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Title: The Starrett book for machinists' apprentices, 1917
Authors: Howard P. Fairfield & Carl S. Dow
192 pages, about 17MB.
Title: The Starrett book for machinists' apprentices, 1917
Authors: Howard P. Fairfield & Carl S. Dow
192 pages, about 17MB.

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Published by: mvs38j2 on Dec 20, 2010
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George Davidson

R9 _T Q1


Pr.ofessor of Geography University of tTafifdrrfia




"^jS -^




Editor-in-chief Practical Mechanical Engineering Editor-in-chief Practical Shop Work PRICE. STARRETT COMPANY The World's Greatest Toolmakers ATHOL. B. Worcester Polytechnic Institute AND CARL S. DOW. 50 CENTS THE L. FAIRFIELD i * Machine Construction.IHE STARRETT BOOK for MACHINISTS' APPRENTICES BY HOVARD Assistant Professor P. MASSACHUSETTS . S. S.


To become skilled in laying out should be the aim of every apprentice. are the penalties of mistakes. No one can consider himself a skilled machinist unless he can lay out his own work and.INTRODUCTION Laying out work preliminary to machining is transWhile ferring blue-print instructions on to the metal. The apprentice. Attention to details and extreme care are of utmost imIncreased labor cost. M510983 . The number of measuring and laying out tools or instruments now purchasable is very great and the apprentice must become familiar with practically all of them. Close observation of pieces laid out by skilled machinists is one way of becoming acquainted with the art. Possessing this skill gives more opportunity to show ability than the running of a machine. It is a qualification one must have for advanced positions such as toolmaker. wasted because of errors in laying out. or superintendent. foreman. He must know what he can accomplish with each so that he will instinctively select those best suited to the job in hand. lines laid out on the metal are to be worked to and must therefore be accurate. The fortunate apprentice may also have opportunity to observe a skilled machinist while laying out various jobs. and an acquaintance with machinists' fine tools and shop operations. the blue-print gives dimensions accurately. lay out work for the less experienced. as well as material portance. should lose no opportunity to make himself capable of laying out work. But laying out requires some knowledge of mathe- matics. some skill at mechanical drawing. when called upon. without any great precision in the drawing itself. then.


the less the bench will be littered with tools which may be used only occasionally. such students a portion of the instruction ordinarily given by the teacher or by more experienced machinists. combines a rule. The combination set. freedom from the borrowing habit. and combination set. should be among those ready for use. him hold a job in hard times and is one of the best assets a man can have when applying for a job. protractor. center square. The fewer the tools used. Next to having a complete outfit of fine tools is the disposition on the part of the apprentice to add the best he can afford them. The tools in a machinist's tool-box are a sure indicaA well-fitted kit of fine tools helps tion of his ability. and level.THE STARRETT BOOK of time in laying out is another element of Time-saving tools. Economy success. and a determination to do work which will demand recognition. provided the ones at hand are really good ones. for instance. In preparing this book. the aim has been to select those elementary features most essential to the advancement of machinists' apprentices and students in techniIt is intended to give cal and manual training schools. height gage. depth gage. . The possession of many fine tools indicates a love for accurate work. such as the dial test indicator. quick-acting micrometer. square. It will also serve as a reference book for data not to tools as rapidly as be memorized. miter.


screws. therefore where a machine has a number of more or less complicated motions. and machinist. and necessary to the erecting of the machine.READING WORKING DRAWINGS Drawing is the language of the engineer. as if a part of the stock had been sliced away to more clearly illustrate the interior construction. operations to be performed." Position of "section" is shown by a full line drawn through a "view" and lettered at each end. On these are tabulated all bolts. it is often termed the Assembled or Assembly Drawing. Certain conventions relating to views. one-quarter or one-half size. . BOLT AND SCREW LISTS. and should consist of sufficient views to be easily read. are what make up the language of drawings. etc.. lines. etc. SECTIONAL DRAWINGS show certain assembled portions. and the correct use of A set of working drawings these is readily learned. for example. such as dimensions." or "details. designer. often termed "sections.. which are common to the stockroom. they are often termed "detail. Unless a machinist can at least read working drawings he cannot be known as a skilled mechanic. MOTION DIAGRAMS. number of pieces. consists of the entire machine the parts located in their proper relation to one This drawing is usually made to a reduced another. showing all with used. motion diagrams are provided. and other representations. In practice some firms group several details upon a single sheet others place a single detail upon a sheet. and direction of motion. scale. DETAIL DRAWINGS show each part of the machine separately. material GENERAL DRAWING. velocity ratios. Instruction is sometimes necessary concerning the relation of certain centers to the motion of parts." A detail drawing should be supplied with complete data for constructing the part. sections. scales.



for sections various combinations of full and dotted lines and special spacings. each view centering on either a horizontal or a vertical center line. Where convenient. different materials of construction. length. Broken lines. The draftsman of necessity makes use of some method of projection to get his various views on a flat surface on which only two dimensions can be shown the method of projection in machine-shop use places the front view with the other views grouped around in the order of their names. etc. indicate center lines. and equally spaced. all drawings are made By using actual size. can be indicated. 10 When the object is too . as top view above.. Dotted lines indicate hidden or invisible lines and edges. FULL LINE DOTTED 1TINE CENTER LINE DIMENSION LINE SHADE LINE LINES. such as cast iron. Dimension lines are usually full lines with a break in the line for dimension figures and an arrow head at each end to indicate the surfaces dimensioned. made up of All lay-outs dots and dashes. bottom view below. termed full scale.THE STARRETT BOOK VIEWS.. they are usually drawn at an inclination of 45 or 60. Full lines on a drawing indicate the visible lines or edges of the object. etc. breadth. Section lines are parallel lines drawn across a surface which is represented as being in section. SCALES. All material things have three dimensions. should start from center lines. and thickness or height. steel.

and IV " to 1 foot. called a reduced The usual scales are full-size. meas- BRASS OR BRONZE WHITE ALLOYS ALUMINUM LEAD ZINC 11 . 6". 3".THE STARRETT BOOK large to be conveniently represented full size. scale drawing. half-size. also known as 12". quarter-size. and eighth-size. the drawing is made to a regularly reduced size. When working from drawings the 2 dimension figures should be invariably followed urements should not be taken from the drawing.

abbreviated as follows: a drawing is.THE STARRETT BOOK ABBREVIATIONS. CONVENTIONAL ABBREVIATIONS Finish: to Surface be finished is . All information on when possible.

and volume. of which two copies are owned by the United States Government. of length is the common tance. straight . which is the French standard of length. THE YARD. FLAT WORK In general the worker on 13 flat work will need to be provided with steel rules. and ness. however. In machine-shop practice the measurement one. that many of the inches. or the inch. than this are. This is of such impormeasurements are of such exacta multitude of measuring tools are being marketed. The practical machinist and toolmaker divides his work into two classes While it can(a) Flat Work and (b) Round Work. of which the ten-thousandth part is the shortMeasurements shorter est practical shop measurement. : not be said that each class has its distinctive line of measuring tools.37 notably in instrument work.THE STARRETT BOOK MEASURING TOOLS Measurements in general are those of length. is also coming into use in the United States. nearly all of which are for the main purpose of obtaining linear measurements. The use of measuring tools in machine work is largely confined to the thirty-sixth subdivision of the yard. The inch is subdivided into various lengths. In the United States the Standard of length is the British yard. area. The meter equals 39. common enough in scientific laboratory work. the workman who handles flat work only will usually have a somewhat different set of measuring tools from the workman on round work. dividers. protractors. THE METER.

THE STARRETT BOOK Combination Set Toolmakers' Calipers 14 Micrometer Depth Gage .

afterward using the steel rule or standard gage to read the size.00025". toolmakers. In the human hand prominent in the finger-tips. and thickness gages. as.THE STARRETT BOOK edges. slide calipers. the sense of touch is highly developed. In the case of skilled workmen.: by first setting the contact points to the surfaces of the work. the sense of touch is most Therefore the contact measuring tool should be held 15 by . center punches. or a standard gage. Contact measurements are made in two ways: (a) The contact some standard of length. (b) The reverse of this method may be used for determining sizes. tool is first set to "FEEL" The accuracy contact of all measurements is dependent upon the sense of touch (feel). the skilled mechanic can readily "feel" the difference in contact made by changes of dimensions as small as 0. The "set" dimension may then be used as a standard for testing the work. etc. Using suitable contact measuring tools. for example. a steel rule. parallels. depth. ROUND WORK For round work the measurements are by contact. surface. height. and the usual tools are those having contact points. steel squares. for example. viz. as.

If the tool is harshly grasped by the fingers.THE STARRETT BOOK the fingers only. FRONT 16 . For this reason the tool should be delicately and lightly held instead of gripped tightly. the sense of touch or feel is much reduced. for this reason mechanics prefer to use direct reading tools Two methods of for the more accurate contact work. While it is possible to transfer by "feel" a length with an error not exceeding one-quarter of one thousandth inch. VERNIER CALIPERS a combination of contact points and of the contact points is a fixed part of a graduated steel rule. and in such a way as to bring it in contact with the finger-tips. direct readings of one-thousandth part of an inch are This tool rules. the results are not always easily read. By combining the use of the separate scales. The more common tools for contact measurements are inside and outside calipers. direct reading are in common use. is steel One readily made. used in conjunction with steel rules. while the other contact point is a part of a graduated slider mounted upon the blade of the first. and dimension blocks. plug and ring gages.

ily 17 . its use is extended to include making accurate measurements of depth. The tool is thus rendered particularly de^^-*~" sirable for use in jig-making for the depth of a recess inside the jig frame may be read- '1 obtained. accurate measurements of height must be obtained. By means of suitable adjustments. The removable jaw allows the user to make reverse measurements on the jig frame.THE STARRETT BOOK VERNIER HEIGHT GAGE Another adaptation of the vernier is the height gage. This instrument is used chiefly where close. By means of the vernier it is easy to make readings as minute as one thousandth part of an inch. method of using is clearly shown on page 105 where it is used in finding the the center to center distance of a pair of jig buttons. one of which is shown on the accompanying illustration.


The great accuracy of the micrometer screw becomes evident when it is realized that threaded spindles with a limit of error of 0. convenience. and instruments of this type in a variety of styles and of the highest degree shaped of accuracy. Micrometer screws are mounted in a frame which may be varied in shape and size to render it convenient for the desired purposes. and finish are purchasable. Suitable graduations made axially on the threaded sleeve combined with the graduations on the edge of the rotating thimble give direct readings of one-thousandth part of one inch. threaded forty to the inch. 19 . having an enclosing thimble fastened to its outer end.THE STARRETT BOOK MICROMETER CALIPERS With the invention of the micrometer screw there came into use a new method of direct readings in contact measurements. for either inside or outside measurements. In micrometer construction with a used length of screw thread of one inch A micrometer head cononly.001" in one-foot lengths are commercially possible. The contact points are also to the particular use desired. fitted through a threaded sleeve. For measurement by thousandths up to one-half inch. By means of a vernier scale used on the rear of the sleeve direct contact readings as small as one ten-thousandth part of one inch can be readily made. sists of a spindle. the error is negligible.

the chances for mistaking one graduation for another also increase so that some other method of determining extremely accurate measurements must be devised.THE STARRETT BOOK Micrometer Measurements The limit of accuracy obtained by measuring between contacts depends on the graduations on the instrument. It is evident that as the fineness of the graduation increases. 20 . for making such measurements is known as a combines the double contact of the slide calipers with a screw adjustment which may be read with great accuracy. The commpn instrument It micrometer-caliper.

and add the number of divisions on the bevel of to the line which coincides with the the thimble.THE STARRETT BOOK HOW TO READ A MICROMETER The pitch of the screw threads on the concealed part of the spindle is forty to an inch. multiply the number of vertical divisions visible on the sleeve by twentyfive. The sleeve D is marked with forty lines to the inch. etc.025 or one-fortieth of an inch. and every fifth line is numbered. Rotating it two divisions indicates two thousandths. therefore. The beveled edge of the thimble is marked in twentyfive divisions. or one tenth. 1. therefore. Each vertical line indicates a distance of one-fortieth of an inch. moves it lengthwise one fortieth (or twenty-five thousandths) of an inch. Every fourth line is made longer than the others. 3. and is numbered 0. corresponding to the number of threads on the spindle. from to 25. from line indicates a 21 . Each numbered distance of four times one-fortieth of an inch. or one thousandth of an inch. 2. To read the micrometer. One complete revolution of the spindle. Rotating the thimble from one of these marks to the next moves the spindle longitudinally one twentyfifth of twenty-five thousandths. . etc. Twenty-five divisions will indicate a complete revolution.

etc. in the engraving. the Vernier has been moved to the right one and four-tenths and one-fortieth inches .) HOW TO READ A VERNIER Readings in ten thousandths of an inch on caliper squares. then note the number of divisions on the Vernier from to a line which exactly coincides with a line on the scale. note how many inches. The micrometer is open one hundred and seventy-eight thousandths.. (7 X 25 = 175 and 175 + 3 = 178. The difference between one of the twenty-five spaces and one of the twenty-four spaces is one twenty-fifth of one-fortieth. named from Pierre Vernier. or one thousandth of an inch. the scale on the tool is graduated in fortieths of an inch (0.THE STARRETT BOOK horizontal line on the sleeve. On the Vernier plate is a distance divided into twenty-five parts.025) the is from the mark on the scale. Multiply this number by twenty-five. For the Vernier caliper. and add the number of divisions shown on the bevel of the thimble. 3.100). tenths (or mark on the Vernier . and fortieths (or . To read the tool. micrometers.25). there are seven divisions visible on the sleeve. and these twenty-five divisions occupy the same distance as twenty-four divisions on the scale. In the engraving above. who invented the device in 1631. For example. are obtained by the use of a Vernier.

and onetenth of one-thousandth equals One ten-thousandth. and the readings will be . first note the thousandths as in the ordinary micrometer. as shown on the scale. In this case. therefore. which is the distance the jaws have been opened. HOW TO READ A VERNIER MICROMETER Readings in ten thousandths of an inch are obtained by the use of a Vernier. we add seven to the reading of the ordinary micrometer. Line marked "7" on the sleeve coincides with a line on the thimble and. Eleven thousandths of an inch are. Then observe the line on the sleeve which coincides with a line on the In the diagram shown above there are nine thimble. This seven is seven ten-thousandths (. The difference between the width of one of the ten spaces and one of the nine spaces is one-tenth of a THIMBLE LO ON THE MICROMETER O I I JJ'I J I I division on the thimble. which operates on the same principle as the Vernier on the caliper. Now each division on the thimble represents one-thousandth of an inch. and 9 X 25 = 225.THE STARRETT BOOK (1.425"). therefore. and the total reading is one and four hundred and thirty-six thousandths inches (1. ten divisions on the sleeve occupy the distance of nine divisions on the thimble. vertical divisions visible on the sleeve.2257.0007). so that the reading of the ordinary micrometer would be .225. . however. To read a ten-thousandth micrometer.436"). to be added to the reading on the scale. and the eleventh line on the Vernier coincides with a line on the scale.

'V' The '.312 L/M7S Has lock stop.THE STARRETT BOOK Half-Inch Micrometer JHHsflHiE h-r-izsl For measurement by thousandths up to one-half inch. 24 .062S i 3 . for use in places where the ordinary anvil is too long to be inserted. Six-Inch Micrometer For measuring round work to 4% inches and flat work to 6 inches. anvil is shortened.16 \S . ta^u. nut and ratchet Quick-Adjusting Micrometer Has ratchet stop and lock nut.

fine adjustments may be made in the usual way. keeping it central and true. Turning the lock nut contracts a split bushing around the spindle. MICROMETER AS A GAGE. the readjustment is accomplished by various means depending upon the kind of micrometer. When slight wear makes correction necessary. By means of a knurled lock nut the spindle can be firmly fixed in position. A micrometer having the quick-adjusting feature can be instantly opened or closed to any size within its capacity. When the finger is removed. Pressure of the finger on the end of the plunger allows the spindle to move instantly to the desired size without turning the thimble.THE STARRETT BOOK OPERATION AND ADJUSTMENT OF MICROMETERS QUICK MEASUREMENTS. With the Starrett micrometer the anvil is fixed. 25 . not movable. This feature does away with the frequent use of a test piece. making the micrometer a solid gage. READJUSTMENT FOR WEAR. and correction is quickly made by inserting a spanner wrench and turning until the line on the sleeve coincides with the zero on the thimble.

edge 64ths. edge 32ds.002". widths. For either outside or inside measurements they may be set to or they may be read to a graduated steel rule. The makers term the various subdivisions of the inch by graduation numbers. .THE STARRETT BOOK TRANSFERRING MEASUREMENTS Transferring a measurement may be a delicate job or not. edge 8ths. for transferring measurements are steel rules and spring calipers. In. 3d. down. 4 Graduation. whether those of inside or outside surfaces. 2d. to make two opposite contact points. By means of sliding or fixed attachments a great variety of length measurements may be made with the ordinary steel rule. STEEL RULES These are thin blades of steel of varying lengths. edge 16ths. usually graduated in inches and various subdivisions of the inch upon each edge of both sides and often at the ends. In this way a workman can transWhere fer lengths with an error of less than 0. With these tools. the distance between being controlled by a screw which works against a tension spring. SPRING CALIPERS The most commonly used tool for contact measurements is the ordinary spring caliper.shop language this is called making-outside-or-inside measThe legs of the spring caliper are curved urements. 4th. which is used for measuring over surfaces or between surfaces. No. are made the bulk of common machine-shop measurements. and thicknesses. wholly depending upon the degree of accuracy The most common of all machine-shop tools sought. either in combination or used separately. for example. 1st.

