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Our Mutual Food Report

Our Mutual Food Report

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Published by: Mike Small on Dec 19, 2010
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11/03/2012

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one planet
)!!,
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2
1hls reporL ls based on research carrled ouL bv Lhe Cne ÞlaneL lood pro[ecL aL
lalkland CenLre for SLewardshlp ln llfe wlLh Lhe help of fundlna from Lhe Lsmee
lalrbalrn loundauon.
lL ls deslaned Lo brlna Lhe reader on a [ournev from Lhe alobal lmpacL of Lhe food
svsLem Lo Lhe posslblllues of a parucular realon Lo develop a more susLalnable
alLernauve. Whlle Lhls reporL ls focused on llfe we hope LhaL Lhe ñndlnas wlll
have a wlder relevance and appllcablllLv.
lalkland CenLre for SLewardshlp ls an envlronmenLal charlLv whlch ls developlna
and promouna Lhe pracuce of sLewardshlp aL local, realonal and nauonal level.
lor us 'food sLewardshlp' spans Lhese dlñerenL scales, from eauna wlLh care Lo
nurLurlna local food culLures Lo safeauardlna food supplles ln 2030.
1he Cne ÞlaneL lood pro[ecL was seL up wlLh help from Carneale uk 1rusL Lo
explore falrer and more susLalnable alLernauves Lo our currenL food svsLem.
1he pro[ecL alms Lo:
- Þrov|de adv|ce and encouragement to |oca| food |n|nanves wh|ch
|nvo|ve commun|nes |n grow|ng food themse|ves and sourc|ng |t
from |oca| producers.
- kesearch and deve|op reg|ona| po||c|es and pro[ects promonng
susta|nab|e food systems.
- Inßuence nanona| food po||cy, ||nk|ng |ssues of food secur|ty and
susta|nab|e food producnon |n 5cot|and w|th w|der |ssues of
env|ronmenta| and soc|a| [usnce.
/012*3(4+54-42&6
8eporL bv ÞeLe 8lLchle and 1eresa Marunez wlLh collaboraLors Slan !ames and
uavld CranL.
1he auLhors wlsh Lo Lhank all Lhose who conLrlbuLed Lhelr experlence and
lnslahLs Lo Lhls reporL, ln parucular members of Lhe 8enarLv CommunlLv lorum,
Lhe farmers who Look parL ln lnLervlews, paruclpanLs aL Lhe Cne ÞlaneL lood
summer school, members of Lhe llfe uleL, and sLañ aL llfe Councll, ln parucular
vlvlenne 8rown from Lhe PealLh and Wellbelna Alllance, uerek PamllLon from
ÞrocuremenL Servlces, ÞeLer uuncan from Þarks and Cardens and Chrls Lwlna
from WasLe ManaaemenL Servlces.
1hls reporL does noL represenL Lhe vlews of Lsmee lalrbalrn loundauon or
Carneale uk 1rusL.
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3
)'6&$.*#43*#+
Cne Þ|anet Iood 2020
´1be fotote ls bete. lt´s jost oot wlJelv JlsttlboteJ vet.´ Wllllam Clbson
Lddle SLobarL's Lanaerlne Lraln pulls lnLo Clasaow CenLral, brlnalna oraanlc wlne
and oranaes for Lhe clLv's 6 cluzen food clubs. Cn Lhe reLurn [ournev lL's Laklna
beef, lamb and whlskv for Lhe lona-esLabllshed communlLv buvlna aroups ln
llorence, 8ome and naples.
Aûer norwav and AusLrla, whose aovernmenLs provlded sLarL-up fundlna Lo Lhe
scheme, ScoLland becomes Lhe Lhlrd blorealon Lo recelve 1erresLrlal SLewardshlp
Councll accredlLauon, a muludlmenslonal audlL of aovernance, envlronmenLal
susLalnablllLv, access and use of land, falr emplovmenL pracuces, anlmal welfare
and falr supplv chalns. ÞroducLs exporLed from 1SC blorealons are ldenuñed and
Lraceable as such.
1he nlddrle CommunlLv ualrv Companv has had Lo puL on an exLra course for
communlLv dalrvmen and malds. lL has now pald oñ lLs slow monev loan and
ls maklna proñL on lLs llquld mllk sales as well as 8enewable PeaL lncenuve
pavmenLs for lLs small scale anaeroblc dlaesuon planL, sales of dlaesLaLe Lo
aardeners, and sales of sLore beef calves from lLs 8rown Swlss cross herd. lL's
now looklna aL addlna Lwo more cows Lo lLs herd of 10, as lona as lL can neaouaLe
arazlna ln Polvrood Þark.
lour Lhousand people - half of Lhem LourlsLs - [olned Lhe lsland drove walk Lhls
vear and Lhev converaed aL Cban before maklna Lhelr wav wlLh 1,300 caule Lo
lalklrk where Lhe lowland caule ñnlshers arrlved Lo plck up Lhelr sLores. 1he new
Lrall has creaLed new permanenL emplovmenL as well as a welcome annual boosL
Lo Lhe hosplLallLv lndusLrv alona Lhe rouLe.
1he Aberdeen clLv bread aroup has [usL won Lhe uk's coveLed LCAl (local,
oraanlc, añordable and falrlv Lraded) award for lLs sourdouah. 1he bread aroup
brlnas LoaeLher seven Aberdeenshlre oraanlc wheaL arowers wlLh Lwo farm scale
mllls, Lwelve arusan bakers and almosL ñve Lhousand households across Lhe
clLv. unsold bread aoes Lo Lhe aroup's small pla herd kepL ln Lhe clLv hosplLal's
communlLv aarden.
1he aovernmenL's new Lax credlL for low lncome famllles whlch Lops up Lhelr
credlL unlon food pavmenL bv 40° has sumulaLed slanlñcanL arowLh ln Lhe
muLual food secLor. ºWe're seelna more famllles able Lo buv fresh seasonal
oraanlc frulL and veaeLables as well as meaL, eaas and mllk Lhrouah Lhe muLual
wlLhouL worrvlna LhaL Lhev wlll run ouL of food before Lhe end of Lhe week" sald
Lhe MlnlsLer for lood.
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4
Local food onllne, Lhe dlsLrlbuuon muLual based ln SLornowav buL operauna
ScoLland-wlde, celebraLed lLs 100,000Lh cusLomer Lodav one vear aûer launchlna.
1he vlrLual markeL works wlLh 330 local producers Lo fulñl orders uslna a rouuna
alaorlLhm derlved from sheep foraalna pauerns.
1hese fraamenLs from Lhe fuLure are lnLended Lo lllusLraLe Lhe posslblllues of a
more robusL local food svsLem ln ScoLland. Whlle ln alobal Lerms we can make
onlv a small conLrlbuuon Lo Lhe presslna problems of food securlLv and cllmaLe
chanae, everv llule helps. A local food svsLem whlch reconnecLs more of us
wlLh Lhe seasons and Lhe source of our food wlll help us as lndlvlduals and as
communlues Lo do beuer wlLh food.
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3
7*2&42&6
5ummary ............................................................... 6
Introducnon .......................................................... 7
1he cha||enges for the g|oba| food system ............. 9
2 Iood |n I|fe ...................................................... 17
Cou|d I|fe feed |tse|f? ................................ 19
Loca| farmers' percepnons ........................ 28
Commun|ty percepnons ............................ 32
3 1owards a |oca| food system |n I|fe ................... 37
kecommendanons for I|fe Counc|| ...................... 45
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6
8"--'#9$
1he food we eaL makes us parL of a complex alobal svsLem of food producuon,
processlna and dlsLrlbuuon. 1hls svsLem - and Lhe small number of alanL
companles whlch domlnaLe lL - añecLs boLh our healLh and Lhe healLh of Lhe
planeL.
1hls svsLem has become much more powerful ln Lhe lasL 30 vears. Powever,
mosL of Lhe world's populauon are sull parL of a much more dlverse local food
economv, wlLh more dlrecL connecuons beLween producers and consumers.
Meeuna arowlna demand for food over Lhe nexL forLv vears boLh falrlv and
susLalnablv ls a kev challenae for Lhe world's aovernmenLs, food companles,
farmers and consumers.
1hls reporL descrlbes Lhe beneñLs of, and barrlers Lo, sLrenaLhenlna Lhe local food
economv so we arow more of whaL we eaL ln llfe and eaL more of whaL we arow,
and seLs ouL some pracucal nexL sLeps Lo bulld on whaL's alreadv happenlna.
llfe produces more Lhan enouah sLaple food for lLs populauon and ls a neL
exporLer of cereals and poLaLoes. ?eL desplLe a Lhrlvlna farm shop secLor, farmers'
markeLs and a ranae of box schemes Lhe local food svsLem ls maralnal. Creauna
Lhe supplv chalns, local processlna capaclLv and predlcLable demand for local
food wlll noL happen bv accldenL.
1he key message |n th|s report |s:
We have to change what we eat, |n para||e| w|th chang|ng how
we farm. 1o connect producers and consumers beuer we need to
deve|op mutua| mode|s for hnanc|ng, produc|ng and d|str|bunng
food as a ma|nstream part of the food economy. Ior th|s to happen,
government po||cy has to be enab||ng at a|| |eve|s.
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7
:2&#*+"0&;*2
1he splke ln alobal food prlces ln 2007, alona wlLh Lhe ñnanclal crlsls, [olLed Lhe
uk ouL of complacencv abouL where lLs nexL nlne meals would come from. 'Leave
lL Lo 1esco' seemed a llule lncompleLe as a food pollcv framework.
1he rlse ln food prlces lnevlLablv hurL pooresL households mosL - noL [usL ln
developlna counLrles where Lhe number of hunarv people wenL over one bllllon,
buL also ln Lhe uk where Lhe pooresL households spend proporuonaLelv Lhree
umes as much of Lhelr household lncome ln food as Lhe mosL aMuenL ones.
AL Lhe same ume, arowlna awareness of cllmaLe chanae drew auenuon Lo Lhe
envlronmenLal susLalnablllLv of our food svsLem, now and over Lhe nexL few decades
as world populauon lncreases. AL currenL producuon and consumpuon levels, a
'WesLern dleL' for evervone would need Lwo or Lhree planeLs lnsLead of one.
uesplLe a reduclna averaae lnLake of calorles, chanaes ln dleL awav from veaeLables,
cereals and 'proper meals' Lowards snacks, fasL foods and enerav dense processed
food mean LhaL we have also been aemna more obese as a populauon, lncreaslna
lona Lerm lllness.
1hls comblnauon of facLors prompLed aovernmenLs and LhlnkLanks Lo sLarL looklna
aL Lhe food svsLem as a whole raLher Lhan Lhrouah separaLe wlndows of aarlculLural
pollcv, food securlLv, cllmaLe chanae, publlc healLh, blodlverslLv and so on.
ln !une 2009, aûer a process of publlc consulLauon and experL worklna aroups,
Lhe Scomsh CovernmenL launched Lhe nauonal lood and urlnk Þollcv: 8eclpe for
Success.
1

