· ... 0' F~ .:··-IDAMEI,NIALS FO·!. AIM .AJR.





Observe Your S1l.],rnJlJ.lndillgs Tl:u~ Nude as ·at Basis

23 24

What Is Line? 13e'ginneiFs" W'oiJ.-l



1 deal Proporlion~ &f ale

I deal Ptoportionj Female

'VariQus Stand'arCh' of Proportun» Jde,(J,l ,Proportions at 'Varivus' -,4gC8 The F we Diagram

jr'h~3' Fla: Diagrarn

'Qttick; Se,~'~up of Proporfi,otl$ P'roportio'M by A res ,(J-jtil ,R e(td' V-nit~:

Pfop<n1.wn in Belauo« to the Horium T he John ,(jild Mary Problems

F ifl,(l'ing Prvportion at Any Spot in 'YOtlf Picture ~~ H,angi'ng'~~ F'i,gures' on the Horizon

We Begin to D~yjtO; First the "'if tl,n.nikin If rame ,~1 o'Venlent in, th« M'(l:nnikbl Frame'

Detede o.t tho' ,i\:t'antlik.i'n Frame Ex,pDnnWttting with tlte l'vj",annikin F'i',(Jrn.e Outline8 in Relation to SolKl Farm

216 21 28 29 30 31

33 34,



QrO !iJI'O

39 40' 41 42

The Mannikin Figure


Adding Bulk to the Fnlme'

Adding Perspective to the Solid iWannikin Arts of ,M Ord)6"J'nerU in P t:n'~',rective

PWc1n~ the M'{#i-ntkin at ,Any Spot ,or Level'

44 45 48


"T L

. ./

Du.u.oing the ,Al'tlnniki,c~ frOrft An,y' V iewpo·i.:n.t G llfnbif,ling ,Ate", (,/ M,Qve'ment toith the Box Landf.it(J~·ks You Should Koow

La ndmru'h, Y Ull S I! cn:J(J; Knotf.'

48 4:9 50 51 ,52

, Sketching the .Figu.re in Action p"ofJl.llnnginutioll ,Dr,aw Sotne oj These" B·u.t: DtaRi wt a.ny 0.1 Your Own TIl f;l F emale M annik'ln


The 1\1 ale Clnd Female Skeletons

53 54 55 Sf)


5"'" ,

Req uirem en ts of S uecessf ul F igu["e Dra win g


:EL1L USl'IlA T.~ON8

1 tnportant Bone.,:

l\'I-tl;s'cle.~' on. the Front of the l~igule A.fuscles on the Back of "the Ftgilf,e 1.\1 usclcs ot the A f1n~ Front \' iew

,~.f uscles ol the Artu, '7.uded Viele,s ,~1 uscles of the Leg; Front 'Vi,;.oa.~

~iuscl.es oj the L€~g:> BIlek and S ide V'ieu) ,~10U; lust Piny u.:.-u.ft \vJUtt }r ou. Haoe Learned t'f'ry lhdld:ng l"'I'igure~' u..~itlun.$t lHodel or Cops]

5,g 60 61 '62 6;3



c.t-·! U;.



P oreshorteni n.g. and 'Ln,gh,l mill g

(is 69


Block: Forms JI elp"to DCDelup Your Sense of ,Ii'tdk Feel Free to Invent Your ()wn Blocks

Hou: To Use an Arr·,Store W~ooden lfannikin

QUick Sketches from ~'he '-\7ond'en III wln£kJn F ores h ortening

Senne Pen Sketches [o« F(rrc;s/!01tenlng P lane I!}'






• ,I




Simple Lightiin,g on the Figure True M,odelin.g of llound,~d F onn



Grouping Sh~ldow h-t asses The M «in Valu,e.s Stated

TIle Fast S tatel7wnt ,oj V· alues Procedure

Proced tl:fe

T he Visu(tl~S urv.ey Proced ute Drawing ,frcnn the Alod'el

v. 'THE STANDIN'G FIG'URE Variety in the Standing Pose


The ':Veight nn (Jne Foot Distnbuted w eight,

There ,Ar,e; Marty Ways of Sl:anding S/utdvtv Definc.s' Farm,

T'.1lYe Nearly ,F font Light'ing Building fnn» the S keleto« A.ccentit~g the ,F orn~

.1'iootofny Te~1

A Typical Problem,

I Ll.l'STR.-o\. TIONS

T um.iflg ,aM TWi:$Nng Turning ,and' Twisting T urfling (jnd Twisting T 'urning: and Tu.is.ting 'Turning and TuJis;ting T'u.rni:ng ,and' TwisUng 1;1 enline ll'rlti ,P,eflcil



L19 80. 81


83 84, ,85 86 87 88 89

91 92

00 94 95 96 '97 98 99





111 ]12


Qui.:ck Sketcll;.ing wit/;t Pen and Pen.cil

A, Typical iProh]ern


V'I'l' F'O"RW' "'A- nn ~j[O' '\lE-'I\.~ENT'1 'T'lIl"E TIP"'P'ED" ][ IN'-E 0'" F· DALA' 'NC- 'E'

,Jl.' ", ", 111.. " J," .... 1l ' , ,L:\,.I, ' ' :,' ,r. '" " ,'- ",,,,, : .. , ,I 4 Q, ".' ,

The 1\4echani,cs of Movement

115 116

ILL usr8A nONS

Sntl;1)sfu)'t8 of \\,7' t:dking Poses Snapsh.at~ of Runnin.,g Poses The Til,ped Line of ,Balance Springlike ~t ot_jeJnent

Action Too Fast j.ot the Eye Twisted F,onva1'd LWOtrem.ent Mone,nenJ 1teOO to Toe

F (£St &lovement

Pwh rOf the Bac,k Leg

,A Typical Problem

118 119 120 121 .122 123 124 ][25 126



')"III D' A, LA" NC'E R'H' 'y"lf"HM" R"'END"E'RlM'-N' 'G

v ' ,. ' ,',,', .. .s : ," " ,', 'j' , .' '" [ J!. '_' '~ , " '.',' " .m" ',,"



B(tlance Bulltflce

130 131 32

l-q(l' ~

,Two A:f ethods of A,ppnulClt

Dle~n{;ng Form 'l.vtth Just Tone and Accent Stressing C on.'S:tructi'Oll

T 1'00 M it~ru>te Studies


184 135 136,





Cras8ing Lines olllhyth1?l

""'5" ~ ... ,.


Relating One Contour to Another

Defintng by Edg'tJ.s and Shadow without Outline

A Typ~c~m, Problem

138 139 140 141 142






Fi p" '" t B 1., D' .J:

!ue' m.1'l', ',·r'USr~, ' " 'ra;w;lng

141' '\
159 -

Th,e I ncompl'et'c Statement May Be Interesting

Poi'n;t Tech,nique

Planning a Pen Drn,wing

K,neeling and Sitting

K'n6eling and' T'wMtin,g or' Bending

Getting Full Val1Je Range with Ink and Pencil lnk and P'cncil in C ombinatiQil

Pen Dratmng

A ;i"';r ,..,. ;;. 'T ' t

' ~OI5'e:r, reatmen:

A Typical Problem


Sketches of Re,cl'ill"lug' Pose's St,udy

COMBe G,am 'P'apf!'1 Studies ,Study in F ore'shortening'

Cemented' Tu&ue Of)erl'ay~ Spatter and Brush Dr,awing ,Pen ShJd'ies

160 161 164, 165 1,66


A Typic~l Problem





H ad B ·:lJ·

e.-- "- UlW!ng

Block» a,oo P'lanes

Bone;g ,and M'U$cles' o.f the H cad The Muscle's in ,Light o.nd Sh~w Feahtres

Setting the F e,(J,tu1es into the Head Sbuli'es

Studies ,at M i8~ "~G'''' ¥,oung and Old


172, 173 174 175 176 1'71 118 179





M eke StUll'ies Like Theee of Your F ~iend.$ PrOl)omon of the' ,Baby fI,e'ad

Baby Heads



ThB Foot

A TYp'iC:tlJ1 Problem



Draw FigureI' T.hen Cost'Uitle Clothing Htudi:ed frotn, L,jfle RendeJin,g D"Ulpery

Dratv the ,II alftunes ana Shadotm EUn"iination atld Subot(;Unation

study trom, Life

,Brush and Spa"ter Illustration

A l~Vl),~ci:tl. Problem




How Artists Work

H:l1U l~rng 'Your Studio Ahou t Your Prices.

I utrod uerung Yourself Do I.e YOtU' Way


181 182 18.3 184 185 186




DEAH R .,;A rH~R:

For m a 11 v veal'S the u c( ~d of n, f urther hook On

_: .~ -

the subject of Ilgl1r:e dn~'wiug has been apparent: to me. I 'have waited for such a book to npp,ear which could be recommended to the Tnany young arrists with 'Vv,hOIU I have come in. canlacl .. Fjually, I have come to the realization that such a hook, l'cgfH(UeSS of one's ability as HI[ author, could be written oulv hv a man actuallv

• " Ii

in the field of corn mercial art ~ who in. his ex per 1-

encc had met and countered with the actual PIO i ).leI a", tha t m US t I· :J>C'C 1 arified. I recall how frantically, in the earlier days of Iny own expertcnee, ] searched for practical information that rnigh.t lend a helping hand 1.11 n~akiIlg my work marketable. neing in the not unusual position of ha viug toO S,llJ pport nil yself, it was the predica-

f 1 ,. k d1' 1 "

men t.o na vt ng 1:0 maxe go,o·.. at art or JeJl.ng

forced to hun to some thing else,

Across. this wide COllntryT there are manv of

. "

you in that predicament. 'You) also possessed of

that u naccountahle ur ge which seemingly comes fro]ll. nowhere, \ v ant to speak the language of art. You love to dra w. Y Ott wish to dra V{ \~le]l. If there is, any chance, you gready wish to make a living at it. Perhaps ill can help you. I sincerely hope SOl for I think I lave lived. fb:rough every min ute you are now' living. Perhaps I can compile some of the informa tion that experience tells. me you want and. need. I do not preten d '~O underval ue the Sue work that has been done; the difii.culty has always. been in finding it and sorting out what is of practical v,a]ti.e and putting it into practice, M believe that the g:reater chances of success He In ~h,e menta] approach to the 'wo!lrk, rather than in sheer technical knowledge, and since the mental a pproach 'bas, not often been stressed, here rules the 0Pl)ortunity to serve you.

] not only assumethat my reader is interested

in drawing hut tha.t he wishes Irom his toes, up' b) become an efih:.:ieut and ,s,elf-su.pporting. craftsI[}.;;LU. I assume that the des ire to express YOUI- self wi th pen an d pen ei] is no t only ur geut '1)U t

almost undeniable, and that vou feel YOU mU8~' do

,~ ~

sotnething about U.l fee] that talent means little

unless coupled with an insatiable desire to give an exce l1en t persoual deJnol.lstra tion of a hi]] ty . I feel also that tale n t m ust be in L'OHl pany \V"[ th a capf:\city for unlimited effort, which provides the pO"\ver that eventually hurdles the di Hicu t~ tics 'that would frustrate lukewarm enthnsiaxm.

Let us try to define that q' ualitv which makes

~ , .

an artis t .:. tick." Every bit of work he docs starts

out with the premise that it 'has a ]nt~ss.iigc~ a pur-· pose.~ .8L job to do. What is the most direct answer I' the shnpiest interpretation of that message he can make '( Stripping a, s u hj eel: to its 'harest and roost eln!ci,ent essentials :]s at men tal procedi re. Every inch. of the surface of Ids work should be considered as to whether. it bears important relationship to a, \iv,hole plllpOSe.. He sees) a.nd. his plcturc tens, us the Importance oj what 'he sees and how he feels. a bou t it. Then within hi S. picture he stresses what is of greatest im poI'tancc ~ and SU hordina tes wha 1: must he there but is of lesser- importance .. He wiU place his area of greatest contrast a bouit the head of the most important character, He \ViU search diHgenUy for means to make that character exp.ress the emotion in acial e;xpress,io.u and pose tha t is to be the all important theme, He' wHI first draw a ttention to that character l' by every means available, ]n other words, he plans and. tbin:[k:s, and does 'not :pa$s\ru.v.e~.y accept s.:mrnply beca use it exjs:b s. Not f'al back in. the annals of art the ability to achieve lust ,3, lifelike appearance luigJh t ha. ve mused. some wonder i!l' a spe.ctator·, enough to


i\N OPE'NIN(;, CI-lA T

capture his interest. Today with color photog-

ra phy and the excellence 01 the. camera goin g perhaps [even. further in that respect, 'we are SUT~ feitcd with realism par €xceUence? until mere ]ile1j:ke r epresentation is not enough. There is no . other course than snm ahow to gP beyond 0 bvious fact to :pertb1J.e]lt: fact, to. characterization,

to the emotional and dramatic, to selection and taste, to simplification, subordination, and accell tua tion, It is ten per cen t 'how yon dra \V j au d ninety per cent what you drrlU). Equally de-Sning everything wtthin Your picture area, in value,

~ ~

edge and detail, 'will add no more than can he

achieved in phot:oblTaLphy. Snhordination inay be achieved bv diUusion .. bv closeness of color and

~ ~ ~

value to S urro un ding areas, l)y sllrnp 1 ification of

insistent detail,. or hy omission, Accentuation


is achieved by the opposite in each case, by

sharpness, contrast, detail, or any added device.

I take this. Opportunity to impress npon you.~ my reader? how important you really are in the whole of. art procedure. You, ynur personali ty" your indivtduality come first. Your pictures ale your by-product, 'Everything about your pi l,":tures is, an d should be, a H tile of you. They will be are:Hcction. of your knowledgE:, your expcrience, vo ur 0 bservation ~ your Ii kes and dis-

J ~ ~

liles" you.]' good taste, and your thinking. So the

real concentration is centered on youi and yOlur work follows along in the wake of what: mental sell-improvement you are making. It has taken 111e a ~ ifetime tOo reali ze th a t. So befure we talk at all about drawing~ it is. important to sell you strongly on yourself; to phlll1t that: urge SiQ definitely in your consciousness that you ~ UUL"t know at onee tlla.t B10st of It ,COIr'U:::'S frorn the other


end of yom' pencil ra ther than the business end.