" strips. better still. The degree of accuracy of contact is dependent upon what the workman terms "feel. or." To accurately transfer a dimension with spring calipers the sense of "feel" must be well developed by the workman. can be set to dimensions either larger or smaller than sired. both for inside and outside work. fixed gages are the gages used by introducing thickness strips between the contact points and the over or inside surfaces. steel thickness gages or Calipering Over 27 a Flange .THE STARRETT BOOK specially accurate spring caliper measurements are deused for setting the contact points. thin tissue-paper may be used as thickness " feelers. Spring calipers. for the contact points are at the ends of very slender arms. Hard.

circles or arcs. known as a Universal Divider. magnifying glass is a wonderful help for the accurate transfer of dimension with dividers. a certain A delicacy of touch is essential. however. enter to such an " Feel does not extent into the " transfer of dimensions spring dividers as it when does using with spring calipers.THE STARRETT BOOK SPRING DIVIDERS In this tool the contacts are points at the ends of Dividers are used for measuring dimensions between lines or points. . for the points do not then incline to the surfaces worked upon. If a considerable length is to be transferred. for transferring lengths taken direct from a graduated steel rule. or for scribing straight legs. it is best to use the type where the points are adjustable along a bar.

contact with sufficient firmness to hold them together under ordinary use. The journal bearings of spindles. while in either journal bearings or in flat sliding bearings it is essential that certain accurate contact between head are classed those become in use as if 29 . and in all cases certain limiting requirements obtain. Under this head may be classed the litting of cross and traversing slides of lathes. as. or forced fit. line shafting. LIMITS. sometimes known as packing strips. are classed under this heading.. drilling machines. SLIDING FIT. crank shafts.THE STARRETT BOOK FITS AND FITTING In machine construction many of the parts bear such a close and important relation to one another. the cutter heads and spindles of numerous woodworking machines. boring machines. and planers. as . such as the tables of grinding and of planing machines. milling machines. In some cases. In the case of running and of sliding bearings a certain amount of hand fitting is necessary to obtain desired results. their weight keeps them in sufficiently close contact. the crank pins and axles in locomotive driving wheels. the fit is classed either as a driving. RUNNING FITS. Under this fits where the separate parts must they were a single piece.well as many other cases. In most of these fits the moving and stationary parts are held in contact with each other by means of adjustable contact strips or gibs. In sliding and running bearings the limits are usually those of alignment and of contact. FORGED FITS AND SHRINK FITS. that a certain amount of hand fitting is essential to make the surface contacts as they should be. shrink. grinding machines. for example. etc. If the surfaces in contact are to move on each other the fit is classed If the surfaces are to make as a sliding or running fit.

also. In the making of shrinkage and forced fits the limits are usually those of size.001" in a foot of length. as. The amount which it is necessary to add to the spindle or shaft diameter must of necessity vary with the length and diameter of the hole. it can be and often is held upon a special slider stand fitted to the vees of the machine. the specifications may limit the pressure to between one hundred to one hundred and fifty tons. These can be of the direct reading contact type. it is customary to make the diameter allowance upon the spindle rather than upon the hole. for example. and other machine parts are to be shrunk on to spindles. tain practice. The following tables give cer- be forced irito holes. The amount of pressure necessary to place the two parts together is the limiting fact in the case of forced fits. In forcing the axles into locomotive driving wheels. hubs. this is 0. spindles. as the micrometer and vernier bar..THE STARRETT BOOK the surfaces shall be made. or of the indirect reading contact type. Where are to pins. However specified. if desired. it in fact reduces to limits of size and the use of measuring tools. in the engine lathe the ways or vees and the cross slide of the tool carriage must be parallel to or at right-angles to the axis of the spindles within set In engine lathe construction the limit set for limits. a straight edge. or direct to the lathe spindle. and the form of the surrounding hub. and there will also be a limit of alignment with other parts of the machine. In testing the parts use is made of the Universal Test Indicator with the needle reading on a dial or upon a sector arm. flanges." AMOUNTS TO LEAVE. the ordinary spring caliper used in conjunction with thickness gages or "feelers. The indicator may be clamped to a test bar. 30 . For example. or where collars. the metals used. etc.

THE STARRETT BOOK Allowances for Different Classes of (Newall Engineering Co.) Fits Table 1 Class .

and money. the TaftPeirce Manufacturing Company has formulated a set of rules which defines the degree of accuracy to be expected in those cases where specifications and drawings do not than the rules provide for. this Company's Engineers will use their best judgment in deciding just what limits it may be advisable to work to. sions a notation referring to the degree of accuracy required must be placed prominently on the drawing. To avoid waste of time. or be definitely covered by written specifications to which reference must be made by notations on the drawings. the Company's Engineers will proceed according may (3) Where dimensions to the dictates of their best judgment as to what limits should be taken. (4) For all important dimensions Decimal figures should be used and limits clearly stated on detail drawIf Decimal figures are not used for such dimenings. unless otherwise ordered. extreme precision may prove too costly for commercial work. are stated in vulgar fractions with no limits of tolerance specified. Full information regarding limits of tolerance should be clearly shown by drawings submitted. assume responsibility for possible excessive cost brought about through working to closer limits than may be necessary nor for permitting greater latitude call for greater precision (1) than subsequently be found to be proper. it will be assumed that a considerable margin for variation from figured dimensions is available.THE STARRETT BOOK LIMITS OF TOLERANCE While it is possible to produce machine parts with measurements refined to any degree of accuracy. The Company will not. lahor. (2) Where the customer fails to supply proper data as to limits. (5) It is frequently necessary to reduce fractions 32 . in any event.

ground. to decimal equivalents. thirty-seconds. (8) The dimensions of internal cylindrical gages. sixteenths.0015 " " Four . but with limits not specified.THE STARRETT BOOK representing fourths.002" to . Standard form of thread will be used for all SPECIAL sizes. and similar work specified to be hardened.0005 " " Five . Standard will be used for numbered sizes below ^4 -inch. or five places and limits are not specified it will be assumed that a limit of plus or minus . When a dimension of this character is expressed in a decimal equivalent and carried out to three. or lapped. such as the location of holes from center to center in jigs. the following variations from dimensions stated may be expected: Two place decimals . and lapped. those which require to be made accurately to definitely specified sizes should be either reamed. S. U. eighths. Standard form of thread and pitches will be used for *4 -inch and all sizes above. S. snap gages. external ring gages. 33 . and other exact work of like character are re- and sixty-fourths "ACCURATE" and quired. (6) Where dimensions are stated in decimal figures derived by other processes than those explained in paragraph five. will be obtained as accurately as the best mechanical practice applying to commercial work of the particular grade specified will permit. (10) U. E.005 plus or minus " Three " . ground. detail drawings should be prominently marked clear instructions be given. A. machine parts.015" (and in some cases even more) over the size of the drill used. In the absence of specifications to the contrary. M. S. four.0015 is permissible unless otherwise ordered. and detail drawings thereof should bear nota- tions accordingly.0002 (7) Where close dimensions. fixtures. (9) As drilled holes vary in size from .


. steel squares. micrometer or vernier height and depth gages. steel straight edges. This is the shop term which includes the placing of lines. It is somewhat analogous to mechanical drawing. and the various center punches. are to be followed exactly.THE STARRETT BOOK BENCH WORK Bench work includes laying out. is accuracy sulphate to four ounces water. the lines. that while a line drawing is seldom scaled and therefore exact accuracy of spacpolishing. hand tapping. circles. scratch gages. should therefore be exactly located and placed. surface gages. end measuring rods. shop jobs is not required. For fine exact layouts a special marking solution must be used. and all scriber. scratch awls. A little nitric acid may with advantage be added. bevel protractors. The one in common shop use is a mixture of one ounce copper PREPARING THE SURFACE. and trammel points. chipping. upon the surface of the work will be sufficient as a coating. while in use. If work of no special desired. in laid out work. etc. hermaphrodite calipers. This solution applied to a cleaned iron or steel surface gives a dull coppered surface. LAYING OUT. cen- ing ters. and the finest line scribed upon it is brilliantly visible. etc. Combined with the scribing points. SCRIBING LINES. It differs in one important respect. Ability to so combine and make use of the various tools 35 . carefully rubbing chalk. may be used steel rules. divider. and centers upon curved or flat surfaces for the guidance of the workman. Particular care must be maintained to insure fine and accurate laying out. and all the many done at the bench or in a vise. hand reaming. All lines. and center points should. levels. circles. filing. or white lead mixed with turpentine.. however. The usual scribing points are those common to dividers. centers. be exact and sharp.


An attached vernier enables the user to read angles to one-twelfth of a degree (five minutes). the tool is usually termed a bevel protractor.THE STARRETT BOOK as to insure accuracy ing-out man. Protractors for common shop use are graduated to degrees through a length of circumference of one hundred and eighty degrees." As oftentimes its use is determining the angle made by two surfaces (a bevel). If LAYING OUT PLATE. and can be used either to measure or to lay off lines at an angle to each other. desirable results are to be 37 . Measuring the angularity of two or more lines with a protractor is termed "reading the angles. is a considerable asset to the lay- PROTRACTORS As made for machine-shop use the common protractor is provided with attached straight edges.

and other tools used around the work. which are then placed upon the leveling plate. The steel from which they are . are of various sorts. The size of these plates varies from those of small areas used in laying out small jigs. Chipping chisels. having sides The work may be laid directly several feet in length. they furnish an accurate plane surface upon which work and tools may be placed. the hammer should be thinned and worked down to a shank that is somewhat flexible. In other cases it is convenient to clamp the work to knee or angle irons. there are still occasions work has to be hand-chipped. flat. ordinarily termed cold chisels. nor over two pounds. roundnose. A chipping hammer should balance well in the hand when fitted to a handle not more than The handle near where it enters sixteen inches long. for example. and may be either of the ball peen or flat peen type. work and the known as leveling. special metal plates tools must be pro- CHIPPING Formerly many of the surfaces of machine parts were hand-chipped and filed to a fit. etc. and the gages. The common chipping tools are a hand hammer and a hand chisel. While the mechanic in the modern shop can usually find methods of machining most of the surfaces he needs to fit up.THE STARRETT BOOK obtained in laying out flat upon which to rest the vided.. upon the surface of the plate or held upon leveling strips or blocks placed on the plate. The face of a good chipping hammer should crown slightly. cape. diamond. squares. or layingout plates. The hand hammer should weigh not less than three-quarters of a pound the when TOOLS USED. work. and gouge chisels. These are surface. and are often known by the shape of the cutting end. so that the shock to the arm and hand will be less. to those for large pieces.

with the cutting end forged to the desired shape. and the temper drawn to a medium blue. at as acute an angle as the nature of the work will permit.THE STARRETT BOOK made should be eighty to ninety point carbon. of octagon cross-section. well packed by the forge hammer. Flatchipping and cape chisels should be ground with straight. hammer end of the chisel should be forged from the octagon to a reduced round but not hardened. hardThe ened. 39 . symmetrical. cutting edges.

0. flat. 2d cut. which does remarkable work of the heavier sorts. No. and in skilled hands surfaces may be made very accurate and smooth. The degrees of coarseness are designated by the following names as rough. Hold the chisel loosely in the hand at an angle with the work that permits an even chip of right depth. as. No. Single-cut files are those having teeth made by single parallel cuts across the face at an angle of twenty-five degrees. (b) by their cross-section. etc... an 8-inch file second cut is coarser than a shorter file bastard cut. for example. (c) by their cut single or double cut. The vision should be directed to the cutting edge of the chisel. FILING essentially a finishing tool. round. triangular. as this rapidly tires the hand and arm. and for other uses have straight sides. rather than at the end struck by the hammer. use is made of the modern pneumatic chipping hammer. knife-edge. this Files are designated thus (a) by their length does not include the tang. file is The for example. (d) by the degree of coarseness. The degree of coarseness varies with the length. to No. coarse. 40 made . In shops which have compressed air. bastard. No. Files for some purposes are made tapered in their length. 1. 00. In double-cut files the teeth are made by break- ing up the single cuts into points by a second cut at an angle with the first. This confuses the user somewhat.THE STARRETT BOOK In hand chipping the hammer handle should be grasped near the end and the hammer swung free from over the shoulder with an easy forearm movement. extra fine files are designated by numbers. Avoid gripping hammer or chisel tightly. etc. and dead smooth. 8. half-round. smooth. square. unless he is familiar with practice.

etc. wood. Used for hoofs. . For very light free-hand filing the work may be much higher. in some cases the height 41 of the shoulders. A common rule is to have it the height of the worker's elbow as he stands erect. This must of necessity vary with the height of the worker. HEIGHT OF WORK.THE STARRETT BOOK Rasp files are those having teeth made by a punch.

position is very important. In heavy filing the point of the file may be grasped by the fingers and the palm of the hand with the palm on top.THE STARRETT BOOK POSITION OF THE HANDS. steel squares. along the length of is tested by the use of steel straight edges. TESTING FLAT FILING. Used to set the grain somewhat smoother than regular cross-filing. file. DRAW FILING. The worker should clasp the file handle with the extended thumb on top. Flat work tors. worker should train his hands. . has direct bearing upon the quality and quantity of the product. and controlled strokes. even. no sense self-guided the worker must train his body to regular controlled motions if he is to do effective work. bevel protrac- A fine grain surface results. and body to carry the file across the work with As the file is in regular. If the worker wishes position also to avoid tiring. The worker should clasp the blade of file near its ends in each hand and then draw the the work. arms. etc. grasping the point with the fingers and thumb of the remaining hand with thumb on top. In hand-filing the held crosswise.

43 . or where brilliancy of finish is desired. journals. They are held in suitable hand or power frames. It is obvious that it requires care and good sense in using a hack-saw blade if good results are expected. Grain abrasives are known by numbers. thin blades of hardened steel with teeth cut along one edge. 30 an ordinary rough file. The finer sizes are often known as flours. which have the necessary adjustments for holding the blade in stiff tension. No. SEVERING METAL WITH HACK SAWS Hack saws are narrow. journal bearings. from : 8 16 and 10 represent the cut of a wood rasp. 40 a bastard file. common grain abrasive is used. 80 100 a superfine file. and are used for severing metal. as. 100. 120F and FF a dead-smooth file. for example. which means that the particles are of a size to readily pass through a sieve having one hundred meshes to the linear inch.THE STARRETT BOOK POLISHING Where a particularly smooth surface is necessary. glued to cloth or leather. etc. If the stock to be cut is both hard and thin. For ordinary polishing of machine parts. for example. as. a smooth file. 60 a second cut-file.. GRADES OF EMERY the grades of emery run and the degree of smoothness of surface they leave may be compared to that left by files as follows The numbers representing 8 to 120. 20 a coarse rough file. particular care is required to avoid injuring the blade. the surfaces are polished with some fine abrasive.

and the user should consider this fact if commercially economical results are desired. The cutting stroke always the pressure stroke. The blade when mounted in a hand-frame should have the cutting-teeth rake for- NO.THE STARRETT BOOK CUTTING SPEED. ward is that is to say. SAWS ward.TOI2 IN. The blade should be under considerable tension when in use. Suitable blades and frames may be purchased for almost every service. and the material is soft steel. Unannealed tool steel should be cut under the above conditions at not to exceed sixty strokes per minute. made 44 . If the saw is used in a power machine. and all tendency to bending the blade avoided. under average conditions and without a lubricant. a cutting speed of fifty to sixty strokes per minute should be maintained. not so with some makes of machines. It must be held in the plane being cut. and the return stroke is as light as convenient without actually lifting the blade from its work. using a suitable lubricant.I45 TAKES 8 IN. MOUNTING THE BLADE. a cutting speed of one hundred strokes per minute may be made. the saw should cut on the forIn machine cutting this is usually so. When hack sawing. but stroke.

The base column carries the working parts and the work-holding vise. and the stroke length of the blade-carrying frame can be adjusted to use the entire blade length. The blade-carry45 . By means of suitable weights. no matter what diameter of bar is being severed. a safety device in the form of a dash pot is connected with the blade-carrying frame to prevent the blade from being dropped suddenly upon the work. To avoid blade breakage through careless handling. or so be to The machine shown above has been especially designed to efficiently operate hack saw blades.THE STARRETT BOOK HACK SAW MACHINE Hack saw blades used in cutting up bar stock structural shapes are much more efficient in a machine designed that its several motions and adjustments can properly controlled. thus getting the full efficient service from each blade. the cutting pressure upon the blade may be regulated according to the material being severed. Such a machine is as sensitive the operator as a hand frame.

to cut cold rolled stock and soft metals. is work adjustments and measurements. No. brass stock and ornamental iron work. No. auto frames. What Hack Saw to Use No. 103B in hand frames. to cut cold rolled shafting and machinery steel. 115 on electrical conduit. light angle and channel iron. No. to cut tool steel. to cut cast steel. No. metals. No. 102 in hand frames. 259 for cutting iron pipe. No. 253 in hand frames. to cut sheets and tubing thinner than 18 gage. 112B for light power machine work on soft steel. 256B for extra heavy power machines. No. cast iron. 255B on high speed machines cutting machinery steel. No.THE STARRETT BOOK ing frame for raised by a foot lever leaving the hands free The cutting lubricant is conveyed to the blade from a tank in the column by means of a small rotary pump. No. etc. 112 for heavy hand frame work and light power machines. No. to cut sheet metal and tubing 16 to 18 gage. pipe. No. on tool steels. 255 on high speed machines cutting tool steels. 46 . 262 for cutting angle iron. etc. tool steels and all solid No. brass stock.256 for extra heavy power machines. No. No. 254 for heavy high speed machines. light structural iron. cast iron. and heavy hand frame work. No. 103 in hand frames. 114 for general work in medium weight power machines. 254B for heavy high speed machines. to cut tool steel.

the point of the drill controls the cutting edges.THE STARRETT ROOK DRILLING DRILLS. type is the spiral-fluted. for enlarging holes already made. or four cut- The two-lip drill is used when drilling solid ting lips. and if the drill is correctly ground the resulting hole will be reasonably round. flattwisted and gun-barrel. 47 . either by coring or by previous drilling. and the size of the drill. and for most purposes the most effiusually of cient. (b) (c) A Cutting lips should be of exactly equal length. known as a twist drill. FORM OF POINT. The three and four lip drills are used for enlarging holes previously cored or drilled. 1 a single cutting lip. In the types referred to all except gun-barrel drills are cone-pointed on the The guncutting end. round. two or more cutting lips cone-pointed depends for its efficient working upon four factors: (a) All the cutting lips shall have the same inclinadrill A of tion to the axis of the drill. When drilling solid stock with a two-lipped drill. proper lip clearance of the surface back of the cutting edges. the drill is guided by its sides and a three or four fluted drill will give better results. barrel drill. tial. three. When a drill is used straight. consisting two cutting edges set at an angle with the The more common types of drills are flat axis. A drill is an end-cutting tool. used when especially straight. Twist drills are made with two. stock. and true holes are essenhas a blunt end with FIG. straight-fluted spiral-fluted The most common.

of the cutting lips. 1. 4 and 5 show how to test the length grinding. (b) the size of the hole. The design of this machine is such. the chips will curl as they start from the cutting FIG. Fig. the drill should advance 48 . To get the best results from drills and drilling machines. if the drill is properly sharpened. A Free-hand grinding results are usually so disappointing that in most machine shops the drills are sharpened in a spemacial drill-grinding chine. FEEDING THE DRILL. Drillings from cast iron should look as in Fig. use the hand-feed at first and observe (a) the chips made by the cutting. 8 shows how the cutting lip is located to correctly grind the edges. but if the cutting lips lack a proper clearance the resulting chips have the appearance of being ground off rather than freely cut. 2 edge. If the cutting lips are shaped to a proper clearance. After sharpening a drill free-hand. If the cutting lips are of uneven length the hole will be enlarged over the diameter of the drill.THE STARRETT ROOK correct angle of lip clearance. 6. and 3 show the result of careless free-hand Figs. 2. and those from steel as in Fig. 7. also their inclination to the axis. 3 cutting lips are made of equal length and of the correct form. (d) Figs. that when it is set for grinding any size of drill the FIG.

they can be greatly exceeded under some conditions. but is less effective than power feeds. 5 Feeding the drill freehand. They are recommended for average conditions. 4 FIG. Table No. This is the surface or peripheral per minute. except for small wire drills. may answer in certain cases. but must be reduced for others. and must be adjusted to suit the conditions under which the work is being performed.THE STARRETT BOOK into the work a definitely regulated amount for each revolution. speed of the drill in feet 49 . 2 gives the feeds per revolution recommended by one manufacturer of drills. The distance which the drill advances per revolution is termed the FEED. FIG. if skilfully done. and is rated at the outer diameter. Under average conditions the peripheral speed recommended for carbon steel drills is thirty feet DRILL SPEED.

the revolutions per minute.THE STARRETT BOOK and for high-speed drills seventy feet to one hundred feet. read across from 1-inch in the left-hand column and under heading 70' find 267. 7 Table No. When the extreme outer corners of the cutting edges wear rapidly it is evidence of too high a surface speed. feet as the selected cutting speed. to forty feet. 6 FIG. 3 gives the revolutions per minute at which to run drills for various cutting or surface For example. 8 60 . FIG. Working conditions may at times cause a change in these figures. FIG. with a 1-inch drill and seventy speeds.

