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Lank Avatar A Analysis

Lank Avatar A Analysis

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ANALYSIS OF THE LANKAVATARA /11 search 0/ its original form

Jikido Ti\K,\Si\KI

(Tokyo Uuivcr sitv) "

The transmitted text of the Lankavatitrasiura I is peculiar in various respects in comparison with other Mahayana scriptures.

First of aIL it has no typical conclusion beginning with the cliche, 'idam avocad bhagavan ... ', as is usually found at the end or such Siitras.? Nor is any parindana chaptcr or the like attached to the Surra. Secondly, the Siitra consists of two parts: one in mixed prose and verse and forming the main body of the Siitra, and the other, a section exclusively in verse which was named Sagathakam by Nanjio, the editor of the Sanskrit text. While both parts have a certain number of verses in common, 205 verses out or 432 in the main hody of the Sfitr a and 664 verses out or RR4 in the 5'agiil/wkalll section arc left unmatched in the other part. 3 Furthermore, the order of the verses ill the Sagdthak am has 110 connection with the arrangement in the main body. In the third place, the Siitra has no system to its contents, nor has it any unifying story to regulate the whole. It is. as is often said, merely a mosaic collection of small parts put at random within the frame of a Surra.

• r would like to express my thanks tn I\lr. Edgar (,,,uk. a graduntc student at the Univcrxitv o l Tokyo. who took trouble tl' lead through Illy I'riglll:tl manuxcr ip! ,1I1d to correct Illy I'.n~lish.

, (Text) The Lank dvatdr») Stura, cd. by B. Nanjio, Kvoto , 19n. S"ddh"'IIf"I",·,kavatarosutra (Buddhist Sanskrit Texts, No \1. cd by P r _. Vaidya. with an Introduction by S. Bagchi. Darbhanga. 1963.

(English Translation) D. T. Suzuki: J he I.mikli,·alrim SUII"{I, 11 Mahayalla Text, London, 1932. (Index) D. T Suzuki All Indcv 10 tli« lankavatara 81111"11 I Naniio Fdilioll) with tlu: Clnnes« arul Tibrtnn t.auivalrn)«. Kyoto, 1933. (Studies) D. T. Suzuki Sllidies ill the I.miklirarilra SI/Ira, London, 1'130. (Japanese Translation) Kosai Ynsui : ltonbunwavakn Nnirpjgaky", Kyoto (Ilozokan), 1"!7(1.

2 At the end of the Wei Dynasty Chinese translation. a few lines in verse arc added as a concluding formula (TlIIs//(I Tripitoka, vol. l(" p. 5);(,b), but this is not found in any of the other versions.

_, See below, attached List of Verses. The difference in number of verses C(l1111110n to hoth divisions (unmcly 227 lelf the main body of the Siitra against 2211 for the .<;oglilhakolll) is due to the occasional doubled lise of V('fSCS and a different way or counting verses in the main body.


I I-";;\SAKI

The present Sanskrit text consists or len chapters, or which the all-vcrsc section is tenth. According to the colophon, the Slitra is en tit I eel "(In '11,1'1 u Ii/ITa rn /(/ /(//i1ul va Irl ro tuuna 11711/111.1 '(/1/(/,11/1 rc II! I sagil 1/111- 1\£11,," probably because the gatha charter is attached to the main body or mixed prove and verse, The term sagilI//(/ku, heing oppositional to the term II1l1itil)'l/III1.1/llm, docs therefore not stand for the verse section as has been assumed by Nanjio." This all-verse section is otherwise ca lied "lank (I I'll III rasu! /'0/\ II I-gii tluir« /11111/111.1'11-1111 t!1I/H/IIIIIIu]'(j" as ina y he observed in its introductory verse. It would he better called ,I!.(IIITilgruntlu: or g(ll/li//I/(/\'u-/(//ikl/l'lIllll'11. Or otherwise can we not regard the whole title in tile colophon mentioned above as denoting this glll/l1lgrantlu, exclusively') If we can, 'slIgril//(/ko /({fi/a/millmh' would imply a different text from the main body.

