ETABS

®

Integrated Building Design Software

Composite Floor Frame Design Manual

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 8 January 2002

Copyright
The computer program ETABS and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 845-2177 FAX: (510) 845-4096 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

 Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2002. The CSI Logo is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. ETABS is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated

DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF ETABS. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/CHECK OF STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF COMPOSITE DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN

Contents

General Composite Beam Design Information
1 General Design Information Design Codes 1-1 Units 1-1 Beams Designed as Composite Beams 1-1 Material Property Requirements for Composite Beams 1-2 Other Requirements for Composite Beams 1-2 Frame Elements Designed by Default as Composite Beams 1-3 Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Composite Beam 1-3 How the Program Optimizes Design Groups 1-5 Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections 1-6 Design Load Combinations 1-8 Analysis Sections and Design Sections 1-8 Output Stations 1-10 Composite Beam Design Process Design Process for a New Building Check Process for an Existing Building Interactive Composite Beam Design Member Identification Section Information Acceptable Sections List ReDefine

2

2-1 2-4

3

3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4

i

Composite Beam Design Manual
Temporary Show Details 4 3-5 3-5

Output Data Plotted Directly on the Model Overview 4-1 Labels Displayed on the Model 4-2 Design Data 4-3 Stress Ratios 4-4 Deflection Ratios 4-5 Input Data General Using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form Material Properties Input Data Section Properties Input Data Deck Properties Input Data Design Preferences Input Data Beam Overwrites Input Data Output Data Overview Using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form Summary of Composite Beam Output Composite Beam Properties Beam Properties Metal Deck and Slab Properties Shear Stud Properties Cover Plates

5

5-1 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-6 5-8

6

6-1 6-1 6-2

7

7-1 7-3 7-5 7-5

8

Effective Width of Concrete Slab Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked 8-1 Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length 8-2 Effect of Diagonal Beams on Effective Slab Width 8-6

ii

Contents Effect of Openings on Effective Slab Width Effective Slab Width and Transformed Section Properties 9 Beam Unbraced Length Overview Determination of the Braced Points of a Beam User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam Overview User-Specified Uniform and Point Bracing Design Check Locations Design Load Combinations Overview Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans Beam Deflection and Camber Deflection Camber Beam Vibration Overview Vibration Frequency Murray's Minimum Damping Requirement Initial Displacement Amplitude Effective Number of Beams Resisting Heel Drop Impact References 8-8 8-9 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-7 10 10-1 10-2 10-4 11 11-1 11-4 12 12-1 12-1 12-4 12-4 12-6 12-7 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Overview 13-1 Composite Beam Segments 13-1 iii .

Composite Beam Design Manual Physical End of the Beam Top Flange 13-2 Distribution of Shear Studs Within a Composite Beam Segment 13-5 How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam 13-5 Equations Used When the Program Works from Left to Right 13-8 Equations Used When the Program Works from Right to Left 13-9 Minimum and Maximum Number of Shear Studs in a Composite Beam Segment 13-11 A Note About Multiple Design Load Combinations 13-11 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment General 14-1 Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span 14-2 Deck Ribs Oriented Perpendicular to Beam Span 14-6 Different Deck Type or Orientation on Beam Sides 14-8 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Specifying a User-Defined Shear Connector Pattern 15-1 Uniformly Spaced Shear Studs Over the Length of the Beam 15-2 Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam 15-4 Defining Additional Beam Sections 15-4 Example of a User-Defined Shear Stud Pattern 15-8 How the Program Checks a Beam with UserDefined Shear Studs 15-9 15 iv .

Contents Composite Beam Design Specific to AISC-ASD89 16 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of Technical Notes 16-1 Notation 16-2 Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Factors Tab Beam Tab Deflection Tab Vibration Tab Price Tab Overwrites General Using the Composite Beam Overwrites Form Overwrites Beam Tab Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab Deck Tab Shear Studs Tab Deflection Tab Vibration Tab Miscellaneous Tab EQ Factor Width-to-Thickness Checks Overview Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Flanges Compact Section Limits for Flanges Noncompact Section Limits for Flanges 17 17-1 17-1 17-2 17-3 17-3 17-4 17-5 17-6 18 18-1 18-2 18-3 18-4 18-6 18-9 18-10 18-13 18-14 18-14 18-15 19 19-1 19-2 19-2 19-2 v .

Composite Beam Design Manual Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Webs Compact Section Limits for Webs Noncompact Section Limits for Webs Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates Compact Section Limits for Cover Plates Noncompact Section Limits for Cover Plates 20 19-3 19-3 19-3 19-4 19-5 19-5 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Background 20-2 Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone 20-4 Properties of the Composite Section General Calculation Method 20-7 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye 20-10 Background Equations 20-11 Hand Calculation Process for ye 20-17 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties 20-18 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Effective Moment of Inertia for Partial Composite Connection 21-1 Effective Section Modulus Referred to the Extreme Tension Fiber 21-2 Location of the ENA for Partial Composite Connection 21-3 Steel Section Stresses for Partial Composite Connection 21-5 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection 21-6 Allowable Bending Stresses General 21 22 22-1 vi .

Contents Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone Allowable Bending Stresses for Positive Bending in the Composite Beam 23 Bending Stress Checks Bending Stress Checks Without Composite Action Positive Moment in a Composite Beam Important Notes Regarding Unshored Composite Beams Steel Stress Checks Concrete Stress Checks Beam Shear Checks Shear Stress Check Typical Case Slender Web Copes Shear Rupture Check Limitations of Shear Check Shear Studs Overview Shear Stud Connectors Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Perpendicular to Beam Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Parallel to Beam Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection Number of Shear Studs Between the Output Station with Maximum Moment and the Point of Zero Moment Between Other Output Stations and Points of Zero Moment 22-2 22-6 23-1 23-2 23-5 23-5 23-6 24 24-1 24-1 24-2 24-3 24-4 24-7 25 25-1 25-1 25-2 25-3 25-4 25-5 25-6 25-6 vii .

Composite Beam Design Manual 26 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Basic Equations 26-1 Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 26-4 Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 26-8 Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 26-13 Detailed Calculations 26-15 Input Data Beam Overwrites Input Data Output Details Short Form Output Details 27 27-1 28 28-1 Composite Beam Design Specific to AISC-LRFD93 29 General and Notation AISC-LRFD93 Design Methodology Notation Preferences General Using the Preferences Form Preferences Factors Tab Beam Tab Deflection Tab Vibration Tab Price Tab Overwrites General Using the Composite Beam Overwrites Form Resetting Composite Beam Overwrites to Default Values Overwrites Beam Tab Brace (C) Tab and Bracing Tab 29-1 29-7 30 30-1 30-1 30-2 30-3 30-4 30-5 30-5 30-6 31 31-1 31-2 31-3 31-3 31-4 31-6 viii .

Contents Deck Tab Shear Studs Tab Deflection Tab Vibration Tab Miscellaneous Tab 32 Design Load Combinations Strength Check for Construction Loads Strength Check for Final Loads Deflection Check for Final Loads Reference 31-9 31-10 31-12 31-13 31-14 32-1 32-2 32-2 32-3 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements Overview 33-1 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Flanges 33-2 Compact Section Limits for Flanges 33-2 Noncompact Section Limits for Flanges 33-2 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Webs 33-3 Compact Section Limits for Webs 33-3 Noncompact Section Limits for Webs 33-4 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates 33-5 Compact Section Limits for Cover Plates 33-5 Noncompact Section Limits for Cover Plates 33-6 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Overview 34-1 Location of the Plastic Neutral Axis 34-2 PNA in the Concrete Slab Above the Steel Beam 34-5 PNA within the Beam Top Flange 34-8 PNA within the Beam Top Fillet 34-9 PNA within the Beam Web 34-10 34 ix .

1 36-5 Lateral Torsional Buckling Criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.2a 36-5 AISC-LFRD Appendix F1(b) Equation A-F1-3 46-5 Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Compact Web 36-7 AISC-LFRD93 Equation A-F1-1 for WLB 36-8 AISC-FLRD93 Equation A-F1-1 for FLB 36-8 AISC-FLRD93 Equation A-F1-3 for FLB 36-9 AISC-FLRD93 Equation A-F1-1 for LTB 36-9 AISC-FLRD93 Equation A-F1-2 for LTB 36-10 Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Noncompact Web 36-11 36 x .Composite Beam Design Manual PNA within the Beam Bottom Fillet PNA within the Beam Bottom Flange PNA within the Cover Plate Calculating the PNA Location Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending 35 34-11 34-12 34-13 34-15 34-16 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity Positive Moment Capacity with an Elastic Stress Distribution 35-1 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Overview 36-1 Steel Beam Properties 36-1 Moment Capacity for a Doubly Symmetric Beam or a Channel Section 36-2 Lateral Unbraced Length Checks 36-3 Yielding Criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.

Contents AISC-LFRD93 Equation A-F1-3 for WLB 37 36-12 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Estimating the Required Percent Composite Connection 37-1 Calculating MPFconc 37-2 Location of PNA 37-3 Determining the Effective Portion of the Concrete Slab 37-4 Moment Capacity of a Partially Composite Beam with a Plastic Stress Distribution 37-6 Bending and Deflection Checks Bending Check Locations Bending Check Deflection Check Shear Connectors Shear Stud Connectors Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection Number of Shear Connectors Between Maximum Moment and Point of Zero Moment Between Point Load and Point of Zero Moment Beam Shear Capacity Shear Capacity Checking the Beam Shear Limitations of Beam Shear Check Input Data Beam Overwrites Input 38 38-1 38-1 38-2 39 39-1 39-1 39-2 39-2 39-3 40 40-1 40-2 40-2 41 41-1 xi .

Composite Beam Design Manual 42 Output Details Short Form Output Details Long Form Output Details 42-1 42-8 xii .

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. Again. Typically. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 1 General Design Information This Technical Note presents some basic information and concepts that are useful when performing composite beam design using this program.. BERKELEY. You can however perform different design runs using different design codes without rerunning the analysis. any system of units can be used to define and design a building in the program. You cannot design some beams for one code and others for a different code in the same design run. You can change the system of units at any time using the pull-down menu on the Status Bar or pull-down menu on individual forms where available. The I-shaped and channel-shaped beams can be selected from the Design Codes Technical Note 1 . You can choose to design for any one design code in any one design run. any set of consistent units can be used for input. Units For composite beam design in this program.1 . Note: You can use any set of units in composite beam design and you can change the units "on the fly. Design Codes The design code is set using the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command." Beams Designed as Composite Beams Section Requirements for Composite Beams Only I-shaped and channel-shaped beams can be designed as composite beams. design codes are based on one specific set of units. The documentation in the Composite Beam Design series of Technical Notes is presented in kip-inch-seconds units unless otherwise noted.

the program will consider it as a general section. Note: The line object representing a composite beam should span from support to support. Use the Define menu > Material Properties > Modify/Show Materials command to check your beams. Composite beams should not be modeled using multiple. the analysis results for moments and Technical Note 1 . the beam local 2-axis must be vertical. Material Property Requirement for Composite Beams If a beam is to be designed as a composite beam. Note that beam sections that are defined in Section Designer are always treated as general sections. Other Requirements for Composite Beams The line type associated with the line object that represents a composite beam must be "Beam. the Type of Design associated with the Material Property Data assigned to the beam must be Steel. The line object representing a composite beam should span from support to support. Thus. if you define an I-type or channel-type section in Section Designer. not an I-shaped or channel-shaped section. Right click on a line object to bring up the Line Information form to check the Line Type.2 Beams Designed as Composite Beams . If you do not model cantilever beams in this way. The userdefined sections can be specified using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and clicking either the Add I/Wide Flange or the Add Channel option. the line object should span from the overhang support to the end of the beam. and will not allow it to be designed as a composite beam. the beam element must lie in a horizontal plane. Note: Beam sections defined in the section designer utility cannot be designed as composite beams. The cantilever beam back span should be modeled using a separate line object." In other words.General Design Information Composite Beam Design built-in program section database. The Local axis 2 Angle is displayed on the Assignments tab of the Line Information form. For composite beams. In the case of a cantilever beam overhang. adjacent line objects between supports for a single composite beam. or they can be user defined.

The beam must meet the material property requirement described in the subsection entitled "Material Property Requirement for Composite Beams" in this Technical Note. the beam will still go through the Composite Beam Design postprocessor and will simply be designed as a noncomposite beam. The beam must not frame continuously into a column or a brace. At least one side of the beam must support deck that is specified as a Deck section (not a Slab or Wall section).Composite Beam Design General Design Information shears will still be correct but the design performed by the Composite Beam Design processor probably will not be correct. Frame Elements Designed by Default as Composite Beams The program will design certain frame elements using the design procedures documented in these Technical Notes by default.3 . Both ends of the beam must be pinned for major axis bending (bending about the local 3-axis). When the deck is unfilled. The beam must meet the two other requirements described in the subsection entitled "Other Requirements for Composite Beams" in this Technical Note. All steel sections that Beams Designed as Composite Beams Technical Note 1 . unfilled or a solid slab. steel sections are designed using either the composite beam design procedure or the steel frame design procedure. Overwriting the Frame Design Procedure for a Composite Beam The three procedures possible for steel beam design are: Composite beam design Steel frame design No design By default. The deck section can be filled. Those elements must meet the following restrictions: The beam must meet the section requirements described in the subsection entitled "Section Requirements for Composite Beams" in this Technical Note.

A section is valid for the composite beam design procedure if it meets the requirements specified in the subsections entitled "Section Requirements for Composite Beams. Technical Note 1 . noncomposite but still with a minimum number of shear studs specified. One of the overwrites available for composite beam design is to specify that selected beams are either designed as composite. Finally. The noncomposite design in this case is still performed from within the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. even if no slab is specified. but not for the tube section because it is not a valid section for the composite beam design procedure. the change will be executed for the I-section. Note that the procedures documented for composite beam design allow for designing a beam noncompositely. Changing the overwrite to one of the noncomposite designs does not change the design procedure from Composite Beam Design to Steel Frame Design. In these cases. the design results obtained for certain beams may be different. one an I-section and the other a tube section. This is different from the Steel Frame Design postprocessor. or noncomposite with no shear studs. Change the default design procedure used for a beam(s) by selecting the beam(s) and clicking Design menu > Overwrite Frame Design Procedure. Using the composite beam design procedure. These overwrites do not affect the design procedure. out-of-plane bending is not considered and slender sections are not designed. depending on the design procedure used.4 Beams Designed as Composite Beams . and attempt to change the design procedure to Composite Beam Design. note that you can specify that the composite beam design procedures are to be used for a beam even if that beam does not support any deck.General Design Information Composite Beam Design meet the requirements described in the previous subsection entitled "Frame Elements Designed by Default as Composite Beams" are by default designed using the composite beam design procedures. if you select two steel beams. This change is only successful if the design procedure assigned to an element is valid for that element. For example. the beam will be designed as a noncomposite beam by the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. Thus. All other steel frame elements are by default designed using the steel frame design procedures. or for that matter." "Material Property Requirement for Composite Beams" and "Other Requirements for Composite Beams" earlier in this Technical Note.

the program first discards any beam in the design group that is not assigned an auto select section list. When considering design groups. and the term beam. Next it calculates the cost of this first How the Program Optimizes Design Groups Technical Note 1 . from smallest section to largest section based on section weight (area).e.. The program then finds the beam with the largest positive design moment in the design group. which refers to a specific element in the design group.5 . Next. The shorter common section list is still in ascending order based on section weight (area). If the optimization is based on price instead of weight. the program finds the first section in the shorter common section list (i. This new list is the shorter common section list.Composite Beam Design General Design Information How the Program Optimizes Design Groups This section describes the process the program uses to select the optimum section for a design group. the optimum section has been identified. If the optimization is being performed on the basis of beam weight and the section is adequate for all beams in the design group. The program sorts this new common section list in ascending order. the program looks at the auto select section list assigned to each beam in the design group and creates a new list that contains the sections that are common to all of the auto select section lists in the design group. note the distinction between the term section. the one with the lowest weight) that is adequate for all beams." The program then checks the design of the pseudo-critical beam for all sections in the common section list. Any sections in the common section list that are not adequate for the pseudocritical beam are discarded from the common section list. which refers to a beam section in an auto select section list. the next higher section in the shorter common section list is tried until a section is found that is adequate for all beams in the design group. In this description. Note: When designing with design groups. or the "pseudo-critical beam. the program attempts to quickly eliminate inadequate beams. Now the program checks all beams in the design group for the first section (smallest by weight [area]) in the shorter common section list. making the list shorter. If the section is not adequate for a beam.

the program selects the optimum composite beam size based on weight. if it exists) to determine the optimum section. Finally. the program displays results for the section in the auto select list with the smallest controlling ratio in a red font. Note that the controlling ratio may be based on stress or deflection. when auto select section lists are assigned to beams. This assumes that when the cost of the steel section alone is equal to or greater than the total cost of the adequate section. The program then checks any other sections in the shorter common section list that have a weight less than or equal to the calculated maximum weight. the section could not have a total cost less than the adequate section. The beam with the least weight is considered the optimum section. The choice of optimum section does not consider the number of shear connectors required or if beam camber is required.6 Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections . Technical Note 1 . if all sections in the shorter common section list are tried and none of them are adequate for all of the beams in the design group. Regardless of whether the optimization is based on weight or cost.General Design Information Composite Beam Design adequate section and then determines the theoretical heaviest section that could still have a cost equal to the adequate section by dividing the total price of the beam with the adequate section (steel plus camber plus shear connectors) by the unit price of the steel. a cost is calculated for them. the section with the lowest associated cost is selected as the optimum section for the design group. Note: By default. not price. If any of the other sections are also adequate. Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections By default. the program compares alternate acceptable composite beam designs based on the weight of the steel beam (not including the cover plate. the program proceeds to design each beam in the design group individually based on its own auto section list and ignores the rest of the design group. If for a particular beam none of the sections in the auto select section list are adequate.

a cost per pound of the beam. By assigning different prices for steel. The total price for the beam is determined by summing the prices for the steel. For the cost comparison. The costs for steel and cambering are specified on a unit weight of the beam basis. if it exists) by the weight density of the beam by the price per unit weight specified in the material properties for the steel.Composite Beam Design General Design Information Important Note about Optimizing Beams by Weight and Price When a beam is optimized by weight. When a beam is optimized by price. selecting the Price tab and setting the "Optimize for Price" item to Yes. camber and shear connectors. Thus. the weight density for the steel is important and must be correctly specified for the price to be correctly calculated. Thus. for example. the program internally optimizes the beam based on area of steel (excluding the cover plate. the weight density specified for the steel is irrelevant in such a case. The shear stud and beam camber costs are specified in the composite beam preferences. The steel cost is specified as a part of the steel material property using the Define menu > Material Properties command.7 . when a beam is optimized by price. The price for shear connectors is determined by multiplying the total number of shear connectors by the price per connector specified in the composite beam preferences. the program compares alternate acceptable beam designs based on their price and selects the one with the least cost as the optimum section. shear studs and beam camber. the program determines the price associated with the steel by multiplying the volume of the beam (including the cover plate. if it exists). shear Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections Technical Note 1 . Note that the volume of the beam is calculated by multiplying the area of the steel beam (plus the area of the cover plate. The price associated with camber is determined by multiplying the volume of the beam (including the cover plate. The shear connector cost is specified on a cost per connector. specify costs for steel. if used) by the length of the beam from center-of-support to center-of-support You can request that the program use price to determine the optimum section by clicking the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command. if it exists) by the weight density of the beam by the specified price per unit weight for camber defined in the composite beam preferences. If you request a price analysis.

In addition. The cost of the cover plate is not included in the comparison (but it would be the same for all beam sections if it were included). you can influence the choice of optimum section. the program creates special live load patterns for cantilever beams. Tip: It is important to understand the difference between analysis sections and design sections. For example. See the previous "Important Note about Optimizing Beams by Weight and Price" for additional information. Technical Note 1 . The design section is whatever section has most currently been designed and thus designated the current design section. They are: Construction load strength design load combinations Final condition strength design load combinations Final condition deflection design load combinations You can specify as many load combinations as you want for each of these types. In that case. the last used analysis section is the W18X35 and the current design section is the W16X31. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 20 Design Load Combinations for additional information on design load combinations for the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Analysis sections are those section properties used to analyze the model when you click the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. It is possible for the last used analysis section and the current design section to be different.General Design Information Composite Beam Design connectors and camber. verify that the last used analysis section and the current design section are the same. Design Load Combinations Using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. you may have run your analysis using a W18X35 beam and then found in the design that a W16X31 beam worked. Before you complete the design process. three separate types of load combinations are considered.8 Design Load Combinations .

Assigning an auto select list to a frame section using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command initially sets the design section to be the beam with the median weight in the auto select list.Composite Beam Design General Design Information The Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command is useful for this task. Using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Combo command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. static nonlinear analysis and design results are deleted when one of the following actions is taken: Use the Define menu > Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties command to redefine existing or define new hinges. The program keeps track of the analysis section and the design section separately. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. Analysis Sections and Design Sections Technical Note 1 . Using the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to change any of the composite beam design preferences deletes the design results.9 . Typically. Running an analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command (or its associated toolbar button) always sets the analysis section to be the same as the current design section. but it does not delete or change the design section. Note the following about analysis and design sections: Assigning a beam a frame section property using the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Section command assigns the section as both the analysis section and the design section. Using the Define menu > Load Combinations command to change a design load combination deletes the design results. Deleting the static nonlinear analysis results also deletes the design results for any load combination that includes static nonlinear forces. Unlocking a model deletes the design results.

Note: Access the display of frame element output stations using the View menu. When force diagrams are plotted.General Design Information Composite Beam Design Use the Define menu > Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases command to redefine existing or define new static nonlinear load cases. Again. Output stations occur at userspecified locations and at point load locations along a beam. Designate the output stations for a frame element using the Assign menu. For composite beam design. They are used as locations to report output forces and to perform design. the program checks the moments. Technical Note 1 . Output Stations Frame output stations are designated locations along a frame element. Use the Assign menu > Frame/Line > Frame Nonlinear Hinges command to add or delete hinges. shears and deflections at each output station along the beam.10 Output Stations . No checks are made at any points along the beam that are not output stations. and as plotting points used for graphic display of force diagrams. exact forces are plotted at each output station and then those points are connected by straight lines. note that these actions delete only results for load combinations that include static nonlinear forces.

1 .. the basic design process should be similar to that described herein. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 2 Composite Beam Design Process This Technical Notes describes a basic composite beam design process using this program. 4. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. Although the exact steps you follow may vary. using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Note that you must select beams before using this command. BERKELEY. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 17 Preferences and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 30 Preferences for more information about preferences. if needed. Separate processes are described for design of a new building and check of an existing building. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Also note that default values are provided for all composite beam design overwrites so it is unnecessary to define overwrites unless you want to change some of Design Process for a New Building Technical Note 2 . Use the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to choose the composite beam design code and to review other composite beam design preferences and revise them if necessary. 3. Note that default values are provided for all composite beam design preferences. Design Process for a New Building The following sequence describes a typical composite beam design process for a new building. Other Technical Notes in the Composite Beam Design General series provide additional information. 2. 1. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. as described in Volumes 1 and 2. Create the building model. so it is unnecessary to define any preferences unless you want to change some of the default values. Assign composite beam overwrites.

Note that for composite beam design. To use design load combinations other than the defaults created by the program for composite beam design. Note that while you are in this mode. 5. if desired. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the composite beam design.Composite Beam Design Process Composite Beam Design the default values. using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Group command. Note that you must have already created some groups by selecting objects and clicking the Assign menu > Group Names command. moment. Note that you must have already created your own design combos by clicking the Define menu > Load Combinations command. you can also view diagrams (load. click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Combo command. Designate design groups. final loading considering strength. Review the composite beam design results by doing one of the following: a. Technical Note 2 . 8. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. Right click on a beam while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the beam. you specify separate design load combinations for construction loading. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combinations. 7. Note that the overwrites can be assigned before or after the analysis is run. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 4 Data Plotted Directly on the Model. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 18 Overwrites and See AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 31 Overwrites. b. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Composite Beam Design for more information. 6. shear and deflection) and view design details on the screen. Design load combinations for each of these three conditions are specified using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Combo command. and final loading considering deflection.2 Design Process for a New Building .

If you select beams before using this command. Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Verify all Members Passed command to verify that no members are overstressed or otherwise unacceptable. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. 9. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the composite beam design with the new section properties. Review the results using the procedures described in Step 8. if necessary. Again use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Change Design Section command to change the beam design section properties for selected beams. 11. data is printed only for the selected beams. AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 41 Input Data. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 27 Input Data. click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Interactive Composite Beam Design command and then right click a beam to enter the interactive design mode for that beam. 13. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the composite beam design with the new analysis results and new section properties. 12. Review the results using the procedures described in Step 8.Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design Process If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details. 10. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command to print composite beam design data.3 . c. Note that the beam section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. Design Process for a New Building Technical Note 2 . Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Change Design Section command to change the beam design section properties for selected beams. d. and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details for more information.

The sections used in the original analysis are not typically the same as those obtained at the end of the design process. 17. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that all of the final design sections are the same as the last used analysis sections. Rerun the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command. the check process is easier than the design process Technical Note 2 . Note that the beam section properties used for the analysis are the last specified design section properties. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command to print selected composite beam design results if desired. Typically. Note: Composite beam design in the program is an iterative process. Review the results using the procedures described above. 16.4 Check Process for an Existing Building . Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to rerun the composite beam design with the new section properties. 15. Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Verify Analysis vs Design Section command to verify that the design sections are the same as the analysis sections.Composite Beam Design Process Composite Beam Design 14. 12 and 13 as many times as necessary. Repeat Steps 11. In general. 19. 18. Always run the building analysis using the final beam section sizes and then run a design check using the forces obtained from that analysis. the analysis and design will be rerun multiple times to complete a design. This removes any auto select section list assignments from the selected beams. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details It is important to note that design is an iterative process. Select all beams and click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Make Auto Select Section Null command. Check Process for an Existing Building The following sequence is a typical composite beam check process for an existing building.

See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 18 Overwrites and See AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 31 Overwrites. 2. Note that although the sequence of steps you follow may vary. 6. Check Process for an Existing Building Technical Note 2 . See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 4 Data Plotted Directly on the Model. Create the building model. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Display Design Info command to display design input and output information on the model. using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Assign composite beam overwrites. Note that you must select beams first before using this command.5 . 3. 1. Click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command to run the composite beam design.Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design Process for a new building because iteration is not required. 4. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to choose the composite beam design code and to review other composite beam design preferences and revise them if necessary. Tip: You can define your own shear stud patterns on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. This allows you to model existing structures with composite floor framing. as explained in Volumes 1 and 2. including the user-defined shear stud patterns. the basic process probably will be essentially the same. 5. Review the composite beam design results by doing do one of the following: a. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 17 Preferences and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 30 Preferences for more information about preferences. Note that default values are provided for all composite beam design preferences so it is unnecessary to define preferences unless you want to change some of the default preference values. Run the building analysis using the Analyze menu > Run Analysis command.

c.6 Check Process for an Existing Building . Note that while you are in this mode you can also view diagrams (load. moment. shear and deflection) and view design details on the screen. Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Verify all Members Passed command to verify that no members are overstressed or otherwise unacceptable.Composite Beam Design Process Composite Beam Design b. click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Interactive Composite Beam Design command and then right click a beam to enter the interactive design mode for that beam. and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details for more information. AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details. If you select beams before using this command. data is printed only for the selected beams. AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 41 Input Data. If design results are not currently displayed (and the design has been run). See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 27 Input Data. Use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command to print composite beam design data. Right click on a beam while the design results are displayed on it to enter the interactive design and review mode and review the beam design. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Composite Beam Design for more information. d. Technical Note 2 .

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 3 Interactive Composite Beam Design Interactive composite beam design is a powerful feature that allows the user to review the design results for any composite beam and interactively revise the design assumptions and immediately review the revised results. The following sections describe the features that are included in the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. To enter the interactive design mode and interactively design the beam. BERKELEY. If the beam is part of a design group but the design group was not considered in the design. If the beam is not assigned to any design group. Beam Label This is the label associated with the composite beam. Thus.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. Design Group This list box displays the name of the design group that the beam is assigned to if that design group was considered in the design of the beam. If design results are not displayed (and the design has been run). "NONE" is displayed. as soon as you design a beam in the Member Identification Technical Note 3 . Note that a design must have been run for the interactive design mode to be available. right click on a beam while the design results are displayed in the active window. click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Interactive Composite Beam Design command and then right click a beam.1 . INC. If a beam is redesigned as a result of a change made in the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. Member Identification Story ID This is the story level ID associated with the composite beam. N/A is displayed. the design group is ignored and only the single beam is considered.

You cannot directly edit the contents of this list box. Tip: The section property displayed for the Current Design/Next Analysis item is used by the program as the section property for the next analysis run. Optimal If an auto select section list is assigned to the beam. the Current Design/Next Analysis section property and the Last Analysis section property should be the same.2 Section Information . You cannot directly edit the contents of this list box. this list box displays the optimal section as determined by beam weight or price. Thus. Last Analysis This list box displays the name of the section that was used for this beam in the last analysis. Technical Note 3 . the beam forces are based on a beam of this section property. If you change this item to NONE. the Design Group box either displays N/A or None. NONE is displayed. If no auto select list is assigned to the beam. Section Information Auto Select List This drop-down box displays the name of the auto select section list assigned to the beam. depending on what has been specified in the composite beam preferences. If no auto select list has been assigned to the beam. If the beam is assigned an auto select list. You can change this item to another auto select list or to NONE while in the form and the design results will be updated immediately. the design is performed for the Current Design/Next Analysis section property. N/A is displayed for this item. You cannot directly edit the contents of this list box. Current Design/Next Analysis This list box displays the name of the current design section property.Interactive Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. the section displayed in this form initially defaults to the optimal section. For the final design iteration.

Section name Steel yield stress. the vibration ratios. Thus.3 . It is important to note that subsequent analyses use the section property specified in this list box for the next analysis section for the beam. Acceptable Sections List The Acceptable Sections List includes the following information for each beam section that is acceptable for all considered design load combinations. Fy Connector layout Camber Ratio Tip: A single beam displayed in a red font in the Acceptable Sections List means that none of the sections considered were acceptable. negative moment and shear for both construction loads and final loads. If you exit the form by clicking the Cancel button. these changes are considered temporary and are not permanently saved. Important note: Changes made to the Current Design/Next Analysis section property are permanently saved (until you revise them again) if you click the OK button to exit the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. the forces and moments obtained in the next analysis are based on this beam size. Typically. the ratio displayed is the largest ratio obtained considering the stress ratios for positive moment.Composite Beam Design Interactive Composite Beam Design If no auto select list has been assigned to the beam. and if they are specified to be considered when determining if a beam section is acceptable. as well as the stud ratio(s). The Current Design/Next Analysis section property can be changed by clicking the Sections button that is described later in this Technical Note. deflection ratios. the beam design is performed for the section property specified in this edit box. Acceptable Sections List Technical Note 3 .

It is the same section as specified in the Current Design/Next Analysis edit box. ReDefine Sections Button Use the Sections button to change the Current Design/Next Analysis section property. Permanent saving of the overwrites does not occur until the OK but- Technical Note 3 . the program displays the section with the smallest maximum ratio in a red font. Exiting the Composite Beam Overwrites form by clicking the OK button temporarily saves changes. Subsequently exiting the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form by clicking the Cancel button cancels the changes made. At least one beam will always be shown in the Acceptable Sections List.Interactive Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design If the beam is assigned an auto select list. many beam sections may be listed in the Acceptable Sections List. use the scroll bar to scroll through the acceptable sections. only one beam section will be listed in the Acceptable Sections List. Modifying some overwrites in this mode and exiting both the Composite Beam Overwrites form and the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form by clicking their respective OK buttons permanently saves changes made to the overwrites.4 ReDefine . If the beam is not assigned an auto select list. Assign any frame section property to the beam by clicking on the desired property and clicking OK. Note that if an auto select list is assigned to the beam. even if none of the beams considered are acceptable. a single beam displayed in a red font in the Acceptable Sections List means that none of the sections considered were acceptable. the Select Sections form appears. Overwrites Button Click the overwrites button to access and make revisions to the composite beam overwrites and then immediately see the new design results. If necessary. When no beams are acceptable. When you click on the Sections button. Thus. This button can designate a new section property whether the section property is or is not displayed in the Acceptable Sections List. The optimal section is initially highlighted in the list. using the Sections button sets the auto select list assignment to NONE.

Details Button Clicking the Details button displays design details for the beam.Composite Beam Design Interactive Composite Beam Design tons in both the Composite Beam Overwrites form and the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form have been clicked. The information displayed is similar to the short form output that can be printed using the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. for example.5 . Applied loads Shear Moment Deflection The diagrams are plotted for specific design load combinations specified in the form by the user. They are not saved when you exit the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. Temporary Technical Note 3 . Show Details Diagrams Button Clicking the Diagrams button displays a form with the following four types of diagrams for the beam. The changes made to the considered design load combinations using the combos button are temporary. The Technical Notes describe short form output. Temporary Combos Button Click this button to access and make temporary revisions to the design load combinations considered for the beam. This is useful for reviewing the results for one particular load combination. You can temporarily change the considered design load combinations to be just the one you are interested in and review the results. whether you click OK or Cancel to exit it.

See "How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Beam for more information. but is not included in the short form output printed using File Menu > Print Tables> Composite Beam Design. Distance: The distance of the Max Moment or Point Load location measured from the center of the support at the left end (I-end) of the beam. measured toward the left end (I-end) of the beam. Combo: The final strength design load combination considered for the associated row of the table. The definitions of the column headings in this table are given in the following bullet items. the information on the associated row applies to the point load location for the specified design load combination. L1 right: The dimension L1 right associated with the specified location. or physical Technical Note 3 . Location: This is either Max Moment or Point Load. the information on the associated row applies to the maximum moment location for the specified design load combination. This information is provided in a table with six columns on the Stud Details tab. Recall that L1 right is the distance from an output station to an adjacent point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. If it is Max Moment. Recall that L1 left is the distance from an output station to an adjacent point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. L1 left: The dimension L1 left associated with the specified location. If it is Point Load.6 Show Details . See "How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Beam for more information.Interactive Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design Note: Stud Details Information is available using the Details button. or physical end of the concrete slab. Stud details information is one item included in the interactive design details that is not included in the short form output details (and thus not described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details or AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details).

7 . or the end of the beam top flange.Composite Beam Design Interactive Composite Beam Design end of the concrete slab. the end of the concrete slab. Show Details Technical Note 3 . the program reports the required number of shear studs in each composite beam segment. The Stud Detail information allows you to report your shear studs in composite beam segments that are different from the default composite beam segments used by the program. because in the composite beam output. It is very important that you understand how the program defines composite beam segments. The Stud Details table reports information at each maximum moment location and each point load location (if any) for each final strength design load combination. See "Composite Beam Segments" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Beam for a definition of composite beam segments. See "How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Beam for discussion of how the program distributes shear studs along a beam. measured toward the right end (J-end) of the beam Studs: The number of shear studs required between the specified location and adjacent points of zero moment.

.

the frame elements are displayed in a color that indicates the value of their controlling ratio..) The colors associated with various ranges of ratios are specified in the Steel Ratios area of the Assign Output Colors form. If desired. INC. When design information is displayed directly on the model. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 4 Data Plotted Directly on the Model This Technical Note describes the input and output data that can be plotted directly on the model. which is accessed using the Options menu > Colors > Output command. Overview Technical Note 4 . Tip: The colors related to the beam ratios can be modified by clicking the Options menu > Colors > Output command. Labels Design Data Stress Ratios Deflection Ratios Each of these data groups is described in more detail later in this Technical Note.1 . The on-screen display data is organized into four data groups. BERKELEY. the screen graphics can then be printed using the File menu > Print Graphics command. It is important to note that items from different data groups cannot be displayed simultaneously.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Overview Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Display Design Info command to display on-screen output plotted directly on the model. as follows. (Note that this controlling ratio may be a stress ratio or a deflection ratio.

Group07. If a beam has been assigned to a group that has been designated as a composite beam design group. B7 B2 Grou 3 p08 B8 Group01 B9 Group01 Floor Plan Figure 1: Example of Beam and Design Group Labels Technical Note 4 . etc.2 B24 Group07 Labels Displayed on the Model . no group name will be displayed for that beam. and beam design groups (Group01. Tip: Long labels may not display or print properly (fully). As shown in Figure 1. the group name for the beam will be displayed when requested. B8.Data Plotted Directly on the Model Composite Beam Design Labels Displayed on the Model Beam labels and associated beam design group labels can be displayed on the model. etc. Note that you can assign beam design groups by clicking the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Group command.) are plotted above or to the left of the beam. A beam label is the label that is assigned to the line object that represents the composite beam.) are displayed below or to the right of the beam. If a beam is not part of a composite beam design group. beam labels (B7.

Design Data The following design data can be displayed on the model: Beam section (e.Composite Beam Design Data Plotted Directly on the Model Tip: The design data and ratios output that is plotted directly on the model is also available in text form in the short and long form printed output. The beam camber is displayed below or to the right of the beam. The beam yield stress is displayed just after the beam section size. See “Composite Beam Segments” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for more information on composite beam segments. which are described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details..g. Fy Shear stud layout Beam camber Beam end reactions One or more of these items can be displayed at the same time. Note that the Design Data Technical Note 4 . The end reactions are displayed at each end of the beam. The number of equally spaced shear studs is reported for each composite beam segment. The end reactions displayed are the maximum end reactions obtained from all design load combinations. W18X35) is apparent and needs no further explanation. The shear stud layout pattern is displayed in parenthesis just after the beam yield stress. Important note: It is very important that you fully understand the concept of composite beam segments. This is necessary to properly interpret the output results for shear studs. All other data is displayed above or to the left of the beam.3 . The beam section size (e.. W18X35) Beam yield stress.g. They are displayed below or to the right of the beam. Figure 2 shows an example where all five of these items are displayed.

4 25. . Note that cover plate information is not displayed on the model.2 Floor Plan Figure 2: Example of Design Data that Can be Displayed on the Model left end reaction and the right end reaction displayed may be from two different design load combinations.2 W18X35 Fy=36 (48) C=1. Stress Ratios The following design data can be displayed on the model: Construction load bending and shear ratios Final load bending and shear ratios Technical Note 4 .Data Plotted Directly on the Model Composite Beam Design Yield stress W16X26 Fy=36.7 20.16) C=0.75 23.25 25.7 18.2 Right reaction Shear stud layout in parenthesis Camber Beam section Left reaction W18X35 Fy=36 (22) 20. see AISCASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details) and in the overwrites.4 Stress Ratios .00 (14) 16.4 16.16) 00 18. Tip: The length of the composite beam segments associated with the shear stud layout is documented in the short and long form printed output.2 W24X55 Fy=50 (16.7 W24 X55 Fy=5 0 (16 C=1. which are described in AISCASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details. This information is available in the printed output (short form or long form.7 23.

Composite Beam Design Data Plotted Directly on the Model You can display the construction load ratios. as shown in Figure 4. 0.961 0. 0.561.678. 0.961 0. 224 0. See Figure 3 for an example. followed by the total load deflection ratio.994 0.121.213. or both. 0.245 Construction load shear ratio Final load shear ratio 0.968 5. 0. 0.978 0. Shear ratios are always displayed below or to the right of the beam. 0.134. 0. 0.983 0. 0.5 . Deflection Ratios Technical Note 4 . 0. the live load deflection ratio is plotted first.678. followed by the final load ratios.121. Bending ratios are always displayed above or to the left of the beam.46 7. the final load ratios. When both construction and final stress ratios are displayed. 0. 0. The maximum live load deflection ratio (live load deflection divided by allowable live load deflection) for deflection loads. the program plots one or both of the following two ratios.311 Floor Plan 0. the construction load ratios are displayed first.245 Construction Final load load bending bending ratio ratio 0.179. When both ratios are plotted.222 0.293 Legend Figure 3: Example of Stress Ratios That Are Displayed on the Model Deflection Ratios When the Deflection Ratios option is chosen.13 0. The maximum total load deflection ratio (total load deflection divided by allowable total load deflection) for deflection loads.765.882.

0.372 0. 0. 0.41 9. 0.521.409 Total load deflection ratio 0.612. Live load deflection ratio 0.426 Floor Plan Legend Figure 4: Example of Deflection Ratios That Are Displayed on the Model Technical Note 4 .392.433 0.6 Deflection Ratios .Data Plotted Directly on the Model Composite Beam Design 0.521.445. 0. 0.426 326 0.

Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and click the check box on the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form next to the desired type(s) of input data. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. BERKELEY. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file.doc).1 .xls. Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 5 Input Data General This Technical Note describes the composite beam input data that can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print General Technical Note 5 . . Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form to complete the request. . To print composite beam design input data to a file.. . Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form To print composite beam design input data directly to a printer. if necessary. You can print any combination of five data categories.g.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.txt. use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and click the Print to File check box on the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form.. INC. Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file.

Table 1 lists the column headings in the material property tables and provides a brief description of what is in the columns. Modulus of elasticity. See "Effective Slab Width and Transformed Section Properties" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for more information. If no objects are selected. Material Properties Input Data The Material Properties input data item prints the concrete and steel material properties assigned to all frame sections that are the current design section for a selected composite beam. Concrete Material Properties Unit Weight Concrete f'c Technical Note 5 .2 Material Properties Input Data . Ec. If you uncheck the Selection Only check box. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Or use the Filename>> button to locate another file. the print will be for all composite beams. of the concrete material. Note that this is the modulus of elasticity used for deflection calculations. Table 1 Material Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING Material Label Modulus of Elasticity DESCRIPTION Label (name) of the concrete material property. mass per unit volume is not used in the composite beam design so it is not printed in these tables. For example. but not necessarily for stress calculations. Weight per unit volume of the concrete. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. Data will be added to this file. If you select a specific composite beam(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. click Yes to replace the existing file.Input Data Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Design Tables form. it prints the concrete and steel material properties assigned to all frame sections that are the current design section for any composite beam. The material properties printed in this output are those that are used in the composite beam design. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only. Compressive strength of the concrete.

