd
a[m(vf) (Mary Ludlow Hall) ESio
hf mG ;aeapcJo
h nf? tJvED t
kd oufq,f
ESpjf ynfo
h nft
h csed w
f iG f olr.zcifrmS t&uftvGet
f u|aH omufonfah &m
*ga=umifh aoqH;k oGm;cJo
h nf? Ttcsed rf pS I olronfvnf; rdbrJu
h av;
-15-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

jzpfvmcJ&h onf?
1899 ckESpfaqmif;OD;&moDwGif olr.ta':wpfa,muf.tm;ay;r_jzifh
tJvED u
kd kd ''Allenwood Academy'' [kac:aom rde;f uav;ausmif;od@k yd@k
aqmifco
hJ nf? xdak usmif;±Sad usmif;tkyq
f &mr}uD;rSm trsKd ;orD;i,fav;
rsm;tm; vGwv
f yfpmG awG;ac:wwf&ef jyKpkysKd ;axmifay;cJo
h nf? tJvED u
kd
xdak usmif;wGif jyifopfbmomudx
k ;l c|epf mG avhvmoif,cl +hJ y;D rdru
d ,
kd u
f ,
kd kH
=unfjcif;rsm;vnf; wd;k yGg;vmcJo
h nf?
ausmif;+yD;onft
h cg tJvED u
kd vlra_ &;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif yg0ifvy_ ±f mS ;cJo
h nf?
1905 ckEpS w
f iG f olr.0rf;uGjJ zpfonfzh &ef@uvif;'D±pk bJh (Franklin D. Roohf ufxyfco
hJ nf? olr.cifyeG ;f onfuo
hJ @kd yif 'Dru
kd a&pD0g'udk
-sevelt) ESiv
,H=k unfojl zpf+yD; Edik if aH &;zufwiG f pdwyf g0ifpm;cJo
h nf? 1906 ESihf 1916 ck
ESpt
f wGi;f ±kpbJrh o
d m;pkru
S av;ajcmufa,mufxeG ;f um;cJ+h yD; wpfa,muf
rSm rlarG;cgpwGiaf oqH;k oGm;cJo
h nf?
1913 ckEpS w
f iG f orRw0k'±d0k v
D q
f if (Woodrow Wilson) u z&ef@uvif;'D±pk
bJu
h kd a&wyf.vufaxmuftwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf cef@tyfco
hJ nf? ±kpbJo
h nf
yxrurBmppftwGi;f xdw
k m0efuakd qmif±u
G cf o
hJ nf? tJvED u
kd ppfyt
JG wGi;f
=uufajceDtzG@J Y wm0efxrf;aqmifc+hJ yD; yxrurBmppft+yD;wGif "Western
hf nfco
hJ nf?
Front" a'orsm;Y vSnv
1921 ckEpS af EG&moDwiG f z&ef@uvif;'D±pk bJrh S t}u;D tus,af eraumif;jzpfchJ
onf? aemifwiG f olcpH m;&aoma&m*grmS ydv
k ,
D akd &m*gjzpfa=umif; prf;oyf
awG@±cdS o
hJ nf? o‹cl E<mud,
k w
f pfu,
kd v
f ;kH eD;yg; ta=umaooGm;+yD; ol.ajc
axmufrsm;udk toH;k jyKIr&awmhacs? olemruse;f jzpfonfw
h pfav#muf
vH;k wGif tJvED u
kd ol@ukd jyKpak pmifah ±Smufc+hJ y;D tm;tiftopfrsm;jyefvnf&±Sd
vm+yD; Edik if aH &;avmuxJjyef0ifEikd &f ef ulnaD y;cJo
h nf?
-16-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

tJvED u
kd Edik if aH &;wGif wufºuGpmG v_y±f mS ;yg0if+yD; trsKd ;orD;rJxnfo
h rl sm;.
toif; (League of Women’s Voters), trsKd ;om;0,f,pl m;oH;k olrsm;t
oif;ESihf trsKd ;orD;tvkyo
f rm;or*~tzG@J 0iftjzpf tvkyv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? xd@k t
wl tmz&dueftar&duefvrl nf;ynmwwfrsm;ESihf ta&miftaoG;±So
d rl sm;
wd;k wufa&;twGuf trsKd ;om;tpnf;t±H;k (NAACP) taxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rSL;wd@k EiS &hf if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifco
hJ nf? TuJo
h @kd &if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifra_ =umifh tJvED kd
onf tmz&dueftar&duefw@kd . jynfo@l tcGit
hf a&;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;Y pdwyf g
0ifpm;vmcJhonf?
olr.cifyeG ;f onf.Edik if aH &;rJq,
G yf rJG sm;wGif wpfwyfwpftm;yg0ifaqmif
±GufcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh olr.cifyGef;onfz&ef‹uvif;'D±kpbJhrSm e,l;
a,muf+rKd @awmf0ef (1929) tjzpf jzpfapESihf tar&dueforRwtjzpf (1932
ckEpS )f wGif ta±G;cs,cf cH &hJ onf? tar&duefordik ;f a=umif;wpfav#mufwiG f
tJvED o
kd nfEikd if aH &;wGif yg0ifvy_ ±f mS ;aom yxrqH;k orRwuawmftjzpf
wifpm;cH&onf? olr.cifyeG ;f onftwGuf jzpf&yfreS rf sm;pkaqmif;±SmazGay;
&eftwGuf c&D;rsm;pGmxGucf &hJ onf? tJvED u
kd vdib
f ufqikd &f mESiv
hf rl sKd ;a&;
&m wd@k Ywef;wlnrD #r±_ adS p&ef aqG;aEG;a[majymcJo
h nf?
1935 ckEpS w
f iG t
f v
J ED u
kd orRwz&ef@uvif;'D±pk bJt
h m; Oya'ESit
hf nDw
&m;pD&ifjcif;rjyKbJ ao'g%af y;jcif;udk qef@usio
f nfOh ya'=urf;udk uGe*f &uf
wGi;f od@k wifoiG ;f &ef awmif;qdck o
hJ nf? (Oya'ESit
hf nD w&m;pD&ifjcif;rjyKbJ
ao'g%af y;jcif;rSm vlwpfO;D wpfa,mufukd w&m;r0ifpmG pGwpf I
JG tqH;k pD
&ifjcif;jzpf+y;D ,cifwiG v
f jl zLrsm;uvlrnf;rsm;udk Tenf;jzifo
h wfjzwfavh±dS
onf?) rnfo@kd qakd pumrl±pk bJu
h TOya'=urf;udk axmufcaH =umif;t
rsm;a±Sw
› iG f xkwaf z:ajym=um;jcif;r±Scd ahJ y? tb,fah =umifq
h akd omf TOya'
=urf;onf rdrw
d @kd .tusO;f om;rsm;udk Oya'ESit
hf nD w&m;pD&ifjcif;rjyKbJ
owfjzwfciG ahf y;onfah xmifrLS ;rsm;udk ta&;,lEidk o
f nf? xd@k a=umifo
h u
l
-17-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

TuJo
h @kd vyk v
f #if awmifyikd ;f ±So
d @l urkd aJ y;aomvljzLrsm;u ol@uckd iG rhf v$wf
Edik yf J aemufraJ ±G;yGrJ sm;wGio
f @l urkd aJ y;awmhrmS r[kwb
f J a±G;aumufyw
JG iG ±f ;H_
edrv
hf rd rhf nf[k qifajcay;cJo
h nf?
1945 ckEpS {f +yDvwGif z&ef@uvif;'D±pk bJu
h ,
G v
f eG +f yD;onfah emuf tJvED u
kd
Edik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;r_wiG f qufIyg0ifvy_ ±f mS ;cJo
h nf? 1946 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duef
orRw[if&Dtuf(pf)=xL;rif; (Harry S.Truman) utJvDEdk±kpbJhtm;
ukvor*~taxGaxGnv
D mcH.ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f jzpf a±G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufchJ
onf? ukvor*~v@l tcGit
hf a&;xkwjf yefa=ujimcsupf mwrf;wGif olrut
a&;ygpmG 0ifa&mufyg0ifco
hJ nf? ±kpbJu
h ukvor*~v@l tcGit
hf a&;aumfr±Sif
. yxrOD;qH;k OuUXtjzpf yg0ifco
hJ nf? 1948 ckEpS pf ufwifbmv 28 &uf
ae@naeydik ;f wGif ±kpbJu
h a=ujimpmwrf;udk ud,
k pf m;jyK+y;D xdak =ujimpmwrf;
udk “The international Magna Carta of all mankind”- vltm;vH;k twGuf
tajccH'rD u
kd a&pDjzpf+y;D xdpk mwrf;wGiyf g0ifaomt&mrsm;udk vdu
k ef maqmif
±Gu&f rnf-[kwifpm;cJo
h nf? ukvor*~taxGaxGnv
D mcHuxkwjf yefa=u
jimcsuu
f kd 1948 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmv 10 &ufae@wiG f vufcu
H sio
hf ;kH cJo
h nf?
1953 ckEpS f Dwight D. Eisenhower orRwjzpfvmonft
h cg ±kpbJu
h olr.
ukvor*~&mxl;rS E_wx
f u
G cf o
hJ nf? tJvED t
kd ouf±iS pf OfwiG f rdr.
d ud,
k af &;
&mZ0ifrsm;udak &;om;cJ+h yD; “My Story (1937),” “This I Remember
(1949)” ESihf “On My Own (1958)” wd@k tygt0if jzpfonf? tJvED ±kd pk bJh
onf 1962 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmv 6 &ufae@wiG u
f ,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;cJo
h nf?
i,fpOfutJvED ±kd pk bJo
h nf rdru
d ,
kd u
f ±kd ;kd ±d;k om;om;ESihf vdv
k m;awmifw
h r_±dS
aomolwpfO;D omjzpfaomfvnf; }uD;vmonft
h cg tjrifus,v
f m+yD; rdrd
awG@onfch |w,
f iG ;f csurf sm;udk wm0ef,u
l m trsm;twGuo
f ufawmifh
oufom±Srd E_ iS ahf r#mv
f ifch surf sm;ay;cJah om olwpfO;D tjzpf &mpkEpS f 20 wGif
todtrSwjf yKcH&ol jzpfvmonf?
-18-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]uRrf;usifolwpfa,mufurNyD;Edkif? rvkyfEdkifbl;[kajymvQif
tjcm;uRrf;usifoludkcdkif;yg/}}
“If an expert says it can’t be done, get another expert.”

]]&J&ifhjcif;qdkonfrSm aMumuf½GHUoifhonfht&mudk rnfodkUaMumuf½GHU&rnfESifh
raMumuf½GHUoifhonfht&m udkrnfodkUraMumuf½GHU&rnfudk
oifjyaomtodynmjzpfonf/}}
“Courage is the knowledge of how to fear what ought to be feared
and how not to fear what ought not to be feared.”

]]tDpa&;vfEikd if rH w
S u,fv
h ufawGUususjzpfEikd zf Ukd twGut
f MhH o
zG,f&mwdkUudk,HkMunf&rSmjzpfw,f/}}
“In Israel, in order to be a realist you must believe in miracles.”

a';Apfbiful&D,ef (1886-1974)

a';

Apfbifu&l ,
D ef (David Ben–Gurion)
onf*sL;vlrsdK;rsm;.uH=urRmudk wnf
aqmufay;aom EdkifiHopfwpfEdkifiHESifh ta±S›tv,f
ydik ;f Edik if rH sm;udk wnfaxmifay;cJo
h w
l pfO;D jzpfonf?

a';Apfbifu&l ,
D efonf ydv
k efEikd if H (±k±t
S ifyg,mwGit
f ygt0if) zvHk (PlonSw
f iG f zGg;jrifonf? olonfom;pOfrsKd ;quf 6 quf
-sk) +rdKŒY 1886 ckEp
ajrmufjzpfonf? olw@kd .rdom;pkrmS Zdik ,
f medpef (Zionism) udek ufepJ mG ,Hk
=unfaomrdom;pkjzpfonf? ol.zcifrmS a±Sa› ewpfO;D jzpfonfomru [D
b±l; bmomoif=um;ay;aom q&mwpfa,mufvjJ zpf+yD; acwfrZDS ikd ,
f med
pef-''Hibbat Zion''(Zdik ,
f mudck spaf omolrsm;)tzG@J ukd wnfaxmifco
hJ v
l nf;
jzpfonf? bifu&l ,
D ef od@k r[kwf [Db±l;bmomr0ifcifu a';Apf*&if;
(David Green) [kac:qdc
k ahJ omolrmS acwfraDS om *sL;bmom0ifw@kd .ynm
-19-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

a&;udo
k if=um;&+y;D bmoma&;ESit
hf wl tjcm;aombmom&yfrsm;udk wGI
J
oif=um;cJh&onf?
bifu&l ,
D ef.acgi;f aqmift&nftcsi;f / Edik if aH &;tawG;tac:ESit
hf jrifw@kd
rSm i,fi,fuav;uwnf;uyif xifay:ausm=f um;vmcJo
h nf? ol.t
ouf 14 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f vli,fuav;rsm;udpk pk nf;I tDZm (Ezra) [kac:
aom [Db±l;bmompum;udo
k majymqdrk nfh olrsm;tzG@J ukd wnfaxmifchJ
onf? touf 17 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f Poaleizion (Zdik ,
f mtvkyo
f rm;rsm;)
tzG@J xw
J iG yf g0ifco
hJ nf? Tygwo
D nf yxrqH;k aomqd±k ,
S v
f pfZikd ,
f mepfEikd f
iHa&;tzG@J tajccHtzG@J tpnf;wpfcjk zpfonf? Tygwo
D nf Zdik ,
f medpef*.
vlra_ &;ESiEhf ikd if aH &;wnfaqmufyrkH sm;udk q,fpEk pS af ygi;f rsm;pGm tkypf ;kd v$r;f rd;k
cJ+h yD; rsm;aomtm;jzifh bifu±l ,
D ef.tkycf sKyfra_ tmufwiG jf zpfonf?
1906 ckEpS w
f iG f ygvufpwdik ;f od@k ajymif;a±$c› +hJ yD; *sL;pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;.
vdarRm+f cHYtvkyo
f rm;tjzifjh zpfap/ 0dik o
f akd vSmifonfah e&mrsm;wGijf zpfap
tvkyv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? Tpdu
k yf sKd ;a&;+cHukd Zdik ,
f mepfw@kd u t&ifvyk af qmifchJ
jcif;jzpfonf? aemufyikd ;f YumvDv (Galilee) wGit
f apmift
h jzpf tvkyv
f yk f
cJhonf?
bifonfav;ESpv
f ;kH vH;k ol.v,f,majrrsm;Y tvkyv
f yk af eaomfvnf;
tvkyo
f rm;tcGit
hf a&;a&;&mrsm;Y pdw0f ifpm;r_±+dS y;D Poaleizion ygwAD [kt
d
zG@J 0ifjzpfvmonf? 1910 ckEpS w
f iG f ol@uykd gw.
D owif;pmxkwv
f yk af om*s±k
pvifY t,f'w
D mtjzpf a±G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufjcif;cH&+yD; ola&;om;aompm
* Zdik ,
f mepf0g'o
D nf *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;. ,cifygvufpwdik ;f wGif *sL;Edik if jH yefvnfxal xmif

a&;ESiahf cwfraDS omtDpaP &;vfEikd if aH xmufyahH &;wGif qufvufyg0if&ef vkyaf qmif
onf*h sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;.Edik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;r_jzpfonf?

-20-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

rsm;wGi“f a';Apfbifu&l ,
D ef”qdo
k nfu
h avmifemrnfwyfco
hJ nf? ([Db±l;
bmomjzif“h jcaoFah ygupf ”[k t"dyg` ,&f onf?)
1912 ckEpS w
f iG f wl&uDEikd if o
H @kd omG ;I tDpwefb;l (vf)wuUov
kd Yf Oya'
ynmudo
k if,+l yD; owif; axmuftjzpf tvkyv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? 1915 ckEpS w
f iG f
a';Apfbifu&l ,
D efukd atmfwrkd ef.vufatmufwiG f Edik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;
jyKvkyjf cif;a=umifh ygvufpwdik ;f rSjynfEiS 'f g%af y;jcif; cHc&hJ onf?
jynfEiS 'f g%af y;jcif;cH&+y;D aemuf e,l;a,muf+rKd @wiG f tajccsaexdik cf +hJ y;D azg
vmref0(d pf) (Paula Munweis) ESiahf wG@qckH +hJ y;D 1917 ckEpS w
f iG f r*FvmaqmifchJ
onf? olw@kd wiG o
f m;orD;oH;k a,muf xGe;f um;cJo
h nf? olonf 1918
ckEpS w
f iG +f Adwo
d #wyfrawmf. wyf&if; 38 ±S*d sL;vlrsKd ;tzG@J 0ifrsm;.wyf&if;
wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif&onf? yxrurBmppf+yD;onfah emuf ygvufpwdik ;f
Edik if u
H kd atmfwrkd eftifyg,m±Sd +Aw
d o
d #tifyg,mu odr;f ydu
k Ef ikd +f y;D aemufol
ESio
hf @l ro
d m;pkrsm;u ygvufpwdik ;f Edik if o
H @kd jyefvmcJo
h nf?
1921 ckEpS w
f iG f a';Apfbifu&l ,
D efonf (Jewish Labour Party) *sL;vlrsKd ;
rsm;.avbmygww
D iG f taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;ESihf 1930 ckEpS w
f iG f qd±k ,
S f
vpfrufyikd yf gwD (Socialist Mapai Party) .acgi;f aqmifjzpfco
hJ nf? ig;ESpf
aemufyikd ;f wGif *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;at*sipf D (Jewish Agency) wGif obmywdjzpf
vmcJhonf?
+Aw
d o
d #w@kd ryS gvufpwkid ;f Edik if o
H rd ;f ydu
k jf cif;udk ±kyo
f rd ;f +y;D aemuf 1948 ckEpS af r
v 14 &ufae@wiG *f sL;vlrsKd ;wd@k . wdik ;f jynfjzpfaomtDpa&;(vf)Edik if aH y:xGe;f
cJo
h nf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f a';Apfbifu&l ,
D efutDpa&;(vf)Edik if .
H yxrOD;qH;k
aom0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmcJo
h nf? ol.0ef}uD;csKyfoufwrf;ESpcf pk vH;k (1948
–1953 ckEpS Ef iS hf 1955–1963 ckEpS )f wd@k wiG f pufrq
_ ikd &f mESiphf u
kd yf sKd ;a&;jyef
-21-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

vnfjyKjyifa&;v_@H aqmfrr_ sm;a=umifh pD;yGg;a&;zG@H +zKd ;wd;k wufrr_ sm;±Sv
d mcJo
h nf?
xd@k twl Oa&myrS'u
k o
Q nftrsm;tjym; tDpa&;(vf)Edik if o
H @kd tajccs&ef
tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufcahJ omay:vpDtwGuf =um;0ifaphpyfajymqdrk r_ sm; jyK
vkyfcJhonf?
a';Apfbifu&l ,
D efonf 1963 ckEpS w
f iG f t+idr;f pm;,lco
hJ nf? od@k aomf
aemufEpS Ef pS t
f =umwGif Edik if aH &;avmuxJo@kd Mapai Party acgi;f aqmif.
twdu
k t
f cHtjzpf jyefvnf0ifa&mufco
hJ nf? bifonf 1974 ckEpS w
f iG u
f ,
G f
vGefcJhonf?

-22-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]trsdK;orD;awGrSm olrdcifwpfa,mufjzpfcsifovm;? 'grSr[kwfoluav;b,fESpf
a,mufvdkcsifovJqdkwmudka½G;cs,fEdkifzdkU tajccHvGwfvyfcGifhawG½Sd&r,f/}}
“Woman must have her freedom, the fundamental freedom of
choosing whether or not she will be a mother and how
many children she will have.”

rm*&ufpif*g (1884-1966)

rm

*&ufpif*g (Margaret Higgin Sanger)
onfoaE<wm;qD;a&;twGuf v_yf±Sm;
aqmif±u
G rf r_ sm;rSm trsKd ;orD;vGwaf jrmufa&;v_y±f mS ;r_
rsm;udk tpysKd ;v_@H aqmfaponf? tar&duefEikd if o
H rl m*
&ufpif*g. odyq
H` ikd &f moaE<wm;qD;jcif;/ rdom;pkprD H
ude;f a±;qGjJ cif;ESiv
hf Ol ;D a&wd;k wufrt
_ ay: xde;f csKyfjcif;
wd@k wiG f a±Sa› qmifvrf;jyv_y±f mS ;r_vyk cf o
hJ jzifh urBmwpf
v$m; xif±mS ;ausm=f um;cJo
h nf?
rm*&ufpif*gonf 1884 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv 14 &ufae@Yacgeif;(Corning)/
e,l;a,mufòrd‹wiG f zGm;jrifco
hJ nf? olr.zcifrmS aysmaf ysmaf ewwf+yD; bm
oma&;wGit
f ,Ht
k =unfr±Sad om (Free Thinker) wpfa,mufjzpfonf?
odŒk aomforl .rdcifutvGeb
f momw&m;udik ;f ±di_ ;f +yD; uav; 11 a,muf
±Scd o
hJ nf? olrruG,v
f eG rf DS umvwpfav#mufrmS wDbaD &m*guckd pH m;&+y;D wD
bDy;kd awG[m olr&Jt
h qkyef @J t±d;k awGukd jyif;xefpmG wdu
k cf u
kd &f if; aemufq;kH
wGif olruTa&m*gjzifyh if uG,v
f eG cf &hJ onf? rm*&uf. zcifEidk if aH &;±_
axmifrh sm;jzpfaom trsKd ;orD;rsm;rJay;ydik cf iG /hf tcGet
f aumufrsm;udjk yef
-23-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

vnfaumif;rGev
f matmifjyKvkyjf cif;wd@k u olrtay:v$r;f rd;k r_rsm;±Scd o
hJ nf?
TuJo
h @kd tjrif±a_ xmifrh sm;a=umifh olr.rdom;pktay:tdref ;D csi;f rsm;u
acgi;f rmolrsm;[kxifjrif=uonf?
rm*&ufonf a'otxufwef;ausmif;wGiaf tmifjrifc+hJ yD;aemuf e,l;
a,muf+rdK@[wfqif (Hudson) ±Scd vmA&uf (Claverack) aumvdyw
f iG f
atmifjrifco
hJ nf? xd@k aemufrm*&ufu e,l;*smpDwiG f q&mrtjzpfw0ef
xrf;aqmif+yD;aemufwGif olr.aovkarsmyg;rdcifudkjyefI=unfh±_apmifh
a±Smufco
hJ nf? 1896 ckEpS w
f iG f olr.rdcifaoqH;k oGm;cJo
h nf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f
rm*&ufrmS ol@rcd iftwGupf w
d rf aumif;jzpf&+yD; rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd rf cd iftay:
aumif;rGepf mG rjyKpck &hJ jcif;ESihf vlrt
_ odik ;f t0ef;rsm;. aq;ynmt&vspv
f sL
±SLr_rsm;tay: pdwrf auseyfjzpf+yD; tvGeyf ifyal qG;0rf;enf;cJyh gonf? rsm;r
=umrSrD m*&ufonf 0du
_ zf vdr;f (White Plains) e,l;a,muf+rdK@o@kd omG ;+yD;
olemjyKoifwef;wufco
hJ nf? xd@k aemuforl u e,l;a,muf+rdK@o@kd omG ;I
e,l;a,muf+rdK@.atmufyikd ;f ta±S@zufa'o±Sd qif;&Jom;rsm;&yfuu
G w
f iG f
oGm;I wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf? 1902 ckEpS w
f iG f 0DvspH if*gEiS v
hf ufxyfchJ
onf? aemufwpfEpS f rm*&ufu,
kd w
f ikd t
f qkyaf &m*g±adS omfvnf; olw@kd .y
xrOD;qH;k om;OD;uav;udk arG;zGg;cJo
h nf? aemufwiG f om;wpfa,mufEiS o
hf
rD;av;wpfa,mufarG;zGg;cJ+h y;D orD;av;rSmuav;b0Yyif uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;±Sm
onf?
qif;&Jom;&yfuu
G Yf rdcifrsm;onf rm*&ufpif*gxo
H @kd vmI ud,
k 0f efr±S&d ef
rnfo@kd a±Smif±mS ;&rnfo
h wif;tcsut
f vufrsm;udk toem;cHar;jref;jcif;
rsm; }uHKawG@&cJyh gonf? TtawG@t}uHKrsm; jzwfoef;vmcJ&h aoma=umifh
rm*&ufrw
S jznf;jznf;vlra_ &;jyKjyifajymif;vJrv
_ v
kd m;ol jzpfvmcJo
h nf?
xd@k aemufrm*&ufu qd±k ,
S v
f pfygwx
D o
J @kd 0ifco
hJ nf? qd±k ,
S v
f pfygwo
D nf
tpd;k &rStm;vH;k udk tkycf sKyEf ikd cf iG ±hf +dS y;D ,if;wd@k ryS pPn;f rsm;udk jyefvnfa0iSay;
-24-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

rnfponfhEdkifiHa&;t,ltq±SdonfhygwDjzpfonf? rm*&ufonfjyKjyif
ajymif;vJa&;twGuf csw
D ufyrJG sm;pwifwufa&muf+yD; oaE<wm;qD;a&;
enf;vrf;tm;vH;k udk pwifzwf±a_ wmhonf? olru rdom;pkta&twGuf
rsm;vGe;f jcif;onf qif;&JErG ;f yg;r_EiS hf }uKH awG@&onft
h ajccHtcsujf zpfonf[k
,H=k unfonf? 1913 ckEpS w
f iG f ‘Woman Rebel’ “awmfveS o
f t
l rsKd ;orD;”
[laomowif;pmudk wpfvv#iw
f pf}urd x
f w
k af 0cJo
h nf? xdo
k wif;pmwGif
trsKd ;orD;rsm;udk rdrw
d @kd .rdom;pkO;D a&udk uef@owfwwfvm&efEiS hf “oaE<
wm;qD;a&;(Birth Control)”qdo
k nfph um;vH;k udk yxrqH;k oH;k cJo
h jl zpfonf?
xdpk mtkyaf jcmuftyk af jrmufukd yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0+yD;onft
h csed w
f iG f rm*&ufukd
zrf;qD;um npfnrf;onfph mayrsm;udk xkw,
f jl zef@cso
D nf[w
k &m;pGq
J ckd hJ
onf? olruvnf; Oa&mybufo@kd xu
G af jy;v$waf jrmuf+yD; oaE<wm;qD;
a&;ta=umif;qufvufavhvmcJo
h nf? xd‹k twlaq;cef;rsm;udk vSnhf
vnf=unfh±_I aq;bufqdkif&mokawoejyKolrsm;ESifhvnf;aqG;aEG;cJh
onf?
pif*gu 1916 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duefEikd if o
H @kd jyefvmcJo
h nf? TwGio
f rl tay:
w&m;pGq
J ckd surf sm; oufwrf;ukeq
f ;kH oGm;cJ+h y;D jzpfonf? xdt
k csed rf pS I Edik if w
H
0Sr;f vH;k a[majyma&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk pwifvyk af qmifco
hJ nf? e,l;a,muf
+rKd @wiG f olrESit
hf aygi;f tygwpfcsKd @u tar&duefEikd if .
H yxrOD;qH;k oaE<wm;
qD;a&;aq;cef;udk qif;&Jom;rsm;±S&d mae&mwGizf iG v
hf pS cf +hJ y;D oaE<wm;qD;a&;
ESiyhf wfoufonfyh pPn;f rsm;ESihf owif;tcsut
f vufrsm;udak 0iSay;onf?
xd‹k a=umifh Edik if aH wmfOya'csKd ;azmufrj_ zift
h zrf;cH&+y;D olr.nDtpfrESit
hf wl
axmifwpfvtcsc&H onf? 1917 ckEpS w
f iG f t±Sed jf rifrh m;vmap+yD;/ a[m
ajymyGrJ sm;ESihf e,l;a,muf+rdK@±rdS rd t
d m;axmufco
H rl sm;xHrS tultnD&efykH
aiGawmif;cHjcif;rsm;udk vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf? xd@k twl Birth Control Review
udpk wifxw
k af 0jzef@cscD +hJ yD; ,if;rSmolr. 23 ESpt
f wGi;f v_y±f mS ;r_twGuf
aºuG;a=umfojH zpfco
hJ nf? e,l;a,mufw&m;±H;k . oaE<wm;qD;a&;vkyif ef;
-25-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

rsm;tay: av#mch srr_ sm;ðyvkyrf a_ =umifh olr.wdu
k ±f u
kd v
f y_ ±f mS ;r_rsm;ud&k yf
qdik ;f +yD; oifah wmfaomjynfe,fEiS zhf ,f'&,fOya'rsm;xJwiG f xnfo
h iG ;f Edik f
&efóu;d pm;cJo
h nf? rm*&ufpif*gu t+rw
J rf;e,l;a,muftm%mydik rf sm;ESihf
jy\emjzpfaomfjim;vnf; olruqufvuf+y;D vlxrk sm;a±Sw
› iG af [majymyGJ
rsm;jyKvky+f yD; Oa&myoaE<wm;qD;jcif;qdik &f mokawoetzG@J EiS v
hf nf; t
quftoG,t
f +rJwrf;±Scd o
hJ nf? 1922 ckEpS w
f iG *f syefo@dk c&D;xGucf o
hJ nf?
,if;c&D;pOfrSm tm±Sc&D;pOfxGufjcif;rsm;xJrS yxrqHk;t}udrfjzpfonf?
aemufwpfEpS t
f =umwGif rm*&ufEiS o
hf rl .oli,fcsi;f rsm;rS aq;bufqikd f
&mokawoevkyif ef;tzG@J ukd aq;bufqikd &f mordik ;f a=umif;rsm;ESihf oaE<
wm;qD;a&;qdik &f mowif;tcsut
f vufrsm;ta=umif; pkpnf;&eftwGuf
e,l;a,muf+rdK@awmf/ csu
D m*dEk iS ahf tvDEKdG if;wd@k Y zGiv
hf pS cf o
hJ nf? 1930 ckEpS f
wGif tar&duefEikd if w
H 0Sr;f vH;k Yaq;cef;aygi;f 55 ckuzkd iG v
hf pS Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? xdk
tcsed w
f iG pf if*gu ol.vuf±adS ,mufsm;ESiu
hf mG ±Si;f +yD; a*sEt
kd mtdy(f cs)f pvD;
(J. Noah H. Slee) ESiv
hf ufxyfco
hJ nf?
1927 ckEpS w
f iG rf m*&ufpif*gu qGpZf v
D efEikd if /H *seAD m+rKd @wiG u
f si;f yrnfh yxr
OD;qH;k urBmv
h Ol ;D a&tpnf;ta0; (World Population Conference) jzpf
ajrmufa&;twGuf ulnjD yifqifay;+yD; xdt
k pnf;ta0;Ypum;ajymcJo
h jzifh
olr.trnfrmS urBmw0Sr;f vH;k wGiaf usm=f um;vmcJo
h nf? rm*&ufEiS t
hf
aygi;f tygrsm;uqufvufI jynfe,fEiS zhf ,f'&,fOya'rsm;xJ±dS oaE<wm;
qD;a&;qdkif&mudpPESifhjynfoloufomacsmifcsda&;qdkif&m tpDtpOfrsm;Y
oaE<wm;qD;a&;qdik &f m owif;tcsut
f vufrsm;jzef@a0&eftwGuf }udK;
pm;+yD;ajymqdak qG;aEG;cJo
h nf? 1940 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duefoaE<wm;qD;a&;
v_y±f mS ;r_tzG@J rS aq;cef;rsm;zGiv
hf pS +f yD; aq;bufqikd &f mu|r;f usio
f rl sm;.
vufcrH u
_ kd &,lI aemufq;kH wjznf;jznf;vlx.
k vufcrH u
_ &kd ±Sv
d monf?
tar&dueftrsm;pktwGuf rm*&ufpif*grmS oaE<wm;qD;a&;v_y±f mS ;r_[k
-26-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

odrw
S x
f m;=uonf? 1939–45 ckEpS 'f w
k ,
d urBmppftwGi;f Oa&mywyfrsm;
ESit
hf ar&duefr*S smreD/ tDwvD/ *syefw@kd EiS yhf ËdyuQjzpfaeonft
h csed w
f iG f olr
.emrnfausm=f um;r_rmS wjznf;jznf;}uD;xGm;vmcJo
h nf? pif*grt
S ar&d
uefu ppfyrJG sm;wGiyf g0ifjcif;tay: twdu
k t
f cHjzpfco
hJ nf? (pif*guppfyrJG sm;
onf Edik if v
H Ol ;D a&rsm;tqrwefw;kd yGm;vma&;&v'fjzpfonf[k cdik rf mpGm
,H=k unfonf?) 1946 ckEpS w
f iG f Edik if w
H umrdbpDru
H ed ;f z,f'a&;±Si;f (Internk n
l x
D al xmifco
hJ nf? T
-ational Planned Parenthood Federation) udu
v_y±f mS ;r_onf olrtwGut
f }uD;qH;k ESiahf emufq;kH v_y±f mS ;r_jzpfco
hJ nf? olr
.aemufq;kH toufwmtESpEf pS q
f ,ftwGi;f olr.ESv;kH tm;enf;yifyef;
armyef;aomfvnf; qufvuf+yD;c&D;xGuw
f &m;a[majymyGrJ sm;ESiw
hf ŒHk jyef
a=ujimcsurf sm; jyKvkycf o
hJ nf? olronf 1966 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv 6
&ufae@wiG f wwfqef (Tucson) t&DZ;kd em; (Arizona) wGiu
f ,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;cJh
onf?