Besides the Sanskrit text which is based upon manuscripts transmilled among Nepalese Buddhists, there arc several versions preserved in the Chinese and Tibetan Tripitakas." or them the Liu Sung Dynasty Chinese translation (Sung version) retains a quite different form in comparison with the other versions. Namely, in this version the first chapter called Rt/I'Wlildh\,c.\{//ul in the present Sanskrit text and the ninth chapter, Dlunani. together with the 5'(/,g(II/W/UIIII section are completely missing except 1'01' the beginning paragraph 01' the first (CI'IIII' II!(lUI srutant ... ). Instead, the whole text is here called the chapter or Survabuddhapravacanahrrlava, tile same term being used in the same wa y at the end 01' chapter VIII in the transmitted Sanskrit text. This fact seems to show that the original of the Sung version was a text ending with the section concerning meat-eating and entitled or characterised as the ,)'arl'llhudtl/wpral'llc{[I/([/trdam. As this version was translated in 44] A.D, or about 70 years earlier than the Wei version which retains the same structure as the present Sanskrit text, it is usually supposed that it show an older form or the Siitra and that the Sagi/I/w/\(/ill and the rest are to be regarded as later additions. But if the S'(/galhakam is a later addition, why then arc about 2()O verses doubles or those in the older part? And what was the purpose of tile addition of such a mere collection or verses to the main body')

Prior to answering to these questions, Jet us first analyze the structure of the Sling version in comparison with the main body (chaps. I-IX)

" D. T Suz uki, SII,,/I('.I' /11 Iii" l.mif.,<iI'<I/(jra (hcr cuftcr SIII"II'-'), r 22.

, (Chillese iransl.uions) I (Liu) Sung version. 4 ti\scs., Tuish» No. h70: 2. Wei version. 10 Ia scs., rai.I/i" No. (,71; ~. rail!! version, 7 lascs.. Taishn No. (,72 ('[Ihelan translaliolls) I. Peking I;dition No. 775 (translated fr(\11l Sanskrir). 2. Peking ldirion. Nil. 77(, (translated hom the Chinese Sun!! version). ho t h arc includcc! ill Ih,' l'ck inv Replillt lditiou. vol. 2<), I'ok vo, 1l)5~.


of the present Sanskrit text and the Sagothal.cun side hy side. As has been said above, [his Siitra has no system at all. The best way to analyze such a mosaic scripture is to divide [he whole text into small parts or sections according to their subjects. In his Butsugoshinron (Buddhapravacanahntavasastroi (', Kokwan Shircn,.' a fourteenth century Japanese commentator on the Sung version. tried for the first time to divide the text ill this way and made 86 sections together with titles showing the subject matter for the main body of the text including the portion corresponding 10 the i\hif11.\'{/hhak,yana chapter. In addition, the introductory part covering up to the astottarasatapada (lOR clauses) section is treated as the introduction with five divisions. A table of the sections with pagination referring to the Nanjio edition and other information will be given below. K

Many of these sections consist of a prose part followed by a verse or verses which repeat the contents of the former (ill other words, gem), but there arc more than 20 sections without verse, most belonging to the part corresponding to chap, II of the Sanskrit text. Out of 53 sections which have a verse or verses, there arc 11 sections mostly found in the part covered by the Sanskrit text's chaps. III to VIII that have verses which are lacking in the Sagathakam. In few cases we may feel that some neighbouring sections would be better combined (e.g. sections 4-5, R-9, 36-3/\, 67-69, 72-75), but for the most part Kokwans division is acceptable in content and structure." As for the introductory part, only the (j verses out of R in the section of the praising of the Bhagavat arc identical with the beginning six verses in the Sagiithakain, while none the rest concerning the lOR questions and answers arc found ill the Sagathakam. The fact [hat the Sung version has the same 6 verses as [he Sagiuhakam in the section of the praising of the Bhagavat but is missing two verses that are in the Sanskrit text seems to show that the latter two verses arc a later insertion to the main body after the compilation of the Sagiilhakmn.

Among the sections without verse, some discuss relatively advanced or newly-introduced subjects, For example, the first three sections

, [) T Suzuki: Studies, pp. 41-44, 64. Shirer: (I27R-1J4(,) is ;1 Zen monk of the Kamak ura Period, and is also famous by his hook (111 the history or Buddhism III Japan called (;l'IIko.l//{/kll.lho.

(, (Edition) Nihon Daizok vo, JIr>II>hu SIU/III Vol. .1, PI'. 175-3"3, Tokyo, 1916

8 The titles given to each section arc omitted and instead remarks on the content arc given, mostly in Sanskr it when available.

