QUALITY OF HALAL MEAT

Dr. Javaid Aziz Awan Country Director, Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America, Faisalabad Presented at Halal Research Council Conference www.halalrc.org Held at Expo Centre, Lahore - Pakistan

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About IFANCA?
Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America 

Not for Profit Technical Islamic Organization  Supervising production of Halal foods  Certifying halal products  Finding solutions for new challenges  Publishing relevant information  Consulting Islamic scholars on issues facing Muslims in selecting food products.
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IFANCA Strategy
IFANCA strives to satisfy: Client Companies Halal Recognition Authorities Halal Consumers  IFANCA - most knowledgeable organization in the field  IFANCA - provides services second to none  IFANCA - builds relationships with the client companies, halal recognition authorities and halal consumers.
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IFANCA Crescent M Certification 
IFANCA certificates and certified products accepted world over  IFANCA - recognized by organizations like: MUIS Singapore JAKIM Malaysia MWL Saudi Arabia MUI Indonesia United Arab Emirates
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IFANCA Crescent M Certification 
Global Affiliations: IFANCA provides Halal certification in over 55 countries directly or through affiliates like: IFCE, Europe AFIC, Australia NZIMM, New Zealand
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Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan 
AB Mauri Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore  English Biscuit Manufacturers (Pvt.) Ltd. Karachi  Coronet Foods, Hattar  Capital Food Industries, Hattar
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Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan 
Gaziani Industries (Pvt) Ltd. Karachi   Nabeel Industries (Pvt) Ltd., Lahore  Pakistan Gum Industries (Pvt)., Ltd. Karachi  Pepsi-Cola International (Private) Ltd., Hattar  Super Gum Industries Ltd. Karachi
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Some Ifanca Certified Companies in Pakistan 

National Foods, Karachi 

Nestle Pakistan, Lahore

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IFANCA Halal Certification Logos

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GUIDANCE FOR MUSLIMS 

Holy Quran and the Sunnah provide guidance and inspirations for life on Earth  Food laws among guidelines  Ensure foods Muslims eat have positive bearing on their health  In fact the very first law to be passed on to Mankind was a food law:
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VII:19 Al-Araf

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THE FIRST DIVINE LAW

The Holy Quran  ³And unto man: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden and eat from whence ye will, but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers´ VII-19 - Al-Araf

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THE LAST DIVINE LAW 

The last Divine law incidentally a food law  Revealed during last pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet Muhammed (pbuh):  ³They ask thee O Muhammed what is made lawful for them. Say: all good things are made lawful for you´ V:4 Al-Maidah  Aim of Divine revelations: Ensure man eats right type of food for his nourishment
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MEAT 

Meat indispensable for sound human health  Provides several essential nutrients: Proteins Amino acids Mineral elements Vitamins

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MEAT 
Meat subject to spoilage by: Chemical reactions Biochemical reactions Biological agents, including bacteria  Meat responsible for food-borne diseases  Hence must be produced to: Minimize chemical and biochemical changes Prevent chances of bacterial contamination and growth to preserve quality
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HALAL MEAT 
Slaughtering of animals and birds:  essential to prepare for food purposes  Pre-slaughter management and bleeding methods:  regulated by legislations and religious practices  Earliest recorded laws on handling, care and slaughter of animals: Revelations in the Holy Quran and Ahadith by the Holy Prophet (pbuh)
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ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING 

Islamic method of slaughtering - based on two important principles: Tasmiya Tazkiyah  Tasmiya - invoking name of Allah means slaughter being done with His permission  This in accordance with several commands given in the Holy Quran
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V:4 Al-Maidah

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ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING

³Forbidden to you (for food,) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than God; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a head long fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been partly eaten by a wild animal, unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form) «.««««. (V:4) Al-Maidah
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ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING 

Tazkiyah means purification - cleaning meat of blood by slaughter  Consumption of blood prohibited in Holy

Quran - VI:146 

All lawful animals and birds contain blood  Blood must be drained as per these commands
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ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING 

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) gave comprehensive guidelines on slaughtering of animals in following Hadith:  ³Verily Allah, has prescribed proficiency in all things. Thus, if you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters´.
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ESSENTIALS OF ISLAMIC METHOD OF SLAUGHTERING - Slaughterer 

Must be adult Muslim or Must believe in Holy Scriptures Must be in possession of his mental faculties

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PRE-SLAUGHTER HANDLING OF ANIMALS - 1. Selection of animals 

Islam strictly prohibits: Pork Carrion Dead animals 
Carnivorous animals Birds of prey Amphibians Reptiles
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1. Selection of animals 
Islam permits: All herbivorous, even-toed ruminants  Animal meant for slaughtering be: Healthy Free from any apparent or hidden impurities/diseases Must be legally owned.

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2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals 
Modern methods require animal prior to slaughtering not be subjected to Stress Fatigue Neurotic Excitement  Rough handling of animals in pre-slaughter period: Adversely affects meat quality Results in dark, firm and dry meat  Fatigued or starved animals Organisms from gut may invade blood stream
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2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals 

Proper relaxation before slaughtering: Helps animal to bleed well Builds up muscle glycogen to lower meat pH Increases storage life of meat by reducing chances of microbial growth Improves taste due to conditioning/ tenderness Helps delay or reduce fermentation in stomach - may otherwise give meat characteristic smell known as µbone taint¶.
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2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals 
Undesirable - animal awaiting slaughter view slaughtering process ± cause stress  Animals under stress - lead to undue emotional instability, fatigue, anorexia, etc.  Discharge hormones from adrenal glands: adrenaline from adrenal medulla 17 hydroxy- and 11-deoxycorticosterones from adrenal cortex  Hormones deplete muscle glycogen and potassium  Deleterious effects on meat quality  Prevention - tranquilizers recommended to calm stocks in transit.
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2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals
in Islam 

