History of Libraries & Library Movement in India

Dr. A.Y.Asundi

Introduction 
The history of the evolution of the libraries is an essential in the history of the intellectual development of civilization  ³Libraries are the collective memory of the mankind, because they have existed since ancient and classical times´ ± Viscount Samuel  Use of writing materials and education through written records naturally stimulated the practice of their collection & preservation that ultimately made ground for the formation of libraries.  Very early libraries were of clay tablets, papyrus, palm leaf etc., based

the libraries were usually part of temple  Rome introduced library through collection acquired after successful wars  In Constantinople. .Contd«  In Egypt. libraries were attached to every Church and even the small communities of the Egyptian deserts collected books.

Clay tablets .

papyrus .

Palm leaf .

Science & Philosophy 2.Historical Factors Influence on Est.Johann Guttenberg 3. increased demands on libraries . Renaissance (1400-1700 AD) period Experimental Science Logic. of libraries 1. The Impact of Printing . Impact of Industrial Revolution Literary & education became more widespread The new mode of life is cities & factories.

of the libraries of the ancient world. economic. scholastic. Egypt. including two private libraries (one belonging to a diplomat named ) that contained diplomatic. administrative. in Alexandria. . legal. and certainly the most famous. literary and religious texts. many ambitious private dwellings. was probably the largest.History of Libraries The libraries of Ugarit (in modern Syria). c. 1200 BC The excavations uncovered a royal palace of 90 rooms laid out around eight enclosed courtyards. The Royal Library of Alexandria.

Taxila is an important archaeological site in the Punjab province of Pakistan.History of Libraries The ruins of Taxila consist of many different parts of the city buildings and buddhist stupas which are located in a large area. .

History of Libraries .

education for all. political thought and ideas of Democracy ± all these factors contributed to development of libraries ± all types .Evolution of libraries in UK & USA  Industrial revolution in UK & USA has given a big boost to the library movement  The concept of liberal education.

. and Buddhist Vihars spread over the length & breadth of our country.. Jaggadal. Vikramshila.History of library movement in India  Indian culture & civilization evidences the existence of libraries since Vedic period. Somapuri. Takshsila etc. Mitthla.  Thanks to the various seats of learning located monasteries. temples.  Libraries in Ancient & Medieval India Libraries are attached to seats or centres of learning were Nalanda.

Contd«  Libraries in the Moghul Period: In the Moghul period. which would receive free copies of books published from the ³Funds for the Encouragement of Literature . libraries developed & prospered. initiated a proposal to register libraries. thanks to the Moghul Kings who were highly educated and founder of books During Babar¶s period Imperial library was started Bhamanis in South also established libraries for Universities  Library Development in Modern India 1808 as a landmark in the history library movement in India ± Bombay govt.

started the Calcutta circulating library  Calcutta library society(1818).. Messrs clock.Development of Public Libraries  Early PLs in India were started with support of British  The first library of English colony was started in 1662 & was called St. Trivandrum Public Library (1829) Calcutta public library (1835). Malabaria & portuguese library was started by Ziegenbalg  In 1787.George Library  In 1773.  20th century saw the dovt. of PLs at an accelerated pace all over India  Borden established the PL System in Baroda ± 1910 . Maxwell co.

Establishment of three Universities in India  Post Independence Period Establishment of UGC ± AICTE etc.Development of ALs  Pre-Independence Period Academic Libraries are attached to a University. College & school Greater influence and contribution of Christian Missionaries in start up school & colleges. Appointment of Committees & Commission Setting up & framing NEP.. .

Development of Special Libraries  Investment on R & D and S & T activities  Establishment of R & D oganisation  Starting up of IISc.  Establishment of CSIR  Birth of DRDO laboratories  Private and Public enterprises  Objective and mission oriented Organisations .

Role of libraries in formal & informal education xxxx .

recreation. business & industrial institutions. research. attitudes & other forms of behaviours All these process is done through formal & informal education  Education aims imparting knowledge & skills. cultural.  The library is the central focal point to serve all these institutions  Library & Education Defined as the aggregate of all the processes by means of which a person develops abilities. inculcation of values .Introduction  Various institutions founded by the society ± educational.

Formal Education  Is given in academic institutions like school. faculty & researcher needs. a library tries to supplement classroom teaching In colleges & universities it becomes a focal point of learning Role of library in fostering the intellectual development of students. college & universities ± to which is attached generally a library While at school. .

 Public libraries are providing non-formal education through Govt. funds.  PLs while catering to the recreation & leisure utilization by users. It also conduct non-formal education programmes from time to time  Now PLs are becomes ³Community Information Cenres (CICs). . the library becomes the main resource  As the users of non-formal programmes have to acquire knowledge through self study.Informal Education  Which there is no institutional base.

 School Library Primary. Children should be introduced to the books & other documents at very young age. Secondary & Higher Secondary School Libraries .School Libraries: Features & Functions  Children's are our future.

School Library .

maintain. teaching.  To create curiosity & interest among the students & staff  To teach them how best make use of available materials for their study.  To create a sense of value among the users  To inculcate the habit of self-study  To enable the teachers to use the libraries to support various programmes of the school  To generate a sense of confidence among the users that the library is a centre of all types of .Functions of School Libraries  To acquire. recreation and entertainment. & circulate the books & other reading materials relevant to the needs & interests of teachers and students.

.V. Materials etc.Collections & Services in School Libraries  Pictorial books  Biographies of great men & women  Comics & cartoons  Folk tales  Punchatantra tales  Stories of animals & birds  Games & sports  Reference books  Children¶s magazines  A..

 In this context students have to depend much more on self learning  The college library thus becomes an automatic choice for students to supplement their class room teaching . the students in colleges get much less individual attention from the teachers.College Libraries: Features & Functions  College education provides a totally different environment for boys & girls who go for higher studies  Usually the classes comprise larger numbers of students & unlike school education.

College Library .

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