Q I lcrcafrcr in this article, the section numbers given hv Kokwan Shircn will be used 1(1[' the reference to the main body of the I.IIIi/"ll'IIlrlUi.


deal with two kinds of l'iiile/lIas, seven svabluivas and seven paranuirtha«, and the distinction between true and wrong conception, respectively, and are probably a somewhat later addition judging by their contents as well as the style or the beginning of the section, For instance, section I starts suddenly after the lOR clauses with Mahfirnnti's question: 'kalil'idho", l'ijih//I{/lIiilll IIfp/ii/astitililIirod/w hhavati', and its contents have no counterpart either in the Sa!;iil/wka/ll or in the lOR questions and answers, III contrast, section 4 seems to he directly connected with the introductory part. The reason is that this section shares expressions concerning the numc or the preaching place and the suhject matter similar with the beginning paragraph or the Siitra. Namely:

(Introduction) (1'(//11 mav/i srutam / ckustnin sa/lla,'" hhllga\'iim//uilk!l[ll{/'(' ,I amudramalavas ik hare viluua I i sma '" ,l'lird/1I1111. IIIl1ha Iii ca hodl, isa II vagancna , paii ('(I( lharn w'.\ vabtuiva-viiiiana-na ii'll III n 'adm,l'aga {il1lga ta i(1 /

(Section 4) " I dcsavatu /11(' "hagill'ii1?I,i cilfatlllIllOIll{[llOl'ijiiiilla-l'aiicar//lItr1l/aS vabluivalaksanak usumadhannapurviivuni sarvabuddhapravacanahrdayam / /ailktl!)llrigil'llllu/',-,'c 1111'(/.1111(/ bodliisattvan arabhvodadlr; tarangala» '(Il'ijiitillagocl/r(//ll dhartnakavcnn lal/lligol<illlllliUII11 prabluisasva I I

A lso rcmarka hie in section 4 is the usc of the term sarvabuddliapravacanahrdaya. which corresponds to the title given at the end of chap, VIII and is accepted by the Sung version as denoting the contents or the whole text. From these points, section 4 can more rightly stand at the top of the main part.

There is another section that also can stand at the head but for a different reason, Section R, of which the title is given in the SLitra itself as 'fir_l'!ljiitil/{/J'(J-IllIpr{ll'icuyo 11(11110 dhannaparydvah'; is characterized as 'asto/la/'(/pada,iataprahhcda,i:raya', as is stated at the begurnuig :

1I1//{/ klialu maluimatir bodhisattvo maluisa II 1'0(1 plil/llr CI'O tasv/i bodhisattvapars (/(/ll.I' cittdsavavica ram djiuiva /irvajiianavastupravicayam I{(IIIIG dliarmapur; 'aIll/II sarvabuddhiidhistluinddhisthito hliaRmG/IIGl11 pariprcchati sma I

This section thus clearly presupposes the sections concerning the 108 clauses. It would not he strange if this section came immediately after the 108 clauses, Section 8 has no verse but verses at the end of section 9 include 3 which seem to he proper to this section, Of them the last one (v 129) runs as follows:

l<irkika'll/Ill ari,,\(/r(J!!1 sravakiuuun na caiva hi

ram dcsavanti vai 1ll/1/lli!1 pratyatmagatigocaram II

The term {lratl'illlll{[Raligo('(//'{/ is a kind of key word denoting the fundamental standpoint of the Siitra and is used III various passages


with similar expressions. We find the same term in the section on Mahamati's request in the introduction, as follows:

lIIalu1111(/ I ir 111111111 bhagavan //lalu/.)"(/l1oga I iniga tah ! osmnaraprasnasatani prccluim! vadatdni varam I! 9 I I tasya tadvacanam srutvd buddho lokaviddm varali / niriks va parisadam sar\'{/l!l alapi sugauitmajam I I 10 /1 prccltantu nuim iinasuuis I I'll/I' ca prccha mahamatc I aham tc desavisviuni pratviumagatigacaram II 11 II

This may be another proof of a direct connection of section 8(-9) to the introductory part

There is another problem relating to the sections just referred to.

There is a verse the same as v. 121) utilized at the end of section 5. which is to be combined with section 4 judging by their content (a discourse on the udadhitaranga-iilayavijiianai. It is also identified with v. 437 in the Sag/ithakam. However, its position in the Sagiuhakant is in a seric of 5 verses identified with those in section 9. This means that sections 8-9 follow a more natural flow than sections 4-5, where only one verse was picked up out of the 5 forming a set in the Sagathakam. It also seems to suggest that the Sagiithakam was a collection of source materials from which certain verses were picked up and furnished with prose explanation and from which the same verse was sometimes utilized in different sections,

Then which section. section 4 or section R, can claim priority in using the verse equivalent to Sagdthakum v. 437'1 The 2 verses preceding y, 437 run as follows:

dr,{:Ylllll IW vidvate CiI/GI!1 Cil/lII!1 d,..I:.\'(ll pravartatc I "{'h(JiIIr()~{//Jrali.~tll(/I1111ll afa)YII!1 kltvavat«: nrtuim II 435 II (= II. 125) citun» tnanas ea vtiiianani svuhluiviun (/I/Ii/'11u/f!(/IIt'<l/wlII I

nairatmyam dvitayam suddhani prahhasant« vindvak dl) II 436 II (= 11, (26)

Of them, the first one call represent a portion of section 8 but is also applicable to section 4, while the second one has no counterpart in section 8 or 9 but is more suitable to section 4 which is called cittan WIIOII1(11I OJ.' ijiianapaii cadharmas vabhii I'a fa ks ana-k USI mtadhan 1 tapa ryiiJ'a .