Steel Material Properties Section Properties Input Data The section properties input data is provided in two tables. labeled Frame Section Property Data (Table 1) and Frame Section Property Data (Table 2)..g. Thickness of beam web. Minimum tensile strength of the steel. Width of beam bottom flange.Composite Beam Design Input Data Table 1 Material Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING Material Label Modulus of Elasticity Unit Weight Steel Fy Steel Fu Steel Price DESCRIPTION Label (name) of the steel material property. Width of beam top flange. Price per unit weight (e. Thickness of beam top flange. Frame Section Property Data (Table 1) Section Properties Input Data Technical Note 5 . Modulus of elasticity. Es. Depth of beam measured from the top of the beam top flange to the bottom of the beam bottom flange. of the steel material. Label (name) of the steel material property that is assigned to the steel frame section. Table 2 Section Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING Section Label Material Label bf Top tf Top d Depth tw Web Thick bf Bottom tf Bottom DESCRIPTION Label (name) of the steel frame section. Weight per unit volume of the steel.3 . Yield stress of the steel. Table 2 herein lists the column headings in the section property tables and provides a brief description of what is in the columns. This data is provided in two tables because it would not all fit onto one line in a single table. $/pound) of the steel. Thickness of beam bottom flange.

the minimum value is printed. hr. tc. Frame Section Property Data (Table 2) Z33 Major Deck Properties Input Data The deck properties input data is provided in three tables. If the plastic moduli for the top and bottom of the beam are different.4 Deck Properties Input Data . the distance from the outside face of the flange to the web toe of the fillet. Section modulus about the local 3-axis of the beam section. The height of the metal deck ribs. The depth of the concrete slab above the metal deck. Otherwise it is No. If the section moduli for the top and bottom of the beam are different. In a rolled beam section. This item is Yes if the deck section represents a solid slab with no metal deck. the minimum value is printed. Label (name) of the steel material property that is assigned to the steel frame section. Deck Depth Technical Note 5 . Plastic modulus about the local 3-axis of the beam section. labeled Deck Section Property Data (Geometry). Deck Section Property Data (Material Properties). Table 3 Deck Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Deck Section Property Data (Geometry) Section Label Solid Slab Slab Cover Label (name) of the deck section.Input Data Composite Beam Design Table 2 Section Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING Section Label Material Label k I33 Major S33 Major DESCRIPTION Label (name) of the steel frame section. Moment of inertia about the local 3-axis of the beam section. and Deck Section Property Data (Shear Studs). Table 3 lists the column headings in the deck property tables and provides a brief description of what is in the columns. This item is specified as N/A if the deck section represents a solid slab. If the deck section represents a solid slab with no metal deck. this is the thickness of the solid slab.

Hs. this item is specified as N/A. Label (name) of the deck section. Filled means that the deck section is a metal deck filled with concrete. If the Deck type is not Unfilled. This item is only specified when the Deck Type is Unfilled. This item is specified as N/A if the deck section represents a solid slab. This is the concrete material property associated with the concrete slab defined by the deck section. This is the shear thickness of the metal deck.Composite Beam Design Input Data Table 3 Deck Properties Input Data COLUMN HEADING Rib Width Rib Spacing DESCRIPTION The average width of the metal deck ribs. Height after welding of the shear studs associated with the deck section. this item is specified as N/A. ds. This item is only specified when the Deck Type is Unfilled. membrane) stiffness of the deck. Fu. Minimum specified tensile strength of the shear studs associated with the deck section. See "Metal Deck and Slab Properties" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 7 Composite Beam Properties for more information. If the Deck type is not Unfilled. This is the steel material property associated with the metal deck. Solid means it is a solid slab with no metal deck. The center-to-center spacing of the metal deck ribs. Sr. Deck Section Property Data (Material Properties) Section Label Deck Type Slab Material Deck Material Deck Shear Thickness Deck Unit Weight Deck Section Property Data (Shear Studs) Section Label Stud Diameter Stud Height Stud Fu Deck Properties Input Data Technical Note 5 . This is the weight per unit area of the metal deck. wd. Unfilled means it is a bare metal deck. If the Deck type is Unfilled. Unfilled or Solid.5 . Diameter of the shear studs associated with the deck section. this item is specified as N/A. This item is specified as N/A if the deck section represents a solid slab. It is used for calculating the shear (in-plane. Label (name) of the deck section. wr. This item is either Filled.

The tables correspond to the tabs in the Preferences form. Those preferences items that can be overwritten are mentioned in this documentation. Recall that the composite beam preferences apply to all beams designed using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. A few of the preference items can be overwritten on a beam-by-beam basis in the composite beam overwrites. Table 4 Preferences Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Factors The input data related to factors is described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 17 Preferences and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 30 Preferences. The preference input data is provided in tabular format. Table lists the column headings in the preference table and provides a brief description of what is in the columns. Technical Note 5 . Otherwise.6 Design Preferences Input Data . You can select one or more beams and then click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command to access the composite beam overwrites. You can click the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to access the composite beam preferences. it is No. Note that this item can be modified on a beam-by-beam basis in the composite beam overwrites. Beam Properties Shored Floor This item is Yes if the composite beam preferences designate that the composite beams are to be shored.Input Data Composite Beam Design Design Preferences Input Data The output for the composite beam design preferences is provided in a series of tables. Note: The composite beam preferences are described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 17 Preferences and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 30 Preferences.

Note that this item can be modified on a beam-bybeam basis in the composite beam overwrites. See "Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans" and "Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combinations for more information. Live Load Limit Live load deflection limitation. Percentage of dead load (not including superimposed dead load) on which the program camber calculations are based. Note that this item can be modified on a beam-bybeam basis in the composite beam overwrites. Percent Live Load Percentage of live load plus reduced live load considered (in addition to full dead load) when computing weight supported by the beam for use in calculating the first natural frequency of the beam. Total Load Limit Camber DL Percent Vibration Note: Vibration is described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration. See "Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for more information.7 . See "Camber" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for more information. Design Preferences Input Data Technical Note 5 . Total load deflection limitation. The term L represents the length of the beam. Factor applied to live load for special pattern live load check for cantilever back spans and continuous spans. expressed as a percentage of the total beam length. The term L represents the length of the beam.Composite Beam Design Input Data Table 4 Preferences Input Data COLUMN HEADING Middle Range DESCRIPTION Length in the middle of the beam over which the program checks the effective width on each side of the beam. Pattern LL Factor Deflection and Camber Note: Deflection and camber are described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber.

shear studs. If this item is Yes. See "Murray's Minimum Damping Requirement" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration for more information. the section price rather than steel weight is considered when selecting the optimum beam section from an auto select section list. This item is used when the Consider Frequency item is set to Yes. The minimum acceptable first natural frequency for a floor beam. if it exists). This item is used when the Murray Damping item is set to Yes. If this item is No. If this item is Yes. frequency is not considered when selecting the optimum beam section. section price is not considered when selecting the optimum beam section. and camber. Installed price for a single shear stud.Input Data Composite Beam Design Table 4 Preferences Input Data COLUMN HEADING Consider Frequency DESCRIPTION If this item is Yes. If this item is No. Percentage critical damping that is inherent in the floor system. The section price is based on specified prices for steel.8 Beam Overwrites Input Data . the specified minimum acceptable frequency is considered when selecting the optimum beam section from an auto select section list. Camber price per unit weight of steel beam (including cover plate. Technical Note 5 . Murray's minimum damping requirement is not considered when selecting the optimum beam section. the Murray's minimum damping requirement is considered when selecting the optimum beam section from an auto select section list. If this item is No. Minimum Frequency Murray Damping Inherent Damping Price Consider Price Stud Price Camber Price Beam Overwrites Input Data Beam Overwrites Input Data is described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 18 Overwrites and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 31 Overwrites.

use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and click the Summary check box on the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form. Using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form To print composite beam design output data directly to a printer. Overview Technical Note 6 .1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Use the appropriate file extension for the desired format (e.xls.txt. Click the Filename>> button to change the path or filename. Note: A design must be run before output data can be generated. of the print by selecting None. See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 28 Output Details and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 42 Output Details for more information about the short.. . To print summary output data to a file. . or detail. or Long Form.doc). Use the File menu > Print Setup command and the Setup>> button to change printers.g. Click the OK button to send the print to your printer. Short Form. both short form and long form of the output details can be printed..and long-form outputs. Also select the form. Click the OK buttons on the Open File for Printing Tables form and the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form to complete the request. . Additionally. BERKELEY. Click the Cancel button rather than the OK button to cancel the print. if necessary. use the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and click the Print to File check box on the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 6 Output Details Overview This Technical Note describes the composite beam output summary that can be printed to a printer or to a text file.

click Yes to replace the existing file.Output Details Composite Beam Design Note: The File menu > Display Input/Output Text Files command is useful for displaying output that is printed to a text file. summary data for all composite beams is printed. Summary of Composite Beam Output The summary of composite beam output prints a concise summary of the composite beam results in a tabular form. the Selection Only check box will be checked. Data will be added to this file. One row of the output table is devoted to each composite beam. The Append check box allows you to add data to an existing file. The path and filename of the current file is displayed in the box near the bottom of the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form. Table 1 lists the column headings in the Summary of Composite Beam Output table and provides a brief description of what is in the columns. The print will be for the selected beam(s) only." Do not confuse this with the Section Label. Or use the Filename button to locate another file. Section Name Beam Fy Technical Note 6 . If you select a specific composite beam(s) before using the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. the print will be for all composite beams. Table 1 Composite Beam Output Table COLUMN HEADING Story Level Beam Label DESCRIPTION Story level associated with the beam. which may be identified as "W18X35. If you uncheck the Selection Only check box. Yield stress of the beam.2 Summary of Composite Beam Output . Label associated with the line object that represents the beam. Fy. and when the Open File for Printing Tables caution box appears. If you have selected some composite beams before printing the summary data. A typical beam label example is "B23." The current design section for the beam. only summary data for the selected beams is printed. If you have not selected any composite beams before printing the summary data.

3 . They are listed starting with the composite beam segment at the I-end of the beam and working toward the J-end of the beam. The camber for the beam. Beam Shored Beam Camber Summary of Composite Beam Output Technical Note 6 . This item is Yes if the beam is shored and No if it is unshored. or it may be user-specified. This item may be calculated by the program. ds. Number of studs in each composite beam segment separated by commas.Composite Beam Design Output Details Table 1 Composite Beam Output Table COLUMN HEADING Stud Diameter Stud Layout DESCRIPTION Diameter of shear studs.

.

The steel beam itself is defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. effective slab width and beam unbraced length. concrete slab and shear connectors are defined together as part of the Deck section properties using the Define menu > Wall/Slab/Deck Sections command.1 . INC. The steel Material Property also includes the price or cost-per-unit-weight that is assigned to the beam. cover plate properties. Use this command to define the basic geometry of the steel section. The beam shown is a rolled beam section from the built-in section database. shear connector properties. is defined in the composite beam overwrites for the beam.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. That yield stress is assumed to apply to the beam and the cover plate unless it is revised in the beam overwrites. Define the cover plate on the Beam tab in the composite beam overwrites. When defining a beam. Basic steel beam properties are defined using the Define menu > Frame Sections command. Items described include beam properties. metal deck and concrete slab properties. Other items related to the beam properties are specified in the composite beam preferences or overwrites.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 7 Composite Beam Properties This Technical Note provides an overview of composite beam properties. if it exists. Tip: The Composite Beam Design postprocessor only designs beams that are I-shaped sections and channel sections. user-defined shear connector patterns. The many properties associated with composite beams are defined using various menus in the program. BERKELEY. The cover plate. except for the cover plate. if it exists. a material property that includes the yield stress for that beam is also assigned. Beam Properties Figure 1 shows a typical composite beam for reference. The metal deck. Beam Properties Technical Note 7 .

using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and selecting the Add Channel option from the drop-down list on the Define Frame Properties form. or by defining your own I-shaped section using the Define menu > Frame Sections command and selecting the Add I/Wide Flange option from the drop-down list on the Define Frame Properties form.2 Beam Properties tcp hr tc . Technical Note 7 .Composite Beam Properties Composite Beam Design Concrete slab Sr wr Hs Metal deck Shear stud d Steel beam Cover plate bcp Figure 1: Illustration of Composite Beam The beam section for a composite beam can be any I-shaped section. S or HP shape from the built-in program steel section database. It is not necessary that the top and bottom flanges have the same dimensions in user-defined I-shaped sections used as composite beams. A channel section used as a composite beam can also be a section taken from the built-in program steel section database or userdefined. or a channel. M. Note: See the section entitled “Cover Plates” later in this Technical Note for more information. The I-shaped section can be defined by selecting a W.

Metal Deck and Slab Properties Basic metal deck and concrete slab properties are defined using the Define menu > Wall/Slab/Deck Sections command. Alternatively. the program assumes that it is a rolled section and applies the design equations accordingly. the Composite Beam Design postprocessor designs the beams supporting that slab as noncomposite beams. concrete slab and shear connectors.Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Properties Beam sections defined using Section Designer are considered as general sections. not I-shaped or channel-shaped sections (even if they really are Ishaped or channel-shaped). and cannot be designed using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. you can select "Add New Deck" from the drop-down list in the "Click to:" area of the form to add a new deck and specify its section type. Using the Define menu > Wall\Slab\Deck Sections command. Important note: You must specify the concrete slab over metal deck as a deck section property (not a slab section property) if you want the beam to have composite behavior. If you define a beam section by selecting it from the built-in section database. the program assumes it is a welded section and revises the design equations as necessary. Tip: A beam designed using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor can only have composite behavior if it supports a deck section (not a slab or wall section). If you create your own user-defined section. This box allows you to specify that the deck section is a Filled Deck (metal deck filled with concrete). The program does not check or design any of the welding for these welded beams. This command specifies the geometry and the associated material properties of the metal deck.3 . an Unfilled Deck. In the Geometry area of the Deck Section form. the specified metal deck geometry includes: Metal Deck and Slab Properties Technical Note 7 . select a deck-type section and click the Modify/Show>> button to bring up the Deck Section form. If you specify the slab using a slab section property instead of a deck section property. or a Solid Slab (solid concrete slab with no metal deck).

Rib Spacing: The center-to-center spacing of the metal deck ribs. wd. specify the weight-per-unit-area of the deck. These two items are used by the program to determine the membrane shear stiffness of the deck. Note: Deck section properties can be specified as a metal deck filled with concrete. Rib Width: The average width of the metal deck ribs.Composite Beam Properties Composite Beam Design Slab Depth: The depth of concrete fill above the metal deck. In the Composite Deck Studs area of the Deck Section form. This item is labeled tc in Figure 1. In the Material area of the Deck Section form. the following items are specified: Diameter: The diameter of the shear stud. if the Deck type is Filled Deck or Solid Slab (not Unfilled Deck). This concrete material property is used to specify all material properties of the concrete. This item is labeled Sr in Figure 1. specify a Slab Material for the concrete. This item is labeled hr in Figure 1. In the Metal Deck Unit Weight area of the Deck Section form. specify a steel material property for the deck material and an equivalent shear thickness for the deck. Fu: The specified tensile strength of the shear stud. This item is labeled wr in Figure 1. Tensile Strength. unfilled metal deck. or a solid slab with no metal deck. Technical Note 7 . Height: The height of the shear stud. If the Deck type is Unfilled Deck. This should be a previously specified concrete material property.4 Metal Deck and Slab Properties . except in some code-specific cases. See "Effective Slab Width and Transformed Section Properties" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for additional information. This item is labeled Hs in Figure 1. Deck Depth: The height of the metal deck ribs.

Hs. Shear Stud Properties Technical Note 7 . shear studs are defined along with the deck properties using the Define menu > Wall/Slab/Deck Sections command. The program automatically calculates the strength of a single shear connector based on the shear stud and concrete slab properties. see AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. 1 Note that the program does not check the design of the metal deck itself. the height. In the equation. Cover Plates In this program. They can only be specified on the Beam tab of the composite beam overwrites. w h  Weight-per-Unit-Area = w c  r r + t c  + w d  S   r  Eqn. Fu. Shear Stud Properties As described in the previous section. full-length cover plates can be specified on the bottom flange of a composite beam. The properties specified for shear studs are the diameter. Revise this value using the composite beam overwrites. and AISCASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks. if desired. Tip: In this program. AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks. you can define your own shear connector patterns.Composite Beam Design Composite Beam Properties The self-weight of the deck element representing the concrete slab over metal deck is calculated using the weight-per-unit-area shown in Equation 1. Thus.5 . and the specified tensile strength of the shear stud. define the beam as you normally would without the cover plate and then add the cover plate in the overwrites by selecting a composite beam(s) and using the Design Menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. dsc. For additional information about shear studs. Cover plates are not defined as part of the beam properties. wc is the weight-per-unit-volume of concrete. to specify a beam with a cover plate. The first term is the weight-per-unit-area of the concrete and the second term is the weight-perunit-area of the metal deck.

Technical Note 7 . and a yield stress. the cover plate is considered both for resisting moments and deflections for design of the composite beam within the program's Composite Beam Design postprocessor.6 Cover Plates .Composite Beam Properties Composite Beam Design One consequence of this process is that the cover plate is not included for overall analysis of the building. tcp. the thickness. Tip: Cover plates are specified in the composite beam overwrites. bcp. It also does not determine cutoff locations for the full length cover plate. The width and thickness dimensions are illustrated in Figure 1. Fycp. The properties specified for a cover plate on the Beam tab of the Composite Beam Overwrites form are the width. However. The program does not check or design any of the welding between the cover plate and the beam bottom flange.

. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab This Technical Note explains how the program considers the effective width of the concrete slab separately on each side of the composite beam.1 . the program assumes the right side of the beam to be on your right side. the effective widths are specified on the left and right sides of the beam. Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked Technical Note 8 . The steel beam alone is capable of resisting the entire moment in the composite beam for the last 15% of the beam length at each end of the beam. the program checks the effective width of the beam over the entire middle 70% of the beam and uses the smallest value found as the effective width of the beam. if you stand at the I-end of the beam looking toward the J-end of the beam. It allows you to have different deck properties on the two sides of the beam. Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked By default. The 70% number is derived based on two assumptions: The capacity of the composite beam is approximately twice that of the steel beam alone. In the preferences.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. As illustrated in Figure 1. Redefine this default “middle range” of 70% in the composite beam design preferences. INC. This separation is carried through in all of the calculations. if desired. everywhere in the calculations for that beam. In the composite beam overwrites on the Beam tab (display using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command). beff. the Middle Range item is on the Beam tab (display using the Options > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command). You can redefine the effective slab width on either side of the beam in the overwrites. Note that for a uniformly loaded beam. BERKELEY. the moment drops off to half of the maximum moment or less in the last 15% of the beam.

The program allows different deck types and deck directions on the two sides of the beam in the calculations. the program assumes one deck type and deck direction on each side of the beam along the entire length of the beam. Figure 2 shows examples of different deck types and different deck directions on the two sides of the beam. The program checks the deck types and deck directions on each side of the composite beam within the specified middle range (see the previous subsec- Technical Note 8 . regardless of the actual number of types and directions of deck that may exist.2 Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length . Note: The program allows a different deck type and deck orientation on each side of the beam.Effective Width of the Concrete Slab Composite Beam Design 2 1 j-end of beam 3 Left side of beam Right side of beam i-end of beam Figure 1: Example of How the Program Defines the Left and Right Sides of the Beam Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length For the design calculations.

the program decides which single deck section and direction to use on that side of the beam. Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length Technical Note 8 . 1. Important note about deck orientation: In this program's composite beam design. Otherwise.Composite Beam Design Effective Width of the Concrete Slab Deck Direction Different on Two Sides of Beam Deck Type Different on Two Sides of Beam Figure 2: Different Deck Types and Different Deck Directions on the Two Sides of the Beam tion). 2. If the deck span is exactly parallel to the beam span or within 15 degrees of parallel to the beam span. If two or more deck sections have the same value of tc * f c' but the deck spans in different directions. It uses the deck section that has the smallest value of tc * f c' in the calculations for the beam. When multiple deck types or deck directions occur on the same side of a composite beam. The program goes through these steps in this order to choose the deck section. the deck span is assumed to be parallel to the beam span.3 . The program calculates the product of tc * f c' for each deck where tc is the depth of the concrete above the metal deck and f c' is the concrete slab compressive strength. the deck is assumed either parallel or perpendicular to the span of the beam. the program uses the deck section that spans perpendicular to the beam. the deck span is assumed to be perpendicular to the beam span.

The typical floor in this plan consists of 2-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck that is designated Deck Type A.500 psi for both deck types. Tip: You can change the assumed deck type and deck direction on each side of the beam on the Deck tab in the composite beam overwrites. However.4 Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length . the upper left-hand quadrant of the floor consists of 4-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck that is designated Deck Type B. the program uses the deck section with the smaller tc value.Effective Width of the Concrete Slab Composite Beam Design 3. 4. Now consider the beam labeled “Girder F” in the figure. Assume that the concrete compressive strength is 3. Deck Type A exists along the entire length of the right-hand side of this beam. the program use the first defined deck section. Thus. If two or more deck sections span in the same direction and have the same value of tc * f c' . If two or more deck sections span in the same direction and have the same values of tc and f c' . Refer to the floor plan shown in Figure 3. the program Deck Type B: 4-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck Step in floor slab Edge of deck Girder F Deck Type A: 2-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck Floor Plan Figure 3: Example of Different Deck Types on the Left and Right Sides of a Beam Technical Note 8 .

Now consider the beam labeled “Girder G” in the figure. Thus. A second example is shown in Figure 4. For Deck Type B: tc * f c' = 4. b. not the deck type (and thus tc and f c' do not change).5 * 3. Use Deck Type A on the left side of the girder in the composite beam calculations because it has the smaller value of tc * f c' . Deck ribs oriented both perpendicular and parallel to the span of Girder G exist along the left-hand side of the beam.750 lbs/in. Note that the loads applied to the beam are still based on the actual deck types. The program uses the following method to determine which of these deck types to use on the left side of the beam in the calculations: 1.5 .500 = 8. In this example. a. Thus.750 lbs/in. the program uses the deck that spans perpendicular to Girder G on the left side of the beam. Because only the deck direction is different along the left side of the beam. the deck type is the same throughout the floor. but the direction of the deck changes in the upper left-hand quadrant of the floor. For Deck Type A: tc * f c' = 2. The deck ribs are oriented parallel to the span of Girder G along the entire length of the righthand side of this beam. Determine the product of tc * f c' for each deck type.500 = 15.Composite Beam Design Effective Width of the Concrete Slab uses Deck Type A on the right side of the beam in the calculations. Both Deck Type A and Deck Type B exist along the left-hand side of the beam. Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length Technical Note 8 . 2.5 * 3. the load applied to the upper half of Girder F in Figure 3 would include the contribution from Deck Type B even though Deck Type B might not be used in calculating the composite beam properties. the program uses Deck Type A oriented parallel to the span of Girder G on the right side of the beam in the calculations.

Effective Width of the Concrete Slab

Composite Beam Design

Deck Type A: 2-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck Edge of deck

Girder G

Deck Type A: 2-1/2" normal weight concrete over 3" metal deck

Floor Plan
Figure 4: Example of Different Deck Orientations on Left and Right Sides of the Beam

Effect of Diagonal Beams on Effective Slab Width
Consider the example shown in Plan A of Figure 5. In Plan A, the length of Beam A is LA. Assume that the effective width of this beam is controlled by the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam. Also assume that the program checks the effective width of the slab over the default middle range (70%) of Beam A. If the variable labeled xA in the figure is less than or equal to 0.15, the effective width of the concrete slab on the upper side of Beam A (i.e., the side between Beam A and Beam X) is controlled by the distance between Beam A and Beam X. On the other hand, if xA is greater than 0.15, the effective width of the concrete slab on the upper side of Beam A is controlled by the distance between Beam A and Girder Y, at a location of 0.15LA from the left end of Beam A. This distance is measured along a line that is perpendicular to Beam A.

Technical Note 8 - 6

Effect of Diagonal Beams on Effective Slab Width

Composite Beam Design

Effective Width of the Concrete Slab

Beam X xA * LA Beam A

Be
θ Beam B LA

Gird er Y

Plan A

θ2

Be

am

Beam C

Plan C

Figure 5:

Examples for the Effect of Diagonal Beams on Composite Beam Effective Width

Now consider the example shown in Plan B of Figure 5. Assume that the effective width of Beam B is controlled by the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam. When considering the perpendicular distance from Beam B to the adjacent beam on the upper side of Beam B, the program considers the diagonal beam labeled Beam Z when the angle θ is less than 45 degrees. If the angle θ is greater than or equal to 45 degrees, Beam Z is ignored when calculating the effective slab width on the upper side of Beam B. Plan C in Figure 5 shows a special case where two diagonal beams frame into Beam C at the same point. In this special case, the program assumes that the effective width of the slab on the side of the beam where the two diagonals exist is zero. You can, of course, change this in the overwrites. The program assumes the zero effective width because although it is checking the effective

Effect of Diagonal Beams on Effective Slab Width

Z1

θ1

am

Z

Plan B

Be am Z2

Technical Note 8 - 7

Effective Width of the Concrete Slab

Composite Beam Design

width for Beam C, it is unable to determine whether a slab is actually between the two diagonal beams.

Effect of Openings on Effective Slab Width
Now consider Plan D shown in Figure 6. In this case, there is an opening on both sides of the slab at the left end of Beam D. Assume again that the effective width of this beam is controlled by the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beam, and also assume that the program checks the effective width of the slab over the default center 70% of the Beam D length. If the width of the opening, xD * LD is less than 0.15LD, the program bases the effective width of the concrete slab on the distance to the adjacent beams. On the other hand, if xD * LD exceeds 0.15LD, the program assumes the effective concrete slab width for Beam D to be zero; that is, it assumes a noncomposite beam.
LV xD * LD

Beam D

Plan D
Figure 6: Example of the Effect of Openings on Composite Beam Effective Width

Technical Note 8 - 8

Effect of Openings on Effective Slab Width

Composite Beam Design

Effective Width of the Concrete Slab

Effective Slab Width and Transformed Section Properties
When the program calculates the transformed section properties, the concrete is transformed to steel by multiplying beff by the ratio Ec / Es. This ratio may be different on the two sides of the beam. For AISC-ASD89 composite beam design, Ec may be different for stress and deflection calculations. See AISCASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia for more information.

Effective Slab Width and Transformed Section Properties

Technical Note 8 - 9

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN

Technical Note 9
Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

Overview
The program considers the unbraced length for construction loading separately from that for final loads. For both types of loading, the unbraced length of the beam associated with buckling about the local 2-axis (minor) of the beam is used to determine the flexural capacity of the noncomposite beam. The local 2-axis is illustrated in Figure 1. By default, the program automatically determines the locations where the beam is braced for buckling about the local 2-axis. This information is then used to determine the unbraced length associated with any point on the beam. Instead of using the program calculated bracing points, you can specify in the overwrites your own brace points for any beam.

2

1

3

i-end of beam

Figure 1: Local 2-Axis of Beam
Overview Technical Note 9 - 1

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

Composite Beam Design

Tip: The program considers the unbraced length for construction loading separately from that for final loads. For buckling about the local 2-axis, the program differentiates between bracing of the top flange of the beam and bracing of the bottom flange of the beam. The program automatically recognizes which flange of the beam is the compression flange at any point along the beam for any design load combination. With this ability and the program-determined or user-specified bracing point locations, the program can automatically determine the unbraced length of any segment along the beam and can apply appropriate code-specified modification factors (e.g., Cb factor for flexure) to the flexural strength of the beam. Note: The program can automatically determine the unbraced length of any beam segment based on the assumed or specified bracing points.

Determination of the Braced Points of a Beam
The program considers the lateral bracing for the top and bottom flanges separately. In the Composite Beam Design postprocessor, the program assumes that beams can be braced by the deck section (or slab section) that they support and by other beams framing into the beam being considered. The program automatically determines the braced points of a beam for buckling about the local 2-axis as follows: The top flange is assumed to be continuously laterally supported (unbraced length of zero) anywhere there is metal deck section with concrete fill framing into one or both sides of the beam or there is a slab section framing into both sides of the beam. Note: In the Composite Beam Design postprocessor, either deck or slab sections can brace the top flange of a beam.

Tip: You can choose to accept the program default bracing points for a beam. Alternatively, you can enter the composite beam overwrites and specify the actual bracing points for a beam or specify a maximum unbraced length.

Technical Note 9 - 2

Determination of the Braced Points of a Beam

Composite Beam Design

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

Metal deck sections with no concrete fill are assumed to continuously brace the top flange if the deck ribs are specified as oriented perpendicular to the beam span. If the deck ribs are specified as oriented parallel to the beam span, the deck is assumed to not brace the top flange. The top and bottom flange are assumed to be braced at any point where another beam frames into the beam being considered at an angle greater than 30 degrees, as shown in the sketch to the right. It is up to you to provide appropriate detailing at this point to assure that the bottom flange is adequately braced. If appropriate detailing is not provided, you should redefine the brace points using one of the methods described in the next section.

Beam Considered

Br

ac

ing

Be

am

θ > 30°

When the bracing is program calculated or brace points are user specified, the program always assumes that each end of the beam is braced at both the top and the bottom flange. If the unbraced length of a beam is longer than the actual beam, specify a user-defined unbraced length, not userdefined brace points.

User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam
Overview
To use unbraced lengths other than those determined by the program, change the assumed unbraced length for any beam in the composite beam overwrites. This is true for both the construction loading unbraced lengths and the final loading unbraced lengths. Select a beam and click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command to access the overwrites. The construction loading bracing is specified on the Bracing (C) tab. The final condition bracing is specified on the Bracing tab. For buckling about the local 2-axis, you can specify specific bracing points along the beam that apply to the top flange, bottom flange, or both, or you can specify one maximum unbraced length that applies over the entire length of the beam to both the top and bottom flanges.

User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam

Technical Note 9 - 3

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations Composite Beam Design Important Note: As soon as you specify any user-defined bracing points or unbraced lengths for a beam. both measured from the I-end of the beam.4 User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam . All distances are measured from the center of the support. bottom. Specify the distance as an actual distance or as a relative distance. The Point Braces form appears. all of the program-determined lateral bracing information on that beam is ignored. Point Braces To define point braces. Use the following procedure in the composite beam overwrites (display using the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command) on the Bracing (C) or Bracing tab to specify point braces: 1. 3. Point Braces title and then click in the cell to the right of the title. Thus. Tip: You can change the default bracing assumed for a beam in the composite beam overwrites. Check the box next to the Bracing Condition overwrite item and then select Bracing Specified from the drop-down box to the right of the Bracing Condition title. and then indicate whether the top. not the physical end of the beam. or both. In this form: Technical Note 9 . if you specify any bracing points for a beam. Check the box next to the No. specify a distance along the beam that locates the brace point. User-Specified Uniform and Point Bracing If you specify your own bracing along the beam for buckling about the local 2axis. A relative distance to a point is the absolute distance to that point divided by the length of the beam measured from the center-ofsupport to center-of-support. 2. you should specify all of the bracing points for that beam. or both flanges are braced at this location. you can specify continuous bracing along a beam flange. bracing at specific points along a beam flange. The distances may be specified as either absolute (actual) distances or as relative distances. The bracing specified can be different for construction loading and final loading.

Composite Beam Design

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

a. Indicate whether the specified distances will be relative or absolute from the I-end of the beam by selecting the appropriate option near the bottom of the form. b. In the Define Point Braces area, input a distance from end-I in the Location box and choose a brace type in the Type box. In the Type box, Top means only the top flange is braced; Bottom means only the bottom flange is braced; and All means both flanges are braced at that point. c. Click the Add button to add the brace point. 4. Repeat step 3 as many times as required. 5. To modify an existing point brace specification, do the following: a. Highlight the item to be modified in the Define Point Braces area. Note that the highlighted distance and type appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. b. Modify the distance and type in the edit box as desired. c. Click the Modify button to modify the brace point. Note: You can specify uniform bracing, point braces, or a combination of both for a composite beam. 6. To delete an existing point brace specification, do the following: a. Highlight the item to be deleted in the Define Point Braces area. Note that the highlighted distance and type appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. b. Click the Delete button to delete the brace point. 7. Click the OK button to return to the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Note that the No. Point Braces item is automatically updated by the program to reflect the point braces specified.

User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam

Technical Note 9 - 5

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

Composite Beam Design

Uniform Braces
To define uniform or continuous bracing, specify a distance along the beam that locates the starting point of the continuous bracing, specify a second (longer) distance along the beam that locates the ending point of the continuous bracing, and then indicate whether the top, bottom, or both flanges are continuously braced over this length. You can specify the distances as absolute (actual) distances or as relative distances, both measured from the I-end of the beam. A relative distance to a point is the absolute distance to that point divided by the length of the beam measured from the center-of-support to center-of-support. Use the following procedure in the composite beam overwrites on the Bracing (C) or Bracing tab to specify point braces: 1. Check the box next to the Bracing Condition overwrite item and then select Bracing Specified from the drop-down box to the right of the Bracing Condition title. 2. Check the box next to the No. Uniform Braces title and then click in the cell to the right of the title. 3. The Uniform Braces form appears. In this form: a. Indicate whether the specified distances will be relative or absolute from the I-end of the beam by selecting the appropriate option near the bottom of the form. b. In the Define Uniform Braces area, input distances from end-I in the Start and End boxes and choose a brace type in the Type box. The distance in the End box must be larger than that in the Start box. In the Type box, Top means only the top flange is braced; Bottom means only the bottom flange is braced; and All means both flanges are braced at that point. Note: You can specify whether a bracing point braces the top flange, bottom flange or both flanges of a beam. c. Click the Add button to add the brace point. 4. Repeat step 3 as many times as required.

Technical Note 9 - 6

User-Defined Unbraced Length of a Beam

Composite Beam Design

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

5. To modify an existing uniform brace specification, do the following: a. Highlight the item to be modified in the Define Uniform Braces area. Note that the highlighted distances and type appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. b. Modify the distances and type in the edit boxes as desired. c. Click the Modify button to modify the uniform brace. 6. To delete an existing uniform brace specification, do the following: a. Highlight the item to be deleted in the Define Uniform Braces area. Note that the highlighted distances and type appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. b. Click the Delete button to delete the uniform brace. 7. Click the OK button to return to the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Note that the No. Uniform Braces item is automatically updated by the program to reflect the uniform braces specified.

Design Check Locations
One of the first tasks the program performs when designing or checking a composite beam is to determine the design check locations for the design load combinations used for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads. There may be many design check locations along a beam. The design check locations are determined as follows: The point of maximum positive moment for each design load combination used for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads is a design check location. Note that there may be more than one of these design load combinations and thus there may be more than one point of maximum moment to consider. The point of maximum negative moment (if negative moment exists) for each design load combination used for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads is a design check location.

Design Check Locations

Technical Note 9 - 7

Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations

Composite Beam Design

A point load or point moment location for any design load combination used for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads is a design check location. The ends of a cover plate, if one is specified, are design check locations. The end or edge of the deck. This occurs, for example, at locations where the beam spans through an opening in the deck. At each design check location the program checks the moment capacity of the composite beam and determines the number of shear connectors required between that location and the nearest point of zero moment (or in some special cases, the end of the slab). Note: The program determines one set of design check locations that applies to all design load combinations. Consider, for example, a composite beam with two design load combinations used for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads. Assume one of those load combinations is a uniform load over the full length of the beam and the other is a point loads at the third points of the beam. Also assume there is positive moment only in the beam and no cover plate. In this example, the program considers the following design check locations: The point of maximum positive moment for the design load combination with uniform load only. The point of maximum positive moment for the design load combination with point loads at the third points. The locations of the point loads, that is, the third points of the beam. The program checks the moment capacity and the number of shear connectors required between each of these four locations and the nearest point of zero moment for both of the design load combinations. Thus, for the design load combination with uniform load only, the program still checks how many shear studs are required between the location of the point load in the other design load combination and the nearest point of zero moment. This ensures that there is always a sufficient number of shear connectors in the appropriate location on the beam.

Technical Note 9 - 8

Design Check Locations

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN

Technical Note 10

Design Load Combinations Overview
This Technical Note described the three types of design load combinations for composite beam design in the program: Strength Check for Construction Loads: Design load combinations for checking the strength of the beam to carry construction loads. Note that this design load combination is only considered if the beam is specified to be unshored. You can specify on the Beam tab in the composite beam preferences that all beams considered by the Composite Beam Design postprocessor are shored. Access these preferences using the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command. Modify the shoring preference for selected beams on the Beam tab in the composite beam overwrites. Access the overwrites by selecting a beam and then clicking the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Strength Check for Final Loads: Design load combinations for checking the strength of the beam to carry the final design loads. Deflection Check for Final Loads: Design load combinations for checking the deflection of the beam under final design loads. Note: This program automatically creates code-specific design load combinations for composite beam design. Tip: None of the program default load combinations include the effect of lateral loads. If lateral loads need to be considered, you should specify your own design load combinations.

Overview

Technical Note 10 - 1

Design Load Combinations

Composite Beam Design

The design load combinations are defined separately for each of these three conditions. The program automatically creates code-specific composite beam design load combinations for each of the three types of design load combinations based on the specified dead, superimposed dead, live and reducible live load cases. You can add additional design load combinations and modify or delete the program-created load combinations. Use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Combo command to review or modify design load combinations. Note that the Design Load Combinations Selection form that appears when you use this command has three separate tabs. There is one tab for each of the three types of load combinations.

Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans
For strength design of cantilever back spans, the program performs special live load patterning. The live load patterning used for cantilever back spans is slightly different from what you might expect, so you should read this section carefully to understand what the program does. Each composite beam design load combination for a cantilever has a dead load (DL), superimposed dead load (SDL) and a live load plus reduced live load (LL + RLL) component. There may also be other types of load components as well. The nature of the other types of load components is not important. The DL, SDL, (LL + RLL) and other components are shown in Figure 1a. The program internally creates a simply supported model of the cantilever back span. It applies a load to this simply supported span that is equal to a factor times the LL + RLL applied to the span. The factor used is specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam design preferences as the Pattern Live Load Factor. (Access the preferences using the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command.) This internally created model and loading is illustrated in Figure 1b. In the figure, PLLF is short for Pattern Live Load Factor. Finally for strength design (final loads only) of cantilever back spans, the program considers the following two conditions for each design load combination:

Technical Note 10 - 2

Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans

Composite Beam Design

Design Load Combinations

DL

SDL

LL + RLL

Other

a) Components of a Design Load Combination
PLLF * (LL + RLL) Note: PLLF = The Pattern Live Load Factor as specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam preferences.

b) Simply Supported Back Span with Factored LL + RLL Loading

DL + SDL + LL + RLL + Other

1.
DL + SDL + Other PLLF * (LL + RLL)

2.

+

c) Two Conditions Considered for Each Design Load Combination

Figure 1: Conditions Considered for Strength Design of a Cantilever Back Span
DL + SDL + LL + RLL (+ any other type of load if it exists) as specified over the full length (back span plus overhang) of the cantilever beam. DL + SDL (+ any other type of load if it exists) over the full length (back span plus overhang) of the cantilever beam plus the (LL + RLL) multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor applied to the simply supported back span. These two conditions are shown in Figure 1c. Note that the conditions described herein are only considered for strength design for final loads. The program does not do any special pattern loading checks for deflection design or for construction loading design.

Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans

Technical Note 10 - 3

Design Load Combinations

Composite Beam Design

Note: The live load patterning used for continuous spans is slightly different from what you might expect, so you should read this section carefully to understand what the program does. If load patterning different from that provided by the program is needed, you should create your own design load combination. When creating your own live load patterning, it typically works best if you give the specially defined pattern live load cases an “Other” design type instead of a “Live Load” design type. That way, the special pattern live load cases are not included in the automatically created default design load combinations, avoiding possible double counting of some live loads in those load combinations.

Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans
For strength design of spans that are continuous at one or both ends, the program performs special live load patterning similar to that described in the previous section for back spans of cantilevers. The live load patterning used for continuous spans is slightly different from what you might expect, so you should read this section carefully to understand what the program does. Each composite beam design load combination for a continuous span has a DL, SDL and (LL + RLL) component. There may also be other types of load components as well. The nature of the other types of load components is not important. The DL, SDL, (LL + RLL) and other components are shown in Figure 2a. The program internally creates a simply supported model of the continuous span. It applies a load to this simply supported span that is equal to a factor times the LL + RLL applied to the span. The factor used is specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam design preferences as the Pattern Live Load Factor. (You can access the preferences using the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command.) This internally created model and loading is illustrated in Figure 2b. In the figure, PLLF is short for Pattern Live Load Factor. Finally for strength design (final loads only) of continuous spans, the program considers the following two conditions for each design load combination:

Technical Note 10 - 4

Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans

DL + SDL + Other PLLF * (LL + RLL) 2. Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans Technical Note 10 . These two conditions are shown in Figure 2c. b) Simply Supported Span with Factored LL + RLL Loading DL + SDL + LL + RLL + Other 1. + c) Two Conditions Considered for Each Design Load Combination Figure 2: Conditions Considered for Strength Design of a Continuous Span DL + SDL + LL + RLL (+ any other type of load if it exists) as specified with actual continuity.5 . DL + SDL (+ any other type of load if it exists) as specified with actual continuity plus the (LL + RLL) multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor applied to the simply supported beam.Composite Beam Design Design Load Combinations DL SDL LL + RLL Other a) Components of a Design Load Combination PLLF * (LL + RLL) Note: PLLF = The Pattern Live Load Factor as specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam preferences.