Islam promotes calm and rested animals prior to slaughtering:  Not fatigued  Not excited  Not nervous

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2. Pre-slaughter handling of animals 

Islam prohibits  Any act that causes neurosis or excitement or other abnormal behavioural changes in animal Sharpening knife in front of slaying animals Practice of collective slaughtering - other animals viewing their companion being killed  Research reveals Practices inhumane Cause stress
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3. Feeding the animals 

Two schools of thoughts: Animal to remain hungry - Fasting Animal be well fed Advantages of fasted animals claimed:  Bleed better  Carcass has brighter appearance  Carcass easier to dress  Reduced bulk of animal¶s stomach  Reduced chances of bacterial contamination from gut
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3. Feeding the animals 

Disadvantages of fasted animals: Loss in weight of carcass Loss in weight of liver Lower glycogen reserves in muscles Reduced gustative quality of meat

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3. Feeding the animals Well-fed animals:  Glycogen level in muscle reaches higher level  Ensures production of adequate lactic acid  Lowers pH of meat  Meat has good: Appearance Taste Tenderness Longer shelf-life
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3. Feeding the animals 

Meat of soothed and well-fed animals: pH attains 5.5 or even lower level  Meat of fatigued or neurotic animals: pH varies from 6.5 to 7.0  Often recommended to feed animals prior to slaughtering - meat of good keeping and eating quality  In some cases sugar solution fed to quickly restore glycogen level in tissues
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3. Feeding the animals in Islam 

Holy Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised that animals destined for slaughtering be: well fed provided with drinking water  Preferable - animals have free access to feed and water prior to slaughtering  Result - good quality meat.

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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 

Conventionally, slaughtering process consists of two to three different stages Depends on religious practices and legislations 

Stunning 
Jews not in favour of stunning Muslims divided on the issue Western countries require stunned  Bleeding method governed by religious and national legislations
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning 

Stunning widely practiced in Western abattoirs  Main objective  Make animal unconscious  Make death gentle and painless  No standard method for all animals under all conditions  Stunning effective in having calm animal

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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 1. Stunning 

Stunning - outcome of industrial revolution  Maximum animals be slaughtered in least time  Probably no relation with mercy on animals  Industrial revolution: Provided mankind with innumerable benefits Inflicted damaging blows on some aspects of human nutrition Example - refinement of wheat flour  Stunning might turn out harmful
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE ± Bleeding 

Quick incision recommended using very sharp knife on front of the neck to severe: Wind pipe Oesophagus Carotid arteries Jugular veins Positions for incision:  Hanging animal on its hind legs  Laying on the ground
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding 

To produce good carcass ± bleed animal effectively  Heart and respiratory system must function continuously as long as possible after severance  This attained when heart and respiratory functions retained by maintaining medulla oblongata/spinal cord  Animals convulse
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding 

During convulsions blood squeezed out of vessels  Hence more blood drains out - a pre-requisite for meat of superior quality  Evidence suggests more blood lost from sheep in horizontal position than those hung vertically

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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding 

Blood excellent medium for growth of microorganisms  Meat retaining more blood than critical level liable to bacterial spoilage  Blood retention in tissues can cause unpleasant appearance and discolouration in meat  Keeping and eating qualities of meat depends, in part, on removal of maximum blood from carcass
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Laying Animal for Bleeding
Lay animal (except camel) on its left flank, preferably facing Kibla Laying enables animal to convulse - results from contraction of muscles due to lack of oxygen in brain cells when incision made Ensures maximum blood drainage owing to body pressure on heart - outranks other slaughtering techniques Ensures rapid onset of unconsciousness and painless death  Prevents retraction of carotids
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE ±

Bleeding 

While giving incisions with sharp knife: Recite name of Allah: Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar Allah-o-Akbar Subhan Allah La illaha illila  Takbir - religious significance to believer  makes submission to Allah, that life taken out of animal with His permission
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques 

Slaughtering actually done in the name of Allah and not in name of any person or deity in accordance with following commands:  ³So eat of (meats) on which God¶s name has been pronounced if ye have faith in His Signs´ Vl:118, Vl:121 ± Al Anam 

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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques 
Islamic method:  Use sharp knife or any sharp object for bleeding except finger nail and bone  Incision made in neck  Throat cut transversely to severe carotid arteries, jugular veins, oesophagus and trachea without injuring spinal cord  Two essentials in slaughter of animals for meat: animals be dispatched without unnecessary suffering bleeding be as complete as possible  Both met in Islamic method of bleeding
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE Bleeding techniques 

When both carotid arteries severed unconsciousness in sheep induced between 3 to 6 seconds  Islamic method ensures maximum blood drainage from body before completion of death process  Connection between brain and body retained via spinal cord  Brain sends messages to heart and lungs  Heart pumps blood to parts of body - drained out from severed blood vessels in neck
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SLAUGHTERING PROCEDURE 3. Bleeding techniques

Results of a comparative study  Maximum blood lost in Kosher method Jewish method similar to Islamic as regards physical details  Minimum when chicken simply beheaded

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Conclusion 
Islamic method ensures:  Minimum suffering to animal  Maximum bleeding  Lower pH of meat  Better meat quality

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ANIMAL RIGHTS 
Islam recognized animal rights long before recognition of human rights in Western World  Numerous Ahadith reflect Islam advocates kindness and mercy towards animals:  Nourish animals well  Save animals from hunger and thirst  Show kindness to animals  Do not hit or mark animal on its face  Do not shoot arrows at cattle or bird tied or held up  Do not fight animals for sports or recreation  Do not unjustly kill even a sparrow or smaller bird (other than for food)
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Thank You
Halal Research Council www.halalrc.org
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