1he publlc consulLauon aeneraLed wldespread lnLeresL, wlLh concerns expressed
abouL cllmaLe chanae, anlmal welfare, wlldllfe and Lhe envlronmenL, publlc
healLh and food culLure. Powever, Lhe prlorlLv ln Lhe ñnal reporL ls Lo arow Lhe
food lndusLrv and boosL Scomsh food exporLs.
1hls poses a challenae Lo advocaLes of a more local and more susLalnable food
economv Lo demonsLraLe a vlable alLernauve Lo buslness as usual.
ln ScoLland, local food economles all buL dlsappeared ln Lhe face of supermarkeL
domlnance. ln Lhe lasL few vears, some fraalle areen shooLs have emeraed - local
producer co-operauves and food neLworks, farmers' markeLs, arusan bakers
and cheesemakers, farm shops, clLv shops connecuna dlrecLlv wlLh farmers and
arowers, Lhe llfe uleL. Whlle Lhelr comblned share of Lhe counLrv's food spend ls
sull unv, Lhev polnL Lo new posslblllues.
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Mavbe Lhere ls a wav of 'dolna food' whlch does more aood and less harm, whlch
ls culLurallv feaslble, and whlch sLacks up wlLhln Lhe exlsuna economlc paradlam,
albelL wlLh more expenslve oll and a prlce on carbon emlsslons.
A sLep chanae ls needed - or local food wlll conunue Lo operaLe aL Lhe maralns
of Lhe food svsLem, dolna llule or noLhlna Lo challenae malnsLream Lhlnklna. 1he
local food movemenL needs Lo ralse lLs aame.
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9
<$=>4$0>'((42546$.*#$&>4$5(*?'($.**+$
696&4-
Cver Lhe lasL ñûv vears, alobal food producuon has kepL pace wlLh alobal
lncreases ln populauon. We alreadv have Lhe Lechnlcal capaclLv Lo conunue Lhls
Lrend for Lhe nexL forLv vears, bv whlch ume Lhe human populauon wlll have
peaked aL around 9 bllllon.
5o what's the prob|em?
1he currenL food Lradlna svsLem ls aeared Lo maklna monev raLher Lhan feedlna
people well, preservlna blodlverslLv and soll healLh, or mluaauna cllmaLe chanae.
1he perverse consequences are LhaL a bllllon poor people ao hunarv whlle
hundreds of mllllons have healLh problems caused bv eauna Loo much of Lhe
wrona sorL of cheap food: LhaL we conunue Lo cuL down foresLs raLher Lhan
lmprove producuvlLv on exlsuna farmland, LhaL we keep loslna Lopsoll and uslna
Loo much fresh waLer, LhaL we burn a areaL deal of fossll fuel arowlna, sLorlna,
Lransporuna, processlna, packaalna and coollna food, LhaL Lhe wav we farm ls
drlvlna Lhousands of specles Lo exuncuon and damaalna soll blodlverslLv, LhaL
mosL farmed anlmals lead whollv unnaLural llves ln concenLraLed anlmal feedlna
operauons of a scale unlmaalned ñûv vears aao, LhaL we have depleLed ñsh
sLocks ln manv oceans, and LhaL a small number of larae Lransnauonal companles
exerL undue and unaccounLable lnßuence over whaL we arow and whaL we eaL.
We have alreadv pushed kev ecosvsLems Lo Lhe llmlL and 'buslness as usual'
(8Au) rlsks locklna us lnLo a feedback loop of land dearadauon, blodlverslLv loss,
deforesLauon and cllmaLe chanae where each Lrend relnforces Lhe oLhers.
1hls ls markeL fallure: Lhere ls no 'lnvlslble hand' Lo aulde food Lo where lL
ls needed mosL, Lo prevenL wasLe aL everv sLaae, Lo lnclude Lhe cosLs Lo Lhe
envlronmenL and Lo fuLure aenerauons ln Lhe prlce of food. WheaL aoes Lo
blofuel lf Lhe prlce ls rlahL, whlle Lhe doors of araln sLores sLav closed Lo Lhe
mllllons of malnourlshed chlldren.
1here are compeuna narrauves abouL Lhe fuLure of food ln a fuller and probablv
warmer world. 1he 8Au narrauve ls exLendlna Lhe WesLern 'planLauon' model
bv lncreaslna scale, speclallzauon, monoculLure and mechanlsauon ln prlmarv
producuon alona wlLh lncreaslna consolldauon of processlna, brandlna,
dlsLrlbuuon and reLalllna furLher up Lhe food chaln. Small farms, small herds,
small enLerprlses are replaced bv exporL-orlenLed buslnesses, whlle manv more
people become consumers raLher Lhan producers of food. 8ural poverLv ls
relleved prlmarllv bv movemenL Lo Lhe clues as far fewer people are needed on
Lhe land.
More food ls Lraded aloballv, wlLh fewer crops and varleues of whlch more are
aeneucallv enalneered. 1hese food commodlues are Lhen re-enalneered and
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lndusLrlallv ßavoured Lo make an ever-chanalna ranae of value added producLs.
More prlmarv producers become franchlsees of aarlbuslness companles,
supplvlna labour and absorblna rlsk whlle loslna almosL all auLonomv.
An alLernauve narrauve ls 'manv Lo manv' (M2M): malnLalnlna and empowerlna
a broad base of prlmarv producers and processors Lo make aood food - ñrsL for
Lhemselves and Lhelr famllles, Lhen Lhelr communlues, Lhen for Lhelr realonal
markeLs, and Lhen for alobal Lrade. 1hls calls for dlñerenL forms of supporL from
aovernmenL, dlñerenL aaronomv, a hlaher value on publlc aoods and closer
connecuons beLween producers and consumers of food.
Clearlv, Lhe ñrsL narrauve ls Lhe defaulL: Lhe second narrauve relles on co-
ordlnaLed lona-Lerm lnLervenuon bv aovernmenLs and clvll socleLv. 1he
lnLernauonal AssessmenL of AarlculLure Sclence and 1echnoloav for uevelopmenL
(lAAS1u) - Lhe resulL of 4 vears work bv 400 sclenusLs whose 2009 reporL was
wldelv endorsed bv aovernmenLs ln boLh developlna and developed counLrles
- calls for lnvesLmenL ln Lhe hundreds of mllllons of small producers around Lhe
world.
IAA51D argues for va|u|ng and bu||d|ng on ex|snng farmer
know|edge, greater farm d|vers|hcanon, add|ng va|ue on farm,
and ||nk|ng sma|| producers w|th the urban poor as we|| as export
markets. Improv|ng v|ab|||ty of sma|| producers ra|ses rura| |ncomes
and re||eves poverty d|rect|y.
Iood secur|ty
1here ls a broad consensus on pro[ecuons of Lhe world's populauon arowLh.
ln Lhe 8Au sLorv, more aMuenL populauons lncreaslnalv adopL a 'WesLern dleL'
wlLh more meaL, dalrv and enerav-dense foods. 8lslna demand for meaL means
more araln ls needed for anlmal feed as well as feedlna humans dlrecLlv. Some
creauve arlLhmeuc and feedlna Lhe 9 bllllon ls sald Lo requlre a doubllna of
world food producuon ln 40 vears. Manaalna Lhls wlll 'obvlouslv' requlre dolna
whaL we do now fasLer and harder - aeneuc modlñcauon of planLs and anlmals
Lo lncrease vlelds, lncreased ferullser and pesuclde use, concenLraLed anlmal
feed operauons, movlna lnpuLs larae dlsLances Lo farms, and Lrucklna food Lo
cenLres of populauon from ever laraer sheds and planLauons. More and beuer
aarlbuslness ls Lhe answer.
M2M also seeks Lo lncrease producuon, buL deñnes producuon more wldelv.
useful labour ls seen as a beneñL, noL [usL a cosL: anlmal welfare ls seen as
an ouLcome ln lLself, noL a producuon varlable, susLalnlna and enhanclna
blodlverslLv and soll healLh ls cenLral Lo aarlculLure, noL aL Lhe maraln (of Lhe
ñeld, and of auenuon). larmlna ls a soclal acuvlLv, wlLh lLs prlmarv purpose Lo
feed local people well, and Lhe producuon of commodlues for exporL seen as
secondarv. More and beuer aarlculLure ls Lhe answer.
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M2M meLhods reßecL Lhls wlder deñnluon of producuon. Co-operauon beLween
small enLerprlses raLher Lhan consolldauon lnLo larae buslnesses: muluple llnked
enLerprlses on a farm raLher Lhan monoculLure, learnlna from and worklna wlLh
naLure raLher Lhan seeklna Lo domlnaLe and slmpllfv Lhe ecosvsLem, enabllna
small farmers Lhrouah credlL, rouLes Lo markeL and knowledae exchanae,
lnLearauna llvesLock, Lrees and cropplna, composL raLher Lhan chemlcals,
reduclna lnpuLs of fossll fuel.
Shlûlna some of Lhe publlc research budaeL lnLo smallholder-frlendlv sclence
and Lechnoloav could supporL furLher aalns Lhrouah selecuna and breedlna
reslllenL, nuLrlenL-use emclenL varleues, lmprovlna Lool deslan and Lechnlques for
culuvauon, weed conLrol, pesL conLrol, harvesL, sLoraae and processlna.
An exLraordlnarv arrav of 'cllmaLe-smarL' Lechnlques have been developed,
manv hlahlv speclñc Lo parucular eco-svsLems, oLhers more wldelv appllcable.
lor example, Lhe SvsLem of 8lce lnLenslñcauon
2
(S8l) can aeneraLe hlaher vlelds
and hlaher farm lncomes wlLh lower waLer, pesuclde and ferullzer use ln manv
dlñerenL rlce-arowlna envlronmenLs. larmers don'L have Lo pav for anv speclal
seeds, chemlcals or llcenses (see Lhe Paaue conference on aarlculLure, food
securlLv and cllmaLe chanae for more examples).
1he M2M narrauve also dlspuLes Lhe numbers. A recenL reporL publlshed bv
Lhe Soll Assoclauon asserLs LhaL Lhe real lncrease ln demand for food from 2006
-2030 even on presenL Lrends ls 70°. ln M2M, consumers ln WesLern counLrles
reduce meaL consumpuon whlle meaL consumpuon ouLslde Lhe WesL peaks aL a
lower level.
A Compasslon ln World larmlna/lrlends of Lhe LarLh sLudv publlshed ln 2009
clalms LhaL we can feed Lhe world bv 2030 uslna free-ranae farm anlmal
producuon svsLems and adopuna a lower-meaL dleL ln developed counLrles
3
.
8Au araues LhaL lL has alreadv dellvered cheap food Lo Lhe beneñL of Lhe poor,
and wlll keep dolna so Lhrouah markeL forces. M2M araues LhaL Lhese same
markeL forces aeneraLe landlessness, malnuLrluon and obeslLv as well as oLher
neaauve 'exLernallues' whlch should be lncluded ln Lhe real cosL of cheap food.
L|vestock
1he lssue of llvesLock producuon ls hlahlv conLenuous, wlLh advocaLes uslna
whaLever ñaures Lhev can lav Lhelr hands on Lo plead Lhelr cause.
1here are aL leasL Lhree dlmenslons Lo Lhe araumenL:
- 1he overa|| |eve| of meat (and to some extent m||k) consumpnon
|n the West and the deve|op|ng wor|d, and the |mpact of
||vestock on ecosystems.
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- 1he ro|e ||vestock p|ay |n d|ñerent farm|ng systems.
- 1he re|anve mer|ts of beef and sheep versus p|gs and pou|try.
Impact of ||vestock on the g|oba| ecosystem
Clobal meaL consumpuon has lncreased sLeadllv Lhouah unevenlv over Lhe
lasL forLv vears. MeaL (alona wlLh mllk and eaas) provldes valuable hlah quallLv
proLeln, and ln some parLs of Lhe world Lhe populauon would beneñL from access
Lo more anlmal proLeln.
uk (and llfe) meaL consumpuon ls sLable aL abouL 83ka per person per vear -
or abouL half a pound of meaL a dav. We eaL more chlcken, followed bv pork,
Lhen beef, Lhen lamb. Cur meaL consumpuon ls averaae for Lhe 'developed'
world, whlle people ln developlna counLrles eaL abouL half as much on averaae.
1he world's Lwo laraesL counLrles are ouLllers ln Lhe aeneral Lrend for meaL
consumpuon Lo follow CuÞ. Chlna ls above Lhe llne, wlLh per caplLa consumpuon
of abouL 60ka per person, and lndla below Lhe llne aL 3.3ka per person. lndla,
wlLh almosL one-slxLh of Lhe world's populauon, eaLs less meaL Lhan Lhe uk.
8oLh counLrles are self-sumclenL ln araln, mllk and meaL, alLhouah Chlna, llke
Lurope, ls a ma[or neL lmporLer of sova.
lndla ls now Lhe laraesL dalrv producer ln Lhe world, albelL wlLh a svsLem where
80° of Lhe cows and buñalo are ln herds of 8 anlmals or less and dalrvlna ls a
ma[or source of emplovmenL (sources: lACS1A1, lAC SLaLe of lood 2009).
Clobal arowLh ln llvesLock ln Lhe lasL 20 vears has been malnlv pla and poulLrv,
wlLh caule numbers up onlv 20° whlle pla numbers have aone up 90° and
poulLrv has lncreased bv 130°.
1he lmpacL of llvesLock producuon on cllmaLe chanae has been hlahllahLed
bv manv reporLs, for example 'LlvesLock's Lona Shadow' bv Lhe lAC, whlch
esumaLed LhaL Laklna deforesLauon lnLo accounL, llvesLock farmlna ls responslble
for 18° of alobal areenhouse aas emlsslons.
1hls ñaure lLself has been challenaed, mosL recenLlv bv Slmon lalrlle
4
, buL
lnLeresunalv, Lhe reporL has been used Lo araue boLh for reduclna meaL
consumpuon and for lnLenslfvlna beef producuon (on Lhe arounds LhaL fauenlna
caule on araln as qulcklv as posslble and lndoors lf necessarv means less
meLhane per klloaram of beef Lhan havlna cows wanderlna abouL eauna arass
and bvproducLs).
8Au ls lnLeresLed ln Lechnlcal ñxes for meLhane producuon: lmprovlna aeneucs
so caule arow fasLer: ñne-Lunlna Lhe balance of nuLrlenLs ln Lhelr feed mlx,
shlûlna Lowards more (lnLenslvelv reared) pla and poulLrv meaL, feed addluves Lo
chanae Lhe auL composluon so Lhev make less meLhane - and even houslna caule
ln sealed sheds so Lhe meLhane can be Lapped oñ. All of Lhese oñer a markeL
opporLunlLv.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
13
M2M araues lnsLead for reduclna meaL consumpuon and reduclna concenLraLed
anlmal feedlna operauons - lnsLead, uslna llvesLock Lo eaL Lhlnas we can'L
(parucularlv arass ln Lhe case of rumlnanLs, buL also bv producLs and food wasLe)
and lnLearauna Lhem lnLo crop producuon.
(1hls used Lo happen ln WesLern aarlculLure and sull happens ln mosL of Lhe
world - buL ls now seen as lnemclenL. lnsLead, we have huae anlmal feedlna
operauons where food ls brouahL ln from mlles awav and where dlsposal of
manure ls a ma[or problem. 1hls Lhen requlres furLher lnvesLmenL ln anaeroblc
dlaesuon or 'wasLe' Lo enerav planLs whlch ln Lurn requlres Lhe scale of
producuon Lo be malnLalned or even lncreased).
1he ro|e of ||vestock |n d|ñerent farm|ng systems
LlvesLock svsLems are dlverse across Lhe world, wlLh small farmers ln manv
parLs of Lhe world relvlna on one or Lwo anlmals for drauahL power, lnsurance,
collaLeral and manure as well as mllk and meaL - whlle poulLrv producuon ln and
for Lhe uk ls an lndusLrlal process wlLh mlnlmal connecuon Lo farmlna or soll.
An esumaLed 1bn people ln developlna counLrles derlve an lncome from
llvesLock.
1he re|anve mer|ts of wh|te and red meat
Chooslna how much of whlch meaL Lo eaL means Laklna lnLo conslderauon noL
[usL Lhe dlrecL lmpacLs of Lhe parucular llvesLock svsLem buL also Lhe opporLunlLv
cosLs of LhaL parucular svsLem - so a complex mlx of facLs, values and oplnlons.
1he ma[or dlrecL envlronmenLal lmpacL of beef (and lamb) svsLems ls Lhe
producuon of meLhane from anlmal dlaesuon, and Lhe release of nlLrous oxlde
from manure handllna. ln araln-fed svsLems, caule are kllled aL a vounaer aae so
ln Lheorv less meLhane ls produced per ka of beef: buL more carbon ls released
from cropland solls Lo arow Lhe araln, more waLer mav be used for lrrlaauna
Lhe feedcrops and more nlLrous oxlde aeneraLed from culuvauons and ferullser
appllcauon.
Some beef svsLems also feed sova Lo anlmals, conLrlbuuna Lo deforesLauon as
well as lncurrlna a slanlñcanL carbon fooLprlnL ln Lransporuna feed from 8razll Lo
Lhe uk.
Land use on farms can also sequesLer carbon ln arassland and woodland, Lhouah
aaaln Lhe poLenual for carbon sequesLrauon ln arassland ls dlspuLed. unul
recenLlv, Lhe domlnanL vlew was LhaL arasslands are ln carbon equlllbrlum and
should be excluded from calculauons. 1he Soll Assoclauon's recenL revlew
3
of soll
carbon sequesLrauon research araues LhaL uk arasslands manaaed oraanlcallv
(whlch lncreases bloloalcal soll acuvlLv) can lock up 670kaC/ha/vr - enouah Lo
oñseL half Lhe meLhane emlsslons of Lhe dalrv cows and all Lhe emlsslon of
Lhe beef caule chomplna Lhe arass above. Soussanna eL al
6
reporL from four
Luropean arassland slLes a neL sequesLrauon of beLween 330ka and 1760ka ha/vr
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
14
aûer allowlna for meLhane and nlLrous oxlde emlsslons. SLudles also suaaesL LhaL
lncludlna clover ln Lhe sward reduces meLhane producuon.
8evlews of beef producuon ln Lhe Calrnaorms nauonal Þark and ln Lhe Cambrlan
mounLalns boLh suaaesL LhaL aL farm scale arass-fed beef svsLems can be carbon-
neuLral or even carbon-posluve.
1he opporLunlLv cosL of beef svsLems - whaL could we have done wlLh Lhose
resources lnsLead? - also dlñers beLween svsLems. Slnce cows can converL arass
whlch we can'L dlaesL lnLo meaL whlch we can, Lhev can be emclenL proLeln-
makers. 1he rauo of human edlble proLeln ouL Lo human edlble proLeln ln has
been calculaLed aL 1.2 ln a uSA feedloL svsLem and 6.1 ln an exLenslve ranchlna
svsLem, whlle Lhe enerav ln/enerav ouL rauos are 0.63 and 3.2 respecuvelv
7
.
1here ls Lwlce as much arazlna land ln Lhe world as arable land. 8umlnanLs araze
land whlch ls Loo poor, drv, rockv or sLeep Lo arow crops.
1he opporLunlLv cosL of waLer ls also slanlñcanL ln beef svsLems uslna lrrlaaLed
malze, whlle ln arass-fed beef svsLems ln ScoLland Lhe waLer ls [usL passlna
Lhrouah anvwav.
Powever, low carbon blueprlnLs such as Lhe CenLre for AlLernauve 1echnoloav's
Zero Carbon 8rlLaln 2030 reporL araue LhaL Lhe Lrue opporLunlLv cosL ls Lhe
carbon we could have locked up bv converuna arassland Lo foresL. (1houah some
sLudles also show LhaL sllvopasLoral svsLems comblnlna Lrees wlLh arassland lock
up more carbon Lhan foresLs.) llnallv, lL could be araued LhaL bv noL eauna beef
ourselves we help Lo make more avallable for exporL from ScoLland and/or help
Lo reduce Lhe uk's overall meaL lmporLs.
1he dlrecL lmpacL of pla and poulLrv svsLems - alLhouah Lhev converL araln Lo
meaL more emclenLlv Lhan caule - lnclude Lhe producuon of araln and Lhe lmporL
of sova (whlch ls currenLlv an lnLearal elemenL of all lnLenslve pla and poulLrv
svsLems).
Lurope lmporLs around 38 mllllon Lonnes of sova - around 100kas per person
- each vear, prlnclpallv from Lhe uSA, 8razll and Araenuna. Þroduclna Lhls crop
requlres some 13m hecLares - abouL Lwlce Lhe area of ScoLland. Sova producuon
ln 8razll ls a ma[or drlver of deforesLauon, whlch aloballv ls responslble for
around 20° of areenhouse aas emlsslons.
AnoLher dlrecL lmpacL ls Lhe llved experlence of Lhe anlmals who ln Lhe
lncreaslnalv larae concenLraLed anlmal feedlna operauons are LreaLed slmplv as
unlLs of producuon raLher Lhan senuenL creaLures.
1he opporLunlLv cosL of pla producuon also varles beLween svsLems, wlLh Lhe
besL svsLems aemna ouL abouL half as much human edlble proLeln as aoes ln.
Cbvlouslv svsLems whlch lnclude human food wasLe, woodland arazlna and crop
bv-producLs ln Lhe pla's dleL wlll do beuer on Lhls lndlcaLor.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
13
1wo narranves
8uslness as usual ls comforLable wlLh bla. lL's happv Lo see larae scale soluuons
whlch relv on alobal carbon markeLs and Lhe moneusauon of ecosvsLem servlces.
lL llkes hl-Lech. 1hese oñer markeL opporLunlues. 8uslness As usual ls aood aL
lobbvlna, lnßuenclna Lhe rules made bv Lhe World 1rade Craanlsauon. lL llkes
elLher/or: naLure here, producuon Lhere.
More Lo More ls more comforLable wlLh locallv relevanL, locallv manaaed low-Lech
soluuons from farm-scale bloaas and blochar Lo aaroforesLrv and sllvopasLure. lL
llkes enaaaemenL, dlaloaue, democracv - worklna wlLh, noL dolna Lo.
Cn november 2009 Lhe World lood SummlL on lood SecurlLv Look place ln
8ome. 1he maln Lheme of Lhe summlL was Lo dlscuss how Lo feed nlne bllllon
people ln 2030 ln order Lo Lackle whaL !acques ulouf, ulrecLor-Ceneral of lAC,
has called Lhe ºLraalc achlevemenL" of reachlna Lhe appalllna ñaure of 1 bllllon
hunarv people. AL Lhe same ume nCCs oraanlsed a parallel forum Lo Lhe World
lood SummlL demandlna LhaL lood SoverelanLv was ºLhe real soluuon Lo Lhe
Lraaedv of hunaer ln our world"
8
.
As araued bv ÞaLrlck Mulvanv (uk food aroup), Lhe ma[orlLv of Lhe world's
food ºls arown, collecLed and harvesLed bv more Lhan a bllllon small-scale
farmers, pasLorallsLs and arusanal ñsherfolk". Powever, farmers and consumers
have llule conLrol of how food ls produced because Lhe food svsLem and Lhe
rules LhaL aovern lL are ln Lhe hands of a few aarlbuslness companles and
lnLernauonal lnsuLuuons and Lhe speculauve lnLernauonal markeL. 1here ls a
arowlna consensus amona nCCs, farmers, pasLorallsLs, lndlaenous people and
oLher lnLeresL aroups LhaL a food soverelanLv framework ln pollcv-maklna could
democrause Lhe food svsLem and aL Lhe same ume conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe lona Lerm
developmenL aoals of reduclna world hunaer and poverLv.
1he concepL of lood SoverelanLv was ñrsL developed bv Lhe oraanlsauon vla
Campeslna, an lnLernauonal movemenL of peasanLs, small- and medlum-slzed
producers, landless, rural women, lndlaenous people, rural vouLh and aarlculLural
workers. lL has 148 oraanlsauonal members from 69 counLrles ln Asla, Afrlca,
Lurope and Lhe Amerlcas, lncludlna Lhe Scomsh Croûlna lederauon.
Iood sovere|gnty framework
- Iood sovere|gnty |s the r|ght of peop|es to hea|thy and cu|tura||y
appropr|ate food produced through eco|og|ca||y sound and
susta|nab|e methods, and the|r r|ght to dehne the|r own food
and agr|cu|ture systems.
- It puts those who produce, d|str|bute and consume food at the
heart of food systems and po||c|es rather than the demands of
markets and corporanons.
- It defends the |nterests and |nc|us|on of the next generanon.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
16
- It oñers a strategy to res|st and d|smant|e the current corporate
trade and food reg|me, and d|recnons for food, farm|ng, pastora|
and hsher|es systems determ|ned by |oca| producers.
- Iood sovere|gnty pr|or|nses |oca| and nanona| econom|es
and markets and empowers peasant and fam||y farmer-
dr|ven agr|cu|ture, arnsana|-hsh|ng, pastora||st-|ed graz|ng,
and food producnon, d|str|bunon and consumpnon based on
env|ronmenta|, soc|a| and econom|c susta|nab|||ty.
- Iood sovere|gnty promotes transparent trade that guarantees
[ust |ncome to a|| peop|es and the r|ghts of consumers to contro|
the|r food and nutr|non.
- It ensures that the r|ghts to use and manage our |ands,
terr|tor|es, waters, seeds, ||vestock and b|od|vers|ty are |n the
hands of those of us who produce food.
- Iood sovere|gnty |mp||es new soc|a| re|anons free of oppress|on
and |nequa||ty between men and women, peop|es, rac|a| groups,
soc|a| c|asses and generanons.
LxLracLed from ueclarauon of nvelenl, World lorum for lood SoverelanLv 2007.
Whlle Lhe lanauaae ls noL famlllar, Lhe baslc clalm ls LhaL Lhe food svsLem should
serve people and noL Lhe oLher wav round. 1he nexL secuon of Lhe reporL sLarLs
Lo explore whaL LhaL mlahL mean ln one local auLhorlLv area.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
17
@$)**+$;2$);.4
1hls secuon of Lhe reporL looks aL whaL can be done aL Lhe level of one local
auLhorlLv Lo develop a more susLalnable food svsLem locallv and Lo conLrlbuLe ln
a small wav Lo a more susLalnable food svsLem aloballv.
ln complllna Lhls secuon of Lhe reporL we were asslsLed bv 1he 8enarLv
CommunlLv lorum who underLook survev work and Look parL ln lnLervlews and
focus aroups.
About I|fe
llfe ls Lhe Lhlrd laraesL councll ln ScoLland wlLh 360,000 cluzens, wlLh a mlx of
urban and rural populauons, rlch and poor areas. llfe Councll alms Lo be Lhe
leadlna areen councll ln ScoLland.