That way. If load patterning different from that provided by the program is needed. the special pattern live load cases are not included in the automatically created default design load combinations.6 Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans .Design Load Combinations Composite Beam Design Note that the conditions described herein are only considered for strength design for final loads. The program does not do any special pattern loading checks for deflection design or for construction loading design. When creating your own live load patterning. it typically works best if you give the specially defined pattern live load cases an “Other” design type instead of a “Live Load” design type. Technical Note 10 . avoiding possible double counting of some live loads in those load combinations. you should create your own design load combination.

Note: The program checks the deflection of composite beams against default or user-specified deflection limits. in2.1 . in. Moment of inertia of an element of a steel beam section taken about its own elastic neutral axis. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber This Technical Note describes how the program calculates beam deflections and how it considers beam camber. 1 Area of an element of the composite beam section. Ieff. if there is full (100%) composite connection. if there is partial composite connection. Atr yl = = ∑A 2 tr y1 + ∑I O − (∑ A ) y tr 2 Eqn. BERKELEY. Itr is calculated as follows: I tr = where. Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the centroid of an element of the beam section. (b) the effective moment of inertia. if the beam is designed noncompositely or found to be a cantilever overhang. Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the elastic neutral axis of the fully composite beam. Deflection In the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. Ibare. when a beam is shored.. or (c) the moment of inertia of the steel beam alone. in4. in. IO = y = Deflection Technical Note 11 . the deflection is calculated using (a) the transformed moment of inertia. Itr.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

if it exists). in2. in4.Beam Deflection and Camber Composite Beam Design Ieff is calculated as follows: I eff = I bare + PCC (I tr − I bare ) where. The deflection for all other loads is calculated using (a) the transformed moment of inertia. Itr. in4. Effective moment of inertia of a partially composite beam. if it exists). in4. Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone plus cover plate. in4. if it exists). if it exists. ∑A ybare If a composite beam is unshored. = Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel section of the elastic neutral axis of the steel beam (plus cover plate. the dead load deflection is always based on the moment of inertia of the steel section alone (plus cover plate. ∑Io = Sum of the moments of inertia of each element of the beam section taken about the center of gravity of the element. 3 ∑(Ay12) = Sum of the product A times y12 for all of the elements of the steel beam section (including the cover plate. PCC = Eqn. = Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the steel beam sections (including the cover plate. Transformed section moment of inertia about elastic neutral axis of the composite beam calculated as described in Equation 1. Ibare. in4. Ibare = Ieff Itr = = Ibare is calculated as follows: I bare = where.2 Deflection . (b) the Technical Note 11 . in. if there is full (100%) composite connection. ∑ (Ay )+ ∑ I 2 1 O − (∑ A ) y 2 bare Eqn. The percentage varies between 25% and 100% inclusive. unitless. if it exists). 2 Percent composite connection.

or (c) the moment of inertia of the steel beam alone. Ibare. It also checks that the live load deflection does not exceed the specified live load deflection limit. In this program's composite beam design. For example. Thus. The overall deflected shape of the beam is drawn by connecting the computed values of deflection at each output station with straight-line segments. if the beam is designed noncompositely or found to be a cantilever overhang. the program assumes a linear variation of M/EI between output stations. The program calculates composite beam deflections using a moment-area technique. refer to the beam shown in Figure 1. the program checks that the total load deflection minus the camber does not exceed the specified total load deflection limit. Deflections for the beam are calculated at each output station. Figure 1a shows the original undeformed beam and also shows an arbitrary point Deflection Technical Note 11 . Ieff. An M/EI diagram is constructed by calculating M/EI values at each output station along the length of the beam and then connecting the M/EI values at those stations with straight-line segments.3 . The program assumes that the moment of inertia does not vary along the length of the beam (line object). When deflection is used as a criterion for selecting the optimum beam size.Composite Beam Design Beam Deflection and Camber Original position of beam A A Line between position of beam shown Deflection reported by Composite Beam postprocess a) b) Deflected Shape of Figure 1: Deflection Results Reported by the Composite Beam Design Postprocessor effective moment of inertia. if there is partial composite connection. the reported deflection is the vertical displacement relative to a line drawn between the deflected position of the ends of the beam.

Camber When beam camber is calculated." Use the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to access the composite beam design preferences. The name of the item to modify is "Camber DL (%). Table 1 shows how the program assigns camber to a beam based on the specified percentage of dead load deflection. Technical Note 11 . The program specifies the camber in ¼ inch increments. In that case. the rotation at the supported end of the cantilever overhang is correctly taken into account. If you use the Display menu > Show Deformed Shape command to review the displacement at the end of the cantilever. The maximum camber the program specifies is 4 inches. the program's Composite Beam Design postprocessor reports the displacement of the beam relative to the deformed position of the supported end.Beam Deflection and Camber Composite Beam Design along the beam labeled A.4 Camber . The minimum camber that the program specifies (other than zero) is ¾ inch. Deflection Reported for Cantilever Overhangs For cantilever overhangs. the displacements displayed are all based on the analysis section properties (noncomposite moment of inertias). By default. This displacement is calculated by the design postprocessor assuming that the supported end of the cantilever overhang is fixed against rotation. Figure 1b shows the beam in its deformed position and illustrates the deflection that the Composite Beam Design postprocessor reports for the beam at point A. but you can modify this value on the Deflection tab of the composite beam design preferences. the displacement is reported relative to the undeformed position of the end of the cantilever. However. this percentage is 100%. the amount of camber is based on a percentage of the dead load (not including superimposed dead load) deflection.

5 0. The CP * ∆DL column is broken into two subcolumns labeled “≥” and “<”. 2.375 3.25 3.125 < 0.375 1.5 1.625 2. The program specifies camber for those beams for which you request it to specify camber.375 3. 0. CP is the specified percentage of dead load deflection upon which the camber is based.75 1 1.875 < 2.75 2 2.5 0.5 .875 1.875 N.A.5 2.5 3.875 1.125 1. These two subcolumns specify the range of CP * ∆DL for which the program specifies a particular camber.A.375 0 0.25 1.75 4 In the table.25 ≥ 2.375 1.125 1.375 2.875 3.625 2.125 3.625 1.75 3 3. Review the beam cambers calculated by the program together with beam camber information related to your design code and any other information provided by your steel fabricator to make any necessary adjustments. Camber Technical Note 11 .125 2.875 2.625 3.125 3.Composite Beam Design Beam Deflection and Camber Table 1: How the Program Specifies Camber CP * ∆DL (inches) Camber Specified by the Program (inches) CP * ∆DL (inches) Camber Specified by the Program (inches) ≥ N.625 1.875 3.875 2. regardless of the beam depth or length.625 3.

.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration Overview By default the program calculates the first natural vibration frequency for each beam and reports it in the output. ksi. You can also indicate that a beam section must satisfy the Murray minimum damping requirement to be considered acceptable..57 unless the beam is the overhanging portion of a cantilever with a back span. INC. g = Acceleration of gravity. gE s I tr WL3 Eqn.1 . Itr = Transformed section moment of inertia for the composite beam calculated assuming full (100%) composite connection. in/sec2. BERKELEY. f = First natural frequency of the beam in cycles per second.56. Note that Figure 1 is based on a similar figure in Murray and Hendrick (1977). f = Kf where. in which case Kf is as defined in Figure 1 and digitized in Table 1. in which case Kf is 0. You can change this on the Preferences tab in the composite beam design preferences.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Vibration Frequency The program calculates the first natural vibration frequency of a beam using Equation 1. Es = Steel modulus of elasticity. regardless of the Overview Technical Note 12 . but it does not by default use this information to determine the adequacy of a composite beam section. or the beam is a cantilever that is fully fixed at one end and free at the other end. 1 Kf = A unitless coefficient typically equal to 1.

Also see the Important Note About W. plus the sum of all superimposed dead loads. in two different load cases) as a Dead. W. Itr is calculated using Equation 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. Important Note About W. Superimposed dead.Beam Vibration Composite Beam Design actual percent composite connection. The program determines the type of load (dead. If you want or need to define the same load twice. L Note: For vibration calculations. Be careful not to define the same load twice (i. and thus correctly calculate the frequency. in4. Ibare is used for this item.e.. Thus. for the program to correctly calculate the weight supported by the beam. the program calculates the moment of inertia assuming full (100%) composite connection. regardless of the actual percent composite connection. etc. See Naeim (1991).) based on the type of load specified in the load case definition. Technical Note 12 . The percentage is intended to be an estimate of the sustained portion of the live load (about 10% to 25% of the total design live load). You define a load case using the Define menu > Static Load Cases command. W = Total load supported by the beam. = Center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. The percentage of live load is specified in the composite beam preferences. in. Doing this keeps the program from double counting the load when calculating the weight. the Weight Used in the Frequency Calculation The weight. kips. This is calculated by the program as the sum of all of the dead load and superimposed dead load supported by the beam. plus a percentage of all of the live load and reducible live load supported by the beam. you must be sure to tag all of your load types correctly when you define your static load cases. used in the frequency calculations is determined by the program as the sum of all dead loads. plus some percentage of the sum of all live loads and reduced live loads on the beam. regardless of whether those loads are included in a design load combination. W. Live or Reducible Live load type.2 Vibration Frequency . Ibare is calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. If there is no deck supported by the beam. live. you may want to tag the load as an Other-type load in the second case.

64 0.13 0. Kf 1.1 1.3 1.08 0. Table 1: Table 1 Digitization of Figure 1 as used by the Program Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 H/L 0 0.14 0.Composite Beam Design Beam Vibration 1.4 0.06 Vibration Frequency Technical Note 12 .1 2.57 1.22 0.5 Kf 0. See the definition of Kf on page 1 of this Technical Note.2 0.2 1.2 2.6 1.3 2.5 1.52 0.4 Cantilever / Backspan Ratio.53 1.2 0.9 1 1.6 0.37 0.55 1.5 Kf 1.4 0.07 0.12 0.17 Point 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 H/L 1.8 0.0 1.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.2 1.7 1.7 0.11 0.8 2.35 1. H / L Figure 1: Kf Coefficient for an Overhanging Beam for use in Equation 1.2 0.4 1.44 1.27 0.8 1.25 0.2 0 0 0.6 L 1.05 0.6 0.25 1.1 0.5 Kf 0.4 f = Kf g E I tr W L3 H 1.3 0.15 0.15 0.56 1.4 0.43 0.6 1.35 0.8 0.0 2.57 1.4 1.09 0.4 2.2 2.3 .31 0.2 Frequency Coefficient.1 0.9 2 2.03 Point 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 H/L 0.

= The effective number of beams resisting the heel drop impact. unitless. tO = 1 tan-1(0. Murray 1975. Rainer and Pernica 1979. 3 Technical Note 12 . This time is calculated using Equation 3. for example. = First natural frequency of the beam in cycles per second as calculated from Equation 1. A sb f + 2. unitless. Murray (Murray 1981) proposed that a criterion for acceptable steel beam-concrete slab floor systems subject to human walking vibrations is as shown in Equation 2: D ≥ 35 where. Allen 1974. and Murray 1991). Allen and Rainer 1976.1πf) πf Eqn.” Thomas M. D. Approximate damping ratio values for typical building configurations are published in the literature (see. Initial Displacement Amplitude To calculate the initial displacement amplitude of a single beam. = Initial displacement amplitude of a single beam resulting from a heel drop impact. percent critical damping inherent in the floor system.4 Murray’s Minimum Damping Requirement . in seconds.5 Neff Eqn. D = Damping ratio.Beam Vibration Composite Beam Design Murray’s Minimum Damping Requirement In his paper entitled “Acceptability Criterion for Occupant-Induced Floor Vibrations. Allen. is greater than the right side of Equation 2. in. first calculate the time to the maximum initial displacement. The derivation of the initial displacement amplitude is described herein. 2 Asb Neff f If the damping ratio. Asb. This item is specified on the Vibration tab in the composite beam preferences. the beam is considered acceptable. tO.

4EsItr 1 POL3 * VF . if tO > 0. = Heel drop force.1 − tO ) . Ibare is calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber.1πf) are evaluated in radians.0.1πf sin(0. ksi. kips.1πf) is evaluated in radians. the terms sin(0. Ibare is used for this item.1πf )] + (0. depending on the value of tO. = First natural frequency of the beam in cycles per second. as calculated from Equation 1 of this Technical Note. the value of Asb is calculated from either Equation 4a or 4b. Asb = Initial displacement amplitude of a single beam resulting from a heel drop impact. regardless of the actual percent composite connection. This force is taken as 0.1πf ) 1 2 Eqn. After the value of tO has been determined.6 kips.05 sec Eqn.1πf) and cos(0.Composite Beam Design Beam Vibration where f is the first natural vibration frequency as determined from Equation 1 and tan-1(0. = Transformed section moment of inertia for the composite beam calculated assuming full (100%) composite connection. = Steel modulus of elasticity.4EsItr if tO ≤ 0. 4a A sb = where. In Equations 4a through 4c. Itr is calculated using Equation 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. = Center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. If there is no deck supported by the beam. in.05 sec Eqn.5 . 4c In Equation 4c. PO L Es Itr f Murray’s Minimum Damping Requirement Technical Note 12 . A sb = POL3 (0.1πf ) − cos(0. 4b VF = 2 [ . 2. in. in4. * 2πf 2.

the program does not check or consider the number of parallel.Beam Vibration Composite Beam Design Effective Number of Beams Resisting Heel Drop Impact The program defaults to using an Neff value of 1. in. Technical Note 12 .05776 −8  sb   d avg    +    L    s   b  3 2. or you can specify that the program calculate Neff based on a user-specified beam spacing using Equation 5.0. Neff sb = Effective number of beams resisting heel drop impact. You can specify your own value of Neff in the composite beam overwrites. in. Alternatively. unitless.967 − 0. Note: The program defaults to using an Neff value of 1.6 Murray’s Minimum Damping Requirement . or less. the program calculated value of Neff is always set to 1. L = Center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. davg = Average depth of concrete slab including the concrete in the metal deck ribs. or specify that the program calculate Neff using Equation 5 of this Technical Note. equally spaced identical beams. If the beam considered has deck on one side.00010   Eqn. The beam spacing used in Equation 5 is user input in the composite beam overwrites. the program calculated value of Neff is always set to 1. = Beam spacing as input by the user in the composite beam overwrites. in. specify a value of Neff on the Vibration tab in the composite beam overwrites. • • • N eff = 2. if desired.556 * 10  L4   I tr    + 0. if desired.0. If the beam considered is a cantilever overhang. 5 where. Note the following about the program's implementation of Equation 5: • When calculating Neff using Equation 5.

1974. in. D. in4. in. No. If there is no deck supported by the beam. = Effective slab width for composite design.7 . = Height of metal deck ribs. References Technical Note 12 . The depth davg is calculated as:  wr lefthr left   + tc left  beff left +  Sr left      wr righthr right    + t c right  beff    Sr right    =  beff left + beff right      right    davg where.L. Vol. in. 1. References Allen. wr hr Sr tc Eqn. Itr is calculated using Equation 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. in. Ibare is calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. 1. beff Each of the above quantities may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Center-to-center spacing of metal deck ribs. in. = Depth of concrete slab above metal deck ribs or depth of solid concrete slab. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 6 = Average width of metal deck ribs. Vibrational Behavior of Long Span Floor Slabs. Ibare is used for this item.Composite Beam Design Beam Vibration Itr = Transformed section moment of inertia for the composite beam calculated assuming full (100%) composite connection regardless of the actual percent composite connection. September.

American Institute of Steel Construction. Vol. Engineering Journal. Vibration Criteria for Long Span Floors. No. T. 18. 1975. Engineering Journal. 3.. American Institute of Steel Construction.H. Naeim.H. 28. T.Beam Vibration Composite Beam Design Allen. Engineering Journal. 3. 1977.. American Steel Institute of Steel Construction. Murray. No. Inc. Allen. 1976. September. Engineering Journal. Murray. Murray. and J. 1991.2. Vol. T. D. Design to Prevent Floor Vibration. Rainer. Vol. F. American Concrete Institute. Hendrick. Steel Tips. Inc. Inc. Detroit. 1991. 2. Structural Steel Educational Council. No. 1979. Floor Vibrations and Cantilevered Construction. and G. Rainer.E. Vibrations of Concrete Structures. 3. 1981. Technical Note 12 . Vol. Building Floor Vibrations.M. Vibration Criteria for Long Span Concrete Floors. 3.E. J. 12. and W. MI. 14. Inc.H. Design Practice to Prevent Floor Vibration. Technical Information & Product Service. E. American Institute of Steel Construction.M.H. Vol. T. No. Publication SP-60.8 References . Acceptability Criterion for Occupant-Induced Floor Vibrations. Murray. Pernica. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. June. No. D.

Note: When the program designs a composite beam. BERKELEY. A composite beam segment cannot exist in locations where concrete is not over the beam or where the beam top flange has been coped. Composite Beam Segments For the purposes of reporting the number of shear studs required on each composite beam. The segments extend along the length of the beam.. INC. it is very important that you understand the explanation in this Technical Note describing how composite beam segments are defined.” Next it describes how the program calculates the shear stud distribution for a beam. it reports the required number of shear studs in each composite beam segment. It begins by introducing the term “composite beam segments. The physical end of the beam top flange. A composite beam segment may span between any two of the following three items provided that there is concrete on the beam and the beam top flange is available over the full length of the segment: 1. 2. The physical end of the concrete slab on top of the beam considered. Therefore.1 . Each composite beam consists of one or more composite beam segments.COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Overview This Technical Note describes how the program calculates and reports the distribution of shear studs on a composite beam. the program divides the top flange of each composite beam into segments. Figure 1 shows Overview Technical Note 13 . 3. Another beam in the program model that frames into the beam being considered.

S is determined as illustrated in Cases 3. the program begins by assuming that the top flange extends from the center of the left support to the center of the right support. LCBS. LCBS = Length of a composite beam segment. S. It then subtracts a support distance. is always 1/2". as shown in Figure 1c. is assumed to be zero. G. A similar method is used for box columns and in the very unusual case of some other column shape. 4 and 5 in Figure 1. Technical Note 13 . from each end of the beam. G.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design some examples of composite beam segments. in. in. Physical End of the Beam Top Flange When one or both ends of a composite beam segment lie at the end of a composite beam. which show the beam supported by an I-shaped beam.2 Composite Beam Segments . from each end of the beam and a gap distance. When determining the location of the ends of the beam top flange. The gap distance. If the end of the beam is supported by a column. If the end of the beam is supported by a wall or a point support. the support distance. A similar method is used in the unusual case of other types of support beams. which show the beam supported by an I-shaped column. the program must assume the exact location of the end(s) of the beam top flange to calculate a length. support distance S is determined as illustrated in Cases 1 and 2 in Figure 2. S. Note that a composite beam can have more than one composite beam segment. for the composite beam segment. The figure uses the following notation: L = Length of composite beam measured from center-of-support to center-of-support. If the end of the beam is supported by another beam. The support distance varies depending on the type of support and the angle at which the beam frames into the support.

3 .Composite Beam Design Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam LCBS L a) LCBS for Beam Between Two Columns LCBS L b) LCBS for Beam Between Two Girders Figure 1: LCBS LCBS L LCBS Examples of Composite Beam Segments. c) LCBS when Beams Frame into Considered Beam End of slab LCBS L d) LCBS when Slab Ends in Beam Span Composite Beam Segments Technical Note 13 . LCBS.

6. S is the support distance. Figure 2: Examples of Support Distance. and Gap Distance.5" Case 3 Beam G Column θ Be S Column G d 2 G = 0. If the two flanges have different widths. The dimension bf in Cases 3 and 5 is the flange width of the supporting column (dimension parallel to the local 3-axis).4 Composite Beam Segments . θ ≤ 90° 2 G = 0. the larger flange width is used. Technical Note 13 . G is the gap distance. 3. If a beam is supported by a wall or a point support. 5.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design Girder Girder Beam Be G bf S= 2 G = 0.5" Beam S bf S= 2 G = 0. 4. G. The dimension bf in Cases1 and 2 is the top flange width of the supporting girder.5" S= S= S S G θ Column am am bfsinθ + dcosθ .5" Case 5 S G Case 4 Notes: 1. The dimension d in Cases 4 and 5 is the depth of the supporting column (dimension parallel to the local 2-axis). S. 2.5" Case 1 Case 2 bf S = 2sinθ G = 0. the program assumes that the dimension S is 0".

Even if the load case with the point load is not used in the design load combinations for composite beam design. The following notation is used in the figure: How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam Technical Note 13 . the program will still consider the output station associated with the point load when it determines the shear stud distribution.5 . where bf is the dimension parallel to the local 3-axis and d is the dimension parallel to the local 2-axis. the program draws a bounding rectangle around the shape. The output station with the maximum positive moment. It will not. How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam This section describes how the program calculates the shear stud distribution on a beam. Any output station that has a point load applied to it for any load case defined in the program.Composite Beam Design Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam In the unusual case of some other column shape. the program considers the following output stations: 1. When determining the distribution of shear studs on a composite beam. This is a convenient assumption that in some cases may lead to a slightly conservative number of shear studs.999 times the maximum positive moment. The sides of the rectangle are parallel to the local 2. in any way explicitly consider the loads in that unused load case when determining the shear stud distribution. Distribution of Shear Studs Within a Composite Beam Segment The program always assumes a uniform intensity of shear studs within a composite beam segment. the program begins by determining the distances L1 left and L1 right. 3. Any output station with a positive moment greater than 0. These are illustrated in Figure 3 for a typical composite beam with positive moment only and with a concrete slab over metal deck along its entire length. however. The dimensions of the edges of the rectangle are assumed to be bf and d. The beam is assumed to connect to the center of the bounding rectangle. At each considered output station. 2.and 3-axes of the shape.

6 How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam . This is a code-specific calculation and is described in AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 26 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs and AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 39 Shear Connectors.5 in S= W24X55 4.00 in L1 right = 234. = Distance from the output station considered to the closest point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. When there is more than one composite Technical Note 13 . required within the lengths L1 left and L1 right. These calculations are described later in this Technical Note.50 in Figure 3: Illustration of L1 left and L1 right L = Length of composite beam measured from center-of-support to center-of-support. in.5 in S= Output station located 10 feet from the left end of the beam W18X40 bf 9. Next. or physical end of the concrete slab on the right side of the output station considered. in.00 in L1 left = 116. N.005 = = 3.990 = = 5. or physical end of the concrete slab on the left side of the output station considered. the program calculates the number of shear studs.50 in L = 30 ft = 360 in W27X94 5. making calculations at each considered output station along the way. in. L1 left L1 right = Distance from the output station considered to the closest point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange.50 in 2 2 G = 0.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design bf 7.00 in 2 2 G = 0. The program works along the beam from left to right.

after finishing the pass from left to right. How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam Technical Note 13 . This check is described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. it has determined the required uniformly spaced shear studs in each composite beam segment along the beam based on strength considerations. the program considers the beam to be inadequate. If the required number of studs does not fit on the beam. All other NCBSn values are intermediate values. the terms LCBSn and NCBSn are used. The values we are ultimately interested in are the NCBSn values. Finally the term Roundup used in Equations 1 through 5 means to calculate the indicated quantity and round it up to the next integer. Also in the equations used (Equations 1 through 4d) note that NCBSx Prev is the value of NCBSx calculated at the previously considered output station. If the calculated number of studs is then found to be less than the minimum required number of studs on the beam. again making calculations at each considered output station along the way. When the program completes the necessary calculations at each considered output station.7 .Composite Beam Design Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam beam segment along the beam. In the following description of the calculations the program performs as it steps along the beam and then back again. LCBS is the length of a composite beam segment and NCBS is the number of uniformly spaced shear studs required in a composite beam segment. the program must also work back along the beam from right to left. the program increases the number of studs on the beam accordingly. This check is described later in the subsection entitled "Minimum and Maximum Number of Shear Studs in a Composite Beam Segment." The program also checks if the number of shear studs required based on strength considerations or minimum stud requirements actually fit on the beam. The n is the composite beam segment number. The leftmost composite beam segment is always LCBS1 and the numbering of composite beam segments then proceeds in order toward the right end of the beam. Note that the final NCBSn values calculated are the values of interest.

Note that if the output station considered coincides with the right end of composite beam segment n. where n > 1.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design Equations Used When the Program Works from Left to Right When the program is working from left to right along the beam.  N  NCBSi = Roundup  * L CBSi  ≥ NCBSi Prev  L 1 left    Eqn. or at the right end of composite beam segment 1.e. and the program is working from left to right along the beam. the "1" denotes composite beam segment 1. 1 Values of NCBSn where n > 1 (i. 2a Technical Note 13 . Equation 1 is used to determine the value of NCBS1.  L 1 left L 1 right     * L CBS1  ≥ NCBS1 Prev     Eqn. Equation 2a applies for composite beam segments i.. Equation 1 is the equation that is used at each considered output station. Note: In the term NCBS1. the equation used to calculate NCBSn depends on the location of the output station considered.8 How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam . 3. the output station is assumed to be in composite beam segment n (when you are working along the beam from left to right). where i is an integer less than n.) are not applicable and thus not calculated at these stations when working along the beam from left to right. etc. NCBS1 =  Roundup Max    N N  . n > 1 The equations in this subsection are used when the output station considered falls in composite beam segment n. values of NCBS for composite beam segments 2. Output Station in Composite Beam Segment n. Output Station in Composite Beam Segment 1 When working along the beam from left to right and the output station considered falls in composite beam segment 1. Note that when there is only one composite beam segment along the beam.

Otherwise use Equation 2c to calculate NCBSn. Output Station in Rightmost Composite Beam Segment The equations in this subsection are used when working back along the beam from right to left and the output station considered falls in the right-most composite beam segment.  L 1 left L 1 right        NCBS rightmost ≥ NCBS rightmost prev Eqn. the equation used to calculate NCBSn again depends on the location of the output station considered.Composite Beam Design Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Equations 2b and 2c apply for composite beam segment n. 3a How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam Technical Note 13 . NCBSn = n −1    N NCBSi   i =1 Roundup  * L CBSn  ≥ NCBSn Prev n −1   L CBSi  L 1 left −    i =1   ∑ Eqn.9 . or at the left end of the right-most composite beam segment. Roundup Max  . For the right-most composite beam segment: NCBS rightmost =    N N   * L CBS rightmost  . 2c When i > n. When the program is working back along the beam from right to left. values of NCBSi are not applicable and thus are not calculated at those stations when working along the beam from left to right. If N L 1 left * n −1 ∑ i =1 L CBSi < n −1 i =1 ∑N CBSi . use Equation 2b to calculate NCBSn. 2b ∑   N * L CBSn  ≥ NCBSn Prev NCBSn = Roundup    L 1 left   Eqn. Equations Used When the Program Works from Right to Left Recall that it is only necessary for the program to work back along the beam from right to left if there is more than one composite beam segment along the length of the beam.

4a Equations 4b and 4c apply for composite beam segment n. Equation 3b applies. assume that the output station considered falls within (or at the left end of) composite beam segment n. Otherwise. etc. use Equation 4c to calculate NCBSn. 4c Technical Note 13 . NCBSi = NCBSi Prev Eqn. If N L1 right rightmost * i = n +1 ∑L rightmost CBSi < i = n +1 ∑N CBSi use Equation 4b to calculate NCBSn. Equation 4a applies for composite beam segments i.10 How the Program Distributes Shear Studs on a Beam . NCBSn = rightmost    N NCBSi   i =n +1 Roundup  * L CBSn  ≥ NCBSn Prev rightmost   L CBSi  L 1 right −    i =n +1   ∑ Eqn. Equation 4a applies to composite beam segments 3.  N  NCBSi = Roundup  * L CBSi  ≥ NCBSi Prev  L1 right    Eqn. 4b ∑  N  NCBSn = Roundup  * L CBSn  ≥ NCBSn Prev  L 1 right    Eqn. if the output station considered falls in composite beam segment 2. i represents the composite beam segment number.) In this section. In Equation 3b. (Note that this implies that there is more than one composite beam segment along the beam. where i is an integer greater than n. 4. Equations 4b and 4c apply to composite beam segment 2 only. if the output station considered falls in composite beam segment 2. 3b Output Station Not in Rightmost Composite Beam Segment The equations in this subsection apply when you are working back along the beam from right to left. For example.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design For other composite beam segments that are not the right-most composite beam segment. For example.

N CBSi = N CBSi Prev Eqn. 5 The program also checks that the number of studs required in a composite beam segment does not exceed the number that can actually fit in the segment. This calculations is shown in Equation 5. is calculated based on the maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. This required minimum.  L  MS CBS = Roundup  CBS   MaxLS    Eqn. A Note About Multiple Design Load Combinations When there are multiple design load combinations on a composite beam. consider a beam with four composite beam segments (CBS1 through CBS4) and two separate design load combinations (1 and 2). 4d Minimum and Maximum Number of Shear Studs in a Composite Beam Segment After the number of shear studs required in a composite beam segment has been calculated using the procedure described in the previous section. For example. if the output station considered falls in composite beam segment 2. which is specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. the program determines the stud distribution separately for each design load combination and then uses an intelligent algorithm to determine the final stud distribution that satisfies all design load combinations. the program checks that the number of studs is not less than the required minimum.Composite Beam Design Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Equation 4d applies for composite beam segments i. where i is an integer less than n. Figure 4a shows the stud distribution obtained for the first design load combination A Note About Multiple Design Load Combinations Technical Note 13 . MaxLS. Note: The minimum number of shear studs required in a composite beam segment is calculated based on the maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs specified on the Shear Studs tab in the overwrites. As an example.11 . MSCBS. Equation 4d applies to composite beam segment 1. Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment describes how the program determines the maximum number of shear studs that can fit into a composite beam segment.

12 A Note About Multiple Design Load Combinations . CBS1 NCBS = 5 CBS2 NCBS = 5 CBS3 NCBS = 5 CBS4 NCBS = 5 a) Shear Stud Distribution for Design Load Combination 1 CBS1 NCBS = 6 CBS2 NCBS = 2 CBS3 NCBS = 2 CBS4 NCBS = 4 b) Shear Stud Distribution for Design Load Combination 2 CBS1 NCBS = 6 CBS2 NCBS = 4 CBS3 NCBS = 5 CBS4 NCBS = 5 c) Final Shear Stud Distribution Reported by the Program Figure 4: Example for Shear Stud Distribution When Multiple Design Load Combinations Are Considered. Technical Note 13 . Figure 4c shows the final stud distribution that reports for this beam. Note that the intelligent algorithm allows the program to shift one of the five shear studs required in composite beam segment 2 for design load combination 1 out into composite segment 1. Note that the term NCBS in the figure denotes the number of shear studs in the corresponding composite beam segment.Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Composite Beam Design and Figure 4b shows the stud distribution obtained for the second design load combination.

(3) physical end of the concrete slab on top of the beam. This Technical Note describes how the program calculates the maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment. The program uses a different process when the deck ribs span perpendicular to the beam. The program uses the same process to determine the number of shear connectors that can fit on a composite beam when there is a solid slab with no metal deck and when the deck ribs span parallel to the beam span. the stresses and deflections for the beam must be less than the allowable stresses and deflections. See "Composite Beam Segments" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for more information.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. (2) another beam framing into the beam being considered. When the program designs a composite beam. INC. These conditions are described in the next two sections. and the number of shear studs required in each composite beam segment must be less than or equal to the maximum number of shear studs that can fit in the composite beam segment. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 14 Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment General Composite beam segments are defined in "Composite Beam Segments" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. Tip: It is very important that you understand how the program defines composite beam segments. a composite beam segment spans between any of the following: (1) physical end of the beam top flange.. For a beam section to be adequate in the program Composite Beam Design postprocessor. it reports the required number of uniformly spaced shear studs in each composite beam segment. General Technical Note 14 .1 . In short. BERKELEY.

The clearance requirement means that the minimum clear distance from the face of a shear stud to the edge of the beam flange is equal to one-half of a shear stud diameter. the number of shear studs is limited by the width or thickness of the beam flange (item 1a below). When checking the number of shear studs that fit across the width of the beam flange. When there is a solid slab (no metal deck). Following is a description of each of these limits: a. by the width of the deck ribs. the program clearance is slightly more than one-half of a shear Technical Note 14 . Note: The number of shear studs that can fit in a row across the beam top flange may be limited by the width of the beam top flange.Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span When there is a solid slab with no metal deck. For shear studs less than 1" in diameter (typically they are 3/4" in diameter). or by the "Max Studs per Row" item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. the width of the metal deck rib (item 1b below).2 Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span . 1. ds is the diameter of the shear stud. whichever is larger. or by the Max Studs per Row item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. When the deck spans parallel to the beam. See "Composite Beam Segments" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for a definition of a composite beam segment. to the edge of the beam flange. or by the "Max Studs per Row" item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. The program determines the number of shear studs that can fit in a single row across the width of the top flange of the beam. the program uses the following process to determine the number of shear studs that can be placed within a composite beam segment. ≥ ds & ≥ 1" In the preceding paragraph and the sketch (above right). the program assumes that the studs are centered about the centerline (web) of the beam and that the center of a shear stud can be no closer than ds or 1 inch. This is illustrated in the sketch to the right. the number of shear studs may be limited by the width or thickness of the beam flange (item 1a below). or when there is metal deck and the metal deck ribs are assumed to be oriented parallel to the beam span.

determined in item 2.3 hr . The program multiplies the maximum number of shear studs in a single row. The default value for this shear stud spacing is 4ds. ds is the diameter of the shear stud and hr is the height of the metal deck ribs.Composite Beam Design Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment stud diameter. This is illustrated in the sketch to the right. to calculate the maximum number of studs that can fit in the composite beam segment. Spacing” item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam design overwrites. b. the program does not use a number of studs larger than the “Max Studs per Row” item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam design overwrites. Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span Technical Note 14 . The dimension ds + hr/4 is derived by assuming that the slope of the sides of the metal deck ribs is 2 to 1 and that the clear distance from the face of the shear stud to the point where the edge of the deck rib starts to rise is equal to one-half of a shear stud diameter. ≥ (ds + hr/4) wr ≥ (ds + hr/4) In the preceding paragraph and the sketch. the program assumes that the studs and deck rib are centered about the centerline (web) of the beam and that the center of a shear stud can be no closer than ds + hr/4 to the edge of the beam flange. 3. When checking the number of shear studs that fit within a metal deck rib. This number of rows is controlled by the “Min Long Spacing” item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam design overwrites. determined in item 1. This clear distance is provided by the program to allow for adequate welding of the shear stud. The spacing between the shear studs is the “Min Tran. The wr dimension in the sketch is the average width of the deck ribs. The program determines the number of rows of shear studs that can fit between the two considered points on the beam top flange. Regardless of the number of studs calculated to fit across the width of the beam flange in items 1a or 1b above. by the number of rows of studs that can fit in a composite beam segment. This clear distance is provided by the program to allow for adequate welding of the shear stud. 2.

= Minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam top flange as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. in. The items specified are separated by commas. unitless. bf-top wr hr MTS = Width of beam top flange. in. in. The term "Int" in the flowchart means to calculate the indicated quantity and round the result down to the nearest integer. SPRmax = Maximum number of shear studs that can fit in one row across the top flange of a composite beam. = Average width of metal deck rib. unitless.Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Tip: Composite Beam Design Modify the default minimum transverse and longitudinal shear stud spacing using the composite beam overwrites. in. Temp = Temporary variable equal to the minimum of the 2 or 3 items specified in the parenthesis. in. = Diameter of a shear stud connector. The definitions of the variables used in the flowchart are: tf-top ds = Thickness of beam top flange.4 Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span . MSPR = Maximum shear studs per row across the beam top flange as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. in. Figure 1 is a flowchart that illustrates the details of how the program calculates the maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment when there is a solid slab or when the span of the metal deck is parallel to the beam span. in. Technical Note 14 . = Height of the metal deck rib.

unitless. no metal deck)? No Yes Temp = Minimum of (bf-top -2ds. LCBS MLS = Length of a composite beam segment. bf-top -2)  Temp  + 1 ≤ MSPR SPR max = Int    MTS − MLS  L L  + 1 = Int  CBS  RSmax = Int  CBS MLS    MLS  NSmax = SPRmax * RSmax Figure 1: Flowchart of the Method Used to Determine Maximum Number of Shear Studs that Can Fit within a Composite Beam Segment When There is a Solid Slab or the Metal Deck Ribs Are Oriented Parallel to the Beam Span The term "Int" in the flowchart means to calculate the indicated quantity and round the result down to the nearest integer. the studs located closest to the ends of the composite beam segment are located no closer than MLS/2 to the ends of the composite beam segment.2ds .e. This helps prevent possible double-counting of shear studs in adjacent composite beam segments. Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span Technical Note 14 . in. wr .Composite Beam Design Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Start Here Is t f − top < No ds ? 2.5 . bf-top -2) Temp = Minimum of (bf-top -2ds. in. RSmax = Maximum number of rows of shear studs that can fit in a composite beam segment. unitless. = Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. NSmax = Maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment..5hr.0.5 Yes SPRmax = 1 Is this a solid slab (i. Note that in the flowchart formulation.

The program determines the number of shear studs that can fit in a single row across the width of the top flange of the beam. Technical Note 14 . To have more than one row of shear studs in a single deck rib.6 Deck Ribs Oriented Perpendicular to Beam Span . ≥ ds & ≥ 1" In the preceding paragraph and the sketch. The process used to determine the number of shear studs that can fit in a composite beam segment when the metal deck is assumed to span perpendicular to the beam span is described as follows. This is illustrated in the sketch to the right. whichever is larger. For a typical case with 3/4" diameter shear studs and an average width of the deck rib equal to 6 inches. The clearance requirement means that the minimum clear distance from the face of a shear stud to the edge of the beam flange is equal to one-half of a shear stud diameter. ds is the diameter of the shear stud. the program clearance is slightly more than one-half of a shear stud diameter. the program limits the number of rows of shear studs across the width of the beam flange in each metal deck rib to one. This clear distance is provided by the program to allow for adequate welding of the shear stud. This number of shear studs is limited by either the width or thickness of the beam flange. For shear studs less than 1" in diameter (typically they are 3/4" in diameter). to the edge of the beam flange. 1. specify a user-defined shear connector pattern for the beam. or by the "Max Studs per Row" item specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. it is difficult to fit more than one row of shear studs in a deck rib and still have adequate edge clearances.Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design Deck Ribs Oriented Perpendicular to Beam Span When the deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam span. When checking the number of shear studs that fit across the width of the beam flange. the program assumes that the studs are centered about the centerline (web) of the beam and that the center of a shear stud can be no closer than either ds or 1 inch.

which are described as follows: a. In other words. This means that only one stud can fit across the width of the beam flange if tf < ds/2. ≥ 0.wr wr Midheight of metal deck rib is assumed to align with one end of the composite beam segment as shown. 2. one end of the composite beam segment is always assumed to start with an "up" flute. The program checks the top flange thickness for this requirement when determining the number of studs that fit across the width of the beam flange. Some codes require that if the thickness of the beam flange is less than the diameter of the stud divided by 2.5. The program determines how many deck ribs are available to receive shear studs within the length of the composite beam segment.5.Composite Beam Design Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Length of composite beam segment Sr Sr .7 . the shear studs can only be placed directly over the beam web. the program makes several assumptions. To determine this.5 wr for shear stud to be assumed to fit in the down flute Figure 2: Illustration of Some of the ETABS Assumptions Used to Determine the Number of Available Deck Ribs Note: If the diameter of the shear studs exceeds 2. b.5 times the thickness of the beam top flange. as shown in Figure 2. If one-half or more of the width of a metal deck rib down flute is within the length of the composite beam segment. the program assumes that Deck Ribs Oriented Perpendicular to Beam Span Technical Note 14 . the shear studs must be located on top of the beam web. The midheight of a side of the metal deck rib is assumed to align with one end of the composite beam segment.

the program determines the maximum number of shear studs that fits in the composite beam segment for each of the two deck types/orientations. Figure 3 is a flowchart that illustrates the details of how the program calculates the maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment when the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the beam span. unitless. with the following additions: Sr NR = Center-to-center spacing of metal deck ribs. c. determined as described in item 1. The minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites is assumed to apply when the deck ribs run perpendicular to the beam span. This is illustrated in Figure 2. The term "Int" in the flowchart means to calculate the indicated quantity and round the result down to the nearest integer. The definitions of the variables used in the flowchart are the same as those used in the Figure 1 flowchart.8 Different Deck Type or Orientation on Beam Sides . The smaller maximum value obtained is used as the maximum number of shear studs that fit within the composite beam segment. The program multiplies the maximum number of shear studs in a single row across the beam flange. = Available number of metal deck ribs within the composite beam segment that are available to receive shear studs. Different Deck Type or Orientation on Beam Sides When a different type or orientation of the metal deck exists on the two sides of the beam. in. to calculate the maximum number of studs that can fit in the composite beam segment. this could cause deck ribs that are within the length of the composite beam segment to be unavailable to receive shear studs. 3.Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design the deck rib is available to receive shear studs. determined as described in item 2. by the number of deck ribs within the length of the composite beam segment that are available to receive shear studs. Technical Note 14 . In some cases.

9 .5 Yes SPRmax = 1 No Is ds ≤ 1" ? Yes No   b f − top − 2d s + 1 ≤ MSPR SPR max = Int    MTS    b f − top − 2   SPR max = Int   MTS + 1 ≤ MSPR       L  − Sr + 0.5w r + 1 NR = Int  CBS  MLS   Int    S + 1 Sr     r    NSmax = SPRmax * NR Figure 3: Flowchart of the Method to Determine the Maximum Number of Shear Studs that Can Fit Within a Composite Beam Segment When the Metal Deck Ribs Are Oriented Perpendicular to the Beam Span The term "Int" in the flowchart means to calculate the indicated quantity and round the result down to the nearest integer.Composite Beam Design Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Start Here Is t f − top < ds ? 2. Different Deck Type or Orientation on Beam Sides Technical Note 14 .

.

See AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 18 Overwrites or AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 31 Overwrites for more information. or to specify a starting and ending point for a beam section and the number of studs that are uniformly spaced within the beam section. Use one of these options or use the two options together to define the studs on a beam.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. They are two entirely different items. INC. Do not confuse composite beam sections and composite beam segments. Tip: You can use user-defined shear connector patterns to specify shear connectors in existing construction. defined by a starting and ending location over which you specify a certain number of uniformly spaced shear studs.1 . Composite beam segments are described in "Composite Beam Segments" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. Specifying a User-Defined Shear Connector Pattern User-defined shear connector patterns are specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. Specifying a User-Defined Shear Connector Pattern Technical Note 15 . BERKELEY. The composite beam overwrites option enable you to specify a uniform spacing of shear studs located on top of the beam web and centered along the length of the beam top flange.. for example. one shear stud per foot of beam length. This can be useful if you are checking an existing building or if there is a certain shear stud pattern that you want. Beam sections are simply an arbitrary length of the beam. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns This Technical Note explains how to specify the shear stud pattern yourself rather than having the program determine the distribution of shear studs for you. Important note: The term beam section is purposely used here to differentiate it from a composite beam segment.

1 Technical Note 15 . These shear studs are specified by inputting the spacing for the Uniform Spacing item on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites.2 Uniformly Spaced Shear Studs Over the Length of the Beam . The 6inch spacing gives you the closest equivalent to two studs every 12 inches. and the term "Specified Spacing" is the spacing input in the composite beam overwrites for the Uniform Spacing item. as shown in Equation 1.   TFL . 2. this is shorter than the center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. In Equation 1 the term "Int" means to calculate the indicated quantity and round the result down to the nearest integer. There is assumed to be one shear stud per row. In most cases. the program treats the shear studs as if they were all in a single line along the beam web and disregards any checks for minimum longitudinal spacing requirements.MLS TFL . Figure 1 illustrates uniformly spaced user-defined shear studs over the length of the beam. To use this option to specify 2 studs every 12 inches.User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Composite Beam Design The following two sections describe the two methods of specifying userdefined shear studs. 3. Uniformly Spaced Shear Studs Over the Length of the Beam When you specify uniformly spaced user-defined shear studs over the length of the beam.Int   Specified Spacing  * Specified Spacing    ED = 2 Eqn. specify a spacing of 6 inches. Tip: Modify the default minimum longitudinal shear stud spacing in the composite beam overwrites. The program determines the exact distance from the end of the beam top flange (or end of the concrete slab) to the first shear stud. The shear studs are assumed to occur over the length of the top flange of the beam. Note the following about these shear studs: 1.

This length is typically determined by subtracting the support distance and the gap distance at each end of the beam from the center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. Uniformly Spaced Shear Studs Over the Length of the Beam Technical Note 15 . in.Composite Beam Design User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Greater than or equal to MLS / 2 and less than onehalf the specified uniform shear connector spacing plus MLS / 2 Shear studs are centered along the length of the beam top flange Specified uniform shear connector spacing Elevation End distance is the same at each end Shear studs at specified uniform spacing centered along length of beam top flange End distance is the same at each end Plan View of Top Flange Figure 1: Uniformly Spaced User-Defined Shear Connectors Over the Length of the Beam Specified Using the Uniform Spacing Item on the Shear Studs Tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites where.3 . MLS = Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. TFL = The length of the beam top flange available to receive shear studs. in. in. you may subtract an additional distance if the slab does not exist over some portion of the beam. as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. ED = Distance from the end of the beam top flange (or end of the concrete slab) to the first shear stud. In special cases.

The studs at the ends of the beam are also assumed to be no farther than (MLS + Specified Spacing)/2 from the end of the beam top flange. the studs at the ends of the beam are assumed to be no closer than MLS/2 from the end of the beam top flange. Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam When you specify the starting and ending points of a beam section and the number of uniformly spaced shear studs in the section. the program knows the exact location of each uniformly spaced shear stud along the length of the beam. Distances can be specified as absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. specify a second (longer) distance along the beam that locates the ending point of the beam section. and then specify the total number of uniformly spaced shear studs that fall within the specified beam section. Defining Additional Beam Sections To define your own additional beam sections for specifying shear studs. both measured from the I-end of the beam. Technical Note 15 . the distance from the studs at the ends of the beam to the end of the beam top flange is assumed to be the same at each end of the beam. Finally.4 Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam . if the concrete slab stops before the end of the beam.User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Composite Beam Design After the shear studs at the end of the beam top flange (or end of the concrete slab) have been located using Equation 1. simply specify a distance along the beam that locates the starting point of the beam section. In Equation 1. Similar to the preceding. the program treats the shear connectors as if they were all in a single line and disregards any checks for minimum longitudinal spacing requirements. A relative distance to a point is the absolute distance to that point divided by the length of the beam measured from the center-of.support to center-of-support. the first shear stud at that end of the beam is assumed to occur at a distance not less than MLS/2 from the end of the slab and not more than (MLS + the specified uniform spacing)/2 from the end of the slab.

Check the box next to "No. b. See the section entitled "Specifying a User-Defined Shear Connector Pattern" earlier in this Technical Note for more information. input distances from end-I in the Start and End boxes and input a total number of uni- Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam Technical Note 15 . In the Define Additional Beam Sections area. 3. then click in the cell to the right and select Yes from the drop-down box. The Additional Sections form appears. Use the following procedure in the composite beam overwrites on the Shear Studs tab (display using Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command) to define shear studs in additional beam sections: 1. Additional Sections" and then click in the cell to the right. Indicate whether the specified distances will be relative or absolute from the I-end of the beam by selecting the appropriate option near the bottom of the form.Composite Beam Design User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Beam section length = 110" 5" 10 spaces @ 10" = 100" 5" Left end of beam section Right end of beam section Figure 2: Assumed Spacing of User-Defined Shear Studs Tip: Do not confuse beam sections with composite beam segments.5 . Check the box next to the "User Pattern?" overwrite item. 2. In this form: a.

Click the Delete button to delete the additional beam section. 7. Note that the highlighted distances and number of studs appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. To delete an existing additional beam section specification. b. Repeat step 3 as many times as required to define additional beam sections. Click the Add button to add the additional beam section. It further assumes that the end shear studs in the beam section are located one-half of the equal space from ends of the specified beam section. 5. Click the Modify button to modify the additional beam section.6 Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam . b.User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Composite Beam Design formly spaced studs in the No. c. Additional Sections item is automatically updated by the program to reflect the beam sections modifications that you specified. 6. These assumptions mean that the spacing of shear studs in a beam sec- Technical Note 15 . Note that the highlighted distances and number of studs appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. 4. do the following: a. To modify an existing additional beam section specification. Note that the No. Highlight the item to be modified in the Define Additional Beam Sections area. Highlight the item to be deleted in the Define Additional Beam Sections area. Studs box. Click the OK button and you return to the Composite Beam Overwrites form. do the following: a. c. The distance in the End box must be larger than that in the Start box. Modify the distances and number of studs in the edit boxes as desired. Note the following about the shear studs specified for additional beam sections: The program assumes that the specified shear studs occur in a single line along the beam web within the specified length of the beam section.

that is 10"/2 = 5". Thus. from each end of the beam section. The spacing of shear studs in the beam section is equal to the beam section length divided by the number of studs. See Figure 2 for an example. This can often happen because. that is. as described “Physical End of the Beam Top Flange” of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. See Figure 3 for an illustration. The end studs are located one-half of a space. In this case. Assume you specify a beam section at the end of a beam and the beam top flange does not exist over a portion of that beam section length. from each end of the beam top flange within the beam section. As previously mentioned. The end studs are located one-half of a space. The end of the beam top flange starts 10 inches from the specified left end of the beam section. 110"/11 studs = 10"/stud. that is. the program subtracts a support distance and a gap distance from the end of the beam when computing the length of the beam top flange. The figure shows a beam section at the end of the beam that is 120 inches long. the spacing of shear studs in a beam section is equal to the length of the beam top flange available to receive shear studs in the beam section divided by the specified number of shear studs. 110"/11 studs = 10"/stud. In that case.Composite Beam Design User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns tion is equal to the length of the beam top flange available to receive shear studs in the beam section divided by the specified number of shear studs.7 . Assume that 11 shear studs have been specified for this beam section. Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam Technical Note 15 . the actual length of top flange available for shear studs is 110 inches. Note: The program does not check shear stud spacing requirements for user-defined shear stud patterns. The figure shows a beam section that is 110 inches long. 10"/2 = 5". the program places all of the specified shear studs on the portion of the top flange that does exist. Assume that 11 shear studs have been specified for this beam section.

the program ignores the shear studs that are specified for that beam section. To specify the actual shear connector layout shown in Figure 4a. Table 1: Specification of Beam Sections in the Example Shown in Figure 4 Beam Section 1 2 3 Starting Point 0' 3. Table 1 shows how each of the three beam sections should be specified. Example of a User-Defined Shear Stud Pattern Refer to the example shown in Figure 4.8 Additional Shear Studs in Specified Sections of Beam .5' Ending Point 3.5' 7.User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns Composite Beam Design Beam section length = 120" 10" Available length of beam top flange = 110" 5" 10 spaces @ 10" = 100" 5" Left end of beam section Figure 3: Right end of beam section Example Showing No Beam Top Flange Over a Portion of the Specified Beam Section Length If the beam top flange does not exist over the entire length of the specified beam section. you specify three beam sections.5' 11' Number of Studs 6 4 6 Technical Note 15 .5' 7.

5' 0.5' 5 spaces @ 0.8' b) Program Assumed Shear Connector Layout 3.5' 3 spaces @ 1. The program then calculates the beam section properties for this PCC and derives a flexural stress ratio (actual stress divided by allowable stress).225' 0. For flexural design with user-defined shear studs.” How the Program Checks a Beam with User-Defined Shear Studs When you define the number and location of shear studs on a beam.225' 0.5' 6 shear studs 0. The location and spacing of shear studs is as described in the bulleted items in the previous subsection entitled “Defining Additional Beam Sections.8' a) Actual Shear Connector Layout Figure 4: Example of a User-Defined shear Stud Pattern Figure 4b illustrates how the program interprets the stud pattern as specified in Table 1. the program calculates the percent composite connection (PCC) at each design output station based on your specified shear stud layout.225' 0. How the Program Checks a Beam with User-Defined Shear Studs Technical Note 15 . the program performs flexural design somewhat differently from how it is described elsewhere in this manual.00' 0.45' 0.225' 0.8' 6 shear studs 4' 4 shear studs 3.45' 0.8' 5 spaces @ 0.Composite Beam Design User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns 0.9 .

.

calculation. see Composite Beam Design AICS-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia.. see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. or analysis procedures in accordance with AISC-LRFD93 requirements: Checks the width-to-thickness ratios of the beam flanges and web. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combinations for more information. Calculates the transformed moment of inertia for a composite section. Table B5. INC.1 . The various notations used in this series are listed herein. Calculates elastic stresses for positive bending in the steel section and the concrete slab when there is partial composite connection. General and Notation Technical Note 16 . BERKELEY.1. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. see Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 19 Width to Thickness Checks. The design is based on loading combinations specified by the user. and. The program also performs the following check. Itr. To facilitate the design process. the cover plate as specified for compact and noncompact sections in AISC-ASD89 Specification Chapter B. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 16 General and Notation Introduction to the AISC-ASD89 Series of Technical Notes The AISC-ASD89 Composite Beam Design series of Technical Notes describes in detail the various aspects of the composite beam design procedure that is used by the program when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 Design Code. if it exists.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

see Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 26 Calculations for Number of Shear Studs . When the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. This area does not include any contribution from the concrete slab. see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks. Notation Abare Area of steel beam (plus cover plate if one exists). Area of the concrete slab. this is the area of concrete in the slab above the metal deck that is above the elastic Ac Technical Note 16 .General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Determines the allowable bending stresses using the AISC-ASD89 specification for composite beams.2 General and Notation . see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. including three example problems. Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment Composite Beam Design. Defines the program fault allowable shear stud horizontal loads for AISCASD89 composite beam design and provides basic equations used to determine the number of shear studs on the beam. The program also provides input and output data summaries. Also see Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear. Checks the bending stress for AISC-ASD89 design for cases with and without composite action. and Technical Note 15 UserDefined Shear Stud Patterns Composite Beam Design for more information about shear stud distribution. in2. Check the beam and reaction for shear for AISC-ASD89 composite beam design. see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs. which are described in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 27 Input Data and Technical Note 28 Output Details Composite Beam Design AISCLRFD93. in2. Determines the placement of shear studs on a composite beam.

Af Agt Ans As Asb Asc Atr Cb Cbot Cope depth at bottom of beam. Net area along the shear plane of a bolted connection. in2.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation neutral axis (ENA) of the fully composite beam. It is used in the shear calculations. in. Cross-sectional area of a shear stud. in2 Initial displacement amplitude of a single beam resulting from a heel drop impact. this is the area of concrete in the slab. When the deck span is parallel to the beam span. Ctop General and Notation Technical Note 16 . Aelement Area of an element in the composite section. in2. Area of an element of the composite beam section. even if it exists). This item is internally calculated by the program and it may be different at each end of the beam. in. in2. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. even it one exists). It is used in the shear calculations. in2. This item is internally calculated by the program and it may be different at each end of the beam. ignoring any area of concrete that is in tension and ignoring any concrete in the metal deck ribs when the metal deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. Area of compression flange (not including the cover plate. including the concrete in the metal deck ribs. that is above the ENA of the fully composite beam. in. dependent on moment gradient.3 . in2 Gross area along the tension plane of a bolted connection. Bending coefficient unitless. Cope depth at top of beam. in2. Area of rolled steel section alone (without the cover plate.

DL Ec Es ENA Fb Fb-bbf Modulus of elasticity of steel. ksi Minimum specified tensile strength of the steel beam and the shear studs.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 D Damping ratio. percent critical damping inherent in the floor system. The program always takes this distance as 1/2 inch. This item is used in checking the Murray damping requirement. unitless. ksi Acronym for elastic neutral axis Allowable bending stress in steel beam.4 General and Notation . Modulus of elasticity of concrete slab. Also note that this may be different for stress calculations and deflection calculations. ksi Minimum specified yield stress of structural steel. in. Length of shear stud connector after welding. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. ksi. For stress calculations in AISCASD89 design Ec is always based on Equation 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia using the f c' value specified in the material properties for the concrete and assuming that the concrete weighs 150 pcf regardless of its actual unit weight. Gap distance between face of support and end of top flange of steel beam. ksi Allowable shear stress in steel beam.2 of the AISC-ASD89 Specification. This is consistent with Section I2. ksi Allowable bending stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. ksi Minimum specified yield stress of cover plate. Fu Fv Fy Fycp G Hs Technical Note 16 . in. ksi. Acronym for deal load.

Ieff I0 Is Itr Kf L Lc LCBS General and Notation Technical Note 16 . Effective moment of inertia for a beam about the ENA of a composite beam with partial composite connection. even if it exists). Limiting unbraced length for determining allowable bending stress. Moment of inertia of an element of a steel beam section taken about its own ENA. in. Length of a composite beam segment. in4. in which case Kf is 0. A unitless coefficient typically equal to 1. in. or the beam is a cantilever that is fully fixed at one end and free at the other end. in4.5 . Center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. A composite beam segment spans between any of the following: (1) physical end of the beam top flange. in. in4. (3) physical end of concrete slab. in which case. if it exists). Kf is as defined in Figure 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration. in4. Moment of inertia of the steel beam along (not including cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation Ibare Moment of inertia for a steel beam (plus cover plate. Figure 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam illustrates some typical cases for LCBS.57 unless the beam is the overhanging portion of a cantilever with a backspan. in4. (2) another beam framing into the beam being considered. Transformed section moment of inertia about ENA of a composite beam with full (100%) composite connection.56.

kip-in. or physical end of the concrete slab. in. measured toward the left end (I-end) of the beam. in. measured toward the right end (J-end) of the beam. This is used when the program calculates the Cb factor. Maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. kip-in.6 General and Notation . Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. Smaller bending moment at the end of the unbraced beam span. Moment due to dead load. This is used when the program calculates the Cb factor. or physical end of the concrete slab. Moment at the output station considered for the design load combination. in. kip-in. kip-in. Moment due to all loads except dead load. Distance from an output station to an adjacent point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. Maximum moment at any output station for a given design load combination. This item is specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 L1left Distance from an output station to an adjacent point of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. L1right LL M MAll Other MDL Mmax station Mstation M1 M2 MaxLS MLS Technical Note 16 . This item is specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. kip-in. in. Moment. Acronym for live load. kip-in. Larger bending moment at the end of an unbraced beam span. kip-in.

unitless.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation MSCBS Minimum required number of shear studs in a composite beam segment. in which case the program uses 3. Number of shear connectors required between the point of maximum positive moment and adjacent points of zero moment for the design load combination.7 . Number of shear connectors required between a point load and the nearest point of zero moment for the design load combination. or Equation 9 of Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs. unitless. unitless. The program uses whatever value is specified for the Max Studs per Row item on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites for Nr. Number of shear stud connectors in one metal deck rib. Equation 7. unitless. MSPR MTS N NCBS Neff Nr N1 N2 General and Notation Technical Note 16 . unitless. The number of shear studs required between an output station and adjacent points of zero moment or physical end of the beam top flange. unitless. Maximum shear studs per row across the beam top flange as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. unitless. unless that value exceeds 3. This number is based on Equation 6. This item is used in the vibration calculations. unitless. The effective number of beams resisting a heel drop impact. but not more than 3 in the calculations even if more than 3 studs exist in the rib. in. or physical end of the concrete slab. Minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam top flange as specified on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites. The number of uniformly distributed shear studs that the program requires for a composite beam segment.

Reduction factor for the allowable horizontal load for a shear stud based on the metal deck and shear stud geometry. in3. Heel drop force. unitless. unitless. unitless. Maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment.8 General and Notation . Section modulus of the steel beam alone (plus cover plate. if it exists). Effective section modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate. Percent composite connection. in3. The reduced live load factor for an element. This force is taken as 600 pounds converted to the appropriate units. kips. NSmax PO PCC RF RLL RLLF RSmax S Sbare Seff Technical Note 16 . unitless. Support distance. if it exists) referred to the extreme tension fiber.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 NR Number of metal deck ribs within a composite beam segment that are available to receive shear studs when the metal deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span. unitless. This is the assumed distance from the center of the support to the face of the support used to calculate the available length of the beam top flange. Maximum number of rows of shear studs that can fit in a composite beam segment when there is a solid slab or when the metal deck span is oriented parallel to the beam span. Acronym for reduced live load. unitless. The RLLF is multiplied times the unreduced live load to get the reduced live load.

in. This item may be different on the left and the right sides of the beam. if it exists). Acronym for superimposed dead load.9 . Total horizontal shear to be resisted by shear studs between the point of maximum moment and points of zero moment for partial composite connection. kips. Shear force. in3.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation Sr Center-to-center spacing of metal deck ribs. Referring to Figure 1 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. Str is calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. in3. kips. Section modulus of the steel beam alone (not including cover plate even if it exists). The section modulus for the partial composite section referred to the top of the effective transformed section. Allowable beam shear (end reaction). kips. in3. Maximum number of shear studs that can fit in one row across the top flange of a composite beam. Ss St-eff Str SDL SPRmax V Vall Vh V'h General and Notation Technical Note 16 . This item may be different on the left and the right sides of the beam. unitless. Total horizontal shear to be resisted by shear studs between the point of maximum moment and points of zero moment for full (100%) composite connection. kips. Section modulus for the fully (100%) composite transformed section referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section (including cover plate.

when there is partial composite connection. in. in. Whichever is smaller of the distance from the top of the metal deck to the ENA or the height of the metal deck. tc. in. This is calculated by the program as the sum of all of the dead load and superimposed dead load supported by the beam plus a percentage of all of the live load and reducible live load supported by the beam. The percentage of live load is specified in the composite beam preferences. This item may be different on the left and the right sides of the beam. Effective width of concrete flange of composite beam. kips. This item applies when there is metal deck (not a solid slab) and the ENA falls below the top of the metal deck. Width of flange of a rolled steel beam. The percentage is intended to estimate the sustained portion of the live load (about 10% to 25% of the total design live load). in. transformed to an equivalent width of steel (that is.10 General and Notation . Whichever is smaller of the distance from the top of the concrete slab to the ENA or the thickness of the concrete above the metal deck (or the thickness of a solid slab). hr. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in. Effective width of concrete flange of composite beam. a3 a4 b bcp beff beff par bf Technical Note 16 . This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. multiplied by Ec / Es). Width of cover plate. This item may be different on the left and the right sides of the beam. in.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 W Total load supported by the beam that is considered when calculating the first natural frequency of the beam. in. Width.

in. Distance from the ENA of the element considered to the ENA of the steel beam alone (including cover plate if it exists). The maximum tensile stress at the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam.11 . The maximum concrete compressive stress. ksi. if it exists). Average depth of concrete slab. Depth of steel beam from the top of the beam top flange to the bottom of the beam bottom flange. b2 d davg delement ds f fb fbot-bm fbot-st fc ftop-st General and Notation Technical Note 16 . The maximum tensile stress at the bottom of the steel section (including cover plate. First natural frequency of the beam in cycles per second. Diameter of a shear stud. in. in. The maximum stress at the top of the steel beam (may be tension or compression depending on the location of the ENA). Projection of the cover plate beyond the edge of the beam bottom flange. including the concrete in the metal deck ribs. Width of steel beam top flange. Signs are considered for this distance. in. in. See Figure 1 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 19 Width to Thickness Checks. ksi. ksi. ksi. in. Bending stress. Elements located below the ENA of the steel beam alone (including cover plate if it exists) have a negative distance and those above have a positive distance. ksi. in. Smaller of the width of the beam bottom flange and the width of the cover plate. in.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation bf-bot bf-top b1 Width of steel beam bottom flange.

h * = hr. The distance from the center of a bolt hole to the end of the beam web. in. Clear distance between flanges less the fillet of corner radius for rolled shapes and clear distance between flanges for other shapes.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 fv f'c g h Shear stress. that is in compression) used for calculating the transformed section properties. Laterally unbraced length of the compression flange.5 inches as shown in Figure 2 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks. h * = 0. one of the following three items applies: 1. r hr h* r kc Unitless factor used in AISC-ASD89 specification Equation F1-4. in/seconds2. l lh Technical Note 16 . h * equals the r height of the metal deck above the ENA. The program assumes this distance to be 1. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Acceleration of gravity. 2. ksi.. ksi. 3. Height of the metal deck ribs above the elastic neutral axis (i. r If the deck ribs are oriented parallel to the beam span. h * = 0. in. r If the ENA is within the metal deck. If the ENA is below the metal deck.12 General and Notation . Height of metal deck rib. Specified compressive strength of concrete.e. in. in. If the deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam span. in. If the ENA is above the metal deck.

kips. If there is a solid slab. If the ENA is within the concrete slab. this is the thickness of that slab.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation lv The distance from the center of the top bolt hole to the top edge of the beam web (at the cope). in.. in.5 inches as shown in Figure 2 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks.e. The program assumes this distance to be 1. is ignored by the program when calculating r T. t * equals c the height of the concrete slab above the ENA. Height of the concrete slab above the metal deck (or solid slab) that lies above the elastic neutral axis (i. t * = tc. in. in. is in compression) that is used for calculating the transformed section properties. Allowable shear load for one shear stud. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in. Thickness of concrete slab.13 . c 2. this is the thickness of the concrete slab above the metal deck. unitless. The cover plate. Thickness. if it exists. One of the following three items applies: 1. Beam spacing. n q rT sb t tc t* c General and Notation Technical Note 16 . Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus one-third of the compression web area taken about an axis in the plane of the web. If there is metal deck. The number of bolts as determined from Table 1 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. If the ENA is below the top of the metal deck (bottom of the concrete slab). in.

in. in. Average width of the metal deck ribs. in. The distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of a partially composite beam. in. if it exists) alone to the ENA of the fully composite beam. kips/in3. tcp tf tf-bot tf-top tO If the ENA is above the concrete slab. Thickness of steel beam flange. Thickness of steel beam web. in. seconds. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel section to the ENA elastic neutral axis of the steel beam (plus cover plate. in. Weight per unit volume of steel. Thickness of steel beam bottom flange. Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the ENA of the fully composite beam. Weight per unit volume of concrete.14 General and Notation . Thickness of steel beam top flange. if it exists). tw wc wd wr ws y ybare ye yeff Technical Note 16 . in. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. t * = 0 c Thickness of cover plate. in. in. Weight per unit area of metal deck. in. ksi. kips/in3. Time to the maximum initial displacement of a single beam due to a heel drop impact. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. The distance from the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 3.

if it exists). Distance from the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate. in2. Unitless factor used in calculating the number of shear studs between a point load and a point of zero moment equal to Str/Sbare for full composite connection and Seff/Sbare for partial composite connection. in4. Sum of the product Atr times y12 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. in2.15 . in3. if it exists) alone to the top of the concrete slab. Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the steel beam section (including the cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 General and Notation y1 Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the centroid of an element of the beam section. Sum of the moments of inertia of each element of the beam section taken about the center of gravity of the element. in. z ΣA ΣAtr Σ(Ay1) Σ(Atry1) Σ(Ay12) Σ(Atry12) ΣIO β General and Notation Technical Note 16 . Sum of the product Atr times y1 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. in3. in4. Sum of the product A times y1 for all of the elements of the steel beam section (including the cover plate. if it exists). Sum of the product A times y12 for all of the elements of the steel beam section (including the cover plate. in4. in. Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. Note that this distance may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. if it exists).

.

Thus. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 17 Preferences General The composite beam design preferences are basic assignments that apply to all composite beams.1 . Vibration. review and.. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. Note: Default values are provided for all preference items. INC. Click on the desired tab: Factors. change the specified design code in the drop-down box near the bottom of the form. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the composite beam design preferences. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. Deflection. You should. The preference options included under each of the tabs are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. BERKELEY. Default values are provided for all composite beam design preference items. however.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. you do not need to specify any of the composite beam preferences. The Composite Beam Design Preferences form has five separate tabs: Factors. To change a preference item. Thus. if you are happy with the defaults. Beam. if necessary. select the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. The first time you enter the Preferences form. Vibration or Price. Beam. Deflection. and Price. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. This activates a drop-down box or General Technical Note 17 . The Preferences form will display. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences.

edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in default values. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. click on that tab to view it and then click the Reset Tab button. The composite beam preference values that were in a . a short description of that item displays in the large text box just below the list of items. The preference value will update accordingly. To set all of the composite beam preference items on a particular tab to their default values.Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 highlights the current preference value. select a new value. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. not to the values that were in the . This button immediately resets all of the composite beam preference items. Technical Note 17 . If the drop-down box appears. This button resets the preference values on the currently selected tab. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. To set all of the composite beam preference items on all tabs to their default values. type in the desired value. the preference items are presented in tables. Clicking a reset button resets the preference values to built-in values. Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note.edb file used to initialize the model.2 Preferences . This description helps you remember the purpose of each preference item without referring to the documentation. If the cell is highlighted. click the OK button to close the form. The column headings in these tables are described as follows: Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. click the Reset All button. When the preference item is clicked in either column. Important note about resetting preferences: The defaults for the preference items are built into the program. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form.

Factors Tab For AISC-ASD89 design there are no items on the Factors tab. expressed as a percentage of the total beam length. This item only applies to design optimization. Thus. Description: A description of the associated preference item. it will appear blank. Length in the middle of the beam over which the program checks the effective width on each side of the beam.95 The Shored item affects both the deflection calculations and the flexural calculations for the beam. Middle Range (%) ≥ 0% 70% Pattern Live Load Factor Stress Ratio Limit ≥0 >0 0.3 .75 0. Beam Tab Table 1 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Beam tab in the Preferences form. The acceptable stress ratio limit. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for a description of beam deflection. Flexural calculations are described in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. if you click this tab. Factor applied to live load for special pattern live load check for cantilever back spans and continuous spans. Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses Factors Tab Technical Note 17 . Table 1: Composite Beam Preferences on the Beam Tab Item Shored? Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle for shored or unshored construction.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Preferences Possible Values: The possible values that the associated preference item can have. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item.

4 Deflection Tab . Deflection Tab Table 2 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Deflection tab in the Preferences form. L/ Camber DL (%) Possible Values >0 Default Value 360 Description Live load deflection limitation denominator (inputting 360 means that the deflection limit is L/360). Table 2: Composite Beam Preferences on the Deflection Tab Item Live Load Limit. If the beam is shored. checks are performed for the construction loading design load combination (see Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combinations ). Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. Percentage of dead load (not including superimposed dead load) on which camber calculations are based. Technical Note 17 . and Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks.Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 with Partial Composite Connection. The Middle Range item is described in "Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab. >0 240 >0 100% See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for a description of beam deflection and camber. Total load deflection limitation denominator (inputting 240 means that the deflection limit is L/240). L/ Total Load Limit. The Pattern Live Load Factor item is described in "Special Live Load Patterning for Cantilever Back Spans" and "Special Live Load Patterning for Continuous Spans" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combination.

Toggle to consider the frequency as one of the criteria to be used for determining if a beam section is acceptable. Table 3: Composite Beam Preferences on the Vibration Tab Item Possible Values Default Value Description Percentage of live load plus reduced live load considered (in addition to full dead load) when computing weight supported by the beam for use in calculating the first natural frequency of the beam. This item is used when the Consider Murray Damping item is set to Yes. Percent Live Load (%) ≥0 25% Consider Frequency? Minimum Frequency Consider Murray Damping? Inherent Damping (%) Yes/No No > 0 Hz 8 Hz Yes/No No > 0% 4% See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration for a description of beam vibration. Vibration Tab Technical Note 17 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Preferences Vibration Tab Table 3 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Vibration tab in the Preferences form. Percentage of critical damping that is inherent in the floor system. Minimum acceptable first natural frequency for a floor beam. This item is used when the Consider Frequency item is set to Yes. Toggle to consider Murray's minimum damping requirement as one of the criteria to be used for determining if a beam section is acceptable.5 .

Installed price for a single shear stud connector. $0 $0 See "Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for additional information on the "Optimize for Price?" item. Table 4: Composite Beam Preferences on the Price Tab Item Optimize for Price? Stud Price ($) Camber Price ($) Possible Values Yes/No ≥0 ≥0 Default Value No Description Toggle to consider price rather than steel weight when selecting the optimum beam section from an auto select section list. and the camber price in the preferences. Technical Note 17 . if applicable) is input as part of the material property specification for the beam.6 Price Tab .S.Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Price Tab Table 4 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Price tab in the Preferences form. The material properties can be reviewed or defined using the Define menu > Material Properties command. Camber price per unit weight of steel beam (including cover plate. Note that the price per unit weight for the steel beam (plus cover plate. Be sure that you use the same currency units (for example. the stud price in the preferences. dollars) for the steel price in the material properties. U. if it exists).

Shear Studs. Deflection. Vibration and Miscellaneous. that is. Thus. INC. When changes are made to overwrite items. Bracing (C). at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. They are Beam. After selecting one or more composite beams. One section is devoted to each of the tabs. Bracing. if you are happy with the defaults. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned.. General The composite beam design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those composite beams to which they are assigned. The Composite Beam Overwrites form has eight separate tabs. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. you do not need to specify any of the composite beam overwrites. Deck. Descriptions of the various overwrite options available on each tab are provided later in this Technical Note.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. it is not required that you specify or change any of the overwrites. However. Thus. use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View\Revise Overwrites command to access the Composite Beam Overwrites form where you can view and revise the composite beam design overwrites. General Technical Note 18 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 18 Overwrites This Technical Note provides instructions on how to use the Composite Beam Overwrites form and describes the items available on each of the tabs in the form. Default values are provided for all composite beam overwrite items. Note: There are default values provided for all overwrite items. BERKELEY.

use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View\Revise Overwrites command to access the Composite Beam Overwrites form. After selecting one or multiple beams. click the OK button to close the form. The left column in the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. The names of the overwrite items in the first column of the spreadsheet are visible. The values of the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet are visible if only one beam was selected before the Composite Beam Overwrites form was accessed. If the drop-down box appears. The right column in the spreadsheet contains the overwrite value. Then left click in either column of the spread sheet to activate a drop-down box or to highlight the contents of the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. You cannot change the values in the drop-down boxes. When changes to the composite beam overwrites have been made. If multiple beams were selected. select a value from the box. This description helps you recall the purpose of the overwrite item without referring to the manual. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. The overwrite will reflect the change. The Composite Beam Overwrites are displayed on each tab with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Using the Composite Beam Overwrites Form After selecting one or more composite beams. Click on the desired tab. Initially. If the cell contents becomes highlighted. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. a short description of the item in that row displays in the large text box just below the list of items. the check boxes are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate they are inactive and that the items in the cells currently cannot be changed. any changes made to the overwrites will be ignored and the form will be closed. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected beam(s).2 Using the Composite Beam Overwrites Form . You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. When you check a check box or left click in one of the columns in the spreadsheet. type in the desired value. Technical Note 18 .

the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Overwrites Technical Note 18 .edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. click the Reset All button. click on the tab and then click the Reset Tab button. not to the values that were in the . This button resets the overwrite values on the tab currently selected. Possible Values: The possible values for the associated overwrite item. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item.edb file used to initialize the model. Important note about resetting overwrites: The defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. When you reset overwrites. Overwrites For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note. the overwrite items are presented in tables. The column headings in these tables are described as follows. To set all of the composite beam overwrite items on all tabs to their default values. This button immediately resets all of the composite beam overwrite items. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Resetting Composite Beam Overwrites to Default Values To set all of the composite beam overwrite items on a particular tab to their default values. you can click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Reset All Composite Beam Overwrites command to accomplish the same thing. The composite beam overwrite values that were in a .3 . Alternatively.

Fy. NC w studs is short for Noncomposite with minimum shear studs. Specifying 0 in the overwrites means that Fy is as specified in the material properties Minimum tensile strength of the beam. Type of beam design.4 Beam Tab . beff right Yield stress of the beam. or NC w/o studs Program calculated or user-defined ≥0 Item Shored? Beam type Default Value No (unshored) Composite Description Toggle for shored or unshored construction. Fu. Table 1: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Beam Tab Possible Values Yes/No Composite. NC w/o studs is short for Noncomposite without shear studs. Toggle specifying how the effective width of the concrete slab on the right side of the beam is determined User-defined effective width of concrete slab on right side of beam.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Beam Tab Table 1 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Beam tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Toggle specifying how the effective width of the concrete slab on the left side of the beam is determined User-defined effective width of concrete slab on left side of beam. Specifying 0 means that Fu is as specified in the material properties b-eff left Condition b-eff left Program calculated Program calculated value Program calculated Program calculated value Specified in Material Properties Specified in Material Properties b-eff right Condition b-eff right Program calculated or user-defined ≥0 Beam Fy ≥0 Beam Fu ≥0 Technical Note 18 . beff left. NC w studs.

Specifying 0 means that Fycp is set to that specified in the beam material properties ≥0 ≥0 >0 0 0 0 The Shored item affects both the deflection calculations and the flexural stress calculations for the beam. The Beam Type overwrite allows you to specify that a beam that would ordinarily be designed as a composite beam be designed as a noncomposite beam. Width of cover plate. If the beam is shored. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for a description of beam deflection. The overwrite does not and cannot force a beam that has been designed as a noncomposite beam because there is no deck section along at least one side to be designed as a composite beam. tcp. a beam that does not have a deck section along at least one side is always designed as a Beam Tab Technical Note 18 .5 . Note: The Middle Range item is specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam preferences and is described in "Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab. When using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. Thickness of cover plate. no checks are performed for the construction loading design load combination. Fycp. bcp. Typically.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 1: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Beam Tab Possible Values Yes/No Item Cover Plate Present? Plate width Plate thickness Plate Fy Default Value No Description Toggle switch indicating if a full length cover plate exists on the bottom of the beam bottom flange. Cover plate yield stress. when a beam is designed using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor that beam is designed as a composite beam if it has a deck section (not slab section) assigned along the full length of the specified Middle Range on at least one side of the beam.

without exceeding the specified maximum longitudinal spacing. the material property associated with the beam section should also be defined. The items on the Bracing tab apply to final condition design load combinations. The material property is defined using the Define menu > Material Properties command. if desired. When the Define menu > Frame Sections command is used to define a beam section. the cover plate can have a yield stress that is different from that of the beam. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for a description of the beam effective width. The items on the Bracing (C) tab apply to construction loading design load combinations. regardless of what is specified in the Beam Type overwrite. These additional items are shown in Tables 2b and 2c. The cover plate width. When a beam is designed as noncomposite with minimum shear studs. The maximum longitudinal spacing can be overwritten on the Shear Studs tab. the beam is designed as a noncomposite beam. In this program.6 Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab . The beam yield stress and the cover plate yield stress both default to the yield stress specified for the material property associated with the beam section. depending on your choice for the Bracing Condition item. Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab The unbraced length overwrite items included on the Bracing (C) tab and the Bracing tab are exactly the same. Additional items may also appear in the tabs. See "Cover Plates" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 7 Composite Beam Properties for a description of cover plates. Technical Note 18 .Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 noncomposite beam. thickness and Fy items are not active unless the "Cover Plate Present" item is set to Yes. The first two items that appear in the Bracing (C) tab and the Bracing tab are shown in Table 2a. Then shear studs are specified for the beam with as large a spacing as possible.

When the Cb factor is program calculated and the Bracing Condition is set in the overwrites to Length Specified.0 for Cb. the programs uses 1. If any moment within the unbraced beam span is greater than M2. the numeric value of Cb is 1. 1 M1 and M2 are the end moments of any unbraced span of the beam. The ratio M1/M2 is positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending within the unbraced beam span.3  1  ≤ 2. bracing specified or length specified Program calculated When the Cb factor is program calculated. M1 is numerically less than M2. M  M  C b = 1. Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab Technical Note 18 . Cb.3 M  M   2  2 where.7 . Bracing Condition Program calculated.0. 2 Eqn. Specifying 0 in the overwrites means that this value is program calculated This item defines how the unbraced lengths are determined for buckling about the beam local 2-axis. The numeric value of Cb is 1. based on userspecified uniform and point bracing.05  1  + 0.75 + 1.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 2a: First Two Composite Beam Overwrite Items on the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab Possible Values ≥0 Default Value Program calculated Item Cb factor Description Unitless factor used in determining allowable bending stress. the program uses Equation 1 to calculate it unless you have specified the Bracing Condition as Length Specified.0 for cantilever overhangs. They are program calculated. or based on a user-specified maximum unbraced length.

The two additional items are shown in Table 2b. Point Braces and No. the program assumes that the concrete fill does not assist in bracing the beam.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 When the Bracing Condition is specified as Program Calculated. Note that the program automatically considers the bracing for construction loading and for the final condition separately. No. two items appear in the tab in addition to those shown in Table 2a. Clicking in this box opens the Uniform Braces form where you specify the uniform braces. Table 2b: Additional Composite Beam Overwrite Items On the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab When the Bracing Condition Is Specified As Bracing Specified Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 0 Item No.8 Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab . Clicking in this box opens the Point Braces form where you specify the point braces. These items are described in "User-Specified Uniform and Point Bracing" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length. two items appear in the tab in addition to those shown in Table 2a. When the Bracing Condition is specified as Length Specified. For the construction loading condition. Uniform Braces items allow you to specify actual bracing for the beam. The number of user-specified uniform braces. Technical Note 18 . When the Bracing Condition is specified as Bracing Specified. Point Braces Description The number of user-specified point brace locations. the program assumes the beam is braced as described in "Determination of the Braced Points of a Beam" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length. The two additional items are shown in Table 2c. Uniform Braces ≥0 0 The No.

the actual maximum unbraced length is specified.9 . inclusive. any defined deck property. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length for additional information about the unbraced length of the beam. Table 3: Composite Beam Overwrites On the Deck Tab Possible Values Program calculated. The relative length specified is always between 0 and 1.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 2c: Additional Composite Beam Overwrite Items On the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab When the Bracing Condition Is Specified As Length Specified Item Absolute Length? Unbraced L22 Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle switch for whether the maximum unbraced length is given as an absolute length or a relative length. or None Default Value Program calculated Item Deck ID Left Description Deck ID assigned to left side of beam. the value specified is equal to the maximum unbraced length divided by the length of the beam. Deck Tab Technical Note 18 . When the maximum unbraced length is specified as a relative length. ≥ 0 and ≤ beam length Length of beam When the maximum unbraced length is specified as an absolute length. Deck Tab Table 3 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Deck tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Maximum unbraced length for buckling about the beam local 2 axis.

any defined deck property. When the Deck ID is program calculated. parallel.10 Shear Studs Tab . do not overlook the important note about deck orientation in "Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 3: Composite Beam Overwrites On the Deck Tab Possible Values Default Value Program calculated Item Deck direction Left Description Span direction of the metal deck ribs on left side of beam relative to the span direction of the beam. Shear Studs Tab Table 4 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Shear Studs tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. If the deck direction is program calculated. or perpendicular Deck ID Right Program calculated. parallel. or None Deck direction Program Right calculated. Table 4: Composite Beam Overwrites On the Shear Studs Tab Item User Pattern? Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle to indicate if a user-defined shear connector pattern is defined. Deck ID assigned to right side of beam. Program calculated. It is not shown in the overwrites. or perpendicular Program calculated Program calculated Span direction of the metal deck ribs on the right side of beam relative to the span direction of beam. you must refer to the output data to see what the program assumed for this item. Technical Note 18 .

e. No. Clicking in this box opens the Additional Sections form where you specify the section length and the number of uniformly spaced connectors in the section..Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 4: Composite Beam Overwrites On the Shear Studs Tab Item Uniform Spacing Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 0. diameters) 3 Maximum number of shear studs in a single row across the beam flange. The program default value for the minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is six shear stud diameters. Program Allowable shear load for a single shear calculated stud. There is one shear stud per row along the beam. indicating there are no uniformly spaced connectors 0. four stud studs across the beam flange. Note that this item is input as an absolute length. Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear 6ds (i. The program default value for the maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is 36 inches. Specifying 0 in the overwrites means that this value is program calculated.11 . The design code used may specify the maximum longitudinal spacing is eight times the total slab thick- Shear Studs Tab Technical Note 18 . See Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks for discussion of user-defined shear stud patterns. Minimum transverse spacing of shear 4ds (i. diameters) 36 inches Maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. Additional Sections ≥0 Min Long Spacing Max Long Spacing Min Tran Spacing Max Studs per Row q >0 >0 >0 >0 Program calculated or >0 Number of sections in which additional uniformly spaced shear studs are specified.. six stud studs along the length of the beam. Additional Sections items are only available if the User Pattern item is set to Yes. indicating there are no additional connectors specified Description Uniform spacing of shear studs along the beam.e. not as a multiplier on the stud diameter. The Uniform Spacing and No.

and Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns. Finally. not as a multiplier on the stud diameter. Technical Note 18 . plus concrete slab above metal deck. See "Shear Stud Connector" in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs for discussion of how the program calculates the allowable shear load for a single shear stud. the Min Tran Spacing item might indicate that more studs could be accommodated across the beam flange but the Max Studs per Row item will limit the number of studs in any row.2 specifies that the maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of a beam shall not exceed 36 inches for beams when the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the span of the beam. AISC-ASD89 Specification Section I5. Note that this item is input as an absolute length. the program default value may be unconservative and should be revised. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for additional discussion of how shear studs are distributed on beams.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 ness (rib height. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for additional discussion of how shear studs are distributed on composite beams. For wider beams. tc). If your total slab thickness is less than 36"/8 = 4. Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. hr. not that it is zero. The program default value for the minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam flange is four shear stud diameters. The "Max Studs per Row" item indicates the maximum number of shear studs that is allowed in a row across the beam flange.12 Shear Studs Tab . note that specifying 0 (zero) in the overwrites for this item means that the allowable shear stud load is calculated by the program. This is consistent with the last paragraph of AISC-ASD89 Specification Section I4.5". Note that when a q value is specified in the overwrites.2. the program assumes that the specified value of q has already been modified by any applicable reduction factors for the metal deck. Shear studs are discussed in detail in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam.

