Ch. 14-15: Acids, Bases and Solubility AP Review Questions **On AP test, if in doubt use 3 significant digits. It is always correct.

**For logs: If Ka = 1.8 X10-5, then pKa = 4.7932685. Ka has two significant digits. pKa should be 4.79, since the 4 tells the power (the 7,9 are significant.) ** For strong acids: #Oxygens - # Hydrogens is 2 or greater. H2SO4 strong, H2SO3 weak, HIO3 strong etc. ** Acid strength increases with the number of oxygens. (The more oxygens, the better the negative charge can be supported and be made stable when the H+ leaves.) **Molarity = mol / L = mmol / ml ** For buffer solutions the weak acid must have a pKa within one pH unit of the desired buffer pH. **In titrations: At the halfway point to equivalency HA will equal AHA + OH- ↔ H2O + A – 1.0M 0.5M -0.5 -0.5 +0.5 0.5 0.5 pH = pKa + log {[A-] / [HA]} pH = pKa At the equivalence point: for strong acids: the titration curve is steep and the equivalence point equals pH = 7. (strong acids and strong bases completely neutralize one another to make a neutral pH of 7.) but for weak acids/weak bases: the titration curve has less of a steepness (it is flatter) and the equivalence point is determined by stoichiometry and the dissociation of the weak acid/ weak base, not by pH. It will not be neutral! (see textbook p. 696-716) {The pH at the equivalence point of a weak acid with a strong base is always greater than 7, because the anion of the acid (that is left in solution) is a base. The weaker the acid, the higher the pH at the equivalence point. The pH at the equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid will be less than 7, since the hydrated base is acidic. The weaker the base, the lower the pH at the equivalence point.}

1) Which pair of substances cannot be the major components of (coexist in) an aqueous solution? a) OH- and H+ b) H2PO4- and HPO42c) HOCl and OCl d) SO42- and SO32e) H2CO3 and CO32-

4) Which of the following is not a conjugate acidbase pair? a) H2SO4 and SO42b) HCl and Clc) NH3 and NH2d) HPO42- and PO43e) H2S and HS-

5) Which of the following is a Lewis Theory Acid? a) NH3 b) CO2 c) CH4 d) BH3 e) LiH

2) Each of the following can act as both a Bronsted acid and a Bronsted base EXCEPT a) HSO4- b) H2PO4- c) NH4+ d) H2O e) HCO3-

6) Which of the following can function as both a Bronsted-Lowry acid and a Bronsted-Lowry base? a) HCl b) H2SO4 c) HSO3- d) SO42- e) H+

7) In the reaction CO32- + H2O ↔ HCO3- + OHthe carbonate ion is a a) Bronsted acid b) Lewis acid c) Arrhenius acid d) Bronsted base e) Arrhenius base

3) Which of the following anion(s) is/are not derived from a strong acid? I. F1II. NO31III. HS-1 1IV. ClO4 V. C2H3O21a) V only b) I, II, and III only c) I, II, and IV only d) I, III, V only e) II and IV only

8) Which of the following is the strongest acid in water? a) perchloric acid b) chloric acid c) chlorous acid d) hypochlorous acid e) They are all the same strength.

Questions 12-13 a) Lithium b) Nickel c) Bromine d) Uranium e) Fluorine 9) When equal masses of the following compounds are dissolved in water, which is expected to conduct electricity the most? a) MgCl2 b) CH3CH2CH2OH c) SO3 d) KMnO4 e) HCO2H 12) Is a gas in its standard state at 298 K. 13) Reacts with water to form a strong base.

14) Which of the following pairs would make an effective buffer solution? a) HCl / NaCl b) KOH / K2SO4 c) HClO4 / NaClO4 d) NaHCO3 / Na2CO3 e) HCl / NH4Cl 10) In aqueous solution the strongest acid is a) HCl b) H3O+ c) HBr d) HI e) All are equally strong.

11) The strongest acid below is a) HClO2 b) HBrO3 c)HClO3 d) H2SO3 e) H2SeO3

15) In aqueous solution the amphiprotic (amphoteric) substance is a) H2O b) Cl- c) NH4+ d) Cr2O72e) CH3CH2COOH

18) Which of the following cannot be a Lewis acid? a) Fe2+ b) Fe3+ c) NH4+ d) BCl3 e) H+

16) Addition of a base to this compound produces a gas. a) CaCO3 b) ZnS c) NH4Br d) CH3COOH e) Mg