In further examination, however, these 3 verses express the core doctrines of the Siitra and their use is not restricted to only small portions in special passages. I n The same call be said of the titles of

10 The 8 \'I/ilr1IIaS, J svabluivas, 5 dltarmas and 2 kinds of nairatmvtt arc often referred (0 as indicating the main subjects of the l.onkdvauiru, hut at the same time each of these subjects appears in a different section, and roughly speaking, they are covered in the segment of the text between sections 1-21. As to the term, dehabhoR"Pr<I/I.yf/UIIWIII olavam. there IS no special section I,ll' it but similar terms at e Iound


section 4 and iL Their names are too vast to be applied to one section only.

Both sections are thus almost equal in their right to stand at the top of the main part accompanying the 3 verses referred to above, The only difference is that section 8 is presupposing the passage of lOS clauses but section 4 is not. The problem now transfers to the position of the 108 clauses in the Surra.

As has been said above, the verses concerning the 108 questions ami answers are not found in the S·agc/lhakam. Only is there one verse that refers to a similar term in the .")ag{ilh(/klllll, i.c. v. 317, which runs as follows:

astotturum IIU\II.\"(/({//II inlm/uI.i (II (rams tcuha i

ksctrarn ckum hi hllddhcll/(Im hudd/'a.( caikas lal/uI Ii/'al'd II

This 'astottarcun nayasatam' does not mean the same set of lOS clauses.

Use or a similar term ill the main part of the Siitra is also very limited. Besides the example in section 8, the following two cases arc found :

I. punar aparan: IIIlI/UIlIlarc k/('.\lIjfiC_l'Ilrarwwdl'aI'o\'i,il{{ldhl'arclwlI1 ,wlrtlull'I,haI'll" (1Ill'l'lirrni 1/.1 {O( tun: lIinihllll.lal'a"a,i·o re pro I i.~I//{il'al·i11l t i .\ ,tlllilhllliIllYiIIIK{/SlIl'i-

hilllgll/{/hS(/ne ca (l1I{/lIlg1U11IllJI11 d//(/I'/Il{ulda/lli) (Sectioll 29).

2 . .1'111'('(1 1';\{/III{/gmllO bhavisvati so ''\j'{iS!O!!OI'i/.\lIllihhilllillllr;It'IIi1 rodan krandan ckum disan, drl/I'(/ vasvati // iDluirani parivartai.

III the first, the term nirdbhiisapada may mean the 108 clauses in the introductory part, as the latter consists of pairs of contradictory concepts and aims to indicate the sphere of nirahhasa. But section 29 has no verse and it is not impossible to regard Ihis section as a later audition. The second is found in chap. IX, which is no doubt a later addition. Further, it has no connection with the 108 clauses.

Thus examining, we came to know that the 108 clauses have almost nothing with the sections in the main part except for their great significance in denoting the ultimate point of doctrine, II nor have they any root in the Sagiithakam. In this sense, section 4. which docs not presuppose the existence of the 108 clauses, can claim priority in the use of v. 437 as having been formed earlier than section 8, which docs presuppose their existence.

ill ma nv passages, as ill Ihe case "I' the term I'rtllnil/1t(/i((/II1'0nll<l. cr Jikido Takasa k i. "S\'1/IJ(lgah\'() 110 )'/11\/11/':11"/.1'/'. /1/1/.:/.:\'01'11/.:/1. Inauguraling Volume, I (i76. (This ar uclc "[,(,li;dl.\ rcltT' to Ihe Icrlll tlI'Jltlhhof;/i{'fIl/iI'IJllih/1I1111 vuiununn),

" '1 h~ IO\{ "';I\\\['s represent ill a way the Madhyalllic stalldpl)illt or the 1.l1Ii/(,/· \'(11(11<1 HI coutr.ist to the Y()!!~ciira·likc tl'lIliclll-Y ill manv scctiou».