13 . inputting 360 means that the limit is L/360. For relative deflection. User-specified camber when the program does not calculate beam camber >0 Specified in Preferences Specified in Preferences Yes 0 Total Load Limit Calculate Camber? Fixed Camber >0 Yes/No ≥0 See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for discussion of beam deflection and camber. Deflection limitation for live load. Deflection limitation for total load. Table 5: Composite Beam Overwrites On the Deflection Tab Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Item Deflection Absolute? Live Load Limit Description Toggle to consider live load and total load deflection limitations as absolute or as divisor of beam length (relative). inputting 240 means that the limit is L/240.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Deflection Tab Table 5 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Deflection tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Toggle for the program to calculate beam camber. Deflection Tab Technical Note 18 . For relative deflection.

Miscellaneous Tab Table 7 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Miscellaneous tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. maximum and minimum depths must be input.14 Vibration Tab . Minimum actual (not nominal) beam depth to be considered in auto select section list. Maximum Depth Minimum Depth Maximum PCC(%) >0 ≥0 >0 44 inches 0 100% Technical Note 18 . Effective Beams User Defined Toggle to select user defined or program calculated based on beam spacing. If yes.0 Effective number of beams resisting a heel drop impact. Maximum actual (not nominal) beam depth to be considered in auto select section list. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration for a description of beam vibration. 1. Table 6: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Vibration Tab Possible Values User Defined or Program Calculated ≥1 Default Value Item Neff Condition Description No. Table 7: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Miscellaneous Tab Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Item Consider Beam Depth? Description Toggle to select if beam depth is to be considered in an auto select section list.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Vibration Tab Table 6 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Vibration tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Maximum percent composite connection considered for the beam. N effective.

the program calculated valued is used. >1.0 EQ Factor The EQ (earthquake) factor is a multiplier that is typically applied to the earthquake load in a design load combination. Static Nonlinear Case: The EQ factor is not applied to any static nonlinear cases. Reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Time History Case: The EQ factor is applied to all time history cases.15 . Static Load: The EQ factor is applied to any static loads designated as a Quake-type load. For example. If zero is selected. along with an explanation of how the EQ factor is applied to each of the load types. EQ Factor Technical Note 18 . DL is a dead load and EQ is a quake load. Following are the five types of loads that can be included in a design load combination. Horizontal EQ Factor 0<.0 1. Response Spectrum Case: The EQ factor is applied to all response spectrum cases.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Overwrites Table 7: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Miscellaneous Tab Possible Values >0 0<. >1. Multiplier applied to the earthquake portion of the load in a design load combination. assume you have two static load cases labeled DL and EQ. Load Combination: The EQ factor is not applied to any load combination that is included in a design load combination. The EQ factor is not applied to any other type of static load.0 Item Minimum PCC (%) LL Reduction Factor Description Minimum percent composite connection considered for the beam.0 Default Value 25% 1.

the EQ load that is part of COMB2 is not multiplied by the EQ factor. It also allows you to specify memberspecific reliability/redundancy factors that are required by some codes.16 EQ Factor . Technical Note 18 .1. Next assume that you create a load combination called COMB2 that includes EQ. For design load combination DESCOMB3.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Now assume that you create a design load combination named DESCOMB1 that includes DL and EQ. the EQ load is multiplied by the EQ factor. Now assume that you create a design load combination called DESCOMB3 that included DL and COMB2. The EQ factor allows you to design different members for different levels of earthquake loads in the same run. The ρ factor specified in Section 1630.1 of the 1997 UBC is an example of this. For design load combination DESCOMB1.

If the beam section does not meet all of the noncompact section requirements. A beam section may be classified differently for different design load combinations. it may be classified as compact for design load combination A and as noncompact for design load combination B. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 19 Width-to-Thickness Checks This Technical Note describes how the program checks the AISC-ASD89 specification width-to-thickness requirements for compact and noncompact sections. noncompact or slender on the basis of their width-to-thickness ratios. BERKELEY. Overview Technical Note 19 . For example. If the beam section does not meet all of the compact section requirements. the cover plate. If the sizes of the top and bottom flanges are not the same. The program checks the compact and noncompact section requirements for each design load combination separately. Table B5. One reason that a beam may be classified differently for different design load cases is that the compression flange may be different for different design load combinations. INC. it is classified as compact for that design load combination. it is then checked for the noncompact requirements for the flanges. if it exists. web and cover plate (if applicable). Overview The program classifies beam sections as either compact. web and cover plate (if applicable). it is classified as slender for that design load combination.1. the program first checks a beam section for the compact section requirements for the compression flange. it is classified as noncompact for that design load combination. and the program does not consider it for composite beam design.1 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. For each design load combination. classification of the section as compact or noncompact may depend on which flange is determined to be the compression flange.. The width-to-thickness requirements for compact and noncompact sections are spelled out in AISC-ASD89 Specification Chapter B. This program checks the width-to-thickness ratios of the beam flanges and web. and. If the beam section meets all of those requirements. If the beam section meets all of those requirements.

for compact sections t Fy Eqn. 2 where Fy is the specified yield stress of the beam and kc is as follows: kc is equal to one (1. b 65 ≤ . kc is equal to one (1.0) for user-defined (welded) sections with h/tw less than or equal to 70. b ≤ t 95 Fy k c .0) for rolled sections selected from the program database. kc is given by Equation 3 for user-defined (welded) sections with h/tw greater than 70. the width-to-thickness ratio for the compression flange is limited to that indicated by Equation 2. For h/tw less than or equal to 70 kc = 1.2. Noncompact Section Limits for Flanges For noncompact sections.2 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Flanges . The width-to-thickness ratio for flanges is denoted b/t. for noncompact sections Eqn. and is equal to bf/2tf for I-shaped sections and bf/tf for channel sections. Compact Section Limits for Flanges For compact sections.Width-to-Thickness Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Flanges This section describes the limiting width-to-thickness ratios considered by the program for beam compression flanges. This is consistent with the last sentence of the first paragraph in AISC-ASD89 Specification Section I2. the width-to-thickness ratio for the compression flange is limited to that indicated by Equation 1. Equation 1 applies to both rolled sections selected from the program's database and to user-defined (welded) sections. 1 where Fy is the specified yield stress of the beam. The program does not check the flange width-to-thickness ratios for composite beams with positive bending. Technical Note 19 .

3 .66Fy. Note that this is different from the width-tothickness ratio used for the compact section requirement check.05 (h t w )0. Equation 5 defines the noncompact section limit for webs. d 640 ≤ tw Fy Eqn. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Webs Technical Note 19 . it errs on the conservative side. Refer to the Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses for a description of how the program calculates the allowable bending stress. 5 The program makes a slight simplifying assumption when using Equation 5 by assuming that Fb = 0. When the assumption is not exactly correct. Compact Section Limits for Webs When checking a beam web for compact section requirements.46 . 3 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Webs This section describes the limiting width-to-thickness ratios considered by the program for beam webs. Fb.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Width-to-Thickness Checks kc = 4. Eqn. if it exists. this assumption is exactly correct. h 760 ≤ tw Fb Eqn. the width-tothickness ratio used is d/tw as shown in Equation 4. for the noncomposite steel beam plus cover plate. 4 Noncompact Section Limits for Webs When checking a beam web for noncompact section requirements. The equation used for checking the noncompact section limits in the web depends on the allowable bending stress. In most cases in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. the widthto-thickness ratio used is h/tw. for h/tw > 70.

The second condition checked in Case B takes b2/tcp as the width-to-thickness ratio and checks it as a plate projecting from a beam. where the width-to-thickness ratio is taken as b1/tcp and is checked as a flange cover plate. In Case A of the figure. the width of the cover plate is greater than the width of the beam bottom flange. it is not checked for compact requirements. the width-to-thickness ratio is taken as b1/tcp. the cover plate is in compression.4 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates tcp . the width of the cover plate is less than or equal to the width of the beam bottom flange. In Case B of Figure 1. and it is checked as a flange cover plate. In this case. Figure 1 illustrates the conditions considered. Two conditions are checked in this case. The width-to-thickness checks made for the cover plate depend on the width of the cover plate compared to the width of the beam bottom flange.Width-to-Thickness Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates Width-to-thickness checks are only performed for the cover plate when there is negative moment in the beam. Beam Beam Cover plate tcp b1 b2 b1 b2 Cover plate Case A Case B Figure 1 Conditions Considered When Checking Width-To-Thickness Ratios of Cover Plates Technical Note 19 . The first condition is the same as that shown in Case A. This second condition is only checked for the noncompact requirements. In this case.

Cover Plate Width Less Than or Equal to Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width is less than or equal to the width of the beam bottom flange. or greater than that of the bottom flange of the beam (Case B in Figure 1). b2 ≤ t cp 95 Fycp Eqn. Equation 8 applies for the noncompact check for the cover plate.5 . or greater than that of the bottom flange of the beam (Case B in Figure 1). Noncompact Section Limits for Cover Plates The checks made for noncompact section requirements depend on whether the width of the cover plate is less than or equal to that of the bottom flange of the beam (Case A in Figure 1). Equation 6 applies for the compact check for the cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Width-to-Thickness Checks Compact Section Limits for Cover Plates The checks made for compact section requirements depend on whether the width of the cover plate is less than or equal to that of the bottom flange of the beam (Case A in Figure 1). Eqn. Cover Plate Width Less Than or Equal to Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width is less than or equal to the width of the beam bottom flange. the program checks both Equations 6 and 7 for the compact check for the cover plate. 7 The term b2 in Equation 7 is defined in Figure 1. 8 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates Technical Note 19 . b1 190 ≤ t cp Fycp The term b1 in Equation 6 is defined in Figure 1. 6 Cover Plate Width Greater than Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width exceeds the width of the beam bottom flange. b1 238 ≤ t cp Fycp Eqn.

both Equations 8 and 9 apply for the noncompact check for the cover plate. Technical Note 19 . 9 The term b2 in Equation 9 is defined in Figure 1.Width-to-Thickness Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 The term b1 in Equation 8 is defined in Figure 1.6 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates . Cover Plate Width Greater than Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width exceeds the width of the beam bottom flange. b2 ≤ t cp 95 Fycp Eqn.

is 150 pounds per cubic foot. BERKELEY. See Composite Beam AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection for a description of partial composite connection.. wc. Background Technical Note 20 . Ec is in pounds per square inch (psi). 1 In Equation 1. For AISC-ASD89 composite beam design stress calculations.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Itr. wc is in pounds per cubic foot (pcf) and f c' is in pounds per square inch (psi). assuming that the unit weight of concrete. regardless of its actual specified weight. The exact methodology used by the program is optimized for computer-based calculations and is unsuitable for hand calculations and for presentation in this Technical Note.1 . Note that for the AISC-ASD89 specification. The Technical Note also describes in detail a method that can be used to calculate the transformed section moment of inertia by hand that will yield the same result as the program. The calculated transformed moment of inertia applies for full (100%) composite connection. the value of Ec is taken from the material property specified for the concrete slab. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia This Technical Note describes in general terms how the program calculates the transformed moment of inertia for a composite section. the value of Ec is always calculated from Equation 1. INC. the transformed section properties used for stress calculations for a beam may be different from those used for deflection calculations for the same beam.5 33 fc c ( ) Eqn. ' E c = w1. For AISC-ASD89 composite beam design deflection calculations.

Calculation of the transformed section moment of inertia is greatly complicated by the requirement that the concrete resist no tension. and that no fillets are assumed in this beam. Figure 2 shows a typical composite userdefined steel beam with the metal deck ribs running parallel to the beam. The first task in calculating the transformed section moment of inertia of the composite section is to compute properties for the steel beam alone (plus the cover plate. ybare. It is not included when the deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam (typically the case for infill beams). if it exists). and the moment of inertia. Abare. Note that the user-defined beam may have a different top and bottom flange size. the location of the ENA. the transformed section moment of inertia is only calculated for positive bending (top of composite section in compression). Technical Note 20 .Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Background Figure 1 shows a typical rolled steel composite floor beam with the metal deck ribs running parallel to the beam. The properties required are the total area. Note that the deck type and deck orientation may be different on the two sides of the beam as described in "Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab.2 Background . • Cover plate: The cover plate is only included if one is specified by you in the composite beam overwrites. Because composite behavior is only considered for positive bending. Is. For each of these configurations the following items may or may not be included when calculating the transformed section moment of inertia: Concrete in the metal deck ribs: The concrete in the metal deck ribs is included in the calculation when the deck ribs are oriented parallel to the beam (typically the case for girders).

3 d hr tc tcp d hr tc .tf-top .tf-bot tcp tw bcp bf-bot Concrete slab Metal deck Beam top flange Beam bottom flange Bottom cover plate Figure 2: Composite User-Defined Steel Beam Shown With Metal Deck Ribs Running Parallel To Beam Background tf-bot Beam web Technical Note 20 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Concrete slab Metal deck Rolled steel beam Bottom cover plate bcp Figure 1: Composite Rolled Steel Beam Shown With Metal Deck Ribs Running Parallel To Beam tf-top bf-top h = d .

Technical Note 20 . they are calculated using Table 2 and Equations 1 and 2. Ibare is taken about this axis. where ybare is the distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the beam to the ENA. ybare Bottom of bottom flange of steel beam.4 Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone y1 for top flange . If the beam section is a user-defined (welded) beam. Abare. the dimension y1 is equal to the distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the centroid of the element. Ybare and y1 are measured from here Figure 3: Illustration of ybare and y1 Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone The location of the ENA for the steel beam alone (plus cover plate if applicable) is defined by the distance ybare.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic neutral axis of steel beam plus cover plate if applicable. Figure 3 illustrates the distance y1 for the beam top flange. as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 also illustrates an example of the dimension y1 that is used in Tables 1 and 2. ybare is still measured from the bottom of the bottom flange of the beam. ybare and Ibare are calculated as shown in Table 1 and Equations 1 and 2. If there is a cover plate. not the bottom of the cover plate. For a given element of a steel section. If the beam section is a rolled steel beam or channel chosen from the program section database.

1 The ENA of the steel section is located a distance ybare from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section (not bottom of cover plate) where ybare is determined from Equation 2. Abare = ΣA Eqn. A As bcptcp ΣA y1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Σ(Ay1) Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 2 IO Is − d 2 t cp 2 2 2 b cp t 3 cp 12 ΣIO Sums Σ(Ay1 ) 2 Table 2: Section Properties for User-Defined (Welded) Steel Beam Plus Cover Plate Area. is given by Equation 1. Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone Technical Note 20 . Abare.5 . A bf-toptf-top htw bf-bottf-bot bcptcp ΣA y1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Σ(Ay1) Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 Ay1 2 Item Top flange Web Bottom flange Cover plate Sums IO d− t f − top 2 d 2 2 b f − top t 3− top f 12 t wh3 12 b f − bot t 3− bot f 12 b cp t 3 cp 12 ΣIO 2 t f − bot 2 − t cp 2 2 2 2 Σ(Ay1 ) The area of the steel section (including the cover plate if it exists).Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Table 1: Item Steel beam Cover plate Section Properties for Rolled Steel Beam Plus Cover Plate Area.

3 Following is the notation used in Tables 1 and 2 and Equations 1 through 3: Abare = Area of the steel beam (plus cover plate. = The moment of inertia of an element of the beam section taken about the ENA of the element. in2. is given by Equation 3. = Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange. in. if one exists). = Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone (without the cover plate even if one exists). = Width of top flange of a user-defined steel beam.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 y bare = ∑ (Ay ) ∑A 1 Eqn. in. = Thickness of cover plate. I bare = ∑ (Ay ) + ∑ I 2 1 O − (∑ A ) y 2 bare Eqn. in. in. As Ibare IO Is bcp bf-bot bf-top d h tcp tf-bot Technical Note 20 . = Area of rolled steel section alone (without the cover plate even if one exists). if one exists) about its ENA. in4. = Width of steel cover plate. in4. in2. in4. = Clear distance between flanges for user-defined (welded) sections. in. = Width of bottom flange of a user-defined steel beam. = Thickness of bottom flange of a user-defined (welded) section. 2 The moment of inertia of the steel section (plus cover plate. in.6 Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone . in. Ibare. = Moment of inertia of the steel beam (plus cover plate if one exists).

This distance is designated ye in Figure 4. in4. tw ybare y1 ΣA Σ(Ay1) 2 2 Σ(A y1 ) = Sum of the product A times y1 for all of the elements of the steel beam section. in3. Properties of the Composite Section General Calculation Method The first step. Properties of the Composite Section General Calculation Method Technical Note 20 . in4. and because the amount of concrete that is in tension is initially unknown (if any). the other calculations to determine the composite properties are relatively straight-forward. = Sum of the product A times y1 for all of the elements of the steel beam section. in. in. = Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the steel beam section. = Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel section to the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate if it exists). in. = Thickness of web of user-defined (welded) section. = Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the centroid of an element of the beam section. and potentially most calculation-intensive step in the process of determining the composite properties is to calculate the distance from the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate if it exists) to the ENA of the full composite section.7 . in2. in. Recall that concrete in tension is ignored when calculating the composite properties. ΣIO = Sum of the moments of inertia of each element of the beam section taken about the ENA of the element. the process for calculating the distance ye is iterative. Because of the possibility that some of the concrete may be in tension.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia tf-top = Thickness of top flange of a user-defined (welded) section. After the distance ye has been determined.

Note that with this assumption.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic neutral axis of composite beam z Elastic neutral axis of steel beam alone. ye = where.8 Properties of the Composite Section General Calculation Method ye . defined by ye (see Figure 4). 4 Technical Note 20 . Σ(A element delement ) ΣA element Eqn. including cover plate if it exists Figure 4: Illustration of ye and z The program uses the following method to calculate the properties of the composite section. all of the concrete is above the ENA of the composite section and thus it is all in compression and can be considered. The location of the ENA of the composite section. 1. The program assumes (guesses) that the ENA of the composite section is within the height of the steel beam and uses Equation 4 to calculate the distance ye that defines the location of the ENA for the composite section. is calculated using the following iterative process: a.

If the newly calculated location of the ENA is the same as the previously calculated location (Step i). If the calculated ENA is not within the height of the steel beam.9 . the program ignores it in the remaining calculations. as assumed. The program repeats the iterations until the location of the ENA has been determined. in2. Properties of the Composite Section General Calculation Method Technical Note 20 . After the location of the ENA is known. ignoring any area of concrete that is in tension and ignoring any concrete in the metal deck ribs when the metal deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. the program calculates the location of ye again using Equation 4. ignoring any concrete that is in tension. 2. Elements located below the ENA of the steel beam alone (including cover plate. ii c. the program determines if any concrete is below the ENA. If the newly calculated location of the ENA is not the same as the previously calculated location (Step i). if it exists). b. the assumed location of the ENA has been identified and the calculation for ye is complete. if it exists) have a negative distance and those above have a positive distance. = Distance from the ENA of the element considered to the ENA of the steel beam alone (including cover plate. i Using the incorrect location of the ENA calculated in Step a. in. the most recent assumed location of the ENA is incorrect and another iteration is made. the assumed location of the ENA is incorrect and calculation for ye continues. the rest of the process for calculating the composite properties is non-iterative. delement If the ENA as calculated is within the height of the steel beam. as assumed in Step a. Signs are considered for this distance. If so. the assumed location of the ENA is correct and the calculation for ye is complete. Given that the ENA has been located.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Aelement = Area of an element in the composite section.

5. Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye The following hand calculation method for determining the distance ye is similar to and provides the same result as the calculations performed by the program. 4. The program sums the product of the area of each element of the composite section (except concrete in tension) times its distance to a convenient axis (such as the bottom of the beam bottom flange).Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 3. The program divides the sum calculated in step 3 by the sum of the areas of each element of the composite section (except concrete in tension). 5a ye = 2X 9 Eqn. ye = X1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 A bare + X 5 + X 6 + X 7 + X 8 2 . to the ENA of the fully composite section. 5b Technical Note 20 .10 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye . After ybare has been calculated. as illustrated in Figure 4.X10 ± X10 − 4X 9 (X1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 ) Eqn. plus cover plate if it exits. Recall that ye is the distance from the ENA of the steel beam alone. the section properties of the composite section are quickly calculated using standard methods." A hand calculation method for the calculation of the composite properties described in steps 2 through 5 above is presented in the section entitled "Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties" later in this Technical Note. ye is calculated by equating the forces above and below the ENA using either Equation 5a or Equation 5b. After the ENA of the composite section has been determined. This calculation yields the distance from the convenient axis to the ENA of the composite section. A hand calculation method for determining the distance ye described in steps 1a through 1c above is presented in the next section entitled "Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye.

7.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Equations for use in calculating values for the variables X1 through X10 in Equations 5a and 5b are presented in the following subsection entitled "Background Equations. 6. The ENA is located within the height of the metal deck on the left side of the beam and within the height of the concrete above the metal deck (or within a solid slab) on the right side of the beam." The actual process to calculate ye is described in the subsection of this Technical Note entitled "Hand Calculation Process for ye. 3. The ENA is located within the height of the concrete above the metal deck (or within a solid slab) on the left side of the beam and above the concrete on the right side of the beam. 5." Background Equations This subsection presents the equations for the variables X1 through X10 in Equations 5a and 5b. The ENA is located within the height of the metal deck on both the left and the right sides of the beam. The ENA is located within the height of the steel section (including cover plate. 2. Those locations are as follows: 1. The ENA is located within the height of the metal deck on the left side of the beam and above the concrete on the right side of the beam. For the purposes of determining the ye distance. 4. Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye Technical Note 20 .11 . there are nine possible locations for the ENA. The ENA is located within the height of the concrete above the metal deck (or within a solid slab) on both sides of the beam. The ENA is located within the height of the concrete above the metal deck (or within a solid slab) on the left side of the beam and within the height of the metal deck on the right side of the beam. if it exists). Note: Recall that you can have different deck properties on the two sides of the beam. The exact equation to use for the variables X1 through X10 depends on the assumed location of the ENA.

respectively. The columns labeled Left Side and Right Side indicate the location of the ENA relative to the left and right sides of the beam.ybare zright = d + hr right + tc right . A term that is repeatedly used in Equations 7 through 16 is z. Thus. When using Table 3. the location of the ENA of the composite section and the location of the ENA of the composite section relative to the elements that make up the composite section are initially unknown. begin by assuming a location of the ENA. Then. The third column of Table 3. The distance z. The first two columns in Table 3 list the nine possible locations of the ENA of the composite section.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 8. 6b The equations for the variables X1 through X10 in Equations 5a and 5b and Table 3 follow. See Table 3 for specification of which equation to use for any assumed location of the ENA. This process is described in the subsection entitled "Hand Calculation Process for ye. Columns 4 through 13 of Table 3 list the equation numbers to be used to determine the value of the variables X1 through X10 for the location of the ENA specified in the first two columns of the table." Equations 7 through 16 define the terms X1 through X10 in Table 3 and Equations 5a and 5b. As previously illustrated in Figure 4. The ENA is located above the concrete on the left side of the beam and within the height of the concrete above the metal deck (or within a solid slab) on the right side of the beam. z is the distance from the ENA of the steel beam alone (plus cover plate. there are multiple equations for each variable. The ENA is located above the concrete on the left side of the beam and within the height of the metal deck on the right side of the beam. is defined by Equations 6a and 6b. calculate the actual location of the ENA and check the validity of the assumption. 9.12 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye . It works best if you assume that the ENA of the composite section is within the steel section. Technical Note 20 . 6a Eqn. which can be different on the left and right sides of the beam. labeled "ye Eqn" specifies whether Equation 5a or 5b should be used to calculate ye. if it exists) to the top of the concrete slab. In most cases. zleft = d + hr left + tc left .ybare Eqn.

The variables X2. 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a X10 Eqn N. 3. The columns labeled Left Side and Right Side indicate the assumed location of the ENA of the composite section relative to the left and right sides of the beam. 4. X6 and X8 are always taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span. X4." the value of Xn is zero for that location of the ENA. The column labeled "ye Eqn" tells you whether to use Equation 5a or Equation 5b to calculate ye for the assumed location of the ENA listed in the first two columns of the table. 2. You must assume a location for the ENA and then check if the assumption is correct. 16a 16c 16a 16d 16b 16b 16a 16b Steel section hr hr hr tc hr >tc tc hr tc tc tc >tc >tc hr >tc tc Table Descriptive Notes: 1. 6. The designation >tc means that the ENA is above the concrete slab. The designation hr means that the ENA is within the height of the metal deck.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Table 3: Table Identifying Circumstances for Using Equations 5a and 5b and Identifying Appropriate Equations to Use to Calculate the Values of Variables X1 through X10 that Appear in Equations 5a and 5b Left Side Right Side ye Eqn 5a 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b 5b X1 Eqn 7a 7a 7a 7a 7b 7b 7b 0 0 X2 Eqn 8a 8b 8b 8b 0 0 0 0 0 X3 Eqn 9a 9a 9b 0 9a 9b 0 9a 9b X4 Eqn 10a 10b 0 0 10b 0 0 10b 0 X5 Eqn 11a 11a 11a 11a 11b 11b 11b 0 0 X6 Eqn 12a 12b 12b 12b 12c 12c 12c 0 0 X7 Eqn 13a 13a 13b 0 13a 13b 0 13a 13b X8 Eqn 14a 14b 14c 0 14b 14c 0 14b 14c X9 Eqn N. If one of the cells for X1 through X8 contains a "0. The variables X9 and X10 are not used if the ENA falls within the height of the steel beam.13 . The columns labeled "X1 Eqn" through "X10 Eqn" indicate the equation numbers that should be used to calculate the value of the variables X1 through X10 for use in Equations 5a and 5b.A. if it exists).A. The designation tc means that the ENA is within the height of the concrete slab above metal deck or within the height of a solid slab. See the subsection entitled "Hand Calculation Process for ye" later in this chapter for more information. Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye Technical Note 20 . Using this table requires a trial and error process. Steel section means that the ENA falls within the height of the steel section (including the cover plate. 5.

if the deck span is oriented parallel to the beam span. X4 is as specified in the equations below. t c left  X1 = X 5  z left −  2  z X1 = X 5  left  2          Eqn. 9a t c right  X 3 = X 7  z right −  2   zright X3 = X7   2      Eqn. 7b X2 is taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span. 8b Eqn.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Important note: The terms X2. hr right  X 4 = X 8  z right − t c right −  2  X 4 = X 8 zright − t c right X5 = b eff left E c left t c left Es     Eqn. X2 is as specified in the equations below. X4. 10b Eqn. 7a Eqn. 10a ( )2 Eqn. hr left  X 2 = X 6  z left − t c left −  2  X 2 = X 6 zleft − t c left     Eqn. if the deck span is oriented parallel to the beam span. 9b X4 is taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span. otherwise they are taken as given in the equations below. 8a ( )2     Eqn.14 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye . 11a Technical Note 20 . X6 and X8 are always taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span.

15a Eqn. 12a X6 = Eqn. 12c X7 = Eqn. 12b X6 = Eqn. if the deck span is oriented parallel to the beam span. if the deck span is oriented parallel to the beam span. 11b X6 is taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span. 13a X7 = Eqn. X8 is as specified in the equations below. X6 is as specified in the equations below. X6 = b eff left E c left wr left hr left E s Sr left b eff left E c left wr left 2E s Sr left b eff left E c left 2E s b eff right E c right t c right Es b eff right E c right z right Es Eqn. X8 = b eff right E c right wr right hr right E s Sr right b eff right E c right wr right 2E s Sr right b eff right E c right 2E s Eqn. 14b X8 = Eqn.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia X5 = b eff left E c left z left Es Eqn. 14a X8 = Eqn. 13b X8 is taken as zero if the deck span is oriented perpendicular to the beam span.15 . 15b X9 = X6 + X8 X9 = X8 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye Technical Note 20 . 14c Eqn.

ksi. = Center-to-center spacing of metal deck ribs.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia X9 = X6 X 10 = − A bare − X 5 − 2X 6 z left − t c left − Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Eqn. in. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for additional information. in. Note that this may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Modulus of elasticity of concrete slab. Note that this width may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.16 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Distance ye . in. 16d The notation used in equations 5a through 16d are as follows: Abare = Area of the steel beam (plus cover plate). This width is code dependent. 16b ( ) Eqn. ksi. 16a Eqn. = Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange. = Modulus of elasticity of steel. This area does not include the concrete area. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. 15c ( X 7 − 2X 8 z right − t c right X10 = − A bare − X 5 − X 7 X10 = − A bare − X 5 − X 6 zleft − t c left − X 7 ( ) ) Eqn. Also note that this it may be different for stress calculations and deflection calculations. Ec Es Sr beff d hr Technical Note 20 . Note that this may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Effective width of the concrete flange of the composite beam. 16c X10 = − A bare − X 5 − X 7 − X 8 zright − t c right ( ) Eqn. in. = Height of metal deck rib. in2.

If the location of the ENA calculated in step 1 is within the height of the steel beam. as initially assumed. is calculated using the following process: 1. in.17 . in. if it exists) alone. the location of the ENA is correct and the calculation for ye is complete. Note that this may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Table 3 identifies the equations to use to determine values for the variables X1 through X8 in Equation 5a. = Distance from the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate. the location is incorrect and a new assumption for the location of the neutral axis is made. in. 3. if it exists) alone to the top of the concrete slab. this is the thickness of the concrete slab above the metal deck. Use Equation 5a to calculate the location of the ENA. Hand Calculation Process for ye Technical Note 20 . = Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam to the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate. Assume the ENA is within the height of the steel beam. = The distance from the ENA of the steel beam (plus cover plate. defined by ye. wr ybare ye z Hand Calculation Process for ye The location of the ENA of the composite section.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia tc = Thickness of concrete slab. as initially assumed. in. in. = Average width of a metal deck rib. if it exists) alone to the ENA of the fully composite beam. If the calculated ENA is not within the height of the steel beam. Note that this distance may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. If there is metal deck. The new assumption for the location of the ENA is wherever it was calculated to be in step 1 and is one of the choices defined in the first two columns of Table 3. 2. Note that this may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.

Calculate the transformed section properties for full composite connection as illustrated in Table 4. then the assumption is correct and the calculation for ye is complete. 5. 6.18 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties . Note that Table 3 identifies the equations to use to determine values for the variables X1 through X10 for use in solving Equation 5b. the concrete in the metal deck ribs is ignored.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 4. the concrete in the metal deck ribs is considered. b. If the deck spans perpendicular to the beam span. If the deck spans parallel to the beam span. c. The other calculation steps are as follow. the other calculations to determine the composite section moment of inertia are non-iterative and relatively straightforward. The concrete slab and metal deck may not exist on one side of the beam or the other. If the calculated location of the ENA is the same as the new location assumed in step 3. If the calculated location of the ENA is not the same as the location assumed in step 3. 8. Use Equation 5b to calculate the location of the ENA. The new assumption for the location of the ENA is wherever it was calculated to be in step 4 and is one of the choices defined in the first two columns of Table 3. Technical Note 20 . The cover plate may or may not be present. Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties After the location of the ENA has been calculated. When reviewing Table 4 note: a. 7. the location is incorrect and another iteration is made. Repeat steps 4 through 7 as many times as required until the assumed location of the ENA (based on the choices in the first two columns of Table 3) and the calculated location of the ENA match.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Table 4: Transformed Section Properties for a Fully Composite Beam Transformed Area. in. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Height of the metal deck ribs above the ENA (i. left side Concrete slab. left side Concrete in metal deck ribs. right side Steel beam plus cover plate Sums y1 Atry1 Atry1 Atry1 2 IO b eff t * E c c Es b eff t * E c c Es b eff h * w r E c r Sr E s b eff h * w r E c r Sr E s Abare ΣAtr d + hr + tc − t* c 2 Atry1 2 b eff E c t * 3 c 12E s b eff E c t * 3 c 12E s b eff w r E c h * 3 r 12S r E s b eff w r E c h * 3 r 12S r E s Ibare 2 t* d + hr + tc − c 2 d + hr − h* r 2 Atry1 Atry1 2 Atry1 Atry1 2 h* d + hr − r 2 ybare Atry1 Atry1 2 Atry1 Σ(Atry1) Atry1 2 Σ(Atry1 ) ΣIO d. right side Concrete in metal deck ribs. in2. h* r Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties Technical Note 20 .e. The top of the concrete slab may be at a different elevation on the two sides of the beam.19 . Atr Item Concrete slab. e. Atr = Area of an element of the composite steel beam section.. Following is a list of the variables introduced in Table 4 that have not been mentioned previously in this Technical Note. that is in compression) used for calculating the transformed section properties. Any concrete that is below the ENA of the composite section is not included in the calculation.

Σ(Atry12) =Sum of the product Atr times y12 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. r If the deck ribs are oriented parallel to the beam span. If the ENA is within the metal deck. t c equals the height * of the concrete slab above the ENA. in. h * = 0. t c = 0 * ΣAtr = Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. h r = 0. 3. in2. If the ENA is below the metal deck. Σ(Atry1) =Sum of the product Atr times y1 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section. Technical Note 20 . If the ENA is below the top of the metal deck (bottom of the concrete slab). t c = tc.Transformed Section Moment of Inertia Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 If the deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam span.. * 2.20 Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties . one of the following three items applies: 1. h r = hr. in3. * 2. h r equals the height of * the metal deck above the ENA. If the ENA is above the metal deck. If the ENA is above the concrete slab. If the ENA is within the concrete slab. is in compression) that is used for calculating the transformed section properties.e. * t* c = Height of the concrete slab above the metal deck (or solid slab) that lies above the ENA (i. in4. One of the following three items applies: 1. 3.

They both give the same result. 17b y = ybare + ye The distance y is illustrated in Figure 5.21 y1 for top flange z ye y Elastic neutral axis (ENA) of composite beam. The transformed section moment of inertia about the ENA of the composite beam. y= ∑ (A y ) ∑A tr 1 tr Eqn. is calculated using Equation 18. 18 Figure 5 illustrates the axis about which Itr is taken. ybare and y1 are measured from here. The dimensions y. including cover plate if it exists Bottom of bottom flange of steel beam. Itr. The distance y can be determined from either Equation 17a or from Equation 17b. Elastic neutral axis (ENA) of steel beam alone. ybare Figure 5: Illustration of y Equivalent Hand Calculation Method to Calculate the Composite Properties Technical Note 20 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia The neutral axis of the transformed composite section is located a distance y from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section (not bottom of cover plate). . 17a Eqn. I tr = ∑A 2 tr y1 + ∑I O − (∑ A ) y tr 2 Eqn. Itr is taken about this axis.

.

unitless. The percentage varies between 25% and 100% inclusive. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection This Technical Note describes how the program calculates elastic stresses in the steel section and the concrete slab when there is partial composite connection. where. Note that because composite action is only considered by the program for positive bending. the description in this Technical Note only applies to positive bending. = Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone plus cover plate.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY. the number of shear connectors provided controls the amount of horizontal shear that can be transferred between the steel beam and the concrete slab.1 . For beams with partial composite connection. Effective Moment of Inertia for Partial Composite Connection The effective moment of inertia of the composite section for positive bending in a partially composite beam is calculated using Equation 1: I eff = I bare + PCC (I tr − I bare ) Note: Equation 1 is the same as AISC-ASD89 Specification Equation I4-4. where the strain in both the concrete and the steel is proportional to the distance from the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the transformed section. When there is partial composite connection. 1 = Percent composite connection. INC. Effective Moment of Inertia for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 . if it exists. in4. the program checks for deflections and stress assuming an elastic distribution of stress.. PCC Ibare Eqn.

if it exists). Eqn. if it exists) referred to the extreme tension fiber. referred to the extreme tension fiber in a partially composite beam is calculated using Equation 2: Seff = Sbare + PCC (Str − Sbare ) Note: Equation 2 is the same as AISC-ASD89 Specification Equation I2-1. 2 Seff Str Note: The section moduli Str and Seff are referenced to the bottom of the cover plate. unitless. if it exists. where. = Transformed section moment of inertia about ENA of the composite beam calculated as described in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia.Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Ieff Itr = Effective moment of inertia of a partially composite beam. = Effective section modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate. in3. in4. PCC Sbare = Percent composite connection. in3. Technical Note 21 . Otherwise they are referenced to the bottom of the beam bottom flange. The percentage varies between 25% and 100% inclusive. Effective Section Modulus Referred to the Extreme Tension Fiber The effective section modulus.2 Effective Section Modulus Referred to the Extreme Tension Fiber . Referring to Figure 1. = Section modulus for the fully (100%) composite transformed section referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section (including cover plate. = Section modulus of the steel beam alone (plus cover plate. Seff. in3. if it exists). in4. Str is calculated using Equation 3.

in4. Itr is taken about this axis. Itr tcp y d Elastic neutral axis (ENA) of composite beam for full (100%) composite connection.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Figure 1: Figure Demonstrating Variables for Calculating Str in Equation 3 I tr y + t cp Str = where. ( ) Eqn. y Location of the ENA for Partial Composite Connection This section describes how the location of the ENA of the partially composite section is calculated. calculated as described in Technical Note Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. = Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of the composite beam calculated as described in Technical Note Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia.3 . 3 = Transformed section moment of inertia about the ENA of the composite beam. Location of the ENA for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 . in.

is given by Equation 4: y eff = Note: I eff − t cp Seff Eqn. y d ENA of fully composite beam.Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Refer to Figure 2. In the figure.4 Location of the ENA for Partial Composite Connection tcp ENA of steel beam alone plus cover plate if it exists. the distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of the partially composite beam. Itr is taken about this axis. 4 The distance yeff is measured from the bottom of the beam bottom flange even when there is a cover plate. yeff. ybare yeff ENA of partially composite beam. C L beff left beff leftEc left Es beff-par left beff rightEc right Es beff-par right beff right Figure 2: Composite Beam Section Technical Note 21 . hr tc .

Otherwise. the stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange may control the design. in3. Equation 5 gives the stress at the bottom of the cover plate. Thus. Equations 5 through 7 show the equations used to determine the stresses for positive bending. yeff Ieff Seff = The distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of the partially composite beam. if it exists. If there is a cover plate. The steel stresses are checked at the top and bottom of the steel beam and at the bottom of the cover plate. and if the yield stress of the cover plate is larger than that of the beam.5 . = Thickness of the cover plate if it exists. If a cover plate exists. fbot -st = M Seff Eqn. the allowable stress at the bottom of the cover plate is larger than that at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. If there is no cover plate. in4. if it exists) are calculated as described below. Note that in this program. Equation 6 gives the stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. Steel Section Stresses for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection where. 5 If a cover plate exists. Equations 5 and 6 are the same. it is possible for the steel beam section and the cover plate to have a different yield stress. in. it gives the stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. tcp Steel Section Stresses for Partial Composite Connection The steel section stresses (including those in the cover plate. = Effective section modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate. in. if it exists) calculated using Equation 2. = Effective moment of inertia of a partially composite beam calculated using Equation 1.

7 The term "Abs" in Equation 7 means to take the absolute value of the (d .yeff )] Ieff Eqn. if it exists).6 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection . 6 Equation 7 gives the stress at the top of the steel beam section. See Lorenz and Stockwell (1984). ksi. = The maximum tensile stress at the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam. The exact methodology used by this program to calculate the concrete slab stresses for partial composite connection is optimized for computer-based calculations and is unsuitable for hand calculations and for presentation in this Technical Note. For full (100%) composite connection Ieff and yeff in Equations 6 and 7 are modified as shown in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks Equations 1e and 1f. = The maximum stress at the top of the steel beam (may be tension or compression. M d fbot-bm fbot-st ftop-st = The design moment. kip-in. Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection The calculation of concrete slab stresses for partial composite connection in the program is based on a published paper covering the topic. depending on the location of the ENA). = The maximum tensile stress at the bottom of the steel section (including cover plate. ksi. ftop-st = M [Abs (d . = Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange. ksi.Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 fbot-bm = My eff Ieff Eqn. Technical Note 21 .yeff) term. in. The following notation that has not been previously introduced in this Technical Note is used in Equations 5 through 7.