-27-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]uRefawmfuysif;w,f/ 'gayrJhysif;wJhvlawGubD;awG? pufbD;awGwDxGifwm
r[kwfvm;/ bmjzpfvdkUvJqdkawmholwdkUuvrf;ravQmufcsifvdkU 'grSr[kwf
ypönf;awGro,fcsifvdkUaygh/}}
“I’m lazy. But it’s the lazy people who invented the wheel and the
bicycle because they didn’t like walking or carrying things”

]]pdwfysufrI? cg;oD;rIawGeJUtultnDrJhrIawGeJUvTrf;rdk;rIawGeJUêuHawGU&aer,f
qdk&ifbmudkrQwnfaxmifEdkifrSmr[kwfbl;/}}
“It is hardly possible to build anything if frustration, bitterness and a
mood of helplessness prevail”

]]uRefawmfhtjrifeJUajym&&iftaumif;bufuajymif;vJrIawG½SdvmatmiftwGuftajc
cHuswJhtcsufuawmhvlom;awGtay:0efaqmifrIay;jcif;jzpfw,fvdkUxifygw,f/}}
“The Thing that lies at the foundation of positive change, the way
I see it, is service to a fellow human being”

vuf(cf)0,f(vf)pm (1943-

vuf

)

(cf)0,f(vf)pm (Lech Walesa) onf
ydv
k efEikd if o
H m;jzpf+yD; ,if;onfEikd if H
a&;orm;ESihf ,cifutvkyo
f rm;or*~EiS hf vl@tcGit
hf
a&;twGuv
f y_ ±f mS ;olwpfO;D jzpfco
hJ nf? ,if;onf Solidk,
D ufEikd if .
H yxrOD;qH;k
-arity (Solidarnosc) [laomqdA
vGwv
f yfaom tvkyo
f rm;or*~jzpfco
hJ nf? vuf(cf)
onf 1983 ckESpfwGif Edkb,f(vf)+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&±Sd+yD;
1990rS 1995 ckESpftxd ydkvefEdkifiH. orRwtjzpf
wm0efxrf; aqmifco
hJ nf?
vuf(cf)onf qif;&Jom;v,form;wpfO;D .om;jzpf+y;D 1943 ckEpS pf ufwif
bmv 29 &ufae@wiG f ydv
k efEikd if ±H ydS ykd 0kd w
kd iG zf mG ;jrifco
hJ nf? toufarG;0rf;
a=umif;ausmif;wpfcYk atmifjrif+yD;aemuf um;0yfa±Smw
h pfcYk 1961 rS
-28-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

1965 ckEpS t
f xdtvkyv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? oluppfwyfxw
J iG f 2 ESp=f umtr_xrf;cJh
+yD; wyf=uyf&mxl;txd&±Scd o
hJ nf? 1967 ckEpS w
f iG f (Gdansk) oabFmusi;f
wGif v#ypf pftvkyo
f rm;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf? 1969 ckEpS w
f iG f
'Ekwmudak vmh (Danuta Golos) ESiv
hf ufxyf+yD; uav;±Spaf ,mufxeG ;f
um;cJhonf?
vuf(cf)onf tvkyo
f rm;or*~wiG f wufºupG mG v_y±f mS ;yg0if+y;D 1970 ckEpS f
pufrt
_ a&;tcif;wGif oabFmusi;f vkyo
f m;rsm; qENjyyGaJ umfrwD.obm
ywdtjzpfyg0ifaqmif±u
G cf o
hJ nf? tpd;k &utpm; taomufaps;E_e;f rsm;jri‡ hf
wif+yD;onfhaemuf abmvfwpfurf;±dk;wef;a'owpfav#mufwGif qlyl
aomif;use;f r_rsm;jzpfay:vmonf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f Gdansk ±St
d vkyo
f rm;t
=um;wGix
f if±mS ;aomacgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpfco
hJ nf? Gdansk ESi}hf u;D rm;aom
vDeifoabFmusi;f rsm;onf tpd;k &udq
k ef@usiq
f ENjy&mwGif OD;wnfcsut
f
jzpftoH;k csjcif;cH&onf? vuf(cf)0,f(vf)pmu jyefvnfjyKjyifajymif;vJa&;
udak xmufcaH omfvnf; xdjk yKjyifajymif;vJa&;vky&f eftwGuf toH;k jyKaom
enf;pepfrsm;tay: xde;f csKyfjcif;rsm;jyKvky&f rnf[k wdu
k w
f eG ;f ajymqdo
k nf?
rSwfom;p&maumif;aom tjzpftysufwpfckY qENjyaeaomvltkyf
20˜000 ausmu
f t
kd eD;±Sd tusO;f axmifurkd wdu
k cf u
kd &f ef vltyk }f uD;udq
k JG
aqmifajymqdEk ikd cf o
hJ nf?
1976 ckEpS w
f iG f 0,f(vf)pm.tvkyo
f rm;or*~vy_ ±f mS ;r_a=umifh tvkyf
xkwyf ,fjcif;udk cH&onf? xd@k a=umifEh pS t
f enf;i,ftwGi;f ,m,Dtvkyf
rsm;udv
k yk u
f ikd cf &hJ onf? oluqufvufI uGejf rLepfr[kwaf omtvkyo
f
rm;or*~ukd wnfaxmif&mwGiyf g0ifco
hJ nf? 1980 ckEpS w
f iG f ol.oli,fcsi;f
rsm;ESit
hf wl Solidarnosc (Solidarity) udx
k al xmifco
hJ nf? tzG@J tpnf;xl
axmif+yD;r=umrSw
D iG f tzG@J 0if 10 oef;ausm±f v
dS mcJ+h yD;0,fvpf mrSm ,if;.
+ydKifbufuif;aomacgi;f aqmifjzpfco
hJ nf?
-29-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

1980 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f wGio
f u
l Gdansk oabFmusi;f qENjyyGu
J kd OD;aqmifc+hJ y;D
xdq
k ENy}JG u;D u Edik if w
H 0Sr;f ±Sq
d ENjyyGrJ sm;udjk zpfay:vmap+y;D ol@uakd cgi;f aqmif
tjzpftrsm;urSw,
f =l uonf? t"duawmif;qdck surf sm;rSm tvkyo
f rm;
rsm;. tcGit
hf a&;jzpfonf? tpd;k &tm%mydik rf sm;u 0,fvpf mtm;tnHch H
t±_;H ay;&efEiS ahf phpyfoabmwlnrD &_ ±S&d ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f Ed;_ aqmfco
hJ nf? 1980
ckEpS =f o*kwv
f 31 &ufae@wiG f Gdansk pmcsKyYf vufrw
S af &;xd;k &efEiS x
hf pkd m
csKyfwiG f tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf qENjycGit
hf cGit
hf a&;ESirhf rd w
d @kd .vGwv
f yf
aomtzG@J rsm;zG@J pnf;cGiahf y;cJo
h nf?
ol.v_y±f mS ;r_ukd uufovpfb&k m;ausmif;rsm;u axmufct
H m;ay;cJ+h yD;
1981 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D wGif 0,f(vf)pmudk yky&f [ef;rif;}u;D *|eaf yg(vf)uAuf
wDuefwiG f ol@uv
kd u
d_ v
f pSJ mG }udKqdck o
hJ nf? 0,f(vf)pmonfvnf;uufo
vpfbmomonf ol@twGut
f iftm;rsm;ESihf pdw"f gww
f ufºurG r_ sm;jzpfvm
aponf[k qdck o
hJ nf? 1980–1981 ckEpS t
f wGi;f 0,f(vf)pmonf tDwvD/
*syef/ qG'D if/ jyifopfEiS q
hf pG Zf vefEikd if rH sm;od@k Edik if w
H umtvkyo
f rm;tzG@J t
pnf;.{nfhonftjzpf a&muf±SdcJhonf? 1981 ckESpfpufwifbmvwGif
Gdansk Yusi;f yaomyxrOD;qH;k trsKd ;om; Solidarity uGe*
f &ufwiG f obm
ywdtjzpf a±G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufjcif;cH&onf?
wdik ;f jynfwiG &f ±Sad om wc%wmvGwv
f yfrr_ sm;rSm 1981 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmv
wGif ukefqHk;oGm;cJhonf? xdktcsdefwGifAdkvfcsKyf}uD;*s±kpDvuD; (General
kd ,
D ufwyfrsm; 0ifa&mufwu
kd cf u
kd rf a_ =umuf±@HG aoma=umifh
Jaruzelski) rSqA
ppfOya'udck srw
S cf +hJ yD; Solidarity udv
k nf; &yfqikd ;f cJo
h nf? xd@k twl acgi;f
aqmifrsm;udv
k nf;zrf;qD;+yD; 0,f(vf)pmudv
k nf;aus;vufawm±Gm±Sd tdrf
wpftrd w
f iG f tus,cf sKyfcsxm;jcif;udck &H avonf?
1982 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvwGif 0,f(vf)pmudv
k w
$ af y;+yD; Gdansk oabFmusi;f
-30-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

wGit
f vkyv
f yk cf iG ahf y;onf? 1983 ckEpS w
f iG f ppfOya'ud±k yk o
f rd ;f cJah omfvnf;
vlwpfO;D pD.vGwv
f yfrt
_ ay: wif;=uyfrr_ sm;±Sad eao;onf? xdEk pS u
f ek yf ikd ;f
wGi0f ,f(vf)pmuydv
k efEikd if .
H t=urf;rzufawmfveS af &;twGuEf b
kd ,f(vf)
+idr;f csr;f a&;qkcs;D jr‡ijhf cif;cH&onf?
ydv
k efwiG ±f dS jyefvnfjyKjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyo
f rl sm; tultnD&±Sjd cif;rSm udk
bmacsmh(yf)uqdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkwGif tm%m&±SdcJhaoma=umifhjzpf
onf? 1986 ckEpS w
f iG f udb
k macsm(h yf)u ta±SO› a&my±SEd ikd if rH sm;. tdrw
f iG ;f
a&;Edik if aH &;wGif 0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufrv
_ yk af wmhrnfr[kwaf =umif; twdt
vif;a=ujimcJo
h nf? TwGif Wojciech Jaruzelski u0,f(vf)pmESit
hf wlt
vkyo
f rm;or*~vy_ ±f mS ;r_rsm;ESihf awG@qakH qG;aEG;&ef zdtm;ay;jcif;cH&onf?
&v'ftjzifyh gvrD efa±G;aumufy&JG ±Scd +hJ y;D / uGejf rLepfr[kwaf omtpd;k &u tm
%m&±Scd o
hJ nf? xd@k aemuf 1989 ckEpS w
f iG f Solidarnosc uw&m;0iftzG@J t
pnf;jzpfvmonf?
1990 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmvwGi0f ,f(vf)pmu ydv
k eforRwEdik if w
H iG f orRwtjzpf
a±G;cs,w
f ifajrm‡ ufjcif;cH&onf? orRwtaejzifah tmifjrifrr_ &±Syd J ol@uakd 0
zeforl sm;u wdik ;f jynfut
kd m%m±Sipf eH pftyk cf sKyfa&;yHpk jH zpfvmatmif tkyf
csKyfonf [ka0zef=uonf? ol.tjyKtrlrmS yHrk eS rf [kwyf J ppfwyfEiS v
hf +kH cHK
a&;rsm;ESi&hf if;ES;D pGmtquftoG,±f o
dS nft
h ay: a0zefjcif;cH&onf? 1995
ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvrJa±G;yGw
J iG f 0,f(vf)pmudk ,cifueG jf rLepfjzpfaom tvuf
ZENm;uGmeD,pl uD; (Aleksander Kwasniewski) rStEdik &f ±Scd o
hJ nf?

-31-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]aMumufjcif;xufaMumufp&maumif;wmbmrSr½Sdbl;/}}
"There is nothing to fear but fear itself."

]]ighrSm½SdwJh&efolawGudkMunfhNyD;ighudkqHk;jzwfyg/}}
"I ask you to judge me by the enemies I have made."

]]a½S›qufoGm;zdkUvrf;trsm;BuD;½Sdw,f/
'gayrJhudk,fhae&mrSm&yfwnfzdkUenf;vrf;wpfckxJyJ½Sdw,f/}}
"There are many ways of going forward, but only one way of
standing still."

z&ef@uvif;'DvmEdk±kpbJh (1882–1945)

z

&efŒuvif;'DvmEd¶k pk bJh (Franklin Delano Roos-evelt) onftar&duef. 32 a,mufajrmuf
orwWjzpf+yD; 1933 uae 1945 txdtyk cf sKyfco
hJ nf?
olonfoufwrf; 4 ESpw
f ikd t
f a¶G;cHcahJ om yxrOD;qH;k
orRwjzpf+y;D wdik ;f jynfukd 'kw,
d urBmppfEiS hf pD;yGg;a&;uyf
hJ nf?
qdu
k o
f nf=h um;rSmyif a¶Sa› qmiftyk cf sKyfco
z&ef@uvif;'DvmEd±k pk bJo
h nf oDt'kd ±kd pk bJEh iS ahf qGrsKd ;om;csi;f awmfpyf+yD;
1882 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 30 &ufae@wiG f [du
k (f 'f)ywf/ e,l;a,mufwiG zf mG ;jrif
cJo
h nf? ±kpbJrh o
d m;pkrmS csr;f omaomrdom;pkjzpfonft
h wGuf tdrw
f iG q
f
&mac:+yD;pmoifcJhonf? touf 14 ESpfa&mufonfhtcgrSom a*:wef
ausmif; (Gorton School) wGif ausmif;qufwufco
hJ nf? z&ef@uvif;onf
pmawmfaomausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpf+y;D [m;AwfwuUov
kd Ef iS u
hf v
kd b
J D
,gOya'ausmif;wGiw
f ufa&mufatmifjrifc+hJ y;D 1970 ckEpS w
f iG ef ,l;a,muf
+rdK@w&m;±H;k Ytvky0f ifco
hJ nf?
1905 wGizf &ef@uvif;u ol.0rf;uGEJ rS tJvED ±kd pk bJEh iS v
hf ufxyfco
hJ nf?
-32-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

olr.zcif{vd,uf±pk bJh (Elliott Roosevelt) rSm 1901–1909 ckEpS Yf tar
&dueforRwjzpfcahJ om oDt'kd ±kd pk bJEh iS n
hf t
D pfuakd wmfonf? olr.cifyeG ;f uJh
od@k yiftv
J ED o
kd nf 'Dru
kd &ufwpfa,mufjzpf+yD; Edik if aH &;wGiw
f u,fph w
d 0f if
pm;cJo
h jl zpfonf?
1910 ckEpS w
f iG ±f pk bJo
h nf e,l;a,mufq;D edwt
f rwftjzpf a±G;cs,cf &H +yD;
aemuf e,l;a,mufEikd if aH &;avmuwGix
f if±mS ;ausm=f um;vmcJo
h nf? ±kp
D q
f if (Woodrow WilbJ.
h t&nftcsi;f rsm;udk tar&dueforRw0l;'±d0k v
Sw
f iG ,
f if;udak &wyf.vufaxmuftwGi;f a&;
-son) uawG@±+dS yD; 1913 ckEp
rSL;tjzpfcef@xm;cJo
h nf? ±kpbJu
h xd&k mxl;udk ajcmufEpS w
f m=umatmifxrf;
aqmifcJhonf?
0l;'±d0k v
D q
f ifEiS t
hf jcm;'Dru
kd &ufwpfacgi;f aqmifrsm;u cufcaJ omtcsed f
umvtwGi;f Y ±kpbJ.
h tm;oGecf eG pf u
kd af qmif±u
G rf w
_ @kd u=kd unfI
h oabm
wusjzpfco
hJ nf? 1917 ckEpS Yf tar&duefjynfaxmifprk S yxrurBmppft
wGif;odk@0ifa&mufonfhtcsdefY ±kpbJhrSwdkif;jynftwGif; a&wyfqdkif&m
ypPn;f rsm;xkwv
f yk af ompuf±rkH sm;ESio
hf abFmusi;f rsm;udk aqmufvyk Ef ikd cf hJ
onf? ppftwGi;f olu ajrmufyifv,fwiG ±f adS omppfyt
JG wGuf enf;AsL[m
rsm;a&;qG&J mwGiu
f n
l cD +hJ yD; xdpk rD u
H ed ;f uyif*smrefw@kd . U-boat enf;AsL[m
udt
k iftm;avsmeh nf;apcJo
h nf?
1921 ckEpS af EG&moDwiG f ±kpbJt
h vGeyf ifemruse;f jzpfco
hJ nf? aemufq;kH w
jznf;jznf;wGiyf if ydv
k ,
D akd &m*gcpH m;&onf[k prf;oyfawG@±o
dS nf? xdt
k csed f
wGio
f o
l nfwpfu,
kd v
f ;kH avjzwfc&H eD;yg;jzpf+yD; aemifwiG o
f ‹l ajcaxmufukd
rnfonft
h cgr# aumif;aumif;rGerf eG t
f oH;k jyKEdik jf cif;r±Sad wmhacs? ol@ukd
aumif;aumif;rGerf eG o
f ±d adS om qD;edwt
f rwfz&ef@ppfz,fuif; (Frances
h a&m*grsm;u ol.trltusiu
hf akd jymif;vJap+yD; ydI
k
Perkins) u±kpbJ.
aumif;vmaomvlwpfa,mufjzpfapcJo
h nf[q
k o
kd nf? z&ef@ppfz,fuif;
-33-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

u “±kpbJ[
h m aeraumif;wJt
h csed w
f iG ;f rS 0dOmOfa&;&mydik ;f qdik &f majymif;vJr_
wd@k u±kd ±Scd w
hJ ,f? u|eaf wmfowdxm;rdwmu olEpS af ygi;f rsm;pGmemruse;f jzpf
wJt
h csed u
f p+y;D aemufyikd ;f rSm [dw
k ek ;f uol@rmS wpfcgwav±Sw
d wfwhJ tenf;
i,ftay: pD;qufqw
H t
hJ usiu
hf aysmufomG ;w,f? ol@rmS aEG;axG;wJph w
d Ef S
vHk;eJ@ ESdrfhcswwfwJhpdwfxm;±Sdvm+yD; eufeJaomtawG;tac:awG±Sdvm
w,f? olu,
kd w
f ikd 'f u
k q
Q if;&Jra_ wGukd em;vnfvmw,f” [krw
S cf sucf schJ
onf? ±kpbJu
h vufweG ;f vSn;f xJwiG f xdik af e&aomfvnf; 1928 ckEpS w
f iG f
Edik if aH &;avmuod@k wpfzefjyefvnf0ifa&mufco
hJ nf? aemufwpfEpS w
f iG yf if
±kpbJu
h ekd ,l;a,muf+rdK@0eftjzpf a±G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufjcif;cHc&hJ onf? olu
+rKd @0eftjzpfwm 0efxrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f tar&du.pD;yGg;a&;jy\emudk
rnfo@kd ajz±Si;f &ef tajccHusustjrif±adS omolrsm;ESihf awG@±cdS o
hJ nf? xdo
k w
l @kd
.v$r;f rd;k r_a=umifh ±kpbJo
h nf tar&du.wd;k wufrt
_ ±Sq
d ;kH Edik if aH &;orm;
rsm;xJwiG w
f pfa,muftygt0ifjzpfonf?
1929 ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mvjzpfymG ;cJah om “Wall Street Crash” onftar
&du.ordik ;f a=umif;wpfav#mufwiG f tqd;k ±Gm;qH;k pdwcf pH m;p&mjzpfvmcJh
onf? tar&dueforRw[m;bwf[;l A,f (Herbert Hoover) u awmifol
v,form;rsm;twGuf Edik if u
H ,fq,fa&;taxmuftyHah y;&mwGif aES;
auG;jcif;ESi+hf rdK@ay:±St
d vkyv
f ufrrhJ sm;udk tultnDay;&efjiif;qdjk cif;rsm;jyK
vkycf o
hJ nf? [l;A,fu z,f'&,ftvkyv
f ufrt
hJ vkyo
f rm;rsm;udk jzpfay:
vmaprnft
h qdw
k ifoiG ;f xm;onfOh ya'udk ADwt
kd m%mjzifyh ,f csvu
kd +f yD;
jynfo@l tvkyo
f rm;pDru
H ed ;f wnfaxmifa&;udq
k ef@usicf o
hJ nf?
e,l;a,muf+rdK@awmf0efwpfa,muftaeESihf ±kpbJo
h nf tvkyv
f ufrrhJ sm;
tm; ulnED ikd &f eftm;oGecf eG pf u
kd }f udK;pm;cJo
h nf? xd@k twl e,l;a,mufjynf
e,fta&;ay:u,fq,fa&;aumfrwDuw
kd nfaxmif+yD; tvkyv
f ufrrhJ sm;
ESit
hf ouft±G,}f uD;olrsm;udk pwifun
l ED ikd cf o
hJ nf?
-34-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

±kpbJu
h e,l;a,muf+rdK@0eftjzpf atmifjrifpmG wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ jzifh
1932 ckEpS 'f rD u
kd &ufwpforRwa±G;yGYJ a±G;cs,pf &macgi;f aqmiftjzpf odom
xif±mS ;pGmay:vGiv
f monf? ±kpbJrh pS ;D yGg;a&;jy\emtay: rnfo@kd ajz±Si;f &
rnft
h ay: odomxif±mS ;pGmraz: jyEdik af omfvnf; ol.&Dywfbvpfuef&ef
oludktvG,fwulatmifEdkifcJhonf?
±kpbJo
h rRwjzpfjzpfcsi;f rSmyif wdik ;f jynfwiG jf zpfygG ;aeaom b%fvyk if ef;t±_yf
taxG;jy\emESi}hf uKH awG@&avonf? pD;yGg;a&;jy\emrsm; pwifvmonfh
tcsed rf pS I wdik ;f jynf±b
dS %fig;yHw
k pfyu
kH kd ydwcf sypfvu
kd o
f nf? aemufqufwJG
taejzifh vlrsm;.b0toufwmtwGuf pkxm;aomaiG 15μ aysmufq;kH
cJ&h avonf? 1933 ckEpS Ef pS Of ;D ydik ;f wGif tar&duefw@kd u,if;wd@k .b%fvyk f
ief;tay:,H=k unfre_ nf;vm+y;D rdrw
d @kd .aiGrsm;udx
k w
k ,
f +l y;D onfah emuftrd f
wGijf yefxm;=uavonf? ±kpbJo
h rRwjzpf+yD;aemufwpf&ufwiG yf if b%f
tm;vH;k udk ydwcf ikd ;f avonf? xd@k aemufueG *f &uftpnf;ta0;ac:I aemif
aiGa=u;jy\emay:vmv#if aiGpo
k rl sm;rdrw
d @kd .aiGa=u;rsm;udk rqH;k ±H;_ ap&ef
tmrcHay;onfh w&m;Oya'udw
k ifoiG ;f &efawmif;qdak vonf?
1933 ckEpS rf wfv 9 &ufae@wiG f ±kpbJu
h txl;uGe*f &ufwpfcu
k kd ac:,lcJh
onf? olutzG@J 0ifrsm;udk tvkyv
f ufrjhJ y\emudak jz±Si;f &ef enf;vrf;wpf
ckrSm “tpdk;&udk,fwdkiftvkyfac:,lcef@xm;&ef” jzpfonf[kajymonf?
aemufo;kH vtwGi;f ±kpbJu
h tvkyv
f ufrjhJ y\emajz±Si;f &ef ta&;}uD;
onfh Oya'rl=urf;rsm;wifoGif;+yD; uGefu&ufrStwnfjyKay;cJhonf?
txl;uGeu
f &uftpnf;ta0;ud&k ufw&m[kac:qd+k yD; ±kpbJ.
h vdt
k yfcsuf
rsm;udx
k w
k af z:cJo
h nf?
tpd;k &u tvkyo
f rm;rsm;pGmudk tvkycf ef@ac:,lco
hJ nf? ±kpbJu
h tvkyf
vufrjhJ y\emudek nf;yg;vmatmif }udK;pm;Iajz±Si;f aepOf wcsed w
f nf;rSm
yiftvkyrf vkyEf ikd af omolrsm;twGuf tcuftcJuakd vsmh enf;vmatmif
-35-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

}udK;pm;onf? ±kpbJu
h tultnDwu,fvt
kd yforl sm;udk tpd;k & axmufyhH
a=u;aiGay;&eftwGuf z,f'&,fta&;ay:u,fq,fa&;tkyfcsKyfr_tzGJ@
(Federal Emergency Relief Administration) udw
k nfaxmifco
hJ nf? 1935
ckEpS =f o*kwv
f wGif vlrv
_ +kH cHKr_tufOya'udk twnfjyKcJo
h nf? TtufOy
a'onf touft±G,}f uD;yifpifEiS zhf ,f'&,fEiS jhf ynfe,fw@kd .tvkyv
f uf
rJt
h ay: u,fq,fa&;taxmuftyHah y;jcif;wd@k jzpfonf?
NAACP uz&ef@uvif;±kpbJu
h kd 1932 ckEpS w
f iG f a±G;cs,v
f u
kd jf cif;tm;jzifh

Oya'ESiw
hf &m;pD&ifjcif;r±Sb
d J ao'g%af y;jcif;ud+k y;D qH;k Edik v
f rd rhf nf[k ar#mv
f ifh
xm;ygonf? tmz&dueftar&duefom;rsm;udk Oya'ESit
hf nDw&m;pD&if
jcif;r±Sb
d J &yfpaJ &;v_y±f mS ;oltmz&dueftar&duefom;ESpaf ,mufu ±kpbJh
tEdik &f ±Sad tmifun
l aD y;cJo
h nf? ol.ZeD;tJvED ±kd pk bJo
h nf w&m;Oya'ESihf
tnDp&D ifjcif;r±Syd aJ o'g%af y;jcif;qef@usiaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;udk tcsed =f umjrifh
pGmvkyu
f ikd cf o
hJ nf? rsm;r=umrDwiG f w&m;Oya'ESit
hf nD pD&ifjcif;r±Syd aJ o
'g%af y;jcif;udk qef@usio
f nfOh ya'rl=urf;udak &;qGcJ o
hJ nf? TOya'xJwiG f
w&m;Oya'abmifay:wGif tvkyv
f yk af omwm0ef±ydS *k Kd~ vrf sm;u w&m;r0if
ao'g%af y;jcif;udjk zpfay:aomtcsed w
f iG f rdrw
d m0ef0wW&m;twdik ;f rvkyf
aomolrsm;udw
k &m;Oya't&pD&ifjcif;jyKvyk &f efyg0ifonf? 1935 ckEpS w
f iG ±f k
pbJt
h m;TOya'=urf;udk axmufc&H efpnf;±H;k jcif;cH&onf? rnfo@kd qakd pum
rl±pk bJu
h xdOk ya'rl=urf;twGuo
f u
l ulnv
D #if awmifyikd ;f ±Sv
d jl zLvlrq
J EN
ay;olrsm;u ol@uckd iG rfh v$wf rJay;awmhrnfr[kwaf =umifjh zpfonf?
vGecf ahJ om 1936 ckEpS o
f rRwa±G;aumufyw
JG iG f ±kpbJu
h Edik if aH wmf.aiGa=u;
pm&if;udk uwday;xm;onft
h wdik ;f rxm;Edik I
f taESmift
h ,Suaf y;jcif;cH&
onf? wcsKd @uvnf; ±kpbJu
h u
kd eG jf rLepftjzifh pGypf aJG jymqdck o
hJ nf? od@k aomf
vnf;pDru
H ed ;f topf (New Deal) uwu,fv}l udKufrsm;I &Dywfbvpf
ueftrwfukd vG,u
f pl mG tEdik &f ±Scd o
hJ nf?
-36-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

±kpbJu
h wwd,t}udrt
f a±G;cHrnf[ak =ujimcJ+h yD;aemuf trsm;u ol‹ukd
tm%mrsm;vGe;f onf[pk w
G pf rJG r_ sm; rsm;oxufrsm;vmonf? xd@k a=umifh
±kpbJu
h tar&dueforRwoufwrf;ESpcf u
k o
kd m,l&rnf[k a&;om;cJah om
Oya'udyk xrOD;qH;k csKd ;azmufI wwd,t}udrt
f a±G;cs,cf cH +hJ yD; 1940 ckEpS f
wGit
f Edik &f ±Scd o
hJ nf?
'kw,
d urBmppftwGi;f tar&duef. =um;ae0g'rSwqifrh [mrdwrf sm;udk
rsuEf mS omay;cJ+h yD; aemufq;kH *syefw@kd u ykvq
J yd u
f rf;ud0k ifwu
kd cf +hJ yD;onfh
aemuf tar&duwd@k uppfyx
JG u
J 0kd ifco
hJ nf? 1944 ckEpS w
f iG f pwkwt
Î }udrf
orRwtjzpfa±G;cs,jf cif;cHc&hJ onf? z&ef@uvif;'DvmEd±k pk bJo
h nf 1945
ckEpS af rv & &ufae@Y *smreDw@kd vufeufcsjcif;rwdik rf o
D ;kH ywfwiG f uG,v
f eG f
oGm;cJhonf?
oluG,fvGefoGm;+yD;aemuf ±kpbJh.ZeD;onftJvDEdk±kpbJhESifhol.om;ESpf
a,mufjzpfaom *srd ;f (pf)±kpbJEh iS hf z&ef@uvif;±kpbJah *stm&fw@kd rmS Edik if aH &;
avmuwGiq
f ufvufvy_ ±f mS ;cJo
h nf?

-37-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]vGwfvyfjcif;qdkwmwu,fhudktzdk;wefw,f/ tzdk;wefvGef;
vdkUcGJwrf;eJUay;&rSmjzpfw,f/}}
“It is true that liberty is precious – so precious that
it must be rationed”

]]aoewfwpfvuf½SdwJhol[m aoewfwpfvufrSr½SdwJh
vlta,muf 100 udkxdef;csKyfEdkifw,f/}}
“One man with a gun can control 100 without one.”

]]vdrfnmrIawGudkcPcPoHk;r,fqdk&ifaemufrSmtrSefw&m;jzpfvmEdkifw,f/}}
“A lie told often enough becomes the truth.”

bv,fwDrmvDeif (1870–1924)

b

v,fwrD mvDeif (Vladimir Lenin) onfEikd f
iHa&;acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D ESihf 20 &mpk.awmf
vSeaf &;tawG;tac:±Sad omoljzpf+yD; ±k±mS ;Edik if EH iS o
hf m
ru wurBmvH;k tay: eufeaJ omxda&mufrr_ sm;±Scd hJ
onf? vDeifonf 1917 ckEpS w
f iG af bmf±ADS pf (BolsheS ikd if .
H tm%modr;f cJph Ofu pDpOf!e$ =f um;cJh
-vik) u±k±E
olwpfO;D jzpfonf? xd@k twl vDeifonf qdAk ,
D ufEikd if H
udk wnfaxmifolESifhyxrOD;qHk;aom acgif;aqmif
vnf;jzpfonf? ol.rm;ppf (Marxist) oDt&kd t
D ay:
ud;k um;csurf sm;ud(k vDeif0g'(Leninism)[ktrsm;u
od±ydS gonf?
vDeifonf 1870 ckEpS {f +yv
D 10 &ufae@wiG f ppf=bpf (Simbrisk) +rKd @±±k mS ;Edik if H
YzGm;jrifco
hJ nf? ol.zcifrmS ausmif;ppfaq;a&;jzpf+y;D uGeq
f maA;wpftjrif
±So
d w
l pfO;D jzpfonf? xd@k twloo
l nf ±k±mS ;atmoa'gb
h &k m;ausmif; (Orthk ;f ±di_ ;f aom toif;om;wpfO;D jzpfonf?
-odox Church) .bmoma&;udi
ol.rdcifrmS ajrydik ±f iS q
f &m0ef}u;D wpfO;D . orD;jzpfonf? vDeif.rdom;pkrmS
-38-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

ujym;trdsK;jzpf+yD; ol.rsKd ;qufrsm;rSm ±k±u
S m;vfrpf (Kalmyk)/ *sL;/ *smref
ESiphf 'DG ifvrl sKd ;ESit
hf jcm;vlrsKd ;rsm;vnf; yg0ifaumif;yg0ifEikd o
f nf? tpfut
kd
vufZENm; (Alexander) .awmfveS rf E_ ikd if aH &;tjrifu vDeiftay: euf±i_d ;f
pGmoufa&mufr_±Sd+yD; tvufZENm;uyif vDeiftm;cg;vfrwf(pf) (Karl
hf w
d q
f ufay;cJo
h nf?
Marx) tawG;tac:ESir
vDeifonf ausmif;wGit
f vGex
f ufjrufaom ausmif;om;jzpfonf? Tt
csuaf =umifv
h nf; oli,fcsi;f rsm;ESihf uif;uGm&onf? vDeifonf ol@q&m/
q&mrrsm;. uGeq
f maA;wpftjriftay: txifao;pufqyk af omfvnf;
ausmif;pmwGirf al wmfygonf? olonfpmzwf0goemyg+y;D *d;k tJ(h of)(Goethe)
ESihf Turgenev wd@k .ta&;tom;u ol@b0wpfoufv;kH tay: xda&mufr_
rsm;±Scd o
hJ nf?
vDeifi,fpOfu 'kuq
Q if;&Jr}_ u;D }u;D 2 ckuakd usmjf zwfc&hJ +y;D ,if;wd@k a=umifo
h l
awmfawmfpw
d x
f cd u
kd cf &hJ onf? 1886 ckEpS w
f iG v
f eD if.zcifrmS (Cerebral
S ahf oqH;k oGm;+yD; ol@touf 17 ESpjf ynfah om 1887
Hemorrhage) a&m*gEi
ckEpS af rvwGif ol.tpfu}kd uD;tvufZENm;rSm Zmbk&iftvufZENm;oH;k
a,mufwpfa,muf. touftE &W m,fut
kd E &W m,fjyKaprnfh t=urf;
zuform;AH;k cGrJ w
_ iG yf g0ifojzifh tzrf;cH&+y;D }uKd ;qGcJ sccH &hJ onf? tvufZENm;
udk zrf;rdonft
h csed w
f iG f ol.tpfr}u;D tefemu yg±adS eojzift
h efemudk um
Zef (Kazan) rSuv
D rkd w
D m 40 ausm±f o
dS nfah us;±GmqDo@kd e,fEiS 'f g%af y;cH&
onf? Todk@jzifhvDeifonf aoqHk;oGm;aomawmfvSefa&;orm;wpf
a,muf. nDwpfa,mufjzpfonft
h wGuf ol@twGuw
f cH g;rsm;pGmydwq
f @kd chJ
onf? xdt
k csed rf pS I vDeifu bmoma&;,H=k unfrE_ iS hf Edik if aH &;pepfw@kd upkd eG @f
cGmvkdufonf?
aemufq;kH wGif umZefwuUov
kd rf S vDeifuv
kd ufc+H yD; Oya'ynmoif=um;
-39-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

cGiahf y;cJo
h nf? wuUov
kd w
f iG f ynmoif=um;aepOfyif vDeifu Edik if aH &;v_yf
±Sm;r_wiG yf g0ifco
hJ nf? ausmif;wuf+yD; oH;k vtwGi;f rSmyif ol@uq
kd ENjyyGrJ sm;
wGiyf g0ifrj_ zifh a'o&Jpcef;od@k tzrf;cHjcif;cHc&hJ onf? &Jtm%m±Sw
d pfa,muf
uol@ukd “vli,f&,f–awmfveS af &;vky+f yD; 'De&H aH wGumxm;wJah e&mrSm
vmae&wmbmvd@k awmfveS af &;vkycf si&f wmvJ?” vDeifu ud,
k u
hf ,
kd u
f kd
,H=k unfrt
_ jynfjh zifh “'De&H u
H ',dr;f ',dik ef @J / eJeaJ v;wGe;f vdu
k ,
f if+ydKoGm;
rSm” [lIajymcJo
h nf? &v'ftaejzifh ol@ukd wuUov
kd rf aS rmif;xkwv
f u
kd +f y;D
ynma&;avmuwGif 0kid ;f y,fjcif;cH&avonf? ausmif;Yxkwyf ,fvu
kd jf cif;
cH&+y;D aemuf pde@f yw
D mbwfo@kd omG ;+y;D tjyifausmif;wufco
hJ nf? 1891 ckEpS f
wGif Oya'pmar;yGaJ tmifjrif+yD; ausmif;om;OD;a& 124 a,muf±o
dS nft
h
eufou
l yxrqk&±Scd o
hJ nf? vDeifu prfr&mwGiOf ya'jzifh toufarG;0rf;
a=umif;ðycJo
h nf?
1893 ckEpS w
f iG f pde@f yw
D mbwfo@kd ajymif;a±$@+yD; Oya'tvkyx
f rf;aqmifchJ
onf? xdt
k csed rf mS yif rm;ppf (Marxist) ajratmufawmfveS af &;vkyif ef;rsm;
tpysKd ;ay;cJo
h nf? ol.tzG@J ukd tzG@J i,fajcmufz@JG tjzpf cGx
J w
k v
f u
kd o
f nf?
qdv
k o
kd nfrmS puf±t
kH vkyrf sm;.tajctaersm;udk ±SmazGppkH rf;jcif;/ pm&if;
Z,m;rsm;aumuf,jl cif;ESihf vufurf;pmwrf;rsm;a&;xm;jcif; ponfw@kd ukd
vky=f uonf? TtzG@J uav;rsm;cGI
J tvkyv
f yk o
f nft
h csed rf mS wGiyf if ol.
ZeD;onfem'uf'gc&yfpum,m (Nadezhda Krupskaya) ESifhawG@±Sd+yD;
1898 ckEpS w
f iG o
f w
l @kd EpS af ,mufvufxyfc=hJ uonf?
1895 ckEpS w
f iG f qGpZf mvefEikd if o
H @kd xu
G o
f mG ;+yD; olEiS t
hf awG;tac:wlnD
onfq±kd ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufw@kd EiS ahf wG@&efomG ;cJ+h y;D a*sm*f szD vufcaemh (Georgi Plhf wG@qpkH um;ajymcJ=h uonf? olw@kd onf ±k±mS ;jynftwGi;f
-ekhanov) ESia
ajymif;vJa&;vky&f mwGif rnfo@kd rnfyv
kH yk rf nfjzifh jiif;cHak qG;aEG;=uonf?
zvufcaemhu tv,ftvwfwef;tqifh vpfb&,fvw
l ef;pm;rsm;udk
-40-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