17) The strongest base is a) NaClO b) NaClO3 c) NaBrO3 d) KClO3 e) KClO4

2 molar HCl and 0.8 X10-5 For NH3. 20) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0.2 molar NH3.2 molar NaCl.2 molar HCl and 0. Questions 23-25 refer to an experiment in which five individual 1-liter aqueous solutions. 25) The solution containing this salt had the highest pH.Questions 19-22 a) A solution with a pH of 1 b) A solution with a pH of greater than 1 and less than 7 c) A solution with a pH of 7 d) A solution with a pH of greater than 7 and less than 13 e) A solution with a pH of 13 For CH3COOH.2 molar CH3COOH and 0.2 molar HNO3 and 0. . Kb = 1. 21) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0. a) NaC2H3O2 b) NaCl c) MgBr2 d) HC2H3O2 e) KBr 23) The solution containing this salt had the highest boiling point.8 X10-5 19) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0.2 molar NaOH. 22) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes of 0. Ka = 1.2 molar NaOH. 24) The solution containing this salt had the lowest conductivity. each containing a 1 mole sample of one of the salts listed below. were subjected to various tests at room temperature.

8 X10-5 c) N2H4 Kb = 9. Which one produced a solution with a pH that was less than 7? a) N2 b) O2 c) NaI d) MgO e) SO2 34) Which substance(s) listed below would form basic solutions? I. NH4Cl II.0 X10-8 b) HC2H3O2 Ka = 1.01 M solution of this substance will result in a solution with the highest pH.Use the following responses for questions 26-28.4 X10-4 26) A 0. H2PO4.1 M solution of the sodium salt of this substance will have a pH closest to pH 7.+ H2O → H3O+ + HPO42III. 27) A 0. K2CO3 III.+ OH.→ H3PO4 + O2a) I only b) II only c) III only d) I and II e) I and III .in the reaction: Cu2+(aq) + 4 CN-(aq) → Cu(CN)42-(aq) 33) H2O in the reaction: HC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) → C2H3O2-(aq) + H3O+(aq) 29) Each of the following compounds was added to distilled water at 25 oC. 28) This substance is most often found in salad dressing. a) HOCl Ka = 3. NaF a) I only b) II only c) III only d) I and II e) II and III 30) In which of the following reactions does the H2PO4.ion act as an acid? I.6 X10-7 d) HNO2 Ka = 7.→ BF4 32) CN. H3PO4 + H2O → H3O+ + H2PO4II. Questions 31-33 a) Arrhenius acid b) Bronsted-Lowry acid c) Bronsted-Lowry base d) Lewis acid e) Lewis base 31) BF3 in the reaction: BF3 + F.1 X10-4 e) CH3NH2 Kb = 4. H2PO4.

8 X10-5 6.5? a) HC2H3O2 b) HC2H3O2 or HOBr c) HC2H3O2 and HNO2 and HCHO2 d) HOBr e) none of these 37) Which of the following is the safest and most effective procedure to treat a base spill onto skin? a) Dry the affected area with paper towels. d) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaHCO3 solution. NO IV.1 X10-4 1. 38) Acid precipitation or acid rain has a pH below the normal value for rainwater. b) Sprinkle the affected area with powdered Na2SO4(s). II. and VI only c) III and VI only d) I. . SO3 a) I and III only b) III. SO2 V.1 X10-9 35) When each of these acids is titrated. O3 II.Questions 35-36 Acid a) HC2H3O2 b) HCN c) HNO2 d) HCHO2 e) HOBr Acid dissociation constant 1.8 X10-4 2. IV. O2 VI.2 X10-10 7. c) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaOH solution. c) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaOH solution. Normal rain has a pH between 5 and 6. which one will have the highest pH at its endpoint? 36) Which of these five acids and their corresponding salts can be used to make a buffer at pH 6. and V only e) IV and VI only 39) The safest and most effective emergency procedure to treat an acid splash on skin is to do which of the following immediately? a) Dry the affected area with paper towels. b) Flush the area with a dilute solution of HCl. Which of the following are contributors to acid precipitation? I. N2 III. d) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaHCO3 solution. e) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute vinegar solution. e) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute vinegar solution.

0100 M NaOH solution.00 d) 11.36 b) 0.0 ml of a 0. which of the following needs to be specified? a) no additional information b) the density of the solution c) the volume of the solution d) the solubility product of KNO3 e) the Ka of nitric acid 41) Which of the following equilibrium expressions represents the hydrolysis of the CNion? a) K = {[HCN][OH-]} / [CN-] b) K = {[CN-][OH-]} / [HCN] c) K = {[CN-][H3O+]} / [HCN] d) K = {[HCN][H3O+]} / [CN-] e) K = [HCN] / {[CN-][OH-]} 44) A 40.43 c) 2.10 M b) 0.40) A solution of KNO3 is known to have a concentration of 0.00 e) 7. What is the pH of the final mixture? a) 3.0 ml of 0.19 M c) 0.) a) 0.55 M 42) 50.25 M KOH is added to 60.0 ml of a 0.28 M d) 0.40 M e) 0.00 43) How many milliliters of water must be added to 10 milliliters of an HCl solution with a pH of 1 to produce a solution with a pH of 2? a) 10 ml b) 90 ml c) 100 ml d) 990 ml e) 1000 ml .15 M Ba(OH)2.0 ml sample of 0. In order to calculate the concentration of this solution in terms of molarity.564 m.0200 M HCl solution is mixed with 25. What is the molar concentration of OH-(aq) in the resulting solution? (Assume that the volumes are additive.