It may still be too early to discuss the origmal form of the Lankavatiira out of the limited materials referred to above. As a temporary hypothesis, however, it would he allowable to suppose that the c<;"ag(ltiIakall1 and the main body of the Lankdvatara were different texts in the heginning; different texts from the same source materials. Development took place in both independently until finally they were combined into one volume.

In this supposition, the role or the verses will be greatly emphasized as helping to indicate the period or formation or a section. More specifically, those verses which arc found in both the mail) body and the Sag/lIlli/lUI'" can claim their antiquity as forming the original text of the Lankdvatdra. And those sections in the main body which relate to these verses in content (not necessarily having to be in the same section as was shown for sections 4 and 8) can also claim antiquity. While other sections which have no verses (e.g. section I, or section 84 on saffl(/ramilii) or which have verses that do not correspond to the Sagiithak am (e.g. the sections 011 the 108 questions and answers) are to be regarded as of somewhat later development or insertion. In this way, we can presume the original form of the main body of the Lankiivatiira to have started with the general introduction followed by Mahamatis praise of the Buddha and then hy sections 4-5. As fix lite Sa{;(l/lw/..:alll. Oil the contrary, we have no definite way of presuming how Iar the original text extended. There may be many later additions in it but we cannot limit the original to those verses in common with the main body. There arc many verses which express the core of the doctrine although not utilized in the main body. (e.g. ,<.,'axll/hakam v. 77: vijiiaptinuitram tribhuvani ... , ete.).

From these points and from the fact that some verses in the Sil~iitliakam were used twice in different sections in the main body as mentioned above. we come to make the further supposition that the original form of the Lankiivatiira was in verses akin to the Sagiithakam. These verses Illay bc called the source material for the Lattkdvatdra. They were probably transmitted within a group 12 of Mahayana yogins to which the author or authors of the Lankiivatdra belonged. Verses were only loosely bound together, and the author or authors picked lip a certain verse or several verses in a series, providing prose explanation of the doctrine therein and furnishing it with the

I, II III list he a group which had a fili"y intim.u« ('t)Ilneclion wit]: the Yog;ic;ira hut did 1101 helplig 1o the orthodox Of main )'fOUp.



form of question and answer dialogue between the Bhagavat and the Bodhisattva Mahiimati. Even after the initial formation of the; text in prose and verse, to which the title was given as I.mikii\'(J{lIm for the first time, I J the text continued to be enlarged, sometimes by adding verses newly picked up from the source material, sometimes by composing new verses when necessary, and sometimes by introducing materials from other sources. As an example of this last type, we can mention section X6, i.e. the chapter on meat-eating. A fairly long passage discussing the concept of Nirvana in various heretical doctrines (section 70) also has no counterpart in the Sagathakam and is therefore probably a later addition. The same contents as this passage arc found in the Chinese Tripitaka as an independent work ill the form of a commentary to the Lankovatara allegedly by Aryadeva.14 Attribution of this work to Aryadeva is usually regarded as a pretense, but based upon the present assumption, Aryadeva may he the real author of this work, it afterward having been introduced into the Lunk avatara in the same way as section Ro. (From the doctrinal point of view the Lankiiviitara. which expresses the Vijiiiinaviida standpoint, is no doubt a composition later than Nagarjuna and Aryadeva).

At the beginning of compilation. the author may have had a plan to complete the Surra with the usual cliche as the ending. But he did not do so and left the text open to further enlargement. probably because there were many verses left unused in the source material. At some stage, however, the original author or his successors had the intention to SUIll up the contents of the text. Thus was made section 85, i.e. chap. VII in the Sanskrit text, which expresses the hidden mcanings of doctrines mostly referred to in previous passages and also makcs clear the function of the Tuthiigata.t " Another way of summing up of the core of the doctrines is observed in the chapter of Ravaniidhycsana added at the top of the text by another author of a hit later pcriod.!"

As for the source material in verse, the first author of the Lankavatiira or his early successors perhaps never regarded them as the finalized text and so kept them from the public. The original for

" Neither the name or questioner nor the name of preaching place found in the SilRIJ/hllkllll1.

'" Iaislio Tripitak «, No. 11,40, in Vol. .12. Translated by lIodhiruci, the translator of' till: Wei version of' the lankdvutara,

I < Sec Takasaki. "Nl'Iirrtlgak_1'li "" I/OJllruI>lOIlO (The Aim or tile 1.<IIik,il'<Iltim.