xnfo
h iG ;f vd+k yD; vDeifurl qif;&Jom;tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;rsm;udo
k m
xnfo
h iG ;f vdo
k nf? Tod@k tjiif;tcHjk zpfrw
_ @kd a=umifh aemufq;kH wjznf;jznf;
qd±k ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpfygwo
D nf rif±ADS pf (Mensheviks) ESiahf bmf±ADS pf (BolshS zf @JG uo
JG mG ;onf?
-eviks) [lItzG@J Ep
vDeif±±k mS ;od@k jyefvmonft
h cg olEiS t
hf wl w&m;r0ifvufurf;pm±Gurf sm;
,lvm+yD; awmfveS af &;owif;pmwpfapmifpwifxw
k af 0&ef aqmif±u
G cf hJ
onf? xdo
k wif;pmxkwaf 0aomnrSmyif olEiS t
hf jcm;acgi;f aqmifrsm;t
zrf;qD;cH&onf? axmifxw
J iG pf pk ak ygi;f 15 vtcsc&H onf? xd@k aemufo@l ukd
qku
d af b;&D;,m;od@k jynfEiS 'f g%af y;vdu
k +f yD; xdak e&mYyif olEiS chf &yfpum
,mwd@k vufxyfco
hJ nf? jynfEiS 'f g%af y;cHc&hJ aomtcsed +f y;D qH;k oGm;+y;D aemuf
olw@kd onf qGpZf mvefEikd if o
H @kd xGuo
f mG ;+yD; aemufq;kH wGit
f pPcg&m (Iskra)
qdo
k nfo
h wif;pmudx
k w
k af 0Edik cf o
hJ nf? tpPcg&m.t"dyg` ,rf mS t*Fvyd v
f kd
(Spark–rD;yGg;jzpfonf? Ttrnfukd uAsmwpfy'k x
f ±J pdS myd'k rf S &±Scd o
hJ nf?
xdu
k Asmpm yd'k rf mS “The spark will kindle a flame–rD;yGg;awG[m rD;awmuf
awGjzpfvmatmifE;_d qGay;wJt
h &mjzpfw,f” [lIyif? qGpZf mvefwiG af e
pOftwGi;f qd±k ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpfygwu
D kd tm%m±Sv
d matmif vkyaf qmifEikd cf hJ
onf? oltaejzifh acgi;f rm+y;D aphpyfa=uat;wwfwhJ tjrifr±Sjd cif;a=umifyh g
wDuu
kd o
JG mG ;aponft
h "dutcsuw
f pfcjk zpfonf?
1905 ckEpS w
f iG f jzpfygG ;cJah om pde@f yw
D mbwftpkvu
kd t
f +yHKvdu
k o
f wfjzwfr_
a=umifh vDeifukd t=urf; zufvyk if ef;rsm;pwifvyk af qmif&ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f ay;
ouJo
h @kd jzpfonf? tpkvu
kd t
f +yKH vu
kd o
f wfjzwfrr_ mS Father Georgi Gapon
OD;aqmifaom +ird ;f csr;f pGmqENjyaeaomtzG@J ukd Cossacks wd@k rS ypfcwfjcif;rS
pwifcyhJ gonf? Tjzpf&yfa=umifh ±k±mS ;wGiq
f ENjyyGrJ sm;pGmjzpfay:vmcJo
h nf?
vDeifonf ±k±o
S @kd EpS Ef pS =f umjyefvmaecJah omfvnf; oluwdjyKxm;cJah om
qENjyyG/J od@k r[kwf vlxak wmfveS af &;yG}J uD;jzpfrvmcJah cs? tb,fah =umifq
h kd
-41-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

aomf Zmwd@k uvlx}k uD;udk tcGit
hf a&;wpfcsKd @ay;+yD; auseyfEpS o
f rd ahf pcJh
onf? 1906 ckEpS w
f iG v
f eD ifukd ±k±mS ;qd±k ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpftvkyo
f rm;ygwD
(Russian Social Democratic Labor Party [RSDLP]) .tr_aqmifaumfr
wDtzG@J 0iftjzpf a±G;cs,cf &H aomfvnf; ta±G;cH&onfrpS I 1917 ckEpS t
f xd
rsm;aomtm;jzifh Oa&mywpfciG Yf jynfEiS 'f g%af y;jcif;cH&onf? olonf
cufccJ g;oD;aomb0udk jzwfoef;&aomfvnf; Edik if aH &;pmaywd@k ukd quf
vufa&;om;Edik cf o
hJ nf?
yxrurBmppfpwifjzpfay:onft
h csed w
f iG f vDeifu =op}wD;,mrSmyif±adS e
ao;onf? 1914 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f wGif ±k±aS xmufvrS ;f a&;tjzpf tzrf;cH&+yD;
axmifxw
J iG t
f usO;f csc&H onf? od@k aomf axmifxw
J iG cf %=umomtzrf;
cH&+yD; qGpZf mvefo@kd ajymif;oGm;&ef tcGiahf y;vdu
k o
f nf? bmeD(Berne) Y
usi;f yaom tpnf;ta0;wpfcx
k YJ rdr.
d ppfyEJG iS yhf wfoufaomtjrifrsm;
udak z: jycGi&hf cJo
h nf? oluyËdyuQukd e,fcs@J 0g'[kac:qd+k yD; ppfuakd xmufcH
aomqd±k ,
S v
f pfrsm;tm; qif;&Jom;tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;rsm;udk azguf
jyefaomolrsm;[kpyG pf cJG o
hJ nf?
Oa&my±Sq
d ±kd ,
S v
f pfrsm; ppfyu
JG akd xmufc=H uonfukd vDeiftaeESix
hf w
d v
f ef@
tH=h ocJo
h nf? xdt
k csed rf pS I vDeifu tm;oGecf eG pf u
kd f “e,fcs@J ppfyrJG sm;udjk ynf
ol@ppfy”JG rsm;tjzpfo@kd ajymif;vJ&ef vH@_ aqmf0g'jzef@rr_ sm;jyKvkycf o
hJ nf? vD
eifu r[mrdww
f yfom;rsm;u ,if;wd@k .±dik zf ,frsm;udk ppfAv
kd }f uD;rsm;qD
jyefvn
S +hf yD; qd±k ,
S v
f pfawmfveS af &;vkyif ef;rsm;vkyaf qmif&eftwGuf 0g'
jzef@csaD &;vkyif ef;rsm;vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf?
1915 ckEpS pf ufwifbmvwGif eDuv
kd yf(pf) II u a±S@wef;wGiw
f u
kd cf u
kd af e
aom ±k±w
S yfrawmfwiG f =oZmv$r;f rd;k r_±o
dS nf[,
k q
l xm;onf? xd@k a=umifh
ppfbufqikd &f mqH;k ±_;H r_rsm;jzpfay:vm+y;D 1917 ckEpS w
f iG f ol@tpd;k &udk axmuf
-42-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

cHrr_ sm; usqif;oGm;cJo
h nf? wdik ;f jynf.ppfa&;ppf&mtay:wGif y&d,m,fr
ºu,
G 0f jcif;ESijhf zwfpm;v'fpm;vkyrf w
_ @kd a=umifh ±k±mS ;wyfrawmftwGuf acwf
rSaD omppfyu
JG w
kd u
kd &f ef vdt
k yfaomvufeufypPn;f rsm; axmufyI
hH r&awmh
acs? 1917 ckEpS w
f iG f ppfom;aygi;f 1˜300˜000 ausmw
f u
kd yf w
JG iG u
f sq;kH oGm;
+yD; 4˜200˜000 xdcu
kd 'f g%&f m&um 2˜417˜000 a,muftzrf;cHc&hJ onf?
Tppfy}JG u;D onfvnf; ±k±mS ;pD;yGg;a&;twGuf qd;k usKd ;oufa&mufr_ jzpfay:ap
cJo
h nf? tpm;tpmavsmeh nf;vm+yD; aps;E_e;f vnf; tqrwef}uD;rm;vm
onf? 1917 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D wGif zufwu
kd &ufY ukeaf ps;E_e;f rSm ajcmufq
wdk;vmcJhonf?
1917 ckEpS w
f iG f ±k±mS ;Edik if YH awmfveS af &;ESpcf pk wifco
hJ nf? rwfvwGif pde@f yD
wmbwfwiG ±f adS om pwD;vkyo
f m;rsm;u oydwaf rSmuf=uonf? wjznf;
jznf;TqENjyyGrJ mS }uD;rm;vm+yD; vlaxmifaygi;f rsm;pGmwd@k onf vrf;rrsm;
ay:wGiw
f ef;pDqENjyae=uonf? TwGif Zmbk&if. tm%mqH;k ±_;H cJ+h yD; t
vufZENm;uD&ifpuD;OD;aqmifaom 'lrmtzG@J u tm%modr;f ,lco
hJ nf?
vDeifu *smrefw@kd EiS hf oabmwlnrD w
_ pfcjk yKvyk cf o
hJ nf? tu,fI*smrefw@kd
u ol@tm; ±k±mS ;od@k tE &W m,fuif;ab;±Si;f pGmyd@k aqmifay;Edik v
f #if olutm
%modr;f ,l+y;D ±k±mS ;wyfukd ppfyt
JG wGi;f rS±yk o
f rd ;f ay;rnf[I
l yif? uD&ifpuD;
uwdik ;f jynfwiG f tcuftcJrsm;}uHKawG@&+yD; ±k±mS ;wyfrawmfrS t±H;_ ESi&hf if
qdik &f aomfvnf; ±k±mS ;wyfujkd yefI±kyo
f rd ;f &efpw
d rf ul;ay? atmufwb
kd mv
wGif vDeifu wdik ;f jynftm%mudk aoG;pufrusavmufatmifyif odr;f ,l
Edik cf o
hJ nf?
bv,fwrD mvDeiftouf 47 ckEpS t
f ±G,w
f iG u
f eG jf rLepfygwD (Society of
dw
f nf;rSmyif wdik ;f
People’s Commissars)wd@k .acgi;f aqmifjzpfvm+y;D wpfcse
jynf.orRwjzpfvmonf?
-43-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

tpd;k &topfjzpfaom uGejf rLepfygw.
D tcuftcJrmS enf;yg;vSonfr[kwf
acs? *smreDEiS jhf zpfygG ;aeaomppfyrJG sm;vnf; ±kww
f &uf+yD;qH;k oGm;onf? (ol
.aºuG;a=umforH mS ‘aygirf ek @f ay;ygppfyrJG [kwyf g’ [lIjzpfco
hJ nf)? ±k±mS ;wd@k rS
olw@kd .aygirf ek @f jcif;jzpfaom ,lu&de;f udk *smreDrsm;vufo@kd q;kH ±H;_ oGm;vdu
k f
&aomfvnf;rsm;r=umrD*smreDu ppfyw
JG iG q
f ;kH ±H;_ oGm;aomtcg olw@kd r,
S l
u&de;f udk jyefvnf&±Scd o
hJ nf? v,f,majr rsm;udck ,
JG rl #a0+y;D wcsKd @ut
kd rsm;
ydik af jrtjzpfxm;cJo
h nf? tpd;k &u puf±rkH ikd ;f vkyif ef;rsm;ESib
hf %frsm;udk Edik if H
awmfyikd o
f rd ;f ydu
k v
f u
kd o
f nf? xd±k ±k mS ;atgo
h a'hgb&k m;ausmif;udk zsuo
f rd ;f cJh
onf?
vDeiftwGuf twdu
k t
f cHygw±D cdS +hJ y;D 1918 ckEpS w
f iG rf if±ADS w
d f (tjzL) abmfv
±SAD pf (teD) wd@k t=um; jynfwiG ;f ppfrsm;jzpfco
hJ nf? tjzLrsm;udk +Adwed Ef iS t
hf
ar&duefw@kd u ulncD ahJ omfvnf; aemufwiG t
f jzLrsm; ppfyw
JG iG t
f a&;edrchf hJ
&onf?
1919 ESihf 1921 ckEpS rf sm;wGif iwfrw
G af cgi;f yg;r_EiS w
hf u
kd zf KdG wfa&m*grsm; ±k±mS ;
jynfwpfjynfv;kH Yjzpfay:cJ+h y;D vl 27 oef;ausmrf #ukd toufq;kH ±_;H apcJo
h nf?
Tjy\emrsm;udak jz±Si;f &eftwGuf vDeifu pD;yGg;a&; vkyif ef;pOftopfwck
csay;cJo
h nf? Tvkyif ef;pOfukd ysupf ;D ±_yaf xG;ae+y;D ±k±mS ;jynf}u;D .aoqH;k ae
+y;D jzpfaompD;yGg;a&;pepfukd jyefItouf±iS v
f map&ef t&if;±Sipf epftawG;
tac:rsm;jzpfay:vmawmhonf? v,form;rsm; v[mjyifaps;wGif aps;
a&mif;cGi&hf ±Sjd cif;ESit
hf vkyo
f rm;iSm;&rf;Edik cf iG rhf sm;&±Sv
d monf? v,f,majr
wd;k cs@J vyk u
f ikd af om v,form;rsm;udk ukvwf (a±S;±k±jS ynf±v
dS ,form;
}u;D rsm;) [ko±d =dS uonf? tvkyo
f rm;ta,muf 20 xufenf;aompuf±kH
rsm;udk jynfoyl ikd t
f jzpfrES w
_ yf ,f+yD; ,ciftvky±f iS rf sm;vufxo
J @kd jyefay;cJh
onf? od@k aomfvnf; ol.vky&f yf&v'frsm;udk olaumif;aumif;rawG@±cdS H
pm;&awmhay? 1918 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f 30 &ufae@wiG f qd±k ,
S v
f pfawmfveS o
f l
-44-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

rsm;.tzG@J 0ifjzpfaom 'd&k mupfvefu ol@uakd oewfEiS yhf pf+yD;aemuf ol@
use;f rma&;vnf; qkw,
f w
k v
f mavonf? ol.cE<mud,
k x
f o
J @kd usnq
f EH pS f
awmif0h ifc+hJ yD; cGpJ w
d x
f w
k &f eftwGuf tE &W m,f±v
dS eG ;f ojzifrh xkwcf &hJ acs?
1922 ckepS af rvwGif vDeifavjzwfc&H +yD; aemufwpfEpS rf jynfrh DS xyfIav
jzwfc&H onf? oltoufraoqH;k rD aemufq;kH ESpEf pS t
f wGi;f wdik ;f jynf.vGef
u|pH mG jzpfay:aeaom jzpf&yfwpfcsKd @ukd }udK;pm;jyKjyifco
hJ nf? ol.tjrifrmS
t&if;±SiEf ikd if rH sm;ESit
hf wl ,SOw
f aJG exdik &f ef avhvmjcif;wd@k vt
kd yf+yD; xd
a&mufrr_ ±Sad omAsLwdu
k a&pDpepfuv
kd nf;&yfp&J eftwGujf zpfonf? xd@k twl
ol.ae&mudk pwmvifur[kwyf J xa&mfpuD;udt
k m%m&±Sad pvdo
k nf?
od@k aomf olratmifjrifcahJ y? pwmvifonftvGeyf ifjzwfx;kd Om%faumif;
+y;D vDeifuo
hJ @kd vt
l wGuyf ifwu,fyiftuif;yg;vnf0o
J jl zpfco
hJ nf? 1923
ckEpS w
f iG f vDeifukd avaemufwpfcgxyfjzwfI olu,
kd w
f pfjcrf;aooGm;+yD;
pum;rajymEdik af wmhay? xd@k aemuf olrnfonft
h cgr# jyefaeraumif;awmh
yJ 1924 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 21 &ufae@wiG f OD;aESmufaoG;a=umjywfa&m*gjzifh
uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf?

-45-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]pum;udkcsdKompGmajymNyD;wkwfBuD;BuD;wpfacsmif;udkifxm;yg/}}
"Speak softly and carry a big stick."

]]r½dkufyJeJUa½SmifEdkif&ifvHk;0r½dkufygESifh? 'gayrJh½dkuf&ifb,fawmhrS
jznf;nif;pGmr½dkufygESifh/}}
"Don’t hit at all if it is honorably possible to avoid hitting,
but never hit soft."

oDtdk'dk±kpbJh (1858–1919)

oD

td'k ±kd pk bJh (Theodore Roosevelt) onft
ar&duefjynfaxmifp.
k 26 a,mufajrmuf
orRwjzpf+yD; olonf}uH@cikd +f yD; vkyif ef;wGit
f m;oGecf eG f
pdu
k t
f vkyv
f yk af qmifaom acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpf+y;D t
ar&duefEikd if u
H Ekd ikd if jH cm;a&;&mudprP sm;Y yg0ifaqmif±u
G f
r_rsm;rsm;jym;vmapcJyh gonf?
oDt'kd ±kd pk bJo
h nf 1858 ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mv 27 &ufae@Y e,l;a,muf+rKd @
wGifzGm;jrifonf? olonfcsrf;omºuG,f0aompD;yGg;a&;orm;wpfOD;.
pwkwo
ˆ m;jzpf+y;D ol.i,femrnfrmS “xuf'”D jzpfonf? oluxdek mrnfukd
vH;k 0r}uKd uaf y? ol@wiG yf ef;em&if=uyfa&m*g ESit
hf vGeyf ifrsupf rd e_ af oma&m
*g±o
dS nf? xd@k a=umifo
h .
l zcifonfo@l tm; tEdik rf cHt±_;H ray;yJ rdr.
d a&m*g
rsm;udw
k eG ;f vSeEf ikd &f efTod@k tm;ay;cJyh gonf? “om;rSmOm%fAv±Sad yrJh um
,Avr±Sb
d ;l ? 'ga=umifu
h m,Av±Sad tmif vky,
f &l r,f?” ol.zcifro
S @l
om;udu
k n
l &D eftwGuf tm;upm;±Hu
k kd olw@kd .tdrw
f iG yf ifwnfaxmifay;
cJo
h nf? Tod@k EiS x
hf uf'rD S wjznf;jznf;rdr.
d cE<mud,
k u
f se;f rmoefprG ;f vm
atmif tm;upm;vdu
k pf m;vmcJ&h maemifwiG f “u|±J ikd ;f wpfaumifvu
kd se;f
rmoefprG ;f vmonf” [kEi_d ;f ,SO&f vmatmif use;f rmoefprG ;f vmygonf?
toufi,f±,
G pf Ofu oDt'kd o
kd nfo.
l rdom;pkEiS t
hf wlOa&mywpfciG v
f ;kH c
-46-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

&D;vSnv
hf nfc+hJ yD; xdak e&mwpfYyif ol.jyifopfpum;ESi*hf smrefbmomp
um;udu
k |r;f usipf mG wwfajrmufco
hJ nf?
1876 ckEpS t
f ouf 18 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f oDt'kd o
kd nf[m;AwfwuUov
kd 0f ifciG hf
&cJo
h nf? olupm;aomtm;upm;rsm;rSmavSavSmjf cif;/ vufa0Su
› pm;jcif;/
jrif;pD;upm;jcif;ESiphf cef;csupm;jcif;rsm;udEk pS o
f ufonf? oDt'kd o
kd nfynm
avhvmoif,&l mwGipf w
d 0f ifpm;r_±+dS y;D trSew
f u,fajym&v#if v_y±f mS ;wuf
ºuGaomausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpf+yD; pmoif=um;yd@k cs&mwGif tm;wuf
oa&mavhvmoif,lonf? wpfcgwkef;uqdkv#if ol@udkpmoif=um;ydk@cs
aomya&mzufqmuoDt'kd u
kd kd “'DrmS =unfo
h t
D 'kd /kd igu'Dtwef;xJrmS q
&mjzpfaewmvJowd&tH;k aemf” [l.?
1878 ckEpS w
f iG o
f t
D 'kd u
kd emrnfausm=f um;aomabmhpwefro
d m;pk.orD;
jzpfol tJvpf[moma0;vDEiS ahf wG@qckH o
hJ nf? ,if;wd@k EpS Of ;D cspo
f &l nf;pm;t
jzpftcdse=f umjrifph mG aexdik cf +hJ y;D 1880 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mv 27 &ufae@wiG f
tJvpfEiS o
hf t
D 'kd w
kd @dk vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;cJo
h nf? Ttcsed w
f iG rf mS yif ol.zcif
rSm tpmtdru
f ifqmjzifh 1878 ckEpS af zazz:0g&v
D 9 &ufae@wiG u
f ,
G v
f eG cf hJ
onf? ol.zcifaoqH;k oGm;+yD;aemuf toufEpS q
f ,fw
h pfEpS t
f ±G,±f o
dS t
D kd
'do
k nf ,if;.rdom;pktwGuf tdraf xmifO;D pD;jzpfvmcJ&h onf?
xd@k aemufot
D 'kd u
kd udv
k b
H ,
D m±SOd ya'ausmif;udq
k ufwuf+yD; 1881 ckEpS f
wGiaf usmif;rSxu
G +f y;D e,l;a,mufc±dik jf ynfo@l vw
$ af wmfwiG f ae&m&atmif
}udK;pm;cJo
h nf? ol@u&kd yD wfbvpfuef (Republican) wGit
f a±G;cs,cf &H +yD;&D
ywfbvpfuefuOkd ;D pD;OD;aqmif&eftwGuf ESp}f udrw
f ikd w
f ikd f ta±G;cHc&hJ onf?
oDt'kd .
kd uHaumif;oxufaumif;vm+yD; ol@b0wGif vsijf refpmG wd;k wufr_
rsm;±Sv
d monfuakd wG@&rnf? od@k aomfvnf; 1884 ckEpS w
f iG o
f .
l b0rSmwpf
-47-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

ppD+ydKuGo
J mG ;&onf? azaz:0g&v
D 12 &ufae@wiG o
f .
l orD;av;tJvpf±pk
bJv
h ;D udzk mG ;jrif+yD;aemuf ol.ZeD;onfwiG f ausmufuyfa&m*g±adS =umif;
awG@±&dS onf? xdak &m*gjzifyh ifazaz:0g&v
D 14 &ufae@cspo
f rl sm;ae@wiG f uG,f
vGeo
f mG ;cJ±h mS onf? ol.rdcifrmS vnf;aeraumif;jzpf+yD; wdu
k zf KdG uftzsm;
a&m*gu&kd um 1884 ckEpS /f azaz:0g&v
D 14 &ufae@naeydik ;f wGif uG,v
f eG f
oGm;cJ&h ±Smonf?
Tok@d jzifh 1884 ckEpS w
f iG f ±kpbJu
h taemufbufqo
D @kd c&D;ESiI
f 'guw
kd m
(Dakota) Ywd&p
d m> efarG;jrLa&;tvkyv
f yk =f unf&h ef }udK;pm;onf? ol@taeeJ@
'guw
kd m.vlou
l if;rJrh u
_ ol.&ifxrJ S cHpm;ae&aoma=uuG0J rf;enf;r_w@kd
ajzodrEhf ikd v
f rd rhf nf[,
k =kH unfonf? taemufbuf±dS vlq;kd vlayrsm;uol@
udk “av;vH;k ” ESihf “ajcaxmufaysm”h ponfrh av;rpm;rcHcsrd cHomjzpf
atmifajymqdjk cif;rsm;udjk zwfoef;I wjznf;jznf;ol@uq
kd ef@usiv
f monfh
olrsm;udk tajctaetvdu
k af y:rlwnfI jzwfx;kd Om%fo;kH aomfwefjyef
rsm;jzifjh zpfap oHr%duo
hJ @kd rmausmaompwD;vufo;D rsm;jzifjh zpfap wjznf;
jznf;tEdkif,lvmcJhonf? odk@aomfol.trsufa'goudkawmhol.ig;r#m;
avSuckd ;kd oGm;onfo
h cl ;kd rsm;rSty rnforl #ord nfr[kwaf y? olc;kd rsm;uol
.ig;zrf;avSuckd ;kd +yD;onft
h cg oDt'kd o
kd nf =urf;wrf;vSonf'h guw
kd majr
rsuEf mS jyifurkd r_bJ olc;kd rsm;.aemufuEkd pS yf wf=umvdu
k +f yD;wJah emufyikd ;f
aemufq;kH olc;kd rsm;udzk rf;rdc.
hJ ? xd@k a=umifh ta±St
› &yfu “ajcaxmufaysmh
wJ+h rdK@}uD;om;[molc;kd awGukd zrf;Edik cf w
hJ ,f” vd@k emrnfwiG cf o
hJ nf? Tum
vwpfav#mufwiG f oDt'kd u
kd pmrsm;pwifa&;om;+yD; pma&;q&mjzpfvm
onf? ola&;om;aompmtkyx
f w
J iG f 1889–1896 ckEpS w
f iG x
f w
k af 0aom
“America’s Westward Expansion” av;tkyw
f u
JG ykd gxw
k af 0cJo
h nf?
1889 ckEpS w
f iG f &DywfbvpfueforRw[m&Dqifu,if;udk tar&duefjynf
ol@0efaqmifra_ umfr±Sit
f zG@J 0ifwpfO;D tjzpf cef@xm;vdu
k o
f nf? 1895 ckEpS f
-48-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

wGi±f pk bJu
h e,l;a,muf+rdK@e,fyv
k yd b
f 'k t
f zG@J 0ifjzpfvmonf? aemufwpf
ESpw
f iG f &DywfbvpfueforRwruf(cf)uif;av (Mckinley) uol‹uakd &wyf
. taxGaxGvufaxmuftwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpfcef@tyfco
hJ nf? ±kpbJu
h t
ar&duef.a&wyfpGrf;tm;udkwdk;csJ›jr‡ifhwifcJhojzifh tar&duefonfvnf;
urBmph pfyrJG sm;wGif ydI
k yg0ifvmonfuakd wG@&rnf? pydeEf iS t
hf ar&duefppfyJG
rsm;twGi;f ±kpbJu
h ajcvsiw
f yf&if;wGif 'kAv
kd }f uD;tjzpfwufºuGpmG wm0ef
xrf;aqmifco
hJ nf?
1898 ckEpS w
f iG f ±kpbJrh mS e,l;a,muf+rKd @0eftjzpfta&G;cH&+y;D 1900 ckEpS w
f iG f
orRwrufuif;av;.atmufwiG f 'kw,
d orRwta±G;cH&avonf? 1901
ckEpS w
f iG f rufuif;av;uvky}f uHowfjzwfjcif;cH&+yD; ol‹ae&mud±k pk bJq
h uf
cH&±So
d nf? xdo
k ufwrf;jynf+h yD;aemufrS ±kpbJu
h rdrw
d iG t
f cGiahf &;±So
d nft
h
wdik ;f orRwtjzpf 1904 ckEpS w
f iG t
f a±G;cs,cf cH &hJ onf? olorRwoufwrf;
wpfav#mufv;kH wGif }uD;rm;aomaumfyakd &;±Si;f rsm;.tm%mrsm;udk uef@
owf&eftwGuf vuf0g;}uD;tkycf sKyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm; usio
hf kH;jyefvnfxl
axmifa&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk pwiftpysKd ;vkyaf qmifco
hJ nf? xd@k xufru t
ar&duef. yxrOD;qH;k trsKd ;om;O,smOfukd zavmf&'D gjynfe,fY 1903 ckEpS f
ESihf 1906 ckEpS w
f iG f yxrOD;qH;k trsKd ;om;ausmufwikd u
f kd ,Ge;f rif; (Wyomf nfaqmufco
hJ nf?
-ing) wGiw
Edik if jH cm;a&;&mwGiv
f nf; ±kpbJu
h tar&duefonf “csKd ompGmpum;ajym+y;D
wkw}f uD;}uD;wpfacsmif;udik o
f nf” [ka=ujimcJo
h nf? ol‹,=kH unfcsurf mS t
u,fItjcm;aomEdik if rH sm;u tar&duefonf rdr.
d tusKd ;rsm;udk ppfa&;
+crd ;f ajcmufrr_ sm;jzift
h umtuG,af y;a=umif;odv#if tar&duef.vH+k cKH a&;
rSm yd+k yD;wd;k jr‡iv
hf mvdrrhf nf[I
l yif? rGe±f ;kd pmcsKyfa=umifh uma&;bD;,ef;yif
v,fxYJ Edik if jH cm;a&wyfrsm;±Sv
d mjcif;rS umuG,+f yD; vufwiftar&duef
udk tar&duefjynfaxmifpw
k pfcu
k om =um;0ifpu
G zf ufEikd o
f nf?
-49-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

±kpbJhonf yem;rm;wl;ajrmif;wnfaxmifa&;udk tm;ay;wdkufwGef;cJh
onf? 1906 ckEpS w
f iG f Russo–Japanese ppfyu
JG kd +yD;qH;k atmifjyKvkycf o
hJ nfh
twGuf Edb
k ,f(vf)qkuckd s;D jr‡ijhf cif;cHc&hJ onf?
±kpbJu
h orRw&mxl;rS 1908 ckEpS w
f iG t
f +ird ;f pm;,lco
hJ nf? 1912 orRwa±G;
aumufyGJwGif ol‹.ae&mudkqufcH&±SdcJhaom0DvsHxyf(zf).ay:vpDudkr
óudufojzifh olEiS òhf ydiI
f rJa±G;cJo
h nf? xd‹k a=umifh &Dywfbvpfuef.rJuEkd pS zf ‹JG
cGo
J vkjd zpf+yD;aemuf 'Dru
kd &ufwpftrwf 0l;('f)±d0k v
D q
f ifuorRwjzpfvmcJh
onf?
±kpbJo
h nf 1919 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 6 &ufae@toufajcmufq,ft±G,w
f iG f
aoqH;k oGm;cJah omfvnf; ol.tarGtESprf sm;use&f pfco
hJ nf? oDt'kd o
kd nf
tar&duef. orRwaumif;wpfa,mufjzpfonfomru opPm±Sad omcif
yGe;f onfpjH yzcifEiS Ehf ikd if aH wmftwGut
f usKd ;jyKonfomru urBmwpfcv
k ;kH
tusKd ;twGut
f usKd ;jyKvkyaf qmifcahJ om jynfo@l om;aumif;wpfa,muf
jzpfco
hJ nf? olonfpma&;q&maumif; wpfa,mufjzpf+yD; vl@tcGit
hf a&;
v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;Y rem;raeyg0ifaqmif±u
G o
f nfomru acgi;f aqmifrt
_ &nf
tcsi;f ESijhf ynfph o
kH nfEh ikd if aH &;orm;wpfa,mufjzpfonf? rdr.
d teD;tem;
wpf0u
kd ±f u
dS rBm}uD;udk yHpk o
H iG ;f onfomru rnfonft
h vkyu
f rkd qdv
k yk &f m
wGiv
f w
G v
f yfr/_ w&m;Oya'atmufwiG w
f &m;r#wr_EiS phf w
d cf sr;f omr_tay:
wGifrlwnfonf?
ol.emrnf “xuf'”D udt
k pGjJ yKI 0uf0±H yk u
f av;rsm;udk xuf'±D yk [
f ak c:
onf?

-50-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]trsdK;orD;wpfa,mufu tdrfOD;pD;xdef;csKyf&mrSm jzpfay:vmwJhtcuftcJawG
taMumif;udkem;vnfygu wdkif;jynfudktkyfcsKyf&mrSm ay:aygufvmwJh
jyóemawGtaMumif;udkem;vnfvmzdkUeD;pyfvmNyD;/}}
"Any Woman who understands the problems of running a home will
be nearer to understanding the problems of running a country."

]]tmPm½Sdw,fqdkwm rdef;rwpfa,mufeJUwlw,f/ wu,fvdkUoifbmjzpfw,f
qdkwmudkajymjy&&if oifrdef;rjzpfrSmr[kwfbl;/}}
"Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people
you are, you aren't."