THE STARRETT BOOK Speeds and Feeds for Drilling* High-Speed Steel Drills Table 2 Size of .

It may also be found advisable to vary the speed somewhat according as the material to be drilled is more or less refractory.015 for larger is . We believe that these speeds should not be exceeded under ordinary cir- cumstances. for brass. of Drills Table 3 feed per revolution of . Table of Cutting Speeds Ft.007 to . per Minute . This feed is based on a peripheral speed of a drill equal to 30 feet per minute for steel 35 feet per minute for iron 60 feet per minute : M .004 to .THE STARRETT BOOK The Speed A .007 for drills inch and smaller. and from about all that should be required.

turpentine. For aluminum. For soft steel and wrought iron. Unless the holes when drilled are to match up with other holes or with fixed studs. upon the body Locating the centers for drilled holes work is termed "laying out. Those recommended have stood the test of service For hard and refractory steel. it is : CUTTING COMPOUNDS. laying out and drilling are usually done by the workman. or soda water. usuFor cast iron. and experimental work. or soda water. tool. speeds. kerosene. paraffine oil." On the smaller jobs. kerosene.THE STARRETT BOOK To maintain high cutting necessary to use a lubricant. intersect at the exact desired Assume that the link is to FIG. lard oil. Larger amounts of work warrant a skilled "layer out. : APPROXIMATE and ACCURATE. The practice is to scribe two or more point as lines which shown in Fig. or soda water. For brass. a jet of air if anything is used ally worked dry. the centers must be accurately laid out and scribed upon the surface of the work. turpentine. of the LAYING OUT. For jig. viz." Laying out for drilling comes under two heads. 9. 9 63 . it is enough if the center is laid off with a chalk pencil and a steel rule.

connect two studs. Proceed to scribe two intersecting lines upon one of the hubs, as shown in Fig. 9, using a combination square fitted with a center head. At the intersection accurately place a light center-punch inPlace one leg of a spring divider with its dentation. point in the center mark and adjust the other leg to have its point touch the edge line of the hub and note the
concentricity of the center. If correct, close dividers to scribe a circle the diameter of the required drilled hole, setting the points by the scale graduations upon a steel

FIG. 10


Locate light center-punch marks on the scribed

circle as




in Fig. 10. is laid

out by another than the

FIG. 11


second circle, having a slightly greater diameter, should be scribed. This check will show whether the
driller, a

hole was drilled to the original lay out. If no importance is attached to the center to center distance of the holes proceed as before with the second hub. Where the center to center distance is important, set the points of the universal dividers to the center length, and with the point A, Fig. 11, in the previously located center mark scribe on the opposite hub. Scribe a short line across its face afterward, proceeding as before. For all accurate work use the automatic centerpunch, Fig. 12, and for heavy work the machinists' center-punch, shown in Fig. 13.



accurate laying out, clean the machined surfaces and wet the portion to be worked upon with the copper sulphate (blue vitriol) solution., When dry, the surface will distinctly show any lines which are made upon it. Chalk well rubbed into the surface is sufficient for the less accurate jobs.

After laying out and previous to drilling, greatly enlarge the center holes with a centerpunch to assist the starting of SCRIBING CIRCLES WITH DIVIDERS the drill. Start the hole with drill point in the enlarged center, using hand feed until a reasonable dimple is made in the work. Observe if this is central with the scribed circle, and if not central use center gouge, as in Fig. 14, and repeat until accurate. A DRILL. When starting a drill it often TO has a tendency to slide or crowd off to one side. Where it is essential that the drilled hole coincide or center with some previously scribed circle or layout, the drill



must be brought back into the correct posiThis is accomplished by the use of a small gouge-pointed chisel, sometimes called a center chisel, and the process is termed, "drawing the drill." First, note toward which side of the small dimple left by the drill-point
it is

necessary to shift the drill. Then chisel a small groove in that side of

the dimple. If the start

eral chisel grooves

very eccentric, sevmay be necessary;



only slightly eccentric, a

mere touch of the
It is

chisel will often readily seen that the drill is made to cut more easily where the grooves are, and therefore the natural resistance of the opposite side pushes the drill toward the side cut by the
Drill drawing gouge-pointed chisel. can only be done previous to reaching the full diameter of cut.

ness in holding the
sible for




If drilling accidents. no special holding device is available, the work should be held in a drilling vise, clamped directly to the drillingmachine table, or clamped to an angle iron. Fig. 15 illustrates a method of


FIG. 12

holding the work safely. When once the work is clamped in position on the drilling-machine table, adjust the table to center the located hole with the drill rather than reclamp the work. HOLDING THE DRILL. In Fig. 16, at A, the drill is shown held di66

FIG. 13

FIG. sary. some form of quick-acting collett chuck should be used. This is a good method if several holes of the same diameter are to be drilled at a single When frequent changing of the drill is necessetting. machine. it is customary to use a drill somewhat smaller than the given diameter. using a single-spindle machine. and whether or not the reaming is to be done directly in the drilling If the drilling is done through jig bushings and the holes are short as compared to their diameter. 14 DRILLING FOR REAMER. 15 57 . When it is essential that the holes be of an exact standard diameter.THE STARRETT BOOK rectly in the spindle. The amount left for reaming depends upon whether one or two reaming operations are necessary. and afterward ream the holes to standard size. The changes can then be made without stopping the machine. as in drilling holes of numerous sizes. H FIG.

This method gives by grinding. Where a full thread depth is essential the hole to be tapped should be made with a drill of a diameter smaller than the nominal diameter of the bolt by an amount equal to double the depth of the thread. the drill should be 1/64" to 1/32" smaller than the finished hole diameter. except accepted practice for good work. In practice the nearest commercial size of drill is listed for drilling tapped holes. to allow for passing a machine reamer 0. .005" small through the hole which is afterward hand-reamed. If the holes are relatively long.THE STARRETT BOOK a single reaming operation will often suffice. and is DRILLING FOR TAPPING. results as accurate as any.

THE STARRETT BOOK Letter Sizes of Drills Diameter Table 4 .


For U. S. many tables would be required to cover all selections of tap drills. 1. Because of the large number of screw thread standards in use. using a drill whose diameter approximates the web thickness of the larger drill. considerable pressure is required to force the larger drills into the work at an efficient cutting feed. Standard threads use same formula.THE STARRETT BOOK SIZES OF TAP DRILLS. size from No. 80 wire gage As the drill increases in diameter the web is correspondingly thickened.75 - 10 . and as the cutting edges at the web do not cut as effectively as they do outside the web thickness. The sizes of tap drill for all pitches of V threads may be found by the following formula. What diameter of tap drill should be used for a X 10 tap? % 1.3 should be used in place of 1. as shown in Fig.400 Tap in drill = D - T which T = D = number of threads per inch dia. if the inclination is considerable it is necessary to butt mill or hand chip a spot giving 61 .4. ranging in to four inches in diameter. 17. but 1.14 NOTE. However. A lead hole will also assist in centering the drill upon an inclined surface. For this reason many workmen first drill a lead hole. of tap or thread EXAMPLE. FIG.400 Tap drill = = . Twist drills are sold.75 - . 17 DRILLING LARGE HOLES.

This allows for a variation in the bolt sizes and for inaccuracy in locating the centers. FIG. BOLT HOLES. and Fig. There are many cases in which it is desirable to enlarge a hole throughout a portion of In all work . Fig. DEEP HOLE DRILLING. For this reason a starting-hole the exact diameter of the drill is first counterbored. The drill must be started exactly concentric with the axis of the machine. 18 the cases of deep-hole drilling it is better to rotate rather than the drill. When the bolts are for holding purposes only and are not used for aligning the several pieces. 18 shows a special hollow drill often used for drilling axial holes in lathe spindles. Under this name may be classed the drilling of holes through the axes of spindles and that special lathe. it is customary to drill the holes through which the bolts pass somewhat larger than the bolt diameters. milling-machine.THE STARRETT BOOK sufficient surface to work upon. 19 shows the machine with the drill guides in working position. The practice of some firms is to use in place of a single large drill a relatively smaller one. it is customary in efficient drilling of this sort to use special drills designed for the purpose. While for spindle drilling it is possible to use ordinary twist drills with extended shanks. COUNTERBORING. and grinder line of drilling known as gun-barrel drilling. afterward enlarging the hole by some method of counterboring at a much less expense for tools and at as rapid a production rate as by entire drilling.

no certainty that the two diameters will be concentric. . tool in operation and its purpose. 19 its If a drill is used for this purpose there is length.THE STARRETT BOOK FIG. This tool is known as a counterbore. The practice is to enlarge the already drilled hole by using a cutting tool having a pilot or leader to guide the cutting edges. and In Fig. 20 are shown the its use is termed counterboring.


and the "live" or head-stock cone-point should rotate truly concentric with its axis. as. trial and error method of adjusting the centers in alignment is to first bring the cone-points nearly into The 65 . A plugged oil hole prevents the proper lubrication of the bearing. should be frequently cleaned and reoiled. All oil holes should be kept free and clean. and oiling should be frequent on those bearings which are given the severest service. for example. for improper lubrication of the wearing surfaces A is one of the immediate causes of excessive wear.THE STARRETT BOOK THE LATHE CARE OF THE LATHE. the competent workman proceeds to prepare and test Remove both centers and after cleaning the centers. them and the tapered holes note whether they return to The "dead" or foottheir places with a successful fit. Those bearings. INDICATING AND ADJUSTING. medium-size flexible-bottom squirt can is best for this purpose. and where possible should be protected from entering dirt. At least once a week the lathe should receive an all-over cleaning. stock center should have a hardened point to resist wear. The centers should align with each other in the vertical and horizontal planes. The engine lathe is capable of producing the largest variety of product of any of the machine-tool family. rests to a large degree the accuracy After attention to lubrication of the work produced. Especial attention should be given to applying a suitable machine oil to all the bearings. which by construction are hard to protect "from dirt. and the bearings should be washed out with kerosene. the ways upon which the carriage moves. Upon the condi- tion of the centers. either from excessive pressure or from high-speed rubbing. The cone-points of the centers should be smooth and an exact sixty degrees.

place in the tool-post a universal testindicator. If the dial shows an eccentricity in excess of the allowed limits for the job 66 . slowly by hand and note the dial.THE STARRETT BOOK contact. readjust the foot-stock and repeat the test until the required UNIVERSAL DIAL TEST INDICATOR FIG. with the feeler in touch with the Rotate the head-stock spindle cone-point. 21 degree of accuracy is obtained. as shown in Fig. as the tool passes along the length of the work. 21. To test the live center for concentricity. receive the work. surface the diameter of a trial piece for a length sufficient to allow testing its diameter at If the diameter increases or decreases several places. and by adjusting the foot-stock frame upon its cricket bring them into as exact truth as is reasonably With the foot-stock clamped in position to possible.

test To either center angle use made of a TEST INDICATOR. for example. In cases where it is customary to have the live as well as the dead center hardened. as. shown in Fig. 22. the cone-point should be machined true. the cone-point must be trued by some grinding attachment. By many workmen the live center is left unhardened.THE STARRETT BOOK be done. and can be trued with a square nosecutting tool. This is a tool for indicating minute contact variations upon a graduated dial or upon face. and afterward lightly filed to a smooth surto FIG. is 67 . a tool-post grinding fixture. 22 for its proper cone-point center gage.

THE STARRETT BOOK Truing Work in Chuck Truing Jig on Face Plate Indicator Used with Surface Gage on Bench Plate 68 .

It is LOCATING THE CENTERS. The test-indicator may be used with advantage any of the common machine tools. Most turned work is done upon the lathe centers. Various mechanisms are employed for multiplying the movement of the contact-point. coned to. to size. to indicate eccentricity in the lathe. WORK CENTERS. shaper. For these reasons some degree of accuracy in centering is necessary. Where the turned job is made from ordinary black bar stock. the centers may be located . as it insures exact concentricity in the drilled and reamed hole. all of which are based upon a combination of short and long arm levers." and consists in first locating the position of the cavities and afterward drilling and reaming them to form and size. or milling machine. milling machine. Best practice in this respect is to use a combination drill and center reamer. USE. or grinding machine.THE STARRETT BOOK The graduations are usually one huna graduated arc. dred in a complete circle with an easily read width of spacing. and it becomes necessary to provide suitable cavities in the work. boring machine.fit the cone-points. efficient turning demands HERMAPHRODITE that the chip taken shall be of practically uniftfrm depth as the work rotates against the CALIPERS cutting tool. to indicate uniin formity of height in the planer. This is termed "centering the work. The instrument is built in such a way that one of these spaces represents a movement of the contactpoint of 1/1000 inch. evident that the centers should be so located that the entire diameter of the turned job shall finish Beside this. to indicate parallelism. and to test for alignment in any_ machine.


For exact turned work the centers should afterward be lightly rereamed to correct the errors in their alignment due to by scribing the straightening of the bar. LATHE TOOLS. many of them separate the stock in a manner that is analogous to crowding off the metal rather than by pure cutting action. may be used to scribe the ends of the stock. be straightened to reasonable truth. When the centers are well located the holes may be drilled under a drill-press or in a hand-lathe. Cutting in its proper sense is a splitting action. and a properly ground and properly set cutting tool is a wedge in that it splits off the excess stock. The center is located with a center-punch at the intersection of the scribed lines and the concentricity tested by spinning the bar upon the lathe centers. If the piece is bent it must. When the' job is to be turned from a forging.THE STARRETT BOOK lines at an angle across the ends. In such cases the forging is so located with reference to the straight edges as to give a fair average of the surface errors due to forging. using a surface or height gage. the side tool and the diamond-point tool are the best examples of wedge or splitting action. two of 71 . A set of tools for use in the engine lathe is shown in the chart on page 70. it is usual to roll the forging on straight edges and scribe lines across the ends. The nose of a cutting tool has several sides. While in common shop language all these are known as cutting tools. technically speaking. as convenient. after centering. Among the common lathe tools. It is also usual to leave a greater excess of stock for finishing purposes upon a forging than upon rolled bar stock. Where much bar stock must be centered a special self-locating centering machine is often used. the centerpunch marks are shifted. using a combination square with a center head and the provided In place of this tool a hermaphrodite caliper scriber. If necessary.

The angle which the upper side of the tool makes with the horizontal is termed the rake. If the CLEARANCE FIG. RAKE. 72 . For harder material^ the angle may be increased. (See Fig. and to furnish enough metal to conduct away the heat generated by the cutting action. 23. As in the case of "rake" the clearance directly away from the axis of the work or lathe is termed front clearance. if in the direction of the axis of the work.THE STARRETT BOOK which come together at some angle to form a cutting edge. By clearance is meant the angle which the under side of the tool makes with the vertical.) CLEARANCE. the working end of the tool is forged upon the end of a short piece of square or rectangular bar stock. 23 SIDE CLEARANCE slant is away from the work it is termed front rake. The angle formed by these surfaces must be sufficient for strength. In the case of forged lathe tools. For turning ordinary soft steel and soft gray iron an angle of sixty degrees is good practice. it is termed side rake. The length and size of the shank of the forged tool depend upon the size of chip and the machine used. A cutting tool may have its upper face forged and ground with either a front or a side rake or a combination of both.

the tool in cutting position the clearances must be in any case not less than three degrees. While there are exceptions. RIGHT-HAND TOOLS. clearances. as desired. or upon an ordinary water-drip If made from the newer high-speed steel grindstone. the front clearance is usually forged to fifteen degrees or over. SETTING THE LATHE TOOL. LEFT-HAND TOOLS. and cutting edges are formed to cut from the left to the right the tool is known as a left-hand tool. lathe tools are usually set with the cutting point at the exact height of the axis of the lathe. and cutting edges formed to turn or square from the right towards the left. to set the point above the axis height to obtain a working clearance of not to exceed ten degrees'. In any case the wheel should rotate to force 73 . the grinding should be upon a dry and rather coarse abrasive wheel. therefore. It is very important that the lathe tool be properly set in relation to the axis of the work and the direction of the cut. The grinder should have a suitable work-rest upon which to support the tool in sharpening the larger tools. Unless the cutting tool has a bent shank it is usually set at right-angles to the surface of the work. and in most cases not more than ten degrees. When the rake. These are tools having the rake. the work rest should be firmly and securely clamped as close as possible to the used face of the wheel. For purposes of safety. clearances. Lathe tools made from carbon tool steel should be sharpened by grinding upon a wet emery-grinder. In the case of the diamond point. The grinding may be done upon the periphery of a disk-wheel or upon the sides of a cup-wheel. It is necessary. notably that of the diamond point. or for resting the hands in the case of the smaller tools.THE STARRETT BOOK With that along the axis of the work side clearance. GRINDING LATHE TOOLS.

The usual lathe-cutting tools have well-de- 45V FIG. and should run true and in balance. The manner of doing this is a pretty good index of the workman. a cutting angle of not far from sixty degrees may be maintained on such tools as the side tool and the diamond point. and in the case of a sixtydegree angle the center gage is suitable. as illustrated in Fig. TESTING THE CUTTING ANGLES. as well as the correct setting of the cutting tool. 74 Where cutting angles other . and great care should be taken when grinding a lathe tool to have the several faces true and making correct angles with each other. Efficient cutting depends very largely upon the correct sharpening. As the usual machine construction materials are not excessively hard. This tool is also used to test the angle when grinding a vee-pointed thread tool. In this case the angle can be tested by use of the usual center gage. and the angularity of the surfaces which meet to form the cutting edge can often be measured with a bevel protractor. 24 fined cutting edges.T H E t STARRETT BOOK the tool upon the rest rather than from it. 24.