0 X 10-6 M e) 5.45) A 0.85 e) 6.5 X 10-10 M c) 5.5 X 10-11 M b) 2. What is the pKb of this weak base? a) 4.100 M solution of K2HPO4? a) –log K1 b) –log √[(7.0 X 10-4 M .05 M HCN(aq)? ( The Ka for HCN is 5.1 X10-3)(6.1 X10-3 K2 = 6.30 46) Phosphoric acid dissociates in three steps with equilibrium constants K1 = 7.5 X10-13 Which of the following mathematical expressions represents the pH of a 0.85.15 b) 7.0 X10-7 d) 7.1 X10-5 c) 2.00 47) What is the H+(aq) concentration in 0.3 X10-8)] c) –log K2 d) –log √[(K2)(K3)] e) 7.0 X 10-10 M d) 5.010 M solution of a weak base has a pH of 9.0 X10-10.) a) 2.3 X10-8 K3 = 4.

is added to distilled water.0 M H+ than in pure water? a) NaCl b) CaCO3 c) KCl d) AgCl e) KNO3 . If the acid dissociation constant for HBrO is equal to 2 X 10-9.1-molar d) 0.05-molar e) 0.01-molar 51) Which of the following compounds is NOT appreciably soluble in water.48) Hypobromous acid. HBrO. what is the concentration of HBrO when the pH of the solution is equal to 5? a) 5-molar b) 1-molar c) 0. but is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid? a) Mg(OH)2(s) b) (NH4)2CO3(s) c) CuSO4(s) d) (NH4)2SO4(s) e) Sr(NO3)2(s) 49) Which of the following solid salts should be more soluble in 1.0 M NH3 than in water? a) Na2CO3 b) KCl c) AgBr d) KNO3 e) NaBr 50) Which of the following solid salts is more soluble in 1.

6 % 53) A 100 ml sample of 0.2 X10-10.6 X1023 e) 1. What is Kb for CN1 ? Kb = {[HCN][OH-1]} / [CN-1] Note: CN-1 + H2O ↔ HCN + OH-1 a) 1.6 X109 b) 6.2 % d) 1.0 but less than 8.e) H+ 55) At 0oC.080 M solution where the hydronium ion concentration is 7.6 X10-5 .10 molar H3C6H5O7. which of the following statements is true? a) Ka for HC2H3O2(aq) is less than Ka for HClO(aq) b) Kb for C2H3O2-(aq) is less than Kb for ClO-(aq) c) Keq for the reaction is less than 1 d) The reaction occurs in the presence of a catalyst e) HC2H3O2(aq) and HClO(aq) are conjugates 56) The Ka for HCN is 6.0 c) more than 7.b) HC6H5O72c) C6H5O73d) OH.00 b) between 6. is 1.2 X104 d) 1. which of the ions listed below was present in the greatest concenctration? a) H2C6H5O7. the ion-product for water. After equilibrium was established.10 molar NaOH solution was added to 100 ml of 0.2 X10-24 c) 6.52) The Ka for hydrofluoric acid is 6. What percentage of HF is dissociated in a 0.25 % c) 9.3 % b) 4.8 X 10-4. Kw. Based on this information.0 and 7.4 X 10-3 M? a) 12. The pH of pure water at 0oC is a) 7.12 % e) 23.0 d) approximately 15 e) between 14 and 15 54) HC2H3O2(aq) + ClO-(aq) ↔ HClO(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) The standard free energy change for the reaction has a negative value.2 X10-15.

050 L of a 0.0 b) 5. The concentration of H+ ions will increase.0 e) 8.10 M solution? a) a strong acid b) a weak acid c) the potassium salt of a weak acid d) the potassium salt of a strong acid e) the ammonium salt of a strong acid 61) A chemist creates a buffer solution by mixing equal volumes of a 0.0 b) greater than 7.2 molar KOCl solution.0 M sodium acetate solution is a) 7. III.ions will increase. a) I only b) II only c) III only d) I and III only e) II and III only 60) What is the pH of a solution prepared by mixing 50 ml of 0.7 c) 6.1 .57) The pH of a 1.125 M HCl? a) 4. II. Which of the following will occur when a small amount of KOH is added to the solution? I.125 M KOH with 0.3 d) 7.2 molar HOCl solution and a 0. The concentration of undissociated HOCl will increase.0 d) 0 e) impossible to predict 58) The [H+] for a solution with pOH = 10 is a) 4 b) 10-4 c) 1010 d) 10-10 e) 104 59) Which of the following will give a solution with the highest pH when dissolved in water to make a 0.0 c) less than 7. The concentration of OCl.

Equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M NH4Cl solutions are mixed.8 X10-3 e) 8.63 c) 1. II and III only 65) What ratio of the mass of Na2HPO4 (molar mass = 142) to the mass of NaH2PO4 (molar mass = 120) is needed to prepare a buffer with a pH of 7.6 X10-6 c) 4.is 7.4? The pKa2 for H2PO4.53 63) Which of the following is NOT a buffer? a) CH3COOH and NaCH3CO2 b) NH3 and NH4Cl c) HCl and NaCl d) H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 e) H2S and NaHS 64) Below are Kb values for some weak bases.58 b) 0.9? a) 2. Equal volumes of 1 M H2CO3 and 1 M NaHCO3 solutions are mixed.3 X10-4 d) 8. II.3 X10-2 b) 5. Equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M H2CO3 solutions are mixed.87 d) 1. Which should be selected to prepare a buffer at pH 8. III.62) Which of the following procedures will produce a buffered solution? I.2 X10-10 .18 e) 0.42. a) 1. a) I only b) III only c) I and II only d) II and III only e) I.

20-molar NH4Cl solution? (The base dissociation constant. What is the value of Kb for lactate anion.0 X10-14 b) 8. Which of the following can be concluded from this information? a) CN-(aq) is a stronger base than C2H3O2-(aq).) a) between 3 and 4 b) between 4 and 5 c) between 5 and 6 d) between 8 and 9 e) between 9 and 10 68) The value of Ka for lactic acid. d) The equilibrium constant will increase with an increase in temperature.5 X10-10 c) 6. b) HCN(aq) is a stronger acid than HC2H3O2(aq).0-molar solution.8 X10-5. for NH3 is 1. is 1.7 X104.8 g of H3BO3.5 X1010 e) It cannot be determined from the information given.) a) Titration of the solution with standard acid b) Measurement of the pH with a pH meter c) Determination of the boiling point of the solution d) Measurement of the total volume of the solution e) Measurement of the specific heat of the solution . e) The pH of a solution containing equimolar amounts of CN-(aq) and HC2H3O2(aq) is 7. Which of the following would be the best procedure to determine the molarity of the solution? (Assume no additional information is available. a weak acid. is dissolved in 1000 g of water to make a 1. 69) Which of the following has the highest pH? a) the endpoint of a strong acid titrated with a strong base b) the endpoint of a weak acid titrated with a strong base c) the endpoint of a weak base titrated with a strong acid d) the endpoint of a strong base titrated with a strong acid e) the endpoint of a weak acid titrated with a weaker base 67) HC2H3O2(aq) + CN-(aq) ↔ HCN(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) The reaction represented above has an equilibrium constant equal to 3.20-molar solution of NH3 with 200 milliliters of a 0. Lac-? a) 1. c) The conjugate base of CN-(aq) is C2H3O2-(aq).0.5 X10-5. Kb.66) What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 200 milliliters of a 0. HLac.7 X10-10 d) 8. 70) A sample of 61.

a) NH3 and NH4Cl b) H3PO4 and NaH2PO4 c) HCl and NaCl d) NaOH and NH3 e) NH3 and HC2H3O2 (acetic acid) 73) The solution with the lowest pH 74) The most nearly neutral solution 75) A buffer at a pH > 8 76) A buffer at a pH < 6 .10-molar H2C2O4 solution was completely neutralized by the addition of a 0. What is the molecular mass of the acid? a) 221 b) 122 c) 68 d) 1.0 ml of 0.71) It takes 40.2 X10-1 72) In a titration experiment.100 M NaOH to titrate 488 mg of a solid monoprotic acid to the phenolphthalein endpoint. Assume all concentrations are 1 M. Which of the diagrams below illustrates the change in pH that accompanied this process? Questions 73-76 refer to aqueous solutions containing 1:1 mole ratios of the following pairs of substances. a 0.2 X105 e) 1.10-molar NaOH solution.