]]wu,fvdkUuRefrvdkcsifwJht&mudk&rnfqdkvQifuRefrtvGefU
tvGefpdwf½SnfEdkifygonf/}}
"I am extraordinarily patient, provided I get my own
way in the end."

rg*&ufoufcsm (1925-

)

rm

*&ufoufcsm (Margaret Thatcher) onf,l
Edu
k w
f ufuif;'dr;f .yxrOD;qH;k trsKd ;orD;
0ef}u;D csKyjf zpf+y;D 1979 ckEpS rf S 1990 txdtyk cf sKycf o
hJ nf?
oufcsmu+Adwdef.pD;yGg;a&;zGHŒ+zdL;wdk;wufvmatmif
f Œkd
vkyaf qmifrnf[u
k wday;+y;D olru T&nfreS ;f csuo
a&muf&adS tmif tpd;k &ydik pf uf¶rkH sm;udk a&mif;csjcif;ESihf
yk*v
~ u
d ydik t
f jzpfoŒkd ajymif;vJjcif;rsm;vkyu
f ikd cf o
hJ nf?
rm*&ufa&mbwfonf ukepf q
kH ikd af &mif;ol.orD;jzpf+y;D 1925 ckEpS af tmuf
wdb
k mv 13 &ufwiG f =urforf (Granham)/ vifueG ;f ±_id ;f ,m; (Lincolnsf mG ;jrifco
hJ nf? atmufpzd@k 'w
f uUov
kd w
f iG af tmifjrifc+hJ yD;onfh
-hire) wGiz
aemuf rm*&ufonf okawoejyK"gwyk nm±Siw
f pfO;D jzpfvmonf? xd@k
aemuforl u Oya'ynmudq
k ufvufoif=um;I 0wfvakH wmf&a±S@aewpf
-51-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

OD;jzpfvmonf?
1951 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmv 13 &ufae@wiG 'f eJ pfoufcsm (Denis Thatcher) qdk
aom atmifjrifaompD;yGg;a&;orm;wpfa,mufEiS v
hf ufxyfco
hJ nf? rm*
&ufoufcsmonf uGeq
f maA;wpfygw0D ifwpfO;D jzpf+y;D 1959 ckEpS af tmufwkd
bmvwGif (Finchely) udu
k ,
kd pf m;jyK&ef a±G;cs,jf cif;cH&onf? aemifEpS Ef pS t
f
=um;wGi[
f m±drk ufrv
D ef (Harold Macmillan) tpd;k &.yifpifEiS Ehf ikd if t
H mrcH
a=u;XgewGif wGzJ ufygvrD eftwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif±u
G cf o
hJ nf?
1964 ckEpS f taxGaxGa±G;aumufyw
JG iG f uGeq
f maA;wpfygw±D ;H_ ESrd chf +hJ y;D [m±dk
0Dvpif (Harold Wilson) u0ef}uD;csKyftopfjzpfvmcJo
h nf? uGeq
f maA;
wpfygwaD cgi;f aqmifjzpfvmoltuf'0yf[uf(of) (Edward Health) uol
rudk twdu
k t
f cHtpd;k &.yifpifEiS Ehf ikd if t
H mrcHa=u;XgewGif ajyma&;qdck iG ±hf dS
yk*K~d vftjzpfcef@xm;cJo
h nf? xd@k aemuforl u twdu
k t
f cHygwb
D ufrt
S rd f
,mXge (atmufwb
kd m 1965)/ b¿ma&; ({+yDv 1966)/ avmifpmESiphf rG ;f
tif (atmufwb
kd m 1967)/ o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&; (Ed0k ifbm 1968) ESiyhf nm
a&; (atmufwb
kd m 1969) wd@k YtoD;oD;wm0ef,cl &hJ onf?
1970 ckEpS t
f axGaxGa±G;aumufyrJG sm;Y uGeq
f maA;wpfygwt
D Edik &f onfh
tcsdefwGif oufcsmuynma&;ESifhody`Ha&;&mwdk@Y twGif;a&;rSL;jzpfvm
onf? 1970 ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mvwGit
f ouf 7 ESpaf usmu
f av;rsm;t
wGuf ausmif;rsm;YEd@k tvum;wdu
k af u|;r_ukd &yfqikd ;f ypfjcif;ESiahf usmif;
wGit
f pm;tpmzd;k rsm; jr‡iw
hf ifay;jcif;rsm;vkyo
f nft
h wGuf tjiif;yGg;r_rsm;
jzpfay:apcJo
h nf?
xdt
k csed w
f iG f 0ef}uD;csKyftuf'0yf[uf(of)onf ukeaf ps;E_e;f ay:vpDEiS 0hf if
aiGay:vpDrsm;csrw
S &f ef }uKd ;pm;cJo
h nft
h wGuf tvkyo
f rm;or*~EiS yhf ËdyuQ
-52-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

jzpfay:apcJo
h nf? oluw&m;r0ifqENjyr_rsm;twGuf Oya'jyXge;f Edik &f ef}uKd ;
pm;r_rsm;a=umifh tvkyo
f rm;tvky±f iS yf ËdyuQujkd zpfay:apcJo
h nf? 1973
ckEpS w
f iG f owˆKwGi;f tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. “tkycf sKyfrt
_ wGut
f vkyv
f yk jf cif;”
(Work-to-rule) qENjyjcif;rsm;a=umifh v#yp
f pf"gwt
f m;jzwfawmufjcif;rsm;r
=umc%jzpfay:+yD; wpfygwo
f ;kH &uftvkyv
f yk jf cif;rsm; jzpfay:vmonf?
1974 wGi[
f uf(of)u “rnfot
l yk cf sKyfonf” qdo
k nfu
h pd t
P ay: taxG
axGa±G;aumufyu
JG akd c:,lusi;f ycJo
h nf? TwGit
f uf'0yf[uf(of)u t
Edik rf &awmhbJ [m±d(k vf)0Dvq
f ifEiS ahf vbmygwrD mS tm%mjyefvnf&±Sv
d m
onf?
1975 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D wGif oufcsmutuf'0yf[uf(of)udk uGeq
f maA;
wpfygw.
D acgi;f aqmiftjzpf ,SO+f ydKifta±G;cH&efped af c:cJo
h nf? azaz:0g&v
D
4 &ufoufcsmu[uf(of)udrk J 130 rJEiS hf 119 rJjzift
h Edik &f ±Scd o
hJ nf? xd@k
aemuf Tta&;}u;D aom trsKd ;orD;Edik if aH &;ygwaD cgi;f aqmifjzpfvmonf?
[uf(of)u ±_;H ESrd jhf cif;udv
k ufrcHEikd yf J oufcsm.uufbed ufwiG t
f vkyf
qufvyk &f efjiif;qefco
hJ nf?
1976 ckEpS rf wfv 16 &ufae@wiG *f srd ;f acgv*ef (James Collaghan) u[m
±dv
k 0f v
D q
f if.0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;udk qufc&H ,lco
hJ nf? wpfjznf;jznf;ouf
csmu vuf,m0g'0D g'udyk I
kd vufcu
H sio
hf ;kH um aps;uGupf ;D yGg;a&;pepfo@kd yI
kd
tm±Hpk u
kd v
f monf? 1978 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D wGif olruvlrsm;uEdik if jH cm;wdik ;f
jynfrSa±$@ajymif;aexdkifvmolrsm;. “v$rf;rdk;r_” cH&rSmudkpdk;&drfonfht
a=umif;rde@f ceG ;f ajym=um;cJo
h jzifh jypfwif±@_H csjcif;cHc&hJ onf?
1978 ckEpS w
f iG Ef ikd if t
H }u;D tuJ "Chancellor of the Exchequer" jzpfo'l eJ pf
[Jav (Denis Healey) uaiGa=u;rsm;tay: wif;=uyfpmG xde;f csKyjf cif;rsm;jyK
vkycf o
hJ nf? aiGa=u;xde;f csKyf&mwGif jynfow
l @kd .ynma&;ESiu
hf se;f rma&;t
-53-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

wGuf &efyakH iGrsm;udyk gjzwfawmufco
hJ nf? a0zefo;kH oyforl sm;u Tod@k jyK
vkyjf cif;rsm;a=umifh aiGa=u;xkwv
f yk rf u
_ t
kd ajccHaompepf (Monetarism)
udjk zpfay:vmaponf? 1978 ckEpS w
f iG f jynfow
l @kd twGut
f oH;k p&dwrf sm;
jzwfawmufvu
kd o
f nft
h wGuf rauseyfrr_ sm;jzpfay:vm+yD; qENjyyGrJ sm;ay:
ayguv
f mcJo
h nf? xd@k a=umifh 1979 ckEpS t
f axGaxGa±G;aumufyw
JG iG f av
bmygwt
D a&;edrchf o
hJ nf?
TwGirf m*&ufoufcsmu +Aw
d ed Ef ikd if .
H yxrOD;qH;k trsKd ;orD;0ef}u;D csKyjf zpf
vmonf? 1979 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvwGif oufcsmu Oa&mypD;yGg;a&;todik ;f t
0dik ;f (European Economic Community–EEC) .xdyo
f ;D tpnf;ta0;wuf
a&mufc+hJ y;D EEC xJo@kd +Aw
d ed x
f nfo
h iG ;f &aomaiGyrm%twGuf n‡Ed id_ ;f aqG;
aEG;r_rsm;jyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
oufcsmtpd;k &onf 'Jepf[aJ vtpysKd ;cJah om aiGa=u;xde;f csKyfr_ (moneta-rist) ay:vpDuq
kd ufvufusio
hf ;kH cJo
h nf? 1979 ckEpS Ef iS hf 1980 ckEpS rf sm;wGif
aiGoyd o
f nf;r_Ee_ ;f avsmeh nf;oGm;aomfvnf; tvkyv
f ufrEhJ e_ ;f rSm ESpq
f wd;k
yGg;vmonf? 1981 ckEpS w
f iG f Exchequer .t}u;D tuJjzpfol qm*suzf &D[kd
0D (Sir. Geoffrey Howe) ujynfot
l wGuf toH;k p&dwrf sm;jzwfawmufchJ
onf? Tumvwpfav#mufwiG f jynfo@l qENaumuf,cl surf sm;Y +Aw
d ed .
f
ordik ;f a=umif;wpfav#mufwiG f rm*&ufoufcsmonf jynfot
l }udKuft
enf;qH;k 0ef}uD;jzpfco
hJ nf?
oufcsmtpd;k &u yk*v
~ u
d ydik o
f @kd ajymif;vJjcif;pDru
H ed ;f jzifh &efyakH iG±mS azGcJh
onf? TwGi+f Adwo
d #a=u;eef;qufo,
G af &;vkyif ef;/ +Adwo
d #av,mOfc&D;
oGm;vma&;vkyif ef;/ ±dv
k ±f KGd uf(pf)ESi+hf Adwo
d #pwD;vkyif ef; ponfEh ikd if yH ikd v
f yk f
ief;rsm;udk yk*v
~ u
d vufo@kd jyefay;jcif;tygt0ifjzpfonf?
1982 ckEpS {f +yv
D 2 &ufae@wiG t
f m*siw
f ;D em;uazgu
h vef (Falkland) u|e;f
-54-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

pkrsm;udu
k sK;ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k cf o
hJ nf? aemufwpf&ufrmS yif urBmu
h v
k or*~
oEMXd gef 502 udx
k w
k jf yefcsrw
S cf +hJ y;D tm*siw
f ;D em;udk azmhuvefu|e;f pkrsm;rS
xGucf mG oGm;&efawmif;qdck o
hJ nf? {+yDv 5 &ufae@wiG +f Adwo
d #w@kd .a&wyf
onf azg(h pf)armihf (Portsmouth) rSxu
G cf mG &ef azgu
h vefu|e;f pkbufqo
D @kd
OD;wnfco
hJ nf? +Aw
d ed u
f azgu
h vefu|e;f pkywfywfvnfrikd f 200 udo
k ;D oef@ZkH
tjzpfa=ujimcJ+h yD; 1982 ckEpS af rv 2 &ufae@wiG f tm*siw
f ;D em;ppfoabFm
*sief &,f(vf)b,fvu
f &mEdu
k ekd pfjrKyyf pfco
hJ nf? aemufEpS &f uft=umwGi+f Ad
wdeo
f abFm±Sz;D vf('f)rSm'H;k ysjH zift
h ypfc&H onf?
arv 21 &ufae@wiG +f Adwo
d #wyfrsm; azmhuvefu|e;f pkpefumavmhwiG f
qku
d af &mufvmonf? wdu
k yf rJG sm;qufvufjzpfygG ;+yD; aemufq;kH wGiaf zgph
wefav (Post Stanley) utzrf;qD;cH&+yD; tm*siw
f ;D em;wyfrsm;u 1982
ckEpS *f |ev
f 14 &ufae@wiG f vufeufcst±_;H cHco
hJ nf? ppfyrJG sm;atmifEikd af om
a=umifh rm*&ufoufcsm. emrnfausm=f um;vmaoma=umifh 1983 ckEpS f
wGiu
f si;f ycJah omtaxGaxGa±G;aumufyYJG uGeq
f maA;wpfygwu
D rJtrsm;
qH;k 144 rJjzift
h Ekid &f cJo
h nf?
oufcsmu 0ef}uD;csKyfa&mfe,f&D*ifESifh &if;ESD;pGmaygif;oif;qufqHr_&±SdcJh
onf? xd@k aemufow
l @kd EpS Of ;D ESpzf ufpvH;k u qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D t
H ay: wif;rmpGm
qufq&H efoabmwlco
hJ nf? oufcsmudt
k rsm;u acgi;f rmaomtrsKd ;orD;
[k0ifpm;ac:a0:=uonf? od@k aomf 1983 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvwGi+f Adwo
d #w@kd EiS hf
}uKd IaqG;aEG;r_r±Syd J +Aw
d o
d #vufatmufcu
H &ife'g (Grenada) udt
k ar&du
wd@k u usK;ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k cf o
hJ nft
h wGuf oufcsma'goxGucf &hJ onf?
oufcsmtpd;k &u rdrw
d @kd .ay:vpDjzpfaom tvkyo
f rm;or*~.tm%m
av#mch sjcif;udq
k ufvufusio
hf ;kH cJo
h nf? trsm;tay:pmemaomqENjyyGJ
rsm;ESihf qdik yf w
d jf cif;rsm;jyKvyk jf cif;udk wm;jrpfonf? or*~acgi;f aqmifrsm;u
-55-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

oydwaf rSmufyw
JG iG f jyKvkyrf nfv
h y_ ±f mS ;r_rsm;tay: rdrw
d @kd .tzG@J 0ifrsm;udrk J
xnfch ikd ;f &rnfjzpf+y;D or*~rT
S tzG@J 0ifrsm;tm;vH;k .v_y±f mS ;r_tay: wm0ef
,l&rnfjzpfonf? tpd;k &u tvky±f iS Ef iS t
hf vkyo
f rm;yËdyuQjzpfrt
_ ay:*±kr
pdu
k yf w
J if;rmpGmqufqcH +hJ y;D 1984 ckEpS w
f iG jf zpfygG ;cJah om rdik ;f wl;vkyo
f m;rsm;
.pwifcahJ omoydwaf rSmufrr_ mS 12 v=um+yD; rnfonfah tmifjrifrr_ rS &cJh
acs?
1985 ckEpS rf wfv 13 &ufae@wiG f usi;f ycJah om Konstantin Chernenko
.tokbY acgi;f aqmifopfraD c;(vf)udb
k macsm(h Af)(Mikhail Gorbachev)
ESiahf wG@qckH o
hJ nf? udb
k macsm(h Af)rS Perestroika ay:vpDjzpfaom jyefvnfxl
axmifa&;ay:vpDopfukd a=ujimvdu
k o
f nft
h cg oufcsm.qdAk ,
D ufjynf
axmifpt
k ay: tjrifajymif;vJomG ;onf? qdAk ,
D uf.pD;yg;G a&;ydrk x
kd ad &mufr_
±Sv
d map&ef&nf±,
G cf sujf zifh pD;yGgG ;a&;/ Edik if aH &;Yvdu
k af vsmr#wr_±v
dS mjcif;ESihf
,Ofaus;r_jyKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm;jyKvkycf o
hJ nf? udb
k macsm(h Af)uqdAk ,
D uf
jynfaxmifpt
k wGi;f aps;uGupf ;D yGg;a&;pepfrsm;pwifusio
hf ;kH +yD; pufrv
_ yk f
ief;ESiphf u
kd yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;Y ud,
k yf ikd v
f yk if ef;rsm;wd;k cs@J vyk u
f ikd &f ef tm;ay;cJh
onf?
1986 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvwGif usi;f ycJah omtpnf;ta0;yGw
J pfcYk oufcsmu
Oa&myaiGvv
J ,
S Ef e_ ;f ,E &W m; (European Exchange Rate Mechanism)
xJo@kd 0ifrnft
h }uHay;r_ukd y,fcsco
hJ nf? rnfo@kd qakd pumrl xdv
k twGi;f
wGio
f ufcsmu vlZifbwfOa&myaumifp(D Luxembourg European CounJ wGi;f Yyif Single European Act xJYvufrw
S x
f ;kd &efo
cil) tpnf;ta0;yGt
abmwlcJhonf?
1986 ckEpS {f +yv
D wGif oufcsmu tar&duefA;kH }uaJ v,mOfrsm;udk +Aw
d ed Ef ikd f
iHwiG &f yfem;cGiahf y;+y;D vpfAsm;Edik if u
H kd AH;k }u&J eftcGiahf y;cJo
h nft
h wGuf a0zef
-56-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

jcif;rsm;pGm&±Scd o
hJ nf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f vpfAsm;Edik if u
H kd tajccHaom t}urf;
zuform;wd@k utar&duefukd tcgaygi;f rsm;pGmwdu
k cf u
kd cf o
hJ nf?
1987 ckEpS t
f axGaxGa±G;aumufyw
JG iG f trsm;rJqENEiS t
hf rwfaygi;f 102
&±Scd +hJ y;D wwd,t}urd t
f m%mjyefvnf&±Sv
d monf? xdEk pS rf yS if oufcsmudk
ESpf 100 twGi;f oufwrf;t±Snq
f ;kH 0ef}u;D csKyt
f jzpf towfrw
S cf cH &hJ onf?
vlceG af umufjcif;udk paumhwvefY 1989 ckEpS {f +yDvwGif pwifa=ujim+yD;
(aemifwpfEpS t
f =umwGi+f Aw
d ed Ef ikd if w
H pfEikd v
f ;kH od@k ) aumufco
H nft
h wGuo
f l
r.emrnfuq
kd ;kd ±Gm;ysupf ;D apcJo
h nf? tcGet
f opfukd vltrsm;pkur}uKd uyf J
aemufq;kH wGif jynfoq
l ENjyyGrJ sm;jzpfay:apcJo
h nf?
1990 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmvwGiu
f eG q
f maA;wpfygw.
D acgi;f aqmiftjzpf0ifa&muf
,SO+f yKd icf &hJ m yxrt}urd w
f iG t
f Edik &f cJah omfvnf; 'kw,
d t}urd w
f iG rf l ±_;H edrhf
cJo
h nf? 1990 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmv 28 &ufae@wiG f rm*&ufoufcsmu 0ef}uD;
csKyf&mxl;rSEw
k x
f u
G cf +hJ yD;,if;.ae&mwGi*f |eaf r*smu tpm;xd;k ae&m,lchJ
onf?
1992 ckEpS rf wfvwGif oufcsmu atmufvw
$ af wmfrES w
k x
f u
G cf o
hJ nf?
r=umcifrmS yJtxufvw
$ af wmfY “Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven”
tjzpf wm0ef,al qmif±u
G cf o
hJ nf?

-57-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]rsufvHk;wpfvHk;twGuf rsufvHk;udkay;qyf&&ifawmh urÇmwpf0Srf;vHk;yg
rsufpduef;ukefawmhrSmaygh/}}
"An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind."

]]yxrawmholwdkUuoifhudkOayu©mjyKMuw,f? NyD;awmholwdkUuoifhudkavSmifajymif
&,farmMuvdrfhMur,f? NyD;awmhoifhudkwdkufcdkufMuw,f? aemufawmh
oiftEdkif&oGm;wmbJ/}}
"First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you,
then you win."

]]urÇmay:rSm udk,fjrifcsifwJhajymif;vJrItwdkif; udk,fhudk,fudkajymif;vJ&r,f/}}
"We must become the change we want to see in the world."

r[wWr*END (1896-1948)

bm

oma&;/ Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifEiS ahf vm
ukwEW iS v
hf o
l m;wd@k tusKd ;aqmif&u
G f
ol 1869-1948 r[wWr*END (Mahatama Gandhi)
onf 1869 ckESpfatmufwdkbmv 2 &ufae@wGif
tdE,
dN Edik if yH b
kd ef'gY arG;zGm;cJyh gonf? olonf 20 &mpk
wGit
f xif&mS ;qH;k aom avmukw&W mESiEhf ikd if aH &;acgi;f
aqmifwpfOD;jzpfygonf? *ENDonftdENd,vlrsdK;rsm;
tm; t=urf;rzufjird ;f csr;f aomenf;vrf;jzifh +Aw
d o
d #
tkycf sKyfrv
_ ufatmufrS vGwv
f yfEidk &f ef jyKvkycf jhJ yD;
tdE,
dN wkid ;f oljynfom;rsm; rSo@l uakd v;pm;tyfaom
zcif}uD;wpfO;D tjzpf todtrSwðf ycJ=h uygonf?
tdE,
dN vlrsKd ;rsm;rS ol‹tm; r[wWr*EN[
D ak c:qd=k u+yD; “jrifjh rwfaomol”[k
t"dyg` ,&f onf? *ENo
D nf tajymif;tvJukd rvdv
k m;aom/ xH;k wrf;"avh
udk rpGe@f y,fvakd omrdom;pkrS qif;oufvm+yD; touf 13 ESpt
f &G,w
f iG f
-58-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

uwfpwbmqdak omtouf 12 ESpt
f &G,rf ed ;f uav;ESihf rdbrsm;.pDpOfr_
jzift
h rd af xmifjyKcJo
h nf? *ENw
D iG f om;&wemav;OD;arG;zGm;cJyh gonf? om;
[m&DvmESirhf meDvmudk tEN,
d wGiaf rG;zGm;cJ+h y;D / om;a';zf'gEiS &hf rf'gukd awmif
tmz&duwdu
k w
f iG f arG;zGm;cJyh gonf? *ENo
D nf vltrsm;tm;vH;k tm; cspcf if
=uifemr_xm;aomfvnf; rdr.
d om;r,m;tay:wGif pnf;urf;wus=uyf
=uyfrwfrwf±cdS o
hJ nf?
*ENo
D nfvef'efwiG f Oya'bmom&yftm; oGm;a&mufavhvmoif,cl +hJ yD;
1891 ckEpS w
f iG f tEN,
d od@k vufawG@toH;k cs&ef jyefvnfa&muf&v
dS monf?
oljyefa&muf+yD;vtenf;i,ftwGi;f rdcifu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;cJyh gonf? xdt
k csed f
wGif *ENt
D ouf 21 ESpyf if&adS o;onf? tEN,
d wGif rdr.
d w&m;Oya'twwf
ynmudk vufawG@toH;k cs&mwGif atmifjrifrr_ &Scd ahJ oma=umifh 1893 ckEpS f
wGif emwmvfawmiftmz&duodk@ a&S›aetoif;wpfckY tvkyfvkyf&ef
ajymif;a&$@omG ;ygonf?
xdt
k csed w
f iG f awmiftmz&duonf +Aw
d o
d #w@kd .tkycf sKyrf v
_ ufatmufwiG f
&Sdaeao;onf? +Adwdo#vlrsdK;rsm;xH rdrd.wef;wltcGifhta&;udk wifjy
awmif;qdo
k nft
h cg rw&m;zdEydS rf u
_ ckd &H +yD; tjcm;aomtEN,
d vlrsKd ;rsm;
vnf; Todk@yifcHpm;ae&a=umif;olod&SdjrifawG@vmonf? olESifhtjcm;
aomtEd,
N vlrsKd ;rsm;onf rsuEf mS jzLrsm;ESit
hf xl;wef;&xm;wGrJ sm;wGif pD;
cGirhf jyKjcif;/ wnf;cdck ef;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif olw@kd tm; vufrcHjcif;wd‹k t
jyif &du
k Ef u
S jf cif;/ rw&m;ojzifjh yKrq
l ufqjH cif;rsm;ukcd &H onf? olonfa'o
cHtEd ,
dN vlrsKd ;rsm;tay: rw&m;jyKrq
l ufqjH cif;rsm;udk ckc&H efOya'enf;vrf;
udt
k oH;k jyKco
hJ nf? [dELN t,l0g'v$r;f rd;k r_/ Jainism ESichf &pf,mefbmomom
oemwd@k vr$ ;f rd;k r_/ pma&;q&m}uD;rsm;jzpfaom Tolstoy ESihf Thoreau wd@k .
v$r;f rd;k r_ponfw@kd a=umifh *ENo
D nf Satyagraha (trSew
f &m;udck spcf ifr)_ /
trSm;rsm;udk t=urf;rzufaomenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh ajz&Si;f jcif;vrf;pOfukd a&;
-59-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

om;cJo
h nf? Edik if aH &;qdik &f mrw&m;r_rsm;udk ckcw
H u
kd cf u
kd o
f nfh ol.t=urf;
rzufvrf;pOfrsm;wGif oydwaf rSmufjcif;/ trsm;ESiyhf ;l aygi;f aqmif&u
G rf r_ &Sd
jcif;/ vufurf;pmapmif rsm;a&;om;jcif;ESirhf jyif;xefaomckcrH r_ sm;yif jzpfyg
onf? awmiftmz&duwGif aexdik v
f monft
h ESpf ESpq
f ,ftwGi;f wGi*f END
onf t}udraf ygi;f rsm;pGm axmifcsjcif;cH&onf? 1914 ckEpS w
f iG f awmiftm
z&duwdu
k t
f pd;k &rS *EN.
D awmif;qdck surf sm;udk rsm;pGmvufcv
H monf?
awmiftmz&duwdu
k w
f iG f atmifjrifr&_ &S+d yD;aemuf 1914 ckEpS Yf *ENo
D nf
tdE,
dN Edik if o
H @kd jyefvmcJo
h nf? ol.,m,Dvyk if ef;rSwqifh vl@ou
d mQ tm;t
odjyK&ef pnf;&H;k v_‹H aqmfa&;vkyif ef;tm; tESpEf pS q
f ,fausmt
f xd jyKvyk v
f m
cJ&h onf? *ENt
D ouf 45 ESpt
f &G,w
f iG f +Adwo
d #tyk cf sKyfrv
_ ufatmufrS
tEN,
d vlrsKd ;rsm;vGwv
f yfa&;&&Sad &;twGuf Edik if aH &;avmuxJo@kd 0ifa&muf
vmcJo
h nf? 1919 ckEpS w
f iG f +Adwed t
f pd;k &udk rESpo
f ufaomqENjyyGrJ sm; ydrk kd
}uD;xGm;vmcJo
h nf? +Adwed w
f ‹kd rS ykeu
f ef&efv‹H_ aqmfaomolrsm;tm; t
us,cf sKyfcs&efjzpfaom ±dv
k uftufOya' (Rowlatt Acts) udx
k w
k o
f ;kH onfh
tcsed w
f iG f *ENrD v
S nf; oef;aygi;f rsm;pGmaomaemufvu
fkd o
f m;rsm;tm; qGJ
aqmifaponfh "Satyagraha" vrf;pOfopfukd csucf si;f xkwjf yefa=ujimap
onf?
1919 ckEpS f {+yDvwGif "Rowlatt Acts" qENjyyGjJ cif;udk +Adwed f "Amritsar"+Ad
wdo#ppfom;rsm;. t=urf;zufErdS Ef iS ;f r_jzpfaom "Amritsar" tpkvu
kd t
f ðyH
vdu
k o
f wfjzwfrt
_ m; jzpfapcJyh gonf? +Adwed t
f pd;k &onf tdE,
dN rSvnf; rdrd
wd@k .a=u;eef;}uKd ;rsm;udk jzwfawmuf+y;D teD;&S&d xm;vrf;rsm;udv
k nf; jzwf
awmufvu
kd af =umif; owif;&&So
d nft
h cg jAdwv
d #tpd;k &onf Ekid if aH wmft
a&;ay:tajctae (State of Emergency) tm;a=ujimvku
d jf y;D rnfonft
h
pnf;ta0;rsm;rjyKvky&f a=umif; a=ujimvdu
k yf gonf? +Adwo
d #tpd;k &rS rnf
onft
h pnf;ta0;yGu
J rkd S rjyKvky&f ef ydwyf ifxm;aomfvnf; a'ocHygwn
D D
-60-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

vmcHtpnf;ta0;rSmjzpfajrmufco
hJ nf? xd‹k a=umifn
h ae 5 em&D 15 rdepft
csed w
f iG f +Aw
d o
d #-tdE,
dN ppfwyfrS ppfom;rsm;tpnf;ta0;yGu
J kd 0ef;&Hvu
kd yf g
onf? wyf&if;rSL;&,f*seD ,f'ikd ,
f m (Brigadier Reginald Dyer) .trde@f t&
ppfom;rsm;onf vufeufrphJ pk nf;qENjyaeaoma,mufsm;/ rde;f rrsm;ESiu
hf
av;oli,frsm;tm;ypfcwfco
hJ nf? Typfcwfro
_ nf tcsed f 10 rdepfr#=um
jrifI
h aoewfusOq
f aH ygi;f 1˜650 r#ypfcwf+y;D ppfom;wpfO;D v#if y#r;f r#tm;
jzifh usnq
f H 33 vH;k r#ypfcwfco
hJ nf[k wGuq
f &ygonf? xdt
k jzpftysuf
wGif vlO;D a&aygi;f 379 OD;aoqH;k a=umif; +Aw
d ed t
f &m&Sd Raj rSazmfjyygonf?
od@k aomf tjcm;aomowif;tcsut
f vufrsm;wGirf l vlO;D a&aygi;f 1˜000
txufaoqH;k +yD;/ 2˜000 OD;a&txd'%f&m&&So
d nf[k azmfjyxm;ygonf?
cGpJ w
d u
f q
k &m0ef a'guw
f mprpfrS vlO;D a& 1800 cef@aoqH;k ok@d r[kw'f g%f
&m&&Scd o
hJ nf [kazmfjyxm;ygonf? T Amritsar tpkvu
kd t
f ðyHvu
kd o
f wf
jzwfrw
_ iG f +Adwo
d #tm;axmufccH zhJ ;l aom oef;aygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGmaomvl
rsm;u tdE,
dN udk axmufct
H m;ay;vmonft
h jzpfo@kd ajymif;vJcyhJ gonf?
1920 ckEpS w
f iG f *ENo
D nf tdE,
dN .Edik if aH &;wGi=f u;D pd;k v$r;f rd;k aomyk*Kd~ vw
f pfO;D
jzpfvmonf? olu tdE,
dN trsKd ;om;nDvmcHukd jyKjyifajymif;vJvu
kd +f yD;rd
rd.+ird ;f csr;f aom vkyif ef;pDru
H ed ;f jzpfaom rnfonf+h Aw
d o
d #tzG@J tpnf;rsm;
ESirhf yl;aygi;f bJ jAdwo
d #tpd;k &.xkwu
f ek yf pPn;f rsm;/ vkyif ef;rsm;uko
d ydwf
arSmufjcif;wd@k jyKvkycf ahJ oma=umifh axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmaomvlrsm;zrf;qD;
csKyfaESmifjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf?
1922 ckEpS w
f iG f *ENu
D ,
kd w
f ikd af xmif'%f 6 ESpu
f s&efp&D ifjcif;cHc&hJ onf? od@k
aomf 2 ESpaf emufyikd ;f axmifrS v$waf jrmufvm+yD; Edik if aH &;avmurSEw
_ f
xGuo
f mG ;I qd;k &Gm;aeaom[dELN -rlpvif.qufqaH &;wif;rmr_jyefvnf
aumif;rGev
f mapa&;wGif tm&Hpk u
kd af qmif&u
G af ecJo
h nf? 1930 ckEpS w
f iG f
qm;tcGeaf umufcaH =u;tay: qENjyonft
h aejzifh pnf;&H;k a&;w&yfujkd yK
vkycf jhJ yD; axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmaomvlrsm;jzifh qm;±S&d myifv,fo@kd csw
D ufjyD;
-61-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

rdrw
d @kd u,
dk w
f ikd yf ifv,fa&uae qm;xkwv
f yk Ef idk o
f nfo
h auFwwcktae
jzifjh yocJyh gonf?
+Adwo
d #rS csrw
S x
f m;onfOh ya't& tdE,
dN jynfojl ynfom;wk@d onf tajc
cHpm;aomufuek jf zpfonfh qm;xkwv
f yk af &;vkyif ef;ukd rxkwv
f yk &f ef wm;
jrpfxm;onf? vdik pf ifciG jhf yKcsu&f adS om qm;xkwv
f yk af &;puf&rkH sm;wGio
f m
0,f,pl m;oH;k cGi&hf o
dS nf? ‚if;cGijhf yKcsu&f xm;aom qm;xkwv
f yk af &;puf&kH
rsm;tm;vH;k rSm +Adwo
d #w@kd yikd q
f ikd x
f m;ygonf? yifv,fo@kd csw
D ufyu
JG kd *ENrD S
24 &uf=umOD;aqmifppD Ofc+hJ yD; yifv,fa&rSqm;rsm;ukx
d w
k v
f yk cf o
hJ nf? T
csD wufyw
JG iG f axmifaygi;f rsm;pGmaom vlxt
k iftm;yg0ifcyhJ gonf? {+yDv
5 &ufae@wiG f vlxrk sm;ESit
hf wl yifv,fo@kd *ENaD &muf&o
dS mG ;+yD;eHeuf 8 em&D
30 rdepftcsed w
f iG f obm0qm;tvH;k tcJukd *ENrD pS wifaumuf,cl o
hJ nf?
TwGif *ENo
D nf jAdwo#w‹kd .qm;rxkw&f Oya'udk csKd ;azmufavjyDjzpf
onf? Tod@k jyKvkyjf yD;aemufyikd ;f tjcm;aomygvmonfv
h pl o
k nfvnf;
qm;rsm;ukpd wifaumuf,cl yhJ gonf? Tod@k jyKvkyo
f nfhf wpfygwt
f wGi;f
wGif jAdwo
d #Oya'udck sKd ;azgurf j_ zifh axmifrsm;wGiv
f rl sm;jynfo
h mG ;jyD; *END
ud,
k w
f idk rf v
S nf; axmifxo
J @kd xnfo
h iG ;f jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf?
1931 ckEpS w
f iG f tdE,
dN trsKd ;om;uGe*f &ufygw.
D wpfO;D wnf;aomud,
k f
pm;vS,t
f jzpf vef'efwiG f usi;f yonfph m;yG0J ikd ;f awG@qakH qG;aEG;yGo
J @kd wuf
a&mufcyhJ gonf? od@k aomf 1934 ckEpS w
f iG f ygwrD ES w
_ x
f u
G o
f mG ;+yD; t=urf;r
zufaomenf;vrf;udt
k oH;k jyKum Edik if aH &;vky&f mS ;r_wiG yf g0ifco
hJ nf? *sm0g
[mvmae±l; (Jawaharlal Nehru) rSo@l acgi;f aqmifae&mudk qufc&H ±Scd hJ
onf?
*ENu
D tdE,
dN jynfp;D yGm;a&;tm; rdrw
d @kd .&yf&mG "avhp;D yGm;a&;vrf;pOftwkid ;f
jyKusi&hf efvv
kd m;aomfvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyf*sm0g[mvmae±l;rS oabmrwlnD
aoma=umifh tdE,
dN wGiaf cwfrpDS uf&rkH sm;/ &xm;vrf;rsm;ESiahf cwfryDS @kd aqmif
-62-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

qufo,
G af &;vrf;rsm;udk pwifwnfaqmufavonf?
1945 ckEpS w
f iG f +Aw
d ed t
f pd;k &u 1947 avmh'af rmifb
h wfweftpDtpOfEiS b
hf m
oma&;,H=k unfrt
_ ay:rlwnf+yD; ud,
k yf ikd t
f csKyftjcmtm%m±Sd vGwv
f yf
aom Edik if aH &;toGiu
f ;l ajymif;oGm;rnfh tdE,
dN ESiyhf gupPwefEikd if x
H al xmif
a&;ywfoufIaomfvnf;aumif;f +Aw
d o
d #tpd;k &rS aphpyfaqG;aEG;yGjJ yKvyk cf yhJ g
onf? 1857 ckEpS u
f wnf;u +Adwo
d #w@kd .udv
k ekd ED ikd if jH zpfcahJ om tEN,
d Edik if H
onf 1947 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f 15 &ufwiG v
f w
G v
f yfaomEdik if jH zpfvmonf?
[dELN ESirhf pl vifw@kd t=um; txdu¶k%;f onf qd;k &Gm;pGmqufvufjzpfay:ae
onf? *END u tdE,
dN Edik if pH nf;vH;k nD!w
$ af &;twGuf [dELN ESirhf pl vifw@kd +idr;f
csr;f pGmaexdik &f ef pnf;&H;k ajymqdck o
hJ nf? Tod@k EiS hf 1948 ckEpS w
f iG t
f Ed ,
dN
([dELN trsm;pkjzpfonf) ESiyhf gupPweftjzpfEpS Ef ikd if jH zpfvmonf? ta&S@yikd ;f ESihf
taemufyikd ;f rSm (rlpviftrsm;pkjzpfonf)/ ta&S@ygupD wefonf ,cku|Eykf f
wd@k ac:aeaomb*Fvm;a'h&jfS zpfvmonf? *ENo
D nf tdE,
dN Edik if EH pS yf ikd ;f uGo
J mG ;
onfuq
kd ef@usi+f yD;/ Tbmoma&;tkypf Ek pS cf t
k =um; jzpfay:aomt=urf;
zufrr_ sm;twGuf tvGe0f rf;enf;ayonf? 1948 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 13 &uf
wGit
f ouf 78 ESp&f +dS yjD zpfaom*ENo
D nf aoG;,do
k &H q
J ENjyyGrJ sm;&yfwef@omG ;
aponf&h nf&,
G cf sujf zifh tpmiwfcOH ykoaf pmifah ecJo
h nf? 5 &ufjynfo
h nfh
aemufyikd ;f qef@usio
f al cgi;f aqmifrsm;rS cdu
k &f efjzpfrr_ sm;ud&k yfwef@&efo
abmwlncD o
hJ jzifh *ENo
D nftpmiwfcOH ykoaf pmifjh cif;ud&k yfwef‹apcJyh gonf?
*EN.
D tpmiwfcOH ykoaf pmifrh w
_ iG f t=urf;zufrj_ zpfay:aeonfh [dELN ESirhf pl
vifEpS zf ufpvH;k &yfwef‹apjyD; 4if;ESpzf @JG pvH;k tm; t&Su&f apcJyh gonf? od@k
aomfvnf; ,ae@xw
d ikd yf if olw@kd .bmoma&;qdik &f mtxdu&k%;f rSm ,
ae@txdqufvufjzpfymG ;aeqJjzpfygonf?
1948 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 30 &uf/ olonfOykoaf pmifjh cif;rS&yfqikd ;f +yD; 12 &uf
aemufyikd ;f wGif a'vDY[dELN bmoma&;pGo
J w
l pfO;D . vky}f uHowfjzpfru
_ ckd &H
-63-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

avonf? *EN.
D =oZmtm%monf om;pOfajr;quf tqufquftay:
qufvuftyk pf ;kd aeqJjzpf+y;D tar&duefvrl sKd ;rmwifvo
l muif;onfvnf;
tar&duefEikd if .
H vlra_ &;ajymif;vJa&;twGuf *EN.
D t=urf;rzufaom
qENjyr_enf;vrf;udt
k oH;k jyKcJo
h nf?
*EN.
D tokbY cs;D usL;*k%jf yKonfph um;aygi;f rsm;pGmtxJrS xif&mS ;aom&l
yaA'ynm&Siw
f pfO;D jzpfonf[k Albert Einstein rSTuJo
h ‹kd ajymoGm;yg
onf? “Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this
f awmh- “aemifvmrnfh
walked the earth in flesh and blood.” t"dyg` ,u
aqGpOfrsKd ;qufrsm;---taeeJ‹'v
D t
kd aoG;tom;eJ‹ touf±iS cf hJ wJh vlwpf
a,muf±cdS w
hJ ,fqw
kd m ,H=k unf=urSmr[kwb
f ;l ” vd‹k qckd w
hJ ,f?

-64-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]vGyfvyfa&;qdkwmudk,fvkyfcsifwmudkvkyfwmr[kwfbJeJU
udk,fvkyfoifhwJht&mudkvkyfwmjzpfw,f/}}
“Freedom consists not in doing what we like, but in having the right
to do what we ought.”