Formulas for beff-par left and beff-par right are derived from the definition of the elastic neutral axis (ENA) together with the assumption that the ratio of the effective widths of the concrete slab on the left and right sides of the beam remains constant for any percentage of composite connection. Refer to Figure 2. Equation 8 is a formula representing this assumption.beff-par right ( X3 + X5) = 0 Note: See Figures 3. if you multiply the area of individual elements of a composite section times their distance to the ENA (considering the sign of the distance term). the result is zero. beff left beff right = beff −par left beff −par right Eqn. varies from the value for full composite action. 9b Eqn. and then sum up these products for all elements of the composite section. 9 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection This section describes in detail a method that can be used to calculate the concrete slab stresses for partial composite connection by hand that will yield the same result as the program. beff-par left and beff-par right.7 . the program actually limits the minimum percent composite connection to 25%. The method presented here parallels much of what is done internally in the program. This statement is shown as a formula in Equation 9. On each side of the beam the effective width of the slab for the partially composite beam. Note: Although the equation for the effective slab width of a partially composite beam is derived by considering bounding conditions of 0% and 100% composite connection.yeff) Eqn. where: X1 = Abare (yeff . beff left(Ec left /Es) and beff right(Ec right /Es). X1 .ybare) X2 = a3 left (d + hr left + tc left a3 left 2 . 8 From the definition of the ENA. 9a Eqn. to zero as the percent composite connection varies from 100% to 0%. 4 and 5 for illustrations of the physical distances represented by the variables a3 and a4 in Equations 9a through 9e.beff-par left ( X2 + X4) .

3. Physical Representations of A3 and A4 are Shown in Figures 3.yeff tc tc tc tc a41.Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 X3 = a3 right (d + hr right + tc right - a3 right 2 .4 d + hr + tc . 2 N. The a4 dimension represents a distance within the height of the metal deck ribs. The a3 dimension represents a distance within the height of the concrete slab.5 When the cell for an an value indicates "N. The possible conditions are different combinations of the location of the ENA for the partially composite beam and the deck direction." a value of 0 should be used in Equations 9a through 9e for that item. Table 1: Values that Should Be Used for the Variables A3 and A4 in Equations 9a through 9e. Technical Note 21 .yeff) Eqn.8 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection .4 d + hr . The notes below explain why the various "N.A.A. 9d X5 = Eqn. Note that a3 and a4 are evaluated separately for each side of the beam and can be different for the left and right sides of the beam. a31.A.4 N.A. 4 and 5 Deck Direction Parallel or Perpendicular Parallel or Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular Parallel Perpendicular ENA Location Above the concrete slab over metal deck (or the solid slab) In the concrete slab over metal deck (or the solid slab) Within the height of the metal deck Within the height of the metal deck Within the height of the steel beam Within the height of the steel beam Table Descriptive Notes: 1.5 hr N. 9c X4 = a4 left wr left  a   d + hr left − 4 left − yeff    Sr left 2   a4 right wr right  a   d + hr right − 4 right − yeff    Sr right 2   Eqn.A. 9e Table 1 lists the values that should be used for the variables a3 and a4 in Equations 9a through 9e for all possible conditions.A. 3 N.A.yeff N." items are indicated. 2.

The a4 dimension is not applicable because it represents concrete in the metal deck ribs. 5. This concrete is ignored in the calculations when the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. Figures 3.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection 4. which is in tension and thus ignored in the calculations. The an dimension is not applicable because it would represent concrete below the ENA. 4 an 5 illustrate the physical distances represented by the variables a3. a3 ENA of partially composite beam located within concrete slab above the metal deck (or in a solid slab) yeff Figure 3: Illustration of Variable a3 in Equations 9a through 9e When the ENA is in the Concrete Slab Above the Metal Deck or in a Solid Slab Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection tcp Technical Note 21 .9 d hr tc . a4 and a5 for various locations of the ENA of the partially composite beam.

10 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection tcp yeff d hr tc .Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 a3 a4 ENA of partially composite beam located within metal deck t c hr d eff y t cp Figure 4: Illustration of Variables a3 and a4 in Equations 9a through 9e When the ENA is Within the Height of the Metal Deck a3 a4 ENA of partially composite beam located within the height of the steel section Figure 5: Illustration of Variables a3 and a4 in Equations 9a through 9e When the ENA is Located Within the Height of the Steel Section Technical Note 21 .

This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. if one exists). The resulting equations are shown here as Equations 10a and 10b. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Whichever is smaller of the distance from the top of the concrete slab to the ENA or the thickness of the concrete above the metal deck (or the thickness of a solid slab). in. in. beff −par right = X1    beff left   + (X3 + X5 ) (X2 + X 4 )  beff right        Eqn. a3 a4 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 . This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = Center-to-center spacing of metal deck ribs. hr. 10b Note: The width beff-par is the effective width of the concrete slab for partial composite connection. This item applies when there is metal deck (not a solid slab) and the ENA is below the top of the metal deck. in2.11 . It is transformed to an equivalent width of steel. tc. 10a beff −par left  beff left   X1   beff right    =    beff left   + (X3 + X5 ) (X2 + X 4 )  beff right        Eqn. = Whichever is smaller of the distance from the top of the metal deck to the ENA or the height of the metal deck.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Next we can substitute Equation 8 into Equation 9 and solve for beff-par left and beff-par right. The following notation is used in Equations 8 through 10b: Abare Sr = Area of the steel beam (plus cover plate. in.

this is the thickness of the concrete slab above the metal deck. = Average width of metal deck rib. Note that this item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. = The distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of the partially composite beam. See Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. in.12 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection . If there is metal deck. Note that this item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Note that this item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in. = Thickness of concrete slab. Note that this may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in. in. in. in. = The distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the ENA of the steel beam plus cover plate. = Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange. No composite connection (concrete slab) is considered when calculating this item. beff-par d hr tc wr ybare yeff Technical Note 21 .Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 beff = The effective width of the concrete slab for full (100%) composite action. = The effective width of the concrete slab for partial composite action transformed to have the same E as the steel section. in. Note that this item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in. = Height of the metal deck ribs. if it exists.

Finally. Equations 1a and 1c instead of Equations 11a and 11b. fc. Note that this item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. in3. the concrete compressive stress. for a partially composite beam is calculated as the larger of Equations 12a and 12b: fc left = M St − eff left M St −eff right  beff −par left   b eff left          Eqn. 12b = The design moment. For shored beams M = MDL + MSDL + MLL + MOther. Ieff (d + hr right + tc right − yeff Eqn. M  beff −par right   beff right  Eqn.13 . St-eff left and St-eff right.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection The section moduli on each side of the beam referred to the top of the partially composite section. kip-in. 11b = Effective moment of inertia of the partially composite beam calculated using Equation 1.) St-eff Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection Technical Note 21 . 12a fc right = where. in4. as appropriate. are given by Equations 11a and 11b: St −eff left = (d + hr left Ieff + t c left − yeff Ieff ) ) Eqn. (For full [100%] composite connection see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks. For unshored beams M = MSDL + MLL + MOther. 11a St −eff right = where. = The section modulus for the partial composite section referred to the top of the equivalent transformed section calculated using Equation 11a or 11b.

in. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. ksi. in. = The effective width of the concrete slab for partial composite action transformed to have the same E as the steel section. (For full [100%] composite connection see Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks.Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 beff = The effective width of the concrete slab.14 Concrete Slab Stresses for Partial Composite Connection . beff-par fc Technical Note 21 . Equations 1b and 1d instead of Equations 10a and 10b.) = The maximum concrete compressive stress. This item is calculated using Equation 10a for the slab on the right side of the beam and 10b for the slab on the left side of the beam.

Important note concerning cover plates: This section describes how the allowable bending stresses are determined for steel beams. which the program determines as described in this Technical Note. 1 = Allowable bending stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. the allowable bending stress at the bottom of the cover plate. Fb-bbf     Eqn.1 . ksi. INC. Fb-bbf. Fb-bcp Fy Fycp General Technical Note 22 . except as noted in Note 3 for Table 1. ksi.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. = Allowable bending stress at the bottom of the cover plate. the program determines the allowable stresses for the beam as if the cover plate were not present. ksi.. BERKELEY.  Fy cp Fb-bcp = Fb −bbf   Fy  where. Based on the allowable bending stress at the bottom of the beam bottom flange. = Yield stress of cover plate. = Yield stress of beam. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses General This Technical Note describes how the program determines the allowable bending stresses using the AISC-ASD89 specification for composite beams. Fb-bcp is taken as shown in Equation 1. ksi. The methodologies for determining the allowable bending stress for both the steel beam alone and the composite beam are described. When a cover plate is present.

The compact and noncompact requirements that the programe uses for the flanges. Section F1 in the AISCASD89 specification. web and the cover plate (if it exists and is in compression) are presented in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 19 Width-to-Thickness Checks. Allowable bending stresses are provided for both compression and tension. Table 1 is based on the requirements of Chapter F. the column entry is noncompact. if the flange or the cover plate is noncompact. Technical Note 22 . Lb. the yield stress of the beam and the unsupported length of the compression flange.2 Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone . Table 1 identifies the equations that are used to calculate the allowable bending stress of the steel beam alone for various conditions. Note: Allowable stresses for composite beams are described in the section entitled “Allowable Bending Stresses for Positive Bending in the Composite Beam” later in this Technical Note. The allowable bending stress for the steel beam alone depends on the type of beam section.Allowable Bending Stresses Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone This section documents the allowable bending stresses that the program uses when the steel beam alone (noncomposite) resists the bending. whether the compression flange and the web are compact or noncompact. Both the flange and the cover plate must be compact for the entry to be compact. In the Flange and Cover Plate column of Table 1.

3. the Allowable Bending Stress 3 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 4 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 6 for tension. Equations 7 and 8 do not apply to channels. as applicable and 9 for compression2 3 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 5 in tension or compression 6 in tension or compression 6 for tension.3 . For this check the area of the cover plate is included as part of the flange area. Equation 9 does not apply if the area of the compression flange is less than the area of the tension flange. Unsupported Length of Compression Flange1 ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc > Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc ≤ Lc > Lc Equation(s) for Fb. For I-shaped beams. 3 Type of Beam Section Web compact compact noncompact compact compact noncompact compact or noncompact compact compact noncompact compact or noncompact compact or noncompact compact or noncompact Beam Fy ≤ 65 ksi > 65 ksi No limit ≤ 65 ksi > 65 ksi No limit No limit ≤ 65 ksi > 65 ksi No limit ≤ 65 ksi > 65 ksi No limit Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone Technical Note 22 . 2. as applicable and 9 for compression2. larger of 7 or 8. See Equation 2 for Lc.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Allowable Bending Stresses Table 1 Equations Used by the Program for Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone Flange and Cover Plate compact compact compact Rolled I-shaped or channel section noncompact from the program database noncompact noncompact compact or noncompact compact compact User defined (welded) section that is I-shaped or a channel compact noncompact noncompact compact or noncompact Table Descriptive Notes: 1. larger of 7 or 8.

66 Fy  b Fb = Fy 0. 3  Fy   Fy   kc   Eqn.Allowable Bending Stresses Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 In the fifth column of Table 1.002 f 2t f   where Eqn. respectively. The Fy term is the yield stress of the beam (not cover plate) The equations referred to in the last column of Table 1 are listed below. the unsupported length of the compression flange is compared to Lc. These terms are never based on the cover plate dimensions. 2 The Af and bf terms in Equation 2 are the area and width of the beam compression flange (not including cover plate even if it exists). 5 kc = 4. 5a Fb = 0. 6 In Equation 6. the program takes Fy as the yield stress of the compression flange for hybrid beams. Fb = 0.60 Fy Eqn. When 102 * 10 3 C b 510 * 10 3 C b l ≤ ≤ Fy rT Fy 2 2  Fy (l rT ) Fy ≤ 0.05 (h t w )0.002 f 2t f   b Fb = Fy 0.79 − 0. The length Lc is defined in Equation 2. L c = smaller of 76b f Fy and 20000 (d A f )Fy Eqn. 4 Eqn. 7 Technical Note 22 .46 . otherwise kc = 1 Eqn. for h/tw > 70.4 Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone .60Fy Fb =  −  3 1.530 * 10 3 C b    Eqn.79 − 0.

the rT term is taken from the program database. 8 and 9 is defined in "Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab" in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASC89 Technical Note 18 Overwrites. 8 (l rT )2 ≤ 0.60Fy (ld A f ) Eqn. In Equation 9 Af is the area of the compression flange (not including the cover plate even if it exists).60Fy Fb = 12 * 103 Cb ≤ 0. This is significant when the dimensions of the top and bottom flanges are different. 9 In Equations 7 and 8. If it exists. the l term in l/rT is the unbraced length of the compression flange. 10a b f − top t f − top + For negative bending: 36 (d − y bare − t f −top ) t w 3 rT = (y − t f −bot ) t 3 b 3−bot t f −bot f w + bare 12 36 (y − t f −bot ) t w b f −bot t f −bot + bare 3 Eqn.5 .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Allowable Bending Stresses When Fb = l 510 * 103 Cb > rT Fy 170 * 103 Cb Eqn. the rT term is calculated using Equation 10a or 10b. Equation 10a applies for positive bending and Equation 10b applies for negative bending. The rT term is based on the compression flange of the beam. the cover plate is ignored when calculating rT. For rolled sections. For positive bending: b 3− top t f − top f rT = 12 + (d − y bare − t f −top ) t 3 w Eqn. 10b The Cb term in Equations 7. For userdefined (welded) sections. Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone Technical Note 22 .

The equation used depends on whether the beam web is compact and whether the yield stress is less than or equal to 65 ksi. It would require an extremely large cover plate. See Table 2 for the allowable stress.Allowable Bending Stresses Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 The derivation of ybare is provided in "Properties of Steel Beam (Plus Cover Plate) Alone" in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. it is unlikely that the bottom flange of the beam will ever be in compression for positive bending. Technical Note 22 .6 Allowable Bending Stresses for Positive Bending in the Composite Beam . In practice. See Table 2 and the section entitled “General” at the beginning of this Technical Note for the allowable stress. When there is positive bending in the beam there is compression at the top of the concrete and tension at the bottom of the beam. Tension at the bottom of the cover plate. Table 2 defines the equations that are used to calculate the allowable bending stress for the steel beam portion of a composite beam section for various conditions. beyond the bounds of practicality. This stress is limited to 0. Tension or compression at the top of the top flange of the beam. the program checks the stresses at the following locations: Compression stress at the top of the concrete. See Table 2 for the allowable stress. For positive bending in a composite beam. Tension or compression at the bottom of the bottom flange of the beam.45 f c' .” Figure 1 shows a typical composite beam. Allowable Bending Stresses for Positive Bending in the Composite Beam Note: Allowable stresses when composite connection is not considered is described earlier in this Technical Note in the section entitled “Allowable Bending Stress for Steel Beam Alone.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Allowable Bending Stresses Concrete slab Metal deck Steel beam Cover plate bcp Figure 1: Composite Beam Table 2: Equations the Program Uses to Calculate the Allowable Bending Stress in the Steel Beam Portion of a Composite Beam Web compact noncompact compact or noncompact Beam Fy ≤ 65 ksi ≤ 65 ksi > 65 ksi Equations Used for Allowable Stresses Compression Tension 11 12 12 11 12 12 Type of Beam Section Any composite beam Fb = 0.11 Eqn.60 Fy tcp d hr tc Eqn.7 .66 Fy Fb = 0. 12 Allowable Bending Stresses for Positive Bending in the Composite Beam Technical Note 22 .

.

Table 1: Equations for Actual and Allowable Stresses for Noncomposite Bending Equation for Calculating Actual Bending Stress Equation for Calculating Allowable Bending Stress See Table 1 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. Bending Stress Checks Without Composite Action At each output station where there is negative moment in a composite section or there is positive or negative moment in a noncomposite section. See Table 1 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. The top of the top flange of the steel beam. as applicable.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 23 Bending Stress Checks This Technical Note describes how the program checks the bending stress for AISC-ASD89 design. Location Top of beam top flange M (d − y bare ) I bare Bottom of beam bottom flange M y bare I bare Bending Stress Checks Without Composite Action Technical Note 23 . the associated bending stress is checked at the following positions in the beam. INC.1 . Table 1 lists the equations that ETABS uses to calculate both the actual bending stress and the allowable bending stress at each of these positions.. The bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam. The bottom of the cover plate if it exists. BERKELEY. The bending stress checks are described for the cases with and without composite action.

the associated bending stress is checked at the following positions in the composite beam. This check is performed separately on each side of the beam. M d tcp ybare Positive Moment in a Composite Beam At each output station where there is positive moment in the composite section. if one exists).Bending Stress Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1: Equations for Actual and Allowable Stresses for Noncomposite Bending Equation for Calculating Actual Bending Stress Equation for Calculating Allowable Bending Stress See Table 1 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. Technical Note 23 . = Thickness of cover plate. = Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel section to the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the steel beam (plus cover plate. See Equation 3 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. in4. as applicable.2 Positive Moment in a Composite Beam . The top of the top flange of the steel beam. = The design moment. See Equation 2 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. if it exists). The top of the concrete slab. in. in. = Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange. in. kip-in. Location Bottom of cover plate M (y bare + t cp ) I bare The following notation is used in the equations in the second column of Table 1: Ibare = Moment of inertia of the steel beam (plus cover plate.

the program performs additional checks.45f'c Location Top of concrete 12a. Table 2 lists the equations that the program uses to calculate both the actual bending stress and the allowable bending stress at each of these positions. In addition to the checks listed in Table 2. 11 or 12 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Bending Stress Checks The bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam. The bottom of the cover plate. 12b in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. if it exists. Top of beam top 7 flange in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection.3 . Positive Moment in a Composite Beam Technical Note 23 . if the beam is unshored. See Table 2 in the same Note. See Table 2 in the same Note. 1 together with 11 or 12 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses. Bottom of beam 6 bottom flange in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. Table 2: Equations for Actual and Allowable Stresses for Positive Bending in a Composite Beam Equation for Calculating Actual Bending Stress Equation for Calculating Allowable Bending Stress 0. See Table 2 in the same Note. Bottom of cover 5 plate in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. These checks are described in the section entitled "Important Notes Regarding Unshored Composite Beams" later in this Technical Note. 11 or 12 in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 22 Allowable Bending Stresses.

When there is full (100%) composite connection. 1b beff par left = beff left (Ec left / Es) Equations 1c and 1d show the substitutions to make into Equations 12b of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection if you are considering full (100%) composite connection. 1f The y term in Equations 1a. 1e Eqn. yeff = y Ieff = Itr Eqn. make the substitutions shown in Equations 1a through 1g into those equations: Note: The formulas shown in Equations 1a through 1g are not in general true. 1c and 1e is the distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange to the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the composite beam. St −eff left = ( Itr d + hr left + tc left − y ) Eqn. Technical Note 23 . 1c Eqn. 1a Eqn.Bending Stress Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 The equations referred to in the second column of Table 2 for calculating actual bending stress are derived for partial composite connection.4 Positive Moment in a Composite Beam . They only apply as substitutions into the equations listed in Table 2 when you are considering full (100%) composite connection rather than partial composite connection. St −eff right = (d + hr right + tc right − y ) Itr Eqn. Equations 1a and 1b show the substitutions to make into Equation 12a of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection if you are considering full (100%) composite connection. 1d beff par right = beff right (Ec right / Es) Equations 1e and 1f show the substitutions to make into Equations 6 and 7 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection if you are considering full (100%) composite connection.

This section modulus can be calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Bending Stress Checks The distance y can be calculated using Equation 17a or 17b of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. the program also checks that the bending stresses in the steel beam do not exceed 0.9 Fy when stresses are computed assuming the steel section alone resists the DL moment and the composite section resists the SDL + LL + Other moment. 1g The Str term in Equation 1g is the section modulus for the fully (100%) composite transformed section referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section (including cover plate. Seff = Str Eqn. Equation 1g shows the substitution to make into Equation 5 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection if you are considering full (100%) composite connection.5 . Equations 2a through 2c illustrate how these stress checks are performed by the program. for unshored composite beams only (not shored beams and not noncomposite beams). The Itr term in Equation 1f is the transformed section moment of inertia about the ENA of the composite beam assuming full (100%) composite connection. At the top of the beam top flange: Important Notes Regarding Unshored Composite Beams Technical Note 23 . Important Notes Regarding Unshored Composite Beams Steel Stress Checks For unshored composite beams. the stresses are checked as described above. In addition. This moment of inertia can be calculated using Equation 18 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. if it exists).

9 Fy Ibare Ieff At the bottom of the cover plate.6 Important Notes Regarding Unshored Composite Beams .9 Fy Eqn. The composite section carries the rest of the moment. In the above paragraph.Bending Stress Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 MDL (d − ybare ) MAll Other (d . if it exists: MDL ybare + tcp Ibare Eqn. MDL is the moment due to dead load and MAll Other is the moment due to all other loads (except dead load). 2a Eqn. DL SDL LL TL = dead load = superimposed dead load = live load = total load Technical Note 23 . the bending stress check for the concrete slab is determined based on the SDL + LL + All Other Loads. the steel beam alone is assumed to carry all of the DL moment alone.9 Fy Ibare Ieff At the bottom of the beam bottom flange: MDL ybare MAll Other yeff + ≤ 0. 2b ( ) + MAll Other Seff ≤ 0. 2c In Equations 2a through 2c. for unshored beams. not the TL moment.yeff ) + ≤ 0. Concrete Stress Checks For unshored composite beams. In other words.

which is the same as AISC-ASD89 Specification Equation F4-1. it issues a design warning message in the output that the block shear may be high for the beam. Fv = 0. The program performs two checks for beam end shear.40 Fy where. The first is based on the allowable shear stress specified in AISC-ASD89 Specification Section F4. BERKELEY. the program indicates that the beam is inadequate. ksi. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 24 Beam Shear Checks This Technical Note describes how the program checks the beam end reaction for shear for AISC-ASD89 composite beam design. If the beam does not pass this shear stress check. 1 The shear stress to which Equation 1 applies is calculated using Equation 2. Shear Stress Check Technical Note 24 . INC." The second check the program performs is based on the allowable shear rupture (block shear) specified in AISC-ASD89 Specification Section J4. Beam yield stress.. etc.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. If the beam does not pass this shear rupture check. This shear check is described in the section entitled "Shear Rupture Check" in this Technical Note Shear Stress Check Typical Case For h/tw ≤ 380 Fy the allowable shear stress is shown in Equation 1. This check is completed based on several built-in assumptions about bolt size. ksi. the program does not indicate that the beam is inadequate. Eqn. Fv Fy = = Allowable shear stress.1 . Instead. This shear check is described in the section entitled "Shear Stress Check. bolt spacing. cope depth.

2 Shear Stress Check .40Fy Eqn.Beam Shear Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 fv = where. The copes are internally calculated by the program and are reported in the printed output. = Beam web thickness. in.8 Eqn.000 * 5. in. in. See the section entitled "Copes" later in this Technical Note for more information on beam copes. = Cope depth at top of beam.and short-form printed output.34.34 Fy (h t w ) 2 Fy 2. 2 = Cope depth at bottom of beam. d fv tw Note: The top and bottom copes are internally calculated by the program and reported in the long. 3a Technical Note 24 . Equation 3 is based on AISC-ASD89 Specification Equation F4-2 with kv set equal to 5.89 ≤ 0. ksi. F v = Cv where Cv = 45. = Beam end shear at the inside end of the rigid end offset along the length of the beam (if the offset exists). See the following section titled "Copes" for information on how the program determines the assumed copes. Slender Web For h/tw > 380 Fy the allowable shear stress is that shown in Equation 3. Cbot Ctop V ( V d − C bot − C top t w ) Eqn. = Beam depth. 3 when Cv ≤ 0. kips. Note that Equation 2 is based on the full depth of the beam minus the top and bottom copes. in. = Shear stress.

frames into another beam. by default.34 when Cv > 0. See "Noncompact Section Limits for Webs" in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 19 Width-to-Thickness Checks for more information. 4b Note that Equation 4 is based on the clear distance between the flanges of the beam minus any portion of the top and bottom copes that extends into this clear distance. non-slender web case. 3b The shear stress to which Equation 3 applies is calculated using Equation 4. fv = (d − V * C bot − C* t w top ) Eqn. call it Beam B. This is different from the typical. 4a Eqn.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Beam Shear Checks Cv = 190 h tw 5. the depth of the cope at the bottom of Beam A is equal to the depth of Beam A minus the depth of Beam B plus the bottom flange thickness of Beam B plus 1/4". no cope is assumed at either the top or the bottom of the beam. as shown in Figure 1: The depth of the cope at the top of Beam A is equal to the thickness of the Beam B top flange plus 1/4".3 . 4 where C*bot = maximum of Cbot or tf bot C*top = maximum of Ctop or tf top Eqn.8 Fy Eqn. Copes The program calculates the default beam copes as follows: If the beam frames into a column or a brace. If the depth of Beam A is greater than the depth of Beam B minus the bottom flange thickness of Beam B minus 1/4". the following copes are assumed in Beam A. note that the value of h/tw is limited by the requirements for a noncompact web. call it Beam A. If a beam. Finally. Copes Technical Note 24 .

The shear rupture check is only performed at the end of a beam if the top flange of the beam is coped at that end. This illustrates that the design is an iterative process.4 dA .d + f-bot + 1/4" B t Shear Rupture Check dA . you may see different results. They include: 1. Also you should always run one final design check with all auto select section lists removed. that is. A single row of 7/8" diameter bolts is assumed. The bolt spacing is assumed to be 3 inches. and thus the cope dimensions for the beam were calculated based on an older design section for the girder. The reason for this is that the beam may have been designed before the girder. You must cycle through your design and analysis several times before you get final results. Technical Note 24 . with actual beam sections assigned to all elements. Shear Rupture Check The program checks for shear rupture based on AISC-ASD89 Specification Section J4. Several assumptions are required for the program to perform this check.Beam Shear Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 tf-top tf-top + 1/4" Beam B Beam A tf-bot + 1/4" dB tf-bot Figure 1: Default Beam Copes Important note: In some cases when you use auto select section lists and you compare the cope dimensions reported in the output with the cope dimensions calculated using the above-described method considering the current design sections for the beam and the girder. 2.

5 inches. 6.5" 28.5" ≤ T < 22. = Thickness of beam bottom flange.5" ≤ T < 25. The diameter of the bolt hole is assumed to be 15/16".5" 25.tf-bot . is 1. The distance from the center of any bolt hole to the end of the beam web.5" ≤ T < 9.5" 19. For welded sections. Standard bolt holes are assumed.5 Assumed Number of Bolts Shear rupture not checked 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5. = Thickness of beam top flange. the program assumes that the T dimension equals d .5 inches. lh. tf-bot tf-top Table 1: Assumed Number of Bolts Based on Beam T Dimension T Dimension Range T < 6.5" 16.5" 12. 4. in. the T dimension. is equal to d -2k.5" ≤ T < 19. For rolled sections.1 inch. in.5" T ≥ 31. Shear Rupture Check Technical Note 24 .tf-top . lv.5" 22. is 1.5" 6. The number of bolts assumed is based on the T dimension of the beam as shown in Table 1.5 .5" ≤ T < 12.5" 9. d k = Beam depth. which is tabulated in the AISC manual.5" ≤ T < 28.5" ≤ T < 31. = Distance from outside face of rolled beam flange to toe of web fillet. where.5" ≤ T < 16. in. in. The distance from the center of the top bolt hole to the top edge of the beam web (at the cope).Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Beam Shear Checks 3.

Vall = 0. in2.6 3” typ. Agt.60 Fy Agt where. = Net area along the shear plane. See Figure 2 for an illustration of the assumptions in items 1.Beam Shear Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 lv = 1. Shear Rupture Check . See Equation 7. 6 Technical Note 24 .30 Fu Ans + 0. = Minimum specified tensile strength of structural steel.5" Shear plane Tension plane lh = 1. 2. The allowable beam shear (end reaction) based on shear rupture is calculated using Equation 5. = Allowable shear at end of beam. 6 and 7. Agt = lh tw Eqn. 5. in2. Agt = Gross area along the tension plane. Eqn. See Equation 6. is given by Equation 6. The allowable shear rupture stress is calculated based on shear fracture along the shear plane and tension yield along the tension plane. ksi. 5 Ans Fu Vall The gross area along the tension plane. kips.5" Figure 2: Illustration of Shear Rupture Assumptions and Terms 7.

7 n tw If the allowable shear at the end of the beam. in.1) . Vall. = The number of bolts as determined from Table 1. in. is less than the beam end reaction.5)] tw where. 2. in. The program assumes this distance to be 1. lv = The distance from the center of the top bolt hole to the top edge of the beam web (at the cope). tw The net area along the shear plane. Eqn.0." If the beam does not satisfy the shear rupture check. is given by Equation 7. = Beam web thickness. Ans = [lv + 3(n . as shown in Figure 2. the program prints a design warning message in the output. 3. = Beam web thickness.5 inches. as shown in Figure 2.(15/16)(n . You cannot specify transverse web stiffeners.7 . except as noted in the following item 3.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Beam Shear Checks where. Limitations of Shear Check Following are some limitations of the program check for beam end shear in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. No check is made for shear on the net section considering the bolt holes. in. The program assumes this distance to be 1. The shear rupture (block shear) check specified in AISC-ASD89 Specification Section J4 is performed as described in the section above entitled "Shear Rupture Check. only a warning suggesting you should check shear rupture (block Limitations of Shear Check Technical Note 24 . lh = The distance from the center of a bolt hole to the end of the beam web. unitless.5 inches. Ans. 1.

as described in AISC-ASD89 specification Chapter G is not considered. 4.Beam Shear Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 shear) is issued in the output. Technical Note 24 . The program does not fail the beam because it does not pass the shear rupture check. Tension field action.8 Limitations of Shear Check .

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 26 Calculations for Number of Shear Studs describes how the program determines the distribution of shear studs on a composite beam. Shear Stud Connectors The unmodified allowable horizontal load for shear studs is calculated using Equation 1.. It is very important that you understand the definition of a composite beam segment so that you can properly interpret the reported number of shear studs in the composite beam output. in2. INC. Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment describes how the program determines the maximum number of shear studs that fit in a composite beam segment.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . q = 0. this allowable load may be modified if there is formed metal deck. It also introduces the concept of composite beam segments. Eqn. Asc = Cross-sectional area of shear stud. Next some of the basic equations used for determining the number of shear studs on the beam are provided. The program also checks that the shear studs it specifies can fit on the beam. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs Overview This Technical Note begins by defining the program default allowable shear stud horizontal loads for AISC-ASD89 composite beam design.5AscFu where. BERKELEY.25Asc f c' E c ≤ 0. 1 Overview Technical Note 25 . See also Composite Beam Design Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns for more information. As described later.

The reduction factor is different depending on whether the span of the metal deck ribs is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the span of the beam. Fu = Equation 1 is based on AISC-LRFD93 Specifications Equation I5-1 with a safety factor of 2 applied to it.2 Shear Stud Connectors .1 and I4.2. whose value depends on the direction of the deck span relative to the beam span.1 and I4. RF. to those obtained using Tables I4. Thus the program does not modify the specified q value based on the metal deck configuration. Note that this equation is also discussed in the AISC-ASD89 specifications commentary for Chapter I. Equation 1 gives allowable shear stud loads similar. The subsections below entitled “Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Perpendicular to Beam” and “Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Parallel to Beam” describe the reduction factors for the two deck directions. ksi. If you want to use values that are exactly the same as those obtained from AISC-ASD89 Tables I4. RF. the allowable horizontal load per shear stud specified in Equation 1 is multiplied by Technical Note 25 . the program calculates q for each side of the beam separately using Equation 1 and the appropriate metal deck reduction factor if applicable. Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Perpendicular to Beam When the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the beam span. if applicable. Important note #3: When you specify a q value in the composite beam overwrites.Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 f'c Ec = = Compressive strength of concrete slab. but not exactly the same. If there is formed metal deck. ksi. Important note #2: When there is slab on both sides of the beam. you should assign a value of q in the overwrites.5AscFu term.2 in the AISC-ASD89 specification. It does not apply to the 0. the value of q obtained from Equation 1 is reduced by a reduction factor. the program assumes that the specified value of q already includes a metal deck reduction factor. The program then uses the smaller of the two q values in the calculations.25Asc f c' E c term in Equation 1. Minimum specified tensile strength of shear stud. Young’s modulus for the concrete slab as specified in the material property definition associated with the slab. ksi. only applies to the 0. Important note #1: The metal deck reduction factor.

Note that the default value for the Max Studs per Row item in the overwrites is 3. 3 hr = Shear Stud Connectors Technical Note 25 . Height of metal deck rib.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Shear Studs the reduction factor specified in Equation 2 to yield the final allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. in.  0. unitless. w  RF = 0. in which case the program uses 3. Number of shear studs in one metal deck rib. in. in. unitless. Length of shear stud after welding.0  ≤ 1. The program uses whatever value is specified for the Max Studs per Row item on the Shear Studs tab in the composite beam overwrites for Nr.3 . Average width of metal deck rib. RF = Reduction factor for the allowable horizontal load for a shear stud. RF = Reduction factor for the allowable horizontal load for a shear stud. 2 hr Hs Nr = = = wr = Reduction Factor when Metal Deck is Parallel to Beam When the ratio wr/hr is less than 1.85   RF =   N  r   where. in.5. but not more than 3 in the calculations even if more than 3 studs exist in the rib.  wr  h  r       Hs    h − 1.0  ≤ 1. Height of metal deck rib.  Hs    h − 1. unitless.6  r  h   r  where.0   r Eqn. the allowable horizontal load per shear stud specified in Equation 1 is multiplied by the reduction factor specified in Equation 3. unless that value exceeds 3.0   r  Eqn.

Equation 5a only applies to rolled beams and Equation 5b only applies user-defined (welded) beams. ksi. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.85fc right A c right 2 Eqn. this is the area of concrete in the slab. ' ' 0. When the deck span is parallel to the beam span. Vh = where. Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection The total horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of zero moment for full composite connection. Area of the concrete slab. is given by the smaller of Equations 4. including the concrete in the metal deck ribs. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam.Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Hs wr = = Length of shear stud after welding. this is the area of concrete in the slab above the metal deck that is above the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the fully composite beam.85fc left A c left + 0. 5a For user-defined (welded) beams only: Technical Note 25 . f’c = Compressive strength of the concrete slab. 5a or 5b as applicable. Note that Equation 4 applies to both rolled beams and user-defined (welded) beams. in. When the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. in. that is above the ENA of the fully composite beam.4 Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection . 4 Ac = For rolled beams only: Vh = A sFy + bcptcpFycp 2 Eqn. in2. Average width of metal deck rib. Vh.

See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for more details. in.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Shear Studs Vh = bf -topt f -topFy 2 2 bf -bot t f -botFy 2 + ht wFy + + bcp t cpFycp 2 Eqn. Thickness of bottom flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. Clear distance between flanges for a user-defined (welded) steel beam. Thickness of top flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. in. Number of Shear Studs Technical Note 25 . in2. in. 5b The following notation is used in Equations 5a and 5b: As = Area of a rolled steel section (not including the cover plate. Minimum specified yield stress of cover plate. The program uses (reports) the maximum number of shear studs required on the beam based on the calculation at any output station. ksi. Thickness of cover plate. in. ksi. if it exists). The calculation is completed separately at each output station. Minimum specified yield stress of steel beam. Width of bottom flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. Width of steel cover plate. in. in. Width of top flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. Fy Fycp bcp bf-bot = = = = bf-top = h = tcp tf-bot = = tf-top = Number of Shear Studs The program determines the required number of shear studs on the composite beam based on the moment at each output station.5 . in.

6 In Equation 6. Vh is determined as described in the previous section entitled "Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection" and q is determined as described in the previous section entitled "Shear Stud Connectors. PCC. PCC = ' Vh Vh Eqn. 7 In Equation 7.7 Vh. Eqn. N1. N1 = ' Vh q Eqn. 8 Between Other Output Stations and Points of Zero Moment The program uses Equation 9 to determine the number of shear studs. N2. N1 = Vh q Eqn. for a given design load combination is given by Equation 6. Thus. Note that the program checks Equation 9 at each output station." For partial composite connection. for AISC-ASD89 design is given by Equation 8. required in a positive bending region between other output stations and adjacent points of zero moment for a given design load combination using AISCASD89 design.Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Between the Output Station with Maximum Moment and the Point of Zero Moment For full (100%) composite action. N1. if there is 70% composite connection.  M  β − 1 N1  station  Mstation max  ≥0 N2 = β −1 where. V'h = 0.6 Number of Shear Studs . V'h is equal to the percent composite connection times Vh. For example. the percent composite connection. is given by Equation 7. the number of shear studs required between the output station with the maximum positive moment and adjacent points of zero moment. 9 Technical Note 25 . the number of shear studs required between the output station with the maximum positive moment and adjacent points of zero moment.

unitless. Number of shear studs required between the output station with the maximum positive moment and adjacent points of zero moment for the design load combination. if it exists). This section modulus can be calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Bean Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. unitless. in3. The Seff term is the effective section modulus of the partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate. Number of Shear Studs Technical Note 25 . in3. unitless. Mstation = N1 = N2 = β = The Str term is the section modulus for the fully (100%) composite transformed section referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section (including cover plate. The Sbare term is the section modulus for the steel section alone (plus cover plate. if it exists). Moment at the output station considered for the design load combination. This section modulus can be calculated as Ibare/ybare where Ibare is calculated using Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia and ybare is calculated using Equation 2 of Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. This section modulus can be calculated using Equation 2 of Composite Bean Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. in3. if it exists) referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section. k-in. Number of shear studs required between the output station considered and adjacent points of zero moment for the design load combination. k-in.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Shear Studs Mstationmax = Maximum moment at any output station for a given design load combination.7 . A term equal to Str/Sbare for full (100%) composite connection and Seff/Sbare for partial composite connection.

.

BERKELEY. ksi. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 26 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs This Technical Note describes algorithms for determining the placement of shear studs on a composite beam.85f c left A c left + 0. 1a Ac Basic Equations Technical Note 26 . in2. 1b or 1c as applicable. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Equation 1b only applies to rolled beams and Equation 1c only applies to user-defined (welded) beams. and Technical Note 15 UserDefined Shear Stud Patterns for more information. Note that Equation 1a applies to both rolled beams and user-defined (welded) beams.85f c right A c right Vh q Eqn. ' ' 0.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.. Vh = where. Also see Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. including providing three example problems. INC. Vh is the total horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of zero moment for full composite connection.1 . N1 = where. Vh is derived by the smaller of Equations 1a. f’c = Compressive strength of the concrete slab. Basic Equations Equation 1 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment when there is full (100%) composite connection. = Area of the concrete slab. 1 2 Eqn.

in. This item may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Fy bcp bf-bot bf-top h tcp Fycp tf-bot Technical Note 26 . in2. For rolled beams only: Vh = A s Fy + b cp t cp Fycp 2 Eqn. When the deck span is parallel to the beam span. = Width of steel cover plate. = Minimum specified yield stress of steel beam.top Fy + ht wFy + + b cp t cpFycp 2 2 2 b f . = Width of bottom flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. = Width of top flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam.top t f . in. 1b For user-defined (welded) beams only: Vh = b f . in.2 Basic Equations . Ac is the area of concrete in the slab above the metal deck that is above the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the fully composite beam. in. that is above the ENA of the fully composite beam. in. = Thickness of cover plate.bot Fy 2 Eqn. ksi. if it exists). Ac is the area of concrete in the slab.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 When the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. = Clear distance between flanges for a user-defined (welded) steel beam. including the concrete in the metal deck ribs. ksi. in. 1c The following notation is used in Equations 1b and 1c: As = Area of a rolled steel section (not including the cover plate. = Thickness of bottom flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam. = Minimum specified yield stress of cover plate.bot t f .

N2 = Number of shear studs required between the output station considered and adjacent points of zero moment for the design load combination. if it exists) referred to the ex- Eqn. 2 In Equation 2. = A term equal to Str/Sbare for full (100%) composite connection and Seff/Sbare for partial composite connection. in3. unitless. k-in. N1 = ' Vh q Eqn. in. Str is the section modulus for fully (100%) composite transformed section referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel section (including cover plate. unitless. V'h = 0. if it exists).  M  β N1  station − 1  Mstation max  N2 = ≥0 β −1 where. V'h is equal to the percent composite connection times Vh. For example.7 Vh. 3 N1 Mstation β Basic Equations Technical Note 26 . = Number of shear studs required between the output station with the maximum positive moment and adjacent points of zero moment for the design load combination.3 . unitless. = Moment at the output station considered for the design load combination. if there is 70% composite connection. Equation 3 applies at any other output station regardless of the percent composite connection. Sbare is the section modulus of the steel beam alone (plus cover plate. Equation 2 applies at the output station with the maximum positive moment when there is partial composite connection.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs tf-top = Thickness of top flange of a user-defined (welded) steel beam.

plus the gap distance. is 245 kips. Technical Note 26 . Seff is the effective section modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 treme tension fiber. As shown in Figure 1. The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is 36 inches. Vh'.50 foot (6 inches) at each end of the beam. G. in3. in3. Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Shear stud distribution example 1 is shown in Figure 1. of 29 feet. q. is equal to 0. is 12.4 kips. it if exists). The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum moment and adjacent points of zero moment. k-in. Note: Use the Assign menu > Frame/ Line >Frame Output Stations command to modify the number of output stations for a beam. It is a 30-foot-long simply supported beam. It has 1 klf uniform loading and a 50 k-ft moment at the right end. The support distance. Mstationmax = Maximum moment at any output station for a given design load combination. assume the following: Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam. this beam has one composite beam segment that has a length. S.4 Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 . LCBS. The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. For this example.

Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 1 klf Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs 50 k-ft 30' 13.33' 88.50' LCBS = 29' L = 30' L1 right = 12.89 k-ft (actual Mmax) Actual point of zero moment Output station 14 ft from left end of beam End of beam flange ETABS calculated point of zero moment End of beam flange Center of support Center of support 0.5 .67 k 50 k-ft Moment 3.67 k 13.87' Figure 1 Example 1.63' 2.5' L1 left = 13.33 k 16.5' L1 and LCBS 0.33 k Shear 13. Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Technical Note 26 .33' 16.

Increasing the number of output stations will decrease the difference between the programcalculated maximum moment and the actual maximum moment. Note the following about Figure 1 and Table 1: The actual maximum moment for this beam of 88.67 Technical Note 26 .33 feet from the right end of the beam).67 feet from the left end of the beam (3.33 78.37 feet from the right end of the beam).89 k-ft occurs at a distance of 13.63 feet from the left end of the beam (3. The actual point of zero moment near the right end of the beam occurs 26.67 45.33 88.33 62.67 83. Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Station (ft) Moment (k-ft) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0. it picks up the maximum moment as 88.00 24.00 74. since the program only calculates moment at the designated output stations.00 66.33 feet from the left end of the beam. As shown in Table 1. as shown in the moment diagram in Figure 1. as shown in the moment diagram in Figure 1. the program calculates the point of zero moment by assuming a linear variation of moment between output stations located 26 and 28 feet from the left end of the beam. This assumption yields a point of zero moment that is 26. The dimensions shown in the bottom sketch of Figure 1 reflect this program-calculated point of zero moment.6 Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 . Referring to Table 1.67 k-ft at the station located 14 feet from the (center of the support at the) left end of the beam.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 illustrates how the bending moment is calculated by the program for this beam at each output station.67 85. Table1 Example 1.00 88.

33 32.76 studs  NCBS1 = Roundup  * 29 ft   12.76 studs q 12.37 studs) Shear Stud Distribution Example 1 Technical Note 26 .76 studs    13.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Table1 Example 1.  L 1 left L 1 right     * L CBS1        19.7 . N1.4 kips per stud The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output station located 14 feet from the left end of the beam are shown in Figure 1.67 = 88.999 *88.999Mmax (88.67 -50.58 k-ft) and no point loads are on this beam (for any load case).50 ft .63 ft  * 29 ft      19. the only output station that is considered when determining the shear stud distribution is the station 14 feet from the left end of the beam (the maximum moment location). 12.67 -18. Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Station (ft) Moment (k-ft) 22 24 26 28 30 51. Multiplying Mmax by 0.999 yields 0. The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment and adjacent points of zero moment.76 studs 19.63 ft  NCBS1 = Roundup (45. is calculated using Equation 2 as: N1 = ' Vh 245 kips = = 19.00 The program calculates the maximum moment as 88.58 k-ft.  NCBS1 = Roundup Max    NCBS1 = Roundup Max   N N  . Because no other output station has a moment that exceeds 0.00 8.67 k-ft at the output station located 14 feet from the left end of the beam.

It is a 30-foot-long simply supported beam.4 kips. The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum moment and adjacent points of zero moment. the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the minimum requirements.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 NCBS1 = 46 studs The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam as:  L  MS CBS = Roundup  CBS   MaxLS     29 ft   MS CBS = Roundup     36 in   12 in    1 ft  = 10 studs    Thus. this beam has one composite beam segment instead of three composite beam segments. assume the following: The point loads do not come from other beams in the program model.8 Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 . Technical Note 26 . Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Shear stud distribution example 2 is shown in Figure 2. the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the beam is 46. The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam. For this example. is 12. The ratio β = Seff/Sbare is equal to 1. Thus. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the beam. q. It has point loads at the beam one-third points. Vh'. is 124 kips.40.

Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Center of support 0.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs 5k 20 k 10' 10 k 10' 30' 10' 15 k 10 k 5k Shear 15 k Moment 100 k-ft 150 k-ft (Mmax) End of beam flange Output station 10 ft from left end of beam Output station 20 ft from left end of beam End of beam flange L1 right = 9.5' LCBS = 29' L = 30' Figure 2: Example 2.5' Technical Note 26 .5' L1 left = 9.9 .5' L1 right = 19.5' Center of support 0.5' L1 left = 19.

00 80. N.A.A. N.A.A.A.A.A.A. Technical Note 26 . N. The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is 36 inches.50 foot (6 inches) at each end of the beam. N.5 N. N. N. 19. L1 right (ft) N.00 120. of 29 feet.00 20.00 60.00 150. N.A.00 110. Table 2: Example 2.A.00 60. is equal to 0.00 L1 left (ft) N.A.5 N.A.A. N. 9.A. N. N.A. N. N.A.00 30. 9.00 40.00 90.00 140. N. N. N.A. LCBS.A.A.10 Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 .A.A.00 100.A. As shown in Figure 2.A.00 120.00 130.00 0. N.A. N. S.A. N. 19.A.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 The support distance. N. N. G. Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam at each output station.5 N. N. plus the gap distance. N. this beam has one composite beam segment that has a length.5 N.A. Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Station (ft) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Moment (k-ft) 0.A.

19.40 − 1 N2 = 0 studs The distances L1 left and L1 right for the output stations located 10 feet and 20 feet from the left end of the beam are shown in Figure 2. is calculated using Equation 2 as: N1 = ' Vh 124 kips = = 10.ft   N2 = = Negative 1.50 ft .  L 1 left L 1 right     * L CBS1        0 studs 0 studs    9. N2. is calculated using Equation 3 as:  Mstationβ  − 1 N1   Mstation max  =≥0 N2 = β −1 100 k .50 ft  * 29 ft      Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 Technical Note 26 .  L 1 left L 1 right     * L CBS1       N N  . N1.00 studs q 12. For the output station located 10 feet from the left end of the beam:  NCBS1 = Roundup Max    NCBS1 = Roundup Max  NCBS1 = 0 studs For the output station located 20 feet from the left end of the beam:  NCBS1 = Roundup Max    N N  .00 studs  − 1 150 k .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs The required number of shear studs between the maximum moment (located at the output station 20 feet from the left end of the beam) and adjacent points of zero moment.ft * 1.4 kips per stud The required number of shear studs between the point load located at the output station 10 feet from the left end of the beam and adjacent points of zero moment.11 .40  10.

the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the beam is 31. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the beam.53 studs) NCBS1 = 31 studs The minimum number of studs required in the composite beam segment for this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam as:  L  MS CBS = Roundup  CBS   MaxLS     29 ft   MS CBS = Roundup     36 in   12 in    1 ft  = 10 studs    Thus.00 studs  NCBS1 = Roundup  * 29 ft  9. Technical Note 26 .12 Shear Stud Distribution Example 2 .50 ft   NCBS1 = Roundup (30.50 ft    10.00 studs 10. the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the minimum requirements.  9.00 studs    * 29 ft   19.50 ft .Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89  NCBS1 = Roundup Max    10.

2 and 3 from the left end of the beam to the right end of the beam. The allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. LCBS2 = 10 feet and LCBS3 = 9. As shown in Figure 3. is 124 kips. plus the gap distance. is equal to 0.40. The lengths of these composite beam segments are LCBS1 = 9. q. The ratio β = Seff/Sbare is equal to 1. is 12. three composite beam segments are in this example instead of the one composite beam segment that was in Example 2.13 . The support distance. Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Technical Note 26 . It is identical to Example 2. Table 2 shows the bending moment calculated by the program for this beam at each output station. this beam has three composite beam segments labeled 1. S. assume the following: Output stations occur at every 2 feet along the beam. Vh'. For this example. The maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is 36 inches. G.50 foot (6 inches) at each end of the beam. except that the point loads are assumed to come from end reactions of other beams that are included in the program model.5 feet.4 kips. The horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum moment and adjacent points of zero moment. Thus.5 feet. Table 3 summarizes how the shear stud distribution is determined for this beam.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Shear stud distribution example 3 is shown in Figure 3.

Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 5k 20 k 10' 10 k 10' 30' 10' 15 k 10 k 5k Shear 15 k Moment 100 k-ft 150 k-ft (Mmax) End of beam flange Output station 10 ft from left end of beam Output station 20 ft from left end of beam End of beam flange L1 right = 9.5' LCBS3 = 9.5' L1 left = 9.5' L1 left = 19. Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Technical Note 26 .5' L1 right = 19.5' LCBS2 = 10' L = 30' Figure 3 Example 3.5' LCBS1 = 9.5' Center of support 0.5' .14 Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Center of support 0.

Composite beam segments 1. Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Technical Note 26 . Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam Station 10 ft 20 ft Moment 100 k-ft 150 k-ft L1 left Left to Right Along the Beam L1 right Studs NCBS1 19.15 . NCBS2 and NCBS3 in Table 3.00 0.5 ft 19. The detailed calculations associated with Table 3 are shown in the next subsection entitled "Detailed Calculations.00 0 (1) 5 (2a) NCBS2 N.5 ft 0.5 ft Station 20 ft 10 ft Moment 150 k-ft 100 k-ft Right to Left Along the Beam L1 left L1 right Studs NCBS1 19. respectively.A. and Equation 2 is used at the station 20 feet from the left end of the beam. where a uniform intensity of shear studs is assumed over the entire beam rather than over each of the three composite beam segments.5 ft 9. 5 (2b) NCBS3 N.5 ft 19. The number of shear studs listed in the Studs column of Table 3 is calculated exactly as described for Example 2.5 ft 9.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Table 3: Example 3.5 ft 9. This is a total of 20 shear studs.A. Equation 3 is used at the station 10 feet from the left end of the beam." The final required number of shear studs for each of the composite beam segments is shown in the last row of Table 3. N. respectively.A. This compares with 31 studs required in Example 2. The columns labeled NCBS1. NCBS2 and NCBS3 show the number of studs required in composite beam segments 1. 2 and 3 require 5. along with the equation used to calculate that number of studs. 5 and 10 shear studs.00 5 (3b) 5 (4d) NCBS2 5 (3b) 5 (4b) NCBS3 10 (3a) 10 (4a) The numbers in parenthesis identify equations from Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam.5 ft 10. The equation number is shown in parenthesis.00 10. 9. The calculation proceeds from left to right along the beam and then back along the beam from right to left. Detailed Calculations This subsection shows the calculations required to obtain the values in the columns labeled NCBS1. 2 and 3.

5 ft  ≥ 0 studs  19.5 ft  * 9.  N N  . This output station is considered to be in composite beam segment 1. Equation 2a of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 1.5 ft . The first output station considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam.5 ft     Left to Right at 20 Feet from Left End The next output station considered is 20 feet from the left end of the beam.16 Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 .00 studs  NCBS1 = Roundup  * 9.  NCBS1 = Roundup Max    NCBS1 = Roundup Max  NCBS1 = 0 studs Thus. NCBS1 is calculated as zero studs.   N * L CBS1  ≥ NCBS1 Prev NCBS1 = Roundup    L 1 left    10. This output station is considered to be in composite beam segment 2. Equation 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 1. NCBS2 and NCBS3 are not yet applicable.5 ft    NCBS1 = 5 studs Next. Technical Note 26 . we need to determine whether to use Equation 2b or Equation 2c of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for composite beam segment 2. 19.  L 1 left L 1 right     * L CBS1        0 studs 0 studs     9.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Left to Right at 10 Feet from Left End We begin by working from left to right along the beam. Because the output station considered is in composite beam segment 1 and we are working from left to right along the beam.

1    N NCBSi   i =1 = Roundup  * L CBS2  ≥ NCBS2 Prev 1   L CBSi  L 1 left −    i =1   NCBS2 ∑ ∑  10.00 studs * L CBS1 < NCBS1 19. This output station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 3.00 studs * 19. Thus.5 ft − 9.5 ft 4.5 ft ∑ i =1 L CBSi < ? ∑N i =1 1 CBSi ? 10.5 ft < 5 studs 19. Right to Left at 20 Feet from Left End Now we work back along the beam from right to left. Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Technical Note 26 .5 ft   NCBS2 = 5 studs Because the output station considered is in composite beam segment 2 and we are working from left to right along the beam. Equation 2b of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 2. NCBS3 is not yet applicable.87 studs < 5 studs → Use Equation 2b of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. Thus.00 studs * 9.5 ft ? 10. the next output station considered is the one 20 feet from the left end of the beam.5 studs  NCBS2 = Roundup  * 10 ft  ≥ 0 studs   19.17 .00 studs .Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs N L 1 left * n −1 ∑ i =1 L CBSi < 1 ? n −1 i =1 ∑N CBSi 10.

9.18 Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 .5 ft * 9.5 ft  ≥ 0 studs       10 studs  N CBS 3 = Roundup   9.Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Equation 3a of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the shear studs required in composite beam segment 3.5 ft  ≥ 0 studs    NCBS3 = 10 studs Equation 3b of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the shear studs required in composite beam segments 1 and 2.5 ft  * 9. NCBS1 = NCBS1 Prev = 5 studs NCBS2 = NCBS2 Prev = 5 studs Right to Left at 10 Feet from Left End The final output station considered is 10 feet from the left end of the beam. Technical Note 26 .5 ft * 9. Equation 4a of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the shear studs required in composite beam segment 3.   N N N CBS3 = Roundup Max  .5 ft  ≥ 10 studs    NCBS3 = 0 studs but must be at least 10 studs.  N  NCBS3 = Roundup  * L CBS3  ≥ NCBS3 Prev  L 1 right     0 studs  NCBS3 = Roundup   19.  L1 left L1 right       * L CBS3  ≥ N CBS3 Prev        10 studs 10 studs  N CBS 3 = Roundup Max   19.5 ft . This output station is now considered to be in composite beam segment 2.

use 5 studs Equation 4d of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the shear studs required in composite beam segment 1.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Therefore. Equation 4b of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam is used to calculate the studs required in composite beam segment 2.19 .5 ft − 9.5 ft < 10 studs 19. N L 1 right rightmost * i =n +1 ∑ L CBSi < ? rightmost i =n +1 ∑N CBSi ? 0 studs * L CBS3 < NCBS3 19. NCBS1 = NCBS1 Prev = 5 studs Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 Technical Note 26 . Next we determine whether to use Equation 4b or Equation 4c of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for composite beam segment 2.5 ft 0 studs < 10 studs → Use Equation 7b.5 ft * 10 ft  ≥ 5 studs    NCBS2 = Negative ≥ 5 studs.NCBS3 NCBS2 = Roundup  * L CBS2  ≥ NCBS2 Prev   L 1 right − L CBS3     0 .5 ft ? 0 studs * 9.10 NCBS2 = Roundup   19. Thus. use 10 studs. rightmost    N NCBSi   i=3 * L CBS2  ≥ NCBS2 Prev = Roundup  rightmost   L CBSi  L 1 right −    i=3   NCBS2 ∑ ∑   N .

Calculation of the Number of Shear Studs Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Minimum Studs Required The minimum number of studs required in the three composite beam segments for this beam is calculated using Equation 5 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. the final number of uniformly spaced shear studs specified for the beam is 5 in composite beam segment 1.20 Shear Stud Distribution Example 3 . the number of shear studs does not need to be increased to meet the minimum requirements. for a total of 20 shear studs.5 ft   MS CBS1 = Roundup  CBS1  =   MaxLS       36 in   12 in     1 ft  = 4 studs    L   10 ft   12 in    = 4 studs MS CBS2 = Roundup  CBS2  =   MaxLS        36 in   1 ft   L   9.5 ft   MS CBS3 = Roundup  CBS3  =   MaxLS       36 in   12 in    1 ft  = 4 studs    Thus.  L   9. Assuming that the shear studs are found to fit on the beam. 5 in composite beam segment 2 and 10 in composite beam segment 3. Technical Note 26 .

The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. select one or more beams and then click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. BERKELEY. The tables typically correspond to the tabs used in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Beam Overwrites Input Data The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. Beam Overwrites Input Data Technical Note 27 . Information about composite beam overwrites is available in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 18 Overwrites. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. INC. as well as other non-code-specific input data for composite beam design.1 . Recall that the composite beam overwrites apply to all beams to which they have been specifically assigned. To access the composite beam overwrites. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 5 Input Data for further information about using the print Composite Beam Design Tables Form.. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 27 Input Data This Technical Note describes the composite beam design input data for AISCASD89. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note.

This data is provided to help identify the beam to which printed overwrites apply. this item is the user-defined yield stress of the beam. Type of beam design. this item reads "Prog Calc. this item is the user-defined width for beff right. this item is the user-defined minimum tensile strength of the beam. this item reads "Prog Calc. this item reads "Prog Calc. NC w/o studs is short for noncomposite without shear studs. Otherwise. Note that this item supersedes the Shored Floor item in the composite beam preferences. If the beam yield stress is based on the material property specified for the beam. Length of the beam to which the overwrites apply. X Y Length Global X coordinate of the center of the beam to which the overwrites apply. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for description of the effective width of the slab. Beam Properties Composite Type Shoring Provided b-eff Left b-eff Right Beam Fy Beam Fu Technical Note 27 .Input Data Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Location Information This information does not correspond to one of the tabs in the composite beam overwrites. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for description of the effective width of the slab." Otherwise.2 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data . this item reads "Prog Calc. This item is Yes if the composite beam is shored. The choices are Composite." Otherwise. If the beff right width is program calculated. it is No. this item is the user-defined width for beff left. NC w/ studs and NC w/o studs." Otherwise. If the beam minimum tensile strength is based on the material property specified for the beam. Global Y coordinate of the center of the beam to which the overwrites apply. NC w/ studs is short for noncomposite with minimum shear studs. If the beff left width is program calculated. Note that this option allows you to design a noncomposite floor beam in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor." Otherwise.

it may be different for each design load combination. Length Given means that you have specified a single maximum unbraced length for the beam. The user-defined bracing may be point or uniform bracing along the top and bottom flange of the beam. Plate Width Plate Thick Plate Fy Consider Cover Plate Width of the cover plate. Beam Unbraced Length Beam unbraced length data is provided for both the construction condition and the final condition. If this item is "Yes. Thickness of the cover plate." this item is the userspecified maximum unbraced length of the beam. this item is specified as N/A. If the Cb factor is calculated by the program." Prog Calc means that the program determines the braced points of the beam." or "Length Given. the user-defined Cb factor that is used in determining the allowable bending stress is displayed." Otherwise. Otherwise. Yield stress of the cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Cover Plate This information is included on the Beam tab of the overwrites." "User Bracing. If the Bracing State item is "Length Given. A relative length is the maximum unbraced length divided by the length of the beam." the specified cover plate is considered in the design of the beam. The headings for these two types of beam unbraced lengths are “Beam Unbraced Length (Construction Loading)” and “Beam Unbraced Length (Final Loading). If the Bracing State item is not Length Given. and. (Note that when the Cb factor is program calculated. it may be different for each station considered along the length of the beam. this item is specified as N/A. User Bracing means that you have specified the actual bracing for the beam.” The types of data provided in each of these tables is identical and is documented once here. for a given design load combination. Bracing State This item can be "Prog Calc. this item reads "Prog Calc. Otherwise.) Unbraced L22 L22 Absolute Cb Factor Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data Technical Note 27 . the cover plate is not considered in the beam design." this item indicates whether the user-specified maximum unbraced length of the beam (the Unbraced L22 item) is an absolute (actual) length or a relative length. If the Bracing State item is "Length Given.3 .

The choices for this item are TopFlange. TopFlange means only the top flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is braced at this point. Location This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the point brace. As described in the preceding paragraph.Input Data Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Point Braces The heading of the point braces data table specifies whether the point braces are program calculated or user-defined. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. Type Uniform Braces The heading of the uniform braces data table specifies whether the point braces are program calculated or user-defined. End Type Technical Note 27 .4 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data . This distance is always larger than the Start item. BotFlange or BothFlngs. This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform brace. Before you run the design. Note: Details about the location and type of program calculated point and uniform braces is only reported after you have run the design. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. and whether the distances used to define the extent of the uniform braces (Start and End items) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are braced at this point. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. Start This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform brace. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are uniformly braced along the specified length. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. BotFlange or BothFlngs. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam. TopFlange means only the top flange is braced at this point. this information is not available. As described previously. and whether the distances used to locate the point braces (Location item) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. As described in the preceding paragraph. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam. The choices for this item are TopFlange.

Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the beam.” if the deck label is determined by the program. Perpendclr means that the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the beam span. End and Length items) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. or it is a userdefined allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. Maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the beam. Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data Technical Note 27 .5 .” “Parallel. This item is either “Prog Calc. Note: User-defined shear stud patterns are described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns. The uniform spacing of single shear studs along the length of the beam. Parallel means that the span of the metal deck is parallel to the beam span. Deck Properties Beam Side Deck Label Deck Direction Shear Stud Properties Min Long Spacing Max Long Spacing Min Tran Spacing Max Conn in a Row Stud q User-Defined Shear Stud Pattern Uniform Spacing User-Defined Uniform Stud Sections The heading of the uniform stud sections data table specifies whether the distances used to define the extent of the stud sections (Start. Maximum number of shear studs in a single row across the beam flange. if this is a user-specified overwrite. It indicates to which side of the beam the deck label and deck direction specified in the same row apply.” or “Perpendclr. This item is “Prog Calc” if the allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud is determined by the program. or it is "None" if no composite deck has been specified on the side of the beam. or it is the label (name) of a defined deck section. Minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam flange.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION This item is either Left or Right. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam.” Prog Calc means that the direction of the deck span (parallel or perpendicular to the beam span) is program determined. This item is “Prog Calc.

this item is Yes. The total load deflection limit for the beam. If it is No. As described previously. User-specified camber when the program does not calculate the beam camber.6 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data . this item is No. Camber and Vibration Deflection Absolute Live Load Limit Total Load Limit Calculate Camber Specified Camber Neff Beams Other Restrictions Limit Beam Depth Minimum Depth Maximum Depth Technical Note 27 .Input Data Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING Start DESCRIPTION This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform stud section. The number of uniformly spaced shear studs in the uniform stud section. This item is No if the beam depth limitations are not considered. This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform stud section. If they are specified as a divisor of beam length (relative). the user can specify the camber. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. End Length Number Deflection. This item is Yes if the beam depth limitations (Minimum Depth and Maximum Depth items) are considered by the program for beams with auto select section lists. As described previously. This item is “Prog Calc” if the number of effective beams for vibration calculations is determined by the program. As described previously. If this item is Yes. Maximum actual (not nominal) beam depth considered in the auto select section list if the Limit Beam Depth item is Yes. the program calculates the camber for the beam. This is the length of the uniform stud section. or it is a user-defined number of effective beams. but if desired. the program does not calculate a camber. The live load deflection limit for the beam. Minimum actual (not nominal) beam depth considered in the auto select section list if the Limit Beam Depth item is Yes. If the live load and total load deflection limits are specified as absolute (actual) distances. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. it may be an absolute or a relative distance.

is considered for the beam. The EQ Factor is a multiplier applied to earthquake loads. More information about the EQ Factor is available from Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 18 Overwrites. Maximum percent composite connection considered by the program for the beam.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Input Data Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING Minimum PCC Maximum PCC RLLF DESCRIPTION Minimum percent composite connection considered by the program for the beam. This item is “Prog Calc” if the reducible live load factor is determined by the program. EQF 1/3 Increase Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data Technical Note 27 . or it is a user-defined reducible live load factor. A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. including wind or seismic loads.7 . The item is “Inactive” if the one-third increase is not considered. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the composite beam design overwrites. This item is “Active” if the one-third increase in allowable stresses for design load combinations. This represents the reducible live load factor.

.

" Name of the design group (if any) to which the beam has been assigned. Similar output also appears on screen if you click the Details button in the Show Details area of the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. Short Form Output Details This output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and select Short Form in the Output Details area of the resulting form. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Composite Beam Design for more details on the interactive design. Beam section label (name). Basic Beam Information Beam Label Group Beam Short Form Output Details Technical Note 28 . which would be identified as "W18X35. BERKELEY. A typical label beam would appear as "B23. The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Label associated with the line object that represents the beam. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 28 Output Details This Technical Note describes the composite beam output for AISC-ASD89 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file in either short form or long form." Do not confuse this with the Section Label. as well as the Summary of Composite Beam Output. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 6 Output Data for information about using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form.1 .. INC. The program provides the output data in a series of tables.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

It is equal to the number of shear studs required in the segment divided by the maximum number of studs that fit in the segment. Length Stud Ratio Shored Technical Note 28 . Number of studs in each composite beam segment separated by commas. Global Y coordinate of the center of the beam. They are listed starting with the composite beam segment at the I-end of the beam and working toward the J-end of the beam. the total number of studs is reported instead of the stud ratio Story Length Loc X Loc Y RLLF Story level associated with the beam. Fu. Beam minimum tensile strength. This item is Yes if the beam is shored and No if it is unshored. A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.2 Table 1 Output Details . When the shear studs are user-defined. depending on whether the shear studs are user-defined or calculated by the program. This item has a slightly different meaning.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING Fy Fu Stud Layout DESCRIPTION Beam yield stress. Length of the beam. Length of each composite beam segment separated by commas. Fy. The lengths are listed starting with the composite beam segment at the I-end of the beam and working toward the J-end of the beam. Global X coordinate of the center of the beam. When the number of shear studs is calculated by the program. Seg. a stud ratio is reported for each composite beam segment.

This item may be calculated by the program or it may be user-specified. If this item is Yes.3 . This price is intended for comparison of alternative designs only. The deck section labels (names) on the left and right sides of the beam. N/A is reported for this item. Thus. Otherwise. shear studs and camber.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Output Details Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING Camber DESCRIPTION The camber for the beam. Width of the cover plate. This item is Yes if the specified cover plate is considered in the design. Diameter of shear studs. one or more items have been overwritten for this beam. If no cover plate is specified by the user. nothing has been overwritten. More information about the EQ Factor is available Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 18 Overwrites. Price of the beam using the input price parameters for steel. Thickness of the cover plate." you may want to print the long form output. Comparative Stud Diam EQ Factor Overwrites b-cp t-cp Fy-cp Consider-cp Deck Left and Deck Right Dir. it is No. A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Left and Dir. Perpendclr means that the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the composite beam design overwrites. Right Table 1 Output Details Technical Note 28 . The deck directions on the left and right sides of the beam. Yield stress for the cover plate. It is not intended to be used for cost estimating purposes. If no cover plate is specified by the user. N/A is reported for this item. N/A is reported for this item. If it is No. If no cover plate is specified by the user. The values for all overwrite items are included in the long form output. Parallel means that the deck span is parallel to the beam span. if this item is "Yes.

with partial composite connection. Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate. plus cover plate alone (if it exists). if it exists. even if it exists) to the ENA of the beam. with full (100%) composite connection. including cover plate. Itr. Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone. Percent composite connection. Transformed section moment of inertia for full (100%) composite connection for positive bending. even if it exists. The program calculated cope of the beam top flange at the left and right ends of the beam. Cbot Left and Cbot Right Itrans Ibare Is Ieff PCC ytrans ybare yeff q Technical Note 28 . Effective moment of inertia for partial composite connection. Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate.4 Table 1 Output Details . Moment of inertia of the steel beam. not including cover plate. even if it exists) to the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the beam. even if it exists) to the ENA of the beam. The left end of the beam is the I-end and the right end of the beam is the J-end. Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate. y . The program calculated cope of the beam bottom flange at the left and right ends of the beam. Do not confuse the left and right ends of the beam with the left and right sides of the beam. Do not confuse the left and right ends of the beam with the left and right sides of the beam.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING beff Left and beff Right Ctop Left and Ctop Right DESCRIPTION The slab effective widths on the left and right sides of the beam. The left end of the beam is the I-end and the right end of the beam is the J-end. Allowable horizontal shear load for a single shear stud.

Final Pos means it is a positive moment for final loading. This item is either Constr Pos. TopFlange: The top of the beam top flange. Final Pos or Final Neg. Design load combination that causes the controlling moment for the moment type considered in the table row. CoverPlate: The bottom of the cover plate. Const Neg means it is a negative moment for construction loading. Constr Neg. BotFlange: The bottom of the beam bottom flange. Table 1 Output Details Technical Note 28 . Important note: This value is not used in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor design. Pmax Combo Type The design load combination associated with Pmax. If there is a significant amount of axial load in the beam. Final Neg means it is a negative moment for final loading. is in the beam.5 . if any. Const Pos means it is a positive moment for construction loading. It is reported to give you a sense of how much axial load. Combo Location ConcRight: The top of the concrete slab on the right side of the beam. Possible values for this are: ConcLeft: The top of the concrete slab on the left side of the beam. The Steel Frame Design postprocessor does consider axial load. you may want to design it noncompositely using the Steel Frame Design postprocessor. Pmax The largest axial load in the beam for any design load combination. The critical location over the height of the beam section for bending stress.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Output Details Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Moment Design This table of output data reports the controlling moments for both construction loads and final loads.

The location where this allowable bending stress applies is given in the Location column. The allowable bending stress associated with the controlling bending stress. Constr Left means it is a construction loading shear at the left end of the beam. Constr Worst. fb Fb 1/3 Factor Ratio Shear Design This table of output data reports the controlling shears for both construction loads and final loads.33. Constr Worst means it is a construction loading shear somewhere in the middle of the beam and it is the worst-case shear. fb. If the 1/3 allowable stress increase applies to the design load combination. the result is further divided by 1. Fb. Final Left means it is a final loading shear at the left end of the beam. Final Rght means it is a final loading shear at the right end of the beam.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING M DESCRIPTION The controlling moment for the moment type considered in the table row. This allowable stress reported here never includes the 1/3 increase that may apply. Technical Note 28 . This item is either Yes or No. Final Worst means it is a construction loading shear somewhere in the middle of the beam and it is the worstcase shear. Type This item is either Constr Left. The location over the height of the beam where this bending stress occurs is given in the Location column. It indicates whether a 1/3 allowable stress increase was used for the ratio calculated in this row in the table. divided by the allowable bending stress. Constr Right means it is a construction loading shear at the right end of the beam. This is the bending stress. Final Left or Final Right.6 Table 1 Output Details . Constr Right. The bending stress associated with the controlling moment.

If the item indicates NG. The shear checks at the left and right ends of the beam always appear. the result is further divided by 1. Fv. Combo Design load combination that causes the controlling shear for the shear type considered in the table row. Block V fv Fv 1/3 Factor Ratio Deflection Design This table of output data reports the controlling deflections for both live load and total load. It indicates whether the program check for block shear (shear rupture) passed or failed. The shear stress associated with the controlling shear. and NG (no good) means it did not. This item is either Yes or No.7 . If the 1/3 allowable stress increase applies to the design load combination. Type Consider This item is either Live Load or Total Load. The allowable shear stress associated with the controlling bending stress. OK means that the beam passes the Check. This allowable stress never includes the 1/3 increase that may apply. This item is either OK or NG. you should check the block shear by hand for the beam. The controlling shear for the shear type considered in the table row. fv.Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Output Details Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION The Constr Worst and Final Worst items only appear when they control the design. This is the bending stress. divided by the allowable bending stress. This item is always Yes. Table 1 Output Details Technical Note 28 .33. indicating that deflection is one of the criteria checked when determining if a beam section is considered acceptable. It indicates whether a 1/3 allowable stress increase was used for the ratio calculated in this row in the table.

The computed camber is subtracted from the total load deflection before the total load deflection is reported.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Table 1 Output Details COLUMN HEADING Combo DESCRIPTION Design load combination that causes the controlling deflection for the deflection type considered in the table row. This is the controlling deflection divided by the deflection limit. Deflection Note: Deflection is described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber.8 Table 1 Output Details . Limit The deflection limit for the deflection type considered in the table row. Ratio Technical Note 28 . The controlling deflection for the deflection type considered in the table row.

CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 29 General and Notation This Technical Note provides an overview of composite beam design using the AISC-LRFD93 design specification.. Do not confuse the beam that is being designed with a trial section for that beam. Refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 32 Design Load Combinations for a description of the AISC-LRFD93 default design load combinations. Also refer Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length and Design Check Locations. The flowchart is intended to convey the important features of the AISC-LRFD93 design methodology. BERKELEY.1 . General and Notation Technical Note 29 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The numbered boxes in the flowchart correspond to the "Box" identifiers used in the text of this Technical Note. INC. note that the flowchart is set up for a single beam.Design Load Combinations The program creates default design load combinations for composite beam design using the AISC-LRFD93 specification. A trial section is simply a beam section size that is checked for the beam that is being designed. Box 1 .Design Check Locations The program determines all of the design check locations for a given beam. Also any user-specified design load combinations can be interpreted and implemented. Box 3 . The beam that is being designed is an actual element in the model.Start Here Before you begin. AISC-LRFD93 Design Methodology The flowchart in Figure 1 shows the general methodology for composite beam design of a single beam element using the AISC-LRFD93 specification. It should not be literally construed as a flowchart for the actual computer code included in the program. Box 2 . Thus you must apply the flow process shown to each beam designed.

18 Determine price of section. 12 Is the vibration criteria satisfied? 10 Yes No No Considering full composite action. 5 Is the section compact or noncompact? 6 Determine design load combinations.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Determine design check locations.2 General and Notation . 1 Is there another trial section available that may qualify as the optimum beam Yes No section? 19 The design for this beam element is complete. 4 Select a trial beam section. is the interaction for the combined stresses Yes acceptable? 11 Figure 1: Flowchart for AISC-LRFD93 Design of a Single Beam Technical Note 29 . 8 No No 17 Calculate required camber. Mn. Yes Is beam shear acceptable? 16 Considering full composite connection. 13 Determine the minimum acceptable percent composite connection considering combined stresses and deflection criteria. determine whether to use a plastic or an elastic stress distribution to calculate the moment capacity. 3 Determine checking order for beams. On the basis of compact section requirements. 7 Yes No Determine transformed section properties for full composite action. 2 Start here to design a beam element. 20 Determine if trial section is the current optimum section. are the maximum moment and deflection acceptable? Yes 9 15 Yes Do the required No shear connectors fit on the beam? 14 Determine the required number of shear connectors.

The program checks to make sure the beam is not slender. See Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements for more information.Transformed Section Properties The program computes the transformed section properties of the trial beam section. Slender sections are not designed. If there is both positive and negative bending in the beam. only the transformed section properties for positive bending are calculated. Refer to the section entitled “How ETABS Optimizes Design Groups” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for a description of this selection process.3 .Checking Order for Beams You must determine the checking order for a beam if the beam is assigned an auto selection property. the program requires that the beam section be either compact or noncompact. only the transformed section properties for negative bending are calculated.Compact and Noncompact Requirements For AISC-LRFD93 design of composite beams. Box 7 . transformed section properties for both positive and negative bending are calculated.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation Box 4 . Refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for a description of how the program calculates the effective width of the concrete slab for the composite beam. Box 5 . Refer to Composite Beam De- General and Notation Technical Note 29 . Similarly. Box 8 . The program considers the beams in the auto select list in the order described in the section entitled “How ETABS Optimizes Design Groups” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information.Stress Distribution Used to Calculate Moment Capacity The program determines whether to use a plastic or an elastic stress distribution when calculating the moment capacity for AISC-LRFD93 design. Refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements for a description of how the program checks compact and noncompact requirements. If there is only positive bending in the beam.Trial Beam Section The program allows you to select the next trial beam section to be checked for conformance with the AISC-LRFD93 specification and any additional userdefined criteria. if there is only negative bending in the beam. Box 6 .

Flexural checks are also made for the construction loads. the transformed section properties are used for calculating deflection. In AISC-LRFD93 design. Box 12 . Box 10 . If the vibration check is satisfied.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 sign AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia for description of how the program calculates the transformed section properties. For more detailed information on the vibration checks. the design for this section is terminated. Technical Note 29 . the design for this section is terminated. and they are used when the moment capacity is determined based on an elastic stress distribution. the program checks if the vibration parameters satisfy the specified limits.4 General and Notation . the program checks the P-M interaction equations. The main purpose of this check is to quickly eliminate inadequate beam sections. Box 11 . the design using the current trial section continues.Initial Moment Capacity and Deflection Check The program checks that the moment capacity of the beam using full composite connection is greater than or equal to the applied factored moment. It also checks if the deflection using full composite connection is acceptable. Refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 36 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone for more information. If vibration is specified to be used as one of the tools for selecting the optimum beam size. refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration.Vibration Criteria Check The program calculates the vibration parameters. that is. Box 9 . when the web is noncompact. otherwise. The program determines the smallest amount of composite connection for which the beam is adequate. Refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 38 Bending and Deflection Checks for more information. Both flexural checks and deflection checks are made at this point.Partial Composite Action A significant amount of design is performed at this point in the process. If the interaction check is satisfied. the design using the current trial section continues.P-M Interaction Check If there is axial load on the beam. otherwise.

Camber The program determines the camber for the beam. Box 14 . the design using the current trial section continues. Box 13 .Checking if Shear Connectors Fit on the Beam The program checks if the number of shear connectors calculated (box 14) actually fit on the beam. the design using the current trial section continues. Also refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam and Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. For more information refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. if it is specified to have camber. Box 16 . For more information refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 39 Shear Connectors. otherwise. Box 17 . Also refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. the design for this section is terminated. Box 15 . General and Notation Technical Note 29 . otherwise.Required Number of Shear Connectors The program calculates the required number of shear connectors on the beam and the distribution of those shear connectors. Finally refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for limitations associated with composite beams and formed metal deck. In such cases. the design for this section is terminated. See Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 40 Beam Shear Capacity for more information. If the beam shear check is satisfied.Section Price Determination of price of section applies only when price has been specified by the user as the method of selecting the optimum section.5 .Beam Shear The program checks the beam shear for the reactions at each end of the beam. If the connectors fit on the beam.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation For more information refer to Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution and Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 38 Bending and Deflection Checks. Refer to Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for more information.

The program checks if another section in the auto selection list might qualify as the optimum beam section.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 the program determines the price of the current beam. The program will indicate if no beam with an optimum section is included in the auto selection list. Refer to the section titled “How ETABS Optimizes Design Groups” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for more information. Technical Note 29 . There are some additional aspects included in the composite beam design module that are not directly addressed in the flowchart shown in Figure 1. the design for that beam property will be provided or the beam will be indicated to be inadequate. Box 18 . the current optimum section. is the optimum section for the beam. Refer to “Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for more information If the optimum beam size is to be selected by weight. this check becomes irrelevant because the beams are checked in order from the lightest to the heaviest beams and thus the first beam found to work is the optimum beam. If the beam has been assigned an auto selection property. If the beam is assigned a regular. Refer to “Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections” in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for more information.Design Complete At this point. the design for this particular beam element is complete. assuming one has been found. Those include designing beams in groups and designing beams with partial length cover plates. The program checks if the price of the current trial beam is less than that of any other beam that satisfied the design criteria. Box 19 . the current beam section becomes the current optimum beam section. If so.6 General and Notation . Box 20 . non-auto selection property.Checking for Possible Additional Optimum Sections This check applies only if the beam has been assigned an auto selection property.Check if a Section is the Current Optimum Section This check applies only if price has been specified as the method of selecting the optimum section.

refer to the section "How the Program Optimizes Design Groups" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Informaiton. For beams with metal deck ribs running parallel to the beam span. Area of concrete within slab effective width that is above the elastic neutral axis (ENA) for full composite action. in2. in2. in2. in2. This value may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. For beams with metal deck ribs running perpendicular to the beam span. in. web and bottom flange. or the total area (excluding cover plate) of a user-defined steel section. Note that the total area of a user-defined steel section is found by summing the area of the top flange. in2. the concrete above the metal deck and the concrete in the deck ribs are included if it is above the ENA. Notation Abare Ac Area of the steel beam (plus coverplate) alone. The extension of the methodology described in Part 3 to designing by groups is relatively simple and is assumed to be apparent to the reader.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation For more information on the design by group feature. Cross-sectional area of a shear stud connector. Initial displacement amplitude of a single beam resulting from a heel drop impact. in2. Area of compression flange.7 . Moment magnifier. Gross area of steel member. Af Ag As ASb Asc Atr Aw B1 General and Notation Technical Note 29 . in2. Area of an element of the composite steel beam section. in2. only the concrete above the metal deck and above the ENA is included. Area of the web equal to the overall depth d times the web thickness tw. unitless. Area of rolled steel section.