3 X10-26 mol2 • L-2 b) 5.050 M H2SO4(aq)? a) 0.3 X1016 mol2 • L-2 78) What is the final concentration of lead ions.0 X 10-17 mol2 • L-2. [Pb2+].45 mole e) 0.0 X103 mol2 • L-2 d) 2.35 M Al(NO3)3 to increase the concentration of the NO3.0 X106 mol2 • L-2 e) 1.77 mole 79) The solubility product constant at 25 oC for AgCl is 1.7 M? (Assume that the volume of the solution remains constant.10 M .012 M c) 0.025 M d) 0. a) 1.ion to 1. Determine the equilibrium constant for the reaction of silver chloride with I-(aq).15 mole c) 0. in solution when 100 ml of 0.) a) 0.6 X10-10 mol2 • L-2 and that for AgI is 8.07 mole b) 0.77) How many moles of solid Ca(NO3)2 should be added to 450 milliliters of 0.10 M PbCl2(aq) is mixed with 100 ml of 0.005 M b) 0.0 X10-7 mol2 • L-2 c) 1.250 M e) 0.29 mole d) 0.

6 X 10-8 82) The solubility product.6 X 10-10 b) 4. Which of the following gives the order in which precipitates will form.Compound Ksp at 25 oC FeS 6. as Na2S is steadily added to the solution. MnS b) MnS. MnS. of CaF2 is 4 X10-11.6 X10-39.33 X10-18 PbS 8. FeS. Which of the following expressions is equal to the solubility of CaF2? a) √(4 X10-11) M b) √(2 X10-11) M c) 3√(4 X10-11) M d) 3√(2 X10-11) M e) 3√(1 X10-11) M .10 e) 1.10 M BaCl2 solution is a) 1. and Mn2+ ions. a) FeS. Ksp.03 X10-13 o A solution at 25 C contains Fe2+.0 X 10-5 c) 7.6 X10-39) b) 3√(1.6 X10-9) in 0. PbS.6 X10-39) / 27] 81) The molar solubility of BaCO3 (Ksp = 1. from first to last. Pb2+. PbS e) PbS. FeS. MnS 80) 83) The solubility product of Fe(OH)3 is 1.6 X10-39) / 9] d) √(27 X 1.4 X 10-4 d) 0.6 X10-39) c) 4√[(1. Which of the following mathematical expressions represents the molar solubility of iron III hydroxide? a) √(1.6 X10-39) e) 4√[(1. PbS d) MnS.03 X10-28 MnS 1. PbS. FeS c) FeS.

A silver sulfate precipitate formed and nearly all of the silver ions disappeared from the solution.012 M 85) A student added 1 liter of a 1.84) HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq) Onehalf liter of a 0.0 ml of a 0. What is the minimum number of moles of Pb(C2H3O2)2 that the student must add to the solution in order to precipitate out all of the I.30 e) 0.60 d) 0.ions as PbI2? a) 2.0 ml of a 0.20 molar HCl solution is mixed with one-half liter of a 0. what is the mass of AgCl produced? a) 14 grams b) 28 grams c) 42 grams d) 70 grams e) 84 grams 86) A beaker contains 150.20 M solution of MgCl2 is added to the beaker. Which of the following lists the ions remaining in the solution in order of decreasing concentration? a) [SO42-] > [C2H3O2-] > [Na+] b) [C2H3O2-] > [Na+]> [SO42-] c) [C2H3O2-] > [SO42-] > [Na+] d) [Na+] > [SO42-] >[C2H3O2-] e) [Na+] > [C2H3O2-] > [SO42-] 87) A student added 0.20 c) 0.40 molar solution of AgNO3.0 M Na2SO4 solution to 1 liter of a 1.20 mol of NaI and 0. If 50.050 M d) 0.20 M Pb(NO3)2 solution.15 . what will be the final concentration of Pb2+ ions in the solution? a) 0.40 mol of KI to 3 liters of water to create an aqueous solution. If the reaction goes to completion.0 M Ag(C2H3O2) solution.025 M e) 0. A reaction occurs forming a precipitate as shown above.20 M b) 0.40 b) 1.10 M c) 0.