]]vlrIa&;w&m;rQwrIudktMurf;zufwJhenf;eJU,lvdk&rSmr[kwf/tMurf;zufrIqdkwm
olvdkcsifwJht&mudk owfvdkufwmjzpfw,f/}}
“Social justice cannot be attained by violence. Violence kills what it
intends to create.”

]]tem*wf[m'DaeUrSmpw,f/ reufjzefrSmprSmr[kwfbl;/}}
“The future starts today, not tomorrow.”

ykyf&[ef;rif;}uD;*|efaygvf (II) (1920-2005)

*Wef

ayg(vf) II (Pope John Paul II) udk
urBmwpfvm$ ;bk&m;zl;xGuaf om
yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;[kvt
l rsm;uod±x
dS m;ygonf?
olonf±dkrefuufovpfbk&m;ausmif;ordkif;t
wGi;f tjcm;aombmoma&;acgi;f aqmifrsm;xuf
urBmtES@H ±adS e&mrsm;od@k c&D;xGu+f y;D vlaygi;f rsm;pGm
ESiphf um;ajymcJzh ;l onfyh *k Kd~ vfwpfO;D jzpfonf?
olonf yky&f [ef;rif;.tkycf sKyfypkH epfukd acwfraDS tmifajymif;vJEikd cf o
hJ nf?
,cifu yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;rsm;onf vlrsm;ESiahf 0;uGmpGmae+yD; AufweD efEiS hf
a0;aomae&mrsm;wGif roGm;cJb
h ;l acs? od@k aomf *|eaf yg(vf)taeESihf rdrw
d iG f
c&D;pOfrsm;jzifjh ynfEh u
S af eonf? olonf bmoma&;acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D t
jzpf tDwvDtwGi;f 102 }udr/f tjyifbufwiG f 144 }udrf bk&m;ausmif;rsm;
od‹k c&D;xGucf +hJ y;D ol.yky&f [ef;rif;}u;D jzpfonfo
h ufwrf; 26 ESpt
f wGi;f Edik if H
aygi;f 130 Edik if o
H @kd c&D;xGucf o
hJ nf? olonf tjcm;ykyrf sm;oGm;cJah om c&D;pOf
-65-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

uDvrkd w
D mrsm;aygi;f vdu
k v
f #if olwpfO;D wnf;oGm;cJo
h nfu
h v
D rkd w
D mu ydI
k
rsm;aeygonf?
1978 ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mv 16 &ufae@Y *|eaf yg(vf)touf 58 ESpo
f m±Sd
ao;onft
h csed w
f iG f yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;tjzpfta±G;cs,cf cH &hJ onf? Tod@k EiS hf
*|eaf yg(vf) II onf ESpq
f ,f&mpktwGi;f touf ti,fq;kH yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;
jzpf+yD; 15 &mpkEpS af emufyikd ;f ±Sd yxrqH;k aomtDwvDEikd if o
H m;r[kwo
f nfh
yky&f [ef;rif;}u;D vnf;jzpfco
hJ nf? ol@ukd vltrsm;u=unfnKd z,
G af umif;+y;D
wnf+ird &f ifu
h surf ±_ +dS y;D ol@ukd awG@z;l aomolrsm;u yky&f [ef;rif;}u;D udt
k od
Om%f/ tvif;a&mifay;onfyh *k Kd~ vf[k rSw,
f +l yD; olomG ;onfrh nfo
h nfah e
&mwGirf qdk ol@ukd jynfov
l x
l u
k }udKufEpS o
f uf=uonf?
rwfv 4 &uf 2004 ckESpfwGif*|efayg(vf)onfyD,yf(pf) (Pius ix)
ESiphf ed @f yw
D mwd@k rv
S I
JG oloufwrf; t±Snq
f ;kH yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;jzpfco
hJ nf?

emZDacwfuausmif;om;b0
yky&f [ef;rif;}u;D . i,femrnf&if;rSm cg±v
kd 0f @kd vm (Karol Wojtyla) jzpf+y;D ar
v 18 &uf 1920 ckEpS Yf 0g'0kd u
d_ (f pf)ydv
k efEikd if w
H iG zf mG ;jrifco
hJ nf? oltouf
±SpEf pS t
f ±G,w
f iG f rdcifaoqH;k oGm;cJo
h nf? oH;k ESpaf emufyikd ;f ol.tpfuw
kd pf
a,mufu eDjref;tzsm;a&m*gEiS ahf oqH;k oGm;onf? 0d@k vm.zcifrmS wyf=uyf
}uD;wpfO;D jzpf+yD; 1941 ckEpS w
f iG u
f ,
G v
f eG cf o
hJ nf? ol@touf 20 t±G,w
f iG f
ol.rdom;pk0ifo;kH a,mufuq
kd ;kH ±_;H cJ&h onf?
cg±v
kd 0f @kd vmonf oli,fcsi;f rsm;ESit
hf pkvu
kd af ewwf+y;D puD;pD;jcif;/ ajcusif
c&D;xGujf cif;/ awmifwufjcif;/ a&ul;jcif;ESiahf vSavSmjf cif;wk@d ukd }udKufEpS f
oufonf? xd@k twl pmudt
k ywfwukw}f udK;pm;aom ausmif;om;wpfO;D
vnf;jzpfonf? olonf bmompum;wGit
f vGex
f ;l c|e+f yD; bmompum;
-66-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

11 rsKd ;udu
k |r;f usipf mG ajymEdik o
f nf?
emZDvufatmuf±dS ydv
k efEikd if w
H iG f ausmif;om;wpfa,mufjzpfaom cg±v
kd f
taeESifhbmoma&;udk tvGefvdkufpm;aomoljzpfonf? olonf ±dkref
uufovpfjzpf+yD; r,fawmfrm&Dukd wu,fyif=unfnKd av;pm;+yD; ol.
ud,
k yf ikd af qmify'k u
f vufwifbmomjzifh ''Totus tuus'' jzpf+y;D vufwifjzifh
“tm;vH;k oift
h wGujf zpf+yD;t"dy`g,rf mS ‘rm&D’ ” jzpfonf?
cg±v
kd 0f @kd vmonf ydv
k efordik ;f wGif touf 38 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG t
f oufti,f
qH;k *d%
k ;f csKyfbek ;f }uD; (bD;a±Smh(yf)) jzpfvmonf? aemufu;kd ESpw
f iG f touf
ti,fq;kH uufovpf*%
kd ;f csKyf}uD;jzpfvm+yD; bmomw&m;r±Sad omEdik if H
}uD;twGi;f ±Sv
d rl sm;udk bmoma&;vrf;!$erf r_ sm;ay;cJo
h nf? 1978 ckEpS w
f iG f
vltrsm;tH=h oaponft
h csuw
f pfcrk mS *d%
k ;f tkyrf sm;.aumvdyaf usmif;rS
ol@tm; ±drk efuufovpfb&k m;ausmif;udOk ;D aqmif&ef a±G;cs,cf o
hJ nf?

ol.tjrif
wpfcsKd @u *|eaf yg(vf)udak wmfveS af &;orm;[k xifjrif=uonf? olonfv@l
tcGit
hf a&;tay:wGif rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfwnfay;jcif;/ ppftpd;k &rsm;udk a0
zefqef@usijf cif;/ *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESijhf yefvnfoifjh rwfaygi;f pnf;a&;/ tjcm;aom
bmomw&m;,H=k unforl sm;ESihf pum;pjrnfajymqdak qG;aEG;yGv
J yk jf cif;ESiw
hf
urBmvH;k ±Scd &pf,mefbmom0ifw@kd . nD!w
$ af &;twGu}f udK;pm;cJo
h nf?
trsm;u yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;taeESihf rdr.
d Zmwd&yfajrydv
k efwiG f pnf;vH;k nD
!$wrf v
_ y_ ±f mS ;r_rsm;jyKcJo
h nft
h wGuf Oa&my±Su
d eG jf rLepfpepfuu
kd n
l I
D y
aysmufaponf[ak jym=uonf? xd@k twl vlcsr;f omESiq
hf if;&J om;rsm;t
=um;±So
d nfh vpf[mr_w@kd uo
kd ±d jdS cif;/ t&if;±Sipf epfrsm;vGe;f jcif;tay: a0zef
jcif;ESihf taemufEikd if w
H @kd .±ky0f g'wd@k tay: a0zefjcif;wd@k jyKvkycf o
hJ nf?
-67-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

ol@ukd oGm;ykyaf vv$iahf jymolrsm;uol@uw
kd ;kd wufjyKjyifajymif;vJru
_ q
kd ef@
usi+f y;D wu,fah cwfopfwiG jf zpfay:aeaomt&mrsm;udk qef@usi+f y;D em&Dukd
aemufjyefqo
JG [
l x
k if=uonf? wpfcsKd @u ol@ukd tpGe;f a&mufa±S;±d;k t,l0g'
±S+d yD; trsKd ;orD;&[ef;cHjcif;/ oaE<wm;qD;jcif;ESiu
hf ,
kd 0f efzsujf cif;wd@k tm;
wm;qD;r_tay: ol@uakd 0zef=uonf? olu vltrsm;.vlO;D a&rsm;vGe;f jcif;
[kqakd omt,ltqudk '¾&D,w
kH rf;pum;tjzpfrw
S ,
f +l y;D uGe'f ;kH udk AIDS
a&m*gumuG,af &;twGuo
f ;kH jcif;onf xdak &m*grsm;jyef@ymG ;a&;twGut
f
ultnDay;onf[kqdkonf?
{+yDv 2002 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duefuufovpf*%
kd ;f csKyf 12 a,mufukd 2
&ufwmtwltpnf;ta0;ac:,l+y;D tar&duwGiu
f ufovpf&[ef;rsm;u
uav;i,frsm;tay: vdiq
f ufqaH &;vkyjf cif;ponfh ausmrf aumif;=um;r
aumif;t±_yt
f axG;rsm;ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;ajymqd=k uonf? yky&f [ef;
rif;}uD;u olEiS 0hf ifa&mufawG@qakH om*d%
k ;f csKyf}uD;rsm;udk &[ef;rsm;ESib
hf m
omw&m;u uav;rsm;tay:vdiq
f ufqrH v
_ yk jf cif;onf “&mZ0wfr”_ [k
rSw,
f +l y;D bk&m;ocifrsupf x
d w
J iG f “xdwv
f ef@z,
G af umif;aomtjypf”[kqkd
onf?

vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef}udK;pm;jcif;
yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;onf 1981 ckEpS w
f iG f ay:wl*ED ikd if rH ,fawmfrm&D.zmwDrm
blb&k m;ausmif;od@k omG ;pOftwGi;f ol@uakd oewfEiS yhf pfI vky}f uHowfjzwf
&ef}uKd ;pm;cJah omfvnf; olu ,if;taeESiv
hf w
G af jrmufEikd jf cif;rSm r,fawmf
rm&D.ulnaD oma=umif[
h ,
k q
l onf? aemifwiG o
f @l u}kd udK;pm;I owfrnfh
wl&uDEikd if o
H m;rmruftvDt*g (Mahmet Ali Aga) udk axmifxw
J iG o
f mG ;
awG@+yD; ol@uckd iG v
hf w
$ cf o
hJ nf?
xd@k twl zufwrD mbk&m;ausmif;od@k omG ;+yD; r,fawmfrm&Dukd ol@tm;ao
-68-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

ab;rSun
l cD o
hJ nft
h wGuf aus;Zl;wif&efomG ;onft
h csed w
f iG f "g;udik x
f m;
aom&[ef;wpfa,mufu ol@u"kd g;ESix
hf ;kd owfawmhrnfah emuf bmrSrvkyf
yJo@l zmomol&yfqikd ;f cJo
h nf?

vltrsm;. “ykyf&[ef;rif;” .b0aemufqHk;c&D;
yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;.aemufq;kH b0wGif a&m*gtrsKd ;rsKd ;udk cHpm;&onf? 1992
ckEpS w
f iG f ol.tlr}uD;twGi;f jrif;zka&mifemudck x
JG w
k cf +hJ yD; 1993 ckEpS w
f iG f
ol.ausmuke;f tqpfvcJG +hJ yD; 1993 ckEpS w
f iG af ygi±f ;kd usO;f jcif;ESihf 1996 ckEpS f
wGit
f t
l wufukd cGx
J w
k v
f u
kd &f onf?
xd@k twl *|eaf yg(vf)onf yguifceferfa=uma&m*g/ ±d;k qufa&mifem/ wifyg;
qH±k ;kd emusOjf cif;ESihf 1991 ckEpS w
f iG v
f yk }f uHowfjzwf&ef}udK;pm;r_a=umifh em
wm±Snaf &m*gponfw@kd uckd pH m;cJ&h onf? 1992 ckEpS w
f iG t
f ±l dS jrif;zkemudck JG
xkwcf &hJ +yD; 1992 ckEpS w
f iG f rawmfwqacsmv
f cJ ahJ oma=umifh wifyg;qH±k ;kd
rsm;cGpJ w
d cf &hJ onf?
Ta&m*grsm;=um;xJuyif yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;onf urBmtES@H c&D;pOfukd quf
vky&f efq;kH jzwfcsucf s+yD; ordik ;f 0ifc&D;pOftjzpf usK;bm;Edik if /H awmiftmz&d
u/ qD;&D;,m;/ ,lu&de;f / *&dEikd if o
H @kd omG ;+y;D vloef;aygi;f rsm;pGmwk@u
d kd awG@qkH
E_wq
f ufc+hJ yD; vli,fv±l ,
G rf sm;udv
k nf;awG@qckH yhJ gonf?
od@k aomf 2005 ckEpS af zaz:0g&v
D wGif *|eaf yg(vf) II rSm touf±LS jcif;tcuf
tcJw@kd a=umifh aq;±Hck %c%wufc&hJ onf? &ufowWaygi;f rsm;pGm=um+yD;
aemuf ol.av¹yGeu
f ckd u
JG +k yD;aemuf touf±LS ydu
k u
f kd ol@vnfacsmif;xJo@kd
xnfhoGif;ay;cJhonf?
azaz:0g&v
D 27 &uf 2005 ckEpS w
f iG f we*FaEGae@r,fawmfrm&Dtm; 0wfjyK
-69-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

&efacgi;f avmif;xd;k aumif;cs;D ay;jcif;udk ud,
k w
f ikd rf vkyEf ikd b
f J rdr.
d vuf
axmufuv
kd yk cf ikd ;f cJ&h onf? Tt}udro
f nf ol.yky&f [ef;rif;}uD;ouf
wrf;wpfav#muf yxrqH;k t}udrjf zpfonf?
c&pfawmf±iS o
f efxajrmufawmfral om ae@aumif;cs;D r*Fvmay;yGrJ S vGI
J t
jcm;uufovpf*%
kd ;f csKyfw@kd ukd wm0efay;I ol@u,
kd pf m;wm0efxrf;aqmif
aponf? c&pfawmf±iS o
f efxajrmufawmfral om we*FaEGae@wiG f yky&f [ef;
rif;}uD;u rdr.
d AmwDuefjyLwif;aygurf S rsuEf mS az: jyvm+yD; pde@f yw
D mpuGJ
wGi&f yfaeaomvlx}k uD;udk aumif;cs;D ay;cJo
h nf? olpum;ajym&ef}udK;pm;cJh
aomfvnf; aemufq;kH wdwq
f w
d pf mG yif pdwx
f YJ aumif;cs;D ay;cJ&h onf?
yky&f [ef;rif;. use;f rma&;wpwpqd;k ±Gm;vm+y;D aemufwiG f olu aq;±Ho
k @kd
ac:oGm;rnfurkd vdak wmhyJ AmwDuefeef;awmfwiG o
f mae&ef qH;k jzwfco
hJ nf?
{+yDvESp&f ufwiG f *|eaf yg(vf) II uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;+yD; ol.toufrmS 84 ESpjf zpf
onf?

-70-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]cHpm;rIuae vIHUaqmfrIeJUtouf½SifvGwfajrmufrIwdkUudk qGJxkwfEdkif&r,f/}}
"We shall draw from the heart of suffering itself the means
of inspiration and survival."

]]udk,f&wJhpm;0wfaea&;twGuftoHk;jyKNyD; udk,fay;wJht&meJUtoufwm
wpfckudk aqmufvkyfEdkifw,f/}}
"We make a living by what we get, but we make a life
by what we give."

]]wdkUtaumif;qHk;vkyfaew,fvdkUajymwm bmrStoHk;rusygbl;/
vdktyfaewJht&mudk vkyfwJhtcg atmifjrifrI½Sd&r,f/}}
"It is no use saying, ‘we are doing our best. You have got to
succeed in doing what is necessary."

qm(&f)0ifpwefcsyfacs;(vf) (1874-1965)

qm

(&f)0ifpwefcsyaf cs;(vf) (Sir Winston
Churchill) onf rm;rm;rwfrwf&yf
wnfIzufqpf0g'udk qef@usiaf omEdik if aH cgi;f aqmif
wpfO;D jzpf+y;D wurBmvH;k u'Dru
kd a&pDpepfwiG f ,H=k unf
r_±v
dS matmifEiS hf +Adwed Ef ikd if u
H 'kd w
k ,
d urBmppftwGi;f
atmifjrifr&_ ±Sad tmifO;D aqmifEikd cf o
hJ nf?
0ifpwefv,
D ekd wfpyifpmcsyaf cs;(vf)onf Ed0k ifbmv 30 &uf 1974 ckEpS f
wGib
f v,f[if (Blenhiem) eef;awmfatmufpzd@k ±i_d ;f ,m; (Oxfordshire)
wGizf gG ;jrifonf? ol.zcif avmh('f)&efa'gch yfacs;(vf)rSm xif±mS ;ausm=f um;
aomEdik if aH &;orm;wpfO;D jzpfonf? csyaf cs;(vf)onfpif[wf (pf) Sandhust
ppfoifwef;ausmif;wGif atmifjrif+yD; ppfrx
_ rf;cJo
h nf? olonftaemuf
ajrmufyikd ;f tdE,
dN ESiphf 'l efEikd if ¶H dS ppfajrjyifrsm;Y wm0ef,cl &hJ onf? ppfxw
J iG f
tr_xrf;aepOftwGi;f csyaf cs;(vf)u ae@pOfppfa=u;eef;pmrsm;udzk wf+y;D "The
Story of The Malakand Field Force (1898)" ESihf "The River War" ponfh
-71-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

pmtkyrf sm;udak &;om;cJo
h nf?
1899 ckEpS w
f iG f +Adwed pf pfwyfrES w
_ x
f u
G cf +hJ yD; “armeif;zd@k pf Morning Post
owif;pmwGif ppfyo
JG wif;axmuftjzpf wvvkycf o
hJ nf? awmiftmz&d
uwGi±f adS om bdt
k m (Boer) ppfyYJG owif;axmufaepOftwGi;f bdt
k m
(Boers) rsm;uol@uz
kd rf;qD;I axmifoiG ;f tusO;f csccH &hJ onf? od@k aomfol
vGwaf jrmufvmonft
h csed w
f iG f acgi;f }u;D ydik ;f owif;rsm;udk a&;om;cJo
h nf?
t*Fvefo@kd jyefa&mufonft
h csed w
f iG f ol.tawG@t}uHKrsm;udk a&;om;I
“London to Ladysmith” pmtkyt
f jzpf 1900 ckEpS w
f iG x
f w
k af 0jzef@cscD o
hJ nf?
1900 ckEpS w
f iG cf syaf cs;(vf)u td;k [rf; (Oldham) ygvrD efwiG f uGeq
f maA;
wpftzG@J 0ifjzpfvm+y;D vlra_ &;jyefvnfwnfaxmifrv
_ yk if ef;rsm;udk axmuf
cHojl zpfvmonf? 1904 ckEpS w
f iG f ol.ygwt
D }uD;tuJrsm;vdv
k m;aomt
ajymif;tvJuekd m;rvnfeikd af oma=umifh csyaf cs;(vf)uvpfb&,fygwo
D @kd
ajymif;vJ&efjiif;ckecf o
hJ nf? 1905 ckEpS af ±G;aumufyw
JG iG f vpfb&,fygwt
D
Edik &f aomtcg csyaf cs;(vf)udk udv
k ekd ±D ;kH YvufaxmuftwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf
cef@tyfjcif;cH&onf?
1908 ckEpS w
f iG f uufbed uftwGi;f od@k uek o
f ,
G af &;bkwt
f zG@J 0if. OuUXt
jzpf0ifa&mufc+hJ yD; 1910 ckEpS w
f iG jf ynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;jzpfvmonf? jynfxaJ &;
0ef}uD;wpfa,muftjzpfov
l yk af qmifco
hJ nft
h &mrsm;rSm tusO;f axmif
rsm;wGif jyefvnfxal xmifa&;vkyif ef;rsm;jzpfaom tusO;f axmiftwGi;f y
nmay;a[majymyGrJ sm;ESit
hf usO;f om;rsm;twGuf *Dwya'omyGrJ sm;usi;f y
ay;jcif; tygt0ifw@kd jzpfonf? xd@k jyif axmifxu
G t
f usO;f om;rsm;udk tul
tnDay;aomtzGJ@rsm;udkxlaxmifay;cJhonf? rnfodk@yifqdkapumrl
0uf(vf)(±S)f (Welsh) rdik ;f wl;vkyo
f m;rsm;qENjyyGw
J iG f csyaf cs;(vf)u ppfwyf
oH;k cJo
h nft
h ay:olŒudk jyif;xefpmG a0zefc=hJ uonf?
1911 ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mvwGif csyaf cs;(vf)onf a&wyft}u;D tuJ (First
-72-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;
Lord of the Admiralty) jzpfvmcJ+h y;D acwfra
DS oma&wyfjzpfvmatmifun
l D

ay;cJo
h nf? csyaf cs;(vf)onf 1912 ckEpS w
f iG f a&wyfrawmf.av,mOfys0H ef
aqmifr_ (The Royal Naval Air Service) udw
k nfaxmifay;cJo
h nf? xd@k t
jyif &±Sv
d maomenf;pepfopfrsm;udk aumif;rGepf mG toH;k jyKEikd &f efava=umif;
Xge (Air Department) udw
k nfaxmifco
hJ nf? csyaf cs;(vf)u zG@H +zdK;wd;k wuf
r_rsm;wGif tvGeyf ifpw
d v
f y_ ±f mS ;wufºuGaoma=umifh av,mOfarmif;oif
wef;udkwufa&mufcJhonf?
1914 ckEpS yf xrurBmppfjzpfay:cdsew
f iG f csyaf cs;(vf)u ppfaumifpw
D iG 0f if
a&mufyg0ifco
hJ nf? rnfo@kd yifqakd pumrl 1915 ckEpS 'f g'efe,fw&m;a[m,
ajymyGJ (Dardanelles Campaign) ratmifjrifrt
_ ay: tjypfwifjcif;cH&
onf? xd@k aemuf “Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster” tjzpfae&m
ajymif;ay;jcif;cH&onf? tpd;k &.ppfa&;rl0g'rsm;wGif yg0ifygwo
f uf&ef =o
Zm tm%mr±Sad wmhonfah emuf olpw
d rf csr;f omawmhyJ aemufq;kH +Aw
d o
d #
wyfrawmfxw
J iG f jyefvnftr_xrf;+y;D taemufyikd ;f a±Sw
› ef;ae&mrsm;wGi±f dS
aom “Royal Scots Fusiliers” wyf&if;udOk ;D aqmifco
hJ nf?
1917 ckEpS w
f iG f tpd;k &tvkyx
f jJ yefvnf0ifa&muf+yD; vufeufc,
J rf;rD;
ausmuf0ef}u;D tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifonf? 1919 ckEpS rf S 1921 ckEpS t
f xd
oluppfa&;ppf&mESiahf va=umif;qdik &f mbufwiG f wm0ef,&l aomtwGi;f
a&;rSL;jzpfc+hJ y;D 1924–1929 ckEpS t
f xd 0ef}u;D (Chancell of the Exchequer)
tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf?
xdEk pS rf sm;aemufyikd ;f q,fEpS t
f wGi;f ol@twGuf “uHq;kd rd;k arSmifusaomESpf
rsm;” [kq&kd ayrnf? tdE,
dN rsm;.rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd t
f yk cf sKyaf &;tay: qef@usiaf &;
ESihf Abdication crisis–tcGit
hf m%mvufvw
$ af &;ta&;awmfyt
kH wGi;f
tuf'0yf(wf)tm;axmufct
H m;ay;r_w@kd a=umifh ol@uv
kd t
l rsm;uvufr
cHawmhojzifh ol.emZD*smreDrsm;ay:ay:ufvmjcif;ESi+hf Adwed t
f aeESihf vuf
euftopftqef;rsm;jyefvnfwyfqif&eft}uHay;jcif;wd@k ukd rnforl #t
-73-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

a&;rvkyaf wmhay? 1939 ckEpS 'f w
k ,
d urBmppfjzpfay:onft
h csed t
f wGi;f csyf
acs;vfonfa&wyf.t}uD;tuJ ( First Lord of the Admiralty) jzpfvm
onf? 1940 ckEpS af rvwGif Neville Chamberlian u0ef}u;D csKy&f mxl;rSEw
_ f
xGu+f yD;aemuf csyaf cs;vfu ,if;.&mxl;udq
k ufccH o
hJ nf? ol.emZD*smr
eDrsm;atmufwiG f vufrajrmuft±_;H ray;cJjh cif;a=umifh wdik ;f jynfro
S @l ukd
}udKufEpS o
f uf=uonf? ppfyt
JG wGi;f umvrsm;Y ryifryef;bJ ol.wm0ef
rsm;udk xrf;aqmifc+hJ y;D tar&dueforRw±kpbJEh iS q
hf ufqaH &;rsm;aumif;rGef
+yD; wpfcgwpf&q
H ufqaH &;cufcaJ om qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D jH zifyh ifqufqaH &;
aumif;rGeaf tmif aqmif±u
G Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf?
1945 ckEpS pf pfyt
JG +yD; a±G;aumufyrJG sm;wGif csyaf cs;vfutm%mudv
k uf
v$wfcH&aomfvnf; twdkuftcHygwD.acgif;aqmiftjzpf qufvuf&yf
wnf+yD;rdr.
d ppfat;ppfy(JG Cold War) tay:pd;k &drrf r_ sm;ESi“hf Iron Curtain*”
[laompum;toH;k tE_e;f udk wifpm;ausm=f um;vmatmifvyk f aqmifc+hJ y;D
Oa&myES i f h "Trans–Atlantic" wd k @ pnf ; vH k ; nD n $ w f r _ ± S d a tmif v k y f
aqmifEikd cf o
hJ nf? 1951 ckEpS w
f iG o
f u
l 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfjyefvnfwifajr‡muf
jcif;cH&onf? 1955 ckEpS w
f iG f E_wx
f u
G cf ahJ omfvnf; olraociftcsed w
f t
kd
wGi;f txd 0ef}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifco
hJ nf? 0ifpwefcsyaf cs;(vf)ao
qH;k oGm;onfw
h ikd f ol.Edik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;aqmif±u
G rf a_ wGomrupmtkyaf ygi;f
ajrmufrsm;pGmudv
k aJ &;om;cJo
h nf? xd@k a=umifh 1953 ckEpS w
f iG Ef b
kd ,f(vf)pm
ayqku&kd ±Scd o
hJ nf?
csyaf cs;vfonf 1965 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D 24 &ufae@wiG f uG,v
f eG cf +hJ y;D ol@uEkd ikd f
iHawmfu*k%jf yKo+*dKvfco
hJ nf?
* Iron Curtain “oHuef@vef@um” qdo
k nfph um;vH;k pm0gaqmEdik if rH sm; (uGejf rLepfEikd if H

–t"dutm;jzift
h ar&duESit
hf aemufOa&myEdik if )H wd@k ukd cGjJ cm;xm;onfph nf;rsO;f
jzpf+yD; 1945 rS 1991 ckEpS pf pfat;ppfyu
JG ek q
f ;kH onft
h csed u
f mvwGijf zpfonf?

-74-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

]]uRefawmfr[kwf&ifb,foljzpfrvJ/ aemufNyD;tckrSr[kwfvdkU&Sd&if
b,fawmhjzpfrvJ/}}
"If not me, who? And if not now, when?"

]]raeUuoiftrsm;BuD;vkyfcJhNyD;NyDvdkUxifae&if 'DaeUoif
trsm;BuD;rvkyfEdkifawmhbl;/}}
"If what you have done yesterday still looks big to you,
you haven't done much today."

]]uRefawmf[muGefjrLepform;wpfa,muf? wu,fhuGefjrLepform;yg/ wjcm;ol
awGtwGufawmhpdwful;,Ofp&mbJjzpfvdrfhr,f? 'gayr,fhuRefawmhftwGufawmhw
u,fh&nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifwpfckyg/}}
"I am a Communist, a convinced Communist! For some that
may be a fantasy. But to me it is my main goal."

rDac;vfa*:bmacsmh(Af) ( 1931-

rD

)

ac;vfa*:bmacsm(h Af) (Mikhail Gorbachev)
onf 1931 ckEpS w
f iG af rG;zGm;cJ+h y;D 1985 ckEpS rf S
1991 ckESpftxd qdkAD,ufqdk&S,fvpforRwEdkifiH
(USSR) .acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpfcy
hJ gonf? qdAk ,
D uf
ESit
hf a&S@yikd ;f Oa&myEdik if rH sm;.uGejf rLepf0g'udk jzKwfcs
+y;D jyKjyifajymif;vJa&;0g'udw
k nfaqmuf&eftaumif
txnfazmfcJhonfhaemufqHk;acgif;aqmifwpfOD;
vnf;jzpfcyhJ gonf?
a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf qdAk ,
D ufpepfujkd yefvnf&iS o
f efap&ef jyKvkyrf nfqkd
aomfvnf; ‚if;pepfujkd zKwcf scyhJ gonf? a*:bmacsm(h Af). taemufwikd ;f Edik if H
rsm;txl;ojzift
h ar&duefjynfaxmifpEk iS jh f zpfymG ;aeaomwif;rmr_ajzav#mh
csiaf omay:vpDonf 1940 ckEpS u
f wnf;uurBm}uD;udk cGjJ cm;cJah omppf
at;yG}J uD;+yD;qH;k &eftwGuf ta&;}uD;aomxnf0h ifrw
_ pfcjk zpfco
hJ nf?
-75-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

rDac;vfa*:bmacsm(h Af)onf qdAk ,
D uforRwEdik if H Privolnoye rS 1931 ckEpS f
rwfv 2 &ufae@wiG af rG;zGm;cJo
h nf? olonfpu
kd yf sKd ;a&;qdik &f mv,f,m&dwf
odr;f a&;pufry_ pPn;f rsm;jyifqifow
l OD;.om;jzpfygonf? a*:bmacsm(h Af).
tbd;k jzpfol Pantelei Yefimovich Gopkalo onfueG jf rLepfygw(D CPSU).
tzG@J 0ifwpfO;D jzpf+yD;/ (trsm;ydik v
f ,f,majrvkyif ef;) Kolkhoz &Gm.OuUX
wpfO;D jzpfygonf? 1937 ckEpS w
f iG o
f t
l m; NKVD* v#Kd Œ0Suyf v
k yd w
f @kd rv
S ,
D eG f
xa&mfpuD; Leon Trotsky udak xmufco
H nfh ykeu
f efot
l zG@J tpnf;.acgi;f
aqmifwpfO;D tr_jzifh zrf;qD;axmifcscyhJ gonf? axmifwiG f 2 ESpef ;D yg;ESyd pf uf
zrf;qD;csKyaf ESmifjcif;cH&cJ+h y;D / 1938 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmvwGif jyefvnfvw
G af jrmuf
vmcJhygonf?
‚if;jzpfysucf o
hJ nf&h mZ0ifordik ;f a=umifh a*:bmacsm(h Af)u ol.Edik if aH &;tm;
toGiaf jymif;vJra_ y;apcJo
h nfh t"dutcsujf zpfonf[ak jymqdck yhJ gonf?
ol@tbd;k onf uGejf rLepform;qefaeqJjzpf+yD; rdr.
d ajr;tm; Karl Marx/
f ef;qdik &f mrsm;jzifh qufE,
G f
Frederick Engels ESihf vDeif (Lenin) wd@k .vkyi
apcJyh gonf? (vD,eG x
f a&mfpuD;.vkyif ef;ta=umif;udrk rl ajymjycJah y)?
'kw,
d urBmppftwGi;f u a*:bmacsmAh .
f &Gmud*k smrefppfom;wd@k odr;f ydu
k f
jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf? aemufyikd ;f wGif rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd T
f od@k a&;om;cJyh gonf? “ppf+y;D
oGm;onfhtcsdefwkef;uu|efawmfhtouf 14 ESpfbJ&Sdygao;w,f? u|ef
awmfw@kd &@J rsKd ;qufuawmh ppfwiG ;f rSjzpfay:cJw
h u
hJ av;rsm; rsKd ;qufjzpfyg
w,f? 'DppfyaJG wG[m u|eaf wmfw@kd b0avmifu|r;f apcJw
h ,f? u|Eyfk w
f @kd &,
hJ ck
vuf&u
dS rBmtm; awG@jrif}uHKawG@&ydS EkH iS jhf yKrlusi}hf uHra_ wGuv
kd nf;jzpfvmap
ygw,f?”
*NKVD onfqAkd ,
D uf,el ,
D .
H v#Kd @0u
S yf v
k yd w
f yfz@JGjzpf+y;D pwmvifacwfwiG f Edik if aH &;ESyd f

uGyrf r_ sm;twGuf wm0ef,&l onf?

-76-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

a*:bmacsmh(Af)onf armfpudkwuUodkvfY Oya'qdkif&mbmom&yftm;
wufa&mufoif=um;jcif;rjyKcif aumuf&w
d o
f rd ;f r_qikd &f mwm0efct
H jzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf? ausmif;om;b0wGiyf if uGejf rLepfygw(D CPSU)
wGit
f zG@J 0iftjzpf yl;aygi;f yg0ifc+hJ yD; Raisa Titorenko ESiv
hf ufxyfxrd ;f jrm;
cJyh gonf?
a*:bmacsm(h Af)wuUov
kd af usmif;qif;+yD;aemuf uGrq
f rkd u
kd eG jf rLepfvil ,f
rsm;tzG‹J (Komsomol Communist Youth Organizaion) wGif tcsed jf ynf0h ef
xrf;wpfO;D tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf? 1995 ckEpS w
f iG f a*:bmacsm(h Af)
onf uGrq
f rkd ekd ,ferd w
d q
f ikd &f maumfrwD.twGi;f a&;rSL;wpftjzpfcef@tyf
jcif;cH&ygonf? a*:bmacsm(h Af)onfvyk if ef;zG@H +zdK;wd;k wufrr_ sm;pGmjyKvkycf hJ
onft
h ay: 1960 ckEpS Yf pwm&dyk v
kd w
f iG f uGrq
f rkd .
kd xdyw
f ef;t&m&Sw
d pfO;D jzpf
vmcJo
h nf? aemufEpS t
f wGi;f wGiaf *:bmacsm(h Af)onf armfpud&k dS 22 }udrf
ajrmufueG jf rLepfygwn
D v
D mcHo@kd uGrq
f rkd .
kd ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f jzpfapv$wjf cif;
cH&ygonf?
a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf pwm&dyk w
kd iG f pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;qdik &f mynmudk (1964-67
ckEpS t
f xd) aemufxyfavhvmoif,+l yD; 1970 ckEpS w
f iG f pwm&dyk ekd ,ferd w
d f
qdik &f mwGif twGi;f a&;rSL;wpftjzpf wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&cJyh gonf? rdr.
d
vkyif ef;aqmif&u
G rf r_ sm;onf jynfe,fv+kH cHKa&;qdik &f maumfrwD (KGB) .
OuUXjzpfaom,l&t
D eJ 'f &dyk t
kd m; oabmusapcJyh gonf? xdak =umifh tJe'f &dk
ydo
k nf rdr.
d tm%mudt
k oH;k csum a*:bmacsmt
h m;&mxl;wd;k ¹r‡iv
hf u
kd yf g
onf?
1971 ckEpS w
f iG f a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf uGejf rLepfygw.
D A[dak umfrwDtzG@J 0if
wpfO;D jzpfvmcJo
h nf? aemufyikd ;f wGif pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;qdik &f mtwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf
wm0ef&adS oma=umifh armfpudo
k @kd ajymif;a&$@omG ;ygonf? 1980 ckEpS Yf ydv
k pf
bl&w
kd iG f toufti,fq;kH aomtzG@J 0ifwpfO;D jzpfvm+y;D av;ESpt
f wGi;f wGif
-77-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;
Konstantin Chernenko

.ud,
k pf m;vS,jf zpfvmcJo
h nf?