llfe's bullL up area consuLuLes 11° of Lhe LoLal land surface and lL follows Lhe
Lrend of urbanlzauon experlenced ln Lhe resL of ScoLland, wlLh for example 1,403
hecLares of aarlculLural land alven over Lo roads, houslna or lndusLrv ln 2002-
2003. Cloballv, 19.3m (abouL 200 umes Lhe area of llfe) hecLares are losL each
vear Lo lndusLrlallzauon and urbanlsauon.
llfe's carbon fooLprlnL ls abouL 16L CC2e per person, compared Lo a alobal
averaae of 6.4L.
Compared Lo much of Lhe world, Lhere ls a hlah level of food lmporL and exporL
from llfe (and Lhe uk). 1here are relauvelv few farmers ln Lhe populauon, and all
farmers produce prlmarllv for sale raLher Lhan for Lhelr famllv's consumpuon.
As ln Lhe resL of Lhe uk, Lhe food lndusLrv ln llfe has a ma[or lmpacL on llfe's
economv, carbon fooLprlnL, on blodlverslLv, waLer quallLv and publlc healLh.
1he food lndusLrv emplovs over 10,000 people ln llfe, wlLh under 2,000 dlrecLlv
lnvolved ln farmlna. 1hls reporL focuses on cllmaLe chanae and publlc healLh lssues.
Iood and c||mate change
1he food svsLem as a whole ln Lhe uk - based on whaL we consume raLher Lhan
whaL we produce - ls esumaLed Lo accounL for 18° of our LoLal emlsslons
9
.
(CLher sLudles suaaesL a hlaher ñaure for Lhe Lu23 of 31° Laklna lnLo accounL
Lhe lmpacL of deforesLauon caused bv Lhe food svsLem
10
). ln ScoLland, wlLh a
relauvelv laraer aarlculLural secLor, food and farmlna accounL for 23° of our LoLal
producuon emlsslons.
Cf Lhe emlsslons from food, abouL half come from aarlculLure lLself ('pre farm
aaLe') whlle Lhe oLher half come from packaalna, processlna, LransporL and wasLe.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
18
Cf Lhe emlsslons whlch come from aarlculLure Lo produce our food, abouL half
(ln CC2 equlvalenL) comes from nlLrous oxlde emlsslons - malnlv as a resulL of
spreadlna chemlcal ferullzer and anlmal manures, buL also Lhrouah soll acuvlLv
under dlñerenL condluons.
!usL under half of Lhe emlsslons are from meLhane - prlmarllv from rumlnanL
anlmals, buL also some from waLerloaaed aarlculLural solls and a small amounL
from producuon of Lhe paddv rlce we lmporL.
Cnlv 10-13° of pre-farm aaLe emlsslons come from fossll fuel use - ferullzer
producuon, farm operauons, araln drvlna eLc.
1he emlsslons ln Lhe resL of Lhe food chaln are mosLlv from fuel and elecLrlclLv -
processlna, packaalna, refrlaerauon, LransporL of food and anlmal feed, [ournevs
Lo buv food, movlna food wasLe and so on.
uecomposlna food wasLe ln landñll also releases meLhane and recenL esumaLes
bv W8AÞ
11
suaaesL LhaL areenhouse aas emlsslons from food wasLe equaLe Lo
20ML CC2 eq - comparable Lo 23° of Lhe emlsslons from prlvaLe cars.
ScoLland has underLaken Lo achleve a reducuon of 42° ln lLs carbon fooLprlnL bv
2020. 1hls cannoL be achleved wlLhouL maklna a slanlñcanL denL ln Lhe carbon
fooLprlnL of Lhe food we eaL.
Þub||c hea|th
1he recenL lncrease ln obeslLv ls prlmarllv a resulL of whaL we eaL, when we eaL
lL and how we eaL lL. 1he suaar drlnks, confecuonerv and fasL food whlch are
avallable evervwhere and anvume are cheap wavs Lo aeL calorles.
Around 23° of adulLs ln llfe and 13° of chlldren are obese. ln 2003, of Lwelve
CLCu counLrles consldered ln an lnLernauonal comparlson, ScoLland had Lhe
second hlahesL obeslLv raLes, wlLh Lhe uS aL Lhe Lop of Lhe llsL,
12
and Lhe hlahesL
deaLh raLes ln Lurope from cardlovascular dlseases, whlch are hlahlv assoclaLed
wlLh dleL and phvslcal acuvlLv
13
.
lurLhermore Lhe lncldence of Lvpe 2 dlabeLes ln Lhe uk lncreased from 2.60/1000
person-vears ln 1996 Lo 4.31/1000 person-vears ln 2003
14
.
lood and drlnk companles have a well-rehearsed araumenL LhaL Lhere are no
unhealLhv foods, onlv unhealLhv dleLs. Powever, whaL Lhev spend promouna
Lhese unhealLhv foods dwarfs whaL aovernmenL spends promouna healLhv food.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
19
Cou|d I|fe feed |tse|f?
llfe ls a hlahlv producuve aarlculLural area. More Lhan Lwo Lhlrds of lLs 94,000
aarlculLural hecLares are arable land used for crops and lnLenslve arazlna.
lood producuon ls manaaed bv a small workforce of around 1000 people
supplemenLed bv abouL 800 seasonal workers.
Lxcludlna prlvaLe aardens and alloLmenLs, llfe has 0.18ha of arable land per
person, compared Lo abouL 0.1ha for Lhe uk as a whole and 0.23ha aloballv.
1he Lables below are esumaLes of producuon and consumpuon based on
avallable daLa. We have used Lvplcal vleld ñaures for crops and llvesLock ln
ScoLland and applled Lhem Lo Lhe land use daLa for llfe collecLed annuallv bv
aovernmenL.
Consumpuon daLa for llfe comes from uLl8A's famllv food survev, whlch ls
based on a larae sample of households recordlna whaL Lhev spend on food. 1hls
does noL allow for wasLaae (10-13°) and Lhere ls probablv under-reporuna of
snacks and confecuonerv consumed. (lor example, people reporL eauna 113a
confecuonerv per week, buL lndusLrv sales daLa show an averaae of 230a belna
sold)
13
.
1hls daLa ls presenLed Lo lllusLraLe Lhe maLch beLween whaL we produce ln llfe,
whaL we do eaL and whaL we should eaL accordlna Lo currenL advlce on healLhv
eauna.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
20
Lsnmanon of food producnon for I|fe
8ased on 5comsh Government census data
(1) 1he 5comsh Government, Nanona| 5tansncs Þub||canon, 5comsh Agr|cu|ture
- Cutput, Input and Income 5tansncs, 1ab|e 2 Cuannnes of Ma|n Items of 5comsh
Agr|cu|ture Cutput 2008. Apr|| 2009
(1.2) Vegetab|es data from Iood Añordab|||ty, Access and 5ecur|ty: 1he|r
Imp||canons for 5cot|and's Iood Þo||cy - A keport by Work 5tream 5 of the
5comsh Government's Iood Iorum 1ab|e 7 1he output |n tonnes of fru|t and
vegetab|e producnon |n 5cot|and |n 2008
(2) 1he 5comsh Government Agr|cu|ture and I|sher|es Þub||canons, 5comsh
Government 5tansnc|an Group
5comsh Agr|cu|tura| Census 5ummary 5heets by Geograph|c Area: Iune 2009
March 2010
Meat y|e|d may be h|gher or |ower than average for |nd|v|dua| an|ma|s. 1he y|e|d
does not represent |nd|v|dua| carcass we|ght but reßects annua| producnon of
meat |e the annua| we|ght of meat produced by severa| generanons of |nd|v|dua|
an|ma|s |n the case of pou|try or a propornon of carcass we|ght |n the case of
cau|e.
¥|e|d (t/ha) Area |n Lsnmated
hectares producnon
(2009 census)
Cereals
WheaL 7.3 13,779 103,342
8arlev 7 23,110 161,770
CaLs 3.3 2,698 14,839
1ota| Cerea|s 39,587 279,951
8ape 3 2,133 6,403
Þeas and beans 3 1,130 3,430
ÞoLaLoes (excl seed) 40 2,926 117,040
vea 23 2,300 37,300
lrulL 13 230 2,990
ÞolvLunnel/areenhouse 30 9.3 283
LlvesLock number anlmals ?leld/vear
8eef 13,000 cows 220ka meaL 2,860 L
Muuon and Lamb 40,000 ewes 28.8ka meaL 1,132 L
Þla meaL 383 sows 1,200ka meaL 462 L
1able blrds 630,000 9.4ka meaL 6,110 L
Mllk 4,800 cows 6,800 l mllk 32.6 m l
Laas 870,000 hens 318 276.6 m
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
21
Iood
consumpnon groups
lrulL
veaeLables
1ota| fru|t and veg
8rown/wholemeal
bread
WhlLe bread
8reakfasL cereals
ÞoLaLoes 4
Carbohydrates
Cllv llsh
WhlLeñsh
1ota| hsh
8ed/processed meaL
CLher meaL
1ota| meat
Mllk and ualrv (as
mllk, buuer, cheese
eLc)
Laas
kecommended d|etary
requ|rement |n tonnes 1
32,836
52,836
10,169
10,169
4,487
Mlnlmum 6,604
31,429
1,637
2,008
3,665
Maxlmum 11,870
no recommendauon
Max red/processed
11,870
no recommendauon
no recommendauon
Actua| consumpnon
|n tonnes 2
22,346
17,733
40,279
2,601
12,721
2,337
13,939 (lncludlna
chlps and crlsps)
33,618
397
1,413
2,012
21,134
21,134
37.4m l
37.6m eaas
Iood
Þroducnon
lrulL
vea
Classhouse and
proLecLed frulL
and vea
Cereals
ÞoLaLoes
I|sh
8eef
Muuon and
lamb
Þla meaL
ÞoulLrv
Mllk
Laas
1onnes
2,990
37,300
283
60,775

279,931
117,040
396,991
*1,700
2,860
1,132
462
6,110
10,584
32.6 m l
276.6 m eaas
I|fe annua| consumpnon I|fe annua| producnon
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
22
Notes:
1. Wendy L Wr|eden, karen L 8arton, Iu||e Armstrong, Gera|d|ne McNe|||, A
kev|ew Cf Iood Consumpnon And Nutr|ent Intakes Irom Nanona| 5urveys In
5cot|and: Compar|son 1o 1he 5comsh D|etary 1argets Comm|ss|oned 8y 1he Iood
5tandards Agency 5cot|and 5eptember 2006
1he 5comsh D|etary 1argets (5D1s) were estab||shed |n the 5comsh D|et Acnon
Þ|an (5DAÞ) (5comsh Cmce, 1996). 1he d|etary targets shown |n the 1ab|e were
reconhrmed |n the recent strateg|c framework for Iood and nea|th, (5comsh
Lxecunve, 2004).
D|etary targets are shown as annua| quannnes for I|fe popu|anon (I|fe Þopu|anon
- 361,890 |n 2008. I|fe.gov.uk) (5ee Append|x |)
2. Defra Iam||y Iood: A report on the 2007 Lxpend|ture and food survey. Lxtract
from tab|e 3.2 5e|ected foods by country - 5cot|and.
5comsh 5ea I|sher|es stansncs Map - I|gure 1: Vo|ume |anded by d|str|ct, 2008:
I|gure 2: Va|ue |anded by d|str|ct, 2008
4. Cuannnes of fresh and processed potatoes purchased Apr|| 2005 to December
2007 were |owest |n 5cot|and when compared w|th the rest of the Uk. Iam||y
Iood |n 2007 A Nanona| 5tansncs Þub||canon by Defra
5. Comp|ex carbohydrates can |nc|ude brown/who|emea| bread, some pasta, r|ce
and breakfast cerea|s and potatoes.
Þroducuon ln llfe ls sumclenL Lo meeL Lhe populauon's recommended dleLarv
requlremenLs for mosL of Lhe ma[or food aroups. lf llfe dld become an economlc
lsland, we would have less ñsh Lhan we need buL more Lhan enouah chlps Lo ao
wlLh Lhem. 1o frv Lhe chlps we arow over 6,000 Lonnes of rape seed oll - 10 llLres
per person per vear.
We arow enouah vea Lo aeL our ñve a dav Lhouah we would have a more llmlLed
ranae of frulL. ScoLland and Lhe uk lmporL around 90° of Lhe frulL we eaL.
We'd have more Lhan enouah cereals for our poraae and bread and we could sull
make far more beer and whlskv Lhan we could drlnk (an acre of barlev ls enouah
for 2,300 boules of slnale malL).
We would need far fewer hens Lhan we've aoL Lo lav our eaas, buL we'd sull need
abouL 30,000 Lonnes of wheaL a vear for plas and poulLrv - more Lhan we'd be
eauna ourselves. We'd have Lo cuL back a blL on mllk, buuer and cheese or make
room for a few hundred more dalrv caule.
We would have Lo cuL back on meaL or rear a couple of Lhousand more sows - we
produce abouL enouah beef, lamb and chlcken Lo maLch whaL we currenLlv eaL.
AlLhouah we produce around 3,000 Lonnes of peas and beans, we'd need a
bla lncrease ln pea-arowlna and some clever nuLrluonal work Lo meeL proLeln
requlremenLs for Lhe plas and poulLrv. We currenLlv lmporL sova mosLlv from
8razll as Lhls provldes a more convenlenL proLeln source for plas and chlckens
Lhan home-arown leaumes.
1he oLher kev exLernal lnpuLs Lo Lhe food svsLem are nlLroaen ferullser (Lhe
8-9,000 Lonnes of nlLroaen ferullser spread on Lhe 66,000 hecLares of arable
land ln llfe), lmporLed phosphaLe and poLasslum ferullser, and oll used for farm
machlnerv lncludlna araln drvlna.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
23
AlLhouah lL ls unllkelv LhaL Lhe klnadom of llfe wlll cease Lradlna wlLh Lhe resL
of Lhe alobe anv ume soon, Lhe answer Lo Lhe quesuon 'could llfe feed lLself?' ls
clearlv 'ves'.
1he answer Lo Lhe quesuon 'does llfe feed lLself?' ls clearlv no. Leavlna aslde,
Lea, coñee, wlne, chocolaLe, splces, oranaes and all Lhose oLher exouc pleasures,
Lhere ls llule vlslble connecuon beLween whaL we arow and whaL we eaL.
AlLhouah we produce broadlv enouah of all Lhe sLaple foods we need Lo eaL, and
desplLe Lhe besL eñorLs of Lhe farm shops, farmers' markeLs and llfe uleL, Lhe
local food svsLem ls maralnal. MosL of whaL mosL people eaL ln llfe cannoL be
readllv llnked Lo mosL of whaL people arow ln llfe. MosL farmers are produclna
commodlues, noL food. WheaL farmers don'L eaL Lhelr own bread, and oaL
farmers don'L make Lhelr own poraae.
Whlle we now Lhlnk of Lhls as normal, mosL of Lhe world's populauon sull have a
sLrona connecuon Lo local food producuon. ueclslons made bv aovernmenLs and
cluzens ln Lhe nexL few vears wlll deLermlne wheLher our food svsLem develops
Lo be more llke Lhelrs, or Lhelrs develops Lo be more llke ours, or boLh svsLems
develop Lo someLhlna new.
1here are Lwo maln reasons for Lhe lack of a local food svsLem:
Dom|nance of supermarket cha|ns |n food reta|||ng
1he uk arocerv secLor ls domlnaLed bv a few verv larae companles whlch source
Lhelr produce from all over Lhe world. Whlle supermarkeLs are keen Lo plck up
buslness bv demonsLrauna Lhelr commlLmenL Lo local suppllers, onlv Lhe larae
and speclallsed producers can meeL Lhe demandlna speclñcauons dlrecLlv.
WlLh meaL, mllk and cereal producLs, farmers Lend Lo supplv Lhe supermarkeLs
Lhrouah larae lnLermedlarv processors ln oLher parLs of ScoLland and Lhe uk and
durlna Lhls process Lhe connecuon wlLh Lhe local area ls losL.
lood processlna daLa ls noL avallable for llfe, buL lL appears LhaL no mllk ls
pasLeurlzed and bouled ln llfe. verv llule llvesLock ls slauahLered and buLchered
wlLhln llfe. Some locallv produced oaLs are processed lnLo breakfasL cereals ln
Cupar buL Lhese are Lhen dlsLrlbuLed LhrouahouL ScoLland and norLhern Lnaland.
none of Lhe bread sold ln llfe ls demonsLrablv made wlLh even a proporuon
of locallv mllled ßour. Whlle lnLermedlaLe Lechnoloav for cleanlna and mllllna
cereals on a farm scale ls commerclallv avallable, Lhe svsLem ls aeared Lo larae
cenLrallsed planL.
AnecdoLal evldence suaaesLs LhaL even frulL and veaeLables arown and packed ln
llfe Lravel Lo and from supermarkeL dlsLrlbuuon hubs before belna sold ln llfe.
larmers are aL Lhe prlce-Laklna end of a chaln where Lhe prlce Lhev aeL ls
deLermlned bv relauve baraalnlna power (as wlLh mllk, where a small number of
dalrv companles conLrol Lhe lndusLrv) and bv alobal commodlLv prlces (as wlLh
wheaL, where speculauon on Lhe commodlLv markeLs ampllñes Lhe eñecL of
supplv and demand whlch ln Lurn ls lnßuenced noL onlv bv naLural evenLs such
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
24
as ßoods and drouahLs buL also bv Lhe blofuels markeL). 1he proporuon of Lhe
shopplna baskeL prlce whlch aoes back Lo farmers ln Lhe uk fell sLeadllv from 47°
ln 1988 Lo 36° currenLlv.
ln ScoLland, small dalrv farms are dwlndllna everv vear: from 2,000 such farms ln
1999 Lhere are now onlv 1,300.
´wltb tbe blo tetollets povloo fotmets o cotteot ovetooe of jost 24p
pet lltte fot mllk - less tboo tbe 27p cost of ptoJocuoo - mote ooJ
mote ote focloo foooclol tolo´ .wblle mote teJ tope ls totelv tbe
ooswet. we most foJ o wov to expose ooJ cooJemo tbls metclless
sooeezloo of oot Joltv fotmets´ SLruan SLevenson, MLÞ.
16
Small dalrles are now vlable onlv lf Lhev can oraanlse Lhelr own boullna and
supplv cusLomers dlrecLlv, or lf Lhev can add value on farm Lhrouah cheese or
lce cream.
Þrlce cumna bv supermarkeLs eñecuvelv puL an end Lo doorsLep dellverles ln
Lhe uk.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
23
1urnover for supermarkets and other shops |n I|fe
2009
1
koder|ck MacLean Assoc|ates Ltd I|fe keta|| Capac|ty 5tudy 2009 Lsnmated
conven|ence turnover, 2009(In 2008 pr|ces)
2
5AC, Land Lconomy Work|ng Þaper 5er|es Number 21. 1he Cr|g|ns, Cperanon
and Iuture of Iarmers' Markets |n 5cot|and 2006 Updated Lsnmated 2010 by
M|chae| Mac|eod 5AC
3
IAkMA esnmated approx|mate average turnover
lL was noL alwavs Lhls wav. MosL supermarkeLs ln llfe are less Lhan 20 vears old.
ln 1960, small lndependenL reLallers ln uk had a 60° share of Lhe food reLall
markeL. 8v 2000, Lhelr share was reduced Lo 6° whlle Lhe muluples' share
lncreased Lo 88°.