a precipitate will form. what is the minimum number of moles of calcium chloride.250 M Ca(NO3)2? Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) → CaCO3(s) + 2 H+(aq) a) 560 ml b) 560 L c) 280 ml d) 1.4 X10-3 mol d) 1.2 X10-5 mol c) 2.4 X10-5 a) 2. AgCl(s) ↔ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Will a precipitate be formed. d) Yes.88) A 40. Ksp for CaSO4 = 2.001 M KCl are mixed? a) No.3 c) 11. CaCl2.8 90) Approximately what volume of carbon dioxide. 89) In a 1. b) Yes.8 X10-10. is needed to precipitate all the calcium ions in a 100 ml sample of 0. At what pH will iron (III) hydroxide begin to precipitate from this solution? (Ksp [Fe(OH)3] = 1. c) No. if equal volumes of 0.2 X 10-3 mol e) 0. because the product of [Ag+(aq)] and [Cl(aq)] exceeds the value of Ksp.7 d) 36 e) 5.0 mg sample of pure iron III sulfate (molecular mass = 400) is dissolved in 1 L of acidified water. that can be added to the solution before the precipitate calcium sulfate forms? Assume that the addition of calcium chloride has a negligible effect on the total volume of the solution. e) No.4 X 10-5 mol b) 1.01 mol . because the product of [Ag+(aq)] and [Cl-(aq)] exceeds the value of Ksp. because the equilibrium will shift to the right. at STP.6 X10-39) a) 1.0 L sample of 0. because molar concentration of potassium ions should be increased for precipitation. If a base such as sodium hydroxide is added.001 M AgNO3 and 0.01 M potassium sulfate. K2SO4.12 L e) 280 L 91) Consider the following equilibrium with a Ksp value of 1. because AgCl is a non-electrolyte.6 b) 2.

What happens when the hot solution is cooled to 25 oC? a) None of the KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. d) Bubbles of ammonia gas form. The addition of which of the following substances to the solution would cause more solid barium hydroxide to dissolve into the solution? a) NaOH b) HCl c) NaCl d) BaCl2 e) NH3 98) Which of the following is the least soluble? a) CaSO4 Ksp = 9. e) The pH of the solution decreases. A solution prepared at a higher temperature contains 28 g of dissolved KNO3 in 50 g water.92) Which of the following occurs when excess concentrated NH3(aq) is mixed thoroughly with 0.0 10-6 c) NiCO3 Ksp = 6.1 10-6 b) BaF2 Ksp = 1. c) 18 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution.4 10-28 94) Very fine precipitates are most easily separated by a) distillation b) filtration c) centrifugation d) evaporation e) vacuum filtration . 95) Which of the following techniques is most appropriate for the recovery of solid KNO3 from an aqueous solution of KNO3? a) Paper chromatography b) Filtration c) Titration d) Electrolysis e) Evaporation to dryness 96) A yellow precipitate forms when 0.5 M NaI(aq) is added to a 0. d) 10 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. c) The color of the solution turns from light blue to dark blue.1 M Cu(NO3)2(aq)? a) A dark red precipitate forms and settles out.5 M solution of which of the following ions? a) Pb2+(aq) b) Zn2+(aq) c) CrO42-(aq) d) SO42-(aq) e) OH-(aq) 93) The solubility of KNO3(s) at 25 oC is 36 g per 100 g water. b) Separate layers of immiscible liquids form with a blue layer on top.1 10-4 e) Sn(OH)2 Ksp = 1. e) 20 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. b) All 28 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution.6 10-14 d) CaCrO4 Ksp = 7. 97) A solid piece of barium hydroxide is immersed in water and allowed to come to equilibrium with its dissolved ions.

The Ka for acetic acid is 1.200 M acetic acid solution after the following volumes of 0. a) 10.99) Which of the following will be classified as a precipitation reaction? a) CaO + SO3 → CaSO4 b) 2 NaHSO4 → Na2SO4 + SO3 + H2O c) CaCl2(aq) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → 2 AgCl(s) + Ca(NO3)2(aq) d) SnCl2 + PbCl4 → SnCl4 + PbCl2 e) H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 → MgSO4 + 2 H2O Written Questions: 1) Calculate the pH of 30.200 M NaOH have been added.8 X10-5.0 mL c) 35.0 mL of 0.0 mL .0 mL b) 15.

. HI) in aqueous solutions show no difference in acidity. A laboratory worker reports observed pH values of –0. HBr. What accounts for the different observations in water and nonaqueous solvents? b) The pH scale can be used to indicate the availability of hydronium ions in aqueous solutions. Are these values realistic? Justify your answer. and give examples that support your answer.2) a) The binary acids (HCl. The hydronium ion concentration is related to pH by the following equation [H3O+] = 10-pH.1 and zero. These three acids in a nonaqueous solvent like acetone or glacial acetic acid are observed to have the following order of acid strength: HI > HBr > HCl.

ions are introduced into each solution. Ba(NO3)2. What would an experimenter expect to observe when each of the following procedures is performed on each of the solutions? a) The pH of each solution is measured. KCl Aqueous solutions of equal concentration of the three compounds listed above are prepared. d) The freezing point of each solution is measured and the three temperatures are compared. .3) NaC2H3O2. b) Pb2+ ions are introduced into each solution. c) SO42.

4) Give explanations in terms of Lewis structures. ClO31-. and apparent oxidation numbers. HClO2? b) What are the predicted relative base strengths for ClO41-. electronegativity differences. HClO3. ClO21-? . a) What is the explanation for the decreasing acid strength in the following series of acids: HClO4.