1985 ckEpS w
f iG f Chernenko uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;cJo
h nf? ‚if;ae&mtm; A[dak umf
rwDraS *:bmacsm(h Af)tm; uGejf rLepfygw.
D taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;tjzpf
a&G;cs,w
f ifa¹r‡mufco
hJ nf? ygwaD cgi;f aqmifwpfO;D taejzifh olonfrvdk
vm;aomA[dak umfrwD0ifrsm;tm; &kww
f &uf&mxl;rS Ekwx
f u
G af pcdik ;f
vdkufygonf? E_wfxGufoGm;olrsm;tpm;wGif ol.vkyfaqmifcsuftm;
axmufco
H abmwlnaD om toufi,f&,
G af omyk*Kd~ vfrf sm;jzifh jyefvnf
tpm;apxd;k cJyh gonf?
1985 ckEpS w
f iG f vD,eG x
f a&mfpuD;t&ufpjJG cif;ESiv
hf mbfay;vmbf,jl cif;udk
qef@usio
f nft
h aejzifph nf;&H;k a&;vkycf o
hJ nf? xd@k aemuf qdAk ,
D ufp;D yGm;a&;
pepfukd ydrk akd umif;rGew
f ;kd wufvm&eftusKd ;jyKaponfh vpfb&,fp;D yGm;a&;/
Edik if aH &;ESihf ,Ofaus;r_qikd &f mpepfrsm;od@k jyKjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm;ESihf Perestroika
(jyefvnfz@JG pnf;r_) .vdt
k yfcsurf sm;udv
k nf;ajymqdck yhJ gonf?
a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf aps;uGupf ;D yGm;a&;udw
k nfaqmufrnfh qdAk ,
D ufpufr_
vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif yk*v
~ u
d ydik q
f ikd rf r_ sm;jzpfay:ap&ef
tm;ay;onfh rlay:vpD0g'rsm;udjk yXge;f cJyh gonf? od@k aomf qdAk ,
D uftm%m
ydik rf sm;u jyKjyifajymif;vJrw
_ iG f taxmuftulrjyKa=umif;ESiahf ps;qdik rf sm;
wGiu
f ek yf pPn;f rsm;vHak vmufrr_ &Sad =umif;azmfjyygonf?
a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf qdAk ,
D uf.Edik if jH cm;a&;rlay:vpD0g'ajymif;vJru
_ v
kd nf;
a=ujimcJyh gonf? 1987 ckEpS w
f iG f a&mfe,f&*D ifEiS ahf wG@qckH +hJ y;D (INF) t%kjrL
zsuo
f rd ;f a&;pmcsKyfukd csucf si;f vufrw
S af &;xd;k vdu
k o
f nf? wqufwnf;
wGif ta&S@Oa&myEdik if rH sm;.jynfwiG ;f a&;&mrl0g'ay:vpDrsm;wGif yg0if aESmifh
,Surf j_ yKawmhrnfr[kwaf =umif; &Si;f vif;pGmazmfjycJ+h yD; tmz*efepPwefrS
-78-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

qdkAD,ufvufeufudkifwyfrsm;udk±kyfodrf;a=umif; 1989 ckESpfwGifa=u
jimvdu
k yf gonf? ,if;a=ujimjyD;wESpw
f iG f a*:bmacsm(h Af)rS +idr;f csr;f a&;Edk
b,f(vf)qku&kd &Scd o
hJ nf?
ta&SO› a&myEdik if rH sm;wGif uGejf rLepftpd;k &rsm;udk qef@usio
f nfq
h ENjyyGrJ sm;
wGif a*:bmacsm(h Af)onfqAkd ,
D uf.wifu
h m;rsm;tm; apv$wrf yd@k ay;cJh
onfuo
kd wdjyK=unfyh g? Tod@k jyKvkyjf yD; r=umcifaom vydik ;f twGi;f ydv
k ef
Edik if /H [efa*&D/ bla*;&D;,m;/ &lar;eD;,m;ESit
hf a&S@*smreDEikd if rH sm;wGif uGejf rL
epf0g'rsm;udyk xkwEf ikd cf o
hJ nf?
(a&S;t,l0g'tkycf sKyfr)_ uGeq
f maA;wpftm%mydik rf sm; tm%mwGi±f adS e
aomtcsed w
f iG f a*:bmacsm(h Af)rS qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifp}k uD; 'Dru
kd &ufwpf
Edik if jH zpfvm&ef}udK;pm;r_wrkd mS atmifjrifrr_ &cJah y? 1991 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f wGif
a*:bmacsm(h Af)onf uGejf rLepfygwt
D rmcHrsm;rS tm%modr;f &ef =udK;pm;cJh
onfuakd &Smif&mS ;Edik cf o
hJ nf? Tod@k jyKvkyjf cif;tm; wHŒk jyefonft
h aejzifah *:
bmacsmh(Af)onfA[kdaumfrwDtm;zsufodrf;cJhonf? rnfodk@yifjzpfap
qdAk ,
D ufEikd if jH ydKvJonfah emufyikd ;f 1995 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv 25 &ufae@wiG f
a*:bmacsm(h Af)&mxl;rSEw
_ x
f u
G o
f mG ;cJyh gonf?

-79-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]tD&efrSmjzpfay:vmwJhawmfvSefa&;rSmvlawGutpövmrfudkvdkcsifw,fvdkUa<u;aMumf
Muw,f/ 'DvlawG[m'Drdkua&pD&zdkUxNyD;a<u;aMumfawmfvSefMuwmr[kwfbl;/}}
“In the revolution that was achieved in Iran, people were screaming
that they wanted Islam; these people did not rise up
so their country could have democracy”

]]uREkfyfwdkUudkqefUusifwJhvlawG[muifqmtBudwfeJUwlw,f/olwdkUudkcGJpdwfjzwfxkwf
zdkUvdkw,f/ 'DvdkrSrvkyf&ifolwdkU[mtm;vHk;udkt*wdvdkufpm;rIawGvkyfrSmjzpfw,f/}}
“Those who are against us are like cancer tumors that need to be
removed surgically; otherwise they will corrupt everything”

]]rdcifwpfa,mufuom;udkudk,fwdkifw&m;½Hk;odkUydkUNyD;aemufolr&Jhom;[m
BudK;rdefUay;cH&cJhw,f/ 'DrdcifudkvlawGtwk,loifhw,f/
“People have to learn from the mother who brought her own
son to court and then her son was hanged”

t,mwdkvmukdrDeD (1902–1989)

t

,mwdv
k mukrd eD D (Ayatollah Khomeini) .em
rnf t &if ; rS m qm,rf ± l [ d k v m-tmvf - rl
qm0D-tmvf-ukrd eD D (Sayyid Ruhollah al-Musavi alKhomeini) jzpfonf? olonfbmoma&;acgi;f aqmif
wpfO;D jzpf+yD; Edik if .
H jyifyrSaeIvlx}k uD;udk OD;aqmif+yD;
tD&efrS rd[
k mruf&pD m±Smygv0D (Muhammad Reza
J tmif 1979 wGiw
f eG ;f vSef
Shah Pahlavi) (±Sm) ud+k yKd va
Edik cf o
hJ nf?
ukrd eD o
D nf bmoma&;qdik &f mynmwwfqm,pfarmhpwdzk m (Sayyid Mostf iG f ,if;.zcifu,
G v
f eG f
-afa) .om;jzpf+yD;,if;.touf 6 vt±G,w
oGm;cJo
h nf? ukrd eD .
D touf 15 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f ,if;.rdcifEiS t
hf a':aoqH;k
oGm;onft
h wGuf tpfu}kd uD;ujyKpkapmifah ±Smufco
hJ nf? ukrd eD o
D nftpfukd
}u;D ESit
hf wl cd&k efusr;f udk tvGwu
f surf w
S +f y;D ±S,
D mtpPvmrf (Shia Islam)
-80-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

.tajccHtcsuftvufrsm;udkavhvmcJhonf?
rsm;r=umrSu
D rdk eD o
D nf (t&yf Arak) +rKd @o@kd omG ;+y;D tpPvmrfrpfOya'udak vh
vmoif,cl o
hJ nf? 1920 ckEpS t
f apmydik ;f wGif ol.q&muuGrf (Qum) +rKd @o@kd
ajymif;a±$@co
hJ nft
h wGuf ukrd eD v
D o
J @l q&maemufo@kd vdu
k yf gvmcJo
h nf?
ukrd eD u
D “t,mwdv
k m–Ayatollah” bG@J trnfu&kd ±Scd o
hJ nf? t,mwdv
k m
bG@J onf awmfaom±S,
D mausmif;om;rsm;udak y;aombG@J jzpf+yD; t"dyg` ,rf mS
“bk&m;ocifuay;aomvufaqmif” [lIyif? ukrd eD u
D eufeaJ omt,l0g
'rsm;udv
k ufc+H yD; ,if;wd@k rmS avmupnf;pdrOf pPmrsm;udk ypfy,f+yD; bk&m;.
eufeaJ om v#Kd @0u
S q
f ef;=u,frr_ sm;udk pl;prf;±SmazGo;kH oyfjcif;yifjzpfonf?
ukrd eD .
D t,l0g'wGif Oya'/ ,kwadW A' (usKd ;a=umif;qufpyfI,H=k unfap
onfhtodynm) ESifh'\edutawG;tac:rsm;yg0ifaoma=umifh ol.
aemufvu
kd rf sm;pGm±Scd o
hJ nf?
tjcm;aomtD&efEikd if o
H m;rsm;uJo
h @kd ukrd eD o
D nf tD&efEikd if t
H wGi;f Y tjcm;
Edik if rH sm;.0ifa&mufp;kd rd;k cs,v
f ,
S rf t
_ ay: vH;k 0rvdv
k m;acs? Edik if jH cm;tpd;k
&rsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifah cwfraDS omfvnf; tpPvmrfrpf.±d;k &mudq
k ef@
usiaf omEdik if aH &;t,l0g'rsm;udak xmufct
H m;ay;onf? yxrOD;qH;k acgi;f
aqmifwpfa,mufrmS &Dqm±Smygv0Djzpf+y;D 1921 ckEpS t
f wGi;f ±k±mS ;tpd;k &.
axmufcu
H n
l rD j_ zifh tD&efyxrOD;qH;k zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH pd;k &udk z,fxw
k yf pf
EdkifcJhonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm;udk=unfh+yD; trsufa'goxGufaomfjim;
vnf;ukrd eD u
D 1930 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f Edik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;wGiyf g0ifywf
oufcjhJ cif;r±Sad y? oluEdik if aH &;v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;.acgi;f aqmifrmS bmoma&;
vkyaf qmifaomvlrsm;.vufxw
J iG f ±S&d rnf[,
k =kH unfonf? xd‹k a=umifh
olu tjcm;bmoma&;acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpfonfh t,mwdv
k m[,f&.
D
tqH;k tjzwfjzpfonfh &Dqm±Sm. tD&efEikd if t
H ay:ajymif;vJru
_ v
kd u
kd ef m&
rnfuv
kd ufccH &hJ onf? 1941 ckEpS w
f iG f udrk eD u
D ygvm0Dtpd;k &tm;toH;k r
-81-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

usaomtpd;k &[ka=ujim+y;D trde@f tm;vH;k udk tm%m±Sit
f yk cf sKyrf t
_ pd;k &u
ay;+yD; bmrSwefz;kd r±Sb
d ;l [kqckd .
hJ ? 1941 ckEpS w
f iG f ygvg0.
D ae&mudk ol.
om;rd[
k mruf&q
D m±Smygvm0Du +Aw
d ed /f jyifopfEiS t
hf ar&duefw@kd .tult
nDjzif&h ±Scd o
hJ nf? 12 ESpaf emuf+yD;wGif tar&duefaxmufvrS ;f a&;at*sipf D
(CIA) u Shah wd@k .r[mrdwu
f kd ,if;wd@k .&efojl zpfaom0ef}uD;csKyfr[
kd m
rufrpkd m'uf (Mohammad Mosaddeq) udk y,fcs&mwGiu
f n
l cD o
hJ nf? =o
Zmwuford ;f aomtzG@J u udrk ifeu
D kd Shah tay:a0zefrr_ sm;jyKonfh twGuf
zdtm;ydI
k ay;cJo
h nf?
1960 ckEpS Of ;D ydik ;f wGif ±Smwd@k utjzLa&mifawmfveS ;f a&;udpk wifc+hJ y;D taemuf
wdik ;f t,l0g'rsm;jzpfaom trsKd ;orD;rsm;tcGit
hf a&;/ wef;wlnrD #&±Sad &;ESihf
bmoma&;udt
k ajcrcHaomynma&;rsm;ponfw@kd ux
kd nfo
h iG ;f ay;cJo
h nf?
udrk eD u
D uGr±f zdS ufZu
D sr;f pmoifausmif; (Faziye Seminary) wGiyf nmoif
=um;aepOfrSmyif a'go}uD;pGmjzifh±Smwdk@.ay:vpDudk wdkufcdkufxdk;ESufcJh
onf? xd@k a=umifh ±Smwd@k uol@ukd 1963 ckEpS w
f iG af xmifcsc+hJ y;D 1964 ckEpS w
f iG f
tD&efEikd if rH x
S u
G o
f mG ;&ef jynfEiS 'f g%af y;cJo
h nf? udrk eD t
D &D wfEikd if H (Iraq)
ajrmufyikd ;f wGi±f adS om ±S,
D mwd@k .oef@±iS ;f aom+rdK@jzpfonfeh m*swf (Najaf)
wGit
f ajccsaexdik o
f nf? xkad e&mYyif udrk eD u
D ol.t,l0g'rsm;udak usmif;
om;aygi;f 12/000 ausmx
f o
H Œkd jzef@a0cJo
h nf? em*swf (Najaf) +rdK@raS eIyJ
&pf+rdK@o@kd 1978 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f wGif ajymif;a±$@aexdik cf o
hJ nf? udrk eD u
D tD&ef
Edik if o
H m;rsm;ud±k mS ESi,
hf if;wd@k .tar&duefr[mrdwrf sm;udk +zKd cyJG pf&efEiS ,
hf if;
utar&duefw@kd ukd “u|Eykf w
f @kd &OhJ ;D aESmufrsm;ud'k jrwdu
k ,
f o
l ”l [kac:qdk
onf? aemufq;kH ±Smwd@k u tm%mrSwu
kd jf zKwf+yD; 1979 ckEpS Zf efe0g&v
D wGif
wdik ;f jynfrES iS x
f w
k v
f u
kd jf cif;udk cH&onft
h csed w
f iG f udrk eD u
D tD&efo@kd jyefvmcJh
onf? 'DZifbmvwGif zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'opfwpfcu
k kd csrw
S cf +hJ yD;
tD&efEikd if u
H kd tpPvmrfjynfo@l orRwEdik if [
H ak =umfjimcJ+h yD; ,if;udt
k rD ef (rdk
[mrufae&mudq
k ufcrH nfo
h )l [ktrnfay;cJ+h y;D b0toufwmtwGuOf ;D
-82-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

aqmifay;rnfah cgi;f aqmiftjzpf rSw,
f jl cif;cH&onf?
udrk eD aD tmifjrif+yD;aemufwpfEpS w
f iG f tD&wfrt
S &D efuw
kd u
kd cf u
kd cf +hJ yD; ±SpEf pS f
=umyËdyuQpwifco
hJ nf? ppfa&;twGuf ukeu
f sp&dwrf sm;rsm;jym;vm+yD;
aemufq;kH wGiu
f rkd eD rD o
S .
l pum;twdik ;f “tqdy&f nfwpfcu
G af omufjcif;”
[kajym+y;D ukvor*~.=um;0iftypftcwf&yfpaJ &;vkyif ef;udv
k ufccH o
hJ nf?
1989 ckEpS Zf eG v
f wGif udrk eD aD oqH;k oGm;onft
h cg tD&efEikd if o
H m;aygi;f rsm;pGm
u udrk eD t
D wGuf 0rf;enf;a=uuGcJ &hJ onf? olu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;onft
h csed w
f iG f
tD&ef.pD;yGg;a&;rSm tvGet
f iftm;enf;cJah omfvnf; tpPvmrfEikd if u
H rkd l
aumif;rGepf mG xlaxmifEikd cf o
hJ nf?

-83-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]rkefwdkif;aMumifhxif½SL;yifrsm;ESifhqdkufy&uf(pf)xif;½SL;yifrsm;urdrdwdkUtm;omcsuf
rsm;ESifhwnfNidrfrIrsm;udkazmfjyEdkif&efaumif;aomtcGifhta&;wpfckjzpfaMumif;owd&yg/}}
"Remember, the storm is a good opportunity for the pine and the
cypress to show their strength and their stability."

]]uRefawmfh&Jhwm0ef[m yJhudkifolwpfa,mufvdkbJ-zcifEdkifiHBuD;jzpfwJh-avSwpfpif;&Jh
yJhudkifudkab;uif;pGmxdef;xm;NyD;? rkefwdkif;rsm;tMum;uaevlxkawGudkaysmf½TifrI
urf;pyfoUkd a&muf&EdS ikd af tmifyUkd aqmifzUkd wm0ef½ydS gw,f/}}
"My duty is like that of a helmsman who must steer safely the
boat-the Fatherland-through storms and take people to
the shores of happiness."

[dkcsDrif; (1890-1969)
csrD if; (Hochi Minh) onf AD,uferfawmf
vSeaf &;Edik if aH cgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpf+yD; aemif
wGif (AD,uferfajrmufyikd ;f ) Democratic
hf ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmol
Republic of Vietnam .OuUXESi0
wpfO;D jzpfygonf? [do
k nf 1941 ckEpS rf pS IAD,ufred f
vGwv
f yfa&; twGuv
f y_ &f mS ;cJo
h jl zpf+y;D / 1945 ckEpS w
f iG f
Democratic Republic of Vietnam udu
k eG jf rLepftyk cf sKyf
a&;pepfujkd zift
h yk cf sKyfEikd cf o
hJ nf?

[dk

1954 ckEpS w
f iG f jyifopfw‹kd ukd ESrd Ef iS ;f wdu
k x
f w
k Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? ,if;onf AD,uf
erfppfyYJG ajrmufyikd ;f AD,uferfukd rdrt
d oufq;kH oGm;onftxdO;D pD;cJ+h yD;/ 6
ESpaf emufyikd ;f wGif ajrmufA,
D uferfyikd ;f rSatmify&JG ±SadS oma=umifh ppfy+JG yD;qH;k
oGm;cJo
h nf? xd‹k aemuf AD,uferfvrl sKd ;rsm; aygi;f pnf;nD!w
$ rf p_ wif&±Sv
d m
cJo
h nf? ,cifu AD,uferfawmifyikd ;f .òr‹d awmfjzpfaompdik u
f eG f (Saigon)+rKd @
awmfu[
kd ckd srD if;tm;*k%ðf yaomtm;jzif[
h ckd srD if;+rKd @awmf[k trnfajymif;vJ
-84-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

vdkufygonf?
[dck srD if;onf AD,uferfY 1890 ckEpS w
f iG af rG;zGm;cJyh gonf? ol.zcif!,
kd eJ f
pde[
f l (Nguyen Sinh Huy) onfjyifopfw@kd rS ausmif;q&mwpfO;D tjzpft
vkyfcef@tyfjcif;cH&onf? olonftvGef^m%faumif;ol[k *k%fowif;
ausmaf Zmaomfvnf; jyifopfbmompum;udo
k if,&l ef jiif;y,fcahJ om
a=umift
h vkyjf yKwfcyhJ gonf? xd@k a=umifh touf±iS af exdik af &;twGuf AD
,uferfwjynfv;kH od@k c&D;vSnv
hf nf&+y;D v,form;rsm;twGuf 0efaqmif
r_vyk if ef;rsm;vkyaf qmif&if; toufarG;0rf;a=umif;jyKco
hJ nf? xd0k efaqmifr_
vkyif ef;rsm;rSm aq;bufqikd &f m ukor_ay;jcif;ESiphf ma&;jcif;tvkyrf sm;yg0if
ygonf?
trsKd ;om;a&;0g'w
D pfO;D taejzifh !d,
k eJ o
f nf rdro
d m;orD;rsm;udk jyifopf.
tkycf sKyfa&;udk qef@usiaf wmfveS &f ef oifay;cJyh gonf? xd‹k a=umifo
h m;orD;
rsm;}uD;jyif;vmaomtcg trsKd ;om;0g'u
D q
kd yk u
f ikd x
f m;+yD; AD,uferfvrl sKd ;
rsm; vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf wdu
k yf 0JG if&efqEN&=dS uonfrmS rxl;qef;ay?
[dck srD if;.tpfronf jyifopfppfwyfYtvky&f cJo
h nf? olronf rdr&d ¶Sad om
&mxl;udt
k oH;k ðyI jyifopfwyfrS ppfvufeufypPn;f rsm;udck ;kd ,lco
hJ nf? ol
.&nf±,
G cf surf mS wae‹wiG f xdv
k ufeufrsm;udt
k oH;k ðyI jyifopfrsm;udAk D
,uferfrw
S u
kd x
f w
k &f efjzpfygonf? od@k aomf olrtm;zrf;rdomG ;ojzifh w
oufwu|ef;axmifcscH&cJhavonf?
!d,
k eJ o
f nf rdru
d ,
kd w
f ikd jf yifopfbmompum;oif,&l ef jiif;qefcahJ omf
vnf;[dt
k m; jyifopfausmif;od‹k ynmoif=um;&efy@kd aqmifco
hJ nf? Tonf
-85-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

rSmjyifopfw@kd tm;wdu
k x
f w
k &f mwGif aumif;aomjyifqifry_ ifjzpfonf[k rdrd
xifjrifaoma=umifjh zpfygonf?
[dck srD if;ausmif;+yD;onfah emufyikd ;f wc%ausmif;q&mtvky0f ifvyk cf yhJ g
kd yf gonf? Tod@k jzifw
h ikd ;f
onf? xd@k aemuf oabFmom;vky&f ef qH;k jzwfvu
jynftES@H tjym;od@k c&D;vSnv
hf nfciG &hf cJo
h nf? jyifopftifyg,mEdik if rH sm;pGm
od@k vnf; rdrad &muf&cdS o
hJ nf? Tod@k c&D;vSnv
hf nfjcif;jzifh rw&m;ojzifah oG;
pkycf &H olonf AD,uferfvrl sKd ;wpfcw
k nf;omr[kwaf =umif; olavhvmod&dS
cJ&h ygonf?
1917 ckEpS w
f iG f [do
k nfy&J pfwiG f tajccsaexdik cf yhJ gonf? um;vfrwf (Karl
Marx) a&;om;aom pmtkyr
f sm;ESit
hf jcm;vuf00J g'pD ma&;q&mrsm;a&;
om;aom pmtkyrf sm;udzk wf¶KS +y;D aemufyikd ;f uGejf rLepf0g'w
D pfa,mufjzpfvm
onf? 1920 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmvwGif jyifopfueG jf rLepfygwu
D kd pwifz@JG pnf;vdu
k f
onf? [do
k nf ,if;ygwjD zpfajrmufa&;twGuf pwifwnfaxmifcahJ omt
zG@J 0ifwpfO;D jzpfco
hJ nf?
[do
k nf tjcm;aomjyifopfueG jf rLepfygrsm;uJo
h @kd yif ±k±mS ;awmfveS af &;vkyf
ief;rsm;udo
k abmusco
hJ nf? 1924 ckEpS w
f iG f qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifpo
k @kd [dk
tvnftywfa&mufco
hJ nf? armfpudYk a&muf&adS epOf rdr.
d oli,fcsi;f xH
od@k uGejf rLepform;rsm;tm;vH;k wGif rdrw
d ikd ;f jynfo‹kd jyefomG ;&ef wm0ef¶+dS yD;
“vlxpk nf;a0;yGrJ sm;jyKvky&f ef/ pnf;&H;k &efEiS o
hf ifwef;rsm;ay;&ef/ xd@k aemuf
vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf wdu
k cf u
kd &f mwGif OD;aqmifrj_ yKjcif;” wd‹k uv
kd yk &f rnf[k
a&;om;cJhygonf?
rnfo@kd yifjzpfap [dk AD,uferfo@kd jyefomG ;cJv
h #if jyifopftm%mydik rf sm;.zrf;
qD;r_tE &W m,frS uif;v$wrf nfr[kwaf =umif; rdru
d ,
kd rf rd o
d wdjyKrdygonf?
-86-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

xd@k a=umifh w&kwEf ikd if AH ,
D uferfe,fpyfo@kd omG ;a&mufaexdik &f ef qH;k jzwf
vdu
k yf gonf? xdak e&mwGif wdik ;f wyg;a&muftrsKd ;om;a&;0g'rD sm;tm; “AD
,uferfawmfveS af &;tzG@J tpnf;” xJo@kd 0ifa&muf&efpnf;&H;k a&;vkyaf v
onf?
1940 ckEpS pf ufwifbmvwGif *syefppfom;rsm;tif'ckd sKd if;em;udk usL;ausmf
wdu
k cf u
kd cf yhJ gonf? *smreDw@kd rS yJ&pfuo
kd rd ;f ydu
k cf o
hJ nft
h wGuf jyifopfppf
kd yf q
JG ifE&J$ ef tusKd ;r±Sad wmha=umif;odI *syefrsm;xHvufeuf
om;rsm;rSwu
csvu
kd yf gonf? Ttjzpfukd awG@jrif&onfh [dck srD if;ESio
hf .
l aemufvu
kd f
om;rsm;onf Edik if jH cm;om;wd@k .tkycf sKyrf r_ v
S w
G af jrmuf&ef vkyaf qmif&rnfh
tcGit
hf cga&mufvm+yD[x
k ifjrifaoma=umifh AD,ufred f [kac:aomtzG@J
tpnf;wpfczk @JG pnf; wnfaxmifvu
kd o
f nf? ppfAv
kd cf sKyf Vo Nguyen Giap
.acgi;f aqmifrj_ zifh AD,ufred o
f nf ajymufusm;ppfqifa&;pepfjzifh *syefrsm;
tm;wdu
k cf u
kd q
f ef@usicf o
hJ nf?
AD,ufrdefonf qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkxHrS ppfvufeufrsm;ESifhcJ,rf;rD;
d nfomru ykvq
J yd u
f rf;YAH;k }uJ+yD;onfah emuf
ausmufrsm;udk vufc&H &So
tar&duefjynfaxmifpx
k rH S axmufyrhH r_ sm;&&Scd yhJ gonf? xdt
k csed u
f mvwGif
ppfbufqikd &f my&d,m,fuakd vhvmod±cdS o
hJ nf?
1945 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f wGif [D¶¶kd ;DS rm;ESiehf g*gpmuDYAH;k }urJ j_ zpfymG ;+y;D aemuf *syef
rsm;rSrrd w
d ‹kd .r[mrdwrf sm;xH vufeufcsonft
h cg AD,ufred w
f ‹kd twGuf
rdr.
d wdik ;f jynfukd tkycf sKyfEikd o
f nft
h ajctaeaumif;wpfc&k ±Sv
d monf?
1945 ckEpS pf ufwifbmvwGif [dck srD if;onf AD,uferf'rD u
kd &ufwpforRw
-87-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

Edik if zH @JG pnf;vdu
k af =umif; a=ujimvdu
k yf gonf? AD,uferfppfyt
JG +yD;wGif AD
,uferfwiG f jzpfvmrnht
f ajctaersm;udk xdyo
f ;D tpnf;ta0;yGw
J iG f z&ef
uvif;'D&pk bJ/h 0ifpwefcsyaf cs;ESi*hf sKd ;Zufpwmvifw@kd rq
S ;kH jzwf+y;D jzpfa=umif;
AD,ufred rf rS od&cdS ahJ y? 4if;wd@k . oabmwlncD surf mS AD,uferfuEkd pS yf ikd ;f cG+J y;D
ajrmufyikd ;f udk w±kww
f @kd rt
S yk cf sKyfrnfjzpf+yD;/ awmifyikd ;f udrk l +Adwo
d #w@kd rt
S yk f
csKyfrnfjzpfa=umif;AD,uferfuEkd pS yf ikd ;f cGv
J u
kd o
f nf?
'kw,
d urBmppf+y;D onfah emuf jyifopfonfA,
D uferfukd jyefvnftyk cf sKy&f ef
}udK;pm;avonf? [dck srD if;rS a=ujimvdu
k o
f nfAh ,
D uferf'rD &kd ufwpforRw
Edik if u
H jkd yifopfw@kd rt
S odtrSwrf jyKaoma=umifh AD,uferfEiS jhf yifopfppfom;
rsm;t=um;wdu
k cf u
kd rf j_ zpfymG ;avonf? tapmydik ;f wGif ppfy&d,m,fynm
u|r;f usiaf omjyifopfw@kd tm;wdu
k cf u
kd &f mwGif Adv
k cf sKyf}uD; Vo Nguyen
kd cf &hJ onf? od@k aomf 1940 ckEpS af rmfpw
D ;kH (Mao
Giap rStcuftcJrsm;&ifqi
hf rd .
d uGejf rLepfwyfom;rsm; w&kwEf ikd if ¶H dS cseaf u±Sw
d f (Chaing
Zedong) ESir
k rdS Ef iS ;f cJo
h nfh 1949 ckEpS af emufyikd ;f wGif tajctaeydrk akd umif;
Kai Shek) udE
rGev
f monf? xdt
k cgryS if AD,ufred Yf '%f&m&olrsm;ESihf rdr.
d ppfom;rsm;vHk
+cHKonfw
h yfpcef;jyKvkyv
f mEdik af yonf?
1953 ckESpfwGif AD,ufrdefonf AD,uferfajrmufydkif;±Sdae&mrsm;pGmudk
xde;f csKyf vmEdik o
f nf? od@k aomf AD,uferfawmifyikd ;f rSmrljyifopfw@kd rS tcdik f
trmcsKyfuikd x
f m;+yD; Bo Dai [kac:aom AD,uferf{u&mZfb&k ifujkd ynf
e,f. ppfO;D pD;csKyftjzpfwnfaxmifvu
kd o
f nf?
jyifopfw@kd onf ppfyw
JG iG f tcsed =f umyg0ifwu
kd cf u
kd &f OD;rnf[k ¶Si;f vif;pGmod&
aomtcg jyifopftpd;k &onf AD,ufred Ef iS ahf phpyfaqG;aEG;yGjJ yKvyk &f ef óu;d pm;cJh
-88-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

onf? jyifopfw@kd u Edik if t
H pd;k &zG@J pnf;&mwGif tultnDay;rnfjzpf+yD;w
jznf;jznf;AD,uferfuv
kd w
G v
f yfa&;ay;rnf[u
k wdjyKonf? od@k aomf [dck sD
rif;ESit
hf jcm;AD,ufred af cgi;f aqmifrsm;rSm jyifopfw@kd ajymonfurkd ,Ho
k jzifh
ppfyu
JG o
kd mqufvufqifEaJ$ vonf?
jyifopfw@kd onfvnf; ppfyq
JG ufvufa&;udck ck w
H eG ;f vSeaf vonf? AD,uferf
f eG v
f m+yjD zpfaom
wGi¶f adS omppfAv
kd cf sKy}f u;D Navarre onftcsed rf sm;pGmukev
a=umifh AD,ufred w
f ‹kd uakd tmifycJG &H ef tcsed af &muf+yD[ak wG;rdvmonf? xd@k
a=umifph pfAv
kd cf sKyf}uD; Vo Nguyen Giap tm;enf;y&d,m,fppfy}JG uD;qifEJ$
v#if rdrw
d @kd jyifopfrt
S Edik &f ¶So
d mG ;rnfrmS trSeyf ifjzpfonf[ek m;vnfo
abmayguaf vonf? 1953 ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmvwGif ppfAv
kd cf sKyf Navarre onf
avmEdik if w
H iG pf cef;csxm;aomAD,ufred rf S ,if;wd‹kf .wyfpcef;od@k 4if;wd@k jyef
roGm;Edkif&ef Dien Bien Phu wGif&SKyfaxG;aomckcHumuG,fr_udkwnf
aqmufavonf? ppfAv
kd cf sKyf}uD; Navarre .avmEdik if w
H iG f ppfqifre_ nf;
AsL[mtay:ppfAv
kd cf sKy}f u;D Giap rSjyifopftm; Dien Bien Phu wGijf yefvnf
wdu
k cf u
kd v
f rd rhf nf[rk eS ;f qxm;onf?
ppfAv
kd }f uD; Navarre .tpDtpOftwdik ;f ppfAv
kd rf LS ; Giap .pdeaf c:r_ujkd yef
vnfcck aH vonf? rnfo@kd yifjzpfap Giap onfw[kew
f ;kd wdu
k cf u
kd pf ;D ESi;f rnfh
tpm; Dien Bien Phu ud0k ef;&Hvsuf jyifopfppfom;rsm;ywfywfvnfu
wkwu
f si;f wl;avonf? uwkwu
f si;f .tjyifbufwiG t
f jcm;uwkwu
f si;f
ESiw
hf ;l ajrmif;rsm;udk jyifopfppfwyf&&dS mtv,fA[do
k @kd a&mufatmifw;l xm;
onf? Tod@k jzifAh ,
D ufred o
f nf jyifopfppfom;rsm;&S&d m Dien Bien Phu
udt
k eD;uyfcck H wdu
k cf u
kd Ef ikd af v+yD?
AD,ufred o
f nf Tod@k jyifqifrr_ sm;ESit
hf wl AD,uferfwcGiv
f ;kH &Sd rdr.
d tzG@J
-89-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

om;rsm;tm;vH;k udpk pk nf;vdu
k o
f nf? Tod@k jzifh ppfypJG wif&ef tqifoifjh zpf
avonf? Dien Bien Phu ud0k ef;&Hrnfh Giap .ppfwyfO;D a& 7 aomif;r#&+dS y;D
jyifopfppfom;rsm;xuf tqaygi;f 5 qydrk sm;onf?
1954 ckEpS rf wfv 13 &ufwiG f Vo Nguyen Giap udx
k ;kd ppfqifavonf?
AD,ufred rf jS yifopfw@kd ukd w[kex
f ;kd wdu
k cf u
kd rf u
_ kd 56 &ufr#cck w
H u
kd cf u
kd ,
f if;
jyifopfw‹kd .vufxw
J iG f Dien Bien Phu e,ftenf;i,f[musecf o
hJ nf?
tajrmufwyfrS Adv
k rf LS ;}u;D Piroth onfrrd t
d oH;k jyKcahJ om wdu
k cf u
kd rf e_ nf;y
&d,m,ftay:tjypfwifvsuf rdr.
d wyfom;rsm;tm; “usKyftvGeo
f u
d mQ
usw,f” [kqakd vonf? xd@k aemufvufypfA;kH jzifh olŒud,
k u
f kd tqH;k pD&if
vdkufonf?
jyifopfw@kd onf arv 7 &ufae@wiG f vufeufcsvu
kd af vonf? jyifopf
bufraS oa=uxdcu
kd o
f l 7 axmifr#¶+dS yD; ppfom;wpfaomif;wpfaxmifcef@
rSmaxmifcsc&H onf? aemufwae@wiG f AD,uferfrS rdrw
d @kd qw
k cf mG oGm;awmh
rnf[jk yifopftpd;k &rSa=ujimvdu
k yf gonf? aemufwvt=umwGit
f ar&d
uefjynfaxmifp/k qdAk ,
D ufjynfaxmifp/k +Adwed Ef iS jhf yifopfEikd if w
H @kd rES ikd if jH cm;
a&;0ef}uD;toD;oD;rsm;onf ud;k &D;,m;ESiAhf ,
D uferfw@kd .yËdyuQrsm;udk rdrd
wd@k taejzifh +ird ;f csr;f aomjy\emajz&Si;f r_enf;vrf;rsm;udk awG@¶v
dS #iaf wG@¶dS
aumif;aqG;aEG;&ef *seAD mwGif awG@qakH qG;aEG;=uonf?
aphpyfaqG;aEG;r_t}udraf ygi;f rsm;pGmjyKvky+f yD;onfah emuf atmufygoabm
wlncD surf sm;&¶Sv
d monf?
(1) AD,uferfukd 17 'D*&Dajrmufyikd ;f rsO;f +ydKift=um; ydik ;f jcm;xm;rnf?
(2) AD,uferfajrmufyikd ;f udk [dck srD if;tm;tkycf sKyfaprnf?
-90-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