Whlle farmers' markeLs and farm shops are a welcome developmenL, Lhev
remaln maralnal wlLh around 0.3° of Lhe markeL. Scomsh AarlculLural Colleae
(SAC) esumaLe Lhe averaae Lurnover per farmers markeL sLall Lo be £100 an hour.
1he llfe larmers MarkeL Assoclauon esumaLe Lhls Lo be a llule hlaher. 1he sLall
holder musL arow/produce Lhe food sold and cover all cosLs (e.a. seed, slauahLer,
5tore Number of stores Annua| 1urnover
£m||||on
5upermarkets
1

Somerñeld 1 6.7
M&S lood 2 14.2
Salnsburv 2 48.4
1esco 6 124.3
ASuA 3 198.3
Aldl 6 21.4
Lldl 4 13.7
Morrlsons 2 32.1
Co-op 3 21.2
1ota| supermarkets
1
500.5
1own cenLre shops
1
38.3
Cther shops
1
87.1
Iarmers Markets
2
4 per month 0.5
Iarm 5hops
3
10 3
1ota| Lsnmated annua|
food turnover 629.4
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
26
buLcherv, packaalna, LransporL) as well as Lhe labour Lo produce and sell Lhe
produce. ÞroñL maralns musL lnevlLablv be narrow and lL ls posslble LhaL manv
farmers mav earn less Lhan Lhe mlnlmum waae.
1he case for farm shops appears sllahLlv beuer wlLh averaae Lurnover of
£300,000 a vear buL Lhev usuallv emplov from 4 Lo 10 full ume equlvalenL sLañ.
Manv farm shops auracL 'Lop-up' spend from cusLomers buL are noL provldlna
Lhelr maln source of food.
WlLhouL broader supporL for a local food svsLem, Lhese shorL cuLs from producer
Lo consumer wlll conunue Lo be perlpheral.
We eat food products, not food
lrom Lhe farm aaLe onwards Lhe uk (and WesLern) food svsLem ls domlnaLed bv
a small number of larae food and drlnk companles, and Lhev, raLher Lhan local
farmers, have Lhe mosL lnßuence on Lhe food we eaL ln llfe.
We can onlv eaL and drlnk so much (and ln Lerms of calorle lnLake we appear Lo
be eauna less Lhan before), and baslc foodsLuñs can be produced verv cheaplv aL
farm level, especlallv ln Lhe Lu and uS where producuon ls dlrecLlv or lndlrecLlv
subsldlsed. So food and drlnk companles need Lo 'add value' Lo raw lnaredlenLs
and creaLe proñLable food producLs and brands.
CreaL lnaenulLv aoes lnLo comblnlna cheap calorles lnLo cheap buL hlahlv
auracuve and ublqulLous processed food from soû drlnks and confecuonerv Lo
breakfasL bars and readv meals.
More and more we buv food producLs raLher Lhan food: and mosL of Lhese food
producLs can'L be made ln a klLchen. lnaredlenLs such as sova leclLhln and hlah
frucLose corn svrup, leL alone Lhe hosL of enzvmes, emulslñers and aaenLs are noL
avallable aL Lhe farm aaLe.
Consumpuon of readv meals arew bv 44° ln Lhe uk beLween 1998 and 2002,
wlLh Lhe uk now consumlna Lwlce as manv readv meals as lrance and slx
umes as manv as Spaln
17
. 1vplcallv, Lhe lona llsL of lnaredlenLs and Lhe scale of
manufacLurlna means loslna anv connecuon beLween Lhe meaL or veaeLables ln a
readv meal and a local farmer.
Manv caLerers relv on a slnale larae suppller Lo source all Lhelr food, and much
of whaL appears on Lhe menu was made ln a facLorv hundreds of mlles awav and
slmplv reheaLed ln Lhe resLauranL klLchen. 1hls 'emclenL' svsLem allows caLerers
Lo reduce sLamna levels and skllls requlremenLs, buL removes Lhe lncenuve Lo
source local food.
Lven bread, Lhe mosL baslc of producLs, cannoL be made aL home Lo resemble Lhe
ublqulLous whlLe sllced loaf. 1he aummv LexLure, Lhe refusal Lo ao sLale, and Lhe
sheer quanuLv of alr and waLer folded lnLo a facLorv made loaf wlLh Lhe help of
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
27
aeneucallv modlñed enzvmes ls bevond Lhe klLchen skllls of even our besL 1v chef.
WlLh Lwo companles - 8ank Povls and AuM - conLrolllna more Lhan 30° of Lhe
mllllna ln Lhe uk and larae bakerles produclna up Lo a mllllon producLs a dav,
lL ls noL surprlslna LhaL we don'L know lf Lodav's LoasL ls from Llncolnshlre or
kazakhsLan. (Whlle larae planL bakerles supplv over 80° of Lhe uk markeL, craû
bakers supplv 90° of bread ln lLalv).
Palf of Lhe bread we eaL ls ln sandwlches, and we have people make Lhose for us
Loo as parL of a £3 bllllon lndusLrv.
Does any of th|s mauer?
SupporLers of Lhe currenL food svsLem araue LhaL all Lhls reßecLs proaress, alvlna
more cholce Lo consumers and drlvlna emclencv ln prlmarv producuon Lhrouah
compeuuon. Local food, oraanlc producuon svsLems and smallholders are seen as
parL of a nosLalalc lndulaence bv rlch Luropeans buL we [usL need Lo aeL wlLh Lhe
proaramme.
Cf course Lhe real quesuon ls noL could llfe feed lLself, buL 'could llfe feed lLself
beuer, and more susLalnablv, whlle also dolna lLs blL Lo help Lhe resL of Lhe world
do llkewlse?'
ln ÞarL 1 we araued LhaL '8uslness as usual' aL a alobal level would conunue
Lo drlve cllmaLe chanae and damaae Lhe envlronmenL whlle falllna Lo feed Lhe
world's poor.
8Au ln llfe means neaauve envlronmenLal lmpacLs boLh here and ln oLher
counLrles from Lhe wav we farm and Lhe food we eaL: and lL means Lhousands of
people ln llfe dvlna before Lhelr ume because of obeslLv and lLs consequences.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
28
Loca| farmers' percepnons
1wenLv farmers were lnLervlewed bv phone durlna !anuarv 2010. lnLervlewees
were selecLed from a varleLv of farm Lvpes and slzes and lnclude larae-scale
arable, mlxed, dalrv, eaa producers and farms wlLh dlrecL sales vla farm shops.
larmers were asked abouL Lhe opporLunlues for and barrlers Lo selllna more local
food. 1he ma[orlLv of Lhe lnLervlewees were ln favour of more local sales and
were consclous of rlslna fuel prlces and cllmaLe chanae.
1|me, |abour and sk|||s
Manv farms are runnlna wlLh onlv famllv labour or wlLh [usL one addluonal
worker. Manv people sald Lhev dldn'L have Lhe ume bevond runnlna Lhe farm
Lo explore processlna and markeuna Lhelr produce. Several lnLervlewees also
expressed a lack of conñdence LhaL Lhev had Lhe skllls and experlence Lo process
and markeL Lhelr produce.
5tatus quo and "1hat's not what I do"
1wo people sald Lhelr [ob sausfacuon came from farmlna and Lhev dld noL see
Lhemselves as processors or reLallers. Converselv Lhose runnlna farm shops
and produclna local cheese or runnlna Lhelr own buLcherv expressed hlah [ob
sausfacuon and valued Lhe chance Lo meeL Lhelr cusLomers buL admlued Lo
worklna verv lona hours. 1here was also a prlde ln selllna ScoLland Lo Lhe world.
A few people felL LhaL Scomsh farmlna was noL abouL supplvlna local food and
manv farmers Lalked abouL Lhe role of farmlna ln exporL and sLrenaLhenlna Lhe
Scomsh economv. Manv farmers expressed fears for Lhelr fuLure coupled wlLh
lack of conñdence ln maklna chanaes. 1here was a loL of nosLalala for mlxed
farmlna buL a feellna LhaL such svsLems could noL be relnLroduced.
Lconom|cs, monocu|ture, econom|es of sca|e
1he ume Laken Lo process and markeL food locallv was seen bv manv as
uneconomlc. An example alven was lamb - LransporL Lo slauahLerhouse, slauahLer
charae, buLcherv cosLs, markeuna cosLs lncludlna labelllna, ume aL farmers'
markeL or on dellverles, eLc. Manv farmers lnvolved ln farm shops and farmers'
markeLs earn less Lhan mlnlmum waae lf all worklna hours are calculaLed. 1he
lnvesLmenL ln Lhe necessarv equlpmenL and machlnerv was seen as verv hlah for
an lndlvldual farm - pasLeurlses, cold sLore, packaalna, eLc.
1here was concern amonasL farmers abouL cllmaLe chanae, buL a sense of
needlna more lnformauon. Þeople cared abouL cllmaLe chanae buL expressed
Lhe reallLv LhaL Lhev musL do 'whaL pavs', for example produclna barlev for
maluna and exporL ls seen as more proñLable Lhan arowlna veaeLables for local
consumpuon. 1here ls also a need Lo look ouLward bevond llfe for markeLs.
MosL farms were produclna a verv small ranae of foods and manv hlahllahLed Lhe
dlñerence wlLh Lhe Lradluonal mlxed farms of Lhe prevlous aenerauon. 1here was
concern abouL Lhe economlc vulnerablllLv of currenL monoculLure and a varleLv
of concerns were ralsed:
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
29
- 1hose farmers that contracted out |and for vegetab|e grow|ng
spoke of the |arge mach|nery used, so|| compacnon and the
damage to future so|| fern||ty.
- 1hose se|||ng cerea|s and vegetab|es spoke of the frustranon of
not be|ng ab|e to se|| y|e|ds of |ess than 30 tonnes. 1h|s prevents
some farmers us|ng sma||er areas or operanng a rotanon.
- 1he |nvestment |n storage, mach|nery, equ|pment and meenng
regu|anons was a|so seen as a barr|er to ßex|b|||ty and ab|||ty to
produce sma|| |oca| quannnes.
- Lack of know|edge of where to go for he|p and adv|ce, and
frustranon w|th the nme taken for grants to be processed.
- Cne farm w|th |ts own shop grows over 70 var|enes of fru|t and
vegetab|es. 1hey can se|| that produce d|rect|y to customers, but
buy|ng seed and harvesnng |s re|anve|y expens|ve because of the
sma|| areas |nvo|ved.
5upermarkets
Manv complalned abouL Lhelr LreaLmenL from supermarkeLs and bulk processors
buL dld noL feel readv or conñdenL Lo Lake on Lhe rlsk of movlna awav from LhaL
slLuauon. ComplalnLs lncluded:
- Þrec|se spec|hcanon, resu|nng |n re[ecnon and wastage of crops
not meenng that spec|hcanon. 1he supermarkets demand one
s|ze of swede or cabbage because farmers are to|d that |s what
the customer wants. ¥et an account from a farm shop where a
range of types and s|zes are oñered suggests that one s|ze does
not ht a||.
- 1y|ng |n to severa| years contract and forc|ng farmers to |nvest |n
mach|nery/storage to meet that contract.
- kequ|red pesnc|de and herb|c|de use.
- Iood m||es - the supermarkets c|a|m to supp|y '|oca|' food wh|ch
has |n fact trave||ed to a processor or packer and then to a
supermarket d|str|bunon hub before reach|ng the customer. 1h|s
was a parncu|ar frustranon for da|ry farms where |t has reduced
pr|ces be|ow costs.
Iarmers' markets
- 5een as a good way to ra|se awareness but not rea||y a way
forward.
- Co|d and wet for sta||ho|ders and customers - th|s ||m|ts the|r
popu|ar|ty.
- 1oo sma|| to dea| w|th very much of I|fe's food supp|y and
demand.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
30
- Not prov|d|ng sumc|ent connnu|ty. When |amb pr|ces are |ow
farmers se|| d|rect|y to consumers but when pr|ces r|se there
|s no |amb ava||ab|e |n the farmers' markets and th|s añects
customer and supp||er |oya|ty.
Iarm shops
- 1hose that so|d through farm shops were very pos|nve.
- 8arr|ers |nc|ude |ocanon and customer access. Not every farm |s
|n the r|ght p|ace to auract customers. 1he|r sma|| number |s seen
as a barr|er, and a more comprehens|ve network of farm shops
and supp||ers wou|d be stronger.
- Many farmers referred to sma|| |ndependent h|gh street shops as
the|r access to |oca| consumers |n the past, but too few are |eh
now.
Markets and Þrocess|ng
- 1here are no ||vestock markets |n I|fe, and Þerth Aucnon Market
|s now c|osed.
- I|fe has [ust one commerc|a| abauo|r and there are frustranons
w|th the |ack of cho|ce. Most farmers be|ong to producer groups
and send stock to markets and s|aughterhouses outs|de I|fe.
- 1he few rema|n|ng da|ry farmers a|| be|ong to supp||er groups.
1here appear to be no |oca| farm da|r|es pasteur|s|ng and
bou||ng on-farm |n I|fe. 1here |s one |ndependent da|ry, based |n
G|enrothes, co||ecnng m||k across 5cot|and and process|ng near
Ld|nburgh. G|enrothes |s [ust a depot for |oca| de||ver|es. Most of
the sma|| |ndependent da|r|es have been bought out by Grahams
or W|seman and on|y reta|ned as doorstep de||very depots.
- 5evera| farmers |nterv|ewed had g|ven up da|ry herds |n the
past hve years. 1he rema|n|ng sma||er herds are bare|y meenng
costs and there are fears that the supermarkets are |ncreas|ng|y
|mpornng cheaper, poorer qua||ty m||k.
Þos|nve Change |n I|fe
1hose LhaL had made Lhe break Lo supplvlna local food were, ln Lhe maln, verv
posluve.
Iru|t and Veg - farm shops are ab|e to d|vers|fy, and a|though they
work |ong hours they hnd d|rect customer feedback very sansfy|ng.
Networks to buy |n from ne|ghbour|ng farms are be|ng estab||shed,
and they are we|| supported by IAkMA. Increas|ng numbers of
shops he|ps estab||sh a customer base.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
31
Lggs - 'press|ng on an open door' s|nce restaurants and shops
|ook|ng to buy |oca| and free range. Cne supp||er |s exp|or|ng
franch|s|ng out free range egg un|ts to farms wannng to d|vers|fy.
Cheese - d|mcu|t to estab||sh but w|th encourag|ng resu|ts.
Cats - there |s a |arge-sca|e producer contract w|th Cuaker - owned
by Þeps|Co who are comm|ued to m||||ng |oca||y |n Cupar and
va|u|ng and |nvesnng |n |oca| supp||ers. 1he company |s good at
markenng the hea|th benehts of the product.
Meat - one producer has estab||shed a butchery that now processes
||vestock from other farms. 1he product w||| have to rema|n at the
top end of market because of h|gh |nvestment costs but many other
farmers are |nterested |n us|ng th|s fac|||ty.
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32
Commun|ty percepnons
lor Lhls reporL we surveved 44 people ln slx separaLe locauons LhrouahouL llfe,
and members of Lhe 8enarLv CommunlLv lorum helped wlLh dlsLrlbuuna and
collecuna quesuonnalres. 1hese locauons encompassed a mlx of socloeconomlc
demoaraphlcs, ranalna over a rural Lownshlp ln a 'reaenerauon area', a small,
aMuenL 8urah, a unlverslLv Lown, a larae Lown, and an lndusLrlal 'new 1own'.
1hls survev was conducLed ouLslde supermarkeLs, resLauranLs, and a small,
oraanlc farm shop and also ln varlous workplaces. ÞaruclpanLs ranaed ln aae from
Leens Lo pensloners, wlLh a hlah proporuon of women (70°) Laklna parL.
1hls ls a small-scale survev focused on Lhe llfe realon, whlch does noL clalm Lo
be sLausucallv slanlñcanL. lor furLher readlna ln Local lood 1rends ln ScoLland
consulL Lhe Local lood Markeuna Culde 2007 from SAC and 1nS SvsLem 1hree
Scomsh Cplnlon Survev, Aprll 2007.
ÞaruclpanLs were asked Lo deñne 'local food', how lmporLanL lL was Lo Lhem Lo
have access Lo locallv-arown produce, and whaL barrlers (lf anv) exlsLed Lo Lhem
belna able Lo access local producLs. 1he ma[orlLv (88°) of paruclpanLs ln Lhls
survev sLaLed LhaL Lhev were lnLeresLed ln seelna more local producLs avallable,
buL 18° added Lhe condluon LhaL Lhe lLems should noL be more expenslve
Lhan comparable lLems ln Lhe supermarkeLs. 7° sLaLed LhaL Lhe mauer dld noL
concern Lhem, and 3° chose noL Lo answer Lhe quesuon.
1hls Lrend ls also explalned bv commenLs LhaL respondenLs made when asked
abouL barrlers Lhev had encounLered Lo obLalnlna locallv-arown produce. 1he
maln obsLacle clLed was cosL (31°). 1he second mosL prevalenL barrler was Lhe
avallablllLv of local produce ln markeLs, wlLh dlsLance Lo local shops, farm shops,
and farmers' markeLs (17°) followlna. Several respondenLs sLaLed LhaL Lhev
uullsed publlc LransporLauon and elLher dld noL drlve, or dld noL wanL Lo drlve.
16° sald LhaL more lnformauon on farm shops or oLher sources of local food
needed Lo be made avallable Lo Lhe aeneral publlc. 1he same amounL (16°) sald
Lhev had no Lrouble accesslna local food sources.
1hose who shopped solelv aL supermarkeLs sLaLed LhaL lower prlces, a areaLer
selecuon of producLs, and conslsLenL avallablllLv were deLermlnlna facLors ln
chooslna Lo do so.
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33
5ummary of |nterv|ews and focus groups w|th
commun|ty groups
1he Lhemes ldenuñed below emeraed from our conversauons wlLh dlñerenL aae
and soclal backaround aroups, lncludlna communlLv workers, vouna moLhers,
pensloners, and resldenLs of a hosLel for homeless people. 1hese aroups were
locaLed ln Lhe areas of kelLv, Lochaellv, 8alllnarv and Leven. MosL of Lhe lssues
ralsed ln relauon Lo access, cosL, and avallablllLv conñrm Lhe resulLs of our small-
scale survev, buL here we aaln a beuer lnslahL lnLo Lhe opporLunlues and barrlers
for Local and SusLalnable lood. ln aeneral beuer food, more cholce of food and
beuer value food were of more concern Lo people Lhan Lhe carbon fooLprlnL of
Lhelr food.
Access to |oca| shops and farms
MosL of Lhe paruclpanLs commenLed LhaL lL was unforLunaLe LhaL ln Lhe pasL Len
Lo ñûeen vears Lhe numbers of local food shops had reduced and Lhere was now
verv llule cholce of food shops wlLhln walklna dlsLance of home. kelLv was sald Lo
have no small local food shops. ln Lhe same perlod a larae number of Lakeawav
ouLleLs had opened ln Lhe local area, malnlv used bv vounaer people who ñnd
Lhe laLe openlna and dellverles convenlenL. Several people commenLed LhaL Lhls
was an expenslve wav Lo eaL. MosL people were crlucal of convenlence sLores
ln Lerms of cosL, cholce and packaae slzes - however, some people sLaLed LhaL lL
would be a aood ldea Lo supplv more local produce Lhrouah Lhese sLores.
Þeople had a aood knowledae of Lhelr local landscape and aarlculLural land, Lhev