HSO4-. What was the pH at the equivalence point? .20-molar solution of acetic acid. has a pH of 2. ml of a 0. 6) a) b) c) A 0.2 X10-8. ml of sodium hydroxide solution was added to 200.5) a) b) c) d) e) Give a brief explanation for each of the following: Water can act either as an acid or a base. Ka1 is 7. [OH-]. Ka. or H2SO3.00? Assume that the volume of the solution is not changed by the addition of sodium acetate. 100. HC2H3O2. at a temperature of 25 oC. for acetic acid at 25 oC? How many moles of sodium acetate must be added to 500. ml of a 0.200-molar solution of acetic acid in order to create a buffer with a pH of 4. Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration. Pure HCl is not an acid. What is the value of the acid ionization constant.5 X 10-3 whereas Ka2 is 6. d) In a titration experiment.400-molar solution of acetic acid to reach the equivalence point. HF is a weaker acid than HCl. HClO4 is a stronger acid than HClO3. For the triprotic acid H3PO4.73.

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K1. Calculate the value of the first dissociation constant.78 X10-6 a) What volume of 0. a strong acid is added until the pH is 0.400-molar NaOH is required to neutralize completely a 5.7) The overall dissociation of oxalic acid. H2C2O4.5.40 X10-5. is 6. H2C2O4 ↔ 2 H+ + C2O42K = 3. e) For Ka1 what pH range can H2C2O4 and NaHC2O4 be used as a buffer. . (Assume the change in volume is negligible. Kb. for the reaction that occurs when solid NaC2O4 is dissolved in water. The overall dissociation constant is also indicated. is represented below.) d) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant. c) To a 0.015-molar solution of oxalic acid.00 X10-3 mole sample of pure oxalic acid? b) Give the equations representing the first and second dissociations of oxalic acid. K2. Calculate the [C2O42-] in the resulting solution. for oxalic acid if the value of the second dissociation constant.

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b) Which of the following indicators would be the best choice for the titration of a 1. and pH ranges are listed below. Describe the importance of choosing the proper indicator for a specific acid-base titration.0 X10-7) with a strong base like sodium hydroxide? What will be the color of the solution at the endpoint for this indicator? The identities of indicators.6 color change yellow-red yellow-red red-yellow colorless-red .8) a) Distinguish between endpoint and equivalence point of a titration.0-9. their color changes.1 6.6 8.0 N weak acid solution (Ka = 5.8 3. Indicator Methyl orange Methyl red Phenol red Phenolphthalein pH range 2.8-3.8-6.8-8.

0180 M NH3(aq) was placed in a flask and titrated to the equivalence point and beyond using 0.0 mL of 0. i) Determine the volume of 0.0120 M HCl(aq) was added. Kb. d) Determine the percent ionization of NH3 in 0. assume that temperature is constant at 25 oC and that volumes are additive. ii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 15. In 0. ammonia reacts as represented above.0 mL of 0. .0120 M HCl(aq). for NH3(aq).0120 M HCl(aq) was added. In answering the following.9) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) In aqueous solution. c) Determine the value of the base ionization constant. a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction represented above. b) Determine the pH of 0.0120 M HCl(aq) that was added to reach the equivalence point. the hydroxide ion concentration.0180 M NH3(aq). a 20. [OH-]. e) In an experiment. iii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 40.0180 M NH3(aq).60 X10-4 M.0180 M NH3(aq) at 25 oC. is 5.0 ml sample of 0.

set up) the calculations necessary to determine the concentration of the NaOH solution. phenolphthalein indicator solution. it is used to titrate a weak monoprotic acid. . dry 50 ml buret. KHP. c) After the NaOH solution has been standardized. b) Describe (i..10) An approximately 0.1-molar solution of NaOH is to be standardized by titration. to standardize the NaOH solution. 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask. potassium hydrogen phthalate. using the materials listed above. a pure solid monoprotic acid (to be used as the primary standard) a) Briefly describe the steps you would take. analytical balance. HX. In the space provided below. was bottle filled with distilled water. Clearly label the equivalence point on the curve.0 ml of NaOH solution has been added. The equivalence point is reached when 25.e. sketch the titration curve. Assume that the following materials are available: Clean.0 mL. showing the pH changes that occur as the volume of NaOH solution added increases from 0 to 35.

Ka. . with the standardized NaOH solution. for the weak acid HX could be determined from the titration curve in part (c). Identify the negative ion that is present in the highest concentration at the point in the titration represented by the letter A on the curve. H2Y. e) The graph below shows the results obtained by titrating a different weak acid.d) Describe how the value of the acid-dissociation constant.