As a. student 1 thought there 'was [II Iormula of SO~H~ khtd that I would get hold of somewhere, an'a therebv become an artist, There is a. Ior-


mula, but it has not been in books. It Is really

plain old cour.age~ standing on one's own lc\et,

and forever seeking enl~glltenrnent.; coura.ge to ,deve]op your w.ay, but learning from the other lello,v; experimen tatiou wi th your own ideas, o bs erving for voursclf, a. rigid disci p.]irm e of do']ng over tha t which you can improve, I have never found. a book that stressed the Importance of myself as the caretaker of Illy ability, of stay]]]g_ health v men tally and physicall v, or that 'ga ve

~ ... ... oJ ' .' ,

me an link1.i'ng th~t nly courage 'might be strained

to 'ithe utmost. Perhaps that is not the ",ray to write books, but 1 can see no harm in the author realfzin g, that he .is. dealing with persona]! tics, and that th.e.re is something more ,iul.portant than tec,hnique. in art we are dealin g. \-vith something far removed fn:H[L1 a cold science, where the 11 uman element is. everything." At least I am, determined to establlshed a fellowship with 'mlY reader 1c w el co min g' him to the L-r.a(t at which I have spent so many years. If I have any blue chips, I C:ElJ.n pass. on to hun; I lay them before 'binli so that he ma.y j01Il. in the ganle. I cannot prof.ess to .know more than the experience of one mdrvidual, However ~ one individual exp~r],~nce if 'wide enou.gh uright well rover many of the problems that wil] doubtless come to others, So 1111 lions of those pro'b]e'm:s rna y provide iike solutions u I call layout an assortment of facts and fuudamentais that "were helpful to me, I can speak of the idea1izations.~ the practical hints and devices that 'win undoubtedly make dra,vings more salable. S.IJr[C®· the requirements are almost universal, and since 111)' own expertence does not 'vary greatly from the averag'e- experience of my contemporaries, ] .offer ~ny material \vnhout setting 11 p myself and Rly wor k as a criterion, In fact, I 'would ,p re fer , ~.f it were possible ~ to suhordina te EOY own viewpoint, or technical a pprnach ~ and. leave the reader as nee as possible for indivtdual decision and self -exprf~ssion, I use my experience merely to clari~y the genc.ra 1 req uirernents,

I t should he obvious tha t~ ,first of all, sala ble




.' , : 'd" ','" .', ,,' 1 l"\.

ngure drawing must he good drawing,. and itl':good drawing'" means a gn;at deal more to the professional than to the beginner. It IDea 11S that a. figure- must be (_'ODvincing' and appealing at the same time, It rn ust he of idealistic rather th an literal Or' normal proportion. It !R us t he rei a ted in perspective to a constant eye lever or vie~-. ,point.. TIle aaatomy must be 'COITect:; whether exposed to' the eye or concealed beneath drapery 1O,r costume. The li ght ~n:d shadow III 1J8t be so handled as to ,hnpart a livi.ng qualify. Its action Of g'cst1Jlre~ its. dramatic quality, expression, and emotion must be convincing; Good dra\ving 'is neither an accident nor the 'result of ~1. inspired m'rlOlllellt when the M1L';es lend a guiding hand. 'Good drawing 'ms a eo-ordination of' many lactors, all understood and handled expertly, as in a deUca te' surgical operation. Let us say that each factor becomes an mstrument or part of a me,ans 0.1 expressio«. It is 'when the moans of expression is develope91 as a whole that Inspiration


and individual 'fe-eHng: come' into play. It is pos-


sihlc for anybo~y to be (. o.ff:> at any time in any

one or more of the factors. Every artist will do

4>1; d '~d "b .J <1" T- b bad ill h

goo one-s. an: - nan one'S. I ae au WIl iave

to be thrown out and done OV(~r. The artist should, of course, make a eritica] analysis to detormine w'by a drawing is' bad, uSl1lally he 'will be forced to go hack to. fundamentals 1 for. bad dnt''Ning sprin gs from basic faults as surely as good drawing springs ,{Tom basic merits.

Therefore a useful book of figure dl',awing cannot treat one phase alone, as the study of anatomy; it must abo seek out and. eo-ordinate all the basic factors 1upon 'which good draw,in,g: depends, It must consider both aesthetics and sales possthilities, technical rendering and tn?'iea] problems to be solved. Otherwise' 'the read~,

er is only partially informed; he is. taught but one angle; and then, left to Hounder +

May I assume that YoOu as a young artist are faci ng a bread-and- butter pro blem? \Vhenever

YoOu achieve suiI:h':'i,ent technical ability, there wtll he an income ,,""aiting for you." FrOIO that point on yOUT' earnings win increase in ratio to your improvement . In the fields of practical art the ranks, thin out at the "top, lust as they do everywhere else. There ]$ not aJ'.IJ. advertising agen.cy~ a magazine publisher, a lithograph house, Of an art dealer' s that 'win not gladly open its doors to real abili ty that is. new and d iffe.rent .I t is mediocrity to which t.he door is closed. U nfortuna tely mos t of us are medi OCTe- when we start out; 'by and large., most commercial artists of outstanding ability had no more than a venlLg:c taWen t at the start.

May I confess that two weeks after entering art 5 choo], I was a.d vi sed, to g(J back houle? That experience has made me much mnre tolerant of an tnauspicious beginIling than m mJight otherwise have 'been, and i:t has given me additional mcentive in tea,ehing.

IndividuaHty of expression is, without question, an artist's '1l110St valuable asset, You could make ,no more fatal error than to ,atternpt to dup liea te, for the sale of duplication alone, either my work or that of any other judi vidual. Use another's style as a crutch on.1y~until you ean walk alone. Trends of popularity are as change.able as the weather .. AnatOTI1Y, ,perspective, v.a] ues remain con stant; htl t you must d iligun tly search. for new \vays to apply them. The grea.test problem here is to 'provide you with a sol[d basis that will nurture individuality and not produce imitation. I grc.1tnt that a certain amount of imitauon in, the earltest phase of' lea:lil.lI.ing InaJ.y he necessary in order that self -expression rna y have an essential blfl::ckgrourui. But there can he no progress in any art or cralt without an accumulation of individual experience. The experience comes best duough y01!ll' O\VIl e:llort or observatiou, thl:OUgh self-instruction, the reading of a book, or the study of an old In, aster. These

, .

experiences are bundled. together to form .rOll!

ANee .. Qe',PENINee"e Ce. 'C'"'IJHA···'·T

.' ••• , ' e, " , e J1 ' . . ... ' ..

working .kn ow Ie d,ge; and. the process should never stop, New, creative ideas are .usuaJly variants of the old ..

In this vO]l~rne I shan by to treat the. figure as a living thing! its power of movement ]!'elated to its, structure and its movement separated iI1~ to several kinds. 'Ve .shall dra w the nude for the pW"pose of better understanding the draped fi.gute .. We shall think of the figme ,[JJS possessed of hu11: and weight~ as being exposed to Hgll t and therefore shadow, and hence set into space as we know it. Then we shall 'try to understand light for \-vhat ~t is; and how {'orIll, wi th i is p.]~Ules. oJ various direction, is aHected 'by it. W,e shaH consider the head and its: structure separately, In other 'WOI-ds~ we shall provide a foundH tion that will enable you to make your ;f]gun~s original and convincing, The interpretation, the type, the pose, the drama, the costume, an d the accessories 'will aU be yours .. Whether

- .. - of

your fi,gures. are dt·a\.vll for' an advertisement, to illusrrate a story! or for a post;er or a calendar will not change appreeia bly ,t'he fuudlam,ental demands tlpOn your knowledge, Technique ]S not so important as the YOilIng artist is Inclined to be'Hev,e;, the Ii v.ing .~:nd emotional q nalities-« the idealiza tiun you. ptlt into your' work=are far more important, So are YOlU· selection and 'taste in. costume and. setting·~.pr()vlded yon have mastered fundan]en tals, The smartest dress in the war ld win not be effecU ve on a badly drawn figure .. Expression or emotion cannot possibly be drawn into a face that .ns poorly construcred, You cannot paint in color successfuUy without some ccuceptlon of Hg'bt and oolor values, or even hope to huild a composttion of fi g:ures 'tlntH you know how to draw' them in absolute perspective .. YOUT job i:s to glodfy and i.de~Jize the everyday material about you ..

It is IIty purpose· front start to 6uisb of this.

book to lend you a hand to the top of the hilt but upon reaching the' crest to p~lsh you over and lea ve you to your own mornen b.IJ:n+ I. h.a ve lnred and p;~dd the best models, I could 6ndJ know~n,g that the limited .funds of the averag,e young, art ... ist, would. riot permit that" If you study n~y drawings in the light of a model posing for you, rather I than thinking of fu .. em as something to ·be duplicated. line foT. line and 'tone for tone, I ·think you will in the end derive greater benefit. Withevery p'~.g.e I suggest you p~ace YOUl' pad. ,~t the side of the book. Try to get t·he. meaning behind the ilia wing much more than rile dra wing itself, Keep your' penen as busy as possible, Try fig~.u·es y,f]rying as much as possible hom those in my pag·es. Set up figures rougll1y, from the Imagtna ~ {ion, make them do all sorts of actions, If It is pos ... sible to draw' from. the live model in school or

" elsewhere, do so by aU means, utilizing· as best

you. can the fundamentals 'we have. here .. 11 you, can take· photos or .bave access to them, try you,r skill i n dra Yling Irom thetln,. adding 'what ideal ~ ization you th mk should be there,

It .might be a good plan to read the eutire book' at the start so. that you. 'M!] 'hetter uuderstand the general plan of pl-ocedufC. Other iqIilJds of drawing: such as. s.till ]Jf,e: should be sup'p~ei1m,en~~ ed, for all form presel!:iS the general~PFoh~ern of


contour, planes ~ light and shadow,

'Get used to using a soft penci~; one that win gi ve considerable range Irom ugb t to dark. A thin, 'weak and gray dr,a~ng lias practicafly no commercia] val ue .. The sWUclIing to a pen and black drawing ink .]S not only .interesting Lu.t has real value commercially, Use one that is .fairly :fl.,exible" Pull the pen to make your line, never push it at the paper) Ior it \ViU orn~~y catch .and splutter. Charcoal is a fir).e mediurn Ios study- A large tissue or layout pad is. excellent to w(l[[k on.

Perhaps the best way is. to :suggest t.hat you use the hook in whatever manner suits you best,


The :first coopter of. this book will b€ rrea ted a little dilferently from the others, asa ,pre.} nde to the aetaal ngllle, and to la y the g,round,wor It of the structure we are Iater to huild, This part of the hook win be of especial value to t'ne layout' man and 'lltfij· the artist for d~e preparation of prelim-

" .... / :in;l£ajI"y sletches, rou ghs:> the setting crown of ideas" sugg,estions of actions


1/ and p0s.e!. where the :(i,guJ'ie must be drawn without tbe use of models or

l copy. This is the sort of work the artist does in advance of the finished work, This, In otller words, is the work with. '\vhf,ell 'he sells himself to the p.-os.pe'ctiv.e. di:eut In that respectit is most important since it really creates oppo~ttUlify. H e ~fal be able to pr:ep;an;' this work mtelligen d y so-that when 'he gets. to the final work IDle will not be confused with new problems of perspective, sp~.cim1g, and other djm,culties~

The reader is. urged to gjve this chapt1er hws utmost a ttenUon since j,t is. unq,uestionah.],y the most importaut chapter in the book, ana One to p~y good dividends. fur the eeneentrated effort involved,

..... ·1

- I ~ 'l l~ .. .t




.i I-~

. . ,

~I II 1 II-

, ' .
:.,., ,I ~
0' r
• r
1 .. ~'L. ....

As we begin the book, let. us take ] rote of the broad field of opportu ni ty afforded the fi.blllre draf tsman, Startin g, with the comic or s imple lin C dru "rings of the '~,lev{spape.r ~ it extei I tis an the ,vay up' through every kind of poster, display, and. magazine advertising, through covers and Sb..l1)l iUustratJion to the realms of Hnc art], l)Oortrai ture, sculpture .. an d l111iJ ral deeora tion. Fi gun:~ d.l!'a\\ring presents the broadest opportunity fnnll the standpoint of earning of any artistic endeavor Coupled with this. fact is, the ,great advanrage that all these uses are so interrelated that suecess in one alrnes t assures success in anoth cr.

The in terrcla tion of ,aJi these u,S,c:s sprin.gs from the fact that all figure drawing is. based On the same fundamen bib, wh ich can he app1 ied 110 matter what IIJse the work is put to. Thki, hring'S a further great advantage to the .figure man in that he has a constant l1~ar ke t H he is capa hle of good work, [The nt::ttrlet is constant because his work fits into so rna 11 y notches in the cycle of buy in g an d selling which mus t al wa ys be present 'bar= fin g f naneial collapse . To sen one mus t ,8Ld verU:Sc\ to advertise one must have adv e rtis in g, space" to have adverttsmg space there must he attractively illustrated ma.~azil.1:es~ billboards ~ and nth er medi urns. So s tarts the eha in of uses of which the artist is. an in te gral part.

To top it all, it becomes the most fascinating of' any art effort beca use i t offers s uch endless variety, encompassing so much that it ever remains new and s tim ulatlng, D\eaHng \.vith the human as llects. of ] i fe it runs the gal'll u t of exJ)]"e!SS]UD, emotion, gesture,. environment, aud the interpretation of character, What other ttelds of eHo!rt offer so great a variety fa)' interest and g.enul]"[c relief from moncton y? .I speak of this to 'build within you that confidence that al] is well

once you arri ve at yo. rr destina tiou, yOllI' real concern is m aking the journey,

Art j nits broades 1 sense is a language, a messag,c th at can l)e expressed bet ter in no 'Other '~'ay. It tells us what a product looks like and how we can use it, I t (J(~'S eri bes the clothes and even the mani iers of other times, In a war poster it f nei tes us to action; h a I[l,01. gazine it m akes characters alive a 1.1d '\'1 vi d. It projects an idea visually, so that hefoT{~ a brick is laid we fil.a)' soe, before our eyes, the fi l:l is hed building.

There was ,a. tjrne when the artist withdrew to ,£'t, bare attic to live in seclusion for an ideal. For suhject, a plate oJ apples sufficed; Today, however, art has become an integral part .of our lives, and. the sueccssfu 1 artist cannot set hinlseH apart. He must do a certain job> in a definite manner 1 to a delluite pu.rpOSt~ ~ and wi th a !Specified dale of deltverv,

Start at once to take a new i nteres t in people.

Look fur typical characters everywhere" F amiliarize yourself with the cllaracteri~ tics and details tha.t distil'll gl li~h them. \Vha t is. a rTO ga l1JCC: rn terms of light and shadow, form and color? ''V\lhat lines ,give frnstra ti on and for lorn hope to people? \Vha t is the ges. tnre i n re lation to the emotion? VVll1J.V is a certain childish face ador-


a'h l.e? a certain adult Iace suspicious a nd, 'Ill ntrustworthyf Yo 1 must search for the answers [0 tllese q 1 iestion s and be able to. make them clear to your puhlic, This knowledge will in time beC(}11l18 a part of you, but it can om,TIC on']y Irom o bserva tion and uuderstandin g.

Try to develop the habit of 0 bservi ~ I g your .surroundings carel ully, Some day you m~i.y want to pLlCC a Hgulre in a similar atmosphere, You cannot succeed completely with, the figure unless you can dra.\V the details of the setting, .. So

O=BS-'E'R'\lE ""0' U'R' S"'U' 'R'R"O'lTTNDlN'G' S'

',' I, _.'.1"';, ,~'.:'", i.,':' " ~' " ': \_;'" :' II ,'. ,,'

be'g',~n now' to collect a ,{Be of the details that

, ~

give a setting Us "atmosphere."

Learn to observe significant details. Y'QiU must be concerned with more than Martha's OOiTdress. Precisely why does: ~;~'artha in a formal gow']l look so difl.ensu L ,I U ShUIt~ or slacks ~ How do the folds of her dress break at the Hoor when she sf ts down?

',,;;0 ateh emotional gestu.r't;S, and expressions, W,hat does a gil·1 do with 'her hands 'when she says", "Oh, that' s wnnderful r'?' Orr- with her feet when she drops into a chair and says .. "Cosh, I'm tired r '~? What does a mother' s face r~'g,iste,r when she appeals to' the doctor, "Is there nn

h ?H 0" cl ."ld" h h ""G''':II' t"

ope~' T a ernn .s w en e says! ,ee, rna _ S

good t '''? You must ha ve more than mere technical a hili ty to' produce a g:ood dra.wing.

N eMIy every success! 01. artist has a partfcular interest or drive- or. pass-jon that g:ives direction to his technical skill, Often it is an absQ[T~ lion in some one phase of life. Harold von Schmidt, for example, loves (he outdoors" rural life, horses, the pioneer, dranu:l; and action. 11:~s wor.~ breathes the fire that ffis in him, Harry Anderson 'loves plain American, people - the old family doctor, the little white rottag,e; Norman RockweU~ a great portrayer of character, loves a gnaded 01,0 ha ld, that has done a lifetime of work, a shoe that has seen better days'. 'His tendel' and sympathetic attitude toward trumanrnty; Implemented by his marvelous technical abi1ity~ has 'won him 'his place in the world of art. JOll '''hit-cODl h and Al Parker are a~ the top because they can set dOW'l1, a pOignan t,~ up-to-the-min ute portrayal of yOWlg' America. The. Clark h:rothers have a, fondness for drawing the ,0 leI \-Yes t and frontier days" and ha ve been most .successfu~ at it. ~faucle Fangel loved bahies and, drew them bea utifully, None of 'fl'1ese people could have' reached the pinnacle without 'their inner drives, Yet none could have arrived there without betng abIe to draw well.