(3) AD,uferfawmifyikd ;f udk Ngo Dinh Diem tm;tkycf sKyfaprnf?
(4) jyifopfppfom;rsm; AD,uferfrx
S u
G cf mG oGm;&rnf?
(5) AD,ufred o
f nf awmifA,
D uferfrS xGucf mG oGm;&rnf?
(6) AD,uferfvrl sKd ;rsm;onf rdrw
d @kd EpS o
f uf&m AD,uferfawmifyikd ;f wGif
aomfvnf;aumif;/ ajrmufyikd ;f wGiaf omfvnf;aumif;aexdik &f ef
vGwv
f yfpmG a&G;cs,yf ikd cf iG &hf o
dS nf?
(7) AD,uferfwcGiv
f ;kH rS taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu
JG kd 1956 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f r
wdik rf w
DS iG f tjynfjynfqikd &f maumfr&Sif .}uD;=uyfuyG u
f rJ a_ tmuf
wGiu
f si;f y&rnf?
4if;tcsurf sm;tay: &Si;f vif;pGmoabmwlnrD &_ +y;D aemuf Ngo Dinh Diem
onfA,
D uferfjynfaxmifpt
k wGuf a&G;aumufyjJG yKvky&f efrvdv
k m;ay? t
b,fa=umifq
h akd omf rdrw
d @kd .Edik if aH &;OD;wnfcsurf sm;yg0if&ef tjcm;aom
enf;vrf;rsm;jzifh a&G;aumufyjJG yKvky&f efpOf;pm;vmonf? Tod@k jzifh a&G;
aumufyrJG sm;rjzpfajrmufco
hJ nft
h wGuf vlaygi;f rsm;pGm AD,uferfawmxJ
wGifawmcdk+yD; vufeufudkiftzGJ@rsm;ydkrdkrsm;jym;vma=umif;awG@&onf?
1959 ckEpS w
f iG f Diem tpd;k &t&m¶Sad ygi;f 1˜200 cef@owfjzwfjcif;cH&onf?
Tr[menf;AsL[mudk [dck srD if;tpuwnf;uyifqef@usicf o
hJ nf? AD,uf
erfawmifyikd ;f &Sd vufeufuikd w
f yfz@JG rsm;onf Diem tpd;k &tay:t=urf;
zuf wdu
k cf u
kd rf nft
h pm; rdrw
d @kd .tzG@J tpnf;vdt
k yfcsuaf xmufyahH &;rsm;udk
ompOf;pm;vkyaf qmifoifah =umif;jiif;ckecf yhJ gonf?
aemufq;kH wGi[
f ckd srD if;onf ajymufusm;ppfqifa&;wyfukd tultnDay;&ef
oabmwlnv
D u
kd o
f nf? vufeufuikd t
f zG@J i,fuav;rsm;udk aygi;f pnf;I
-91-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

tiftm;}uD;rm;aom ckcw
H eG ;f vSeo
f nft
h zG@J jzpfvm&ef tm;ay;wdu
k w
f eG ;f cJh
onf? ,if;wdk@oabmwlnDaoma=umifh 1960 ckESpf'DZifbmvwGif
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF) udz
k @JG pnf;vdu
k f
onf? tar&duefrsm;ac:ae=ujzpfaom NLF ac: Vietcong onfujJG ym;
aom Edik if aH &;ESib
hf moma&;aygi;f rsm;pGmrS jzpfay:vmcJo
h nf? NLF acgi;f
aqmifjzpfaom Saigon a&S@ae Hua Tho onf qd¶k ,
S v
f pfoabmw&m;a&;
rl0g'¶So
d rl [kwcf ahJ omfvnf; Tvky¶f mS ;r_wiG yf g0ifoal ygi;f rsm;pGmwd@k onf
uGejf rLepf0g'udk axmufct
H m;ay;=uaomolrsm;jzpfonf?
onfrrd .
d ppfom;rsm;udk oHOk ;D rSq,fO;D jzifh tzG@J i,fav;rsm;zG@J pnf;
xm;onf? TtzG@J i,frsm;tm; Cells [kac:onf? TtzG@J i,frsm;onf
twlwuGtvkyv
f yk af qmif=uaomfvnf; rdrw
d @kd wpfO;D csi;f pDEiS o
hf ufqikd f
onft
h a=umif;rsm;udrk od=uacs? Tenf;tm;jzifh rdrw
d @kd .ajymufusm;wyf
zG@J rsm;tzrf;cH&onft
h cgwiG af omfvnf;aumif;/ !‡O;f yrf;ESyd pf ufjcif;cH&onfh
tcgwiG af omfvnf;aumif; rdrw
d ‹kd .0efccH surf sm;u NLF tm;xdcu
kd ef pfem
apjcif;tvGeef nf;yg;onf?
NLF

NLF .ueOD;&nfre
S ;f csuyf ef;wdik rf sm;rSm aus;vufa'o¶Sd awmifov
l ,f

orm;rsm;.axmufcHr_udk&¶Sd&eftwGufjzpfonf? NLF rS¶Gmrsm;odk@0if
a&mufonfhtcgwGif rdrdwdk@vkdufem&rnfhpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;csufrsm;¶Sdyg
onf? tzG@J om;rsm;tm;vH;k Tvrf;!$ecf surf sm;udt
k wdtusvu
kd ef m=u
&onf? 4if;pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;vrf;!$ecf surf sm;rSm(1) jynfow
l @kd .ydik q
f ikd rf r_ sm;/ aetdrrf sm;/ aumufyo
J ;D ESrH sm;/ ajr,mrsm;
udrk zsuq
f ;D &?
(2) jynforl sm;tvdrk &Syd gu trdt&wdu
k w
f eG ;f Iacs;iSg;apjcif;/ a&mif;cdik ;f
-92-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

apjcif;rsm;rjyKvky&f ?
(3) rdrw
d @kd uwdjyKonft
h wdik ;f uwdwnf&rnf?
(4) jynfow
l @kd tm;txiftjrifao;aponfph um;rsm;/ trlt&mrsm;
jzifrh jyKvky&f ?
(5) vlxw
k @kd .ae@pOfvyk if ef;rsm;jzpfaom (aumuf&w
d jf cif;/ xif;acGjcif;/
f n
l rD a_ y;&ef ponfw@kd jzpfyg
a&cyfjcif;/ pufcsKyfjcif;ponfrsm;wGiu
onf?
1964 ckEpS w
f iG f tar&dueforRw Lyndon B. Johnson onfr;kd +crd ;f uJo
h @kd }u;D
rm;aomppfqifa&; (Operation Rolling Thunder) udpk wifqifEcJ$ o
hJ nf?
,if;wd‹k .tpDtpOfrmS AD,uferfajrmufyikd ;f .pD;yGm;a&;udk zsuq
f ;D &efEiS Ahf D
,uferfawmifyikd ;f ajymufusm;wyfrsm;udk ulnrD r_ &S yfwef@ap&ef tpDtpOf&Sd
ygonf? Tppfqifa&;onf &Spyf wf=umppfqifa&;pDru
H ed ;f jzpfaomfvnf;oH;k
ESprf #=umoGm;onf? xdt
k awmtwGi;f wGif tar&duefonf AD,uferfY
AH;k wefcsed w
f pfoef;cef@}uJco
hJ nf?
f eG o
f mG ;ygonf?
1969 ckEpS w
f iG f [dck srD if; uGev

-93-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]ppfyGJudkNyD;qHk;apwm[mppfyGJjzpfNyD; aoewfawGudkypfcszdkUtwGufao
ewfuikd zf Ukd vdt
k yfygw,f/}}
“War can only be abolished through war, and in order to get rid of
the gun it is necessary to take up the gun”

]]avhusifhysdK;axmifrIr½SdwJhppfwyf[m xHkxdkif;xdkif;rIdif;wJhppfwyfjzpfNyD;
xHkxdkif;wJhppfwyf[m b,fawmhrSrdrd&Jh&efoludk acsrIef;EdkifrSmr[kwfbl;/}}
“An army without culture is a dull-witted army, and a dull-witted
army cannot defeat the enemy”

]]urÇmBuD;&Jhordkif;udkvIyf½Sm;wuf<upGma&;rSwfaewmuvlawGomvQifjzpfw,f/}}
“The people, and the people alone, are the motive force in the
making of world history”

armfpDwHk; (1893–1976)

armf

pDw;kH onfqif;&Jom;v,form;wpf
OD;.om;jzpfonf? olonf 1930 ESihf
1940 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f ±Sd w±kwu
f eG jf rLepfygwv
D y_ ±f mS ;
r_rsm;udk OD;aqmifc+hJ yD; 1949 ckEpS w
f iG f w±kwEf ikd if .
H
acgi;f aqmif}uD;wpfa,mufjzpfvmonf?
armfonf 1893ckEpS 'f ZD ifbmv 26&ufae@wiG [
f el efjynfe,f/ a±Smif±eS af us;
±Gm±Sv
d ,form;rdom;pkzmG ;jrifvmcJo
h nf? armfpw
D ;kH .zcifrmS wu,fpnf;
urf;±Sad omoljzpf+yD; armfuwcgwavol@zcif.trde@f ukd zDvmqef@usif
aeonf? wpfcguarmfuTod@k ajymcJzh ;l onf? “u|eaf wmht
f azuausmif;
ESpw
f ef;wufczhJ ;l +yD; pmtkyaf wGzwfwwfw,f? 'gayrJt
h aru pmvH;k 0r
zwfwwfb;l ? u|eaf wmfuawmh rdom;pkawGtwGuf ‘pmwwfay wwf’
wpfa,mufyaJ yg?h u|eaf wmf±;kd &mtpOftvma[mif;awGoyd gw,f? 'gayrJh
u|eaf wmfr}uKd ub
f ;l ? u|eaf wmf}uKd uw
f mu [d;k a±S;a±S;wke;f u w±kwjf ynf
&Jh ta=umif;awGjzpf+y;D txl;ojzifh awmfveS o
f al wG&t
hJ a=umif;jzpfw,f?”
-94-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

armfpw
D ;kH ynmoif=um;pOfwiG f uGejf zL±Sy.
f oabmw&m;rsm;oif=um; &+y;D
w±kwjf ynfordik ;f / pmayESizhf v
D q
kd zkd w
D @kd uo
kd if=um;&onf? 1911 ckEpS w
f iG f
armfonfcse±f mS +rdK@ (Changsha) od@k omG ;cJ+h yD; &DywfbvpfuefppfwyfwiG pf pf
om;tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmif&onf? &Dywfbvpfuefwyfonf 1911 ckEpS f
awmfveS af &;wGio
f #if (Qing) rif;rsKd ;rif;qufrsm;udk xkwyf ,fcahJ omoljzpf
onf? cse±f mS +rKd @Y±Sad epOf armfu taemufwikd ;f zDvq
kd zkd rD sm;udk avhvmqnf;
yl;+yD;owif;pmESi*hf sme,frsm;udv
k nf; zwf±a_ vhvmcJo
h nf?
1918 ckEpS cf se±f mS wGi±f adS om[leefq&mtwwfoifaumvdyw
f iG f atmifjrif
cJ+h yD; yDuif;od@k omG ;um yDuif;wuUov
kd pf m=unfw
h u
kd Yf tvky&f ±Scd o
hJ nf?
r=umcifrmS yif armfonf rm;ppf (Marxist) Edik if EH iS v
hf rl a_ &;tawG;tac:t
a=umif;avhvmonft
h zG@J wpfz@JG EiS ahf ygi;f rd+yD; aemufwiG f rm;ppf.ta&;t
om;rSeo
f r#ukd rv$ww
f rf;zwfonfo
h jl zpfvmonf? 1919 ckEpS af rv 4
&ufae@vy_ ±f mS ;r_twGi;f ausmif;om;rsm; ESiyhf nmwwfrsm;u w±kwjf ynf
. acwfrw
DS ;kd wufa&;twGuf atmf[pfaepOf armfpw
D ;kH uGejf zL ±Syt
f ,l0g'
(Confucianism) . ±d;k &m"avhx;kH xrf;tarGtESpr
f sm;tay: a0zefrr_ sm;jyK
vkycf o
hJ nf? olu±d;k &m"avhrsm;udk awmfveS yf ek u
f efonft
h cg ud,
k cf E<mpGr;f
tifEiS Ohf ;D aESmuftoH;k jyK&rnf[k tav;teufa&;om;xm;onf? yDuif;
wGif ,if;.yxrZeD;onf,Ofuikd [
f ;DG ( Yang Kaihui) ESiahf wG@qv
kH ufxyfchJ
onf? (armftouf 14 ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f ol@zcifu ol@u±kd mG xJ±rdS ed ;f uav;
wpfa,mufEiS v
hf ufxyfay;cJo
h nf? od@k aomfarmfu Tvufxyfyu
JG b
kd ,f
awmhrt
S odtrSerf jyKcJah cs?)
±k±mS ;awmfveS af &;.=oZmv$r;f rd;k r_a=umifh 1921 ckEpS Zf eG v
f wGif ±Se[
f ikd ;f +rKd @Y
w±kwu
f eG jf rLepfygw–D Chinese Communist Party–CCP udzk @JG pnf;wnf
axmifcJhonf? armfpDwHk;u ,if;ygwD.tapmqHk;tzGJ@0ifjzpfvmonf?
aemifEpS Ef pS t
f enf;i,fwiG f armfpw
D ;kH ESio
hf .
l oli,fcsi;f ±k±mS ;awmfveS af &;
-95-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

atmifjrifatmifxal xmifay;aom vDeif.t,l0g'wd@k ukd pwiftoH;k jyKcJh
onf?
armfonf ±Se[
f ikd ;f Edik if aH &;tzG@J EiS phf wiftvkyv
f yk cf o
hJ nf? qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D ±H dS
t}uaH y;yk*Kd~ vrf sm;tultnDjzifh ulrifwef; (Nationalist Party) trsKd ;om;
a&;0g'yD gww
D jznf;jznf;w±kwEf ikd if w
H iG t
f m%m±Sv
d monf? rwfv 12 &uf
1925 ckEpS w
f iG f ,if;wd@k .acgi;f aqmifpef,wfpif (Sun Yat-Sen) uG,v
f eG f
oGm;cJ+h y;D cseaf u±Sw
d u
f acgi;f aqmifjzpfvmonf? cseaf u±Sw
d rf S tzG@J tpnf;
twGi;f ±Su
d eG jf rLepfrsm;udk xkwyf ,fz@kd t+rJ}udK;pm;cJo
h nf? tESyd u
f yG rf cH&
aomuGejf rLepfrsm;u Jiangxi Soviet tzG@J uw
kd nfaxmifco
hJ nf?
trsKd ;om;a&;0g'rD sm;onf 0dik ;f &Hyw
d q
f @kd rr_ sm;pwifjyKvkyv
f monft
h wGuf
uGejf rLepfrsm; xdak e&mrS }uKd ; pm;xGuo
f mG ;+y;D w±kwjf ynf.taemufajrmuf
bufwiG f trmcHpcef;topfwpfcck svu
kd o
f nf? 1934 ck ESpaf tmufwb
kd m
vwGif armfEiS t
hf jcm;trsKd ;om;wpfoed ;f ausmEf iS ,
hf if;wd@k .rdom;pk0ifrsm;
onf t aemufyikd ;f ±Sd awmifwef;rsm;±S&d ma'ood@k xGuaf jy;wdr;f a±SmifomG ;
cJhonf?
xdo
k @kd wrd ;f a±Smifxu
G af jy;olrsm; tcuftcJtrsKd ;rsKd ;ESi&hf ifqikd &f onf? olw@kd
onfwpfae@v#if rdik af ygi;f 50 ausmaf v#mufwuf+yD; ±Sepf o
D @kd atmufwb
kd m
v 20 &ufae@ 1935 ckEpS w
f iG af &muf±cdS o
hJ nf? cef@reS ;f ajct&rdik f 8˜000
ausmv
f rf;av#mufjcif;wGiv
f l 30˜000 omtouf±iS af exdik Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf?
1937 ckEpS w
f iG f *syefwyfrsm;u w±kwEf ikd if o
H @kd usL;ausm0f ifa&mufcphJ Of csef
au±Sw
d u
f +rKd @awmfuekd rfuifrcS |eu
f if;od@k a±$@ajymif;cJo
h nf? olonf urf;±d;k
wef;a'owpfav#mufEiS t
hf a&;}u;D aom+rKd @}u;D wpfcsKd @ukd *syefw@kd .vufxJ
od@k qH;k ±_;H vdu
k &f onf? *syefwyfrsm;udk wdu
k x
f w
k v
f akd oma=umifh cseaf u
-96-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

±Sw
d u
f armfpw
D ;kH ESio
hf .
l uGejf rLepfwyfrawmfEiS v
hf ufw&JG ef qH;k jzwfvu
kd f
onf?
'kw,
d urBmppftwGi;f armfpw
D ;kH .pepfwus±adS om ajymufusm;wyfrawmf
rsm;udk Zl';D (Zhu De) ESiv
hf ifbikd af tmif ( Lin Biao) wd@k rOS ;D aqmifco
hJ nf?
*syefw@kd rS vufeufcsvu
kd o
f nfEiS w
hf pf+yKd ief uf uGejf rLepfwyfrsm;u cseaf u
±Sw
d Of ;D aqmifaom trsKd ;om;a&;0g'w
D yfrsm;udjk yefIwdu
k cf u
kd cf o
hJ nf? uGef
jrLepfrsm;jzpfaomw±kwef w
D yfrsm;wGif pnf;urf;yd±k jdS cif;/ cH,cl suo
f abmw
&m;jrifjh rwfjcif;/ ae&mtES@H tjym;±Sd awmifov
l ,form;.axmufcrH r_ sm;
a=umifh cseaf u±Sw
d w
f yfrrsm;udk av;ESpt
f wGi;f tEdik w
f u
kd Ef ikd cf o
hJ nf? 1949
ckEpS af tmufwb
kd mvwGif CCP .OuUXtjzpfarmfpw
D ;kH u w±kwEf ikd if u
H w
kd
±kwjf ynfo@l orRwEdik if [
H ak c:qdck o
hJ nf? cseaf u±Sw
d .
f wyfrsm;onf xdik 0f rf
u|e;f od@k xu
G af jy;v$waf jrmufco
hJ nf?
uGejf rLepfw@kd onf wjznf;jznf;wdik ;f jynfux
kd ed ;f csKyfvmEdik +f yD; 1949 ckEpS f
atmufwb
kd mv 1 &ufae@wiG f armfu w±kwjf ynfo@l orRwEdik if u
H x
kd l
axmifvu
kd +f yD;jzpfa=umif;a=ujimcJo
h nf?
1958 ckEpS w
f iG af rmfu“a±S@o@kd t[kejf yif;pGmckeyf saH usmv
f m$ ;jcif; (Great Leap
k =ujimcJ+h yD; pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;ESiphf ufry_ pPn;f xkwv
f yk af &;rsm;wd;k
Forward)” uda
wufrsm;jym;vmap&efa=umfjimcJo
h nf? Tjyefvnf xlaxmifa&;vkyif ef;
wGif pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;}u;D rsm;udk bHt
k zG@J pepftjzpfxal xmif+y;D vl 75˜000
ausmyf g0ifco
hJ nf? bHt
k zG@J pepfwpfcpk w
D iG f ,if;wd@k . ud,
k yf ikd +f cHajrESi0hf uf±kH
rsm;±S=d uonf? rdom;pkwpfcpk w
D iG f twd;k rsm;udck aJG 0&,l+yD; olw@kd .ud,
k yf ikd f
v,f , majrrsm;ud k , f p D ± S d = uonf ? od k @ aomf oH k ; ES p f q uf w d k u f a &
}uD;jcif;ESiahf umufyo
J ;D ESrH aumif;jcif;a=umifh ,if;wd@k .xkwu
f ek u
f x
kd cd u
kd f
ysupf ;D apcJo
h nf? xd@k twl qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D rH S ,if;.u|r;f usio
f rl sm;udjk yef
-97-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

vnfac:,ljcif;a=umifh xkv
d yk if ef;wd@k ux
kd cd u
kd yf supf ;D apcJo
h nf? ,if;wd@k &±Sd
onf&h v'frmS vnf; raumif;yJ cef@reS ;f ajct& Great Leap Forward umv
twGi;f vl 31 rS 33 oef;ausmt
f oufq;kH ±H;_ cJ&h onf?
Great Leap Forward .ratmifjrifra
_ =umifh armfu w±kwjf ynfo@l orRw

Edik if .
H OuUX&mxl;rSEw
_ x
f u
G v
f u
kd o
f nf? ol.ae&mudk vsLa±Smif±DS (Lui
H ±So
d nf? od@k aomf armftaeESihf ay:vpDrsm;qH;k jzwf&eft
Shaoqi) uqufc&
wGut
f a&;}uD;aomyk*Kd~ vftjzpfuse±f adS eao;onf?
armfonf 1966 ckEpS Yf Edik if aH &;avmuwGif wpfzefjyef0ifa&mufvm+yD;vif
bdik af ,mif (Lin Biao) ESit
hf wlvufwI
JG ,Ofaus;r_awmfveS af &;udk pwifchJ
onf? 1966 ckEpS pf ufwifbmv 3 &ufae@wiG f vifbikd af ,mifurde@f ceG ;f
ajym=um;&mwGif ausmif;om;rsm;ESiw
hf uUov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;tm; (NikH aom ygwt
D m%mydik rf sm;udak 0
-ita Khrushchev) .t,ltqv$r;f rd;k r_c&
zefrj_ yK&efwu
kd w
f eG ;f cJo
h nf?
armf.a[majymr_rsm;txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;u wHk@jyefr_ay;aom
tm;jzifh yDuif;±Sad usmif;om;rsm;u teDa&miftapmihw
f yfom; (Red Guak @JG pnf;cJo
h nf? armfu Tv_y±f mS ;r_rsm;udk axmufcaH =umif;t
-rds) rsm;udz
rSwt
f om;jyKvu
kd o
f nfEiS w
hf +yKd ief uf wkid ;f jynfw0Sr;f vH;k ±Sd ausmif;om;rsm;
u teDa&miftapmifw
h yfrsm;udk wdik ;f jynfwpfjynfv;kH wGif pIxlaxmifchJ
onf? Tausmif;om;rsm;u ,if;wd@k .q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ ausmif;tkycf sKyf
a&;rsm;ESit
hf pd;k &t&m±Sw
d @kd ukd pwifa0zefajymqd=k uonf? armfu,
kd w
f ikd u
f
1966 ckEpS =f o*kwv
f 18 &ufae@w,
D eferifpuGw
J iG w
f &m;a[maepOf teD
a&miftapmifw
h yfom;rsm; aomif;aygi;f rsm;pGm wufa&mufvm=uonf?
ausmif;rsm;ydw+f yD;aemuf wEdik if H vH;k ±Sad usmif;om;rsm;u armfub
kd &k m;w
qltjzpf =unfnKd av;pm;=uonf? ausmif;ESiw
hf uUov
kd af usmif;rsm;
-98-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

1966 ckEpS rf pS ydwI
f 1969 ckEpS t
f xdyw
d cf o
hJ nf? armfuausmif;om;rsm;udk
“Smash the four olds” [kac:qdo
k nf? “ta[mif;av;ckuykd ,fzsujf cif;”
qdo
k nft
h ,ltqa[mif;/ ,Ofaus;r_a[mif;/ "avhx;kH wrf;a[mif;ESit
hf
avhtusiahf [mif;” wd@k uzkd suq
f ;D ypf&efjzpfonf? teDa&miftapmifw
h yf
om;rsm;apwDyx
k ;kd rsm;/ tEkynmtvkyrf sm;/ pmayrsm;ESiEhf ikd if jH cm;±d;k &mESi"fh
avhx;kH wrf;rsm;udk zsuq
f ;D ypfonf? xd@k twl tEkynm±Sirf sm;/ pma&;q&m
rsm;ESiEhf ikd if jH cm;ESit
hf quftoG,±f o
dS rl sm;udv
k nf; jiif;yef;ESyd pf ufco
hJ nf?
w&m;cHrsm;udk jynforl sm;u 0kid ;f Ia0zefjcif;/ t±Sucf jJG cif;ESirhf awmfrw&m;
ESyd pf ufjcif;rsm;udjk yKvyk o
f nf? ynmwwfrsm;jzpfaom pma&;q&mavmif±DS
(Lao She) ESio
hf rdik ;f ynm±Si0f [
l ef(Wu Han) wk@d onf towfc&H jcif; od@k r
[kww
f ±kwef w
D yfw@kd .vufcsujf zifah oa=uqH;k ±H;_ cJ&h onf? trsm;uaxmif
xJtusO;f csc&H jcif; od@k r[kwf tvkyjf yif;xefpmG vky&f jcif;rsm;yg0ifonf?
omreftpdk;&t&m±Sdwdk@udk tajccHusaomtzGJ@wdk@. wdkufcdkufr_udkcHcJh&
onf? armfpw
D ;kH ud,
k w
f ikd af ±G;cs,af om vsLa±Smif±u
DS ,
kd w
f ikd f omrefacgi;f
aqmifwpfO;D jzpf+y;D t&m&mudv
k ufawG@enf;tm;jzifh udik w
f ,
G af jz±Si;f aom
oljzpfaoma=umifh ol@uv
kd rl sm;u “w±kwEf ikd if &H ehJ yH gww
f pft&if;±Sipf epfukd
vrf;cif; ay;cJw
h v
hJ jl zpf+y;D armfpw
D ;kH udk azmufjyefwv
hJ v
l @kd pGypf jJG cif;cH&w,f?”
olu 1969 ckEpS w
f iG f axmifxw
J iG af oqH;k oGm;cJo
h nf? vsLESiEhf ikd if t
H quf
toG,±f adS om wde@f a±Smifzed f (Deng Xiaoping) wd@k ukd tpd;k &&mxl;rS jzKwcf s
vdu
k +f yD; axmifxt
J usO;f csIjzpfap/ jynfEiS 'f g%af y;Ijzpfap jyKvkycf o
hJ nfh
ppfa&;acgi;f aqmif vifbikd af ,mifonf armfvrl a_ &;awmfveS af &;ay:vpD
udk axmufc+H yD;aemuf 1969 ckEpS w
f iG f armf.&mxl;udq
k ufc&H ±So
d nf?
1967 ckEpS w
f iG f trdsK;om;vGwaf jrmufa&;wyfrawmfukd jyefvnfac:,lchJ
onf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f w±kwef v
D y_ ±f mS ;r_rsm;ESihf r=umc%wdu
k yf rJG sm;qufEJG
-99-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

cJ&h onf? 1967 ckEpS rf S 1969 ckEpS t
f wGi;f vlaxmifaygi;f rsm;pGmaocJ&h onf?
jzpfay:aeaom qlyal omif;use;f r_w@kd ukd &yfp&J eftwGuf tpd;k &tzG@J tpnf;
rsm;udk PLA .vufatmufwiG x
f m;+yD; ,Ofaus;r_awmfveS af &;udpk wifchJ
onf? 1969 ckEpS rf pS I +rKd @aetpd;k &t&m±Srd sm;eSiyhf nmwwfrsm;udk awm±Gm
rsm;od@k apv$wI
f armf.vkyif ef;rsm;udk avhvmapcJo
h nf? +rdK@ay:±St
d ouf
16–19 t±G,±f v
dS il ,fuav;rsm;udv
k nf; rdom;pkEiS chf x
JG w
k I
f awm±Gm
rsm;odk@apv$wfum qif;&Jom;v,form;rsm;xHwGif A[kokw±SmrSD;ap
onf? rdom;pkrsm;udck x
JG w
k +f yD; wpfa,mufEiS w
hf pfa,muf rdik af xmifaygi;f
rsm;pGmaomae&mwGifxm;+yD; cufcJqif;&J=uyfwnf;pGmaexdkifaponf?
tdro
f @kd jyefvmcGirhf &onft
h wGuf wcsKd @vil ,fv±l ,
G rf sm;rSm aus;vufa'
orsm;wGiEf pS af ygi;f rsm;pGmaexdik cf &hJ ±Smonf?
1970 ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f armfu ol.&nf±,
G cf sujf zpfaom +rdK@EiS ahf us;vuf
awm±Gmrsm;t=um; pD;yGg;a&;vpf[mr_w@kd ukd av#mch s&ef}udK;pm;cJo
h nf? +rdK@
aevlux
kH w
H @kd .om;orD;rsm;rSm a'owGi;f ±Sq
d if;&Jom;v,form;rsm;t
aumiftxnfaz:+yD;aom vkyfief;rsm;ta=umif;om oif=um;&onf?
ausmif;om;rsm;onf tajccHaq;ynmrsm;oif=um;cGi&fh ±S+d yD; awm±Gmrsm;
od@k aus;vufq&m0efrsm;taeESio
hf mG ;a&muf+yD; qif;&Jom;v,form;
rsm;twGuf tajccHuse;f rma&;apmifah ±Smufrw
_ @kd uakd y;&onf? +rKd @aevlaer_
tqift
h wef;rsm;udk awmfveS af &;bJav;jyZmwfrsm;/ atmfy&mESit
hf jcm;
aompmayrsm;udk xkwv
f yk cf +hJ yD; rsm;aomtm;jzifu
h s,
D ef±iS f (Jiang Qing)
(armfpDwHk;.ZeD;av;a,mufwpfa,muf) vufatmufwGifxkwfa0cJh
onf? xdt
k Ekynmrsm;rSm qif;&Jom;v,form;rsm;. v_y±f mS ;r_rsm;ESihf
armfpw
D ;kH .ta=umif;*k%jf yKa&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf?
1970 ckEpS f ESpv
f ,fyikd ;f twGi;f tpGe;f a&muf,Ofaus;r_awmfveS af &;rsm;
aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;aomfvnf; wpfcsKd @wpfavu use±f adS eao;onf? armft
-100-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

aeESihf vlav;a,muftzG@J ukd axmufct
H m;ay;cJo
h nf? xdak v;a,mufrmS
us,
D ef±iS f (armf.ZeD;)/ 0rf[ek 0f if (Wang Hongwen)/ a,mif0if,eG f (Vao
hf efc|e±f aDS ,mif(Zhane Chungqiao) wd@k jzpfonf? Tvlav;
Wenyuan) ESiZ
a,muftzG@J rmS tm%m}uD;rm;vmcJo
h nf? armfpw
D ;kH aoqH;k +yD; 1976 ckEpS f
wGif us,
D ef±iS Ef iS t
hf jcm;*d%
k ;f orm;av;a,mufukd jypfrr_ sm;pGmjzifh w&m;pGJ
qdkcJhonf? usD,ef±Sifudk,fwdkifaordef@cscHcJh&+yD;aemuf woufwu|ef;
axmifcsc&H onf? ,if;vlav;a,muf*%
kd ;f udk zrf;qD;+yD;aemuf ,Ofaus;r_
awmfveS af &;+y;D qH;k oGm;ovd±k cdS o
hJ nf? wde@f a±Smifzed @f vufxufwiG rf l xd,
k Of
aus;r_awmfveS af &;udk jypfwif±@H_ csco
hJ nf?
armfpw
D ;kH onf yDuif;Y 1976 ckEpS pf ufwifbmv 9 &ufae@wiG f aoqH;k oGm;
cJhonf?
armfpw
D ;kH vufxuf 1949 rS 1975 txdcef@reS ;f ajct& ,if;.Edik if aH &;v_yf
±Sm;r_a=umifh vl@toufaygi;f 54˜750˜000 rS 56˜900˜000 txd qH;k ±H;_ cJ&h
onf[kqdk.?

-101-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]vlom;tusdK;aqmif&Gufa&;t,l0g'[m owÅdr&SdaMumif;ESifh
iwHk;jzpfaMumif;udkazmfjyw,f/}}
"Humanitarianism is the expression of stupidity and cowardice."

]]vdrfvnfrIudkBuD;BuD;us,fus,fvkyfyg/ &dk;&dk;av;eJUbJvdrfvnfajymqdkyg?
tjrJajymaeyg/ tvdkvdkeJU olwdkU,HkMunfMuygvdrfhr,f/}}
"Make the lie big, make it simple, keep saying it, and eventually they
will believe it."