In this manner a large number of relatively inexpensive cutting points are made to interchange in One form of tool-holder is a single shank or holder. 25 MATERIALS FOR GUTTING TOOLS. made to hold points forged in the regular forms shown In some examples. high-speed steel. Unfortunately for highspeed cutting the hardness is drawn at a comparatively low heat. and when correctly heated and afterward plunged in cold water. or. (See Fig.) FIG. holders are made to carry short bits broken from square bar stock and afterward sharpened into some resemblance to the true forged shape. These are known as carbon steel (tool steel). eighty point to one hundred and twenty-five point. however. page 70. the universal Bevel Protractor is useful.THE STARRETT BOOK than 60 are used. as it was formerly termed. High-speed steel is a special steel having its composition alloyed with tungsten and perhaps vanadium or molybdenum." is high in carbon. hardens to a very high degree. 25. and care must obtain not to overheat or blue it. "tool steel." Carbon steel. While heat treatment does not give it the exceeding hardness of tool or carbon steel. TOOL HOLDERS. and a new product of the electric furnace sold under the trade name of "Stellite. The high cost of the materials used for modern cutting tools has resulted in the marketing of a variety of holders designed to hold cutting points. high75 . also for testing clearances. the in the chart.

Its hardness is equal to the diamond. according to the shop conditions. A by the mandrel is stamped upon the larger end. and sometimes tungsten. The ends for a short distance are reduced in diameter and provided with flats for clamping on the dog. Also avoid scoring the mandrel with the cutting tool. using a Mandrel press for forcing or a lead hammer for driving. 76 . As the quality of the work depends upon the truth of the mandrel it should be tested upon dead centers with a testindicator before being used. although often called an arbor. MANDRELS. as. case-carbonized and afterward ground. Mandrels usually taper at the rate The diameter of the hole fitted of 0. work-centers must be provided for holding it on the lathe centers. feeds. carefully removing dirt. turned pulleys. or from soft machinery steel. and cuts which heat the tools and chips to a dull red.THE STARRETT BOOK speed steel has the peculiar property of retaining its hardness at temperatures considerably in excess of those which readily soften tool steel. They are made of either tool steel hardened and ground true with the centers. cobalt. and is properly known as a mandrel. or pieces of lead from the centers before placing the work in a lathe. This bar should be classed as a tool-room tool. drive or force it into place. standard set of mandrels varies in diameter and in length. To use. for example. chips.0005" in an inch. Where the work is to be turned true with a hole through it. Avoid forcing or driving the mandrel into a hole that is neither round nor straight. Tools made from highspeed steel are used at speeds. Lathe drive with the usual lathe-dog as for any job done on the centers. Stellite is a new cutting material composed of chromium. and under favorable conditions marvelous turning may be done. It is cast into form and cannot be forged. The common way is to force or drive into the work-hole a bar having center holes in its ends.

the lead is equal to pitch. bolts. When screw threads are cut in an engine lathe. or bolt. 7 P. and is therefore illustrated in It will be noted that in addition Fig. screw. as. for example. the lead is double the pitch. If the helix FlG 26 is double. Pitch in a thread is the j /WIDTH distance measured from the "^ OF FLAT center of one thread to ~T the center of an adjacent DEPTH OF thread. Threading dies are used both by hand and in power-driven machines. . SCREW THREADS. SCREW THREAD PITCH AND LEAD. The socalled United States standard is in this country the more generally accepted one. or stud to be threaded by rotating either the work or the die. to a definite form of thread cross-section each diameter has a specified number of threads per inch of length. While strictly speaking pitch is the reciprocal of the number of threads per inch. the threads are made with These are screwed special tools called threading dies. There are numerous screwthread standards in more or less general use. when sectioned. the point of the cutting tool is shaped to the exact form of the spaces between threads. . studs. or inside a nut. written. By means of a lead screw and a train of gearing the tool is compelled to move along the axis of the work at a 77 THREADING IN A LATHE.. 26 and Table 6. 1/7" pitch for a screw thread 7 per linear inch. upon the bolt. A screw thread is a helical groove cut or formed into the surface of a bar. is a single helix. shows a truncated sixty degrees triangle with the space and the land alike. For ordinary machine rod.THE STARRETT BOOK CUTTING. screws. shop men - speak of it as 7 pitch. If the screw thread P. etc. The United States standard thread.

THE STARRETT BOOK U. Standard Screw Threads Table 6 Diameter . S.

when rightly placed. The ratio of cut to lead screw is then that of seven to five (7/5). Various lathe manufacturers have introduced different arrangements of the gearing. and it is found by scaling that the lathe lead screw has single five threads per linear inch. it is in this manner possible to cut threads of a. therefore. respecthe selection of these gears will give.= If gears 5 5 25 . it is desired that single seven threads per linear inch shall be cut upon a li/d-inch bolt. In practice a set of several gears having different numbers of teeth are furnished with each lathe. . large variety of pitches. The directions above refer to the most simple form and twenty-five furnished set. As the train of gears usually furnished with an engine lathe can be changed to give different rates of advance. the desired tool advance for cutting seven threads per linear inch. SELECTING CHANGE GEARS. Those furnished will usually provide for cutting all the threads within the usual range of the lathe with which they come." and their use is obvious. The change gears selected should.X . If both members of a fraction are multiplied by the same number. are found in the having teeth. This number called the 79 . the problem is to select gears giving the desired ratio of cut to lead screw. for example. the ratio is not changed.THE STARRETT BOOK definite rate of advance as the work. of lathe. These are known as "change gears.rotates. Given the number of threads per linear inch to be cut and the number of threads per linear inch of the lead screw. This allows of raising the fraction to suit the gears which are 7 5 35 in the set furnished. but with any lathe the above procedure will give correct results if it is first determined what number of threads per inch will be cut if gears of the same number of teeth are placed on spindle stud and lead screw. thirty-five teeth tively. For example. be as seven is to five.

THE STARRETT BOOK Lathe Set Up for Thread Cutting Note Thread Stop at A 80 .

The common engine lathe has projecting through its headstock a shaft known as the "stud. PLACING THE CHANGE GEARS.THE STARRETT BOOK "lathe screw constant" should then be considered as being the number of teeth on the lead screw gear even though it is not the actual number." This projects a sufficient distance STUD GEAR COMPOUND GEAR OUT OF MESH INTERNED GEAR SIMPLE TRAIN OF GEARS FOR THREAD CUTTING 81 .

When the number of threads to be cut is more per linear inch than that of the lead screw. the tools listed on page 70 the ordinary threading-tool point. the smaller of the selected gears is placed upon the to the larger upon the lead screw. As a means of enlarging the range of threads per linear inch possible to be cut with any set of change gears. the 25-tooth gear would be placed on the stud and the 35-tooth gear on the lead screw. If the set of gears furnished failed to provide a ninety gear. as it simply conveys the motion of the upper or stud gear to the lower or lead-screw gear.THE STARRETT BOOK allow of mounting gearing and usually the upper cone for the feed belt. and advances the tool as if the 90-tooth gear had been used. but did provide one of forty-five teeth. In the example. As an example of their use. Gears mounted or to be mounted upon this projecting stud are termed "stud gears. assume that a gear having ninety teeth was needed upon the lead screw to cut a given number of threads. Among shown 82 . Reverse the order if the number of threads per linear inch is less than that of the lead screw. It is obvious that this or any other form of point must be formed and The point tested to give the correct form of thread. most lathes are provided with an adjustable compound auxiliary stud which is provided with two locked gears having a ratio each to the other of two to one. The point can therefore be tested with a center is THREAD TOOL. "STUD" and COMPOUNDING THE GEARS. In the above it is assumed that the stud rotates in unison with the lathe spindle. placing this on the lead screw and meshing the two to one compound stud into the train completes the desired ratio." Those mounted upon the projecting end of the lead screw are known as lead gears. shown has sides at an angle with each other of sixty degrees. The number of teeth in the large idler gear has no bearing upon the results.

The same gage may also be used in setting the tool square with the axis of the work (see page 74). particu83 .THE STARRETT BOOK STUD GEAR INTERMEDI GEAR COMPOUND GEARS FOR THREAD CUTTING gage or rule. It is important that the point of the thread tool shall conform to the outline of the groove between the adjacent threads. When grinding a thread tool. and that the surfaces below the cutting edge properly clear the stock being cut. GRINDING THREAD TOOLS.

Where the quality of the work demands special.THE STARRETT BOOK lar care should be given to for the lead of the thread. Cut the cast metals dry. or where 84 . THREAD CUTTING TOOL SET AT HEIGHT OF LATHE CENTER results to RIGHT AND LEFT THREADS.accuracy. left from to right the resulting screw has a left-hand thread. Set the tool point at the exact height of the lathe centers. have the clearances sufficient SETTING THE TOOL. ground gage. and malleable iron. depending upon the accuracy of the work. A right-hand thread when the threading tool is advanced from right If the tool when cutting advances left as it cuts. For ordinary purposes screw threads when cut are fitted This may be a hardened and to some threaded hole. USES OF CUTTING LUBRICANT. MEASURING AND TESTING SCREW THREADS. Use lard oil when threading steel. and at right-angles to the axis of the lathe. or may be an ordinary threaded nut. wrought.

measuring the diameter at the root of the thread may give sufficiently accu- CALDPERS FOR TESTING THREADS and this may be done with a set of thin point spring calipers. MEASURING LATHE WORK. When greater accuracy than this is required. Ordinarily. the thread is tested by measurements made with calipers.THE STARRETT BOOK standard threaded gages are not available. 27). In all this it is assumed that the thread tool is ground. micrometers having special thread-measurx ing points are resorted to (see Fig. of measuring tools may be needed to cover all cases. If the point of the thread tool has been carefully and exactly formed and accurately set in place. set. and operated to give an exact thread outline. the diameter measurements can be 85 . however. Work done in the engine lathe is of such a variety that a considerable list rate results.

what are known as taper-fits are used. and many of these may be used in measuring the shorter lengths. Where two when together standards. For the longer measurements of length. are also used for diameter measurements. The more accurate measurements are usually made by using a micrometer. while some lathe manufacturers have established standards of their own. purpose several rates of change in diameter have become TAPER TURNING. as well as limit snap gages.THESTARRETT BOOK made with spring calipers. 86 . for the spindle tapers in milling machines. tapered hole in lathe spindles. steel rules are provided with or without sliders. Pages 87 and 88 give the more common standThe Brown & Sharpe Standard is in general use ards. FIG. Cylindrical plug and ring gages. as. for example. and it it desirable to have them easily removFor this able. micrometers. or some of the usual bar calipers. 27 parts are to fit firmly in use. The Morse taper is the one commonly used for all drills and drillEither of these may be used for the ing machinery. centers into lathe spindles.


THE STARRETT ROOK Morse Standard Taper Shanks Table 8 r ANY .

the Brown & Sharpe taper of per foot. for example. To turn a taper it is necessary to use a lathe provided with a taper attachment or to adjust the footstock of the engine lathe sufficiently off center to give amount which the diameter changes % TAPER TURNING 89 IN LATHE . the Ordinary tapers are rated at in a foot's length.THE STARRETT BOOK TURNING TAPERS. inch as.

work or If the distance the center points enter the the mandrel is ignored.1875 = 2 12 16 and the foot-stock would be set over 3Ae inch.. while this distance must be considered in setting over the foot-stock of the lathe. the tail 2 or 1% stock should be moved over multiplied by inches.THE STARRETT BOOK the required rate of diameter change.500 _ x . In setting the taper attachment. the tapered portion to be 4 inches long. the mandrel length can be considered as the distance apart of the center points. Adjustment of the foot-stock of an engine lathe is not so simple as the taper attachment. How much must the tail stock be offset? If the taper is % inch in 4 inches it would be 1% inches in a foot and the tail stock would be moved over one-half of 1% inches or % inch. the axial distance the center points are apart is not important. In the above illustrative example both length and amount of taper are given. The difference in diameters of these 4 inches is to be inch. if the piece were a foot long. but as it is only 8 inches or % of a foot long. the tail stock should be moved over % multiplied by % or V inch. but the amount of taper is not always known. they are easily set for the required taper.= 0. AMOUNT TO OFFSET CENTERS FOR GIVEN TAPER. Had the piece been 18 inches long. % % % 90 . Suppose a piece is 8 inches long and a taper is to be turned on one end. As all taper attachments are graduated to read direct. The calculation necessary to determine the distance which the centers shall be offset. is that of multiplying the length of the work or mandrel in feet by one-half of the required taper in inches. To turn a Brown & Sharpe taper on a piece of work nine inches long the problem would work out as follows: 9 3 .

is test the taper turned. Work of this sort is is example of such work termed "eccentric. To as it axis. must obtain that the coating is not sufficient to smooch. good taper SETTING THE TOOL.THE STARRETT BOOK It has been assumed for these simple calculations that the lathe centers merely touch the ends of the piece. the center is offset towards the operator. the bearing points will be more distinct. ECCENTRIC TURNING. it should be pressed lightly into a standard tapered hole and worked back and forth sufficiently to mark the places where bearing occurs. differ considerably from the calculated taper. The necessity of considering the distance the center enters the piece depends somewhat upon its If the piece is very long. it can be used for turning work not concentric with the TESTING THE TURNED TAPER. and the length of the piece should be reduced by one-half inch in the calculation. The calculation should be as accurate as possible to avoid continually changing the tail stock to get a reasonably fit. Care. ground. While turning the taper the calipers should be used frequently so that it may be soon determined whether or not the tail stock is correctly placed. thus making the length of the piece the same as the distance between centers. While for the most part the lathe is used for work exactly concentric with the axis. or filed. as it will deceive the workman. But in actual work the distance the centers enter the piece must be considered. set the foot-stock away from the operator when adjusting. If the work has been lightly covered with some marking pigment. however." and an seen in the eccentrics which 91 . For coning pulleys. The at the tool-point should be set exact height of the axis of the lathe. Adjust tapersetting until a correct fit is obtained. the actual taper will length. If each center enters the piece one-fourth inch they would enter a total of one-half inch. In most taper work. however.

When the Taper per Foot is Known Table 9 .THE STARRETT BOOK Amount of Taper in a Given Length.

While the mandrel has been built on one set of centers exactly true with its axis. A mandrel is then used for carrying the work on the centers. CHUCKING. are made side by side in the ends of the shaft. not only the mounting of the work in the chuck. If the work has a hole through it. the t When the specified eccentricity is too extreme to allow both pairs of centers coming within the limits of the diameter of the shaft. In the case of eccentrics made solid with the FIG. shaft. Special eccentric turning chucks . special attachments are provided for the ends of the shaft. special ends may be cast or forged on the ends of the work.THE STARRETT BOOK operate the valves of steam engines. The name "chuck" is given to a line of tools having a variety of form. for eccentric turning it has a second set of centers which are offset the amount required for the eccentricity specified. as in the above example.may be made to hold the work. but performing the necessary operations on it while so held. 28 two sets of centers. the hole is first finished to required dimensions. Chucking includes. and can afterward be machined off. one for turning the shaft and the other for finishing the eccentrics. 28. as shown in Fig. In crank-shaft turning. all 93 .


also screws. also be taken that the clamping of a slender piece is If work slips. HOLDING THE WORK. The work must be clamped Care must firmly in the chuck while being machined. and can be adjusted independently. when chucking rough pulleys in the hub." On their face they are provided with adjusting jaws movable regularly to and from the center. Adjusting the chuck-jaws so that the work will run as true as desired is termed. not so firm as to distort or spring it. TRUING THE WORK. the versal dial test indicator. etc." This is preliminary to any toolOften this truing ing which may be done on the job. "truing up the work. such as drills. while smaller sizes are fitted with a tapershank which fits tightly into the tapered hole in the The smaller sizes are used for carrying tools. the chuck being called an independent jaw-chuck. and if held too tightly and sprung or crushed. these jaws are so designed that a considerable variety of work may be readily held and successfully worked upon with common cutting tools. Where greater work is indicated with a Uni95 . The larger sizes are widely used for holding work machine operations. of the work can be accomplished by holding a piece of chalk to just touch the work. The jaws are moved by means of screws or gears. and are known for as drill-chucks. tools may be broken. wire pins. mounted upon a face-plate which screws upon the end of the spindle. spindle.. studs. in which case it is known as a Universal chuck. all the jaws may be made to move together. the work is injured and in some cases entirely ruined. and are sometimes called "work- chucks.THE STARR of E T T BOOK which are designed to hold work or tools upon the In general the heavier sorts are nose of a spindle. leaving a plain marking for this method is used drilling out the hole accuracy is required. or.

1875 5 . With chuck it the work located in the be tooled with ordinary lathe tools. In turret lathe- work. three. 29 shows knurling on a micrometer. for bar-stock. 3 0937 . 29 sults give a fine gripping surface and a rather pleasing effect to the eye. The knurling tool may be fed along the surface of the work by hand. and reamed with machine reamers. so made that they open and close by hand-operated levers or automatically-operated cams.USA imprinted into the surface. The surfaces of adjusting screws and small machine parts are often given a regular rough surIn the machine shop this is face for easy gripping. . When neatly effectively done the reFIG. or special shell bits and coun- may terbores.0625 3 .3125 7 . or four fluted twist drills.3187 5 7 .4375 NO 232 9 . and but usually the power traverse feed is used.375 IBths. The process is repeated if one passage of the tool does not give sufficient depth. I- 32nds. such as shown in the tool-chart (page 70).1562 .4687 These knurls are forced into and fed along the stock until the indented design has been sufficiently THELaSTARRETTCD ATHOLMASS. KNURLING. CHUCKS ON TURRET LATHES. the chuck is a part of the regular tool equipment. 96 .2812 II . Fig. these chucks are often of special design.250 I 1-4- 0312 3-8 ." which consists of one or more indented rollers or knurls mounted to rotate in some form of holder. or it may be drilled with two.3437 15.THE STARRETT BOOK CHUCKING TOOLS. done by using a tool known as a "knurl" or "knurling tool.

and the most efficient are machined and milled from solid bar-stock. To prevent rubbing on the sides of a hole. The web is as thin as consistent with the required strength. drills.. Every skilled machinist. milling cutters. spiralmilled flutes and a cone-point with effective cutting lips The flutes or lands as noted under drill sharpening. DRILLS. straightened. and with some makers Drills is thicker near the shank than at the point. Drills are now largely of the twist type. industries are devoted to their manufacture. The term "reaming" is given to the proc97 . REAMERS. however. Several makers of twist-drills increase the lead of the twist when milling the grooves. straight line. the flutes are also cleared back from the front edge throughout their length. such drills are known as "increase twist" drills. are usually purchased in the open market. reamers. The prevailing type has a straight or a tapered holding shank. are carefully heat-treated. should know the principles upon which such tools are made. and most machine-building firms now buy their more common tools rather than maintain a tool-making plant of their For example. and should be able to make any or all of them. The grooves are milled with cutters having a form that gives the maximum chip capacity. and ground to diameter. and for this purpose both Carbon-tool steel and high-speed steel are being used.THE STARRETT BOOK TOOL-MAKING Under the name "tools" are listed the various small or tool-room tools used either by hand or in various maSo important has their use become that large chines. colletts. etc. yet leaves the cutting edge of the drill-lip a own. taper slightly from full diameter size at the cone-point to several thousandths inch smaller at or near the holding shank. counterbores.

ess of enlarging a drilled hole. Reamers are of two welldefined types, known as "fluted" reamers and "rose"

The fluted reamer is one having numerous on the circumference of the cutting portion of the tool. In other words, the cutting is done on the circumference instead of at the end, as with a drill. The number of flutes on the surface of a reamer varies with the diameter, and with some makes the numreamers.

ber of flutes


is to

is greater for a given diameter when the be used in a machine instead of for hand


As its name implies, a fluted hand reamer is made hand use, and is seldom called upon to enlarge a hole more than .007" for any diameter, and not more

than .003" in the smaller


In the case of machine or lathe reamers, the length of the flutes for any given diameter is fifty per cent less than the standard length for hand reamers. The depth of flute is usually somewhat in excess of that of hand reamers. In most cases machine reamers are used for enlarging drilled holes to a diameter which only allows sufficient stock for hand reaming. When the holes are not to exceed a diameter in length, machine reamers may be used for finishing the drilled hole to its full diameter; but when straight, round, accurate holes are to be of exact diameter the better practice is to first drill 1/32" to 1/16" under size, enlarge to hand reaming size with a machine reamer, and then carefully hand ream to exact size.

an odd number of

fluted reamers had such as nine or eleven. Although

method eliminated chattering to some extent, it had the disadvantage of making it difficult to caliper the diameter of the cutting edges. Eccentric fluting, as it is called, consists in milling the flutes with uneven spacing to obviate chattering, but having them exactly oppo98

site, so that a diameter measurement a micrometer.

may be made with

A rose-reamer is an end-cutting tool, and is often used in place of a drill in cored holes. It is never made for hand use, and in general practice is seldom used for
exact diameter.