I do not :strongly recommend becoming "helper" to a successful artist jn order to gain background. More often, than not, it IDS a disIcouraging experience+ The reason Is that you are connnually m~tdhi:ng your humble ,eftorts ag.ainst tIle stellar perfonnanoe of your employer. You are not thinking and o bserving for yourself, You are us;uaUy dr,eruning!, dcviemop~ng: an inf.eriority complex, beccoll1ing an ~.mttator., Remember: artists have no jealously guaruioo profess:im1,al secrets. How often have I heard students say, "H I could just watch that man wnr1k) r:mu sure I could get ,;:i.head i n Ge.tting ahead does not happen that way. The only mystery, if such i t uu~y 'be called, is the :persons] in terpretation of the ,individua.l artist, He h]m~self proba bly does not know his own "seeret." Fundamentals you must master, hut yO]] can never do. so 'by w,atching another man

P' aint, You have· to reason, them out far vOUTSJemt


Before' Y()lJ de.cide what type of drlt'Wing you

want to coneentrate on, it would be' wise to con, .. , sider your particular background, of experience. If you have been. brought up on a. f.arm; for' instance, you are much more liJeely to succeed m fu.t.e'l·p~eting Ufe on a f.~rm than in depiictwng' Long Island society life. Don't ~g.n()re th.e intimate knowledge you have' ga.mlled from loocl,g .. everyda y acquaintance. A] I of us tend b) dis'OOlIn t our own experience and knowledge~to consider (?'Uf background dun and commonplace, But that is a serious mistake, No back,ground. is barren o:f artistic material. The artist who ,g,rew up in poverty can create [ust as much bea uty in dra,\vin_g nun bh_~~down sheds as another artist might: m dra wing ornate and 1 uxurious settings. As a, matter of Iact, he is ,tatpt 'lito know much more about Iife, and his art is nke~y to have a broader appeal. Todl~y great interest has developed. in the "American Scene," Simple ]].ome'liness is its g'eneral keynote. Our advertismg and IID.ncb of our illiustration~ however, de-


expet.1 to herome a surgeon without studying anatomy. If you are offended by the sight of the body the .Almighty gave us to live in, then put this book aside at once and likewise g.ive up an thought 'Of a career fn ,ru-t. Sfnce .aU of' us are either male 01' female, and since the fibl'UI"eS of the two sexes differ so radicall y in construction and ,app~alan,ce (a woman .in slacks is not a 'man in. pan ts ~ even when she has a short haircut) ~ it is Fantastic to conceive of' a study oj[ figur.e drawing that ,dj,d not analyze the rnany diJl.ereuces. I have been engaged in almost every t.YP~ of commereial art, and, 'my experience confirms the fact that t'he study of the nude :~s indispensable' t-o ,any art career tha t requires figure drawmg, A vocational course wi thout such srody ']S a deplora l)'~e waste of time, Life classes g,ener~lly work from the living model; hence ,I ha ve tried to supply drawings that will Serve as a sahstitute.

,:B.road~y ~'Peakil1g? tlu..=;r,e are twa kinds of dra'wing: ]inear. and solid. Linear dra 'Wing-for. example, a floor plan=em braces dc-s;~,g]] Or scale, Solld drawing: attempts to render bulk or threedi~nensi:onal quaJity on a &t plane of ,paper or canvas. The first involves no eonsiderarion of ,Hgh t and shadow, The latter- gives' it ,ev~wy eonside ration. It is possible, however, wit'hout light and shadow ~ to make a Bat Or outline d.ra,wing: of a f(g~U'e and s tin s u,gg.est Its bulk, Therefore U: ,]8 logical to begin, with the figure :hlJ, 19tt dimension-start out with proportion, COO1~y it from the fla t to the' round; and. th~n proceed to. 'render the hull ,in space or in terms of li,g,ht ,and shad.ow'.


The eye' perceives form much more readily hy

contour or edge than 'by the modeling. Yet there is meally no outllne on form, rather li there is a silhouette of 00]1 tour, encompassing as mu.c'b of the ,form as we can. see from a Sll1Lglle viewpoint" '~!'e must .of necessity limit that Ionn some way., So we draw a line-an outline: An outline truly be~on.gs. withm dl~ category of 1l.at rendering, though if can be accompanied by the use of lig:ht


mand the sophistiea ted, and the, smart, but if. t is wise to bear in mind this newer trend, :10,1" \\Ihich a humble hackgr.ound, is no handicap~

It is true th~ t most artists must be prepared to handle any sari. of subject on demand. But gradually leach one will be chosen. Ior the thing he does best. [£ you do not want to. he, typed or ~i. eatal 0 b111,ed , ,,; you win have to work h~U'l~ to

widen your :s.cope,. It means lea'rning broad dra w,h~g principles (,everything has p1roportion~ three dimensions, tex[m€ ~ 001or~ light;- and shad-

ow· , \ ~.1I"'lI that vou will not be H .... or I I' ..... ~·1 .

r •. J -lJIU' U1.E. j' wru e '.u lr_ ,~ji eu .J'Y CvH,m]S~

sions that Ina y call for a bit of still life, a land- 1H~apeli an animal, a psa'ocular texture' such, as sa tin 0:[( knitted wool. If you, learn to observe, the demands should. not tax your tech:uical ca pk1J,city, because the n~11dering of all form is based, upon the' W8LY '~ig~l t falls upon it and the way light affects i t~ value and e ol Or . Furthermore, you can al wa ys do research Oi1L au y unfamiliar S1Jl'hj'eL{,.· Mos t artists spend as much time in 00 btain ]ng, suita ble data as in actual (Ira wing or. 'pain ling.

The fundamentals of pl$liinting and. drawim.g are the same, Perha ps it might be' said that dratwing in g,enf~ral does. not attempt to render the subtleties .of values, edges;, and planes or mndeling that may b·e obtained in paint In .,,;,'ny

:v _:~"~ ,,' ~-&~ L"'l ,,_." ,.,'",' 'v. : (, I .. ,U ;".1 . '~~JI.I. !L'r J_,J, l~~~.1,,: ';

medium however, the artist :is confronted with the same ,p~blellTIs ~ he \ViU have to consider the horizon and vi.e~omnl; he '\¥iH, have to set down p,rop~fly Iength, breadth, and thickness (in so fa]!:' ,B!$ he is able on the flat surface ); he will have to consider ~ in short, the eleffire',[lt"3 that I am talking: about in this, book.

The nude human ,figure ill ust serve as the basis Ior ,a1l6g:ure study, It is impossible to draw the c]othed or draped fi~lre withou t a knowledge of the structure and fonn. of the figu.'re und.errnea tho The artist w'ho cannot put: 'llie' figum'e togethe[ properly doe'S not have one chance in a thousand of success--enher as. a lEi,gure draftsman 01:' as a. painter. It 'would, be' as reasonable to


and shadow, The painter dispet,.scs with .outline beeause :he ca n define contours against otl1Ler m asses or build out the form in relief by the use of val rues"

You must understand '[he d ifferenee between contour and. line .. A piece of wire pr'csents a line. A contour is an cd ge. That edge Inay he a sharp limitation to the form (the edges of a cuhe) Of' a rounded and disappearing Ihnitation (the contour of a sp]l~'e ). 1\-1 any contours pass in front of one another, Hike the: contours of an undulating landscape, Line 6,gure drawing, even as landsCifJJpe dra wing, dem ands fo.res'R'b.ortenin g m order to plod nee the effect of solid f orm, 'Y ou cannot outline ,8! figure with a bell t wire and hope to render its solid! aspect, Look for' two kinds of lines: the Bowing' Or rhythmic line" w·t~a"'"ing it about' the Iorm, and, for the sale of-stability and structure> the contrasting s traight or ,angular line ..

. Line can have infinite 'variety) or it can be in-


tense} y m ono ton 0 us . Even if YOll stu r t with a

bent wire" you need not make it entirely monotonous. You can vary the weizht of line. When

.. ,5.11.

. you are dra wing a 0011 tour tha t is near a very light area, you can use a light Iine or even. omit it entirely. \VhCl1 the line represents a contour that is dark and strong! you. can give it more \1I,.reight and vitality. TIle s.Hghtest outline dr.awing can he inventive and expressive.

Take up yoW' pencil and 'begin to swing it over your paper; th.en let it down, 1,~hat is a "free 3" line, a .A. r h ythmie ". line. N O\V! grasping

your pencil lightJy between thumb and Index Bnger) dr.a'~l lightly or delicately. Then bear down as though you really mean t it That is a ~" varia hle" line, See if you car I draw a straight line and then set down another parallel to it.

l"h ;Ii." '~. tudi d,lo~]j

. rat is a .5" ~ re one.

If you ha ve considered a line as merel y a mark, it rna. y be a revelation to you t:hat ]iue

~ ~

a lone' p r, assesses so much variation tho. t VOll can

.r ~

\vorry ever it for the res ~ of your days. n.,em.err~-

bel' that line is. sOInething to turn to. when your drawings are dull. You can start expressing your individuality with the kinds of line you draw,

Now to the figuI·,e. Wha t is the heigh.t - to-width relationship of an ideal fig,ure? An ideal figrue standing straight must fit w]thi'n a certain rectangle. "",hat 'is that rect.angle? See drawing" page 26. The simplest and. most convenient unit for measnri ng the fi.gure ];5 the head. .A normal person wi]} fall short of our ideal by half a head-he will measure only seven and .:fJL haJJI' heads instead of eight. You need not take ,e~ ght heads as an absolute measure, Your ~dea.f man 'n1ay hav,c any' proportions YOU wish, bu t he is usuallv made

. J ~ ~

tall On pages 26 to 291 you will find various p:ro-

portions in head units. Note that at ,iiIln.y time you can V.:fI!I"}~· your proportions to snit the particular problem, s tu.d y these carefull y and dra w ·them ~ .two. o.r three times" for you win use them, consciousl y or not, every time you set up a figure .. SOUle artists prefer the },egs even a ,]1 ttle longer than. shown. But, if the foot is shown tipped, down in perspectl ve J it will add considerable length and be about right .

It is remarkable "t'hat 1TIOSt beginners' work looks, alike; Analyzin,g, U~ .1 ha v .. 'found certain characteristics that should he mentioned ~ere. '. suggest that you co]nparc this list with your own work to see if you can locate some of the characteristics for improvemen t.

1". ICofl;sU:ten.tiy g1ay thro1lghout.

What to do: First get a soft pencil that win make a good black.

pick out the blacks. in your' subject and state them stron gly ..

By contrast, lea ve areas of white where subject is white or very lig:h t.

Avoid puuing overstated grays in light areas,

Do not surround things that al~' light with hea vy lines,



2. An Qt;erabundance of small fuzzy Une.

Do not "pet" in your line_, draw it cleanly with long sw,eep,

Do not shade with a. mu lti tuae of little


'i peck}"" strokes.

Use the side of the lead wi th the pencil 1 aid almost flat for your modeling and shadows,

3'. F eaiures '1u1Spluced in (J head.

Learn, what the construction lines of the head are a Til d how spaced. (See Head Drawing", )

Build the featu.res into th.e correct sIla,ccs.

4. Rubbed ,and dirty~, 1.M'tuuly in U roil.

Spray with fixarlve. 11 on thfn papeI"~ mount on heavier stock.

Trv never to break the surface of vour

/ ,

paper., This is very bad. If you ha YC done so,

~ .

start over, Keep your dra \vings Hat. Keep

untouched areas scrupulously clea]"[ with a kneaded eraser.

5 . Too P'1Ulny m€diu.».'u; in sa~ne' pioture.

Make your subject in one med i urn. On not combine wax ;craynus. w,ith pencil, or pastel 'with, sorllefuing else. 'M'a,k'e it all pencil, al] eravon, ,all pastel, all water color ~ or all


pen and i nk, 1 t gives a certain con sistency, Later on 'you mav com biue d.flTeren t me-

, ..

diums effectivel" but do not start that wav,

.. ~

6. The tend'CfiCy to lIse Un-ted ,papeTs.

A bbc-k and whi te dirawing looks. better ora whitepaper than, anything else.

II you have to use tinted paper, then work .in a. color that is harmonious . For instance it brown or red eonte era von on a tan or


cream paper.

It is be tter to pu t your color on white for: clarity.

7. Copies,ol movie stars,

This gets intensely monotonous to anyone inspeeting a 'beginn:er"s work, The heads are usually badly HS'hted,fron~ a drawing stand= point. Take a head. that is not well. known,

8. Bad .arrangement.

If you arc d.oing a vignett.ed he-ad" plan inb:::-n:s.Hng ana. attractive shapes. Don't run over to the edge .of the paper unless w bole space is to be squared off"

9. 1'1 ~ghlighti1 in chalk.

I t takes a very skilHul artist to do ~his sueeessfullv,


10. {} ninteresting subf.fct8.

) list a costume does not make a picture.

E verv picture should h ave some ill tercst if

~' l!.:

possible other' than a teclu1ica~: demons tra-

tion, Heads should portray character, or expression, Other. subjects should have mood or action or sentiment to make itt interesting,

,"Vater color is perhaps the Il10St tri(~'ky medi ... 1, urn of all, Yet most beginners take to it. \¥ ater ' ,col:or to he effective should 'be broad in treatment, with la.rge loose washes, and not too finicky. If you Snd yourself stippling and pecking yon ron he pretty sure it \vi.n not he ] Iked,

Wa ter color should have a feeling of the "aeelden tar or color that has done somethin g of its own and dried that way., Lovely effec..1s are obtained by (lampening an area flrst and then :Ho,"vin,g the color into the \v€ t area. Use a real water ('0101' pa.p er 0'1' board, for it ea n get v,c'ry messy on a soft and very absorbent patpe'r. The less YOll ,have to g() over \vhat you have once put down, the better, GeneraHy water-enlorists ,prefer not to 'leave a Jot of ,pencil, especially dark 01' shaded pencil sllO\ving' through. Some watercolorists work by washing in a,' g:encral tone"

-serubbing out the lights with a soh spon:ge or brush, and wash hlJg in the halftones and darks over the o.riginal tone. If you are unable to handle water color in any 0 the! wa y than. by

peekin g in Ii ttle strokes, I would su.gg,est YOll try pastel which can be spread and rubbed at will. ad paint has the advantage that it stays wet long enough to maneu Vel the eolor as you wish,



FEET '< M~le' h G]U V'e l~, t! ~3 ~ eo d 3 W,liJldti(t' > --2iI'~~a:--=",.,.., ··6 FT


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'T' k' desi d h - hI' f

a e any. .esrrec .e~glt!, or pate po:mnts or

top of head and heels .. n'.lvide into e:ighths. Two and one' third of these units win be the relative w~dth £:0[' 'the male flgwe. It is. not necessary at this stage to attempt to render the ana tomy CQr~ rectly, But fix in yom: mind the di visions.