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On the curve. like HCl. d) While the student was performing her first trial. sketch an approximate representation of the titration curve for the experiment. label the equivalence point. NaOH. HA. b) Discuss at least two ways in which the sketch in (a) differs from the plot that would result from the titration of a strong.0) or phenolphthalein (pH range 8. she dispensed 50. monoprotic.0).2-10. but her analyte (acid) still had not changed color. a) On the graph that is provided below. solution.8-6. c) The student has a choice between the two indicators: methyl red (pH range 4.0 ml of titrant (base) from her buret (the maximum). monoprotic acid. What is the most likely source of her error (assume that she did put an indicator in the analyte)? e) How would the graph in (a) be different from that of a titration between a weak base and a strong acid? . with a sodium hydroxide.11) A student performed a titration of a weak. Which should she choose? Justify your response.

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0 X10-5 M Na2C2O4. d) If CaC2O4 is placed in a 0. is 6.0 mL of 0. Ksp. e) If 50.12) The solubility of calcium oxalate.0 mL of 1.1 X 10-3 g per liter at 25 oC.10 M CaCl2 solution.0025 M CaCl2 is added to 50. and calculate its value. CaC2O4. will any calcium oxalate precipitate? . b) Write a balanced equation for the solubility equilibrium. a) Determine the molar solubility of CaC2O4 at 25 oC. c) Write the expression for the solubility product constant. and show calculations to support your answer. how will this affect the molar solubility? Explain.

0 milliliters of 0. Ksp.35. iii) Calculate the value of the solubility-product constant. 50. for Cu(OH)2 at 25 o C. . ii) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of Cu(OH)2 at 25 oC. Calculate the molar concentration of Zn2+(aq) in the resulting solution once equilibrium has been established. for Zn(OH)2 is 7. b) The value of the solubility-product constant. milliliters of solution at 25 oC. i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the dissociation of Cu(OH)2(s) in aqueous solution.13) Solve the following problem related to the solubility equilibria of some metal hydroxides in aqueous solution.100 M Zn(NO3)2 is mixed with 50.300 M NaOH. ii) At 25 oC. a) The solubility of Cu(OH)2(s) is 1.72 X10-6 gram per 100. Assume that the volumes are additive. Ksp.0 milliliters of 0.7 X10-17 at 25 oC. i) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of Zn(OH)2 at 25 oC in a solution with a pH of 9.

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14) Lead iodide is a dense. for PbI2 is 7.∆H = +46. Ksp. what would be the effect on the concentration of I. What is the initial effect on the value of ∆G of adding a small amount of Pb(NO3)2 to the system at equilibrium? Explain. golden yellow.in the solution? Explain. d) At equilibrium. ∆G = 0. PbI2(s) ↔ Pb2+ + 2 I. At 25 oC. slightly soluble solid. what would be the effect on the value of Ksp? Explain. .1 X10-9 at 25 oC. c) If additional solid PbI2 were added to the system at equilibrium. lead iodide dissolves in water forming a system represented by the following equation.5 kilojoules The solubility-product constant. a) How does the entropy of the system PbI2(s) + H2O(l) change as PbI2(s) dissolves in water at 25 oC? b) If the temperature of the system were lowered from 25 oC to 15 oC.

c) Calculate the pH of a solution made by combining 40. The aciddissociation constant.0 milliliters of 0.0 milliliters of 0.+ H+ Hypochlorous acid. b) Write the correctly balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when NaOCl is dissolved in water and calculate the numerical value of the equilibrium constant for the reaction.14-molar solution of HOCl. HOCl.20-molar HOCl to obtain a buffer solution that has a pH of 7. for the reaction represented above is 3. a) Calculate the [H+] of a 0. Ka.49? Assume that the addition of the solid NaOH results in a negligible change in volume.0 milliliters of 0.15) HOCl ↔ OCl. . d) How many millimoles of solid NaOH must be added to 50.56-molar NaOH. is a weak acid commonly used as a bleaching agent.2 X 10-8.14-molar HOCl and 10.

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and (2) the equilibrium law for this process.8 X10-10.0280 g per liter at 25 oC.16) The solubility of silver chromate. b) The equilibrium constant for the equilibrium law in part (a) is called the Ksp. is 0. The molar mass of silver chromate is 331. Determine the value of the Ksp. AgCl. c) The Ksp for silver chloride.8. Ag2CrO4. is 1. What is the minimum concentration of Na2CrO4 needed to form a precipitate of Ag2CrO4 in a saturated AgCl solution? d) How many grams of silver chromate can dissolve in 750 ml of a solution that is 0.00200 M in Na2CrO4? What does this problem illustrate? . a) Write (1) the chemical equation for the dissociation of silver chromate.

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