MILLING CUTTERS. In lathe work the cutting tool fixed and the work rotates. In a milling machine the cutter rotates and work is fed against it. The rotating cutter, termed a "milling cutter," has an almost unlimited variety of sizes and shapes for milling regular and irregular forms. Milling cutters are made from some of the tool steels, heat-treated to give the right cutting qualiis

the stock coming to the tool-maker in the form of rough blanks, carefully annealed. Where the cutter has a hole through it this is first drilled, bored, or reamed to a diameter somewhat smaller than that in the finished


The reason


must be finished

for this is that all the exact true surafter the cutter has been hardened

some grinding process being necessary which requires an excess of stock. When the length of the cutter is greater than about one-half inch, it is usual to chamber the hole to a shape that renders it necessary to diameter grind the holes at In cutters of considerable length the the ends only. saving in grinding by this procedure is considerable. The sides of the blanks are usually recessed, giving a huband-rim effect at the sides of the cutter. An even number of teeth is preferable, and these are spaced to a circumferential pitch varying from three-eighths to threequarters inch for ordinary cutter sizes.

When the teeth are milled into the solid blank, a cutter giving a space angle of sixty degrees is preferred for cutting the peripheral teeth, while one of seventy Where degrees is generally used for the side teeth. milling cutters are made in quantity, special space cutters


worked out

to give the


chip room con-


with tooth strength. After the cutter has been heat-treated to the proper hardness, it is finished to the specific dimensions by


Unless special methods is completely finished as the first operation of grinding. This is accomplished by holding the cutter trued in a chuck screwed on the spindle of a Universal grinder and grinding out the hole to standard size, using an internal grinding attachment. GRINDING THE SIDES. Fig. 30 shows how to grind the sides with the cutter held flat against a faceplate. If the cutter is to be used for deep cuts, the faceplate is set to give a slight concavity to the sides of the cutter.

tools are


employed the hole

FIG. 30

cutters are given a slight clearance

teeth of milling

back from the cutting

edges; five degrees


usually sufficient.

type. and (c) accurate production. avoiding every feature in design that complicates the workman's use. and of the closed-box type. The jig body is usually of cast iron. which is first rough planed or milled on all surfaces which are to be finished. A jig is a device for holding the work and for locating the tool work to be done upon it. A good example of this is shown in the drill jig. In designing a jig. Three distinct purposes are served by the use of jigs: (a) Reduction of cost per piece. and in no other way can a workman so clearly show his ability and ingenuity as in the building of jigs. A jig should be so designed that the work can be put into position in only one way. This permits building the jig in the drawing around the "coupon. 31. Fig. Make the jig as simple as possible.THE STARRETT BOOK JIGS AND FIXTURES Jigs and fixtures are special devices designed to put manufacturing upon an efficient basis. then arrange the clamping device. first determine and lay down the locating points or stops. as this term is known in shops not using jigs. in many shops the tool-maker both designs and builds the jigs. While in the larger shops the jigs are designed by the draftsmen. JIG BODY. of the open-box Jigs steel. (&) interchangeability of parts. Provide for supporting the thrust of the cutting tools in such a manner as to avoid springing the work. To start the design." as the piece is often called. JIG DESIGN. Jigs are of the plate type which lies upon and is clamped to the surface of the work. and fixtures are usually made from cast iron or Their use practically does away with fitting. the piece is first drawn upon a sheet of paper. These surfaces are then finish 101 . which is sufficiently large to allow locating the views some distance apart.

and the hole drilled and reamed directly. 31 When the allowable error is very small a more accurate scheme must be followed. These are held by means of the screws. the holes for bushings can be located directly by careful attention to ordinary layingout methods. The jig buttons are small. Instead of drilling and reaming the bushing holes.THE STARRETT BOOK planed In some cases jig bodies in a surface grinder. In this the holes are located by laying out scribed center lines and locating intersections where the holes are to be centered. as shown in Fig. 32. If no particular accuracy is demanded. accurately ground cylinders. are finished by grinding FIG. lightly clamped in place. 102 . LOCATING BUSHING HOLES. and the best of several meth- ods for the average tool-maker is that known as the button method. to final dimensions. holes are drilled and tapped to fit the button screws.

The holes for the hardened bushings are usually bored by swinging the jig body upon a The jig body is then face-plate in an engine lathe. 32 BORING HOLES. shifted upon the face-plate until a button indicates true . in locating holes is secured The highest possible accuracy bv this method. FIG.THE STARRETT ROOK and exactly located to centers by accurate measurements.

After removing the jig button.THE STARRETT BOOK with a Universal Dial Indicator. the hole is first rough- BUTTONS ADJUSTING BUTTONS TO SIDE OF PLATE IN PLACE ADJUSTING BUTTONS WITH MICROMETER 104 . 33. The jig body is then clamped tightly upon the face-plate. as shown in Fig.



drilled approximately to size, and afterwards carefully bored exactly to size. This prepares the hole for hold-


ing the hardened steel bushing; the process is repeated all the previously located buttons. JIG BUSHINGS. If the holes in a cast-iron or softsteel jig

body were left as bored, they would soon lose accuracy by wearing off center; To prevent this wear the holes are lined with hardened and carefully ground These bushings, pressed or driven tightly into place.

bushings are made with a hole having a diameter equal The to that of the tool which passes through them. bushings are sufficiently long to support the drill. In case the jig bushings must be removed frequently, they are known as slip bushings, and the hole in which they slip is lined with a steel lining, itself hardened and ground. In some cases the bushing locates the work as well as the tool, and if so the bushing screws through
the body of the jig and against the work, as a boss for example.

some prominent part


In all construction work a certain of inexactness is allowable. In other words, it is impossible to obtain absolute precision, and the allowable errors in exactness are termed "tolerances."



In some cases a tolerance of one-sixteenth inch might be allowed, while in others exactness to the fraction of a thousandth part of an inch may be necessary. See pages 31 and 32.





The projection on the




the bore of the cylinder, and the recess jection on the head.


concentric with over the pro-

In the machine shop the term "grinding" refers to the producing of finished surfaces by means of rotating grinding wheels, and the process of grinding as used in finishing machine parts is to-day the most efficient method devised for the purpose. With a proper selection of grinding machine and grinding wheel, all of the common machine construction materials may be readily

and accurately


Grinding machines are classified into two groups, (a) those for curved surfaces; as, for example, cylindrical work; and (5) those for plane or flat surfaces.

The first of these is usually called a cylindrical grinder, and the second is known as a surface grinder. Each group has many designs, made necessary by the varied uses to which grinding is adapting itself.

GRINDING WHEELS. These are now known as abrasive wheels, and the material from which they are made is termed an abrasive. The abrasives in common use are the minerals emery and corundum, and the manufactured abrasives, sold under the trade names of
Owing to Aloxite, Carborundum, Crystolon. the uniformity of the product as it comes from the electric furnace, manufactured abrasives are at present more largely used than natural abrasives. MAKING ABRASIVE WHEELS. An abrasive wheel is made up of one of the above-named ABRASIVES and a BOND. The bond is, as its name indicates, something for holding the abrasive in mixture. Grinding wheels are made by three processes, known as Vitrified, Silicate,



VITRIFIED WHEELS. In wheels made by the Vitrified process, the bond is of earth or clay which hardens or vitrifies' when subjected to a temperature of about
F. to 2800

F. for a definite period of time.


THE STARRETT BOOK Allowances for Grinding Table 10 Inches Diameter. .

THE STARRETT BOOK ous grades of hardness are obtained by using bonds of different tensile strength. grain No. as shown in the following list in which "M" is medium. through which the abrasive is passed. With abrasives of equal quality the maker who nearest approaches the ideal bond produces the superior wheel. In grinders' language. The bond then releases the dull abrasive and permits fresh. grinding. This process of bonding is generally used for the very thin wheels used for slitting metals. This number conforms to the sieve mesh SILICATE WHEELS. The ideal bond is vious to moisture. 40 indicates that the abrasive was graded through a sieve having a mesh of forty to the linear inch. and which holds firmly the cutting points of the abrasive until they become dulled by use. The principal ingredient of the bond is shellac. Ill . lists his wheels as hard or soft by some scale of numbers or by letters. BONDING. silicate used in wheels. GRADING THE WHEELS. is COMBINATION WHEELS. for example. does not soften grinding purpreferred to a wheel of Combination wheels are made up of abra- one which is imperby heat. therefore. and in this manner bring fresh cutting edges and points into grind- by use. sives of several grain numbers. The maker. By numerous crushing. sharp points to begin cutting. and then allows them to ing contact. GRADING THE ABRASIVE. ELASTIC WHEELS. abrasive wheels are known as hard wheels and soft wheels. The ideal retains the grains of abrasive until bond is one which dulled sufficiently break away. A prominent firm uses the letters of the alphabet. cleansing. and sorting processes. Silicate of Soda is the bond and wheels made by this process are most efficient for tool and knife grinding. For many poses the combination wheel single grade. the abrasive is graded into a series of sizes which give the wheel its grain number.

list The following grade is E F Soft G H I Medium J Soft K L MEDIUM M N O P MEDIUM Medium Hard Q R S T Hard U V W X Extremely Hard Y soft.THE STARRETT BOOK Norton Grade List used to designate the degree of hardness of our Vitrified and Silicate Wheels. 3. O. 4. Elastic Wheels are graded as follows: 1. both Alundum and Crystolon. letters The intermediate medium soft. e. 2 Grade 1 is the softest and grade 6 the hardest. but not quite medium hard.. 2^. 112 . between those designated as indicate so many degrees harder or softer. L is one grade or degree softer than medium. . 1 V 2. two degrees harder than medium. etc. g. and 6.. 5.

page 115. the amount varying with the size of the work itself. the method usually followed is to first rough turn the work. ROUGHING FOR GRINDING. and the development of machines for grinding cylinders has given the process a great impetus. but this allowance should be increased on larger sizes. 113 . In general where the work is to be ground it is best to consider the lathe as a mere roughing machine for removing the excess of stock at as deep a cut and as coarse a feed as is consistent with an efficient cutting speed. CYLINDRICAL GRINDING. best be made by reference to Table 12. shows allowance for grinding as recommended by one maker of grinding machines. but it may be used as a start in the right direction. or even more may be left on machinery steel parts for removal in the grinder. and Table 11 shows grinding wheel speeds. is When ground rotated. SELECTING THE WHEEL. the process is known page 110. perhaps. lack of efficiency may result. This process includes the work done in removing excess stock previous to finishing to size in the grinding machine. wheel to the selection of the be used in any grinding operation can. If the grinding machine is modern in design as much as 1/32 of an inch. leaving the job of finishing to the grinding machine. no table can entirely solve the problem. An allowance of 1/64 of an inch is general on the smaller machine parts. Table 10. which fairly represents general practice. While it is possible to grind from the rough stock without previous lathe work.THE STARRETT BOOK the piece being as cylindrical grinding. In general a soft wheel should be used on hardened work and a harder wheel on soft materials. As the hardness of material and the area of contact made by the wheel have a marked influence. Unless a study is made of the conditions surrounding the whole operations of the lathe and the grinding machine. AMOUNT TO LEAVE FOR GRINDING.

THE STARRETT BOOK Table of Grinding Wheel Speeds Table 11 Diameter Wheel .

) Class of Work .THE STARRETT BOOK Grade and Grain of Grinding Wheels for Different Materials* Table 12 (The Norton Co.

The accompanying illustrations show RIGHT and WRONG methods of mounting wheels carefully study the cuts.THE STARRETT BOOK MOUNTING THE WHEEL. in grinder work the reverse is generally true. GRINDING FLAT SURFACES. Suitable guards should be provided to prevent injury to the workmen in case of the wheel bursting. The for use of micrometers obtaining exact measurements is nowhere better illustrated than in grinding. MEASURING THE WORK. the left hand grasping the frame. and Fig. 35 shows the While in lathe operator as he makes his reading. the position of the operator leads naturally to adjusting the micrometer spindle with the fingers of the right hand. 34 shows an operator adjusting his micrometer for obtaining a measurement on a cylindrical piece. Flat surface grinding may be divided into two general classes (a) Machine work : 116 . The wheel should be so mounted that there are no unequal stresses set up. Fig. hence he occupies the position as shown.

The use of machines with CUP WHEELS has practically revolutionized such grinding. straight edges. Such a tool is called a "lap. . or cylinders. for example. the surfaces of which have been charged with a fine flour abrasive. not with abrasive wheels as previously described. LAPPING. etc. first-named class of work was done by reciprocating the work beneath the circumferential face of an abrasive wheel in a machine which. in principle. and an exactness of surface is being obtained on fine flat work which leaves little to be desired. (b) fine tool work.THE STARRETT BOOK FIG. Until recently the rulers. etc. 117 scales and and tables. rings.. faces of nuts. as. such as boxes. In certain lines of work the final grinding process is often made. 34 parts. but by using metal discs. cross-slides. but laps have been in common use for a considerable time on fine work in the machine shop." and its use "lapping. is not unlike a small planer. steel blades." Laps were first used by lapidaries in finishing the surfaces of mineral specimens.

118 . "charged." brass. or. close-grained cast iron. the surface is Soft. Since lapping is a somewhat slow and tedious process it should be used only for the removal of small amounts of stock. as it is correctly termed. The more common uses of lapping are those of finishing micrometer ends. or lead may be used for the lap. plug and ring gages. In some COMMON USES OF LAPPING. 5 takes ten hours. The several grades are denoted by the time taken to precipitate. holes in jig bushings. FIG. 35 of the finer grinding operations the lap is charged with diamond dust which has been precipitated or settled in a suitable dish of olive oil.THE STARRETT BOOK Laps are generally made of some material enough so that the abrasive can be readily pressed soft into the surface. fineness No. and any of the flour abrasives may be charged into the surface by rolling the abrasive into the lap either with a hardened roll or on a hardened surface. for example. as. copper. and in the finest die and punch work.

FIG. or a leveling instrument. the proper location of the machines may be found by means of a plan or location drawing worked out in the drafting room. 36 may be Having decided upon the location. An easy way to do this is to provide rectangular slips of cardboard. the machinery aligned in these positions by measurements from some base line made upon the floor or ceiling.THE STARRETT BOOK LOCATING AND ALIGNING MACHINERY When the product of the shop is determined. may be used. 36. and by using push pins the cardboard representations may be fixed in position. 119 . the better of several arrangements may be found. Ordinarily the machines are aligned by simple meas* See page 124 for directions for setting up a level. Placing these upon the floor plan of the room.* such as shown in Fig. each representing to some definite scale the plan outline of each machine.

all interferences should be taken care of on the ceiling rather than altering the arrangement of the machines. Special leveling and aligning attachments for setting and lining up 120 . Such a level is shown in Fig. the usual method of alignment is to stretch a wire or cord the length of the room at the desired level of the shaft and at a distance from its location sufficiently great to give easy working room. FIG. 37 With the shafting hangers in approximate position and the shafting in place. there may be such interferences As the efficiency as to necessitate repeating the work. the necessary shifts can be made to bring the shaft parallel with the wire. Unless care is used. Leveling the shaft is done with special spirit levels having metal frames. A light stick notched at one end to rest upon the shaft and a wire brad at the other end for a feeler is all that is necessary for ordinary alignment. ALIGNING THE SHAFTING.THE STARRETT BOOK urements and the countershafting hung from the ceiling vertically over the machine by plumbing up from the previously located machines. 37. of the shop depends to a considerable extent on a convenient arrangement of the machines. With the two ends of the wire in position it should be stressed to bring it taut and should be supported at frequent intervals by wire hangers. In such work thought must always be given to the line shafting and pulleys. the bases of which have been carefully grooved to set upon the shaft. With the locations of the several lines of shafting determined upon.

shafting are sometimes used. Shafting is often lined by plumbing up from a data line on the shop floor with a mercury plumb bob.

Mercury Plumb Bobs


While the surveyors' transit can be used in shop leveling and in shaft aligning a much simpler and a more inexpensive instrument termed a leveling instrument is all that is needed. It consists of a table capable of being adjusted in the horizontal plane, which carries a yoke which in turn carries a twelve-inch brass tube. The whole instrument is placed upon a suitable tripod. The tube has no lenses and therefore is not a telescope as in the surveyors' instrument. At one end of the tube are the usual cross hairs which locate the axis and at the opposite end is a peep hole or sight piece for the eye. The yoke which carries the tube is attached to a graduated arc which is let into the upper part of the table; this allows the instrument to swing to read angles in the horizontal plane.
In using this inimportant that the table be carefully leveled. It is pivoted on the tripod tube by a ball and socket Three knurled-head adjusting screws threaded joint. through the tripod top and resting against the under side




of the table furnish a means of adjusting the table. Upon the table carrying the yoke is a bent-tube spirit level with a sensitive air bubble. After the tripod legs have been placed to roughly level the instrument, adjust the knurled leveling screws to give .as correct a centering for the

bubble as




test this

adjustment swing

the yoke, which carries the air bubble, to several positions and note any change in the position of the bubble. If there is a change, readjust the leveling screws until the yoke can be swung through its travel with the air bubble maintaining its central position.

possible to so

mount the

leveling instrument

While upon a

it is


form that its height will be sufficient for the use of mounted upon the shaft, the usual method is to hang targets upon the shaft and adjust them to swing low enough to allow the leveling instrument to be set with its tripod on the floor or on some convenient foundation


These consist of stirrups which

carry a spirit level and block with vertical and horizontal lines crossing each other. A plumb is hung upon the stirrup in such manner as to be readily raised or lowered. One of the targets may be hung upon the shaft free to swing plumb, the other is used as a fixed wall target. USE. After the shafting has been roughly aligned with the wall of the building or with a line of columns, this being done by measurement, the leveling instrument is placed vertically beneath one end of thfc shaft. To locate the leveling instrument, plumb down from the center of the shaft, using the hanging target plumb bob, and locate a point in the floor or board placed on the foundation. A prick punch mark in the flat head of a wire brad previously driven into the floor provides a permanent point. Set the tripod of the leveling instrument directly over this point, using the plumb bob hanging from the center of the table. Next carefully level the table as already described. Hang the portable target closely in front of the cross-hair end of the tube and level and adjust its height until the horizontal cross hair of the tube coincides with the horizontal cross line of
the target.