]]atmifjrifjcif;twGufyxrqHk;vdktyfcsuf[m tMurf;zufrIudk
yHkrSefeJUtqufrjywf toHk;jyKjcif;jzpfw,f/}}
"The very first essential for success is a perpetually constant and
regular employment of violence."

t'dk;zf[pfwvm (1889–1945)

1

930 ckEpS yf ikd ;f wGif pD;yGm;a&;/ Edik if aH &;ESiv
hf rl a_ &;
tajctaersm; ¶kww
f &ufajymif;vJonft
h csed f
wGif =oZmv$r;f rd;k +yD; rde‹f ceG ;f tajymaumif;aom=o
p}wD;,m;Edik if zH mG ; t'd;k zf[pfwvm(Adolf Hitler) rS
1920 ckEpS t
f wGi;f *smreDY tm%m&¶Sv
d monf?
1923 ckEpS w
f iG f tm%mrodr;f ,lEikd cf ahJ omfvnf; wjznf;jznf;aemufq;kH Y'D
rdu
k a&pDtyk cf sKyfa&;yHpk jH zifh tm%m&¶Scd o
hJ nf? tm%m&onfEiS rhf rd t
d m;
wdu
k cf jH yKolrsm;ESihf *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;tm; okwo
f if&iS ;f vif;ypfjcif;jzifh urBmw
0Sr;f vH;k udpk wifvr$ ;f rd;k csKyfuikd v
f monf?
t'd;k zf[pfwvmonf *smrefe,fpyfEiS ehf ;D aom =op}w;D ,m; Edik if &H dS +rKd @av;
wpf+rKd @Y 1889 ckEpS {f +yv
D 20 &ufae@wiG af rG;zGm;cJyh gonf? [pfwvm.rdb
ESpyf g;rSm qif;&Jaomukeo
f nfp;D yGm;a&;orm; rdom;pkrsm;rS qif;oufvm
-102-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

onf? ol.zciftmvG;D Zf[pfwvm (Alois Hitler)onf tartdraf zmfrESihf
w&m;0ifzcifr±Sad om om;jzpfcahJ omfvnf; olonftvGeaf wmfIar#mv
f ifh
csu}f u;D rm;olwpfa,mufjzpfaoma=umifh aemufyikd ;f wGif taumufceG Xf m
erS t&m&S}d uD;wpfO;D jzpfvmonf?
[pfwvmonf tajccHrv
l wef;ausmif;wGif ynmxl;c|e+f yD; tem*wfwiG f
ynma&;zufwiG f xGe;f aygurf nfo
h w
l pfO;D jzpfrnft
h vm;tvm±So
d nf? t
wef;xJwiG f tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;uJo
h @kd yif ausm=f um;olwpfO;D jzpf+y;D ol.
acgi;f aqmifrt
_ &nftcsi;f rsm;onf tvGecf s;D usL;zG,af umif;ygonf? ol
onf bmoma&;qefow
l pfO;D vnf;jzpfygonf? [pfwvmonf bmem
wdwif; (Beneditine) bkef;}uD;ausmif;ESifhrsufESm csif;qdkifwGif 6 vr#
aexdkifcJhygonf? bkef;}uD;ausmif;.xl;jcm;xif&Sm;aom yHko¾mefrSm
emZDp=um wHqdyf jzpfygonf? i,f&G,folwpfOD;taejzifh t'dk;zfonf
bke;f awmf}uD;wpfa,mufjzpf&efpw
d u
f ;l cJyh gonf?
txufwef;ausmif;}uD;wGif +ydKifqikd rf r_ sm;ydrk sm;vmonft
h wGuf xdyw
f ef;
tqifw
h iG rf &&So
d nft
h cg ol.a&S@quf}udK;pm;aponfh pdwef nf;yg;oGm;ap
onf? ol@.zcifrmS ol@tm;ausmif;+yD;onft
h cg =op}wD;,m;tpd;k &XgewGif
yg0iftr_xrf;rnfjzpfjy;D zcifajc.&meif;rnfo
h jl zpfvrd rhf nf[k ar#mv
f ifch suf
rsm;xm;&Scd yhJ gonf? od@k aomf [pfwvmonf acgi;f rmcJo
h jl zpf+y;D pm}uKd ;pm;
&efv‹H_ aqmfcahJ om ol.rdbrsm;/ ausmif;q&mrsm;. oGeo
f ifq;kH rr_rsm;rSm
ratmifjrifcahJ y? wqufwnf;wGiv
f nf; [pfwvmonf ol.tazmf
ausmif;om;rsm;=um;wGif xifay:ausmf=um;r_rsm;rSmvnf;enf;ygvmcJh
onf? xd@k a=umifo
h @l taz:rsm;uol‹ukd ,if;wd‹k . acgi;f aqmifwpfO;D jzpf&ef
-103-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

vdv
k m;r_r¶Sad wmhay? [pfwvmonf ol‹xuftoufi,faomausmif;
om;rsm;tm; trde@f ay;&onfukd tvGeEf pS o
f ufcyhJ gonf? xd@k a=umifyh if
ol@trde‹f tm;rvGeq
f efEikd o
f nfh ol@xuftoufi,f&,
G o
f nfu
h av;rsm;
jzifh tcsed rf sm;pGmudu
k ek v
f eG af p cJyh gonf? 1900 ckEpS w
f iG f [pfwvmutEk
ynmonfwpfO;D jzpf&ef pdw0f ifpm;vmcJo
h nf?
[pfwvmonf ol@.zcifu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;onft
h csed w
f iG t
f ouf 13 ESpo
f m
&Sad o;onf? zcifu,
G v
f eG o
f mG ;cJah omfvnf; olw@kd ro
d m;pktwGuf aiGa&;
a=u;a&;jy\emr&Scd ahJ y? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf olw@kd yikd q
f ikd o
f nfu
h ,
kd yf ikd f
tdr&f +dS yD;/ aiGtvH;k t&if;tcsKd @EiS t
hf pd;k &0efxrf;rS&&So
d nfh t+idr;f pm;vpmaiG
rsm; vufc&H &Sad oma=umifjh zpfygonf? twef;xJ wGipf mnHo
h nft
h a=umif;
a=umifEh iS hf use;f rma&;raumif;onft
h a=umif;wd@k a=umifh [pfwvmonf
touf 16 ESpt
f &G,w
f iG f ausmif;rSEw
_ x
f u
G cf yhJ gonf?
[pfwvmtouf 18 ESpt
f &G,w
f iG f zcifrx
S m;cJah y;aomtarGukd vufcH
&&Syd gonf? &±Sad omtarGjzifh tEkynmonfwpfO;D jzpfvm&ef rdr&d nfreS ;f
xm;ouJo
h @kd AD,m;emod@k ajymif;a&$@omG ;onf? rdr.
d tEkynmvuf,mpGr;f
&nfrmS vHak vmufaejyD [laomtawG;tjrif&cdS ahJ omfvnf; AD,m;emtEky
nmoifausmif;rS ol.0ifciG ahf v#mufxm;pmudv
k ufrcHonft
h cgo@l .ar#mf
rSe;f csurf sm; tpdwpf w
d t
f r$mr$mysupf ;D cJ&h ygonf? wqufwnf;wGif AD,m;
em;Adou
k mynmoifausmif;wGif ynmqnf;yl;&efxyfraH v#mufxm;aomf
vnf; ol@xw
H iG af usmif;xGuv
f ufrw
S rf ¶Sad oma=umifh xdak usmif;uol@ukd
vufrcHcahJ y?
Tausmif;ESpaf usmif;rS rdr.
d av#mufxm;pmudyk ,fcsra_ =umifh [pfwvm
-104-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

udt
k &Suw
f uGjJ zpfapcJyh gonf? wqufwnf;wGiv
f nf; rdr.
d rdciftm; T
tjzpfrsm;udk rnfodk@r#jyefrajymjy&ufay? Todk@jzifholonftEkynm
ausmif; wufa&mufynmoif,al eonfh yHpk aH ,mifaqmif+y;D AD,m;emwGif
qufvufaexdkifcJhonf?
1909 ckEpS w
f iG f [pfwvmppfrx
_ rf;&ef tcsed af &muf&v
dS monf? od@k aomf=o
p}wD;,m;udk txiftjrifao;ojzifh ppfrr_ xrf;vdak oma=umifh ta=umif;
=um;pmrsm;udOk ayuQmjyKcJo
h nf? wm0ef&o
dS rl sm;rS olEiS t
hf quftoG,&f
&eftcsed f 4 ESprf #=umjrifph mG }udK;pm;cJyh gonf? 1914 ckEpS =f opx¶d[
k efa*&D
,mppfwyfwiG f aq;ppfaq;r_c,
H &l m ratmifjrifcahJ y? tb,fa=umifq
h kd
aomf use;f rma&;raumif;I olonf vufeufrsm;tm;udik w
f ,
G Ef ikd rf nfr
k cf u
kd rf /_ ppfwm0efxrf;aqmifrw
_ iG f pGr;f tifjynfph EkH ikd rf nfr
[kwaf =umif;/ wdu
[kwaf oma=umifyh ,fcsjcif;cHc&hJ ygonf?
yxrurBmppf}uD;jzpfymG ;r_onf [pfwvmtwGuf yxrqH;k t}udrw
f u
kd f
cdu
k rf w
_ iG yf g0if&ef tcGit
hf a&;&±Scd o
hJ nf? ol‹taeESi*hf smreDonf Oa&myEdik if H
rsm;xJwiG f tjrifjh rwfq;kH / tiftm;t}u;D rm;qH;k Edik if jH zpfa=umif; oufaojy
l yif? xd‹k a=umifh bmAm&D
&mwGif yg0ifEikd af prnft
h cGit
hf a&;wckjzpfonf[I
,ef (Bavarian) ppfwyfwiG f yg0ifppfrx
_ rf;aqmif&ef av#mufvm$ wifcyhJ g
onf? 2 v =umoifwef;+yD;onfah emuf Ypres teD;wGif [pfwvmESio
hf l
wd@k .wyf&if;onf yxrOD;qH;k aom&ifqikd w
f u
dk yf u
JG kd +Aw
d o
d #EiS b
hf ,fv*f sD ,ef
wyfw@kd jzifq
h ifEcJG &hJ onf? ppfyaJG wmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif cufcufccJ t
J ouf
tE &W m,frS vGwaf jrmufvmEdik cf o
hJ jzifh ,if;.&JprG ;f owWu
d *kd %
k ðf yaom
Iron Cross qkEp
S cf u
k q
kd w
G cf ;l cJ+h y;D wyf=uyf}u;D tjzpfo@kd &mxl;wd;k jri‡ jhf cif;cHc&hJ
-105-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

onf? ol.wyf&if;rSL;rS [pfwvm.pGr;f &nfukd Tod@k rw
S cf sucf sa&;om;yg
onf/ “a&Sw
› ef;xGupf pfwu
kd &f mrSm ol[maoG;at;at;eJ@tEdik &f zd@k &J&&J ifh
&ifh ppfwu
kd cf o
hJ jl zpfygw,f? tE &W m,frsm;wJt
h ajctae=um;rSm qufo,
G f
a&;r&awmhwyhJ w
d rf ad ewJt
h csed rf mS awmif [pfwvm[m rarmwrf;eJ@r
a=umufwrf;bJ ta&;}uD;wJo
h wif;yd@k aqmifrj_ yKEdik cf w
hJ ,f?”
u|r;f usirf w
_ yfz@JG Free Corps onf *smreDEikd if t
H wGi;f uGejf rLepf}uD;xGm;
vmr_ukd umuG,w
f u
kd cf u
kd af om vufeufuikd w
f yfz@JG wpfz@JG jzpfco
hJ nf? ‚if;
tzG@J 0ifrsm;onf uGejf rLepfrsm; *smreDu0kd ifa&mufxed ;f csKyf&ef óud;pm;ae
onft
h csed Ef iS hf wajy;wnf;wnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfonf? emZDygwt
D m;
0efaqmifra_ y;onfph pfwyftaejzifh emZD.A[dck surf jzpfaom "Brown
hJ gonf?
Shirts" (S.A)ppfwyfukd wnfaxmifcy
ppf+yD;qH;k +yD;r=umrDyif [pfwvmonf ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;wGiaf e&m&&S+d yD;
*smreftvkyo
f rm;rsm;ygww
D iG f OD;pD;OD;aqmifrj_ yK&ef wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&
D pfck
onf? Tygwt
D m; rdr.
d Edik if aH &;wd;k wuf&mod@k yd@k aqmifay;onfyh gww
jzpfonf[jk rifonf? *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;tay: rdr.
d rke;f wD;r_rsm;onf TtzG@J t
pnf;.Edik if aH &; tkwjf rpfwpfcjk zpfvmonf? od@k EiS hf ygw.
D tpnf;ta0;rsm;
ta=umif;udk Anti-Semitic owif;pmrsm;wGif awG‹vm&onf? 1919 ckEpS f
atmufwb
kd mv 16 &ufae@wiG f [pfwvmonf vltrsm;.pdwu
f kd !d@k ap
onfrh ed @f ceG ;f ajym=um;jcif;tvkyw
f pfcjk zpfay:vmonf?
[pfwvmonf trsm;.a'gorsm;jzpfay:ap&efEiS rhf rd t
d ay:ar#mv
f ifch suf
rsm;xm;&S&d ef tpnf;ta0;rsm;od@k t+raJ emufusa&mufavh&o
dS nf? pifay:
-106-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

odk@a&mufonfhtcg y&dowfrsm;.qlylr_rsm; wdwfqdwfoGm;onftxd
apmifq
h ikd ;f +yD;rS rde@f ceG ;f pwifavh&o
dS nf? rde@f ceG ;f pajymonfh tapmydik ;f tcsed f
wGi[
f pfwvmonf wke&f if+yD;xpftaernf? aemufyikd ;f rSwjznf;jznf;t
csed ,
f +l yD; vuf[efajc[efrsm;jzifrh ed @f ceG ;f udk at;aq;pGmajymavonf? xd@k
aemuf jyif;xefaompdwcf pH m;r_jzifh wjznf;jznf;toHus,v
f monf? rde@f
cGe;f ajymonft
h csed w
f iG f ac|;rsm;xGuv
f monftxd/ rsuEf mS jzLvmonfxd
ESihf rsuv
f ;kH rsm;plxu
G v
f monfw
h ikd af tmif jyif;jyaompdwcf pH m;r_rsm;jzift
h
oHrsm;uGt
J ufvmonftxd rde@f ceG ;f ajymavonf? *smreDtay:rw&m;o
jzifjh yKcJo
h nfrsm;udk [dw}f uD;[ef=uD;/ a'gEiS ahf rmESirhf rd .
d y&dowfrsm;tm;
rke;f wD;r_rsm;jzpfay:ap&ef rde@f ceG ;f ajymavonf? rdr.
d rde@f ceG ;f +y;D qH;k oGm;onfh
tcg y&dowfrsm;onf pdwaf jcmufcsm;r_rsm;jzifu
h se&f pfc+hJ yD; [pfwvmay;
rnft
h }uHtOm%freS o
f r#ukd vufc,
H &l eftqifoifjh zpfjyD;jzpfonf?
[pfwvmonf rde@f ceG ;f ajym+y;D v#i+f y;D csi;f pifay:rStjrefqif;+y;D y&dowfjrif
uGi;f rSaysmufu,
G o
f mG ;onf? rdro
d nf v#Kd ‹0u
S q
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l pfO;D tjzpf
d ,
kd rf rd zd efw;D &ef &nf&,
G o
f nft
h wGuaf =umifh "gwyf &kH u
kd o
f nfrsm;udjk iif;
rdru
qefonf? Tenf;jzifh rdrt
d m; “u,fwif&iS w
f pfO;D ” tjzpfvt
l rsm;rSyrkd kd
pdwf 0ifpm;vmap&efEiS hf olajymrnft
h &mrsm;udk vlrsm;vma&mufem;qif
&efjyKvkyjf cif;jzpfonf?
ygw0D ifw@kd .tultnDjzifh tcsuf 25 csuyf gaomygwv
D rf;pOfukd rl=urf;a&;
qGcJ o
hJ nf? ‚if;udk 1920 azazmf0g&v
D 24 &ufae@wiG f pdwt
f m;xufoef
onfh vlxEk pS af xmifausmw
f ufa&mufaom jynfo@l tpnf;ta0;Y wifjy
cJyh gonf? Ttcsuf 25 csux
f w
J iG f Versailles pmcsKyfuzkd suo
f rd ;f jcif;/
-107-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

ppfyrJG t
S usKd ;&v'frsm;udk tm%mjzifo
h rd ;f ,ljcif;/ ajr,mrsm;udjk ynfe,ft
wGut
f oH;k jyK&efjzpfonft
h wGuf avsmaf =u;ray;bJord ;f ,ljcif;/ *sL;vlrsKd ;
wd@k . vlrt
_ cGit
hf a&;rsm;udk zsuo
f rd ;f jcif;ESiphf pfy+JG y;D aemuf *smreDo@kd ajymif;
a¶$Œvmaom*sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;tm;ESix
f w
k jf cif; ponfrsm;yg0ifygonf?
[pfwvmonf olw@kd .ygwt
D m; *smreftrsKd ;om;qd&k ,
S v
f pftvkyo
f rm;
rsm;ygwjD zifh trnfajymif;vJvu
kd +f y;D teDa&miftvHEiS phf =umwHqyd rf mS ygwD
.oauFwjzpfvmcJo
h nf?
Edik if aH &;qdik &f mrde@f ceG ;f a[m=um;r_wiG f ESpt
f awmfrsm;rsm;wGif OayuQmjyKcH
cJ&h aom[pfwvmonf ,cktcgwiG rf ed @f ceG ;f ajym=um;&mwGif y&dowfrsm;
f nft
h ajctaeod@k a&muf¶dS
tm; qGaJ qmifrt
_ jynft
h 0jzifh em;axmif,El ikd o
vmcJo
h nf? Edik if aH &;tjctaerSmvnf; ajymif;vJomG ;onf? *smreDonfppf
&_;H cJo
h nhf Edik if w
H Edik if v
H nf;jzpfco
hJ nf/ xd@k a=umif Versailles pmcsKyw
f iG f *smreD
tpd;k &rS T+idr;f csr;f a&;pmcsKyfukd twif;t"rRvufrw
S af &;xd;k jcif;cHc&hJ +yD;
rdr.
d e,fajr 13 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f yg tqH;k ¶SKH ;cHay;cJ&h ygonf? qdv
k o
kd nfrmS rdr.
d jynf
ol 6 oef;ESiEhf ikd if x
H u
G u
f ek =f urf;ypPn;f (oHowWK&dik ;f 65 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f / ausmuf
rD;aoG; 45 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f / oGyf 72 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f ) ESihf puf¶kH 10 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f qH;k &SKH ;cJyh g
onf? xd@k tjyif rdr.
d vufatmufcu
H v
kd ekd ED ikd if rH sm;udv
k nf; vufvw
G q
f ;kH
&SKH ;oGm;cJ&h onf? T Versailles pmcsKyft& ppftwGi;f ysupf ;D qH;k ¶SKH ;r_rsm;t
wGuf *smreDrS xyfraH y;aqmif&ao;onf? Tavsmaf =u;onf *smreDtrsKd ;
om;OpPm"ewefz;kd aygi;f 38 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f cef@&o
dS nf?
Ttjzpftysurf sm;a=umifh [pfwvmonf wpfO;D wnf;txD;ruseaf wmh
ay? *smrefppfom;rsm;vnf; ol.rde@f ceG ;f ajymonft
h csed rf sm;wGiw
f uf
-108-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

a&mufem;axmif+yD; ‚if;wd@k q;kH ¶SKH ;cJ&h aomt&mrsm; xyfwjl zpfaeonfukd
vufccH =hJ uonf? ol@ay;aomowif;tcsut
f vufrsm;a=umifh ppfom;
rsm;onfvnf; rdrw
d Œkd tjypfr[kwaf =umif; vufcv
H m=uonf? [pfwvm
rS rdrw
d @kd *smreDvrl sKd ;pkonf ppfyw
JG iG pf pf¶KHS ;cJo
h nfr[kwaf =umif;/ ppfyjJG zpfay:
&efawmfveS af &;ta=umif;ukd a[majymaeaom *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;ESihf Marxists
vlrsKd ;wd@k . opPmazmufra_ =umifo
h mjzpfa=umif; Tod@k ajym=um;cJyh gonf?
1923 ckEpS Ef 0kd ifbmv 8 &ufae@wiG [
f pfwvmonf jrLepfb,
D mcef;r
aqmifY jyefvnfppk nf;r_wpfcjk yKvky+f yD; awmfveS af &;udk xkwjf yefa=ujimcJh
onf? aemufwae@wiG f Bavarian tpd;k &tm;tm%modr;f ,l&ef "Brownf xmifr#jzifh OD;aqmifvmcJah omfvnf; [pfw
Shirts" ppfwyftiftm;ESpa
vmtzrf;cH&+yD; Landsberg wGiaf xmifusco
hJ nf? [pfwvmonf 5 ESpf
axmif'%ftjypfp&D ifcsucf sccH &hJ aomfvnf; 9 vomaxmifusco
hJ nf?
axmifxYJ &Sad epOftwGi;f Mein Kampf pmtkyyf xrwGu
J kd a&;om;cJ+h y;D 'kwd
,twGu
J rkd l 1927 wGiyf EkH ydS jf zef@a0cJyh gonf? ol.pmtkyrf sm;udk 'kw,
d urBm
ppfpwifonft
h csed t
f xd tkyaf &aygi;f 5 oef;cef@a&mif;xkwEf ikd fco
hJ nf?
pmtkyx
f w
J iG f [pfwvmonf rdr.
d Edik if aH &;tawG;tac:
rsm; udk xnfo
h iG ;f a&;om;xm;onf? *smrefvrl sKd ;rsm;udk (*smrefvrl sKd ;rsm;udk
Aryan vlrsKd ;pkrsm;[kk rSm;,Gi;f pGmazmfjyxm;onf) tjcm;aomvlrsKd ;pkrsm;
xufyrkd jkd rifh jrwfaumif;rGeo
f nf[k ‚if;rSTod@k azmfjyoGm;ygonf? “u|ef
awmfw@kd rsupf Ed iS ,
hf ae@rjrif&ao;aom xif&mS ;aomvl@,Ofaus;r_tm;vH;k /
tEkynmrS xkwv
f yk af omt&mrSeo
f r#/ odyyH` nmESiphf ufrv
_ ufry_ nmESihf
qdik af om u|r;f usirf r_ eS o
f r#onf Aryan vlrsKd ;wd@k . zefw;D wDxiG jf cif;rSw
qifq
h ufpyfjyD; jzpfay:vmcJjh cif;jzpfonf[ak jymqdck o
hJ nf?”
Mein Kampf

-109-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

axmifrSv$wfvmonfESifhw+ydKifeuf [pfwvmonf tm%mudkt"<r
enf;ESiw
hf u
kd cf u
kd &f ,lonft
h pm; Edik if aH wmfz@JG pnf;wnfaqmufyt
kH &tm
%modr;f ,l&ef qH;k jzwfvu
kd o
f nf? 1930 ckEpS af &G;aumufyw
JG iG f [pfwvm
.emZDygwrD S 18 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f aomrJukd tEdik &f ¶Scd o
hJ nf? 1932 ckEpS w
f iG f [pfw
vmonf orRwae&mtjzpfr0J ifa&muf,OS jf yKd i&f mwGif 30 &mcdik Ef e_ ;f aomrJ
hJ nf?
jzift
h Edik &f ¶Scd o
1937 ckEpS w
f iG f pmtkyx
f w
J iG rf rd ad &;om;cJo
h nftwdik ;f vufawG@taumif
txnfazmf&ef tqifoifjh zpfvmonf? 1937 Ed0k ifbmvwGif xdyw
f ef;ppf
bufqikd &f m tultnDay;olrsm;udak c:,l+yD; "FÅhrer nDvmcH" wGiu
f rBm
udv
k r$ ;f rd;k tkycf sKyEf ikd &f ef rdrad &;qGx
J m;aomtpOfrsm;ud¶k iS ;f jycJo
h nf? 4if;tpD
tpOfukd qef@usio
f rl sm;ukv
d nf; tvkyrf jS zKwfxw
k yf pfvu
kd o
f nf?
t'd;k zf[pfwvmonf *smreDut
kd yk cf sKyfvmonfh 12 ESpt
f awmtwGi;f ESihf
'kw,
d urBmppftwGi;f rS ol.jyKvkyrf a_ =umifh vloef;aygi;f rsm;pGmaom vl@
toufq;kH ¶SKH ;cJ&h +yD; ,if;udk ordik ;f a=umif;wGif vltrsm;rke;f wD;qH;k aomvl
wpfO;D jzpfapcJo
h nf? 1933 ckEpS w
f iG f Edik if t
H }uD;tuJjzpf+yD;aemuf zG@J pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udk zsuo
f rd ;f vdu
k jf yD; Edik if aH &;qdik &f mtwdu
k t
f cHygwrD sm;udk
xda&mufpmG twif;t"rRErdS Ef iS ;f +yD; emZDygwt
D m;tm%modr;f cJo
h nf? *sL;
vlrsKd ;rsm;/ Gypsies ESiEhf ikd if aH &;qef@usio
f rl sm;tm;owfjzwf&ef &ufpuf
=urf;=uKwaf omv#Kd Œ0Suyf v
k yd f (Gestapo) tzG@J EiS ahf xmifpcef;rsm;*udk wnf
*ppfo@kH yef;pcef;(ConcentrationCamp) onf Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;ESiahf c|;wyfrsm;zrf;qD;

csKyfaESmifxm;&ma'orsm; 1939–1953 ckEpS 'f w
k ,
d urBmppfrwdik rf EDS iS 'hf w
k ,
d urBm
ppftwGi;f emZD*smreDrsm;u *sL;vlrsKd ;rsm;udT
k ppfo@kH yef;pcef;rsm;wGif zrf;qD;n‡i;f yef;
ESyd pf ufco
hJ nf?

-110-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

aqmufvu
kd +f y;D rdr.
d pnf;rsO;f Oya'opfrsm;tm; vdu
k ef musio
hf ;kH apcJo
h nf?
[pfwvm.tpGe;f a&muf Edik if jH cm;rlay:vpDrsm;a=umifh 1939 ckEpS w
f iG f 'kwd
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hJ nfph pfyrJG sm;wGif [pfwvm
onf atmifjrifrr_ sm;&&Scd ahJ omfvnf; 1942 ckEpS w
f iG f ppfyt
JG ajctaeajymif;
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f iG f r[mrdwpf pfwyfrsm; bmvifuw
kd u
kd cf u
kd f
hJ nf? ppfyaJG wmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif [pf
&ef *smreDo@kd x;kd azgu0f ifa&mufEikd cf o
wvm.toufu&kd ,l&eft}urd }f urd }f uKd ;yrf;cJ=h uaomfvnf; ratmifjrifchJ
ay? ppf¶KHS ;awmhrnft
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d 'kAv
kd f
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h cg 1945 ckEpS {f +yv
D 30&uf
ae@wiG f [pfwvmonfrrd u
d ,
kd u
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kd o
f nf? [pfwvmESit
hf
wl ,if;.tcsed af wmfawmf=umwdww
f w
d yf ek ;f r,m;jzpfaeonfh tDAmb
a&mif(ef) Eva Braun rSmvnf; olEiS w
hf ygwnf;aoqH;k cJyh gonf?

-111-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

]]vlawG[mppfyGJawGudkpvkyfwmr[kwfbl;? tpdk;&awGuomjzpfw,f/}}
“People do not make wars; governments do.”

]]olwdkUudktvif;a&mifjywmrjrifbl;qdk&iftyl½Sdw,fqdkwmcHpm;&atmifvkyfjyyg/}}
“When you can’t make them see the light, make them
feel the heat.”

]]oif½SmawGUwJhtaumif;qHk;vlawGeJUoifhudk0dkif;&Hxm;NyD;tmPmawGudk
ay;a0umbmrS0ifa&mufpGufzufrIrvkyfygeJU/}}
“Surround yourself with the best people you can find, delegate
authority, and don’t interfere.”

a&mfe,f&D*if (1911-2004)
e,f(vf)&D*if(Ronald Reagan)onf
±ky±f iS rf if;om;wpfa,mufjzpf+yD;u,f
vDz;kd eD;,m;+rdK@0eftjzpfoufwrf; 2 ck
wm0efxrf;aqmifc+hJ yD; tar&duefjynfaxmifp.
k t
a,muf 40 ajrmuforRwvnf;jzpfco
hJ nf? orRw
wpfa,muftaeESihf ol@upkd pfat;ppfy&JG yfpaJ polEiS hf
tajctwifaqG;aEG;p&m±So
d nfh pD;yGg;a&;qdik &f may:v
pDcsrw
S cf o
hJ [
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D 6 &ufae@wiG x
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(Tampico)/ atvDEKGd i;f (Illinois) jynfe,fwi
G af rG;zGm;cJo
h nf? ol.zciftrnf
rSm *su&f *D ifEiS rhf cd iftrnfrmS e,fv&D *D if [kac:onf? a&mfe,f(vf)wGif
eD;(vf)[kac:aom tpfu}kd uD;wpfa,muf±o
dS nf? ol.rdbrsm;u ol@ukd
“'wf(cs)f ” [kac:=uonf? tb,fah =umifq
h akd omf ol@zcifuol@uykd yk 0k 0
'wf(cs)f trsKd ;om;ESiw
hf al oma=umifh ol@ukd 'wf(cs)f [kcsppf Ed;k ac:=uonf?
&D*ifro
d m;pkrS aiGrsm;rsm;pm;pm;r±Sad oma=umifh Midwest a'owpfav#muf

a&mf

-112-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

wGiftvkyfrsm;±Smvkyf&if; &D*ifrSmvnf; wpfjznf;jznf;}uD;xGm;vm+yD;
aemufq;kH atvDEKGd if;'pfpefwiG f tajccHaexdik =f ucsed w
f iG f 'wf(cs)f uav;rSm
touf 12 ESpyf if±adS o;onf? a&mfe,f(vf)ud,
k w
f ikd x
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+yD;+yD;txufwef;ausmif;udk tm;upm;bufwiG f xl;c|eo
f El iS hf (extracurrkd g&±Scd o
hJ nf?
-icular honors) wd@k uy
txufwef;ausmif;+yD;onfhaemuf &D*ifonf c&pfawmf.aemufawmf
om;rsm; (Disciples of Christ) OD;aqmifaomtl&u
D maumvdyf (Eureka
h nf? TwGi&f *D ifonf ausmif;
College) wGif ynmqufvufoif=um;cJo
om;acgif;aqmifwpfOD;tjzpf ta±G;cs,fcH&onf? a&mfe,f(vf)trSwf
aumif;aumif;r&aomfvnf; 1932 ckEpS w
f iG f aumvdyaf usmif;udk vlra_ &;
ESiphf ;D yGg;a&;'Du&Drsm;&±Scd o
hJ nf?
1932 ckEpS f “Depression” [kac:aompD;yGg;a&;uyfqu
kd af oma=umifh vlrsm;
tvky±f mS &ef tcuftcJawG@&avonf? od@k aomf &D*ifutm;rav#myh t
J m;
}udK;rmefwuf}udK;pm;cJo
h nf? olae&mwumod@k omG ;I tvkyaf v#mufchJ
aomfvnf; b,fae&mrSmrSr&acs? od@k aomfaemufq;kH wGif WOC a&'D,t
kd
oHvi$ Xhf meY owif;a=ujimoltjzpftvky&f cJo
h nf? olonf =unfnKd
av;pm;zG,af umif;+yD; pum;ajymcsKd omaoma=umifh Des Moines wGi±f dS
aom WHO [kac:aomXge}uD;qDo@kd &mxl;wd;k jr‡ijhf cif;cH&onf? 'uf(pf)
rGKd i;f eufwiG f &D*ifu tm;upm;owif;a=ujim+y;D a'ocHwuUov
kd af usmif;
. abmvH;k yGrJ sm;ESi&hf pfuvDz;D vf (Wrigley Field) rScsu
D m*dck yf(bf) (Chicago
f =ujimcJo
h nf? olu owif;a=ujim&m
Cubs) toif;ponfw@kd twGua
wGiaf tmifjrifr&_ ±So
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onf?
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-113-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

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hJ nf? &D*ifu toHprf;oyf/ o±kyaf qmifjy
oprf;oyfr_ wpfc+k y;D wpfcv
k yk +f y;D onfah emuf ol@u0kd g;emb&m;om;pwl',
D kd
(Warner Brothers Studios) rSo@l uu
kd ek u
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±ky±f iS w
f iG o
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kd ufcH
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f w
k v
f yk af om “Love is in the Air” ±ky±f iS x
f rJ o
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cJo
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f iG f ESpEf pS t
f wGi;f ±ky±f iS u
f m;wpfq,fih g;um;±du
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onf? 'uf(pf)rGKd if;eufwiG f emrnfausm=f um;vmonfomru &D*ifuem
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k aumif;aom±ky±f iS w
f iG f o±kyaf qmifciG &hf cJh
onf? ol. emrnft}uD;qH;k ±ky±f iS u
f m;ESpu
f m;rS abmvH;k orm;a*sm(h ±S)f
upf(yf)(George Gipp) tjzpf Knute Rockne/ All America ESihf King’s Row
qdo
k nf±yk ±f iS u
f m;wGif tu,f'rD&ravmufjzpfco
hJ nf? 'kw,
d urBmppft
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f iG f o±kyaf qmifciG &hf
cJ+h yD; Ak;H }uJav,mOfarmif;orm;rsm; oifwef;ay;&eftwGujf zpfonf? ol.
±kyjf rifo=H um;±ky±f iS u
f m;aygi;f 50 ausmu
f ±kd u
kd cf o
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1940 ckEpS w
f iG f &D*ifu tu,f'rDrif;orD;*sed ;f a0;rif; (Jane Wyman) ESihf
vufxyfco
hJ nf? ,if;wd@k vufxyf+yD;aemuf armf&if;ESirhf u
kd u
f ,f(vf)qdk
onfo
h m;orD;ESpaf ,mufxeG ;f um;cJo
h nf? (wwd,uav;rSm rlvraph
apm arG;ojzifah rG;+y;D uwnf;uyif aoqH;k cJo
h nf?) olw@kd ±pS Ef pS t
f =umtwl
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f iG u
f mG ±Si;f jywfpcJ o
hJ nf? xd@k aemuf 1952 ckEpS w
f iG ef ef
pD'g;Apf (Nancy Davis) qdo
k nfrh if;orD;ESiv
hf ufxyfcyhJ gonf? xd@k twl
a&mf(ef) (Ron) ESizhf ufx&D±mS qdo
k nfu
h av;ESpaf ,muf&±Scd o
hJ nf? &D*ifu
eefpED iS t
hf oufxufq;kH aygi;f oif;aexdik =f uonf?
1940 ckEpS Ef iS hf 1950 twGi;f &D*ifu tar&dutwGi;f ±Su
d eG jf rLepf0g'rD sm;ESihf
a[mvD;0k't
f wGi;f 0ifa&mufpu
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rsm;udk &J0phH mG qef@usiaf jymcJ&h if; Edik if aH &;avmuxJ pwif0ifa&mufvmcJh
-114-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

onf? 1940 ckEpS w
f iG f ol@ukd ±ky±f iS o
f ±kyaf qmiftzG@J tpnf;.OuUXtjzpf
a±G;cs,jf cif;cH&cJo
h nf? Ttcsed t
f wGi;f &D*ifuvnf; rdr.
d ygwu
D kd 'Dru
kd
&ufuae&Dywfbvpfuefo@kd ajymif;cJo
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f iG f u,fvzD ;kd eD;,m;+rKd @awmf0eftjzpf 0ifa&muf,OS +f yKd if
ta±G;cHc+hJ yD; ol.+ydKifbufzufba&mif; (Pat Brown) udt
k Edik &f ±Scd o
hJ nf?
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hf cGeaf umufjcif;wd@k
tay: jzwfawmufjcif;wd@k ukd }udK;pm;vkyaf vonf? 1969 ckEpS w
f iG f Edik if t
H
apmifw
h yfom;rsm;udk umvDz;kd eD;,m;wuUov
kd .
f Berkeley Campus od@k
oGm;+yD; trsKd ;om;O,smOftay: qlyq
l ENjyaeaomausmif;om;rsm;udk &yf
wef@&efapv$wcf o
hJ nf? qlyq
l ENjyaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tapmifw
h yf
ut=urf;enf;oH;k I ESrd Ef iS ;f cJo
h nft
h wGuf ausmif;om;rsm;'g%&f m&+y;D wpf
a,muftoufq;kH ±_;H cJo
h nf? TonfrmS &D*if. ESpEf pS o
f ufwrf;twGi;f
vkycf o
hJ nfh qd;k ±Gm;onf[q
k &kd rnfh vkyif ef;wpfcq
k pkd &mom±So
d nf?
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f iG &f *D ifu orRwwpfa,muftjzpf ta±G;cH&efq;kH jzwfonf?
olonf vuf±o
dS rRwuJ&,f(vf)azg(h 'f) (Gerald Ford) udk &Dywfbvpfuef
twGi;f rSped af c:cJ+h yD; aemufq;kH olut±H;_ ESi&hf ifqikd cf &hJ onf? 1980 ckEpS w
f iG f
wpfzefjyefvm+yD; vpfb&,f&Dywfbvpfuefa*smh(±Sf)bk(±Sf)ESifh,SOf+ydKifcJh
onf? xd@k aemuf a*sm(h ±S)f bk(±S)f udt
k Edik &f +y;D ,if;udk 'kw,
d orRwtaeESiahf e
&may;cJo
h nf? ,if;wd@k EpS af ,mufrS orRwm*sirf u
D mwm (Jimmy Carter)
(,cifuazg'h u
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f iG af tmifEikd o
f )l udt
k Edik &f ±S&d ef}udK;pm;av
onf? 1981 ckEpS t
f oufajcmufq,fu;kd ESpt
f ±G,w
f iG f &D*ifuo
kd rRwtjzpf
a±G;cs,w
f ifajr‡mufc+hJ yD; tar&duefordik ;f wGif touft}uD;qH;k orRwjzpfchJ
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k u
l 1981
-115-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d K vf } uD ; rsm;

ckEpS rf wfv 30 &ufae@wiG af oewfEiS yhf pfco
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f J i,f±,
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csuaf y;cJo
h nf? TuJo
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d rf c_ ,
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hJ nf? xd@k aemuf wpfEpS w
f nf;twGi;f =o*kwv
f rSm
yif &Duifonfav,mOftoGm;tvmxde;f csKyfa&;ar#mpf iftvkyo
f rm;rsm;
13˜000 ausmu
f ol@trde@f uekd m;rcHyJ qENjycJah oma=umifh tvkyrf x
S w
k yf pf
vdkufonf?
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f pm;ESiw
hf m0ef0wW&m;udk
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a&;qdik &f mu|r;f usio
f t
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h akd omf tjcm;olrsm;uJo
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vpDonfwu,fv
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atmufvrf;ynm[kt"dyg` ,&f onf?

-116-

20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

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onf?

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20 &mpk . emrnf a usmf y k * ~ d v f } uD ; rsm;

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"Why are you here? My city is in chaos because of you."

wifhum;vlom; (1989)
wifu
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