Draw t.lle fi.gurc in the three positions: front., side, and 'back. Note d~e com,pa.rn tive widtTh1 s at shoulders, hips; and. calves. Nate that the space·

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, " ,~.VIi!' ~ t'" '~$ ~,f"B

: b,at k of ~ iddJe I. t'I,e '\h ru f~' 'q,~llre .

b " I" , . -a h d ,''- -Th ., .

etween Dlpp as IS one' , ~ea, l181t. ,I ie w,ms't. ]s

11·"""'1 id th hell' 'Tt.. ~

a .UIU .. e wi er f ian ODe ear unit, ne '\V11s·t

drops just below the crotch. The elbows are about on a line with the navel. The knees are [ust above the lower Iq uarter of the .6.guIe~ 'The shoulders. are one-sixth 0.£ the 'w~y down, The proportions are also. ,given. In feet 50 dta t you :ma.y accurately relate your Ggure·.to Iurniture

d '. .

·an .mtenors,

:~!41,Q~, ~ ~I qu .... e IS ,2 h«,ods' w~ e

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IE. , bowS'~W'o~rt· . \! '

f=. I,{I'~ ~·ttV>i!.J., '


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The female figure is relatively narrower=two heads at the widest point The nipples. are slight~ ly lower than tn the male. The waistline meesures 'One head unit, across, In front the thighs, are ~ligh tl Y wider than the armpits, narrower in back, It is optlcnal whether 01" not you draw the I'c_g,s even a little longer from the knees down. \Vrists are even with crotch, F'ive feet e:ig'bt

, h ( ., h ~ 111,_ ') , ldered · d 1- h 'gh-'

me es In eeis 1;S, consmereo an lea. ,.el': it



I 'r "'-_G' ~;l!i,QS


-.- 1.= I I

-------.1 J' \ f

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Ior a. gill L Aetuall y ~ of course, the average girl has. shorter legs and somewhat: heavier thighs:, Note carefu llv that the female; na!'ve]. is, below tthe


waist '1~' " the "1'", ibo '". = 0":- '- 7- -"r ~,~- lth it Th£!l.

ustune e rna. e) aec ve ,',' W eve I. WIU~, 1". , 'IV

nipples and navel are one head apart, but both are dropped 'below the 'head. division s. The el-

l ls ab tl I '1i-.' '. t ilL ~'h t

)OW 1S anove ae nave .' .II.t IS :urnpor ant '( 'a yO!:n

learn the 'variations between the male and fe'male figwre ..

r- , c. " '. U' S' S' TAN D . ~IJ'(7). SO" F I:J n·c· )'PO: R" ~lrl-t II (. ')N \! .. I\RI 0·':' L:: ,,'~,., :.A~lJ· ..•. ~ . ··'lr(:. r , .., I. JL Jl'.' ' .

N10OMA,L]······L H,-, .OS

LJ"I\J "~/C. [

'THt:= AC.A 0 EM • ,C Pfii:..O' F"O'~"- f ON S 'uSeI' ,m"' NOS" S:HOOLS.



lD·E·AU'IST.'lC ... ·: 8 r't'ns

. ,~, '-,': hiV .:,

M 0 S 1'- A p::-rl 's'T5 AccePT ·9, HEADS· A.S· N·O~·At...

j ...... "

You can see at a glance '\vhy the aetual or norma] proportions are not very satisfactory, AU academic drawings 'based on normal p,ropottions have this dumpy, old-fashinned look. Most fashion artists stretch. the figure even beyond elg:ht heads, and in aUegoriCc.'ll or heroic Hgul'·es the "superhuman" tYl1e - nine heads -- 1]1 ay be used e£l'c.cti vel Y: N ore at what poin t, or head


unit" the l11:kldle of the ·figur.e faHs in ead)", ""It would he well to draw the side .and, hack '~n these various proportions, using the prev ious page .for a g'eneral guide bot. changing: t!te I)FOpOrUon,. You can control the it PllC'ar~1lnce of hei ght or shortness in ,any figur.e h): the relative size o~ the head you use,



,,~ I




These l'u:oportions have rr)ee11. worked out wu'h a g1fea t deal of effort and, as far as M know ~ have never before he en put. down for the artist, r11'6 scale assumes that tlle chH,d will grow' to be an ideal adult of eight head nni ts, If" for insta nee, Y";Jou waul tu un'llw ,l;lJ! man or a woman (about Imlf a head shorter than you would draw the man)

with a G.,,·'e-vear-Q].d bov, you have 'here his rela-

rI .,.

live height. 'Children under tell are made a little'

shorter and, chn h hh~r th ~In normal, since this cfIect is considered more desirable: those O"V'6'r ten, a. ]i HIe tal ler than normal - for the same l' easo n..


cif:l 1:E\=1~'\?1< ~

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How to :bu:~ ~d yOUr" pictU'~e· ~ {~qure$ trom aH.lf e~e.1 (lve~l(ot Hor~.zo'M.'Jw,l1lc,k M€d~S ·!iusarttd:)

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DII"ld~ ,nID 4t~s. BOI,ldltrflS.1f ,To .. Q~o.ti.tg .... 'po,., D~vHJe ·a5.y.oud~d ',CD;m~,~:m3;d Flq. txnM VOO'[~'pICWV1e

you w'(;i ~ m 0 I""(!. ~ ·1ll1¥ttc¥ 10 tkJ"'\1:o.~. v£for-e·' ·to sa~ Hot" izo ........

Pu i e : Hor·u:oK. rKJJl s~, eros s a i I s l.M(.tLa- r Fi,q lJ're S 'OYL a j exe ~ pi aM..€ at tke' 5tl'w.t,e PO:i I~t ~ ~holle}'~~· ,kKees)

H.D~.~:zJO IN. I'-'\.A.'i 6E. PI-ACE 11) ~VE. fiGuRt: S -!i<:.'R i :if.'!.) 1111

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f11i1 Me [Pl~ APPl' E.5

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Many artis ts ha ve Jifficu Ity In placi ng figures in their picture and properly rerrating them to each other; espeeiall Y 'of the complete figure is not shown, The solution is. to dra",~ a key figure for standing or s.itting poses. Either the whole fi gure or any part of it can then 'he scaled with the horizon. .l\R is: taken. as the hea:d measurement and applied to an standing figures; CD to the sitting :6.gure:s.,. This applies when aU figures G.1"e on the same gtound plone. (' On page 37 there is: an explanation of how' to proceed when

the fi gur,es are at d]He:ren t levels. ) < YOilJ1 can place at point anywhere w.i thin your space and, nud the relative size of the :£ig:ure or 'portion .of the .figure at pre,cise1y that sput. Obviously .everything else should be drawn tothe same horizon and seeded so that the .fi.gllres are relative. For Instance, draw a key hors"e or CO\\' or chair or boat, The importan t thing is tha t an .fi.gun:~s retain thensize rela tinnships, no matter how close or distan t A picture can have only one horizon} and only one station l)o.in1. The horizon moves up or dOVHl with the observer. I t is not possible to look over the horizon, for it is constituted by the eye lev,e 1 or lens level ,of the subject, The horizon on. an open]> lla t p] ane of land or water is visib le, Alnong hills or indoors it Ula.Y not he actually visible, but your eyelevel determines it .. If you do. not understand perspective, there is a good book on the subject, Perspecuoe Made Easy, available at most booksellers ..




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y. o~' edM .. ~,Q ~ ql a·VO,~'" f iq u ~s O'.t 1Ka H~r',z,o~ Utoe by ~ k i I~q _ Ltr.;tj~ . r~ l1Q' .s L'~'U a l~ iq u :v-e .. s 1. Yl. .. . . ' .. 3<l.Vrt e pi,ac.e,. Th~ ktul.fs, ~ m. Ol't tM..e ~ai 1M(Z q rou!~ d Ip.l;Q ~" N ate t~'r-ll.O", c.uts ~~ at a.lO I s1; ~nd tke .. '-e,oted WOWLe. M.. iot ekJ,K.r l1t.tiL one .sl:tuldlU'lLJ WO~Q!K at left "t, s d t':ClWK re I a. illve to Hte .~ '1 . SrLMt.p,1 ,e?


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M'O\'EMENT I ,: '1"!-It~ Ml\J\INIK,IN' FRAM:E


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'L.ET us 'STR.lVE. FQ:R LIFB Afi'e> 4C"~O'N FROM 11fE 'VERY Be.Ci,~NNJNa~ DRAW"l)RAW.






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"'fIRV '1iQ"'!FliilU- ,A C'et4fTIE,'1l, OF GRAYIT'(:"~$.TR.~lOUle 114ili!. Wa,~GtiT OIVE.R. A, ~L PQ'NT . tfV,l!.~K~ ti -,M~aoUS sr:Uc.~ I!; So'.









T,rrtE IMAllN L! N~ Of" BA~"'''''''C~ 5'ri()VL'O ""EA,~ ~N T*1 ~ O~ R,e=CT ION

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~R~CJiPO~l'ION' lJ NE. F=-~~IT 15A'~ K ~/~ ~ACK S'~ ri7~, 3/4 ~~N'T

ALL. 'lHE. nME you 5PENl) ON TrHS I;=t::LLOW PA,Y5 13·'0 OlrV'"DE.HD.S", ~f;A"N Jl.LLA60Ul HIM.


'VOl) W'ILL SOON LeAR.~, TO E¥PRE,SS Y.O()k:.:SELF'" A. ViTAL '8.XPR.;(5,S..s I'ON IS MOR.E:; IMPORT,AN,T 1:IE:.Re; rHAN, l\,CCu RACY.

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,A ~ lE 11 tl S ASJU M'E WE HAVE Guru N'ES OF THREE CIRCtES 5E1' ,ON 3 AOJ.A.cENf" PLAN E,s, i

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TO fEE:L 1 HIE (Y~ ~ DD' L E

CONTOUR..S: ,AS WIE:ll AS tHE ~DGE5'., lHE OUT~' l,~NE,5 AlQN,E ,CAN ,jUq-GEST ~OL~Vll~ 'WAlCH HOW l:,PG E."S PA 5,,5, OINE ,A'NOTH. E ,~

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The foregoing has. giveu us a general framework to which we can now' add a simplification of the buJlk Or solid aspect of the figure .. 1 t would. he both. tedious and SUperB.UOllS if, eve-ry time we drew a figure; we went through the \i\;rhol e procedure of Jii.gl1T<e drawing, 'The artist wiU want: to make' roughs and sketches that can serve as an understructure for pose or action 11erllaps to cover "vi th clothin g, per ha ps to workout a :pose that he will fiaish with a mode]. We must have some direct and quick way of inclicating or setting II P an experimental ngure - one "\\·1 th which we can teU a slto.ry. nle figure set up as suggested in the following pages. will usua~ly suffice. Properly done, it can always be devel .. oped iinto the more .fi,rdshed dr awin g., When you are drawing a mannikin fi.g:ure'~ you need not be greatly concerned with the actual m nseles or how they a.fi~ct the surface, The mannikin in. drawing is used much as. is a. "lay" fi.gure~ to indica te joints and the ge ner a I propor tion of £rame\vork and masses.

The mannlkin serves a d o.u[' le p-lUJ~O,~H; here.

I. believe that the student will do much better to set up the Hgure this wa y and get the ." feel" of Us P arts ill. action than to be gin at once with tb e ] wve model. It wilill not only S'(H"Ve for :rQU gil sketches. btl t \viU a 150 become an ideal approach to. the actual drawing of the 6gure from life or copy. If you have the frame and masses to be ghw ,,]'1 th, y'ou can later break. them down mto actual bone and muscle, Then YOll can more' easily grasp the plac~n g and functions of the muscles and what they do to the surface. I am of the opinion that to teach anatomy belol;"e pIOportioa=before bulk and mass and action-is to put the <;art beJEote the horse, 'You cannot d.raw a muscle correctly without a lair estimate of the

. . lthi t, fi h

area it occupIes WI: :~n the - gurcJ witr .out an

-nnde]"standing' of ,vh y it is there and of how it works,

Think of the figure Jn a plastic sense, or as

something with three dimensions. It has weight tha t must be held up by a. ,fr.an'1e\vorlk ,vhf,eIl is extremel y mo bile. The flesh y m asses or bulk £01. lows the fnune" SOUle of these rn asses are knl t togetl1Ler quite closely and adhere to the bony structure, whereas other masses are fun and. th.fck and, win be affected :b1l appearanc,e by action.

If you have never stu.died. anato nly ~ you may not know that tbe muscles fall naturally into ,b?"OUjlS or ,chunks attached in certain \v.ays to the frame, \Ve will not neat their physlological detail here, but consider them merely as parts Interlocked or 'l<ved.,ged tog'e the r . Hence the: huJuan :Hgtu~,e looks, very .mucb like our mannikin,

The thorax, or chest, is 'c',gg -shaped a,~.d" as far as we arc concerned.' hollow, Over it is draped a ,cape of muscle extend]ng across the chest and down the back to the bas.e of the spine; 'Over the cape j in Iron t ~ .He the ,s.hould.er mus eles .. The 'but~ toeks start halfwa y around ~n 'back, from the hips; and. slant downward, eudrung ;ED rather squan~· 'c-reases. A V is f:orrIH=d by the slant above the middle crease. There is actually a "-shaped bone here, 'Vvedged. between the 'two pelvi,c bones ilia t support the spine. The chest is ,joined


to the hips by two masses on either side, In back.

the calf \~'led.ges into tlle thi gh I' and in front there is the bulg'e of the 'knee"

Learn to dra ~r this mannikin as well. as, you can. You will use it: much more often. than a care.ful anatomlcal rendering. Since it is in lIlJOportion in. bull, and frame, it Inay also he treated in perspective" No artist could possibly a H:ord, a model Ior all his rough prelimmary work-for layouts and ideas. Yet he cannot jn.t,eUigendy approach his final 'work without a preliminary draft. If only art directors: would base their la youts on such mannikin 6gures,,- the finished. .£iguH';S would. all stand. on the same floor, and heads would not run off tho pag'e when drawn correctly.





TH E..G ff:.'OUtP'5 Of, MUS 'C,lES SU·"" PLil F' e.o,


- -- -

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A '511IMIPLER'MANINIKlrM u: 1H~, om eR t'S TOO' DI Ff I GUL1I.



HeR!=. IS .AG·R.Q'UP OF CVU NIDe.~ ..,INOn

HOW 'lJ.'l4.E. [ll..' '~E S .

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THE: E.YE ALO~E W'll.l B~ E.~NOUG HI TO Di:.TERM,~N E _,

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~,~ '''10U DO l!'l,en U,fIlOeilil$TAN '0' PE.R;SP'ECf'~V'~ ~ ~"T' IS ADV,II~'E.o. TO G':E'lt A 'GlOO 0 &'OOK: (It.I T"E eu 3J E Co i + "1I'QlI M:U~"T k:NQ OW I:T' :EVe;N'TUALL"f' To SuC;.t'Ei~, yOlu C;A.'NI NOT 3 E,T tlllP' A ,GOOD ItHi!:AWUNG Wt. 'F"H GHJ-r IT.


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""fl:) EVE.it."'1" o.T~i EI"t ,FII~GVRlE AN 0 ALl..

MUST BE. D'RAWN IN Pl~,RSpeC,'I\lE 10 f'H IE SAMe. EYE ~"rI Eo LOR IHORI,l,ot-l.



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STUDY 1'"H'ESE. ~LANO'M,A.RK,5" CAR:E.F'UL.LY ~ TH,~Y wu.i, KE'f.P YOUR ~1,GU~E.S F~O'M

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LA'l" E R j. W"fi E.N. VOtJ' TA K:~. U ,p "H,E ACTUA 'b.. l50N:E. AN~ 'M US C L E. J vou WJ L.'l HoA 'IE '''~E. .~ M POR TANT TH ~ H'utS: TO La OK FQ R, ;.