could locaLe local farms on a map buL rarelv knew Lhe name of Lhe farm or Lhe
farmer. MosL of Lhe paruclpanLs sald Lhev would llke Lo vlslL local farms more
oûen and buv produce dlrecLlv from Lhe farmer, buL Lhls was ume-consumlna and
Lhev were noL sure lf all farms were open Lo publlc vlslLors. Several paruclpanLs,
especlallv Lhose ln Lhe older aae aroups, commenLed wlLh nosLalala on Lhe
aradual dlsappearance of dalrv farms, Lhev could noL undersLand whv Lhe uk ls
sull lmporuna mllk from oLher counLrles and whv Lhere ls a lack of manufacLurlna
lndusLrv ln ScoLland. We dlscussed whaL lL would Lake Lo aeL a doorsLep dellverv
aolna aaaln bv semna up a parLnershlp beLween Lhe communlLv and one or Lwo
local farmers. A Lown of abouL 3,000 people would need abouL 80 oraanlc cows
Lo keep lL ln llquld mllk, and accordlna Lo recenL research would beneñL from
fewer chlldhood allerales as well as a much lower carbon fooLprlnL. 1he currenL
svsLem whlch Lrucks mllk Lo larae homoaenlzauon planLs and back aaaln Lo Lhe
supermarkeL Lakes nearlv Lwo Lhlrds of Lhe 70p cosL of a llLre of mllk, and leaves
23p for Lhe farmer.
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34
5hopp|ng preferences
MosL paruclpanLs dld Lhelr shopplna aL a supermarkeL. 1he maln reasons for
shopplna aL a supermarkeL were:
- Cost: Most peop|e |n the younger age groups and from |ow-
|ncome fam|||es expressed the v|ew that supermarkets oñer
fam|||es a cheaper a|ternanve to n|gh 5treet shops, espec|a||y
through the "buy one get one free". nowever, they were aware
that buy|ng oñers somenmes |eads to more food waste and
purchas|ng poorer qua||ty food.
- Cho|ce and range of foods: Most of the peop|e saw the
supermarket as the on|y opnon to buy a good var|ety of food,
|nc|ud|ng fresh food and eth|ca| produce (e.g. organ|c, free-range,
fa|r trade).
- Conven|ence: 5upermarkets have car parks or are eas||y
access|b|e on a bus route, a|though trave|||ng by bus was seen
as on|y pracnca| |f shopp|ng for one because of the d|mcu|nes
of carry|ng many bags. 5ome younger peop|e ||v|ng a|one a|so
commented on the conven|ence and añordab|||ty of on||ne
shopp|ng when one |s on a nght budget.
- Cuannnes: Þeop|e ||v|ng a|one ||ked to be ab|e to se|ect sma||
|nd|v|dua| pornons of |oose fru|t and vegetab|es rather than the
pre-packed bags ava||ab|e at |oca| conven|ence stores. Cn the
contrary, fam|||es we|come the opportun|ty to buy b|g quannnes
and packs |n the supermarkets.
Loca| food and provenance
1he people lnLervlewed sald Lhev dld noL know where mosL supermarkeL food
was arown or produced buL LhaL lL was probablv noL local. All paruclpanLs
appreclaLed Lhe value of local food ln aenerauna local emplovmenL and Lhev
would llke Lo see more añordable opuons avallable locallv. 8uvlna locallv-
produced food was noL seen as a prlorlLv, buL mosL people LhouahL lL would be
aood Lo supporL local producers. 1he araumenLs for Lhls seemed Lo be economlc
raLher Lhan envlronmenLal or healLh.
Þeople were more lncllned Lo Lalk abouL meaL Lhan anv oLher Lvpe of local food,
and Lhe excepuon Lo local shopplna was buLchers. Manv people sull wenL Lo a
local buLcher, some weeklv, oLhers occaslonallv. 1hev belleved LhaL Lhe quallLv
of meaL was beuer Lhan aL Lhe supermarkeLs Lhouah more expenslve. Several
people commenLed on Lhe soclal aspecL of vlsluna Lhe buLchers - Lhev knew Lhe
name of Lhe buLcher and expecLed Lhe sLañ Lo recoanlse and remember Lhem.
Þeople lnLervlewed were unsure lf meaL aL Lhe local buLchers was locallv
produced or arass-fed, buL LhouahL lL probablv was. lnLervlewees seemed Lo have
aood backaround knowledae on buvlna meaL and were conñdenL of Lhelr ablllLv
Lo nouce Lhe LasLe of beuer quallLv meaL. A hlah proporuon of people had poraae
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33
for breakfasL and lL was LhouahL LhaL Lhe oaLs were deñnlLelv Scomsh. 1here was
no dlscusslon of where oLher breakfasL cereals were produced.
larmers' MarkeLs were seen as places Lo aeL local and Scomsh food ln aeneral
and mosL people have vlslLed one, alLhouah people polnLed ouL LhaL Lhev were
lnaccesslble wlLhouL a car. Colna Lo a farmers' markeL was seen as an ouuna
raLher Lhan a reaular parL of Lhe shopplna, and Lhe produce sold was seen as
unusual and a LreaL raLher Lhan evervdav food.
Þurchaslna oraanlc and free-ranae producLs was seen bv some as a luxurv and
some people were susplclous of Lhe brandlna, slnce now mosL supermarkeLs
seem Lo have Lhelr own oraanlc brand. When looklna aL lalr 1rade, mosL of Lhe
paruclpanLs sLaLed LhaL Lhev buv falr Lrade producLs occaslonallv and onlv when
Lhe prlce ls reasonable.
Iood cu|ture, hea|th and the env|ronment
1here were Lradluonal aender dlvldes amona older paruclpanLs. Clder women
spoke abouL cooklna whlle men spoke more abouL eauna. Manv women belleved
lL was lmporLanL Lo Leach Lhelr chlldren and arandchlldren cooklna skllls, and
Lhere was pralse for Lhe cookerv classes ln Lhe schools and for Lhe servlna of frulL
ln prlmarv schools. Clder moLhers sLaLed LhaL Lhev alwavs Lrv Lo cook and avold
readv-Lo-ao meals and food wasLe. Þeople commenLed on Lhe loss of a 'food
culLure' ln ScoLland and Lhe need Lo recover food hlsLorv and promoLe lnLer-
aenerauonal acuvlues ln relauon Lo food.
1here was wldespread bellef LhaL manv vouna people no lonaer knew how Lo
cook or dld noL have ume Lo cook, and vounaer paruclpanLs admlued Lo buvlna
Lakeawav meals 2-3 umes per week. Some paruclpanLs sald Lhev were fussv
abouL food and LhaL Lhls could lead Lhem Lo choose unhealLhv opuons. ?ouna
people and parenLs welcome Lhe cooklna classes oraanlsed bv Lhe councll as a
wav of bulldlna Lhelr self-esLeem and feellna conñdenL Lo cook healLhv and fresh
meals for famllv and frlends.
no dlrecL menuon was made of Lhe posslble healLh beneñLs of locallv produced
food. More dlscusslon was needed Lo explore knowledae of healLh beneñLs
of arass-fed meaL and omeaa 3, fresh frulL and veaeLables, eLc. A few people
commenLed LhaL Lhe 8enarLv Medlcal CenLre sold small packs of veaeLables
from local farms on Wednesdavs. noL manv people seem Lo know abouL Lhls, so
perhaps Lhe markeuna has noL been successful. ?ouna people who oûen exerclse
and older people who reaularlv auend walklna aroups were more aware of Lhe
beneñLs of a healLhv dleL and manv reporLed LhaL Lhev eaL malnlv frulLs and
veaeLables, and meaL onlv occaslonallv.
MosL of Lhe paruclpanLs reporLed LhaL Lhev have access Lo Lhelr own aarden or
anoLher famllv member's aarden, and worklna ln Lhe aarden was seen as a wav
Lo sLav ñL, have access Lo free and healLhv food, and be more ln conLrol of haL
Lhev produce and whaL Lhev eaL. 1here was a arowlna enLhuslasm, especlallv
amona low-lncome famllles and people llvlna ln deprlved areas, on lnluauves LhaL
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36
promoLed 'arowlna vour own food' (alloLmenLs, communlLv aardens, Lralnlna and
skllls) and ln kelLv, for example, Lhev had a lona waluna-llsL for alloLmenLs. Þeople
seemed Lo belleve LhaL Lhese acuvlues would conLrlbuLe Lo 'bulldlna communlLv'
and would save monev for lncome-deprlved famllles, whlch normallv spend a
hlah proporuon of Lhelr lncome on food especlallv ln umes of recesslon. 1here
were some dlscusslons abouL how Lo scale up models of communlLv supporLed
aarlculLure and arowlna, and Lhe ñnanclal lnfrasLrucLure needed Lo become
susLalnable.
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37
A$=*3'#+6$'$6&#*254#$(*0'($.**+$
696&4-$;2$);.4
´At tbe olobol. teoloool. oouoool ooJ locol levels. Jeclsloo-mokets
most be ocotelv cooscloos of tbe foct tbot tbete ote Jlvetse
cbolleooes. moluple tbeoteucol ftomewotks ooJ Jevelopmeot moJels
ooJ o wlJe toooe of opuoos to meet Jevelopmeot ooJ sostoloobllltv
oools. Oot petcepuoo of tbe cbolleooes ooJ tbe cbolces we moke ot
tbls jooctote lo oot blstotv wlll Jetetmloe bow we ptotect oot plooet
ooJ secote oot fotote´
18
.
llfe does noL seL Luropean aarlculLural pollcv or reaulaLe alobal commodlLv
speculauon - buL lL can Lhlnk aloballv and acL locallv. 1hls secuon of Lhe reporL
seLs ouL a coherenL approach Lo lmprovlna food ln llfe over ume.
1he alobal food svsLem concenLraLes power ln Loo few hands: falls Lo feed
Lhe hunarv, drlves cllmaLe chanae, reduces blodlverslLv and soll quallLv and
compromlses anlmal welfare. 1he currenL food svsLem ln llfe does all Lhese on a
smaller scale, boLh bv Lhe wav we produce food and Lhe wav we consume food.
Cur svsLem ls slmplv parL of a much blaaer machlne.
1here are clearlv helpful 'chanaes wlLhln pauern' whlch can be made wlLhouL
havlna Lo challenae Lhe domlnanL worldvlew. More preclslon farmlna Lechnlques
reduce fuel and ferullzer use on farm. SmarLer loalsucs and beuer enalnes allow
supermarkeLs Lo move food around Lhe counLrv wlLh less fuel.
We Lhlnk we can do beuer Lhan reñne Lhe exlsuna svsLem. 1here ls an alLernauve.
We recommend LhaL llfe (and oLher realons) should lmplemenL a lona-Lerm,
lnLearaLed pollcv Lo sLrenaLhen Lhe local food svsLem. 1hls local food svsLem
wlll operaLe auLonomouslv alonaslde Lhe domlnanL food svsLem, oñerlna an
lncreaslnalv credlble alLernauve.
8v local food svsLem, we mean a neLwork of producers (lncludlna verv small scale
producers ln aardens and alloLmenLs) oñerlna a wlde ranae of produce, who see
Lhemselves as worklna LoaeLher Lo provlde aood food for Lhemselves and Lhe
local communlLv: we mean shorL supplv chalns, economlc and soclal co-operauon
beLween consumers and producers, we mean añordable food and falr prlces,
wlLh a commlLmenL Lo food quallLv, conservlna resources and cllmaLe-smarL
farmlna.
We see Lhe maln beneñLs of a sLronaer local food svsLem as:
- n|gher consumpnon across soc|o-econom|c groups of fresh,
seasona| and m|n|ma||y processed food |ead|ng to pub||c hea|th
ga|ns.
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38
- Greater commun|ty cohes|on through |nd|v|dua| and commun|ty
|nvo|vement |n produc|ng sourc|ng and prepar|ng food.
- Improved hea|th through s|gn|hcant expans|on |n grow your own.
- Increased emp|oyment |n sma|| to med|um enterpr|ses grow|ng,
process|ng and cook|ng food.
- As a resu|t of d|vers|hcanon and short supp|y cha|ns, |ncreased
v|ab|||ty of sma|| farms and m|xed farms, w|th benehts for rura|
commun|nes.
- Greater emc|ency through greater co-operanon |n |oca| food
producnon and de||very, ma|nta|n|ng añordab|e food pr|ces.
- 5tronger connecnons between consumers and producers
suppornng enhanced b|od|vers|ty and an|ma| we|fare.
- 5ome reducnon |n carbon footpr|nt of the food system through
|ncreased organ|c producnon, c||mate-smart farm|ng techn|ques,
reduced food waste, |ncreased nutr|ent recyc||ng and reduced
transport, packag|ng, process|ng and refr|geranon.
- Greater pub||c |nvo|vement |n determ|n|ng |oca| food po||cy and
|and use.
1hls pollcv requlres [olned-up acuon aL a local level wlLh Lhe local auLhorlLv, nPS,
Scomsh LnLerprlse, aarlculLural colleaes, farmers' oraanlsauons, small buslnesses
and clvll socleLv worklna LoaeLher. Whlle some chanaes can be made ln Lhe shorL
Lerm, a reslllenL and cllmaLe-smarL local food svsLem wlll Lake aL leasL Len vears Lo
develop.
A local food svsLem whlch accounLed for 13-20° of food consumpuon ln 2020
would be maklna a valuable conLrlbuuon Lo publlc healLh, local economlc
developmenL, communlLv coheslon and Lhe envlronmenL.
Movlna Lowards a sLronaer local food svsLem means manv Lhlnas chanalna ln
parallel - for example, consumers need Lo eaL more unprocessed food whlle
farmers need Lo dlverslfv and collaboraLe Lo meeL a areaLer demand for local
food. larmlna culLure has Lo become more people-orlenLed, whlle communlues
have Lo become more aware of Lhe reallues of food producuon. lood - llke healLh
- ls a publlc aood, co-produced bv farmers and consumers. CurrenLlv Lhere ls
a chasm of lanauaae and percepuon beLween 'professlonal' farmers and arow
vour own aardeners. We envlslon areaLer muLual undersLandlna and respecL
beLween food producers worklna aL dlñerenL scales and far more people lnvolved
ln produclna and/or processlna some of Lhelr own food. We see a process of
converaence over Lhe nexL 10-20 vears, Lowards a food svsLem wlLh a areaLer
number of acLors buL a clearer shared purpose. 1hls dlaaram on Lhe nexL paae
lllusLraLes Lhe chanae.
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39
Chang|ng how we farm
Cver Lhe lasL ñûv vears, Lhrouah a comblnauon of breedlna, manaaemenL and
nuLrluon, we have pushed plas and chlckens Lo arow aL asLonlshlna speed, and
dalrv cows Lo produce ever-lncreaslna volumes of mllk. A hlah-vleldlna dalrv cow
produces enouah mllk, buuer, cheese and voahurL for 60 people. Cne of Lhe kev
elemenLs has been feedlna our anlmals a hlah proLeln dleL. Much of Lhls used Lo
come from ñsh, and laLer from meaL and bone meal. Slnce 8SL, Lhe use of meaL
and bone meal has been banned. Þlas used Lo be fed human food wasLe buL Lhls
has been banned slnce fooL and mouLh dlsease.
As a resulL, Lurope (and ScoLland) lmporL nearlv 40 mllllon Lonnes of sova per
vear, malnlv from Lhe uSA, Araenuna and 8razll.
AL a cerLaln prlce for naLural resources (waLer, foresLs, soll carbon, oll, land,
blodlverslLv) our presenL svsLem of food and farmlna wlll become lncreaslnalv
non-vlable. lmporuna anlmal feed and blodlesel feedsLock from monoculLure
planLauons across Lhe world wlll become more expenslve Lhan Lhe alLernauve.
AL Lhe same ume, prlclna for ecosvsLem servlces wlll encouraae farms here Lo
produce more Lhan food.
uurlna Lhe nexL Len vears farmlna ln ScoLland musL develop new wavs Lo measure
lLs Lrlple bouom llne of ñnanclal, envlronmenLal and soclal ouLpuLs, resuluna ln
a shlû Lowards more dlverslñed and cllmaLe smarL underLaklnas ln manv parLs of
Lhe counLrv. 1hls new meLrlc would help Lo chanae 'whaL pavs'.
WlLh sLronaer economlc and soclal llnks beLween clues and famllv farms, farms
would produce more Lhan food - places for people Lo reconnecL wlLh food and
naLure, learn, walk, camp, eaL LoaeLher.
Chang|ng how
we eat
Chang|ng how
we farm
Chang|ng the
food economy
Chang|ng
government po||cy
Creanng
a strong |oca|
food system
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40
near-clLv dalrles could provlde llquld mllk for doorsLep dellverv (alona wlLh oLher
onllne food orders) whlle more remoLe dalrles produce cheese, buuer and lce
cream.
ConcenLraLed anlmal feedlna operauons would become soclallv unaccepLable,
wlLh a compensauna lnvesLmenL ln lmproved aeneucs for dual purpose caule and
hens. 8eef would be predomlnanLlv arass-ñnlshed, wlLh arazlna lnLearaLed wlLh
foresLrv. lood wasLe would be fed Lo plas as parL of a reaulaLed svsLem.
1here would be a slanlñcanL lncrease ln smallholder pla and poulLrv svsLems
wlLh eñecuve exLenslon supporL and quallLv sLandards. Conunulna professlonal
developmenL would be oñered Lo farmers, so Lhev can consolldaLe and pass on
Lhelr skllls and knowledae.
Cream C'Ga||oway
Dav|d and W||ma I|n|ay run a 340 ha farm |n Dumfr|es and
Ga||oway. 1he|r three enterpr|ses are the farm (da|ry, beef and
sheep), manufacture and sa|e of organ|c and fa|r trade |ce cream,
and a v|s|tor centre w|th nature tra|| and other amen|nes. 1hey have
a|so put up a commun|ty w|nd turb|ne on the farm.
1hey now have p|ans for a revo|unonary change to the|r da|ry|ng
system, |eav|ng the ca|ves w|th the|r mums unn| natura| wean|ng at
11 months and m||k|ng the cows once a day. 1hey are a|so chang|ng
the breed and feed|ng more grass and |ess concentrate. 1h|s w|||
reduce m||k producnon and m||k taken oñ the cow |n each |actanon
- but |t w||| |ead to |onger producnve ||ves for the cows, reduc|ng
the number of rep|acement he|fers needed: w||| transform an|ma|
we|fare: w||| |ncrease beef producnon, and w||| reduce carbon
footpr|nt. 1he new herd w||| have 140 cows. A new AD (anaerob|c
d|gesnon) p|ant w||| treat the s|urry produc|ng a more stab|e
fern||ser as we|| as energy for use on the farm and to put |n to the
gr|d. 1he more soc|a| pauern of m||k|ng a|so makes the [ob more
susta|nab|e.
8y contrast, most commerc|a| da|r|es are now m||k|ng 1000 cows:
keep|ng cows |ndoors a|| year round: us|ng n|trogen fern||ser to
|ncrease grass y|e|ds, p|us feed|ng h|gh |eve|s of soya-enr|ched
concentrate: averag|ng 2-3 |actanons per cow: and mask|ng h|gh
|nc|dence of stress, masnns and |ameness w|th annb|oncs.
1h|s |s a p|oneer|ng examp|e of a trans|non techno|ogy, prov|d|ng
susta|nab|e m||k and beef from re|anve|y poor |and wh|ch |s |arge|y
unsu|ted to cropp|ng.
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41
Chang|ng what we eat