A studv of tile S'lII'I>IIJIl,k<l'{,lIril'(}r/Il)", llldogak,'/'lIkkrogllkllk('IJkrll. \'01. 2(,-1. l'in. ". Sec 1)'1 SUZUkI, S/(/{/i,·.\, pp. 65-X5 The passage is incorporated there especially 10 give a summarv of' the lnnk avatara

ANALYSIS 01 1111 IANI\,\\,\IAR;\


the Sung verSIOII was perhaps in this way transmitted without the K(II/hl text. Later 011 after completion of the expansion or the text, the transmitters or the Lmikr/\'(//(II'(I made the source material open to the public and called them the lankiivatarasiurinn Sagatliak am.

The foregoing is the present author's supposition concerning the process or formation of the Lm-,!uII'li/lira made on the basis of a hypothesis that the Sagathak atn and the main body were originally different texts. To validate this supposition we are requested to examine the content oj" each section ill detail from the doctriual standpoint. We cannot but postpone it until a later article.


(sC"ctinn (pa!!c &. line III

number) Nalljio Ed 1

[vrr cc- number)

tt-quivalrn t verse ill \ogfiIJltlkOIJl)



I. 1(,2.2 general introduction
2.3-2IIJ I. 1-44 Ravan.idhycsana
chap. I!
II 22.1·2.11 II. I-X S 1-'. 4-(, Buddhahhistut:
III. 2.1.X-D 1(, '-I-II Mahamari's request
IV 2J.17-29.R 12-5'-1 lOX questions
V 2'1.')-34.10 60-9)\ lOX answers
\'L 14.11-37.5 astotturu pa da sa taka Main Part (Questions & Answers)

I. 37.6-.19.8 dvividho vijfiallalll ulpa-
:' 1'1.')-40.10 saptuvidho bhavasvabha-
vah, saptavidho para-
.1 40.11-43.1.1
4. 4_'.14-4IJ.18 '!'J-IO!> S. )IJ-57 . .1X5-'90 ciuam.umrnanovijnfinn-
5. 47.1-49.5 101-124 S. 391-406. pa ficadharrnasva bha-
4.17 (= 11. 12'1) vala ksana-kusu ma
dhar maparyayah
(, 49.6·49.12
7. 49.1 YiO 12 a ryajilii na la ksana tra ya
~. 50.1.1-52.8 ~ryajiHl na vastu pravica-
yam nama dharmapa-
9. 52.9-)5.1 125-129 S 4.15·41'1
to. 552-56.1.1 svaciundrsvadh.lr.ivi-
II 5(,14-58.1 (dharrnatabuddhadu
12. 'i82 'i99 dvividham sr ava kayalla- J4X


("cellon (p:q.!e & lint" in

numbcr ) ~<lIl\io l.d.)

(equivalent ver sc in ,f.Jllxdllw/.;am)

navaprnbhcd.ua k?<Lllil!]l
1.1 51.) 10-(,1.14 nily~cinlyala
I,!. (,1.15-62.6
15 62.7-6_11 anulpann~h xarva-
16. (,3 2-(,5.1 (, 1.10-13.1 S. 115 (= II. 177, pa ilea bhisa lila yag( ,I ra n i
~4\ 11)4, 114 (= 11,
17(, I
17. (,) I 7-{,7. I icchantikan.un anicchan-
tibt;! moks.nn
1 X. ('7.2-hX.7 134 S. 156 ( VI, 6) svabhrivalnk s» natraya
\<J. h\\.\\-7\\.R lI',\i~"'\m),\<.\"a'ia\;\k'<I\I'\-
pr avica ya
20. 70.1.)-72.11 135 sa m.iropapav.idalak-
sa na
21. nI2-7_110 136 S. 92
22. 73.11-77.1 137-1.1:-1 sfinyat a nutpadadva ya-
nihsvabh.ivalak sa na
n 77.2-77.12
24 77.11-79.12 1.19 S I.D ra Ihaga ta ga rbha-upndcsa
25 7'J 1.I-X2. 7 yogahhisalllilya
2(, H28-851.) 140-144 S, 85, 'iO, .. , 24, lrct 1I p1'<1 I ya yala ksa na
27 85,IO-8S.lJ 145-148 S. 265, ' " 54, 55 vagvi kalpala ksana hrda-
yarn n:1rna dhar mapar-
2X. xx 14-961.1 149-160 S. II, DO, 7-8,
20'1, 12, " 2.1,
443-444, 186-187
21.) %.14-'17.4 ca tusta yavinirm 1I k Iii
.10. nS·'1X.13 1M-1M S 14'1, 352-354 caturvidham dhyiinarn
.11. 9)<.IS-99. Hi nirvanadhivacana
l' lJ').17-IOO.) dviprak.iram svahhii-
vadvayala ksanam
n 100.6-10.1.6 1(,5 S 452 adhisthanadvaya
.14, 10.1,7-104.12 prautyasarnutpada
.15, 104,12-106.1 166-167 S. 453, 47 a hhila pa --asadhh~va
36. 106.2-107.2 (bhriinti)
37, 107.3-108,15 (bhr anti)
3R. 108.16-109.14 16R-169 S. 127-12R (bhrilnti}
.19. I09.IS-II0,16 170 S. RR sarvadharmauam mayo-
40. 110 17-112.9 171 S, 244
41 112.10-1l3.14 172 S 456 niilllHpadavyaiijalla kiiya
42. 114.1-115.6
41 115.7-116.10 173-175 S II'), us, 167 sarvadharrna laksanii h
44 116.11-121 17 176-17S S. 114(= Il, DJ), (srotaiipa II niidica I uspha-
\ 15 (= II, L',u),<} \~mi)
45 1221-12.1.9 dviprak~rii huddhih
41> IHIO-124.16 mah.ihh uta-bha uti ka 349