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P~_~r,OU" ' £7 ""'-.r:: ~ In 'H' ~ ,~.;::, ,'U'lI,;.:,' ... ~~ :S;;;:_,V,.·. 1':',"Jj'

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TWf. MAlN. 'D! FFE RENeE B~"FWt: EN THE MALE ANrD FEMAlE MANINI KI,N I~S U'~ T1~E PE.LvIS (()~ 5C.'S)~ "THE H ~p BON,E.5 CQM,E UP TO IlHE U NiE OF TrI'E. 'N,~VEL (MALE .. lll'E.Y ARE lWU OR. 1liR£E.. lNCH'E5 BI:LOW).. TM E. flEMAlE WA~ST,lU\lt ~5 AeO\fE TIH'E N~:vtEt. ~'TH E MALE AT OR JUSt' I3,EkO'W~ FEMA,l,E R~a, CAS.E Ill$, S"MAU':6R, PEl V f 5 Wi OER ANO ,DE'E P E-R.~,'SttO'u L f) ER5 N ARIRQWE R ~ CAPE-ll DROP 5 l N ~R.ONT iO IN ,C lU Of. 6R.EA.'S TS.

A, SJM'!?'I.._E, 'WAYO~ ,GE:'iTING F,E'M1Al£ PROPOJt'f'ONS, ... TAI(IE :~, 1'7'0 KNe.E',,5~ "...._ TO, WAt.s,-~ ,~L TOI TOP'OFIHU[).

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MAN Y .:5TUDIENT.:s U N DlE.··R~ VA.lUI:. 1H.E USE: ,Of ~ME. AND' MANN[~ K:I N_,.BU" t'r MAY BE THE MOST' VALLI A'eL~ SINGLE AS,SET "'(ou ~ve_ ., You AR;E UF.tGE:D 10' .5P~N D "nME-. AND THOtJGHI ON IT.



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• !~D~CA"ES WHE,R,e, 130't"j,E SHOW'S 'ON SoURFACE.

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The Iurther JIOlll go in tl~c ~t.ud.y of anatomy ~ the more ,lll~e.ru:,est~ng: it becomes. M ade of soh an d,

pHabl,e ma b.~tial, elastic yet strong, capable of unhmi ted movement and oJ performing count-

'less, t[l sks, operating on self- gelGLera ted pn~ver ~ and rep\rum.l'ing, or renewing i U'seif over a period of' Ume' in \~lhi,d:Th. ,the' s'b:·cm,g€';,s:t 0:£ steel parts would wear ou t-- th.e l~.unThan bo dy is in deed an 'en g[neerlng mtracle,

On the OlJpolSite p~ge the male and female skeletons, have been 'set up" I have kept the held nuns alongside so dmt. yml. IDiBLy relate the hones to the ,:l1..gnre in 'Cfn:n~ct pl'opairHon.

The skeleton, ,thougll 'stn:n.1g~ is really not so ri,g'd as i:t appea'[f's,. TI~ou.g:h the spine 'has a r],,g,id l~ase, in. the pel vis, It poss,e,~:stelS great :lle}[~,b:~}j.ty; alldl the rihs, too, thOlllgb, they are fastened ,H!rHll y into the sptne, are llexJ.b]e. All the 'bones (11'18 held 'f,ogether and upright by c~rUla!g€ a;nd, muscle, ,~ncl the ~oints operate ona b~U~,[tna~'Slocket p,Than '\vith a. "seop" for stability, The \-vll.ole structure collapses 'wuh a loss 01 OOlt1LS'CiOIDtSnes:sj"

Strain UpCH'Th, 'fhe muscles can usually ]he transf,cl"Wedl 'te) ,the bony str1JU,CW1' e. Th,0 'vc'~:gh.t of a heavy ]oad, for example, is largely taken over hy 'the bones, ,~~avi.n"g,th® muscles fn~e to propel the Hm'bs. Bones ,8!~NO :form a. protection to delicate orgacrrs and :par~8. The ~;;ktlU pru:otects the eyes" the brain, and the delicate inner pM~S. of' the t~~.ro~!l.;'t. The r~bs and pelvis protect t}U5 ~u:mmlt ~.un,g,s,~ ,and, other. orgalllS. WlThere protection is most ']lee)ded:~ the hone C~)IneS closest 'to the surface.

It is very' important fo]:' the artist to !now' that no bone is perfecHy sb\"ll:'i1g'ht. An arm or a ~eg dra wn w.i.dl. a. perfe cdy straigh[ bone wHI be wtg.dl :~u1,d, g:tiH -lou'ling. Curvatur.e I,D '~he bones has much to do 'with the rh vthm and action of

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,'i '~(WI 11/\11'''' ]t 'iI!... elp .... ',.......'rn,k' .. ,A]?· anl"1lID'''' 11" al ~V', a,

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The ,chief dj{ferem~e~etween the male and



fe:rnale skel.e'tolllS are the' proportionately ITmrger pelvis in the Female and die proportionately llax,ger thorax, orr: rfb case, in the 'male, These dffferences account fot the wider shoulders and 'IHHrOWer hips of the male, the longer waistline j' lower bn ttoeks, and wider hips of the female, Thev a1.:;:0 cause the Female arms to :BtlILr,e out


'wid,cr when H.ley are swinging back and forth.

and the femur, or thigl[ bone, to be a little more oblique, The hair and breasts l' 0.£ 'course'! dis tinguish the female fig[n~e', but they are Thne:rely tts most obvious characteristics, The Iemals is dHf,erent Irom head. to toe. The jaw is Iess developed. The neck j s more slender, The 'hands are smaller and much more d.elk~~te", The m'tlSC~B'S of

t,it,l,e'" ·"rm'''' 8'1;" .... ,..·1 ..... .p;']l, ...... 'r , ... ,1-.· .... 1 I ..... l' 'I c,·l- .... · ]';::'!-",.:'J 1-11 e-"'PI' -] ~c'L'~ ....... ~

JU.. ,,_'"_ . ...;;:JI. -J!. ~ ~ J!,L~I!. JLIIL.\ ~",Il'\.. .J!.I. , ~l! '1i,;.~~~, . ".".~ U~~.I.~~lll

The: waistline :[:5 Thlig:h.er. T'~:u; _g,r'ea t trochanter of th~, femur extends out farther; the buttocks are ,fuUe:r? rnun del' .. and lower. T,~le thiighs: are Ra tter and W' ider lI"f'Iillb A " '1.1f' , 1·' !Vi h 11. .JI£iil re-I.n.1I')e -~, T,'ll ....

a " : ,n .,li! '. l.:~ ~,0 can S muc tess uev : ,u,],·. ~U'. 10

"",-i"i;~1~1,""'''' ......... ~]' - ,.' 1-,., , 'alll""'r T1},;;:;, ,Ii'.::;e'" are sm ,.b.lll

'~""[.!~~""i"j, ann wris L5 are :5J1]: ';::,1' '. ~ 1,,'!Gi reer ar ;iii l'i::L..[ ,-

er ~U'ul more arched, The muscles, in gell'eral;,- are le:S.1J :pro:minent~ more stra p.!ike-a;U but those o.f the t'highs and 'buUnek.!;j'l' which are ,propcn:t[on,~ ately la'rg,~r and stronger .in '[llJt~ f,e.Oi ale, This extra s'~Ten.gth is, lik.e the ] arger pelvis, desig:ned, to c~rry the extra burden of the unborn ch]}d. Concentrate upon, these fundanlAe~ntal d~fferenees until Y<JU can set up an unmistakable 'male O[ female B.gure at ~vvnl

:N ote the black squa.r,es on the male g,'~e']eton" These are bOJ.1LY pro.lnine;nices; where the hones are so near the surface that th.ey aHect the CQn~ tour. \Vhcn the' body be COules fa.tj, these spots, become dimples 0.[ recessions In the surface. In thin or ,aged. figures, ,these bones protrude"

W'orliiLlg from life 0.[ photo graphs will not climi)"iha toe the necessity o.f knowing ana tOl"my and proportion. You ,s'h(juhJ. reeognize what the'

... '

b'umps and bumps are-sand why they ate the,te',


Otherwi se yom dr-a wrung '\~l,Hl h,ave tlh~ Wool of

inla:tleJlct _.u.bhe:r~ or a wa:x.delPartme'Ht~,slt'r(), e durnrny .. The ,6Jl.al WOJl'II~ on any commissibn of importanee should be drawn from a Illod~l or good OO:iP.Y of some kmJld". since i.t must 'OOln,' ~et'e' 'wu]n, the '\vnrk of mien 'who use models and go?d copy. Most artists Own ~u d. operate a camera ~s,~ help. Hlllt it w~U not do the whole job, Oud:i:n,s traced from a pbotogra.ph" because of' 'the ex;a"ggended fnreshortenlng by the lenses, lla'll,~ a wid and dum py ]oo~. Lim bs look short: and heavy; : Iands ;~na f,e t ,'irppcar too ~ar,ge. 'If tll'~'5'C distortions aI'1f6 not corrected, your drawing wiU slmpl y look photographic.

It mwght be \\ e 1 to ,mnem"lt'i;Qi[~ 'ber,e. some of ,the req[ulren ents nF S'l11lCceSSfl d :figur,e dnl'wing. The ." smart" {,erna]e figuf'e has: SOlne m anuish co 1- tours, The shoulders are drawn a, Hu le wider dwan normal, 'Wrutho, 'l t much slope, the hips it ~ntle narrower, The thi·' hs and less are made longer and more slender, with tapering calves, When t:b.e l'(!'g:s are b).g:c~'her:, the $]' ou]d[ '~oUrch ~d "the dlig,h}. knee:~' an d ankle, ·1 hi knees should be sma n. The ]eg Is elon ga.ted fro rn the kru~>e' t~o\vn wi th snvlIlU anlde..s" I t is mere l' a \v,~s;lte of tlnil' to ShOi':V ,a n, .art d irector OJ, 'gUT€: d at [no'l.s ]arg:c~ headed, narrow-shouldered, short -armed or -legged, wide-hipped, short, Iat, dumpy, or pl~l'I"dg}i'" B'Il1 t a. A.gu re 11n13l,Y be actually boi ,_y and unusu ally tall and s til] please a f ashion editor.

SUn'} n . ss in fi,g~Jre ella win g ha.~. become a lmos t a cult v~tha~' the artists of the ~i~:idldJe Ag,c~~: ron.", sidere cl voluptuous appeal would be plain. fat toda y. Nothing wi i 1 kin a sa le so qu ickly as f a t~ ness OF shortness, (It is a curious. fact that short pcup], are apt to dl'a,'\\' short ~:g[IJ,.~.res. A. lm,~.u. \vith a short wife will tend to draw short women.) If IT1}' fi g:ures seen} ~ bs urdly tall remember that I am gi:ving: rou .. he conception aecepted as a. standard, They wi n not look too tall 'to the art huy~ rer. In fact; son e of IUV fig": rres here are even

.,. ,

sherter than, I would instinct]ve'~y draw them ..

Tllr(~ ess - nC!e of sueeessful male Bg)tWl'e ,drs w .. ' ing: j~ that jl: be k1ep't m,asculwn.e-p'~e[ 'tJI' o[ bone and mnsel . The face should be lean ,. the cheeks s~ighd'y hoHo\ved, the eyebrows fairly thick ( rever :wn n, thn:rij, ill h ,e ) j tlle :mou~l fl!lU~ the, chin prominen ~ and wen cleSned. The £igu:r~ is, of course) ',"vid@ shouldered and at least six £-t (ei,ghl Oil more heads) tall, 'Umo' '~1Jlm,a;~ely,,-, i~ rn9: 110[ easy h) And, these ],e~n-f'aoed I-urrd,-'mu5Icl d male mod LSi, Thev are usually a harder W'O 'k.

J' .!

Children sbouc~d. be, dr:~'IJ.¥l], fa h': ly close '~O the

,s·",\'~e o[ '~fO:':orUODs gf,_'~n in dli,: hoo'~,. Ba'b:' s obviously shoukl be plump,. diJnp~.ed'J' lit til healthy'. SptH:~taLl study should be' given to the'

f.,..,,'~lld",~ and -O~·i!'es ,[Ii" th . 'k 'Ii'il.".i,~" """ld' . k' -'1-

"" W :_:0, '!iJ~.~"1l ,' ' '''''"II)bJ.. : aJ,l, 'II. nee "~~T J. ~ , '. "," ,~~.m" ' ~,n, .,1 ~'"

'The c.beets are ful] and round, the chin Is w,elliI under. Th ' upper lip protrudes somewha t. 'The nose is: round. and small and concave art the br~d.gle. The ears are slnalt thicll.:~ ,tUld, round. 111€ eyes, praeti ' ally 6U th openings..·' he handsare f~l t a l\d (H~np'~ed, and, there is considera ble taper to the s'hQ(r~ fingers", " .. r ,tU the structure 'Of babies is. well understood it is almost fa tal to try to ,drs. w them Without good wor king: Ina terial.

Keep a1] ehtldren ~JP to six or eight y~'lr;s, q~dte cbu hhy. From e'illgb t to twelve they can be. dra wn very In uch as they appear,. thougl the relative size of t h '. h ead should be, a 1ude laJl'g,er thall, normal,

If yoltt get i uto charaoter Jra W'il g" you Inay do a f at feUow~ but don't make him too young. Do not dr:~:~v ,etllI'S too I~:uJ'g,e 0:1' prrotID'ud ~rllig' h"l ~~'t)y male drawn g. The male hands s-, ould he exaggcratedi a" 1] tHe in size and in th.e i deal "type mus t look Th,)ony and muscular. Soft .. , 'Wound hands en a, J '1~7JJ.n, simllJp~y won't go,.

The art director seldom, points out youii.' faults, IJe si nply says 'he dees not like JOUf drawf ~,g. A ... ]y one of the a hove ml~tta,kes m uy ;~JClOOUllt f.o~r hi 8 dislike, Ign()rallCC of the demands upon you, is as great a handicap as ignorance of anatomy ~




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The transition from outltn e and specific construction to the r. gur,e' rendered ill ight and shadow is quite a h urdle. Often the studen t is una hIe to ]TI ale this jurn:p. The difficulty arises hom, a lack of conception of the solliid.. 1" et there are in termedia te steps that ca n make tIThe renderi 11 g of the third dimension (thickness) fairly

.. )lle Sln11" ,.'

H 0\V can a solid form be set 'into space? How do we conceive of it so that we know it has "bulk and \veig:ht~lhat \VC can pick. it up or bump iutn j t? ~rhe answer is tlil at our eye j,n stincti vel TIl ree-

d /.

og:nizc~ the solid hy the way ']ight fans upon it.

As far as the artist is concerned) when there ]5- no light there is no Iorm, The only-reason an outlme dra\ving' can Siugg,est the solid is that theoretieany a dra '\ving reptesen ts the Iorm -[ n a 'light that comes from directly behind, the artist; he [lee the fornl cas ts no shadow visible to us. .A s the con tou 's and edges tu nil a wa y from us and the light, they lend to darken until they begin to look' like h 11 es" sharp at the cd ges and softeniug as they approach the middle or closer part nf tl~c form, We cal] this "Hat lighting.'~ It is the onl r wa v that :f orm can he fen dered wi th( n,l t

" .'

shadow, hut it does. include "halftone," \;y'hi(_~h

is the next step between the fun light and the s.had~)'~r,. The shadow is really there also, hut we cannot see it from our vieV!.THJ111t.

When white p,apc-'f is used for the drawing, th e p~"IJ.pe1" theo.n ~ti cal ~ r l',epres,e,n ts the grea tes t 1ig:ht-that is, the pirl'ne uJdch is at right a:ngles it] the :source o{light. In all cases other than Ilatfront l'i'ghUngl the fOrlll is rendered hy the correct interpretation of the direction of the planes a wa y fr(nn the l'] g 11 t -angle phule.s j Or the 'tllndn,g, awav of the Iorrn frObu. the source of light.