1he llfe uleL, Slow lood and oLher local eauna experlmenLs demonsLraLe arowlna
publlc awareness of food cholces, and supporL people Lo make chanaes as parL of
a communlLv (on-llne or face Lo face).
I|fe D|et members p|edge to
LaL local (deñned blo-realonallv), eaL less meaL, eaL more oraanlc, reduce food
wasLe and composL more.
1he recenL sLudv of llfe uleLers showed LhaL on averaae Lhelr carbon fooLprlnL
from food was 27° below Lhe uk norm, wlLh some members' dleLs comlna ln as
low as half Lhe uk averaae.
Why |ess (and beuer) meat?
So eauna less and beuer meaL - sav araduallv reduclna uk consumpuon Lo Lhe
world averaae over Lhe nexL Len vears - wlll conLrlbuLe Lowards:
- 5uppornng grass-fed beef and |amb systems wh|ch can |ock up
more greenhouse gas em|ss|ons than they produce, parncu|ar|y
s||vopastura| systems, use marg|na| |and, and/or contr|bute to a
rotanon, prov|d|ng fern||ty for cerea| or vegetab|e crops.
- 5uppornng extens|ve systems for p|g and pou|try producnon
where an|ma|s can have beuer |f s||ght|y |ess 'emc|ent' ||ves.
- keduc|ng the need for |mported GM soya and for the 2 m||||on
tons of meat (40¼ of consumpnon) |mported |nto the Uk each
year.
- Improv|ng our overa|| hea|th.
Why organ|c?
Some of Lhe beneñLs of oraanlc producuon (carbon sequesLrauon, no CM feed)
have alreadv been descrlbed.
CLher prlnclpal beneñLs lnclude:
- n|gher an|ma| we|fare standards: a|| an|ma|s must have access to
pasture, h|gher space standards |n hous|ng, no mun|anons such
as beak-c||pp|ng |n hens or nose-r|ng|ng |n p|gs, no |arge sheds
hous|ng thousands of p|gs or pou|try.
- Greater b|od|vers|ty above ground as we|| as be|ow.
- No pesnc|des used |n producnon so no res|dues: and [ust as
|mportant|y for food |mported from deve|op|ng countr|es
no farmers exposed to pesnc|de w|thout proper storage or
protecnon fac|||nes.
- In processed foods, very few perm|ued add|nves.
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42
- No chem|ca| n|trogen used, reduc|ng carbon footpr|nt of
producnon, neganve |mpacts on so|| qua||ty and water po||unon
r|sks.
ln manv slLuauons, hlaher drv mauer of veaeLables and hlaher concenLrauon of
useful nuLrlenLs.
Why |oca|?
lood LransporL ls esumaLed Lo accounL for 2-3° of our areenhouse aas emlsslons,
and refrlaerauon (boLh ln Lhe home and ln Lhe cold chaln) abouL Lhe same.
1he Lerm has made manv people aware of how far some of Lhe food ln Lhelr
supermarkeL has Lravelled and prompLed Lhem Lo seek more local alLernauves.
Powever lL was noL lona before reporLs appeared showlna whv lL was reallv more
emclenL ln carbon Lerms Lo buv sheep from new Zealand and send Scomsh sheep
Lo lrance, or arow LomaLoes ln Spaln raLher Lhan Lhe Clvde vallev.
lurLher compllcauons arlse when balanclna developmenL and envlronmenL
lssues. Manv small farmers ln developlna counLrles supplv us wlLh fresh frulL, buL
Lhe small percenLaae of alr-frelahLed produce accounLs for around half of Lhe
emlsslons arlslna from frulL and veaeLable LransporL (Carneu, 2008). As Carneu
polnLs ouL, lona dlsLance supplv chalns ln LransporL noL onlv requlre assoclaLed
lnfrasLrucLure (roads, porLs, runwavs) buL are also hard Lo reverse slnce Lhev
boLh faclllLaLe more producuon and processlna aL a dlsLance and undermlne local
capaclLv.
Waluna for Lhe sLrawberrles and Lhe new poLaLoes, buvlna Lhe new season lamb
(more summer Lhan sprlna round here), eauna fresh LomaLoes ln Lhe summer
and drled ln Lhe wlnLer, preservlna Lhe aluL of frulL and veaeLables ln auLumn Lo
see us Lhrouah Lhe wlnLer - all Lhls saves carbon and embedded waLer. 8uL lL also
helps Lo rebulld local food culLure, and can be done bv communlues as well as bv
lndlvlduals.
1houahuul experlmenLs such as Lhe llfe uleL have aone bevond Lhe slmple
concepL of food mlles, showlna Lhe beneñLs of eauna locallv and seasonallv noL
[usL Lo lndlvlduals' carbon fooLprlnLs buL also Lo local producers, famllv food
budaeLs and local food culLure.
Chang|ng the food economy
SLraLeales for chanae have Lo comblne Lop down approaches such as lealslauon,
Laxauon and reaulauon wlLh bouom up eñorLs ln soclal markeuna, publlc
educauon and consumer moblllzauon. Whlle boLh sLraLeales are needed, our
parucular emphasls ln Lhls reporL ls acuon aL Lhe level of communlLv and clvll
socleLv.
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43
1he lndlvlduallsauon of food purchaslna, preparauon and consumpuon ls a
svmpLom of Lhe problem and a focus on lndlvldual chanae ls lnadequaLe alven
Lhe 'surround sound' of alobal food
19
.
´we coooot escope oot pteJlcomeot bv slmplv coouooloo to telv
oo tbe oooteoouoo of loJlvlJool cbolces to ocbleve sostolooble ooJ
eooltoble ootcomes´
20.
1he kev chanae we envlsaae ls a move Lowards a 'manv Lo manv' food neLwork,
boLh co-exlsuna wlLh and challenalna Lhe 'houralass' model whlch concenLraLes
power wlLh mulunauonal food companles whlch can conLrol farmers and
consumers.
lood lends lLself Lo communlLv level acuons, ln LhaL demand ls consLanL,
predlcLable and relauvelv easv Lo aaareaaLe: manv of Lhe processes ln slmple
food manufacLurlna can be done on a small scale, and sLoraae of seasonal
surpluses can be done economlcallv. Cur currenL model of 'addlna value' bv
creauna hlahlv processed and hlahlv branded food producLs, LoaeLher wlLh [usL
ln ume dellverv svsLems Lends Lo obscure Lhe facL LhaL aemna food on people's
Lables has hlsLorlcallv and can ln fuLure be done aL a human scale uslna rlahL slze
Lechnoloav. Such a svsLem would be more reslllenL, aenerauna areaLer soclal
coheslon and common knowledae abouL food.
I|gure 3: An |||ustranon of the agr|-food cha|n |n s|x Luropean
countr|es w|th the numbers of stakeho|ders at each |eve| (5ource:
Gr|ev|nk 2003, as c|ted |n 8onny 2006, p.7)
21
.
Cne of Lhe kev barrlers Lo expandlna Lhe local food economv ls Lhe asvmmeLrv of
rlsk beLween small producers and consumers. lor local food svsLems Lo ßourlsh
and scale up, producers need more predlcLable demand and consumers need
more predlcLable and ln some cases more añordable supplv. 8uL whlle consumers
have a convenlenL alLernauve ln Lhe form of Lhe supermarkeL, producers Lvplcallv
have Lo choose wheLher Lo puL all Lhelr eaas ln Lhe local food baskeL or all Lhelr
eaas ln Lhe wholesale Lo supermarkeLs baskeL.
8oLh soclal caplLal and ñnanclal caplLal are needed Lo arow Lhe markeL.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
44
5|ow money
Cne of Lhe drlvers behlnd prlce lnsLablllLv ln food commodlues ls lncreased
speculauon. uurlna Lhe credlL crunch, hoL monev moved ouL of real esLaLe and
lnLo food commodlLv Lradlna, ampllfvlna prlce movemenLs caused bv drouahLs,
ßoods or pesulence. Modern monev markeLs have noLhlna Lo do wlLh acLuallv
buvlna, ownlna and selllna food, buL lnsLead use compuLers Lo buv and sell sLock
Lhousands of umes a second Lo make monev ouL of maralnal prlce dlñerenuals
ln alobal markeLs. 1hls 'fasL monev' makes Lhe rlch rlcher and Lhe poor more
vulnerable.
'Slow monev' ls a Lerm colned recenLlv bv Woodv 1asch
22
Lo descrlbe a verv
dlñerenL form of lnvesLmenL, wlLh lndlvlduals lnvesuna dlrecLlv ln local food
enLerprlses and belna wllllna Lo leave monev ln for a lona ume aL a low raLe of
lnLeresL.
1here are manv varlauons on Lhls Lheme. Some local food pro[ecLs ln Lhe uk have
alreadv ralsed sLarL-up caplLal as loans or bonds from local lndlvlduals, someumes
Lopplna up wlLh loans sourced Lhrouah Lhe lnLerneL. 8ondholders can be pald ln
food raLher Lhan cash. Some pro[ecLs have members commlued Lo buv produce
reaularlv Lhrouah a sLandlna order.
Larae-scale consumer buvlna aroups such as exlsL ln manv lLallan clues could
procure food from local farms wlLh a forward conLracL. lood muLuals and credlL
unlons could allow people on low lncomes Lo access local food añordablv.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
43
B40*--42+'&;*26$.*#$);.4$7*"20;(
1hls requlremenL for farmlna, consumers and Lhe food economv Lo chanae ln
parallel means LhaL developmenL of Lhe local food svsLem ls llkelv Lo sLall wlLhouL
local leadershlp and lnsuLuuonal supporL.
llfe Councll and plannlna parLners have beaun Lhe process of developlna a food
pollcv and Lhls wlll help Lo connecL speclñc pro[ecLs and schemes ln a coherenL
framework. 1he areas for local acuon seL ouL below mosLlv bulld on and exLend
exlsuna work ln llfe. We have noL made anv recommendauons on publlc healLh
or obeslLv reducuon as Lhls ls noL our area of experuse.
1 5upport 'grow your own' and commun|ty grow|ng
pro[ects
Crowlna on a small scale ln prlvaLe aardens, alloLmenLs and communlLv aardens
ls an lnLearal parL of malnLalnlna a llve food culLure. 1hls dlrecL enaaaemenL ln
aemna food ouL of Lhe around puLs Lhe hearL lnLo a local food svsLem.
1here are also of course healLh beneñLs from Lhe exerclse of dlaalna and
weedlna. AlloLmenLs and prlvaLe aardens oûen are cllmaLe and wlldllfe-frlendlv,
buL ln some cases ferullser and herblclde/pesucldes are used aL slanlñcanL levels
for Lhe area lnvolved. A recenL sLudv of alloLmenLs
23
showed LhaL Lhe laraesL
elemenL ln Lhe carbon fooLprlnL of veaeLable producuon was from drlvlna Lhere
and back - havlna Lhe alloLmenL close enouah for people Lo be able Lo walk or
cvcle would clearlv help.
A||otments |n I|fe
I|fe current|y has 485 a||otments - about the nanona| average per
person and the Counc|| |s comm|ued not [ust to |ncreas|ng the
number of a||otments but a|so to he|p peop|e make best use of
them. I|fe pub||shed |ts A||otment 5trategy |n December 2009.
1wo new s|tes opened |n 2010, w|th three more |n the p|pe||ne,
wh||e ex|snng s|tes are a|so gemng upgraded. 1he Counc||'s keen for
a||otment s|tes to become 'commun|ty grow|ng spaces' w|th shared
storage and fac|||nes, ra|sed beds for peop|e w|th mob|||ty prob|ems
and a venue for educanon. Þeter Duncan, the Counc||'s a||otments
omcer |s work|ng c|ose|y w|th L|mwood Co||ege to prov|de 'hoe,
sow and grow' courses across the reg|on for new a||otment ho|ders,
as we|| as oñer|ng peop|e ha|f and quarter s|ze 'starter p|ots' to get
them go|ng.
1he Counc|| |s a|so creanng opportun|nes for further horncu|tura|
tra|n|ng |n |ts ma[or parks. As Duncan exp|a|ns "We're snck|ng a
p|aster over a mass|ve horncu|tura| gap - I reckon about th|rty years
|n th|s country".
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1he currenL ñaure equaLes Lo abouL 1 person ln 730 wlLh an alloLmenL, whlle
Lhe ñaure ln Lnaland ls esumaLed aL 1 ln 200 - so Lhere ls plenLv of room for
developmenL.
1here are of course manv people arowlna frulL and veaeLables ln Lhelr own
aardens raLher Lhan alloLmenLs. 8ased on households supplled wlLh a brown
bln for recvcllna aarden wasLe, we esumaLe LhaL Lhere are 14,000 aardens ln
llfe - whlch, assumlna a local auLhorlLv seml-deLached house has an averaae
back aarden slze of 120sq m could mean a poLenual land asseL of up Lo 1,680ha
across llfe - a slanlñcanL supplemenL Lo Lhe 2300ha used for commerclal frulL and
veaeLable producuon ln Lhe realon.
Cbvlouslv Lhe aspecL and Lopoaraphv of aardens wlll varv buL older houslna sLock
was all bullL on areenñeld slLes so much of Lhe aarden area has Lhe poLenual Lo
be producuve.
We do noL know how much of Lhls aarden around ls alreadv puL Lo work
produclna frulL and veaeLables. As well as encouraalna more llfers Lo arow
Lhelr own Lhrouah classes and courses and posLers ln publlc places, Lhere ls an
opporLunlLv Lo supporL Lhe local economv Lhrouah encouraalna people Lo markeL
Lhelr produce Lhrouah a scheme llke CounLrv MarkeLs.
Country Markets Ltd enab|es |nd|v|dua| producers to se|| the|r
home-made and home-grown |tems |oca||y and co-operanve|y,
d|rect|y to the pub||c. It |s a membersh|p-based co-operanve soc|a|
enterpr|se operanng throughout Lng|and and Wa|es. Country
Markets Ltd has an annua| turnover of around £10 m||||on, around
£9 m||||on of wh|ch |s returned to the 12,000 producers. It |s d|v|ded
|nto 65 reg|ona| Market 5oc|enes operanng over four hundred
markets.
Country Markets Ltd a|so prov|des a tra|n|ng, |nformanon and
educanon serv|ce for |ts producers, research|ng and d|ssem|nanng
|nformanon regard|ng current |eg|s|anon from DLIkA, 1rad|ng
5tandards Cmcers, Lnv|ronmenta| nea|th Cmcers and other
regu|atory bod|es. Country markets do not operate a Market 5oc|ety
|n 5cot|and.
ShorLaae of land does noL appear Lo be a barrler Lo developlna a local food
svsLem ln llfe, buL lf needed Lhere are also currenLlv 104ha of vacanL land
and 726ha of derellcL land. MosL slLes wlll have problems of conLamlnauon or
absence of Lop soll, or derellcL bulldlnas Lo remove.
1here are also underused areen spaces - for example ln hosplLals and parks -
where communlLv arowlna spaces could be developed. 1he 8oval Ldlnburah
CommunlLv Carden ls one aood example of nPS land belna used Lo promoLe food
producuon, conservauon, communlLv coheslon and healLh.
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2 8u||d capac|ty for mutua| food |n|nanves
As Lhe lnLervlews wlLh local farmers demonsLraLed, Lhe barrlers Lo enLerlna Lhe
local food svsLem are oûen Lo do wlLh sklll, knowledae, ume and rlsk raLher Lhan
wllllnaness. Powever, Lhere ls also a communlcauon aap beLween farmers and
communlues, desplLe Lhe ranae of successful farm shops ln llfe.
As Lhe research wlLh 8enarLv CommunlLv lorum showed, Lhere ls lnLeresL ln
accesslna local food buL Lhere are barrlers of lnformauon and dlsLrlbuuon raLher
Lhan slmplv cosL.
As Lhe Councll's experlence of local food procuremenL shows, Lhere are barrlers
Lo local farmers enaaalna wlLh procuremenL conLracLs, lndlvlduallv or collecuvelv.
1aken LoaeLher, Lhese polnL Lo Lhe value of a proacuve and susLalned dlaloaue Lo
help develop more collaborauve and emclenL supplv chalns and rouLes Lo markeL.
1hls dlaloaue would lnclude conversauons wlLhln nelahbourhoods, communlLv
aroups, schools, church conareaauons and workplaces: meeunas of lnLeresLed
aroups wlLh farmers' oraanlsauons as well as lndlvldual farmers and vlslLs Lo
farms: brlnalna LoaeLher local food producers Lo ldenufv opporLunlues and
develop collaborauve approaches.
A Leam of people from a ranae of backarounds lncludlna farmers could be
recrulLed and supporLed Lo work on Lhls.
As Lhls dlaloaue develops, one of Lhe local aaencles (for example unlverslLv of
SL Andrews SusLalnablllLv lnsuLuLe) could explore Lhe scope for 'slow monev'
Lo supporL Lhe developmenL of Lhe local food svsLem bv provldlna caplLal and
reduclna rlsk.
Lxp|or|ng the |oca| food system |n Lochge||y
1h|s former m|n|ng area |s surrounded by farm|and and |oca|
peop|e remember the connecnons that used to ex|st w|th |oca|
farms such as doorstep m||k de||very. 1here |s strong |oca| |nterest
|n creanng commun|ty grow|ng spaces and access to |oca| food, for
examp|e through a farmers' market or a cafó. Members of the |oca|
commun|ty forum he|ped to organ|se a survey of peop|e's v|ews on
|oca| food.
1he area has a cred|t un|on of 1000 members wh|ch cou|d mob|||ze
purchas|ng power to procure fresh food from |oca| producers. Ior
examp|e, a £2 per week payment to the cred|t un|on cou|d create
a |oca| food budget of £100k annua||y - enough to engage sma||
to med|um farmers |n grow|ng for a |oca| market. (As exp|a|ned |n
Þart 2 of th|s report one of the ma|n barr|ers perce|ved by farmers
was |ack of a guaranteed market, w|th farmers grow|ng a he|d of
potatoes or vegetab|es and be|ng |eh w|th unso|d produce).
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48
3 5upport |oca| food systems through [o|nt pub||c
procurement
llfe Councll spends £6.3m a vear on procurlna school meals, provldlna 22,000
meals a dav Lo chlldren aL 130 schools, provldlna a 2 course lunch for £1.63 uslna
70p worLh of lnaredlenLs. 1hls budaeL, llke oLher publlc secLor budaeLs, wlll come
under pressure as fundlna cuLs Lake eñecL.
1he Councll's procuremenL servlce ls worklna Lo lncrease Lhe proporuon of food
sourced from llfe. lL's noL a sLralahuorward [ob, alven Lhe lack of processlna
faclllues such as pasLeurlzlna and boullna planLs for mllk, and buLcherles for meaL
- so Lhe nexL besL Lhlna ls Lo encouraae laraer companles ouLslde llfe Lo llnk whaL
Lhev buv from llfe Lo whaL Lhev sell back.
llfe Councll can opL ouL of nauonal conLracLs, and can spllL conLracLs lnLo loLs so
LhaL smaller producers can applv. Powever, whlle all conLracLs are publlshed on
Lhe accesslble Þubllc ConLracLs ScoLland webslLe, Lhe response from local farmers
has been llmlLed Lo daLe.
AlLhouah publlc spendlna on food ls a small proporuon of Lhe LoLal spend, local
procuremenL emphaslzes Lhe lmporLanL servlce belna provlded bv farmers and
arowers Lo feed our chlldren, hosplLal pauenLs, and people ln care. lL can also