tscction (ra~l' & li1le ill

rlHrrrilcd Nartr(o I:d. ~

47. 124.17- J2(15
4X. 12hJ,-I27.I-' 174-1 X 1
49. 12714-13-'1 182-202
SO 1112-1.\~.16 2In-210
chap. 111
51 l_\(Li-137.17 III. I ~2
52. 1'8.1 14S.X .'-4
5-'. 140.9-140.17 :\
54. 14\2-141 15 (,
55. 142.16-1·14.1) 7-8
sr,. 144.14-147.14 9-14
57. 147.15-149.11 IS-I!}
SR. 14'1.12-154.h 20-:1.\
59. 154.7-15(1.10 .14-17
(,0. 156.11-158.15 38-43 (cquivahnt \TT'S( 111 Sag(II/{(I/"aN/)

(r cma rk x)

S. 25, 21 I), 2(. S. 2861= III. 391. - 2il'l, 2%-302,

305--'IO,373--'7R S 4."7-458, 445··4:\0 pr:ltv~llll~ryaiiiJna!!ati-

skandhiiniim skandhasvabhavalaksanam

ca turvidham nirvanam pa ri ka lpi tasva bhavaprabhedanaynlaksana

S. lKX-189
S 462463
S 4M
S 470-471 S. 176-171, ISO,


S. 46S-4('9 S. 474-487

S. ., \.15-1.,7

S. 285-288, 2'12, 2'J4 (S. 2tl6 = 182)

S. Iln- 184

rua no runva kiiyaga ti-

pr abhcda nayalaksana paficauantarvani buddhanarn buddhata vaturvidhii samata uvacanam buddhavaca


ll~stY<lsti t valaksanam

sarvadharmanam siddh5 n ta nayala ksana

a hh uta parikalpa -laksa na ya Ilia r u tarthagr a hanarn

na karlavyarn ji\anavijiianalaksa na lL

navavidha pariniuuadrstih sandhyasa nd hila ksana sarvabhflvasva bhJvJnavadharanatva

48-57 S. 91, ,7'), praLijiiii na kartavya

86, 94bc, 1')1)-200,


58-(,0 vijfiupt imfitravvavasthfina

(, I de;;lIlasiddhiinLanayala-




tryamisarn dharrnasarngrahas ca

tirthakar auam uirvanavi-

hi ISX.16-1W.7
62. 1608-1 (,,'I
63. I CJJ.I 0-J66.5
M. 16(,.6-169.3
65. 1(,'14-171.9
(,(1. 171.10172.18
67. JHJ-J7SiS
hR. 17511-17'1.17
(,9. 179.17- IS2e,
70 IR2.7-IX7.2
71. IH7.JI91.2
72 19]3-193.\.1
n. 19.'- iJ-197.8
74. 197.9-201.4
75. 201.5-204.10
7(1. 204.11-21 0.3
chap. IV
n. 211 1-21.1.15 44-45 46-47



S. 65611-662

ka lpiil)

79-RS S. 63-M, ., SUO- xvabuddha-buddhata


86-91 '12-117 118-122

S. 581-587a S. 5871>-(, \J

La L haga La syiidhivacana11l (arthapr atisaruna} (unirodhanutpiidai


a hlusamuya

(nirodhu krum.inusandhit


l~lTrll)11 IP;lf!l" & hnr 111

I1llrllht'l) ~';ill)J(l Ld )