~ ,

The £irst and brightest planes are caned the '~]ight planes." The next p,[anes are the "halftone planes," and the third planes, which are unable to reeei ve direct hgh tin g because of their an gle:> are called "shadow plaues_~t.o Within the shade- .. v planes may 'be those that arc still receiving subdued, reflected ]ight~ these arecalled "planes of. reflection." Form cannot ll.e rendered without a clear grasp of this principle. The plaues are worked out in the simple or-del' of: (1) Hgilt, (2-) haUtoue,. (3) shadow=which is the darkest and is at the- point where the phUlC: parallels the ,d irection of li g ht ~ and (4) reflected. H gh t This. ,is called "simple Ii gh ti ng. ,,' .1 t is unq uestion a bl Y the best fOoT O'l1..1f purpose, When there are several sources of light; the whole composition becomes a hodgepodgo, inconsistent with natural light and highly confusing to the student, Sunlight na turallv g. ives lUS the most oerf eel ren eli t ion of

~ , ~

Iorrn. Daylight is. softer and more difhlsed, but

the priw::i.llie still holds" .. .:\_rUfi.eial ]ight~ unless contro'illed, and hU.li.;ed upon the 5:1111 principle, is th e Hy in. the ni n tment, Th e camera 111 a y l)e a b1 C to get away with four or fi'v(~ sources of ljght; the en ances arc t ha L the artis t ca un ot,

Be! ore you p lu nge in h) the ill tri caci es of 11 g h t and shadow I it wou Id he we 11 to kl row wha t is going to hal)pen to form when light: strikes it, Since the ligl1lt. can be made to COnl€ from any direct Iou, the organizen ti V n of the ] i g h L - to- dar k .rnay start with any pb;ne- as Lhe light p.l."Hb(~. In o lhcr words j in a top M g~ ~ ti 11 g sligh t Iy to t} ic front, the pl.-lne across the bre~\st would be the light plaue., Move the light to the side, and that plane would helurnc a halftone plane" Sell: the ligbt below, and, the same plane is. in shadow, Hence (Ill planes arc relatu:e to the Hg1,rt- SO!lrCe,


Iorcef ul and powerful is our HU3ssage. vVe can take a. COlillpa.SS and drRw' a circle perfectly; but we have left no trace of ourselves in w:h,at we lui. ve se t down, It is the big form that does the ]0 h=not the little an d the exact.

Ian p~l.ges 70 and 11 I have tried. to give an inkling of wha t I 'mean. Here the SurfR'C;B is conceived of as havin g mass and bulk, The' effect is sculptural. It is looking: at our mannikin a little differently. If we are to compose the mannikin of simplified blocks; how shall we shape those hlocks'?' Your 'Way is as good as mine. Sh.Hlpe them any way you, win to arrlve at a massed Or bulk eMect. This ts the real approach to' ~i". solidity" In y01.n~ work: actually thinking of the mass,

bulk, and. weigbt of .it, ~

With this approach" we take the art -store wooden mannikin and, use it as a basis for setting: up a figur'e (page 7,2) . We go a step further with the mannikin on page 73 and attempt to' eliminate the stiffness of the jointed. parts, still think .. ing though m terms of masses,

RetainiYl,g these terms we itakrS: solids (pag,e 74,) and HI') them, remembering at aU times what each ,rectiort of the Ola.SS would be and whcl',e it he~o:n,g5 in relation [0 the.' whole, \\l'e must depend chiefly upon line to render the form, or that part: of it which ,goes back into space'~ ,9J;;S seen by the eve of the observer. This is foreshorten-

~ "'

in g,. Actual measurement of' ~cn gHl cannot

be made, since viewin g, the Iorm frOID one point is Hke ~ooking at a gun 'barrel aimed directly at yuu. We must think of the contours and farm (!S, sections, 1 ined . up one behind the other, ,\n

. d'· + lv suffleient ~I

On ume IS rare ,r su . eient, no wever , to represent

the recedin g sections, most oft.en halftone and ;s~la.d.nw are ,needed as well, as shown on page 75. Pages 76 and n are an in terpretation of the rounded figure Sa ttened in to planes that go a step f1Lu:fh,er than our simplest block forms. On 11!agcs 78 and '791 'we place the siJrnp H Bed fo:nn of the head under vario'Ulikind S of ligh tiu g,.


Let us' 50 tart, tlo.cn, 'with the Iorm in the slmpIest possible terms . .By drawing block forms 'we L'Ut out the extreme subtleties of 'halftone. Contin,uing a plane as a Shlg]C tone on a surface as long as we can rbef~f~ hlnll11g U in another direcUOH ms. s.im:pHfica Uon, or massi mg,. Actually the' fi~rU'e is very rounded, Bu t rounded surfaces produce such, a delicate gr.adation of ]ignt and shadow that it is. difficult to approach withou t a simplifica tion and massin g of these tones. Strangely enou gh~, the simplification is. a good deal better in the end than the- exact photogra.phic and literal interpretation, It is somewhat like trying to paint a tree 'by pa&nting every leaf instead of massing the foHa.ge 'into its big forms and woddng for bulk rather than in trica te detail.

l.\J1ter we haY'l"! masterer] the larg,er 'plalfil.e~ we can soften it at its. ed,g:es to mold it into the more rounded fa'rIll; 'while'retainin.g all we can of the bigness of eonceptton, Or ~ we can start 'M th a big hlock~ as the sculpto.r would start wit}l a block of stone or mar ble. '~l e hew ,away the ex: ~ cess aodl'blocl: ]D the. ,general nM.lSS that we want, We then su1bd~vid.e the big, s:traight p1anes into

. smaller ones until the rounded effect 'has 'been, produced, It is hke going around a circle \vith a. serfes of short!' sb.·,sd~l[~t Bn,es. You may q .: ~rle:s,..

~ e .iii '

tion why \VIE do not at once proceed to the :6n~

i5hed, smooth, and round f,nrrn,., The answer is thalt in ,3 dra win g or pain tlng, something of th,e individ nal procedure and structural '~llllality shollhlld remain, When it is too .Hill u.t;~ ~ ::r;uu)utl~ed down and polished, it heeomes entirely factual The' camera can do that. 111 a drawing, l'JJO'weV'cr l' "'Gnislt is not necessarily art, It is the mterpreta tion ana process. of ~n.(Hvidual conception that ~s art and' -thal has value, H Y01l include al] the lite'fal facts and aetuali ties!! the result wiU be l)'oring. It is your sele etion of relevan t f~cb; that will create interest. A s.'\veeping conception earlies with lilt vitality y pUrpOs.ie~ and conviction. The more detailed and involved we ,get~ the less

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t MI1""O' THI'~. ~'.L..I' 'C' '~I




TW'. I'->i!! au i LIIUi "'1!tQyl ~ f'"% rt!"UR,.ii.

wi'll ~IN; IUiSED Wi,nI, ~ 1,t'T QF AM4'tOM ICA.l-, ~N:OWLi_'@<JB ,.~ _ WO'OOaN ,MAN N! iii<: I t-J !C,A'N all!! ;A, .(i'~A'1 ... LP II'N MA.i<~,NCiPR.!1! UtM 1 INJj;, a.V 1i('6._ ,CFlIE.s ~ IIl.;;.AVQ.YT:;', 4NO ~IM POS IT'ioNS"

'ye. UR., Ai~ g'J! A·~a ~AY

HAVE ,ON E, Oft, CAN, Q~'r ~ T !FOR 'l'Ol;'.



QU-IC··.·· K' S' ·"K~··· E:._',TC·· '. HES:": F' 'R~' 0'" .... M··.. T'I'JL'!IE', '\1:10····· '0" '.' Dc 'E,: Nt' M' ...... A~· 'N··:::"N<·' lrK···I'N······

.' . ". " . . "', '. .'., ..,... .I!.-: _ Vy < '_' '. ,I . " ',. JJ, '." .



. ·



N,O MA,.. T Eo R W H\~-r 'fHE:, FORM I! tJ 'K E.~ rr CON e,~ DItA,WN 110;11 is WAY~' ,SUT YOU ,MOST iCOlNiS I ~!ER TM ~ COM PLE.'Tfi FO~M ',. N01' J>U$ T 1ft ~ ViS! B LEt P'OR;T10'N. S.e',~,5E 'r~ E! FO~ AL.L A, ROU N D

f lJ

f - '-'"-----.

... -



. i'

• -;--:=. '~-~

. __ . \

T~I e. 'CON "'to u. R.S PA St. S ~ N FRQN T . Of(; OVeR

~.. _" . - l - "_" - •. J! - ~ - .

ON E. AN01'11,'~IJt." ~'U ,SH,QUL.D '~A'C" ~,C,!E._ FR,OM L~ F Eo 'OR. y,Q,O 0' ~Irl OTO a ~A po H.s' .



... .;-----II'""i:.- .



PlAiMES A"2.E 'rn[~Ol.E, TKAL FtL,A;TTic.['U ~Q ,QF ROVt4rpE.p FOItJM$ .4 s W lit L. AS ACTUA L ~~ 4~E.e" 'S ~ • N A ~ A.. M. E)('T ItE.M!! SM:O OTH N ~:S S ,0.1'(0 Fi'DU N ION E.S5 OF, rpo R M 1 END,. rnWARD l'Hi E. ~ Sl,..\C rt q AN e ,,&, PHO'l'OG'~ p' ~ It C. ~' rr

'" " ' , ~ - '

SI"lOU~' BE AVO!. De.lf) L~K- ~ ,.~ 15., M E.AS L,e.S ..

'llHe. U$E' 01= PLA.,N e is rQI VE- oS Mott Q'. ~ ~ I'll II) IV" DUA L


gUALITY~ t'lO TWO. AU~.1i'Un·'S' W~U "IEE Pl.AINIE:S AJ..J rIGS ..

'd ..

.. SQ U'AR/- N E S;$ ()f" ROON 00 0 ~M I N1PAR.tS' A ce.RTA! N

R,~JI'G a EDN E S,S ,AND' V1TA L."' T"{.. Po, 'GoO~r A,)(~OM; t' j' ~,E. C.

i I'PI."'...... .;co._ t t, ... J!]o,o:::. iIJ'" J' ~ ..... A rhJ M" A "" - ""PU . . , .... ' "

'",_ ..... ..l!~"""~~ '1!OI!J ~I"!I ' .,~, .. E:. 11I"lI' iPiitOUnV.,

,1-1 EU. ~:t!, A ~oUNJ D FORM '.

~ ~ .'

rS,~T I N,Ta ~,- fir ~,~ ,.I

OF' !!..~arrr HA.I..FrTDNi~ A..N Do S.J,l'~po,W"


t '~I"~lrON 01=1 l..~q,FI'T')

, ~ u


. H~ ROVNC>ED' F-nO'tJ~ INTO PL~N ~,S ~ ~r~ 'PURPQr,:; E- ! S

re' Ur'S!!:: 'l~E.M ~:s A SA.5 ~ .s FOrt ReN 1;')'. rFiJ N'G 1d G ,~,.,

1"'!A.L.'itTONE 41ND ,SHA 'DOW, tN 'TI-!; Eo S I' M Pl'p. ST U"6-RM S

.0.1"4'0 AT THE SAM E. --r 1M e. p;,~rf! S ~'R.'V' ~ N Q "f~ ~ MIA i N S'TIi.,lj CT U R.AI L Fa R. ' .... 1 51 !

'4;. .rl

'W ~_ "THEiN So F-l"C: N =r \-t E:.

EOa~'S of: TH~ PLAN E S "It) '1"H E 'C) C; ~e E. 'I[ HA "J

W'E:.. 'Dee M :3 AT I ~ 'IFACr!lOR,,''-',

, '

'f.iI!I "~ a':io NO. ~,_. :F.UJL_~ ~IOR PJ!.A'Niil!'S. ''fOb ~~W''!f"\!.''I~M ~ Ti!FIl!NK. ,e ;;if,' ., ~I" 'TH I!. ,sUiC!iJ '~ti,.,

'iIl-I!!. ''''' ,I!..a 0 Itf:I ",' po,L.A. .... '!::. " lu;;::~ ltIOS-:-'

- , , "'" ,

IN, PUJU!... W'G'Irn., H. ";i:l;,J4.Fl·0 .... II .

'P'~IN i!;.$ AI!tI3: THO'I ~ IrN. H~ ,LP

. ~ ~

W Q'~"'.' "fW [II!, PA'st: .o.a'e ToNe:. i'S

'1'1"IAT IoN !i1·~r(.1rL ~' R~ M, "f'H1~ il"IA~.

..... iii'

"fO!NE ~b. $l"!iil"OO'W. ~',I!, ~

i~ THIIa, U G tilE Si m.N.E • N "T~

, ,'li"!,A" I:IigW •


'pJ,AN I!! S· ~ A

\• p .':: L,NM.lHAR.Y ~,~v III"'!U~~ sO'F- 'i H':I! 5.i'U R.F~C~ f'"O~M.


THE.~ ts NO S'E'l OP'P',~1i5, WH~,tM v\NLl F\T TH~ PU:;'IURIa, AT A·LL ·TIME.S~ !5U'''Ic,E'-nia ~U~,ACE FOIM C K;AINQi S WU1-l M.O\'e Me!NT ..5 UCH AS e.-eN Dj~ NG AT liME WA ST',MOVEMiNT Of TH~ .s14c.an .. Q't:.R5.,E1"'," TH!E Pt.,.A,N,§,$. ARJE QIv.eN M:ArN~Y "'rC> SHOW HOW


RE'M'EMI8: E,'R.. !

Wl\~N ""'HORK~,N'a W'~THOUT A MO D EL OR. COPY 'j YOU DRAW nlE PLAN E.'iS, FOR. Y1~E. U(iiHJ~ H~L.,fTONE ,AM'D StlA,DOW' WtHeN 'waKK'~Na Wt~T'H IH&. MOb'c.L OR ,eo~"'(Ol.~ DR;A\r\1 THI:&' ,PLAN e s F ROMI "~I E ~~Q"rr;. ~A'L.F·roNE. ,A,NP S.HADQW~,

, ,

~ i FL~ 1i 1.1 0 Mr1' Nilidi "" ... (~"I DtIl~C,'iIi'''' :1"11!i~IT) ~D'm"~I~1'Ift:'i' ~lfit~,Cny,.

7.'";a:lS:SCR.;CU'I,; il,D<S UA Ll.."I1" MO. "'E\iil!R.;, "'~'\le. '!i.lii\:iII-1i1i' liQu~,l., ~N 18iOiIiH ,~ICt!:;$.~:!i,'U:P'~.

,t.AU., flIIi;l ""_ ~!OI!Ii'III'II!Cl I«JW' ~CIE :!!I,,!, 'U QIM'l ~, !~Y, ,~iQ1U6LL"f" II!UMIiN~'1~, ~Ulill iPlJltM.,


Here ·t:he camera Iends us a. helping hand by ShOMn.g the "ac .. tuar~ Hght as it faUs. on a si:mp~i= S.ed Iorm, The Iorm has bCicn rounded to give you the gnu:lattion from light through halttone

. . - ~. .

to shadow .. Number 1. is a front lightin.g~ corre-

spond~ng. to the b'ea tmen t of' a Ha:f and unshaded outline dr,a·wing., Th~ o.nly sh ado w ~ under the ehm, OCC1ll'S beea use the ruight 'was raised, a litde b) allow the camera to be placed, under it. Camera and light, of course, could not ha ve been placed in 'the i.dentical spot, II:~d this been. possible, dler.e would have been no shadow, An ,~dl-tla t 01 formless ]_ig'h.tlll~g m.ay be ohtained lly p,iling in eq ual li,ghiring from every directio'l1i (Number 8).

