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Introduction to Survey Methodology

Wayne Enanoria, PhD, MPH Public Health Epidemiologist Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health Email: enanoria@berkeley.edu
Slides created using free, open source software: http://www.openoffice.org
Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.org

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Overview
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What is a survey? What is survey methodology? Survey quality perspective Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.org

3 What is a survey? ● A systematic method for gathering information from (a sample of) individuals for the purposes of describing the attributes of the larger population of which the individuals are members. Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.org ● . The attributes attempt to describe basic characteristics or experiences of large and small populations in our world.idready.

Information is collected either by having interviewers ask questions and record answers or by having people read or hear questions and record their answers. Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready. Information is collected from only a subset of the population to be described (a sample) rather than from all members.4 Features of a survey ● Information is gathered by asking people questions.org ● ● .

5 Study design sets up inferences Hulley et al.org .idready. 2nd Ed Primary question Study plan Actual study Design Implement Truth in the universe Inference Truth in the study Inference Findings in the study External validity Internal validity Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www. Designing Clinical Research.

6 Study design sets up inferences Hulley et al.org . 2nd Ed Primary question Target population Phenomena of interest Truth in the universe Study plan Intended sample Intended variables Truth in the study Actual study Actual subjects Actual measurements Findings in the study Design Random & systematic error Implement Random & systematic error Inference Inference External validity Internal validity Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www. Designing Clinical Research.idready.

Survey Process Perspective Groves et al.org .idready. Survey Methodology 2004 7 Define research objectives Choose mode of collection Choose sampling frame Construct and pretest questionnaire Recruit and measure sample Design and select sample Code and edit data Make postsurvey adjustments Perform analysis Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.

what. when. & how many? Rule out: ● Chance ● Bias ● Confounding Descriptive study: ● Design ● Conduct ● Analysis ● Interpretation 8 Observation Analytic epidemiology Why & how? Control for: ● Chance ● Bias ● Confounding Analytic study: ● Design ● Conduct ● Analysis ● Interpretation Generate Make comparisons Test Hypotheses Epidemiologic Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health inference www.idready. where.Process of epidemiologic inference (How epidemiologists think about data) Descriptive epidemiology Who.org .

Survey Methodology 2004 9 Measurement Construct Representation Target Population Sampling Frame Measurement Sample Response Respondents Edited Response Postsurvey Adjustments Survey Statistic Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.org .idready.Survey Design Perspective Groves et al.

● This course will describe how to conduct surveys in the real world and how to evaluate the quality of survey results. Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.10 What is survey methodology? ● Survey methodology is the study of survey methods and the sources of error in surveys.idready. – Emphasis on minimizing sources of “error”.org . – “Error” describes deviations from the desired outcome.

Survey Quality Perspective Measurement Construct Validity Sampling Frame Measurement Measurement Error Response Processing Error Edited Response Respondents Sample 11 Representation Target Population Postsurvey Adjustments Survey Statistic Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.org .

12 Issues of Measurement ● Formulating questions – open-ended vs. closed questions ● ● ● ● Response order effects Bias in questionnaires Formatting the questionnaire Evaluating survey questions Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.org .idready.

org .13 Survey Quality Perspective Measurement Construct Representation Target Population Coverage Error Sampling Frame Measurement Sample Response Respondents Sampling Error Nonresponse Error Adjustment Error Edited Response Postsurvey Adjustments Survey Statistic Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.

14 Coverage of a Target Population by a Frame Ineligible units Ineligible units Frame Population Undercoverage Covered Population Undercoverage Target Population Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.org .

org .idready.15 Implementing the Study ● ● ● Modes of Administration Pilot studies Quality control – – – Clinical procedures Laboratory procedures Data ● ● Protocol revisions Postcollection of survey data Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.

org .idready.16 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.

the National Center for Health Statistics had been providing annual US survey estimates on a variety of health behaviors and conditions.idready. there were no comparable set of statistics at the state level where much public health policy and oversight rests. The survey estimates clearly indicated that individual personal behaviors affected premature morbidity and mortality. Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.org ● ● .17 Background ● Since 1965. However.

the states determine the questions and conduct the survey. BRFSS involves a partnership of individual states with assistance from the CDC. conditions. The core questions ask about current healthrelated perceptions.idready.org ● ● . risks for HIV) Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.18 BRFSS ● Since 1984. tobacco use. the BRFSS coordinated by the CDC provided state-level survey estimates of key health factors. and behaviors (eg.

19 Purpose ● The main objectives of the BRFSS are to: ● ● ● ● ● collect uniform.org . and preventable infectious diseases in the adult population.idready. permit states to readily address urgent and emerging health issues through addition of topical question modules. injuries. allow states to address questions of local interest. identify trends over time. enable comparisons between states and derive national-level conclusions. Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www. state-specific data on preventive health practices and risk behaviors that are linked to chronic diseases.

Interviewer-administered telephone interview Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www. and Hawaii) used probability designs.idready.org ● Sampling Frame ● ● Sampling Design ● ● Mode of Administration ● .20 Sampling Specifics ● Target Population ● US adult household population US telephone households Varies by state. all but three states (Alaska. California.

21 Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.org .

org .22 Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.

org .idready.23 Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.

org .idready.24 Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.

org .25 Summary ● ● ● ● What is a survey? What is survey methodology? Survey quality perspective Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Center for Infectious Disease Preparedness UC Berkeley School of Public Health www.idready.

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