provlde a farmlna buslness wlLh a sLeadv and predlcLable lncome sLream, and
make use of seasonal surpluses, wheLher lamb ln november, rooL crops ln wlnLer,
or summer frulL and salads.
Whlle some lnaenulLv ls needed Lo wrlLe Lender speclñcauons whlch encouraae
local sourclna, publlc bodles can speclfv oraanlc producuon as a requlremenL. As
shown bv LasL Avrshlre, Lhls mav mean onlv a small lncrease ln cosL whlle sendlna
an lmporLanL slanal abouL commlLmenL Lo susLalnable procuremenL.
1he nPS ln llfe has a slanlñcanL caLerlna budaeL, as do Lhe furLher and hlaher
educauon lnsuLuuons. A [olnL approach Lo developlna local capaclLv Lo provlde
publlc food would be more eñecuve Lhan parallel eñorLs.
8v comblnlna experuse, Lhese aaencles could also develop menu auldellnes
for publlc food ln llfe whlch comblne nuLrluonal, falr Lrade and envlronmenLal
crlLerla (lncludlna for example susLalnable ñshlna pracuces and waLer
sLewardshlp as well as blodlverslLv, aood emplovmenL pracuce and carbon
fooLprlnL). LxpecL Lo see more pearl barlev rlsouo, alr drled frulL, kale, rapeseed
oll and haddock.
SusLalnable food procuremenL ln schools has alreadv proved Lo be achlevable,
as shown bv Lhe besL pracuce case sLudv ln LasL Avrshlre Councll, supporLed
bv Lhe Scomsh Lxecuuve ºPunarv for Success" lnluauve. 1he lnluauve sLarLed
wlLh a plloL pro[ecL of £20,000 per vear ln one prlmarv school and expanded
araduallv Lo 26 schools, wlLh Lhe ñnal alm of reachlna 44 prlmarv schools and 9
secondarv schools ln Lhe counLv. 1he Councll followed Lhe Soll Assoclauon's lood
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
49
for Llfe' auldellnes whlch lL conunues Lo supporL desplLe budaeL pressures, An
lndependenL reporL
24
showed a soclal reLurn on lnvesLmenL of over £6 for everv
addluonal £1 spenL bv Lhe Councll.
Iood for L|fe
At |east 75¼ of food |ngred|ents must be unprocessed.
At |east 50¼ of food |ngred|ents must be |oca||y sourced.
At |east 30¼ of food |ngred|ents must be organ|c.
1he mea|s prov|ded must meet Caro||ne Wa|ker 1rust nutr|nona|
standards.
1he ch||dren must rece|ve educanon programmes suppornng
susta|nab|e food and farm|ng and hea|thy eanng.
4 5upport |oca| food tra|n|ng and enterpr|se
1he recesslon has brouahL hlah unemplovmenL, noL leasL amona vouna people,
buL for Lhe local food secLor Lo ßourlsh lL needs new enLranLs and new local food
svsLem enLerprlses (lncludlna soclal enLerprlses).
1hls ls a aood ume for Lhe furLher educauon secLor Lo be Lalklna Lo exlsuna small
scale producers abouL skllls aaps, Lralnlna courses, apprenuceshlps, lnLernshlps
and so on.
Skllls such as markeL aardenlna, orchard manaaemenL, baklna, buLcherv, bee-
keeplna, cheesemaklna, runnlna a markeL sLall, ñndlna and cooklna wlLh seasonal
local fresh produce, are all ln shorL supplv.
A 'school for arusan food' - elLher on a slnale slLe or a 'vlrLual' school could
sLarL Lo become a focus of experuse ln Lhe new food economv. lL would help Lo
develop Lhe communlLv of pracuce ln llfe, and creaLe opporLunlues for Lhe local
food ploneers such as !ane SLewarL of AnsLer cheese and Mauhew 8oberLs from
Lhe SLeamle bakerv Lo share Lhelr skllls.
Inte|||gent honey
1he Un|vers|ty of 5t Andrews has estab||shed |ts hrst honey
bee co|ony on Un|vers|ty grounds, w|th the support of the I|fe
8eekeep|ng Assoc|anon.
8eekeep|ng contr|butes to |oca| food producnon and a|so he|ps
support our env|ronment through po|||nanon. 8ees are worth £26
b||||on to the g|oba| economy, and £200 m||||on |n 8r|ta|n.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
30
nowever, honey bees are current|y under threat from a number of
d|ñerent pests and d|seases, |nc|ud|ng the Varroa m|te. In the |ast 20
years there has been a dramanc 50 per cent dec||ne |n bee numbers
|n 8r|ta|n.
1he Un|vers|ty of 5t Andrews beekeep|ng |n|nanve w|||:
- ne|p de||ver a susta|nab|e bee popu|anon for future generanons.
- Þave the way to h|gh qua||ty honey producnon.
- Lnab|e Un|vers|ty researchers to make eñecnve behav|oura| and
eco|og|ca| observanons.
- A||ow |oca| vo|unteers to be tra|ned to observe h|gh standards of
bee husbandry.
An |mportant cons|deranon on where to |ocate the h|ves on campus
was the ava||ab|||ty of food and water for the bees and as a resu|t
the Lstates Grounds Department w||| be p|annng a var|ety of fru|t
trees to prov|de the bees w|th a d|vers|ty of the forage resource
they need and so weather perm|mng we may get some honey next
year!
kesearch by the Nanona| Þo||en and Aerob|o|ogy research un|t has
shown that honeybees |n suburban semngs en[oy a more d|verse
d|et than the|r rura| counterparts. 1he urban bees hnd a r|cher
d|vers|ty of po||en because they v|s|t a much w|der range of ßowers
than bees forag|ng |n the countrys|de.
5 kecyc|e so|| nutr|ents
Cne of Lhe kev quallues of local food svsLems ls Lhrlûlness.
8ellñeld Craanlcs ln llfe successfullv recvcle used veaeLable oll Lo run Lhelr
veaeLable dellverv vans, plcklna Lhe oll up on rouLe Lo cusLomers. Cnlv a small
proporuon of Lhe oll wlll be from rapeseed arown ln llfe, buL Lhls ls one of Lhe
more susLalnable forms of blofuel.
8oLh cenLral and local aovernmenL are commlued Lo wasLe prevenuon and
reducuon, and Lhe landñll Lax escalaLor concenLraLes mlnds admlrablv. llfe has
made areaL proaress ln recvcllna raLes ln recenL vears.
8ecvcllna oraanlc maLerlals ls vlLal ln reLurnlna nuLrlenLs and carbon Lo solls, and
areen wasLe composL made from brown bln collecuons ls a aood sLarL.
llfe Councll has successfullv plloLed a doorsLep food wasLe collecuon servlce
ln Marklnch and ls sLaruna Lo roll Lhls ouL across llfe over Lhe nexL few vears.
1hls ls an ambluous pro[ecL, currenLlv Lransporuna food wasLe Lo an ln-vessel
composuna planL ouLslde llfe and explorlna Lhe scope for a new anaeroblc
dlaesuon planL locaLed ln llfe. Anaeroblc dlaesuon confers Lhe double beneñLs
of produclna clean renewable enerav lncludlna elecLrlclLv and heaL as well as soll
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
31
nuLrlenLs. 90° of resldenLs sald Lhev were sausñed or verv sausñed wlLh Lhe new
svsLem whlch reduces Lhe slze of Lhe aeneral wasLe collecuon.
ln Lhe uk households Lhrow awav around 20° of Lhe food Lhev buv equauna
Lo over £8 bllllon pounds per annum. 1hls wasLe adds conslderablv Lo Lhe cosL
of food for households, wlLh slnale person households mosL añecLed. MeLhane
released from burvlna food wasLe ln landñll slLes conLrlbuLes Lhe equlvalenL of
23° of road Lramc emlsslons Lo areenhouse aas emlsslons as well as conLrlbuuna
Lo Lhe publlc nulsance of landñll odour. nearlv 70° of Lhls food wasLe ls
prevenLable, as demonsLraLed bv schemes such as Lhe successful klLchen Cannv
from Chanaeworks.
8ecoverlna and uslna some of Lhe enerav ln food wasLe ls a huae lmprovemenL
on havlna food wasLe emlL meLhane ln landñll slLes. CLher Lhlnas belna equal,
anaeroblc dlaesuon ls more emclenL Lhan composuna, whlch creaLes heaL
Lhrouah aeroblc dlaesuon buL does noL capLure lL. Powever, composuna can be
done aL home or aL a communlLv level bv cluzens, does noL need a collecuon
svsLem wlLh assoclaLed emlsslons, and recvcles Lhe nuLrlenLs verv locallv. ln due
course small scale decenLrallsed anaeroblc dlaesuon faclllues wlll develop for
communlLv level appllcauon.
lL ls also lmporLanL for households and caLerers Lo reduce food wasLe aL source,
slnce Lhls noL onlv saves Lhem monev buL reduces our overall food demand and
Lhe assoclaLed packaalna, processlna and LransporL.
lood wasLe currenLlv cannoL be fed Lo plas or poulLrv, buL ln manv slLuauons Lhls
ls a more emclenL use of Lhe enerav and nuLrlenLs.
lL ls lmporLanL Lo reLaln a focus on recvcllna as an ecosvsLem servlce, noL [usL an
lndusLrlal process. ueveloplna several smaller local anaeroblc dlaesuon planLs ln
parLnershlp wlLh farmers who have slurrv or oLher sulLable maLerlals mav provlde
a more emclenL opuon Lhan one larae planL wlLh Lhe assoclaLed LransporL cosLs.
Whlle Lhls ralses reaulaLorv lssues, lL helps farmers reduce dlñuse polluuon, make
beuer use of onslLe nuLrlenLs and reLurns Lhose nuLrlenLs Lo Lhe blorealon. WasLe
heaL from such svsLems can also supporL food producuon on farm proLecLed
horuculLural svsLems.
8lochar creaLed bv conLrolled burnlna of woodv maLerlals such as palleLs,
cardboard and so on noL onlv locks up carbon for hundreds of vears when
lncorporaLed lnLo soll buL also lncreases crop vlelds slanlñcanLlv ln manv solls
Lhrouah lmprovlna soll mlcroblal acuvlLv and waLer reLenuon. 1he process of
maklna blochar also produces aas for heauna. larm scale blochar planLs could
become a famlllar parL of Lhe local food landscape and would make an excellenL
addluon Lo composLs or anaeroblc dlaesuon based ferullsers.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
32
Conslderauon also needs Lo be alven Lo Lhe lona Lerm mlneral sLaLus of solls.
Soll remlnerallsauon aL a domesuc, communlLv and farm level should be acuvelv
promoLed for lLs beneñLs ln malnLalnlna soll healLh and producuvlLv as well as
lmprovlna Lhe mlneral sLaLus of kev foods.
A slanlñcanL barrler Lo Lhe recvcllna of nuLrlenLs lnLo our solls ls Lhe behavlour of
some farm assurance schemes such as CuallLv MeaL ScoLland and supermarkeL
purchaslna pollcles whlch place slanlñcanL barrlers Lo Lhe use of source
seareaaLed recvcled blo-maLerlals such as food wasLe ln splLe of Lhe sLrlcL
sLandards applled Lo Lhem e.a. ÞAS 100 for composL and ÞASS 110 for anaeroblc
dlaesLaLe. 1hese barrlers need Lo be overcome or we face furLher problems ln
lona Lerm soll healLh and hlah carbon fooL prlnL foods.
Local auLhorlLv plannlna deparLmenLs also need Lo lmprove Lhelr ablllLv Lo
spauallv lnLearaLe such faclllues Lo maxlmlse Lhelr emclencv and vlablllLv.
llnallv, a Lhrlûv local food svsLem would make beuer use of Lhe 'Laboo' oraanlc
wasLes, human sewaae sludae, meaL and bone meal, abauolr and buLcherv
wasLe. ln a shrlnklna world, we need Lo recvcle all Lhe nlLroaen, phosphaLe and
poLasslum we can - and exLracL Lhe embedded enerav alona Lhe wav.
6 ne|p farmers produce and market more susta|nab|e food
larmlna ln llfe ls hlahlv producuve - buL Lhere are manv wavs Lo reduce lLs
envlronmenLal fooLprlnL. 1hls recommendauon focuses on reduclna sova use -
buL Lhere are manv oLher chanaes from beuer manure manaaemenL Lo wlnLer
cover crops and aaroforesLrv whlch would reduce Lhe fooLprlnL of aarlculLure ln
llfe aL llule or no cosL Lo Lhe producer.
1he dalrv lndusLrv has alreadv sLarLed work Lo reduce Lhe carbon fooLprlnL of
dalrv producers, and Lhere ls scope for Scomsh AarlculLural Colleae, Scomsh
LnLerprlse and Creen 8uslness llfe Lo enaaae proacuvelv wlLh oLher farmers
and arowers. larmlna has oûen been dlsconnecLed from Lhe wlder buslness
communlLv, buL wlLh a carbon fooLprlnL of 13° of ScoLland's LoLal lL ls Loo
lmporLanL Lo be lanored.
Lurope's maln lmporLs from Lhe resL of Lhe world are frulL and sova, wlLh sova
alone accoununa for an area Lwo or Lhree umes Lhe slze of ScoLland.
llfe's share of LhaL sova consumpuon used Lo make Lhe pork, chlcken, eaas, mllk
and even some of Lhe beef we eaL ls around one LhousandLh of Luropean lmporLs
- or 38,000 Lonnes.
1hese Lhree aruculaLed lorrv loads a dav Look 12-13,000 hecLares Lo produce - an
exLra 23° 'ahosL acres' on Lop of Lhe arable land we use. Parvesuna, processlna
and shlpplna Lhe sova from SouLh Amerlca also used enerav and lnfrasLrucLure.
1he land use chanae from foresL Lo sova planLauon also aeneraLed a masslve
release of CC2 from Lhe cuL down Lrees and Lhe soll.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
33
Much of Lhe sova ln pla and dalrv caule feed and some of Lhe sova ln chlcken
feed could be replaced bv home-arown proLeln such as peas, whlch arow well
ln llfe, and Lo a lesser exLenL bv rapeseed. Llke sova, peas leave some resldual
nlLroaen for Lhe followlna crop. 1he currenL Lurope-wlde Leaume luLures pro[ecL
led bv Scomsh AarlculLural Colleae and Scomsh Crop 8esearch lnsuLuLe wlll also
help ln Lhe medlum Lerm.
uslna home-arown proLeln mav noL be cheaper ln Lhe shorL Lerm and mav
mean a sllahL drop ln arowLh raLes or mllk vlelds - posslblv Lo Lhe beneñL of
anlmal welfare. lL wlll be easler for farmers Lo make Lhe chanae lf Lhev see publlc
demand for low-sova or no-sova meaL, mllk and eaas.
We are consclous ln maklna Lhese recommendauons LhaL as veL Lhere ls no local
muluaaencv aroup Lo proaress Lhem ln llfe (or ln oLher local auLhorlues). Monev
ls uahL - whlch can be a aood reason for aemna LoaeLher Lo Lackle an lmporLanL
lssue where no one aaencv has all Lhe quesuons, leL alone all Lhe answers.
Imp||canons for nanona| food po||cy
´1bete ls o sttoooe 5comsb potoJox. Jesplte ptoJocloo footosuc fooJ
ooJ Jtlok we bove ooe of tbe pootest Jlet-teloteJ beoltb tecotJs lo
tbe JevelopeJ wotlJ.´ 8eclpe for Success
Lverv soclal chanae emeraes Lhrouah a soup of lndlvldual values and cholces,
acuons bv clvll socleLv, chanaes ln sclence, Lechnoloav and maLerlal condluons,
and acuons bv aovernmenL.
Whlle cenLral aovernmenL acuons enable and 'allow' Lhe chanae Lo more
susLalnable local food svsLems, Lhe acuons of lndlvlduals, communlues, producers
and oraanlsauons of producers, nCCs, churches, local aovernmenL and Lhe nPS
are as lmporLanL ln Lhe lona Lerm.
ulumaLelv, lL's a culLural chanae: local food has Lo become parL of 'Lhe wav we do
Lhlnas round here'.
lf Lhe local food movemenL ßourlshes, bv 2020 we wlll see 20° of ScoLs arowlna
20° of Lhelr own food or sourclna lL wlLhln 20 mlles.
We wlll see pledaes llke Lhe llfe uleL as [usL parL of how people do food ln
ScoLland. We - and Lhe vlslLors Lo ScoLland - wlll see dlsuncuve realonal food
culLures, wlLh local oraanlc food ublqulLous evervwhere from ma[or sporuna
evenLs Lo 8&8s.
We wlll see parlshes ln Clasaow lnvesuna Lhelr food budaeLs ln Lhe supplv chaln
whlch brlnas Lhem arass-fed beef from Mull as well as Lhe one whlch brlnas Lhem
LomaLoes arown ln Lhe Clvde vallev uslna renewable enerav from Lhe oraanlc
dalrv nexL door, and Lhe one whlch brlnas Lhem oraanlc falr Lrade coñee from
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
34
LLhlopla. We wlll see more Lrees on farmland locklna up carbon and enhanclna
blodlverslLv, more plas ln Lhe woods eauna caLerlna wasLe and oLher bv producLs,
and more backvard poulLrv produclna eaas for Lhe nelahbourhood. 1hls ls more
8la SocleLv Lhan 8la CovernmenL - buL aovernmenL needs Lo provlde pollcv and
ñnanclal supporL Lo creaLe and malnLaln Lhe momenLum for chanae.
8eclpe for Success was a landmark process as for Lhe ñrsL ume lL souahL
Lo lnLearaLe food pollcv across dlñerenL domalns of publlc pollcv. 1he kev
aovernmenL acuon aûer Mav 2011 ls Lo revlew and bulld on 8eclpe for Success,
sLaruna wlLh a parllamenLarv enqulrv lnLo food ln ScoLland.
1hls should form parL of a conunulna publlc dlaloaue abouL Lhe fuLure of food
whlch enaaaes consumers, producers, nCCs and pro-poor aroups, food and drlnk
companles, researchers, MSÞs and aovernmenL. Cruclallv, Lhls should also lnvolve
local aovernmenL and healLh servlces as kev sLakeholders.
As parL of Lhls dlaloaue we would araue for aovernmenL pollcv Lo balance Lhe
supporL Lhe arowLh of 'food for exporLs' wlLh supporL for 'food for people' -
lmprovlna publlc healLh and nuLrluon here, adapuna food producuon Lo mluaaLe
cllmaLe chanae and enhance ecosvsLem servlces, and sLrenaLhenlna local food
svsLems.
MosL farms ln ScoLland are vlable onlv because of Lhe Slnale larm ÞavmenL.
1hls CAÞ subsldv requlres farmers Lo malnLaln Lhelr land ln a reasonable sLaLe
buL ls noL llnked ln anv wav Lo Lhe producuon of local food, enhancemenL of
blodlverslLv, areenhouse aas balance or oLher ecosvsLem servlces. 1he challenae
for aovernmenL ls Lo refocus publlc supporL for farmlna and arowlna Lo produce
more local and more susLalnable food on valued and vlable farms.
As pollcv and pracuce evolve, Lhe local food movemenL musL work harder Lo
enaaae ScoLland's lnßuenual developmenL and envlronmenL nCCs as well
as churches, furLher and hlaher educauon, womens' oraanlsauons and local
auLhorlues ln explorlna common around.
Common AarlculLure Þollcv reform, alona wlLh revlew of ScoLland 8ural
uevelopmenL Þroaramme (S8uÞ) and LLAuL8 fundlna, oñer opporLunlues for
farmlna and food Lo become beuer lnLearaLed aL local level. Local auLhorlues and
plannlna parLners have a locus ln Lhese dlscusslons. lood, as Lhe aovernmenL
savs, ls evervbodv's buslness.
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
33
C2+2*&46
1 5comsh Government. (2009). kec|pe for success: 5cot|and's
Nanona| Iood and Dr|nk Þo||cy, www.scot|and.gov.uk/food