When there is a single source .of light 0]1, the object, the ,sh.ald,ow~d, s:ide reflects some of the Hg'bt in a lumiJlLOl.l:;~ manner, The reflected-,Un-l1t

, ~ ~

areas within the shadow, however, never he-'

eome eom petitive wi:th, the areas in.light~ and the U1L1.Wty of the mMS of U,gb:t as opposed to. the mass 'Of ~ha.dow :rns, maintained. In ilia ~v~ng. nothing withm ,~ shadow area should ever be as Hg~lt as '~hat within a l~g~t atfNl~ because r,efl.ected ~ight is never so suong: as its, source, One exception, migh~: be the use of a. mirror. That, however:, would. be a. dupliea tion of the light source ra ther than re;tIDection (refraction), The d~\z:zlrung light upon. water is another exrunp le of refractton.

Simple :)j,g',bt~ll.g:,- '\vru1ch. means lig:bt~n.g, from a sing:le: ,SOUWCC'j, and the reflected li ght of that source 1·'S the 11rAlO"'t nerf I·"", .... t lI·~·ght·r g' t'lIL -- ".... It

U·LLI.'~, i rne !I!.l~': l~:_" II..:;..... n ,_, - . ~. 1. ,:f,~e[[e 1.1i. .'I~

renders fonlil in its actual contours and, bulk. True mo~ling of f01!'In cannot he' approached any other 'way,. since to chan.ge the: normal 'Or true value of the plane ,]~, to change and, upset die form; 'if the value is ~"'off~:" tl~e lorm, is inoorreel. Since the photoig,rapher may not have reasoned this 'Out, :H ]8 better to make your OWn photographs" o~ at least supervise t~e lighting o~· ,~ny photograp'hoic co,PYor The :photogr,ap'lDJer ha tes ,shadows; the artist loves them,

'lO., ... ·!I!!I,iIi.,'ii'!iQO ~'T"F. !I;i~ 9:'tI fl ~.~¥~e. Of: NO.1 i:::OOIli" 1f'O;R. 'P;O:5'f~ • Ol~::::: ~ ~ iN &. ~tA:'r E:1r='F~'TS.

'" '"

u ~ , fR:,tNGE' ~ U Ii:! 'HTED 'D~ RIe,CT 1..:"(' 'FRO'M

e.~K SUG~II-:.cYTOP.V~ ~1rEc..T~ve.


12, ~I<Y ": To P W ~ 'T 'He. 4, "'" LoG ~rr GRoI.)'N. v

t=o-'~ E'U:. Fi,..e;C7T 'LO'1Ni <. !1A.l"t.J.'~ L ,....nER7'f O~Q.,



..--.... . , .

,/ .... ' .



-,. '-




- ._




il'MW ~'KA DCW~'" ~~~T , TA~N, HA.~iIiON'r=3\i, CAST S'M,~CiOWS nJtE. ~KE!tJ:~ DO NOT MAkE: FO'~ SHADOWS' Tao ~C.K .. M,QDEl :~RO'M 13;I~ADOW' 10 THe l..,',ot-rr.

il<E.1S P AL.L ~1"LFroN\I!.S, L' 0'" 'lE R THt~ M S'~A"QW3;, PON", ~bvE~ IMO DE,L" 1.10 H r.



The simplest 'way to expb~ill the fundamental plr.i.nci.ple of rendedng IDight :i\'~'ld j$hodo'w is: to

- -

't'biml of a, ban wuh light £Qc1used upon it ,jus t as

the sun lig'h ts the ear th" The area on the balm closest to the ~ight is the hi"gh IDi.ght (A) t. CO'I11-" pat.ah~e to noon, If we move on 'the s uriu.'ce Q\f the, sphere a \V~y t'~~(]:ln 'tIle 'hi,gll hght in ,il1Y direction, we nud tha t ~he lig~ t b"il1S imperceptlbl y toO .f.ade into the halltontC area ( B ) ~ 'whicn Illay 'be eompared to t\Yili,gh~ and th~n t.o last Ugh t (,B + ),~ and 011 to ,ni,ght (C). 'If there is, notbing to :r,die,ct the: ligbt~ there is true darkness: however, ~.f ,th,e m0011~ 9 reflector of the sun' s light" comes up~ i t will r,eHect ~ight in to dl@' shadow' (D) i When Ug,ht ,~s ~nt,eroopb~d, by a body! its si1houette falls, up-o:n.~ the adjac0'!1t Ugh t

'J Tl 'r th d- -k - 'f' he shad ' ll d.

I.' , .', '. 1"1 ... .. '", :;.'Ii--~' - .. } " •. ' . '. ..1. I -l"I •• "Piil! . .

p ane, " us I,e - arkest 0 t ie S 11 'D"~S ~ ~s ca C_-,

,'''' - h ,;ai _,~ ]-t·, 11>"11' "b'~ iii f'-

- 'cas t s ,~O;O'W',. ' .r l:l:j ~au ,po~s I, Ie" nowever, ' or

a east shadow "to :pick up SOID.1e l'e:&cted Ii ght,

'Th,e artist should be it ble to look .at any gi ven place on ms $U bf act and deter-mine to which, ~ea it belongs ~ ,the Rj,ght, ,tbe halftOl1C', rhe shadow:" or the f~flected ligh.t. Correet values

, !Ii. b .' '. - d - t- b II!- ., - • k.. ,AI

:lnU$11!. ,e: glven, m or:e]",o 0.' tam u:ru,,; ,an~

organization of the.se four £undam~nt~l areas. Otherwise a drawing win not hold t.ogethe~.

T- , f '1::- -h- - -;, ,.l,_ '. l i

reatmen to!: ug t ga. VES; aura \lVillS OOJL'l'€',Slon 110

less than structural form,

There are many dlings you can learn from p'hoto,gr~pTh.s ~£' you use t'hem ~nb~nigent]y ~ Be .. member, however J dlfi't the range 'of Ugb,t to dar k is much grea ter in the eye, than in ,p'lgmellt. YOU, cannot pOfssibly put down tt~c fun. l'ang~; you, have to C~'iifi'!i;p-,~Il~"flhj'_

~''i!"_ _"_. [.;I'D.J.J . _,W i.""


/: ~.

./ j


( .

. ~~ .


;~:::: I .. . ~~I.ll. i I.

I v • ~ ...... ' ..

~ oN

'L._~ cA., HIGH LlOH'T ~, NOON

~i~ Dr HA L P: TO N 'E ,'iI ~ TW i L~; Q HT :' 'at tA'S'T ~~IT

I C'. SHADOW ~ ~N U:lHT ~


1:. C~,S;T S'~DOW ~ E 'C.L I, IPS E iI

.~~-- ........... 8 ~~~,.....-4~r---~,A ~~~~~--~~~'8t

·l~AW-· -G THE LlV .!·~·,~E· - 'IO'OS 10. PRIOCE'D, ,

Ber 0 r, .: '~i 'Ou I Im,dleml:e Ito draw Irom 'llihC l~.vim.g :rno" el b sure you. have: absorbed aU ·tll.e :p.r.elnar ~. ~'~O' ar d lsens sed. , hes " 31 e:


T '1 e- pro'porUo(£J$; of ,t' 'Ie l,dcaTIli1re(l 6gure

LT~ e genc:w:a.l fr~1ft1fH.'!"\~O'l"k,

, he r Jlbans hip, OIF. 'persp'e ctiv'e ito itbe 6~rlie ~Iov~ment and a.,ctffiOilil

T'~H;" manmkm and sUJ:l.1pJUlcd bwlding oM' tl.,(; loom

The anatnmie eonstmetien

The plal es by which we build ]~ght ~]ldl

shadow Foreshorten il1g'

The f undamentals of 1 i ght and shadow The true modchng of . .orm

~ O'V wh en 'VOU have to d raw somethiu 0' set

~ l:-1'

l.p in frnnt of you, Y( HI must possess still another

1,11Uda.ln ntnl sktH-"nteHige:nt measurement, I

Ij. 11.' ;j- b . . .

sa y 11;1 tc ~1 g{~nt 'eca. usc ynur ann ]S ]1.0t mere

d llplfc~~,cln.

SUppOSi6 yuu l.H~·g,ilil to draw a husky young man, arms npHhed.~ Vt~J'J.orlil you want to interpret in b .. rms of Jlh·ht.~ 1 alftone, and shadow, You ha ve set }~()~ U' ligTh it: s ource ·~(J\.V a l.lJd to the tiL gh t ~ so that there '\viU b a var'k~d play of l[:ghl ,3.<:I'OSS th '[O["m1Th, First, 1001 rot ~hc :;II'ICa ol.greatf'-St Hg~.t. m,t ls ~()ru.ud, on the ,t!hlcst under the left ,arm of the

. 10:\1\1 look for the t hole ms ss of 1 i ght H5 O[~[los,ed ito dfl e whole mass 0. shad O\1,i.. Sketch h l contours of the .figu~.·re .and l'~.ock iu these 1ft~a, .. ses, {Ou l)ng!f- 83 :\'11 I. '~\!iU find. ,th~ ha ftocncs ac Id .. <.1 iiI] d (lie s'ha,dn"- 'S ·f.ell:\.h~ely darkened ) ] sug'f'1j' t'ina:t ~ Or J'-". tt .. C the po~nt of vonr pen . .iI IIOfi f l'e 00 litOUFS ~~tld the side .0'£ (I:ruB lead. :£or tihe 11,);,.' :n of dille h:itJUhllne a.nd, sh~d,o'N·. ,: 1j}1;cm, you are dJlfn\~ijfil'[blg wuh a p~n~ s11alcl!O~~'S and ha.!.~f~:(J.1Ules.

'F' " IG' -1'· .. 'R':" E' ..

L_ .,.:...._.. ..: _ ". ...... .;



can -~c :;:u:~'hjJeVied. only by oofilb:'];TMa't:iOrlS o:f ULC-S.

But a brusb or pencH adap'_: i'bell-to mass. iObserve, '100, 'tal dlc grain. off' ~ 'om paps_: "~,I lU ' :dd. to M deb,clcl fv.ol]o. the attta,lcti,vICn.!C'ss of ,the '~,:Il(ture of tn,!e d.r.a.~ .·illg: .. Because ;0'£ the 'mielthod, of n~p(Jnduel.io:it~,,- a ooa.t1edJ. smeoth pa,p;E}l" oolll~dl,', ot 'be used] 'fOIi 'tn;c~ d:ra,wiugs :~n. lItis boek. 8eaJi'uUfuID g1''a.ys. and darks tU"C :poss\jjh~e]l ~. owever, Gilll d,' e S:Ul00 tnJ p\~pC"fS if i1he si,dle nf a sol,'t lead pel en ~s uS'E .. d .. T~~e ~laHtnn.es and d.ad~s, n'llay be produ ., d in eH:i1Uer l()encd nr ehareoal by nibbrun.g with the, Rnger. or a. stump of paper. 'The whole Rgu.rdra '~/ing, rna y be TU bLed. 'wi~h a rag tU d. th,e ~1 gh ts pic.ked, out with a kneaded eraser.

{)11J pages 86 and 87! look Over my ~ h oulder as I procee d wit 11. rny own method for d a ",vb g a figure. On page 88 sec a. plan of approach that I cHH the "visual survey," It is less compllcat d than it looks, for I have included \d.suwJ measurement lines that, -o:rd.Ena.rily, are nnt ~~t <lowu.. It is a plan of finding ]{!V(~] .points and p]urnh poiHt~ and the angles estah].lsh~d 'by si.ghUJ,: aeon .. tinuatiou of the ]i 1il e to sec w hCl'lC it emerges. Thl's i~. the unlv 'lllan 1 ku{).\v that C' I \ be " . -

.. ,

'peudBd upon ito Qff@.rn" 8JJ.u y de~D'e.e of accuracy in

freehand drawing.

It is castes l to sl ght in vertlcal ~ mll.d bori-zon t.~,~ lines l so that importan t .PO;[uts d i,rectly ~lC1'O 'S or under each other are 'quI('kl,~ '~:,ehele~·, d." "'!ben a pniut Ialls outside tlle· .fi.gu:n~," such as a . and, allgl~s of :poiul(S: ".'c, 'id iu d.l'~ :Gg'-!w~ Y Hl 'b ~pl 110 fi'il1d it. '\,iVhcll ";r~ll. ·~".a:\i"!~ ~.JflfCCtlv placed one l)oi-)'[:p 11roL>eedl. to others and :Eiually .~OIUf d'[I'~ - .ing: \ :·lfl cheek 'v Ith the mode L 'r:~lis pr incwpl' ~ abo i'l lnstr alec on 'page 891, apl'i. 'i:,~,s to any s ubj .c~ bellfmc ) ou ,~TlI1d provid '!'S a. 'Ii, 'al:~l;;'l~) lie lin! ,a:lf}':" 0' I '('(lll1·oh·oratin g th~ a.ccu.]f'~cy of ,u~.!]r 'C~~":a "Vhlg.





C'",A. "~T '~H', A"D" 0'" .. ,J ?

~~ u .. '~" ," V'" ....

At. If(;tilT

.8 H"l~TONa

!5"+ D K. Iti,;Q"LF'lO;1t'\I Ie:



i -


('~ ,~

/,' -: .. . (,//i ... · I'

v ..' _<

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1t I


,; ; i :

T,H IE VA,'Ll) ES WOR,I<~'D' ~~ ,A_ OR.P..WH4Ci MAY

,.:;, n-

BE STaPP E D' '~'E::FO'RiE

Er.-rn R.E.L Y FI N, 'L S ~ eo. ,:50M I=. TI ME:5, W"H ~N A

: "

~, .

OR.Ai'V,\lU N,Q SUQ,(Ot!,$t5

'ONLY, IT !~3 F.A~ MO~, mNT'5:,R, IE' ;3'T I N 'G •

U S,IE 'TH,: 5 I DE. 01= Tt1 Eo PENiC,iL 'J:;QR- P~W'l'NG TON.ES OR. VAkU es, ,AN D A SHARP. POU~T ~fe. TH,~ ,c..o>N TaU ~:S ~


,I I

._" I

,.I"" •. ~

I " -r/t' \

."L;- '~;..,. ••

, . ~~~ ~~

f:) .... '.'.~~-


'5, 'M A e ow.s, Soil: M ~ i.. Y' S 1,AT e D' A If;!, e 'E S s 'EN"T'I AIL I'M !fA,S:'" S 'K"E'T 'C, H l H,G


, .



1. Establish two points. on your pa:per as the desired he.~gll t of pose (~i and bottom). Dra.w .a perpendicular through these points as the m ].ddle line of subject. 2. Loea lee the middle point of line (l!f)-. N OW'~ holding pencil at 30100.:' S leng~h! find the 'middle point on the suh] eel before you. From the middle poin t get il uarter points (up and down). 3., Take the greatest width of the pose, COInpare it to the heigh.'t In fDly drawing i~ come ... just a hove the right kneeca p (a hou t ~,) ,. Lay

the width equ~']lyon e3Lch, side 'Of your middle ~~~~~~~~~ W~~~~~ point up and. down,. ,Now locate the middlle

point erosswa ys on your mode]. 4, Your two lines wiThl cross at this point. It is the 'middle point of your S1Th bject, ,Rentember

this point on the model, .&1G w1L ~

~:~~:::out from it in an ';j' 'rR 1.'

~ ____.. .. ~

~ < . _. , __ -- ~- '~' ~ ~ -:;r~,~::-- .•. ~

...,. 'EJl.SUR& &Y 'HQ4.,.J~ I'NG peHelL.:. NJ.,W:4Y~ AT .AR.M:S ~GrH


5' NO''Ii'f. w '·]·lh· ulum h line. fill" e. Y'. ·e' '10. ·· .... ate all ~L_

I. . . 'n:l "_'_, I~ I.: r'~" J,t[ =- \.I.L -'. . ~ . \..;ctL.." a, ILne

important pOints that fall beneath one another. (In my drawing the s,tlbjecf s 'ri gh t heel 'was. ,directly underneath. her hair. at the fore-

head, the knee under the nipple], etc ) ..