Remove the target to the far end of the shaft and swing the tube of the leveling instrument until the sight through the tube coincides with the vertical line on the target. With the hanging target displaced, mount a fixed target upon the wall at the far end of the shaft and adjust it until its cross lines coincide with the cross
hairs of the tube as sighted.

the instrument


in its

Repeat for each hanger until the target can be hung upon the shaft adjacent to any hanger and show perfect coincidence of target cross lines and tube cross hairs. It is provided with 124 . and because of its simplicity and freedom from complications. and it should be borne in mind that the level will do all that the transit The transit. HOW TO SET UP THE TRANSIT The Starrett transit or level can be used for the same purposes as any engineer's transit and level. and enables the operator to lay out anything that does not require excessive refinement. By reference to the fixed target it can at all times be checked. will do. is mounted on a tripod. Note that after the instrument and target have been set neither should receive further adjustment except in the shaft itself receives the adjustcase of accident ments. and has a plate carrying a graduated arc. Replace the hanging target at the far end of the shaft and adjust the adjacent hanger so that the cross lines of the target coincide with the cross hairs when sighting through the tube. The level is for measuring angles in a horizontal plane only. The transit combines in one instrument the facilities for measuring both horizontal and vertical angles.THE STARRETT BOOK original position with the plumb bob over the point in the floor. aligning machinery. The telescope or sight-tube is connected to a graduated vertical arc so that vertical angles may be measured as well as horizontal. the setting up of the instrument is complete. which is furnished either with a telescope or plain-sight tube. it can be used by any one in laying out foundations for buildings. and in building dams and raceways for simple water-power developments. except measure vertical angles.

bubble stands in the center of the glass. no matter in what direction the telescope may be turned. and with a ground level vial for adjusting the level of the graduated plate. It should then be brought to a perfect level by means of the leveling screws between the plate and tripod head. The sight tube or telescope should then be turned through an angle of about ninety degrees and again the bubble adjusted to the center of the glass by means of two leveling This operation should be continued until the screws. so that neither wind nor accidental touch will disturb the adjustment. Then carry the rod to the other position and find the The difference beheight of the target at that point. It should then be made as nearly level as possible by adjusting the lower parts of the extension legs.THE STARRETT BOOK leveling screws. that place being higher at which the height of the target is less. the instru- ment should be placed in a position about equally disFirst obtain the height of tant from the two points. as read on the rod. 125 . To level the instrument. the target on one of the rods by means of the cross line in telescope or sight tube and make record of the same. tween the two heights. the legs must be firmly set into the ground or floor. To find differences of level of two places. will be the difference of level of the two places. This is done by bringing the level over any one of the leveling screws and turning one screw in and another out until the bubble appears in the center of the level glass.

But this does not apply 3 X c X d. THE SYMBOLS OF OPERATION are the signs used in arithmetic. or difference. Some find it easier at the beginning to think of the letters as abbreviations. for engineering and shop problems can be solved more readily with algebra than by means of arithmetic. called COMMON + + minus. In algebra letters are used. that is. of algebra are the THE SYMBOLS OF QUANTITY in arithmetic are the figures used and the letters of the alphabet. which states the conditions. they are as follows: If no sign is the sign of addition. multiplication is understood. called times. Algebra is applied by expressing the relations in algebraic terms. 2abc is 2abc. some problems cannot be solved by arithmetic. X there is is no sign between the sign of multiplication. called plus. When letters or between letters and to figures.THE STARRETT BOOK ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA Many as. In arithmetic a figure has a definite value. and the value remains unchanged. 4 or 20 for instance. SYMBOLS Some same of the symbols or signs as those used in arithmetic. is Thus Serf means 328 numbers : not 3 X 2 X 8. 126 . In fact. precedes numbers or letters the plus sign is understood. when the conditions are not fully and concretely stated. but 328. and as these letters do not always have a definite value. same as in arithmetic. their use adds flexibility to mathematical operations. is the sign of subtraction. forming them into an equation. example. it is always 4 or 20. and then solving the equation.

It indicates ratio.b = 4 b COEFFICIENT. 5 is the coefficient. strictly speaking. a*bc*d*=a X aXbX cX cXcXdXd XdXd. m m the relative values = is the sign of equality. 5a is the coefficient of be." The number 2 is to be used twice as a factor. or in the exb) is the coefficient of x. in 5abc. but it is evident that a does not equal b. and 5a& is the coefficient of c. it shows how many times the number is to be taken as a factor. In the same way (m n) = Thus a = The small expressed. Similarly a is read "a cubed" or "a with the exponent 3. or a X a X a. or whatever value is given to a. figure or letter written at the right and a little above a number or letter is called the exponent." a = b means that a is equal to b. : is read "is to" or "to. Again n) n) X (m + Note this difference m*= m X m X m X 4m = m + m + m + SYMBOLS OF RELATION show of letters. Thus 2 2 is read "2 squared" or "2 with the exponent 2. or mul3 tiplied by itself. read "equals" or "equal to.4. (a -*- is + When no numerical coefficient 1." The letter a is to be taken three times 4 as a factor. as." Division may also be expressed by a horizontal line between a 16 = 16 -*.THE STARRETT BOOK * " the sign of division. it is la." 127 . is always unity or EXPONENT. but. or the quantities. If 4a = 3&. The numerical factor or number is generally called the coefficient. + (m + X (m + n) X (m + n). 3a is the coefficient of (b c). Again in the expression 3a (b c). a -*. read divided by. pression (a + b) x. the same value must be given to b. 4 times some quantity represented by a is equal to 3 times some quantity represented by b.

The small number or index used in connection with the radical sign denotes what root is meant. 01 course. Radical Sign (square root). Braces. 5 (c + d) means that c + d as one quantity is to be multiplied by 5. Brackets.THE STARRETT BOOK If two ratios are equal. but more often they are connected by this sign : : SYMBOLS OF AGGREGATION ( [ ) ] | j Parentheses. It does not mean that a alone is to be subtracted. V Vinculum. V + n = "the square root of m + n. When the horizontal line extends over the expression it means that the indicated root is to be found of the entire expression." ^/6 is read the fifth root of ft. the same gle quantity. or expressed. This sign is used as in arith- metic. operation performed on a must be performed on b also. Thus ^/~a is read "the cube root of a. Letters or quantities enclosed in parentheses are to be handled as a single quantity. (a + b) means that the sum of a and b taken Again as a single quantity is to be subtracted. be connected by the sign of equality." m 128 . Or (a + b) -5." When no index figure is used the square root is understood.(x + {/) means that a + b taken as a single quantity is to be divided by x + y taken as a sinAnother way of expressing it is. Vx + y = the square root of x + y. is to that is. they may. it shows that some root of the quantity be found. THE RADICAL SIGN.

but may differ in numerical coefficients. we add them by adding the coefficients. In arithmetic is. When several terms have the same letters. or by no sign at all. when they are not alike the addition When is expressed. or Gcfxy ADDITION Addition is finding the sum of two or more Algebra 4ab 3a& lOafr quantities. we say that if we have five units + 5 and and subtract 5 cancel.THE STARRETT BOOK Let m= 36 and n = 64. Thus 4ac. 5a. Similarly in algebra 5a cancels 2 cancels Qa xy. five units that get we zero. and 3ac they are called similar terms. SIMILAR TERMS. are similar terms. This applies whether the term is a simple one like 3a (a monomial) or (x + y) 2 2 (a binomial) or (a + 2ab + b ) (a polynomial). is a positive term. 6ac added to 6ac 129 . 5ac. V~m~+ n= V"367F 64 = VIM" = 10 n=V36+ 64=6 + 64-70 V/n + Vm + Vn = V36+ V64=6+ 8 = 14 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE TERMS A term or quantity preceded by the plus sign. Arithmetic 4 apples 3 apples 10 apples 17 apples 11 ab the terms are alike. and one preceded by the minus sign is a negative term.

It is ENCE minus 4. but the signs unlike. the result being 23mn 8mn = 15mn. but in algebra 7 11 = 4. Had all the signs been changed. for the sign prefixed to the answer is that of the greater sum. terms can be subtracted in the same way that they can be added. The SUBTRACTION Subtraction in like many ways is like addition. 130 . and unlike terms are subtracted by indicating the difference. we add them by adding all the positive or plus terms.THE If S T A R RETT BOOK = 12ac = I8xy 6ac the terms have different signs they can be added by algebra. In arithmetic 11 cannot be subtracted from 4. then subtract the sum of all the negative or minus terms. that is. but in algebra this can be done by expressing the difference. For instance. the answer would have been 15/nn. In arithmetic the larger cannot be subtracted from the smaller. 7 lacks 4 of being equal to 11. 6ac added to ISac 6ac added to ISxy there are several quantities which are alike. that is. 5/nn When 2mn 3/nn 6mn 15mn positive terms in the above equal + 23mn and the negative terms equal 8mn. Subtraction is the process of finding the DIFFER- between two quantities.

with the prefixed sign of the larger. 5abx multiplied by Qaxy 131 = . Subtracting a + quantity is the same as adding a minus quantity. Subtracting a quantity is the same as adding a plus quantity. the result is the 5. difference (in it is whether ence is 6 or subtracted. Multiplication differs from addition in that unlike quantities can be multiplied. that is. number 2 or 2 8 These few rules should be remembered. MULTIPLICATION Multiplication is a short method you add 4ac tiplying 4ac by if five times.THE STARRETT BOOK The 2 is 6. + 6 between 8 and Whether the differdepends upon which number is being of units) 8. same as mul- 4ac 4ac 4ac 4ac 5 20ac is a process of taking a given quantimes as indicated by a number or another Multiplication tity as many quantity. of addition. The sum of a minus quantity and a plus quantity is the difference between the quantities. The difference between a plus quantity and a minus quantity is equal to the sum of the quantities.

if both are minus. Multiplying more complicated quantities. is illustrated by this example in arithmetic: . the product is minus. SIGNS. the product is plus. then annex the letters. 24o Multiply c + 66 + 6ac 2a + 4b by 3a - 6a 2 + -24&' 132 Go2 . if one is plus and the other minus. If both quantities are plus. for 2 instance. a X a = a x X x = x~. multiplying them when alike by adding the exponents. Multiply 4ac + Sab + 2e way : 4ac 6a + 3afc + 2c - c 24a 2 c + 18a 2 fc + 12ac 2 6ac 18a2 Combining similar terms. those consisting of two or more terms each.THE STARRETT BOOK This simple example shows that to multiply we first multiply the coefficients. the product is plus. we proceed in the same c by 6a. Multiply 4 + 3 + 2-1 by 6 let Instead of adding before multiplying each number by 6 : us multiply 4+ 3+ 2-1 6 24 + 18 + 12 - 6 = 48 If we use letters also.

first multiply two of them. 1 c with the exponent zero equals one or unity. as in the case of b. the case of the letter c. for it involves multiplication. If three quantities are to be multiplied. and the exponents become zero. then divide the First divide letters by subtracting the exponents of the same letter. addition. therefore we put the b in the quotient. In arithmetic dividing 20 by 4 is finding how many times 4 is contained in 20. then multiply the product by the third. 2 In algebra dividing 25a fcc by Sac is finding how 2 many times 5ac will go in 25a c. a cancels one a numerator and c cancels c. These cancel because 1 = 0. In 5ac ) 25a c ab Another factors : way to state this is to divide the terms into =5ab 5ac 5 cancels 5 in the numerator. 2 1 = 1. there is no exponent Division is one quantity is to subtract. for instance. DIVISION the process of finding how many times contained in another.a = a because 2 in the dividend.THE STARRETT BOOK The above example should be thoroughly understood. c goes in c once or 1. When no similar letter is a -*. and cancellation of like terms. The in the 133 . the coefficient 25 by 5.

THE STARRETT BOOK SIGNS. is is + the The process of polynomials is merely an extension of the process of dividing monomials." and it is usual to represent the unknown quantity by the letter (x). The letter whose value is to be found is called the "unknown quantity. Since division is the converse of multiplication. To solve an equation is to find the value of the unknown quantity. and that on the right-hand side is called the second term.35a fc 40a4 35a3 fc 4 + Sa 2 b 2 - lab 2 (oa 2 + b 8a b Sa2 b lab 2 lab 2 EQUATIONS AN EQUATION is an algebraic expression in which two or more terms or quantities are connected by the sign of equality. The two terms or expressions are called members or sides of the equation. 4 35a 3 & Sa 2 b lab 2 by Example: Divide 40a 8<f - + lab : So3 - 3 lab) 40a . + the quotient +. the term on the lefthand side is called the first. either in terms of numbers or in terms of numbers and letters. When the quotient is When quotient quotient is is + and the dividend and the dividend the When is the divisor . A very important fact to remember about equations is that if the same operation is performed on both sides of 134 . the rules governing signs are practically the same : When is both divisor and dividend are both divisor and dividend are the divisor .

So: is made use of in solving an equation. x Adding 2a - 2a = = b to both sides. still be equal to the The equation will continue to be an equation if a. for = 5. b. The same quantity is added to both sides. we can transpose terms. d. Bearing in mind the fact that if the same operation is performed on both sides of an equation the left-hand side remains equal to the right-hand side. e. c. 20 Dividing both sides by we have 4 x Again." It is evident that in transposing the truth of the sign of equality must not be destroyed. Changing the terms from one side to the other is called "transposing. This fact instance. Both sides are divided by the same quantity. we have 5 X 1/5* = 5 X 20 * = 100 Before solving an equation it is usually easier to rewrite or rearrange the terms so that x with its coefficient will be alone on the left-hand side. Both sides are multiplied by the same quantity. /. The same quantity is subtracted from both sides.THE STARRETt BOOK the equation the left-hand side will right-hand side. Both sides are raised to the same power. we have b x- 2a + 2a 135 + 2a . The same root of both sides is extracted. = 1/5* = 20 Multiplying both sides by 5.

we have b x = + 2a We see from this that the 2a has been transposed from one side to the other. thus: n x m + n 2 2 sides To get x alone on by c. is in (m 2 +n 2 n) b the denominator instead of in the 61 a H- b * x~ lOc Multiplying both sides by x gives (a + b)x 10c 136 . First. the left-hand side. the denominator can be eliminated. combine the fractions on the right-hand because they have the same denominator. If the term containing x is a fraction. plus changed to minus or minus to plus. by multiplying both sides of the equation by the denominator.THESTARRETT BOOK As 2a cancels + 2a. and that in transposing the only thing that happened to it was that its sign was changed. c~ b side. it is only necessary to write the quantity on the other side with its sign changed. Numerous examples would show to transpose a quantity from one side of an equation this simple fact that to the other. so that x will be alone. multiply both c x _ Suppose x numerator.

In a certain shop one-fifth of the output is milling machines. we have (a b)x _______ + \x _____ a lOc 6 (lOc) We ____ + b~ a +b 60c a+ The short cut to the same result is to invert both sides. x 6 lOc a + b Then multiplying both sides by 6.THE STARRETT BOOK Now transpose all terms (a + b) x - = 6 lOc Or dividing both sides by -'. ~ a 60c + b SHOP AND ENGINEERING FORMULAS The letters which we have used are given a meaning in shop and engineering formulas by assigning to each a definite numerical value. lOc b . are produced? 137 . and the rest is twentyHow many milling machines and lathes eight shapers. The letters are connected by signs to represent the conditions. two-thirds is lathes. the coefficient of x.

For instance.P. The problem then is to find the numerical value of the unknown by substituting the known values.+ 5 x 2x + 3 28 Multiplying both sides by 15. and N = number of revolutions of the shaft per minute.THE STARRETT BOOK If we let x represent the total number of machines.equals the number of milling machines and equals 5 3 the number and this of lathes. P.000 X H. DN the total twisting moment on the shaft. to eliminate the fractions. the common denominator. In designing. we have 15* 15x = = 3* 13* + + 10* 420 + 420 Transposing 15* - 13* 2x = = 420 420 x=2W x 5 = 210 5 = 2x 42 milling machines and 3 = 420 3 = 140 lathes. = the horse-power transmitted. sum is added to 28 to equal the unknown 3 quantity x. in designing keys some use this formula: 126. in which P = 138 . and these formulas are in the form of equations. H. z=. the letters having definite values. The total is equal to x . Usually the values of all but one letter are known or assumed. x 2x .added 5 to 2x . D = diameter of shaft in inches. formulas are used.

width of face in inches.500 In finding the thickness of the hub of a pulley. some designers use this formula : T = .14^B~D in which T B If = = D= thickness of hub in inches.000 2 X 40 20 X = 31. the twisting moment is found by substituting the known values and solving for P.84 X 6 inch or % inch 139 .14^8 X 27 = = . we have T = .14 . P - 126.THE STARRETT BOOK If 20 horse-power is transmitted at a rotative speed of 40 revolutions per minute and the shaft is 2 inches in diameter. is the face 8 inches and the pulley 27 inches in diameter. diameter of pulley in inches.

THE STARRETT BOOK MENSURATION ANGLES. Angle A ured by the arc A B. The B will be an angle of 60 if angle A the arc A B is one-sixth of the circumference. machinist must understand the properties of angles and the use of the protractor. so that he may work to the angle that is wanted. Examples of working to an ist angle are found in the setting of the compound rest when taper turning. It makes no difference what the radius of the circle is or arc may be. . If a circumference of a circle is drawn. 140 the same. having for a center the vertex of the angle. the measure of the angle will be that arc included between the B is meassides of the angle. the difference in direction and the number of degrees is the same. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes. each called a degree. setting the head of the milling machine for milling spiral flutes in twist drills or reamers. The circumference of the circle is divided into 360 equal parts. the angle is the most important. Of all the plane figures which the machinhas to deal with. or would meet if produced. another definition is: an angle is the space between two straight lines that meet. and also the most troublesome. and In laying out work the in the cutting of bevel gears. An angle is sometimes defined as the difference in direction of two straight lines. not to some other angle. Angles are also used for measuring rotation or circular movement. Each minute into 60 equal parts called seconds.