2 Afr|care, Cxfam, WWI-ICkI5A1 Þro[ect 2010 More r|ce for peop|e,
more water for the p|anet WWI-ICk5A1 nyderabad, Ind|a

3 Ir|ends of the Larth and Compass|on |n Wor|d Iarm|ng. (2009).
Lanng the p|anet? now we can feed the wor|d w|thout trash|ng

4 Ia|r||e, 5. (2010) Meat: a ben|gn extravagance

5 5o|| Assoc|anon (2010) 5o|| carbon and organ|c farm|ng
6 5oussana II, A||ard V, Þ||egaard k, Ambus C, Campbe|| C, Cesch|a L,
C||hon-8rown I, Czobe| 5, Dom|ngues k, I|echard C, Iuhrer I, nensen
A, norvath L, Iones M, kasper G, Marnn C, Nagy 2, Nehe|, Nehe| A,
kasch| A, 8aronn 5, kees kM, 5k|ba U, 5tefan| Þ, Manca G, 5uuon
M, 1uba 2 and Va|ennn| k 2007. Iu|| accounnng of the greenhouse
gas (CC2, N2C, Cn4) budget of n|ne Luropean grass|and s|tes.
Agr|cu|ture, Lcosystems and Lnv|ronment 121, 121-134

7 CA51 1999 An|ma| agr|cu|ture and g|oba| food supp|y

8 Dec|aranon from 5oc|a| Movements, NGC5, C5Cs Þara||e| Iorum
to the Wor|d 5umm|t on Iood 5ecur|ty, kome, November 13-17 2009

9 Garneu 1 (2008) Cook|ng up a 5torm Iood C||mate kesearch
Network
10 1ukker et a| Lnv|ronmenta| Impact of Þroducts (LIÞkC) esnmates
that food and dr|nk account for 31¼ of LU25 greenhouse gas
em|ss|ons
11 Waste kesources Acnon Þrogramme (2009) 1he Iood We Waste
12 5ource: CLCD nea|th Data 2006 (taken from Cbes|ty |n 5cot|and,
Lp|dem|o|ogy 8r|ehng, 2007, 5cot ÞnC).

13 Leon, D.A., Morton, 5., Canneg|eter, 5. and Mckee, M.
(2003). Understand|ng the nea|th of 5cot|and's Þopu|anon |n
an Internanona| Context. London 5choo| of nyg|ene & 1rop|ca|
Med|c|ne (2nd rev|s|on), hup://www.hea|thscot|and.com/up|oads/
documents/Understand|ngnea|thof5cot|andÞ1.pdf
!"#$-"&"'($.**+
36
14 I Lp|dem|o| Commun|ty nea|th 2009:63:332-336 do|:10.1136/
[ech.2008.080382
15 nouse of Commons nea|th Comm|uee. Cbes|ty, 1h|rd keport of
5ess|on 2003-04

16 Arbuck|e, A. (2010, May 7). 5|gn|hcant |ncreases |n farm gate
m||k pr|ces now [usnhed. 8us|ness. 5cotsman.com. ketr|eved May 9,
2010, from hup://bus|ness.scotsman.com/bus|ness/395|gn|hcant-
|ncreases-|n-farm-gate.6278910.[p

17 nouse of Commons nea|th Comm|uee, op.c|t.
18 Internanona| Assessment of Agr|cu|tura| 5c|ence and 1echno|ogy
for Deve|opment (IAA51D) 2009 Agr|cu|ture at a Crossroads
19 1erm used by M|ke 5ma|| |n h|s presentanon 1he I|fe D|et: A |oca|
food exper|ment. L|m|ts to 8ehav|our Change and Lñecnve Use of
5oc|a| Med|a. 8|g 1ent 5ummer 5choo| - Iu|y 2010

20 IAA51D, op.c|t.

21 Gr|ev|nk, I.W., 2003. 1he chang|ng face of the g|oba| food supp|y
cha|n. In: CLCD Conference, Chang|ng D|mens|ons of the Iood
Lconomy: Lxp|or|ng the Þo||cy Issues. 1he nague, 6-7/02/2003.
8onny, 5: 2006. What |s the future of farm|ng w|th|n the agr|-food
cha|n, INkA. p.1-9

22 Woody 1asch, Inqu|r|es |nto the Nature of 5|ow Money
Invesnng as |f Iood, Iarms, and Iern||ty Mauered

23 Carter C. (2010). G|oba| Warm|ng Þotenna| of produce grown
on an a||otment us|ng a ||fe cyc|e assessment approach Case 5tudy:
We||esbourne A||otment, Msc 1hes|s, Un|vers|ty of 5urrey, 2010

24 Iootpr|nt Consu|nng 2008 1he soc|a| return on |nvestment of
Iood for L|fe schoo| mea|s |n Last Ayrsh|re

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