6. S tart by blocking in 'head and torso and, from the head! sight straight up and down, and. straight across, all the 'way up and down the jif]_g,ure"

7. For the angles ~ sigh. t strai g'id on tb:rOLl gh. and establish a. point on the lfne where it faHs under a known poin t, (See' line of che,~t and. nipples, The known point Is the nose. This locates dgla t nipple.]

8" If you constantly check points opposi t.e~ pOi~lts underneath, and[ where th e angles emerge, after ha ving es ta bli~hed he:igh t ~ wid th 1 and division pO-In ts:-:yOUl~ dra win g w.HI be accurate, and you will :kl)jO'W .it ]sI


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R.EM.~M 13ER. -nu S P~.N (i I,¥~S T1HE, A<TUA'L,. UvE PRO·PQR.TI ,ON:5 ~ M.A."@; A'!"4i"t AD.J.u.s" r ... n~~"NT,.5 YOtJ' '\IV I'Sf' M: "00 GO ALONQ. us U,AJ". ..... Y AD 0 A '- n'TL~ I H k;RN(i1'H,.

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I I eUT T'HO RlI:O~T ~,GijE,'~ F~ 3O,t-'\'1:i, ~~F C4JRI;;D,I!OA~ 'MAIiIIt't(;. ~ ~ N, HriCl-ie50 ANit5"'CU'P "'I'U(ftf'r~cFl- • TI:I-I:5 CAW ee. A t>J;U,~'P...lT (i ~'\tE.'!5, PROPORTI O'N,.o.;'T~ 'Wllt)"'Ir."W TO ,"",~.a~'T •.


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M neb. of the essential equi pnlent for professio: I a]

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6 gure dravri:ng is . described in the ·pre'ceding

chapters, You have now learned a .. , means of expression," hut your· u .. sc of th~t knowledge is just beginning. Frnm this point onward you rnust learn to express yourself individually, showin g your particular 'Taste in the selection of models, choice of ,pose, dra m a tic sense alii r] 1 nterpreta tion, characterization j and technical renderlng,

Routine lno\v~edge and fact 'thus become the basis ;for what is: often referred to as inspiration, ow spiritual quality, subjects that are little d.iiscussed In art textbooks, The' truth is that there are no hard-and- fast Ttl los. The best advice is to watch for tile individual spark and fan it into flame whe» you flud it. For lny :part;- I have fou nd that most students possess initiative, are o:pen to suggcsUon.~ and are thorough] y c:gu,pa hle of bein g inspired. to expness -themsclvcs ably. I believe fila t when the quaH.ti~s, ueeessary.Ior acceptable dra wing are pointed! out j you Ina y he he lped tremendously to bridge the gap between amateur and professional dra win g",

TVir-'O broad approaches are needed. First :is the conception, or ';'What have y()'u to say?" Second is the in terpretation ~ or ,,,: How can yt)U say it?''" Both call for fee]ing and individual ex,pression, Both call for ini tin tive, know led.ge j and mvenrlveness ..

Let us take the' Hr.st l:jtep. Before you pick up your peIDLC]t or take a photogr.aph), or hire a model, you must understand your problem and Jits purpose ,. You. must search for an idea and interpret it. if the job at hand I'~{Illil1'es R dFa win g designed to sell something, ask yourself the following: To whom must this drawing appeal? Shall it he directed toward a selected or gen.er al class of buyer? .. -\re the huyers going fro 'be men

Of women? Is there a drama tic \\lay of expressing the ~uhjccit'? wn~. a. head or whole ,£],g,UIC 'best serve to emphasize ~:he idea? Should several figlu'es make UI. P tile ,coInpos]tion? Will a, settin g and Ioeale- help or can the message be conveyed better withou t these? Where and how win 1 t be r,ep,rod.ueed-ne-wspa pel"~ magazin t', poster? Yo III 11lUS't take in h) ~CC()U1Jt which adVell"1;U"sing medium is to be used" A billboard, for example, will require a. sim pIe,. Hat background and fh.e use of largt~, he~l;.,ds:tl since the message T1:1 ust he taken in at a gh·~ncc. Newspaper drawings should ~ ie pta nned for rep rod uction ?ill cheap paper+i.e. line or s.irnple treatment without subtlety :in. the halftone. For the magazine, where the reader has more time, you ma Y use the tJomplet€ figure and even backgrcund, if needed. l-h~ tendency ~ however" is to simplily and. to strip dra wings of all that is not of ma jor importance,

'Vith the second step you advance to the -practi c-al in terpreta tion of the :[dea. 1-:'] iminate what yon kl,10W to he impractical, For 'instance, do IU)t approach a billboard su bi ect with several complete :Il,gures", for dl€.[][, expressions ""in not carry f rom ~ distance, G:n~n Hng, then" that you ri ght]y chouse large heads ~ ·wl1 a tare the types you want? \Vhat are the expressions? \Vhat are the poses? 'Can, you do. bett.ell if you get out your camera and. nai] down an express [on, that you know eannot hc:~ held ~)y the hour'? -Can you l)ll t M other over here and. have room feu the letter.Eng also? Would she he better over there? What will you choose for a hackb,trDund'? Wl~Rt will he the style and color of her dress·? Yon begin, at this p oint? to experimen t wi til. til un1 hnaiJ. impressions on. at tissue pad "1..11:1 til you can say, "'That's it," and then, \¥ifh all the vigor that iJ; in. you~ proceed to J)r~ve~ that ',L tha (s, it .l"



There is no book 'in the \~1\Q1r ld that will do. a

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[ob for you, There is no art.director who can. do your job; Even though the. art director rnay go so Iar as to lav out the zenera idea, space, and

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placement, he still is ask]ug for your interpreta-

tion, A.gain" there is no piec(7! uK copy that you can lay down in front of you which 'Will comple tely answer yOUT needs. Another IYU.\ n 's work was done for his OVilTI PU11Jose and for anether problerrl:l. The principal differ,en ce between the amateur and the professional is that the la tter 00]1Fageo~ls.1y strikes out In ills own way, while the Fonner gropes for a wa y 'Of expressing himself,

Endless variety i 1:1 pus ing is, possible, f,eolf)h~ s tand up, kneel OJ[' en HJ.'C:'11. , s i.t or lie dOVJ111.~ but there are a thousand ways of' Join g these things. It is surprising, £01" example, to observe ho~~{ luany wa ys there are iI~ which t-o stand u P:

Plan the s1tanding H,gure _<;§:!kf'efuHy ~ remember,]ug that although stan ding still is a static pose~ you can .suggest that the standing: figuJre is. cap,a~ ble 01 movement, [Only when you portray ,81 tense momen t demanding rigidity in the figure do you. arrest the la tent 'lTIOVenJJe1l1 t, To relieve the static feelmg, put the \\leight on one leg, turn 'the torso, tip and turn the head1 or i"lUOW the' &g~lre to lean upon or be supported hy something. A l.ad\rl y good rule 'is never to have face and eyes Iooklng straigh t ahead and set S(t oat-ely on the should.ers" unless. you are bJing for a definite "straightfrom-the=tih.ould,er aUitude'~'" to sugg,e;s.t defiance, impudence, or a. piU[ng of on e persO!I:l8LH ty ag~inst another, This attitnde rem inds one too much of theold photographs. in which G:randpa"s head, was held 'in a elamp duI"ing the :process .of geU~ng his likeness,

Sec that ei ther hes:d Or shoulders are turned or Upped, or both. With the standing figure ev'erything is relaxation, balance; and a distrilruHon of weight An v sort of gesture is a r,eli,e.f

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from 'hands han,ging motionless at the sides. A

self-conscious gkl has the feeHng that she never knows wha tr to do with her ba]]d~", The unilna,gi-' native artist, too, does not know wh.a t to do 'with the hands'of his. S_g:un;cs,. But the girl can put her hands 'On her hips, fi.'ngel' h,er.- he.ads:, £ix, her hair, puU out Thier vanity case, apply U.piS:uck:t smoke a cigarette. IIar.ul" can be most expressive,

If you show ~egs.~ let them, be ill't[er[e,s,ti.ng even in the standing pose, Drop one knee. HJ3]Se' a :heel. Do anything ex.cept keep them -glued to th .. e floor side hy side .. Twist the hody) drop one hip; get the elboW'S a t diff(~e]l t levels, c.]asp the hands, put one hand Up' £0 the face~ do anything that keeps your dnnving froID:1l looking, mike a wooden dummy, Dra W' a lot of litUe '·'.f'unnies.'·~ until you. find. One that is llinb~l",e.~ti 1 g, ,M (l.k:c e:oer!1' $.tand·it~ fig~tTe do ,f.,arruJt:hin.g be8itJi~ just .sta.'fld'_ Ing" There Me so ]"nany na tural gestures possihle, to combine with the telling ofa story" to expr,ess an ,ide.8h Of emotion, that it shoumd nut be hard to


be original,

When I illus tra te a story, I usually read ~dgni6.= cant pa.rts of [the menuscript to the models .. I tty to get them to act out: situa Huns. as natura.n,r ,~S possible, A t: the same time I by ro tl~inl, of how I would act under the circumstances 'f n the story. There .]5; of course, the danger of overacting,,- or o:f u,sJng' geshlr,e.~ 'th,a..f go- beyond the natural or' logi cat which is almost as bad, ,~S being static,

Experiment with the Hghtin,g, on the model ~o express 'best what you 'have in mind, Give importance to a! pOJft]On of the fig~).~re by getting the sb-ong(~5t and most concen trated Hgl1.1t upon U, Sometim es ,par ts of a figure can bc' most tn shadow to advantage, Sometimes a silhouette may 'be stronge~' and more eompelling than, a br~gllildy ligh ted Sri bjeet.

The whole- gamut of [expression is there for yOU to choose from, Von;"! Ionn a few ha hits that


you (:,'0]1 tinually ,rel'Jea t. Try to. make. each thhlg you do. just as nrighlal in c.'O:nce,p tion and exeeution as you possihly can,

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'-"f"U f'P!(.. 00 BJ!<: 1< AN, Do O'~' iT T~I~.s TIME.. VOU w ~ ~L ME.;;"" II!. R. ee, so lit R-.;Y ~



A typical problel1l w{wked old with. an advertis= tng tut dtJ"ector·.:·

"Please roug'h out some ] itde figures for pose only ~ N an. ,~rt director says to you, ." to show' to

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the Blank :K nitUn.g Company) sugges:ting QUI

next ad. Indica te a one- piece ha thi ng suit, Details of the bathing suit will be stl.ppHed ]a ter + 'U se a standin g pose. The G gure will he C1,1L t OU~. against a white haJckg;-rO'lLlnd ~ and the ad is to occm:py a lla.H page up and down in the Sa tevepost."

When you have made a series of roughs~ show the two you ]ike best to the art rurectOlF ~ who takes them to his client, Afterward the art direetor tells you, '~Mr. Elank Hl:cs these, Please dra w them actual size for. the n~aga:zine. The page size is nine-and -three-eighths by twelve-an done~elghth .in.ches. You are to have the left 'half of te pag.e up 8.I·d down, Pencil will do .. Use li.g:ht and. shadow on the fi.gure.~"

l\1 r. Blank O, K. 's one of yOUT' pencil sketches, and the art director says 5 "Get your mndel and

take some snaps.. 'Our d icnt wants outdoor sunlit lighting and cautions us against g'ttting a squint

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]n t . e mo •. e s eyes",

The next step is b) photog:ra ph a friend in a hathi ng suit. The chanoes are you will have to i deulize he]' figure w hC]ll you make your dr~),Mng from this ph.o~o,g!'a ph. Make her 'e(gh t heads tall. Raise the crotch to the middle of the 6gun~. Trtm the hips and thighs if nec'€z:lsary.

She might he smilingover hershoulder at you..

H h h'}l '. IF" _..]I

a ve er i air ) . iowm g,. P er lap.~.,. me SOUle use

for the hands. h Make the 'whole dra wing as appe.aling as. possible.

Sinc-e your dra wing will be reproduced by halftone engr~.ving). you have a fuU .rang.e o.f' values with whi-ch to work .. You ma.y use pencil, charcoal, litho .peJ."JJ~n7 Wo U£ pencil, OF wash. You. can lull if you prefer .. You also ha ve the choice of pen. and ink) brushy or drybrush. The drawing should be made on Uristol. or Hl1l1.strat:h.nl board and should be .kept Hat.. Never roll a drawing that is to be re pro du ced,


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Every good action ~ose should ~H;l'Ve a suggestion. of "sweep. ~, .. Perha ps M can best describe s \veep by sa yi.ng: tha t the movement which immedia tel y precedes the pose is still felt On the foUowing pages. I have tried -to show this sweep or the line that the Ibn bs have jus t followed. The cartoonist can add terrificall y to th e sense of motion 'hy dr.a wing 'his sweep wi th 'Jines hack of a m.oving hand Or foot.

The only way to get s\veep in the line is to have your fij!(Pd~1 go rh.rolllgi[ the entire move .. n1011t .t.l:n.d .0 bservo it c.alfChdly]. 1C;h.oosij.l.g th~ i 11 t~

stant that sliI!gg,ests. the most movement, USU::il!.Uy the action can. be best expressed if you use the: s tart or finish of the s "veep. .A baseball pitcher sugge~ ts the U10\5. t action cit her as he is an wound up, read y to tJu-ow',~ U1' jus t as he- ~~ts go of the ball. 41:1. go']fcr exp.resses movement best at the start or Ilnish of the swing, If you were to show hii'll On the pnint of hitting the haU~ your drawin.g would have no action pictorially, and lie would appear only [00 be (l,dch'essing the ball in his ordinary stance, A horse seems ltD be g:( )]n,g faster. \VhClil his legs are either an dll'a.wn u.p under him or f •. dly [extended .. The pend.u1:um of a [clock appears to be rn oving when it is. at ei ther extreme of its swing. J.-\ hammer raised. Irom a nail5~rlgg~sts a harder blow ~'Huj more movement than. if it were ShOW]l close to the nail,

For psyeholo gic:r-J effect in drawing, it is essential to acquire 'the fun nlnge of movement, 1'he o bserver mus [ 'be made to cornp:]ete the full motion, or to sense the motion that has just been

completed. You ·~NOU].d instinctively duck £fO'Ul a fist dra wn ~ way baek f.rOIO your fa ce ! \\-" hcreas yen] tnight not withdraw at all from a Hs ~ two inches away. l'h e prize 6gh ter has learned to r!lake goo.d use of this psychology m his short. punches ..

Another means oJ sllus tra:tin.,g action is to show its result or e.£fet.1" as, for instance, a glas~ that has faIleI over and sp~l led its eonten ts, with an ann or hand just a bovei t. The actual movement has been corn p leted, Another exam l)le is: that .of a lua.I.1JJ w llu ~~H~ f allen dUWH after a blow,' wt th

the arm that hit him still extended.

There 8l1'e in stances, however ~ when the middle of the action ]$ best. This is called "suspel ided action, ~~ ,A horse in. the act of clearing a fence, a diver in mid-air, a building cunapsi]lg~ are all examples of suspended action.

Fix in your mind the w.hole swee.p of action and make Htde sketches .at this point At times you can help the .8>(1].01'1 wtth ~ hit of b lur, some dust, a facial expression .. The cartoonist can

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IT you perform the action" it hel ps to give you the feel of it. (;et up· and. do it l' even if it does seem 'a little silly. If you can study the action in .front of a rrarge J~ irror, so rn uch the better. There should he a mirror in ever.y studio.

Some of your "action' camera shots. n~.a.y be disappomting unless you keep these facts in mind, knowin g them helps you click the 5111 u tter ~"Ilt the precise moment,


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