The angle shown here is a little less than 55. Any given angle may be laid out or measured by setting the blade at the desired angle with the stock.THE STARRETT BOOK A RIGHT ANGLE is one formed by two lines perpendicular to one another. The complement of an angle is the angle which must be added to the given angle to make a right angle or 90. AN ACUTE ANGLE is any angle of less than 90. Either of is the complement of the other. because the instrument reads directly. may be in the measuring form of the combination set (page 14). The protractor is a graduated disc on a fixed blade and adjustable stock. It often happens that a protractor set to 60 actually measures 120. To set the protractor at an angle of less than 90 is an easy matter. But when the desired angle is greater" than 90. to lay off an angle of 150 we first find the supplement or 30 and set the protractor at 30. or the protractor shown in the accompanying illustration. Thus. But the proper scale must be selected. monly used for measuring a right angle is a try-square. With the Starrett combination set. AN OBTUSE ANGLE is any angle of more than 90. The arc which measures it The tool most comis a quarter circumference or 90. all angles are read directly because of the two scales. The supplement of an angle is the angle which must be added to the given angle to make 180. the supplement of the angle must be found and the protractor set to the supplement. The supplement of an angle of 63 is 1X7. being graduated from zero to 90. Two right angles are formed when a line so meets another line that the two angles are equal. Either these angles of these angles is the supplement of the other. 141 . The complement of an angle of 37 is 53. for It The instrument most commonly used angles is the protractor. or two right angles. each graduated from zero to 180.

all the angles are equal. the triangles are similar and the corresponding angles are equal.THE STARRETT BOOK PROTRACTOR A plane figure of three sides if all three sides are equal in length the triangle is equilateral and also equiangular. The areas of two triangles are equal if they have equal base and equal height or altitude. The sum of all three angles is equal to two right angles. If the angles of a triangle are equal to the corresponding angles of another triangle. 142 . BASE TRIANGLE Any angle equals 180 minus the sum of the other two. If the three sides of a triangle are proportional to the corresponding sides of another triangle. The area of any triangle = product of base and altitude divided by 2. the triangles are similar and the corresponding sides are proportional. that is. or 180.

The sum of all the angles equals four right angles. V hypotenuse squared side squared. All four angles are right angles. and the opposite sides are equal and parallel. The hypotenuse the right angle. The area = base X side Hypotenuse Base Side = = = V base squared + side squared. or 360. or 360. RIGHT TRIANGLE is one having one the side opposite The square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. A plane figure of four sides. All four angles are right angles. The sum of all the angles equals four right angles. V hypotenuse squared base squared.414 1. Area SQUARE = square of a side. the square of a diagonal Side Diagonal = = = = V area diagonal V area side X X X . and the opposite sides are equal and.THE STARRETT BOOK A right triangle is right angle. parallel.7071 1. 143 The difference between a square and a rectangle .414 RECTANGLE A plane figure of four sides.

866. of radius of circum- scribed circle 2. Side Side = = line. Area = product of two adjacent sides. A plane figure of four sides. Radius of inscribed circle = side X . Two circles with unequal radii vary in area as the the circumferences are proporsquares of the radii tional to the radii. two of which are Area TRAPEZOID = sum parallel. radius of circumscribed circle.598. radius of inscribed circle X 1. All the sides are equal and all the angles are equal. of parallel sides X one- half the altitude. plane figure bounded by a curved every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center. The sum of all the Area Area Area circle = square = square X of side X 2. Long side = area divided by short side.598. 144 .THE STARREST BOOK is that the adjacent sides of a square are equal. the Diagonal = V sum of squares of adjacent sides. Two circles having equal radii are equal. adjacent sides of a rectangle need not be equal. A A diameter is any straight line passing through the center and touching the CIRCLE circumference at each end.155. = square of radius of inscribed X 3.464. angles equals 720. A regular plane figure of six sides. Short side = area divided by long side.

Area square of diameter X .296 X length of arc Angle X == X radius 57. Area = .7854.296 X length of arc Radius Length of arc degrees in angle radius X degrees in angle. of which every point is the same distance from two points on the longest axis. Area = one-half the radius X length A of arc.1416.2832. Radius = V area -*.7854 X (large diameter small diameter squared).small radius squared). that is.3.1416.1416 X (large radius squared -. Area = . Circumference = diameter X 3.1416. = .01745 145 . Radius = circumference -H 6. squared radii plane figure included between two and the arc.THE STARRETT BOOK A chord is a straight line intersecting or touching the circumference.008727 X radius squared angle in degrees. A plane figure included between two circumferences having the same center. A chord at right angles to a diameter is divided into two equal parts by the diameter. the sum of the distances from any point to the foci is equal to the sum of the distances from any other point to the foci. Area = 3. but not passing through the center. A plane figure bounded by a curve. Area = square of radius X 3. 57.

Length Length Area = Area = Area = of curve diameter of circle of curve radius of circle X 3 X 3.THE STARRETT BOOK Area Area = = 3. the smaller the number. SOLIDS square. 4.1416 of axes A by cycloid is a curve formed a given point on a circumference of a circle rolling on a straight line. sum of square = 3.1416 X radius squared. An involute is a curve traced by the end of a string as it unwinds from a cylinder and is kept taut. .1416 . draw lines at right angles to the radius and make the lengths of these tangents equal to the actual length of the arcs. Through these points on the circumference. the more accurate the curve. 9.7854 Circumference (approx. area of circle X 3. X product of axes. divide the circumference into any number of equal parts.4248 X radius squared. Edge Total area = square 146 of edge X 6. To draw the curve. Volume cube of edge. each a All faces and edges are equal. The string is always tangent to the cylinder. solid having six faces.) X the product of its semi-axes. A = = \/ volume. The curve drawn through these points is an involute. = = X 8.

598 X square of side of base X vertical edge. = area of base and top of areas of the six area = sum faces. REGULAR PYRAMID one-third altitude X area Volume of base. 147 . A right pyramid is a solid having a base a regular polygon and faces isosceles triangles. or altitude. HEXAGONAL RIGHT PRISM Volume = 2. that is. = Slant height = V vertical edge one-half side of base squared. All opposite edges are equal and parallel. Volume = product of the three SQUARE PRISM edges. Any edge = volume edges. A prism having for its base a regular hexagon. Total area = lateral area + (5. Lateral area = perimeter of base X one-half slant height. Slant height = altitude of triangular face.196 X square of side of base) . all rectangular. -*- product of other two Total + area of Total area sides. squared A frustum of a regular pyramid has parallel bases. and bases at right angles to faces.THE STARRETT BOOK A solid having a rectangular base and rectangular sides. Lateral area = side of base X vertical edge X 6. it is the lower portion of a pyramid cut by a plane FRUSTUM OF PYRAMID parallel to the base.

Volume = sum ' A right cone has a circular base and vertex in a line perpendicular to the center of the base. square of radius. It is a solid of revolution. The mean proportional is equal to the square root of the product.THE STARRETT BOOK of areas of the two bases and mean proportional between them X one-third altitude. The mean proportional of the product. Slant height = V square of radius Altitude = V square of slant height + square of altitude.0472 X square of radius X altitude. it is of base Volume = 1. Slant height = V square of altitude + square of difference in radii.2618 X square of diameter of base X altitude. Volume = . Slant height = V square of edge square of onehalf difference of side of bases. It is The frustum bases.1416 X radius of base X slant height. by revolving RIGHT CONE a solid figure formed a right triangle on its vertical side as an axis. Lateral area is equal to the square root bases = sum of perimeters (circles) of two one-half slant height. Conical area = 3. Lateral area = the sum of the perimeters of the two bases X one-half slant height. that is. FRUSTUM OF CONE of a cone has parallel the lower portion of a cone when cut by a plane parallel to the base. Volume = one-third altitude X sum of the areas of the two bases and the mean proportional between the two bases. X 148 .

altitude X thick- thickness). It is a solid of revolution.THE STARRETT BOOK A right cylinder is a solid having circles for bases and lateral surface perpendicular to bases.2832 X radius X altitude. axis of hole coinciding with axis of cylinder. it is generated by revolving a half circle on the diameter as an axis. Volume = 3. Volume = 3. that is. Volume eter = X square X altitude.1416 X diameter X altitude.1416 X of large radius HOLLOW CYLINDER ness Volume = 3. SPHERE Volume = 4 X 3. = 149 .6204 X \j/ volume.1416 . A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface every point of which is equally distant from a point within. Cylindrical surface Cylindrical surface Total surface = 6.7854 X square of radius of diam- X altitude. cylindrical surface + twice area of (circle) base. Hollow cylinder. it is generated by revolving a rectangle about a side as an axis. Volume = difference in volume of two cylinders.1416 X cube of radius = Radius 4.1416 X X (large diameter altitude X (square square of small radius). that is.1888 X cube of radius = T/ volume 4.1888 . called the center. It is a solid of revolution. = 3.

of A spherical segment is formed by SPHERICAL SEGMENT passing a plane through a sphere. Surface of spherical segment = 6.THE STARRETT BOOK Area = 4 X 3. volVolume = volume of sphere ume of segment. A spherical zone is formed by passing two parallel planes through a sphere.2832 radius of sphere X 150 . Surface of spherical segment = 2 X 3. Radius = Hollow sphere.1416 X radius of sphere height. the segment is one-half the sphere. X Area = height. X (radius Radius of segment = V height X (diameter of sphere height of segment). cube Volume = 4.1416 X radius of sphere X height.1416 X square = 12. radius.5664 X square of = area 12. 6. If the plane passes through the center. Area SPHERICAL ZONE = 2 X X 3.1416 X square of height one-third height).5447 X V area of radius.2832 X radius of sphere X height. Volume = difference in volumes of two spheres.1888 X (cube of large radius small radius).5664 3. If it does not pass through the center Volume = 3.

has three characteristics direction. although some carelessly refer to an applied force as being a power. and is expressed in feet per minute or feet per second. is any cause which tends to produce or Force It is measured in pounds. GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FORCES. MOMENT OF FORCE. usually. Velocity does not include force nor weight. That is. place of applicamagnitude. Moment of force is measured in foot-pounds or inch-pounds. tion. Two or more forces may act together on a body. One end of the line the line is drawn to some scale. VELOCITY is rate of motion. Power should not be given the same meaning as force. It is measured in foot-pounds or in inch-pounds. WORK is the product of force and distance. and the perpendicular distance is called the lever arm of the force. or footpounds per second. It is the product of force and distance divided by time. Work does not involve the element time. POWER is the amount of work done in a given time. The operation is called the COMPOSITION OF FORCES. and is expressed in foot-pounds per minute. represents the point of application. and an arrow head at the other end represents the direction. To find a single force which produces the same effect as two or more forces. The element of time is always included. 161 . A force may be represented graphically by a straight line. the length being proportional to the magnitude. The moment of a force is the force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the fixed point to the direction of the force. It is distance divided by time.THE STARRETT BOOK MECHANICS A FORCE modify motion. is to find the RESULTANT. The fixed point is called the center of moments.

It is nearer the greater force and takes the same direction as the greater force.THE STARRETT BOOK To find two or more forces which combined are equivalent to a given force is to find the COMPONENTS. and is The resultant is equal to their sum. If two forces act in opposite directions. the resultant is equal to their sum. their resultant is parallel to both. the resultant their difference. The point of application of the resultant is: If AB : CD = CE AE : 152 . When two forces acting at a point can he represented in direction and magnitude by the adjacent sides of a parallelogram. -^B When two forces are parallel and act in the same direction. PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES. but in intensity it is equal to the difference between the components. but not from the same point. CD AB = AE : : EC the forces act in opposite directions. located between the forces at a point that divides the line joining the points of application inversely as the magnitudes. the resultant is parallel to both. the resultant will be represented in direction and magnitude by the diagonal of the parallelogram. The operation is called the RESOLUTION OF FORCES. If two forces act in the same direction. is PARALLEL FORCES. A B and A C are the forces and A R the resultant. but is located outside of them on the line (produced) joining the points of application.

j Z-* * A I i is (w) In the third form of lever. The same formulas are used. the" same principles apply. point called the fulcrum. The lever arms are the portions between the weights or forces and the fulcrum. that is. and both weight f [ and force act in the same direction (w) : or WX L=FX W F= L : / / : W= FX L Z I FX i Z WX L / W WX L F When the weight or load is between the fulcrum and the point at which the force is applied. which may move about a fixed. the force applied at a point between the fulcrum and the weight. A lever is an inflexible rod. As the lever is considered in balance. They may be illustrated in levers. in fact. When the fulcrum is between the ^ * L A ~"1 weight and the force. the moment of force (F X Z) remains the same. it must be remembered that the moments are the weights or forces multiplied by the distances from the fulcrum. the product of the weight and length of weight arm is equal to the product of the power and length of power arm. but there If 153 .THE STARRE'TT BOOK LEVERS Moments of forces are very important factors in machines. the same formulas are used. by the lever arms. To solve all problems relating to the lever. the weight of the lever itself is to be considered.

In a lever of the first class there will be two moments of weight due to the weight of the lever. With levers of the second and third class. The is force equal to of number F= If W N is there are five ropes and the weight 300 pounds. the additional moment of weight will are then moments is act with the original added to it. THE WINDLASS. The moment of force and the moment of weight are the means for finding the force required to lift a weight by a rope wound on the drum of a windlass.THE STARRETT BOOK The additional several moments of weight. one will act with the moment of force and the other act with the moment of weight. Velocity 154 Velocity =N of F . of weight are found by multiplying the weight of the lever arm by the distance of its center of gravity from the fulcrum. therefore. the force is: 300 = 60 pounds F= -o velocity with which the weight is raised is equal to the velocity of the force divided by the number of ropes The shortened. moment of weight. and. F X L= p __ WX WX _ / I PULLEYS OR BLOCKS. required to lift the weight the weight divided by the ropes that are shortened.

of driven X d = Revs. or a change of speed. to the diameters. It is evident that the linear speed of the pulleys is the same. The smaller pulley runs at the higher rotative speed. therefore.THE STARRETT BOOK PULLEYS A simple way to transmit power. multiply the revolutions of the driver by its diameter and divide by the revolutions of the driven. 156 . The product is From Revs. To change the rotative speed of shafts it is only necessary to place on them pulleys of unlike diameters. of driver X D we have d = and Revs. : Revs. one revolution of the driving pulley pulls the belt through a distance equal to its circumference. is to place a pulley on the driving shaft and another on the driven shaft and pass an endless belt over them. either at the same speed. of driven D=- Revs. of driven Revs. The revolutions are inversely proportional to the circumferences and. of driven X d = Revs. and a point on the periphery of the driven pulley will be pulled through this distance whether or not the periphery is equal to the circumference of the driving pulley. of driver : d. diameter of driven. pulley of the revolutions and diameter of one equal to the product of the revolutions and diameter of the other pulley. of driven Revs. of driver To find the diameter of the driven pulley. of driver = D Revs. D= d = diameter of driver. X D. of driver X D X d Revs. that is.

of driver XD d Example: The driver pulley is 16 inches diameter and the driven is 18 inches diameter. of driver when sizes of pulleys are known X D = Revs. what diameter pulley should be selected? d = 150 X 12 = 3 inches 600 The driving driven shaft is shaft to makes 200 revolutions and the revolutions make 150 per minute. Revs. of driven X d. With a driven pulley of 24 inches diameter. what will be the speed of the driven pulley? 156 . When the driver runs at 270 revolutions per minute. what size driver pulley should be used? 150 X 24 -= D=- 18 inches 200 To find speeds Revs. of driven X d : Revs.THE STARRETT BOOK Example: The driving shaft makes 150 revolutions per minute and the driving pulley is 12 inches in diameter. The driven shaft is to make 600 revolutions. of driver = D Revs. of driven =- Revs.

of Driven = Dia. of driven = Revs. of driver = Revs.THE STARRETT ROOK Revs. of driver Revs. of driven X d D 120 X 18 14 = 93 1-3 FORMULAS FOR PULLEY DIAMETERS AND REVOLUTIONS When three factors are known the fourth can be found by using one of the following formulas: Dia. of driver Dia. of driver X X Revs. of driven Revs. of driven Revs. of driven Dia. of driver XD 270 X 18 16 -=240 Example: Two pulleys. of driver Dia. of driver X Revs. of driven 167 . of Driven Revs. are available. of driven Revs. of Driver Dia. of driver Dia. of Driver = = = Dia of driven X Revs. The driven shaft is to run at 120 revolutions per minute. one of 14 inches diameter and the other of 18 inches diameter. If the 14-inch pulley is placed on the driven shaft what should be the speed of the driver? Revs.

Revs. Or Revs. In the above illustration the high rotative speed of A (on a motor shaft for example) is reduced to a much lower figure at pulley D.THE STARRETT BOOK The same principles apply to more complex belting. = is If five of the above quantities are easily found. that is. pulley Revs. of B X diameter of B and Revs. known the sixth 168 . Suppose two pulleys are on the same shaft. This arrangement is often desirable when it is impracticable to get the speed reduction with one belt. we then have a combination that resembles a train of gears. of B = Revs. of D X diameter of D. But pulleys B and C are on the same shaft and have the same rotative speed. of A X diameter of A = Revs. of Revs. when the larger pulley would have to be very large as compared with the smaller. of C X diameter of C = Revs. of A X D X diameter of A diameter of B X X diameter of C diameter of D. rela- Combining these equations we may express the tion as follows: The speed of the first driver multiplied by the diameters of all the drivers is eqaal to the speed of the last driven pulley multiplied by the diameters of all driven pulleys. of C.

What is the speed of D? X 4 1200 X 5 24. per minute. C is 5 inches. but the RATIO can be found.000 D X D X 12 X 16 192 Revs. of A diameter of B X diameter of diameter of D or Revs. of D = 192 = 125 In the above we have found the rotative speed of D without finding the rotative speed of B. of pulleys to use in place of B and G. but we had given the diameters of B and C. J>ut do not know what Revs. Suppose we had given the speed of D. of D A X diameter of C The two unknown quantities are diameter of B and diameter of G. and is 4 inches in diameter. all all first driver product of diameters of product of diameters of drivens drivers Revs. of Revs. and D is 16 inches. Using the data in the above example we have 1200 125 16 X diameter 1200 125 of B diameter of C X 4 4 Diameter of B Diameter of G 16 - 12 ~!> 169 . of last driven Revs. Pulley B is 12 inches in diameter.THE STARRETT BOOK Example: Pulley A runs at 1200 Rev. of 24.000 = = Revs.

Example: The shaft of 3-inch pulley D is to make 900 revolutions.THE STARRETT ROOK Then the ratio of the diameters is 12 5. what pulleys must be placet as B and : . and any pulleys having diameters in this ratio will give the desired 2 speeds. The formula Revs. 13y2 inches. The pulleys may be 12 and 5 inches. of last driven 150 900 1 ^ Tijn X 3 X diameter of C diameter of B _ __ 3 vv 6 14 1 vx diameter of C 14 f _ Diameter of B Diameter of C 6 3 7 "9" _14_ ~18~ 160 . C if A is 14 inches in diameter and makes 150 revolutions? The available 8. pulleys have these diameters 10V2 11. 9. 12. of first to use is driver product of diameters of product of diameters of diameter of B 14 all all drivens drivers Revs. . 18 and 7V or 24 and 10.

inches.350 LENGTH OF BELTS Pass a tape. place these : will . This will give the length direct. Formula for Length of Open Belt L r = 3. Rule for Length of Open Belt Add diameters of pulleys in inches and multiply the sum by 1. D = Distance between centers of shaft. 161 Radius of large pulley. the pulleys and straining with hand pull. preferably a steel tape. values in this expression: The speed of the first driver (150) multiplied by the diameters of all drivers (14) and (13%) is equal to the speed of the last driven (900) multiplied by the diameters of all driven pulleys (10%) and (3). but if a double belt is to be used add to the measurement twice the thickness of the belt. With long belts stretching may be anticipated by cutting the belt one inch shorter for every ten feet. inches.14 (R+r) +2D + - (R-r) D 2 R= = radius of small pulley. and the slack should be taken up.350 = = 900 X 10% X 3 28. 150 X 14 X 13% 28. The length of small belts may be obtained by passing the belt around Open Belt.THE STARRETT BOOK Then multiply the ratio 7 9 by any number which make 7 and 9 equal to the diameters of pulleys on hand. L = Length of belt. . New belts stretch and become slack after a short time. inches. Multiplying by 1% gives 10% and 13y 2 To prove that the calculation is correct.57. if a single belt. around the pulleys. then add to this product twice the distance between centers in inches. inches.