IX 21.1 I (,-2 I I!. 5
chap \
79. 217 1-21 '1.10
chap VI
Sil. 2211.I-nU
~I 22.j.~;'2() l)
N2 22'110-2.1.1 X
x; 2~4'J-2~1!. J ~
X--I 2_1() I ()-2_N III
Ch;ql VI I
x5. 240.1-24.1.14
chap. VIII
Xfl 244. 1-259.7
chap. IX
21>0 1-2I)_1.~
]114. 1-3 t« I u-qui v au-nt \l'r<'\,' III .\(ll!lif//{lkrl'111

IV. 1-7

S 11!)-IOl), 2115-20() (p:tram,trlhc 11<1 krnm.inusandlJib)

v I_~

lalh,.!!" ta nit y.lnitvapraSl\i'lga

VI. 1-4

s ,,711li, 71),


s ().1~, I"(,he (- II. 114)

skandlJ<I,lh~t v:'yalan,,n'-II!1 pravrttimvr tlih pallcadharillaSVahll,,\'a - JlI a hlll'da!!a t i la k '" na !!'"J!!~ na eli h.-illi k a,,, Illil, tall1,lgal:dl sarvadharmii n.in, kxa nahhaliplhhcda 1'1 ksanarn ~atrfiraillitii




S II (,-117, X2~-X2K

VII, 1-5

nau manika

VIII. 1-24

m.imxa hha ksam- gunado sah

dluir a ni

S. I-Xx4


(verse number in tfll' Sa!!~I!h;ll-;aml

S I-I,
II 12
'il,_' 7
,~l) '10 Chap II

(equivalent verse nurubcr s ill

Chap III <haf' IV

(in pur r nthcscv show the .... cction numbcr )

II. 1-3. I,-X {Inrro) 151-152 (2k) 17k (44)

144, 15~ (]X) 156 (2X)

141, 144"h (21,) 17lJ, IX I (4X) 1(,7 (35) 147-148 (27) 9'i-11)(J (4)

t 140 (26)

lII, 7,-!-RO (71 ) 51(M)

52 {(,'l)

1711 (.111)

144\1c, 141 (2Il)

~\'n"l' number in Ihe Sag:ilhakalll)



'14 he 1()4 10)-10') 114- 115 11'1-115 I 1(,-117 II X-II'! 127-128 130


135- D7 149 15(,l1c 1(,7

17(,-177, iso IX1-IR4 lR6-187 IRR-18'1 194-1% 1'J9-2()O 205-206 l()7-20X






2RS-2RR (2R6). 289 21n, 21)4 296-302 JOS-3111 3S2-J54 J7_1-37R 3X5-40(J


4.15-439 (437) 441-444 445450




457458 462-463


465-4(,') 470-411 474-4R7

Chap. II

116 (21)

1.12 (16)

IJJ, 1311 (1(,) ]7(,-177 (44)

174.17.1 (,n) I (,X I (,I) (1);) I SO (2R)

139 (24)

161 (10) 1.14 (IX) 175 (41)

159-1(,0 (28)

153 (28) IsO (4R) 171 (40) l.11 (i (,) 145 (27)

182-183 (49)

1~4-19() (49) 191-196 (49) 1 (,2-1 (,4 (30) 197-202 (49) 101-123(4-5)

12512R (9) 124 (4-5) IS7-15X (28) 205-210 (50) 165 (.13)

166 (15)

172 (41) 203-204 (50)

(rqU\\';dl'111 vrr sr n ntulu-r c in

('hap. III Char. IV

(ill parrnthcsc« s!iow tlu: sec+ion 11I111lhcrl

48 (M)

IV, 15 (77-7X)

35--.17 (59)

'1-10, II (56) 44-45 «d)

1-2 (5 I) 12-14 (56) 54-55 (,4)

(d (77-7R)

.1R-41 (60)

42-4.' (60)

3-4 (52)

5 (53) 15-1'1 (<'7) 7-R (55) 20-n (5R)


('hal' VI)

v I. u. I (] (Kl)

(, (81)

4 (RO)

~I.l'r\c 111Hldll'l Iii tl)l' Si,(!rh:I~;IIl1)

'i[/I)_ 'if I I 'iX 1(,1,1 (,,\~ ("("l-f,(,~ 7(J~


X2 ~-S2X

( 1i"I' II

I IAJ..:AS/\f;l

1l'tlui\-airlJl \'tTS~' numlx-r-, jll

(11.,1', III 1'1",1' IV

/111 r~<trl'!l'hc...;C'i ~htl\\ thl' Sl'CIH'll n umbctl

S2~3(71) X(,-117 (lcl-7'i)

('''''I' VII

2 (Xli)

3 (XO) 17-17 (X.1)

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