14 = = X (12 + 8) + (2 X 132) +- -(12 + 132 2 8) 400 62.14 (R letters + r) + 2D + Length of Crossed Belt 2 (R + r) D The have the same values as above. open belt. Example: and 16 inches crossed. and the number of revolutions is always a constant ratio for these two gears. mesh a point on the pitch circle of one moves at the same linear velocity as a point on the pitch circle of the other.THE S-TARRETT BOOK Formula for L = 3.8 + 326.8 + 264 . GEARS CONSTANT VELOCITY RATIO. Two in diameter. crossed belt.8 inches. Belts over pulleys and plain rolling cylinders cannot be depended upon to give a constant velocity ratio there is always some But when two gears are in loss of speed due to slip.14 X (12 + 8) + (2 X 132) + (12132 8)* 62. 162 .8 + 3 = 329.12 +- 16 132 = = L 326. pulleys are 11 feet apart and are 24 Length of belt? Open and L = = 3.92 inches.8 + 264 +132 = 326. 3.

Or. must have an unequal number of teeth. Therefore. of follower 163 . for of teeth are proportional to the pitch diameters in the same way that the peripheries of pulleys are proportional to the diameters. of follower X / Revs. two gears of the same pitch. As in belts and pulleys. that is. immediately that the linear velocity of the pitch circles must be equal and the rotative speeds can be found in the same way as with belts. the distance from the center of a tooth to the center of the next tooth. but of different diameters. It may be said that the space occupied by a tooth and the space between two teeth is the same in both This fact shows gears if they have the same pitch. of driver = Revs. the speeds (rotative) are inversely as the number of teeth.THE STARRETT BOOK Two gears in mesh have the same pitch. Revs. The number of revolutions of the driver multiplied number number is equal to the of revolutions of the follower multiplied by the of teeth on the follower. of driver X T T number of teeth on the driver and t number of teeth on the follower: by the number of teeth on the driver = = = T= and t "Revs. the gear with the smaller number of teeth runs at the higher speed. A gear having twice as many teeth as the gear mesh- ber of teeth numbers ing with it will make but one-half as many revolutions in a given time. one gear of a pair is the driver and the other the driven or follower. measured along the pitch circle. of driver X T Revs. of follower X t. The pitch diameter or the numthe is substituted for the pulley diameter. is the same for both gears. if Revs.

how many revolutions per minute? Revs. of follower = 800 X 42 63 = 1200 164 . Example: The follower has 64 teeth and makes 30 revolutions per minute.THE STARRETT BOOK To find the number of teeth (T) on the driver. of driver X T Example: The follower has 90 teeth and makes 110 revolutions per minute. How many teeth? / = = 160 X 40 100 = 64 Revs. The follower makes 100 revolutions. of driver = 110 X 44 90 - = 225 lutions per minute. If the driver has 44 teeth. of follower Revs. of follower = Revs. will be its speed? Example: A driver having 63 teeth makes 800 revoIf the follower has 42 teeth. what Revs. The driver makes 80 revolutions per minute. of driver - X / T Revs. How many teeth has the driver? T=- 30 X 80 64 -= 24 Example: The driver makes 160 revolutions per minute and has 40 teeth. multiply the revolutions of the follower by its number of teeth and divide the product by the revolutions of the driver.

of driver X X teeth on driver Revs. A. lathes. of follower X teeth on follower teeth on driver Revs. great speed changes are trains of gears in place of a pair. What is the velocity ratio of A to N? 165 . of follower teeth on follower Teeth on Driver Revs. The velocity ratio of the first to the last is found as follows: The product of the number of teeth on all the drivers divided by the product of the number of teeth on all the followers is the velocity ratio. of driver X teeth on driver Teeth on Follower Revs. L. Suppose the train has three drivers. and N. A has 14 teeth and drives L having 70 teeth. of Follower teeth on follower Revs. Pinion B on same shaft with L has 13 teeth and drives M having 104 teeth. etc. C drives N having 75 teeth. Examples are found in hoists.THE STARRETT BOOK FORMULAS FOR SPEED OF GEARS When three factors are known the fourth can be found by using one of the following formulas: Revs. and is on the same shaft with M. B. Pinion C has 15 teeth. clocks. of Driver = = = = Revs. M. of follower in the case of pulleys. Each pair in the train has its driver and follower. of driver Revs. and C and three followers. except the first and last. and if the shafts are As made by parallel it is usual to get the speed change by keying two gears of unequal size on every shaft.

and divide by the continued product of the teeth on all followers. as The apprentice who wishes 166 . N will make only 9. it is easy to If A find the speed of N if the speed of A is known.THE STARRETT BOOK Velocity ratio = teeth on teeth on A X L X teeth on B X teeth on C teeth on MX teeth on N 14 70 1 X X 13 X X 15 75 104 ~ 200 Knowing the velocity ratio of the train. The quotient will be the revolutions per minute of the last follower. the speed may be figured from the = following: Multiply the revolutions per minute of the first driver by the continued product of the number of teeth on all drivers.200 When the speed of the first driver or the last follower is also known. runs at 1800 revolutions per minute. LATHE GEARING for to figure change gears screw cutting should understand the principles. 9 revolutions for 1800 4.

rather than be dependent upon formuThere is but one statement to be memorized. If the lathe is not so geared. and the number of turns on the lead screw to move the carriage one inch corresponds to the speed of the follower.THE STARRETT BOOK already explained. las. In figuring change gears. the lathe screw constant should be used in place of the threads per inch on the lead screw. is. Then the number of threads to be cut multiplied by the teeth on the spindle stud equals the number of threads on the lead screw multiplied by the teeth on the lead screw gear. Or drivers. that the lathe screw constant is equal to the number of threads per inch on the lead screw. The continued product driver and the equal to the speed of the last follower multiplied by the continued product of the teeth on all followers. the number of threads per inch to be cut corresponds to the revolutions of the driver. 167 . is number of of teeth the speed of the all first on threads to be cut threads on lead screw teeth on lead teeth screw gear on spindle stud Suppose there are 6 threads on the lead screw and 46 teeth on the lead screw gear how many threads will be cut if a 24-tooth gear is placed on the spindle stud? threads to be cut 40 " 6 24 threads to be cut = 40 X 24 10 6 = The above assumes that the lathe is geared 1:1.

and there are threads per inch on the lead screw. 168 .THE STARRETT BOOK The foregoing example shows how the figuring can be done when the gears are on the spindle stud and lead screw. What gears are to be used? five threads to be cut teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear threads on lead screw 7 teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear is 5 The ratio of the gears By multiplying both as 6. such we get 42 teeth on lead screw gear teeth on stud gear 30 Using the formula as above may aid in disposing of that troublesome question. 7 and 5 by any number. as 7 : 5. "Which gear goes on the stud?" In some cases it may seem easier to assume one gear and go through the calculation to find the other. Suppose seven threads are to be cut. but the problem is usually one of finding out what gears to use. there being then one unknown quantity and three known quantities.

THE STARRETT BOOK Table 13 Specific Gravity and Properties of Metals Metal or Composition .

6 0. in cement Cement. bituminous 2.6 2. rammed Emery Glass Granite Gravel 4. dry Sand.8 1.0 2. in motor Brickwork.5 1. anthracite Coal.7 2.6 Concrete Earth.15 1.9 '.2 1. hard Brick.8 170 .0 2. wet Sandstone Slate 1.6 2.3 2.6 2. Portland Chalk Charcoal Coal.8 Quartz Salt.27 2. 1.75 1.2 1.75 2.1 common Sand.4 1.7 Soapstone Soil.1 Brickwork. common black 2.85 Limestone Marble 2.3 2. fire Brick.0 1.0 Sulphur 2.0 Trap Tile 3.THE STARRETT BOOK Table 14 Average Specific Gravity of Miscellaneous Substances Specific Substance Gravity Asbestos 2.4 Asphaltum Borax Brick. loose Earth. pressed 1.0 2.8 3.4 2. Ivory 1.8 2.6 1.8 2.8 1. common Brick.8 2.65 1.5 ( Masonry Mica Mortar Phosphorus Plaster of Paris 1.2 Gypsum Ice 0.6 2.

) Gas .THE STARRETT BOOK Table 15 Specific Gravity of Gases (At 32 degrees F.

THE STARRETT BOOK Table 17 Composition of Miscellaneous Alloys Alloys .

THE STARR ETT ROOK Table 18 Average Substance Specific Heats of Various Substances .

THE STARRETT BOOK Table 19 Templets for Drilling Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings American Standard V N to .

THE STARRETT BOOK Table 20 Templets for Drilling Extra Fittings Heavy Flanged Valves and American Standard Size .

Special Machine Screw Taps and will The diameter given for each hole to be tapped allows for a practical clearance at the root of the thread of the screw not impose undue strain upon the tap in service. E. Size of Tap . Standard and . M.THE S T A R Table 21 S. RETT BOOK Tap Drills For A.

THE STARRETT BOOK Table 22 Tap Drills for Machine Screws Size of Tap .

Holding Work Drilling Large Holes Drilling. Deep Hole Drilling Detail Drawings Dividers. Composition of Angle. Drilling. Spring Draw Filing Drawing the Drill Drill Drill 02 7 Grinding Speed . Drilling Drilling Deep Holes .INDEX Abbreviations for Drawings Abrasives. 12 43 104 132-136 119 172 140 . Measurement of . Speed of 103 104 27 85 69 27 19 26 16 75 51 67 Center Gage Center Punches Change Gears Chipping Chisels for Chipping 56 79 38 38 Chucking Chucking Tools Coefficient (Algebra) Composition of Alloys Compound Gears for Thread Cutting 93 : Contact Measuring Counterboring : Cup Wheels Cutting Compounds for Drills Cutting Lips of Drills Cutting Screw Threads 96 127 172 82 15 62 117 53 47 77 .. . Grain Adjusting Toolmakers' Buttons with Micrometer Algebraic Signs Aligning Shafting Alloys. 28 42 55 48 51 48 62 55 57 58 56 61 55 1J5 . for Testing Screw Threads Calipers. Hermaphrodite Calipers. . Bench Work Bolt and Screw Lists Boring Holes in Jig Body .- 7 Buttons' Toolmakers' Calipering over a Flange Calipers. Starting Drill Drilling. Templets for Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and 178 Fittings . Inside and Outside Calipers. . 35 . Drawing the Drill Drilling for Reamer Drilling for Tapping ' ". Drilling. .. . Vernier Carbon Steel Carbon Steel Drills. Spring Calipers. Micrometer Calipers. . . . .

. Kinds Drills. Templets for Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings Drills. Testing Cutting Lips ' 174 53 47 47 59 97 49 Eccentric Turning Elementary Algebra Emery. Speed of Gears. Mounting 165 79 163 165 43 Ill 109 110 113 113 116 115 116 100 114 109. Templets for Drilling . Grades Grinding Wheels. Templets for Drilling Forced Fits Forces . Allowances for Grinding. Amounts to leave Grinding Cylindrical Grinding Flat Surfaces Grinding Wheels. Cutting Lips Drills. 40 40 42 30 174 29 151 Gear Speeds. . Grades of Equations Equivalent Tables Expansion of Metals Exponent Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and Files. Trains Grades of Emery Grading Grinding Wheels Grinding Grinding. 45 43 44 46 38 17 51 56 57 95 21 22 23 146 Involute 179 . Testing Surface Fits. Making Drills. Cutting Compounds Drills.THE STARRETT BOOK Drilling. Formulas for Gears for Thread Cutting Gears. Measuring Work Grinding Milling Cutters Grinding Speeds for Grinding Wheels Grinding Wheels. Amounts to Leave Flanged Fittings. Kinds . Letter Sizes of Drills. What One to Use Hand Chipping Height Gage High Speed Steel Drills. 111 Ill 116 Saws. Grade and Grain Grinding. Fittings. Cutting Speed Saws. 91 126 43 134 60 169 127 175 Filing Filing. Hack Hack Hack Hack Saw Machine Saws . Speed of Holding Drill in Spindle Holding Work for Drilling Holding Work in Chucks How to Read a Micrometer How to Read a Vernier How to Read a Vernier Micrometer .

Formulas for Pulleys 37 121 43 35 37 157 155 180 . Adjusting Buttons with Micrometer as a Gage Micrometer Calipers Micrometer. Use of Measuring Measuring Measuring Measuring Mechanics Lathe Work Screw Threads Tools Work. Levers Limits of Accuracy Locating Bushing Holes in Jigs Locating Jig on Face Plate Locating Machinery Low Pressure Flanged Fittings Lubricant for Thread Cutting Mandrels.. 162 119 119 124 125 153 29. Finding Difference Up . Clearance Lathe Tools. Jigs. for Measuring Screw Threads Micrometer. 107 Locating Bushing Holes Types 108 101 102 101 Knurling '. How to Read Micrometers. . Milling Cutters Milling Cutters. 32 102 103 123 174 84 76 85 84 13 116 151 169 140 104 25 19 86 21 25 25 99 100 142. 96 117 65 65 106 70. Grinding Lathe Tools. Quick Adjustment . Rake Lathe Tools. Adjustment for Wear Micrometers. Setting Lathe Tools.. Grinding Melting Point of Metals Mensuration Micrometer.THE STARRETT BOOK Jig Bushings Jig for Drilling Cylinder Flange Jigs and Fixtures Jigs. Formulas for Level for Aligning Shafting Leveling Instrument Leveling Instrument... Grinding Plane Figures Plate for Laying Out Plumb Bobs Polishing Preparing Surface for Laying Out Protractors Pulley Diameters and Speeds. Testing Cutting Angles Lathe Work. Measuring Laying Out for Drilling Length of Belts. How to Set Levels. 75 72 73 72 73 74 85 53 161. 146 Lapping Lathe Lathe Centers Lathe Gearing Lathe Tools Lathe Tools.

. Properties of U. 154 25 Quick Adjustment of Micrometers Radical Sign Reamers. 177 90 87. Measuring Threads. Standard Screw Threads Morse Taper Shanks Tapers 10 Allowances for Grinding 11 Grinding Wheel Speeds 12 Grinding Wheels for Different Materials 13 Specific Gravity and Properties of Metals . Offset of Centers. 181 . .E." S. Pitch Threads. Screw Screw Screw Screw Threads . Tap Drills. Amount Tapers. Testing 59. 78. Scribing Lines for Laying Out Section Lines Shop and Engineering Formulas Signs (Algebra) Sliding Pit Solids Specific Specific Specific Specific Specific . Standard 22 Tap Drills for Machine Screws .M. S. Starting Drill Stellite 170 173 52 165 174 55 76 38- Surface Plates Table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowances for Different Classes of Fits Speeds and Feeds for Drilling Speed of Drills Letter Sizes of Drills Sizes of Tap Drills TJ. Standard 132 29 146 171 171 1G9 Heat of Substances Speed of Drills Speed of Gears.THE STARRETT BOOK Pulleys. Sizes of . A. 88 86 90 91 . t Taper in Given Length Taper Shanks Taper Turning Taper Turning. Making 128 97 77 84 77 78 35 11 137 Threads. Formulas for Standard Flanged Fittings Gravity Gravity Gravity Gravity of Gases of Liquids of Metals of Substances ' . 88 92 110 114 115 169 170 171 171 172 173 174 .. Brown & Sharpe Taper Shanks 31 51 52 59 59 78 87 14 Specific Gravity of Substances 15 Specific Gravity of Gases 16 Specific Gravity of Liquids 17 Composition of Alloys 18 Specific Heat of Substances 19 Templets for Drilling Standard and Low Pressure Flanged Valves and Fittings American Standard 20 Templets for Drilling Extra Heavy Flanged Valves and American Standard Fittings 21 Tap Drills. or Blocks . 175 176 177 176.S.

123 4!) Thread Tool. . . Setting Tolerance. Form of Thread Tool. Locating . 170 46 154 69 89 12 Working Drawing Abbreviations Working Drawings 182 . Limits of Tool Holders Tool Making Toolmakers' Buttons Train of Gears Transferring Measurements 42 67 91 82 84 32 75 97 103 165 Truing Work in Chucks 07. Vitrified How to Read Vernier Micrometer. . . .- Vernier. 10r> Universal Dial Test Indicator Vernier Calipers Vernier Height Gage .THE STARRETT BOOK Targets Testing Cutting Lips of Drills Testing Flat Filing Test Indicator Testing Turned Taper . Work Centers 26 95 69 103 16 17. . Turning. . How to Read Wheels 22 23 109 Wear of Micrometers 25 What Hack Saw Work Work Centers Weight per Cuhic Foot of Substances to Use Windlass Centers.

No. 4" Caliper 79. 6" Flexible Steel Rule in pocket case No. 900 consists of the leather case and the following tools: No. 11. No. Center Gage 241. 4" Divider with solid nut nut nut PRICE. complete No.THE STARR E T T BO Q K SETS OF TOOLS FOR APPRENTICES AND STUDENTS SET NO. No. 900 IN FOLDING LEATHER CASE x 4%" x l%* Size of case folded. Center Punch No. 4" Inside Caliper with solid 83.00 . No. 4" Outside Caliper with solid 73. 6" Combination Square. 117B. 7" Set No. 321. set complete 183 $6. 390.

No. nut Inside Caliper with solid nut PRICE. 117B. No. No. 6" Rule in pocket case No. complete Flexible Steel No. set complete 184 $6. 6" Outside Caliper with solid 73. 5" Divider with solid nut 79. 901 IN NICELY FINISHED WOODEN CASE Size of case. 11.THE STARRETT BOOK SETS OF TOOLS FOR APPRENTICES AND STUDENTS SET NO. Center Punch No. 6" wooden case and the 390. 321. 901 consists of the following tools: No. 12"x7"xl^ Set No. Center Gage 77.15 . 6" Combination Square.


UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY BERKELEY Return This book is to desk from which borrowed.RY i U>E Due end of WINTER Quarter subject to redall M AB 1 9 after- 5 flQ 3* 'IS STACKS WR 1 "7' REC'OLO 21-100m-9. the last date stamped below. DUE on Allgl7'48JL .'47(A5702sl6)476 .

M51G983 .

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