Warping constant for a section. Cope depth at top of beam. Compressive force in the top fillets of a rolled steel beam. CC2 CFT CKT CR Ctop Cw CWeb D Ec Es Technical Note 29 . kips. this is the compressive force in the slab. Modulus of elasticity of concrete slab. This force only occurs when the metal deck ribs are oriented parallel to the steel beam. If no metal deck exists. Modulus of elasticity of steel. and the plastic neutral axis is below the top of the metal deck. Compressive force in the top flange of the steel beam. Note that this could be different on the left and right sides of the beam. ksi. Cope depth at bottom of beam. kips. This force only occurs when the plastic neutral axis is within the beam web. Compressive force in the slab rebar. in. Compressive force in concrete that is in the metal deck ribs. and you have specified the rebar to be considered. in. This force only occurs when the plastic neutral axis is below the rebar. Damping ratio. kips. percent critical damping inherent in the floor system. unitless. in6. unitless. ksi. This force only occurs when the plastic neutral axis is below the bottom of the top flange of the beam. Also note that this is different for stress calculations and deflection calculations. kips. kips. Compressive force in concrete slab above metal deck.8 General and Notation . This force only occurs when the plastic neutral axis is below the top of the beam.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Cb Cbot CC1 Bending coefficient dependent on moment gradient. kips. Compressive force in the steel beam web.

ksi.5 kips per square inch for welded shapes converted to the appropriate. Transformed section moment of inertia about elastic neutral axis of the composite beam. Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone plus cover plate if applicable. Moment of inertia about the x and y axes of the beam respectively. in4. Minimum specified yield stress of steel in beam bottom flange. in4. Moment of inertia of an element of the composite steel beam section taken about its own center of gravity. ksi. ksi. Smaller of (Fyf . ksi. ksi. Minimum specified yield stress of steel in beam web. in4. Compressive residual stress in flange. Minimum specified yield stress of cover plate. ksi. Minimum specified tensile strength of structural steel or shear stud. in4. Taken as 10 kips per square inch for rolled shapes and 16. ksi. Minimum specified yield stress of steel in beam top flange. ksi. ksi. in4. in. or if there is both positive and negative bending in the beam. Shear modulus of elasticity of steel.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation Fcr FL Fr Critical stress for columns in compression. the Fu Fy Fycp Fyf-bot Fyf-top Fyw G Hs Ieff IO Is Itr Ix. Effective moment of inertia of a partially composite beam. Minimum specified yield stress of structural steel. Iy Iyc General and Notation Technical Note 29 .9 . ksi.Fr) or Fyw. Moment of inertia of compression flange about the y-axis. Length of shear stud connector after welding.

in. in. (3) physical end of concrete slab. in. Limiting laterally unbraced length of beam for inelastic lateraltorsional buckling. Length of a composite beam segment. A unitless coefficient typically equal to 1. uniform moment case (Cb = 1. Length of channel shear connector. in. (2) another beam framing into the beam being considered. in which case Kf is as defined in Figure 1 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration.57 unless the beam is the overhanging portion of a cantilever with a backspan. Figure 1 Composite Beam Design Technical Note Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam illustrates some typical cases for LCBS.0). unitless. Distance between two points used when the program is calculating the maximum number of shear studs that can fit between those points. in which case Kf is 0. Laterally unbraced length of beam. in4. Limiting unbraced length for determining allowable bending stress. in. Center-of-support to center-of-support length of the beam. in4. or the beam is a cantilever that is fully fixed at one end and free at the other end. If the deck span is oriented parallel to L Lb Lc LCBS Lcsc Lp Lr Ls Technical Note 29 . in. J K Kf Torsional constant for a section. Limiting laterally unbraced length of beam for full plastic bending capacity. length between points that are braced against lateral displacement of the compression flange or braced against twist of the cross section. in.10 General and Notation . in. Effective length factor for prismatic member. A composite beam segment spans between any of the following: (1) physical end of the beam top flange.56.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 smaller moment of the two flanges.

kip-in. or physical end of concrete slab measured on the appropriate side of the point load. Absolute value of moment at the centerline of the unbraced beam segment. kip-in. kip-in. kip-in. then Ls is taken as the distance between the two points minus 3 inches. L1 Distance from point of maximum moment to the closest point of zero moment or physical end of beam top flange. Absolute value of moment at the quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. kip-in. If the point load is located on the right side of the point of maximum moment. Elastic buckling moment. or physical end of concrete slab measured on the other side of the point of maximum moment from the distance L1. Moment. Plastic bending moment. Nominal flexural strength. in. Distance from point load to the point of zero moment.11 . physical end of beam top flange. kip-in. in. Absolute value of moment at the three-quarter point of the unbraced beam segment. the distance is measured toward the right end of the beam. the distance is measured from the point load toward the left end of the beam. kip-in. L2 L3 M MA MB MC Mcr Mmax Mn Mp General and Notation Technical Note 29 . kip-in.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation the beam span and at least one of the points is at the end of the beam. in. If the point load is located on the left side of the point of maximum moment. Distance from point of maximum moment to the nearest point of zero moment or physical end of beam top flange. Maximum positive moment for a beam. or physical end of concrete slab.

unitless. Mu MPFconc MPFsteel NCBS Neff Nr N1 N2 NR NSmax P Pe Pn Technical Note 29 . Required number of shear connectors between a point load and a point of zero moment (or end of slab). The effective number of beams resisting the heel drop impact. Maximum possible force that can be developed in the concrete slab. Available number of metal deck ribs between two points. unitless. and cover plate. Limiting buckling moment. unitless. kips. kips. kips. Required flexural strength. Nominal axial strength (tension or compression). although more than three studs may be installed. kips. when λ = λr and Cb = 1. if applicable.General and Notation Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Mpt load Mr Moment at the location of a point load. if applicable. Required number of shear connectors between the point of maximum moment and an adjacent point of zero moment (or end of slab). Number of shear stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection. not to exceed three in computations. The number of uniformly distributed shear connectors the program specifies for a composite beam segment. kip-in. kipin.0. Mcr. Maximum number of shear stud connectors between two points a distance of Ls apart. unitless.12 General and Notation . unitless. Euler buckling load. and rebar in slab. unitless. Axial load. Maximum possible force that can be developed in the steel section. unitless. kips. kip-in.

in. Maximum number of rows of shear stud connectors that can fit between two points a distance of Ls apart. Nominal tensile axial strength.13 . Required axial strength (tension or compression). Wiss-Parmelee rating factor. kips. kips. unitless. unitless. For an example see paragraph 1b of the section Solid Slab or Deck Ribs Oriented Parallel to Beam Span in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 14 Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. Effective section modulus of a partially composite beam referred to the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate). Qn R RF RSmax Sed Seff Sr Ss General and Notation Technical Note 29 . kips. kips. kips.6 kips. Minimum edge distance from midheight of a metal deck rib to the center of a shear stud. in.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 General and Notation Pnc Pnt PO Pu Py PCC Nominal compressive axial strength. kips. The default value is 1 inch. This force is taken as 0. Reduction factor for horizontal shear capacity of shear connectors. The exact formula for this term is code dependent. Center to center spacing of metal deck ribs. in3. unitless. in3. You can change this in the preferences and the overwrites. Nominal strength of one shear connector (shear stud or channel). Axial compressive yield strength . unitless. Percent composite connection. Section modulus of the steel beam alone plus cover plate if applicable referred to the tension flange. Heel drop force.

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

St-eff

The section modulus for the partial composite section referred to the top of the equivalent transformed section, in3. Section modulus for the fully composite uncracked transformed section referred to the extreme compression fiber, in3. Section modulus for the fully composite uncracked transformed section referred to the the extreme tension fiber of the steel beam section (including cover plate), in3. Section modulus about the x and y axes of the beam respectively, in3. Section modulus about the x axis of the outside fiber of the compression flange, in3. Section modulus about the x axis of the outside fiber of the tension flange, in3. Maximum number of shear stud connectors that can fit in one row across the top flange of a composite beam, unitless. Tensile force in a composite rolled steel beam when the plastic neutral axis is above the top of the beam, kips. Tensile force in the cover plate, kips. Tensile force in the bottom flange of a steel beam, kips. Tensile force in the top flange of a steel beam, kips. Tensile force in the bottom fillets of a rolled steel beam, kips. Tensile force in the top fillets of a rolled steel beam, kips. Tensile force in the web of a steel beam, kips. Shear force, kips. Nominal shear strength, kips. Required shear strength, kips.

Stop

Str

S x, S y

Sxc

Sxt

SRmax

TB

TCP TFB TFT TKB TKT TWeb V Vn Vu

Technical Note 29 - 14

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

General and Notation

W

Total load supported by the beam, kips. You specify a load combination that the program uses to determine this weight. Beam buckling factor defined by AISC-LRFD93 equation F1-8. Beam buckling factor defined by AISC-LRFD93 equation F1-9. Plastic section modulus of the steel beam alone plus cover plate if applicable, in3. Plastic section modulus about the x and y axes of the beam respectively, in3. clear distance between transverse stiffeners, in. For a user-defined section, ratio of web area to flange area, but not more than 10, unitless. Distance from top of concrete to bottom of effective concrete for partial composite connection when bottom of effective concrete is within the slab above the metal deck (or there is a solid slab with no metal deck), in. Distance from top of metal deck to bottom of effective concrete for partial composite connection when bottom of effective concrete is within the height of the metal deck, in. Distance from top of metal deck to elastic neutral axis when elastic neutral axis is located in slab above metal deck, in. Distance from top of concrete slab to elastic neutral axis when elastic neutral axis is located in slab above metal deck, in. Distance from bottom of metal deck to elastic neutral axis when elastic neutral axis is located within height of metal deck, in. Distance from top of metal deck to elastic neutral axis when elastic neutral axis is located within height of metal deck, in. Width, in.

X1 X2 Z

Z x, Z y

a ar

a1

a2

a3

a4

a5

a6

b

General and Notation

Technical Note 29 - 15

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

bcp beff bf bf-bot bf-top d

Width of steel cover plate, in. Effective width of concrete flange of composite beam, in. Width of flange of a rolled steel beam, in. Width of bottom flange of a user-defined steel beam, in. Width of top flange of a user-defined steel beam, in. Depth of steel beam from outside face of top flange to outside face of bottom flange, in. Average depth of concrete slab, including the concrete in the metal deck ribs, in. Diameter of a shear stud connector, in. First natural frequency of the beam in cycles per second. Specified compressive strength of concrete, ksi. Acceleration of gravity, in/seconds2. Clear distance between flanges less the fillet or corner radius at each flange for rolled shapes and clear distance between flanges for other shapes, in. For rolled shapes, twice the distance from the beam centroid to the inside face of the compression flange less the fillet or corner radius. In a user-defined section, twice the distance from the centroid of the steel beam alone, not including the cover plate even if it exists, to the inside face of the compression flange, in. Height of metal deck rib, in. Distance from outer face of a rolled beam flange to the web toe of a fillet, in. Unitless factor used in AISC-LRFD93 Table B5.1, 0.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0.763.

davg

dsc f f'c g h

hc

hr k

kc

Technical Note 29 - 16

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

General and Notation

kdepth

Distance from inner face of a rolled beam flange to the web toe of a fillet, in. Width of idealized fillet of rolled beam section, in. Controlling laterally unbraced length of a member, in. Laterally unbraced length of a member for buckling about the local 2 and 3 axes of the beam respectively, in. Laterally unbraced length of a member for buckling about the x and y axes of the beam respectively, in. For a user-defined section, ratio of web yield stress to flange yield stress, unitless. Governing radius of gyration, in. Distance from top of beam flange to bottom of metal deck, in. Radius of gyration about the local 2 and 3 axes of the beam respectively, in. Radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange plus one-third of the compression web area taken about an axis in the plane of the web, in. Radius of gyration about the x and y axes of the beam respectively, in. Radius of gyration of the compression flange about the y-axis, in. Beam spacing, in. Thickness, in. Thickness of concrete slab, in. If there is metal deck this is the thickness of the concrete slab above the metal deck. Thickness of cover plate, in.

kwidth l l22, l33

l x, l y

m

r rd r22, r33

rT

rx, ry

ryc

sb t tc

tcp

General and Notation

Technical Note 29 - 17

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

tf tf-bot tf-top tO

Thickness of steel beam flange, in. Thickness of bottom flange of a user-defined steel beam, in. Thickness of top flange of a user-defined steel beam, in. Time to the maximum initial displacement of a single beam resulting from a heel drop impact, seconds. Thickness of web of user-defined steel beam, in. Additional metal deck rib width, in. This term is used to specify metal deck ribs that are split over the beam. The width wa is added to the width wr when determining the width of deck rib available for shear studs. Unit weight per volume of concrete, pounds/feet3. Unit weight per area of metal deck, ksi. Average width of metal deck rib, in. The assumed gap distance from the supporting beam or column flange to the end of the beam flange, in. The default value for this length is 0.5 inches. Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the elastic neutral axis of the fully composite beam, in. The distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam to the neutral axis of the noncomposite steel beam plus cover plate if applicable, in. The distance from the elastic neutral axis of the bare steel beam alone (plus cover plate, if applicable) to the elastic neutral axis of the fully composite beam, in. The distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam to the neutral axis of the partially composite beam, in.

tw wa

wc wd wr x1

y

ybare

ye

yeff

Technical Note 29 - 18

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

General and Notation

y1

Distance from the bottom of the bottom flange of the steel beam section to the centroid of an element of the composite beam section, in. Distance from the top of the top flange of the steel beam section to the plastic neutral axis when the plastic neutral axis is within the beam top flange, in. Distance from the bottom of the top flange of a rolled steel beam section to the plastic neutral axis when the plastic neutral axis is within the fillets, in. For a rolled steel beam, the distance from the bottom of the top fillet to the plastic neutral axis when the plastic neutral axis is within the beam web, in. For a user-defined steel beam, the distance from the bottom of the top flange to the plastic neutral axis when the plastic neutral axis is within the beam web, in. Distance from the plastic neutral axis of composite section to the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not cover plate), in. Distance from the elastic neutral axis of the steel beam (plus cover plate, if it exists) alone to the top of the concrete slab, in. Note that this distance may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Distance from the plastic neutral axis of composite section to the top of the concrete slab, in. Note that this distance may be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the steel beam section, in2. Sum of the areas of all of the elements of the composite steel beam section, in2. Sum of the product Atr times y1 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section, in3.

y2

y3

y4

yp

z

zp

ΣA

ΣAtr Σ(Atry1)

General and Notation

Technical Note 29 - 19

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Σ(Ay1) Σ(Ay12) Σ(Atry12)=

Sum of the product A times y1 for all of the elements of the steel beam section, in3. Sum of the product A times y12 for all of the elements of the steel beam section, in4. Sum of the product Atr times y12 for all of the elements of the composite steel beam section, in4. Sum of the moments of inertia of each element of the composite steel beam section taken about the center of gravity of the element, in4. Sum of nominal strength of shear connectors (shear stud or channel) between point considered and point of zero moment, kips. Required nominal strength of shear connectors (shear stud or channel) between point considered and point of zero moment for partial composite connection percentage, PCC, kips. Required nominal strength of shear connectors (shear stud or channel) between point considered and point of zero moment for full (100%) composite action, kips. Unitless factor used in calculating number of shear studs between a point load and a point of zero moment equal to Str/Ss for full composite connection and Seff/Ss for partial composite connection. Resistance factor, unitless. Resistance factor for bending in a noncomposite beam, unitless. The default value is 0.9. Resistance factor for negative bending in a composite beam when Mn is determined from an elastic stress distribution, unitless. The default value is 0.9. Resistance factor for negative bending in a composite beam when Mn is determined from a plastic stress distribution,

ΣIO

ΣQn

ΣQn-pcc

ΣQn-100

β

φ φb

φbcne

φbcnp

Technical Note 29 - 20

General and Notation

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

General and Notation

unitless. The default value is 0.85. φbcpe Resistance factor for positive bending in a composite beam when Mn is determined from an elastic stress distribution, unitless. The default value is 0.9. Resistance factor for positive bending in a composite beam when Mn is determined from a plastic stress distribution, unitless. The default value is 0.85. Resistance factor for strength of shear studs, unitless. Note that this is a resistance factor that is not defined by AISC. It is included by CSI to give you more control over the strength of the composite section. The default value is 1.0. Resistance factor for axial compression, unitless. The default value is 0.85. Resistance factor for axial tension, unitless. The default value is 0.9. Resistance factor for beam shear, unitless. The default value is 0.9. Controlling slenderness parameter, unitless. It is the minor axis slenderness ratio Lb/ry for lateral-torsional buckling. It is the flange width-thickness ratio b/t as defined in AISC LRFD Manual Specification section B5.1 for flange local buckling. It is the web depth-thickness ratio h/tw as defined in AISC LRFD Manual Specification section B5.1 for web local buckling. Column slenderness parameter, unitless. Limiting slenderness parameter for a compact element, largest value of λ for which Mn = Mp, unitless. Limiting slenderness parameter for a noncompact element, largest value of λ for which buckling is inelastic, unitless.

φbcpp

φbs

φc

φt

φv

λ

λc λp

λr

General and Notation

Technical Note 29 - 21

.

however. at least review the default values for the preference items to make sure they are acceptable to you.1 . The Composite Beam Design Preferences form has five separate tabs: Factors. The right column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item value. Click on the desired tab: Factors. BERKELEY. select the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design. type in the desired value. This activates a drop-down box or highlights the current preference value. The preference options included under each of the tabs are displayed in a twocolumn spreadsheet. You cannot overwrite values in the dropdown boxes. If the cell is highlighted. Beam. INC. select a new value. Preferences Technical Note 30 . The first time you enter the Preferences form. Deflection. if necessary. Vibration or Price. review and. it is not required that you specify or change any of the preferences. You should. Using the Preferences Form To view preferences. Use the Options menu > Preferences > Composite Beam Design command to access the Preferences form where you can view and revise the composite beam design preferences. Deflection. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 30 Preferences General The composite beam design preferences are basic assignments that apply to all composite beams. change the specified design code in the drop-down box near the bottom of the form. To change a preference item. Vibration. If the drop-down box appears. left click the desired preference item in either the left or right column of the spreadsheet. Thus.. Beam. The preference value will update accordingly. and Price. The Preferences form will display.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The left column of the spreadsheet displays the preference item name. Default values are provided for all composite beam design preference items.

You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program. the preference items are presented in tables. To set all of the composite beam preference items on a particular tab to their default values. Important note about resetting preferences: The defaults for the preference items are built into the program. click on that tab to view it and then click the Reset Tab button. The column headings in these tables are described as follows: • Item: The name of the preference item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Preferences form. When you have finished making changes to the composite beam preferences. This description helps you remember the purpose of each preference item without referring to the documentation. a short description of that item displays in the large text box just below the list of items. The possible values that the associated preference • • Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated preference item. This button resets the preference values on the currently selected tab. Preferences For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note. click the Reset All button. The composite beam preference values that were in a . not to the values that were in the .Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 When the preference item is clicked in either column. Technical Note 30 . click the OK button to close the form.2 Preferences .edb file used to initialize the model. Possible Values: item can have.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in default values. This button immediately resets all of the composite beam preference items. any changes made to the preferences are ignored and the form is closed. Clicking a reset button resets the preference values to built-in values. To set all of the composite beam preference items on all tabs to their default values. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form.

Mn. φbcnp. phi-bcne >0 0. Resistance factor applied to the negative bending capacity in a composite beam section when the bending capacity.3 . Factors Tab Phi Factors Table 1 lists the preference items available for phi factors in AISC-LRFD93 design. See AISCLRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 36 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone.9 phi-bcnp >0 0. φb. Resistance factor applied to the positive bending capacity in a composite beam section when the bending capacity. is determined from a plastic stress distribution. Table 1 AISC-LRFD93 Phi Factor Preferences Item phi-b Possible Values >0 Default Value 0.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Preferences • Description: A description of the associated preference item. See AISCLRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 35 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity. Some of those phi factors are specified by the AISC specification.9 Description Resistance factor for bending capacity in a steel beam alone. See AISCLRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 35 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity. Mn. Others have been created by CSI to give you more control over the capacities for the composite section.9 Preferences Technical Note 30 .85 phi-bcpe >0 0. Resistance factor applied to the negative bending capacity in a composite beam section when the bending capacity. is determined from an elastic stress distribution. is determined from an elastic stress distribution. Mn. φbcne. φbcne.

The acceptable stress ratio limit. This item only applies to design optimization. Table 2: Composite Beam Preferences on the Beam Tab Item Shored? Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle for shored or unshored construction. φbcnp.4 Preferences . Length in the middle of the beam over which the program checks the effective width on each side of the beam.95 Technical Note 30 . See AISCLRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending. Beam Tab Table 2 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Beam tab in the Preferences form.9 Refer to the Technical Notes mentioned in the Description column of the table for more information. Middle Range (%) ≥ 0% 70% Pattern Live Load Factor Stress Ratio Limit ≥0 >0 0. See AISC-LRFD93 Composite Beam Design Technical Note 40 Beam Shear Capacity.75 0. is determined from a plastic stress distribution. expressed as a percentage of the total beam length. Resistance factor for shear capacity in steel beam.Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 AISC-LRFD93 Phi Factor Preferences Item phi-bcpp Possible Values >0 Default Value 0. phi-v >0 0.85 Description Resistance factor applied to the positive bending capacity in a composite beam section when the bending capacity. Mn. φv. Factor applied to live load for special pattern live load check for cantilever back spans and continuous spans.

Table 3: Composite Beam Preferences on the Deflection Tab Item Live Load Limit. >0 240 >0 100% See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for description of beam deflection and camber. Table 4: Composite Beam Preferences on the Vibration Tab Item Possible Values Default Value Description Percentage of live load plus reduced live load considered (in addition to full dead load) when computing weight supported by the beam for use in calculating the first natural frequency of the beam. Percentage of dead load (not including superimposed dead load) on which camber calculations are based. Total load deflection limitation denominator (inputting 240 means that the deflection limit is L/240). Vibration Tab Table 4 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Vibration tab in the Preferences form. Toggle to consider the frequency as one of the criteria to be used for determining if a beam section is acceptable. L/ Camber DL (%) Possible Values >0 Default Value 360 Description Live load deflection limitation denominator (inputting 360 means that the deflection limit is L/360).5 .Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Preferences Deflection Tab Table 3 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Deflection tab in the Preferences form. L/ Total Load Limit. Percent Live Load (%) ≥0 25% Consider Frequency? Yes/No No Preferences Technical Note 30 .

if it exists). Camber price per unit weight of steel beam (including cover plate. This item is used when the Consider Murray Damping item is set to Yes. Percentage of critical damping that is inherent in the floor system. This item is used when the Consider Frequency item is set to Yes. Installed price for a single shear stud connector. Technical Note 30 . Toggle to consider Murray's minimum damping requirement as one of the criteria to be used for determining if a beam section is acceptable. Table 5: Composite Beam Preferences on the Price Tab Item Optimize for Price? Stud Price ($) Camber Price ($) Possible Values Yes/No ≥0 ≥0 Default Value No Description Toggle to consider price rather than steel weight when selecting the optimum beam section from an auto select section list. $0 $0 See "Using Price to Select Optimum Beam Sections" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 1 General Design Information for additional information on the "Optimize for Price?" item.Preferences Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 4: Composite Beam Preferences on the Vibration Tab Item Minimum Frequency Consider Murray Damping? Inherent Damping (%) Possible Values > 0 Hz Default Value 8 Hz Description Minimum acceptable first natural frequency for a floor beam. Price Tab Table 5 lists the composite beam preference items available on the Price tab in the Preferences form. Yes/No No > 0% 4% See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration for a description of beam vibration.6 Preferences .

S. Be sure that you use the same currency units (for example. if applicable) is input as part of the material property specification for the beam. and the camber price in the preferences. U. The material properties can be reviewed or defined using the Define menu > Material Properties command. the stud price in the preferences.7 . Preferences Technical Note 30 . dollars) for the steel price in the material properties.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Preferences Note that the price per unit weight for the steel beam (plus cover plate.

.

Deflection. use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View\Revise Overwrites command to access the Composite Beam Overwrites form where you can view and revise the composite beam design overwrites. it is not required that you specify or change any of the overwrites. After selecting one or more composite beams. When changes are made to overwrite items. Overwrites Technical Note 31 . Vibration and Miscellaneous. Descriptions of the various overwrite options available on each tab are provided later in this Technical Note. Bracing. Note: There are default values provided for all overwrite items. Bracing (C). However. Shear Studs. General The composite beam design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those composite beams to which they are assigned. at least review the default values for the overwrite items to make sure they are acceptable. BERKELEY. you do not need to specify any of the composite beam overwrites. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 31 Overwrites This Technical Note provides instructions on how to use the Composite Beam Overwrites form and describes the items available on each of the tabs in the form.. that is. Deck. The Composite Beam Overwrites form has eight tabs. Default values are provided for all composite beam overwrite items. INC. to the elements that are selected when the overwrites are changed. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned.1 . They are Beam. if you are happy with the defaults. Thus.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. One section is devoted to each of the tabs. Thus.

Technical Note 31 . The values of the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet are visible if only one beam was selected before the Composite Beam Overwrites form was accessed. select a value from the box.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Using the Composite Beam Overwrites Form After selecting one or more composite beams. When changes to the composite beam overwrites have been made. a short description of the item in that row displays in the large text box just below the list of items. type in the desired value. If you click the Cancel button to exit the form. Initially. After selecting one or multiple beams. no values show for the overwrite items in the second column of the spreadsheet. Click on the desired tab. check the box to the left of an overwrite item to change it. If the drop-down box appears. You cannot change the values in the drop-down boxes. The names of the overwrite items in the first column of the spreadsheet are visible. The left column in the spreadsheet contains the name of the overwrite item. Then left click in either column of the spread sheet to activate a drop-down box or to highlight the contents of the cell in the right column of the spreadsheet. The overwrite will reflect the change. The right column in the spreadsheet contains the overwrite value. When you check a check box or left click in one of the columns in the spreadsheet. the check boxes are all unchecked and all of the cells in the spreadsheet have a gray background to indicate they are inactive and that the items in the cells currently cannot be changed. This description helps you recall the purpose of the overwrite item without referring to the manual. If the cell is highlighted. use the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View\Revise Overwrites command to access the Composite Beam Overwrites form. If multiple beams were selected. The program then changes all of the overwrite items whose associated check boxes are checked for the selected beam(s). The Composite Beam Overwrites are displayed on each tab with a column of check boxes and a two-column spreadsheet. any changes made to the overwrites will be ignored and the form will be closed. click the OK button to close the form. You must click the OK button for the changes to be accepted by the program.2 Overwrites .

you can click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > Reset All Composite Beam Overwrites command to accomplish the same thing.edb file that you used to initialize your model may be different from the built-in program default values. click the Reset All button.edb file used to initialize the model. Default Value: The built-in default value that the program assumes for the associated overwrite item. When you reset overwrites. not to the values that were in the . To set all of the composite beam overwrite items on all tabs to their default values. Possible Values: The possible values for the associated overwrite item. The composite beam overwrite values that were in a . Item: The name of the overwrite item as it appears in the cells at the left side of the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Overwrites Technical Note 31 . the program resets the overwrite values to its built-in values. The column headings in these tables are described as follows. click on the tab and then click the Reset Tab button. This button resets the overwrite values on the tab currently selected. Important note about resetting overwrites: The defaults for the overwrite items are built into the program. Description: A description of the associated overwrite item. Alternatively. Overwrites For purposes of explanation in this Technical Note.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Resetting Composite Beam Overwrites to Default Values To set all of the composite beam overwrite items on a particular tab to their default values. This button immediately resets all of the composite beam overwrite items.3 . the overwrite items are presented in tables.

or NC w/o studs Program calculated or user-defined ≥0 Item Shored? Beam type Default Value No (unshored) Composite Description Toggle for shored or unshored construction. Toggle specifying how the effective width of the concrete slab on the right side of the beam is determined User-defined effective width of concrete slab on right side of beam. NC w studs. Specifying 0 means that Fu is as specified in the material properties b-eff left Condition b-eff left Program calculated Program calculated value Program calculated Program calculated value Specified in Material Properties Specified in Material Properties b-eff right Condition b-eff right Program calculated or user-defined ≥0 Beam Fy ≥0 Beam Fu ≥0 Technical Note 31 . Toggle specifying how the effective width of the concrete slab on the left side of the beam is determined User-defined effective width of concrete slab on left side of beam. Specifying 0 in the overwrites means that Fy is as specified in the material properties Minimum tensile strength of the beam.4 Overwrites . NC w studs is short for Noncomposite with minimum shear studs. Fy. beff left. Table 1: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Beam Tab Possible Values Yes/No Composite.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Beam Tab Table 1 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Beam tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. Fu. beff right Yield stress of the beam. NC w/o studs is short for Noncomposite without shear studs. Type of beam design.

Width of cover plate. Cover plate yield stress. If the beam is shored. to be designed as a composite beam.5 . When using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. Specifying 0 means that Fycp is set to that specified in the beam material properties ≥0 ≥0 >0 0 0 0 The Shored item affects both the deflection calculations and the flexural stress calculations for the beam. no checks are performed for the construction loading design load combination. The overwrite does not and cannot force a beam that has been designed as a noncomposite beam. when a beam is designed using the Composite Beam Design postprocessor that beam is designed as a composite beam if it has a deck section (not slab section) assigned along the full length of the specified Middle Range on at least one side of the beam. Typically. bcp. because there is no deck section along at least one side. Fycp. tcp. The Beam Type overwrite allows you to specify that a beam that would ordinarily be designed as a composite beam be designed as a noncomposite beam. Thickness of cover plate. a beam that does not have a deck section along at least one side is always designed as a Overwrites Technical Note 31 . See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for a description of beam deflection.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 1: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Beam Tab Possible Values Yes/No Item Cover Plate Present? Plate width Plate thickness Plate Fy Default Value No Description Toggle switch indicating if a full length cover plate exists on the bottom of the beam bottom flange. Note: The Middle Range item is specified on the Beam tab in the composite beam preferences and is described in "Location Where Effective Slab Width is Checked" of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab.

without exceeding the specified maximum longitudinal spacing. Bracing (C) Tab and Bracing Tab The unbraced length overwrite items included on the Bracing (C) tab and the Bracing tab are exactly the same. When a beam is designed as noncomposite with minimum shear studs. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for a description of the beam effective width. The items on the Bracing tab apply to final condition design load combinations. The items on the Bracing (C) tab apply to construction loading design load combinations. Then shear studs are specified for the beam with as large a spacing as possible. The maximum longitudinal spacing can be overwritten on the Shear Studs tab. These additional items are shown in Tables 2b and 2c. The cover plate width. regardless of what is specified in the Beam Type overwrite. In this program. Technical Note 31 . if desired. When the Define menu > Frame Sections command is used to define a beam section. thickness and Fy items are not active unless the "Cover Plate Present" item is set to Yes. the cover plate can have a yield stress that is different from that of the beam. The first two items that appear in the Bracing (C) tab and the Bracing tab are shown in Table 2a. depending on your choice for the Bracing Condition item. the beam is designed as a noncomposite beam.6 Overwrites . The beam yield stress and the cover plate yield stress both default to the yield stress specified for the material property associated with the beam section. See "Cover Plates" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 7 Composite Beam Properties for a description of cover plates.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 noncomposite beam. the material property associated with the beam section should also be defined. The material property is defined using the Define menu > Material Properties command. Additional items may also appear in the tabs.

bracing specified or length specified Program calculated When the Cb factor is program calculated. 2. When the Bracing Condition is specified as Program Calculated. Bracing Condition Program calculated. They are program calculated. based on userspecified uniform and point bracing. Note that the program automatically considers the bracing for construction loading and for the final condition separately.5 M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C Eqn. the program uses Equation 1 to calculate it unless you have specified the Bracing Condition as Length Specified. Cb = where. 1 Mmax is the maximum moment. For the construc- Overwrites Technical Note 31 . MB is the moment at the center or one-half point.7 . MC is the moment at the three-quarter point.5 M max 12. Specifying 0 in the overwrites means that this value is program calculated This item defines how the unbraced lengths are determined for buckling about the beam local 2-axis. MA is the moment at the one-quarter point. Cb.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 2a: First Two Composite Beam Overwrite Items on the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab Possible Values ≥0 Default Value Program calculated Item Cb factor Description Unitless factor used in determining allowable bending stress. or based on a user-specified maximum unbraced length. the program assumes the beam is braced as described in "Determination of the Braced Points of a Beam" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length.

Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 tion loading condition. When the Bracing Condition is specified as Length Specified. Technical Note 31 . The two additional items are shown in Table 2b. Clicking in this box opens the Point Braces form where you specify the point braces. No. Point Braces Description The number of user-specified point brace locations. When the Bracing Condition is specified as Bracing Specified. Uniform Braces ≥0 0 The No. These items are described in "User-Specified Uniform and Point Bracing" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length.8 Overwrites . The two additional items are shown in Table 2c. two items appear in the tab in addition to those shown in Table 2a. Point Braces and No. Table 2b: Additional Composite Beam Overwrite Items on the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab When the Bracing Condition Is Specified as Bracing Specified Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 0 Item No. two items appear in the tab in addition to those shown in Table 2a. Clicking in this box opens the Uniform Braces form where you specify the uniform braces. Uniform Braces items allow you to specify actual bracing for the beam. the program assumes that the concrete fill does not assist in bracing the beam. The number of user-specified uniform braces.

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 2c: Additional Composite Beam Overwrite Items on the Bracing (C) Tab and the Bracing Tab When the Bracing Condition Is Specified as Length Specified Item Absolute Length? Unbraced L22 Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle switch for whether the maximum unbraced length is given as an absolute length or a relative length.9 . the actual maximum unbraced length is specified. inclusive. When the maximum unbraced length is specified as a relative length. ≥ 0 and ≤ beam length Length of beam When the maximum unbraced length is specified as an absolute length. Maximum unbraced length for buckling about the beam local 2 axis. Overwrites Technical Note 31 . The relative length specified is always between 0 and 1. the value specified is equal to the maximum unbraced length divided by the length of the beam. any defined deck property. Table 3: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Deck Tab Possible Values Program calculated. Deck Tab Table 3 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Deck tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. or None Default Value Program calculated Item Deck ID Left Description Deck ID assigned to left side of beam. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 9 Beam Unbraced Length for additional information about the unbraced length of the beam.

Table 4: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Shear Studs Tab Item User Pattern? Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Description Toggle to indicate if a user-defined shear connector pattern is defined. Technical Note 31 . Shear Studs Tab Table 4 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Shear Studs tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. or perpendicular Deck ID Right Program calculated. If the deck direction is program calculated. Program calculated. or None Deck direction Program Right calculated. or perpendicular Program calculated Program calculated Span direction of the metal deck ribs on the right side of beam relative to the span direction of beam When the Deck ID is program calculated. It is not shown in the overwrites. parallel. do not overlook the important note about deck orientation in "Multiple Deck Types or Directions Along the Beam Length" in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 3: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Deck Tab Possible Values Default Value Program calculated Item Deck direction Left Description Span direction of the metal deck ribs on left side of beam relative to the span direction of the beam.10 Overwrites . any defined deck property. parallel. you must refer to the output data to see what the program assumed for this item. Deck ID assigned to right side of beam.

six stud studs along the length of the beam.e.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 4: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Shear Studs Tab Item Uniform Spacing Possible Values ≥0 Default Value 0. not as a multiplier on the stud diameter. The Uniform Spacing and No. The design code used may specify the maximum longitudinal spacing is eight times the total slab thickness (rib height. The program default value for the maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is 36 inches. Additional Sections ≥0 Min Long Spacing Max Long Spacing Min Tran Spacing Max Studs per Row Qn >0 >0 >0 >0 Program calculated or >0 Number of sections in which additional uniformly spaced shear studs are specified. Minimum transverse spacing of shear 4ds (i. No. diameters) 36 inches Maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam. AISC-LRFD-93 Specification Section I5 specifies that the maximum longitudinal spacing of Overwrites Technical Note 31 . indicating there are no uniformly spaced connectors 0. Additional Sections items are only available if the User Pattern item is set to Yes. hr. Note that this item is input as an absolute length.11 . Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear 6ds (i.e. Clicking in this box opens the Additional Sections form where you specify the section length and the number of uniformly spaced connectors in the section. diameters) 3 Maximum number of shear studs in a single row across the beam flange. tc). The program default value for the minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the length of the beam is six shear stud diameters. There is one shear stud per row along the beam... See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns for a more information. four stud studs across the beam flange. Program Capacity of a single shear stud. indicating there are no additional connectors specified Description Uniform spacing of shear studs along the beam. plus concrete slab above metal deck. Specicalculated fying 0 in the overwrites means that this value is program calculated.

Deflection Tab Table 5 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Deflection tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. not that it is zero.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 shear studs along the length of a beam shall not exceed 36 inches for beams when the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the span of the beam. not as a multiplier on the stud diameter. Finally. This is consistent with the last paragraph of AISC-LRFD-93 Specification Section I5. Note that when a q value is specified in the overwrites.12 Overwrites . note that specifying 0 (zero) in the overwrites for this item means that the allowable shear stud load is calculated by the program. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for an additional description of how shear studs are distributed on composite beams. For wider beams. Note that this item is input as an absolute length. the Min Tran Spacing item might indicate that more studs could be accommodated across the beam flange but the Max Studs per Row item will limit the number of studs in any row. Technical Note 31 . If your total slab thickness is less than 36"/8 = 4. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam for an additional description of how shear studs are distributed on beams. Technical Note 14 The Number of Shear Studs that Fit in a Composite Beam Segment. and Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns. The program default value for the minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam flange is four shear stud diameters.5". See "Shear Stud Connector" in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs for a description of how the program calculates the allowable shear load for a single shear stud. the program default value may be unconservative and should be revised. Shear studs are described in more detail in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 13 Distribution of Shear Studs on a Composite Beam. the program assumes that the specified value of q has already been modified by any applicable reduction factors for the metal deck. The "Max Studs per Row" item indicates the maximum number of shear studs that is allowed in a row across the beam flange.

User-specified camber when the program does not calculate beam camber >0 Specified in Preferences Specified in Preferences Yes 0 Total Load Limit Calculate Camber? Fixed Camber >0 Yes/No ≥0 See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber for a description of beam deflection and camber.0 Effective number of beams resisting a heel drop impact. Vibration Tab Table 6 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Vibration tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. inputting 360 means that the limit is L/360.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Overwrites Table 5: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Deflection Tab Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Item Deflection Absolute? Live Load Limit Description Toggle to consider live load and total load deflection limitations as absolute or as divisor of beam length (relative). Deflection limitation for total load. inputting 240 means that the limit is L/240. Deflection limitation for live load. Toggle for the program to calculate beam camber. Overwrites Technical Note 31 . N effective.13 . For relative deflection. Table 6: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Vibration Tab Possible Values User Defined or Program Calculated ≥1 Default Value Item Neff Condition Description No. 1. For relative deflection. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 12 Beam Vibration for a description of beam vibration. Effective Beams User Defined Toggle to select user defined or program calculated based on beam spacing.

0 Yes/No No Technical Note 31 . the program calculated valued is used. >1. Minimum actual (not nominal) beam depth to be considered in auto select section list. Table 7: Composite Beam Overwrites on the Miscellaneous Tab Possible Values Yes/No Default Value No Item Consider Beam Depth? Description Toggle to select if beam depth is to be considered in an auto select section list.14 Overwrites . Minimum percent composite connection considered for the beam. Maximum percent composite connection considered for the beam. >1. Maximum Depth Minimum Depth Maximum PCC(%) Minimum PCC (%) LL Reduction Factor >0 ≥0 >0 >0 0<.Overwrites Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Miscellaneous Tab Table 7 lists the composite beam overwrite items available on the Miscellaneous tab in the Composite Beam Overwrites form.0 44 inches 0 100% 25% 1. Multiplier applied to the earthquake portion of the load in a design load combination. Reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Defines if the story level similarity to a master story level is to be ignored when designing the beam. Maximum actual (not nominal) beam depth to be considered in auto select section list. maximum and minimum depths must be input.0 Horizontal EQ Factor Ignore Similarity 0<.0 1. If zero is selected. If yes.

1 . BERKELEY. Eqn. The automatically created design load combination. ΣWDL = The sum of all wet dead load (WDL) load cases defined for the model.2 (ΣLL + ΣRLL)] where. or you can use both default combinations and your own combinations.6 [0. using the AISC-LRFD93 specification. it is assumed to be a WDL load case. Note that if a load case is simply defined as dead load. ΣLL = The sum of all live load (LL) load cases defined for the model.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. 1 Design Load Combinations Technical Note 32 . If the beam is shored. or you may define your own design load combinations. Use the Design Menu > Composite Beam Design > Select Design Combo command to access the design load combinations selection form.6 (ΣWDL) + 1. 1. You may use the default composite beam design load combinations for your design. You can modify the default design load combinations and you can delete them if you wish. Strength Check for Construction Loads The program only performs the check using the construction load design load combination if the beam is unshored.. General information about composite beam design load combinations is provided by Composite Beam Design Technical Note 10 Design Load Combinations. the check for construction loads is not performed and any specified design load combinations for construction loads are not relevant. for checking the strength of an unshored beam subjected to construction loads is given by Equation 1. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 32 Design Load Combinations This Technical Note defines the default AISC-LRFD93 composite beam design load combinations.

g. Note that all of the load factors for this servicability check are 1.2 (ΣLL + ΣRLL) is an assumed construction live load. 2 Eqn. See R.2 Design Load Combinations .6 (ΣLL + ΣRLL) where. Technical Note 32 . etc. placing of concrete. If the beam is shored. 1..).2 (ΣWDL + ΣSDL) + 1. and the remainder of the terms are as defined for Equation 1.4 (ΣWDL + ΣSDL) 1. ΣWDL + ΣSDL + ΣLL + ΣRLL Eqn. Strength Check for Final Loads The automatically created design load combinations for checking the strength of a composite beam under final loads are given by Equations 2 and 3. Eqn. the entire deflection is based on the effective moment of inertia of the composite section. If the beam is unshored. ΣSDL = The sum of all superimposed dead load (SDL) load cases defined for the model. 3 Deflection Check for Final Loads The automatically created design load combination for checking the deflection of a composite beam under final loads is given by Equation 4. 4 where all of the terms are as described for Equations 1 through 3.Design Load Combinations Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 ΣRLL = The sum of all reducible live load (RLL) load cases defined for the model.0. In Equation 1 the term 0. the WDL portion of the deflection is based on the moment of inertia of the steel beam alone and the remainder of the deflection is based on the effective moment of inertia of the composite section. Vogel (1991). Note that the load factor for dead loads is assumed the same as that for live load when considering construction loads (e.

” Steel Tips. “LRFD-Composite Beam Design with Metal Deck. Technical Information & Product Service. R.3 . Steel Committee of California. Design Load Combinations Technical Note 32 . March.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Design Load Combinations Reference Vogel. 1991.

.

if it exists and is in compression. for each design load combination. The basic compact and noncompact requirements checked are in AISC-LRFD93 specification Chapter B. Overview The program classifies beam sections as either compact. noncompact or slender.. For example. Two reasons that a beam may be classified differently for different design load cases are: The compact section requirements for beam webs depend on the axial load in the beam.1 . classification of the section may depend on which flange is determined to be the compression flange. INC. When a singly symmetric beam is designed for noncomposite behavior. the program first checks a beam section for the compact section requirements for the compression flange. and. The program checks the width-to-thickness ratios of the beam compression flange. it is also checked for lateral torsional buckling requirements. Different design load combinations may produce different axial loads in the beam.1. If the beam section meets all of those require- Compact and Noncompact Requirements Technical Note 33 . web. It checks the compact and noncompact section requirements at each design location along the beam for each design load combination separately. the cover plate. cover plate (if applicable) and lateral torsional buckling (if applicable) described herein. a beam may be classified as compact for design load combination A and as noncompact for design load combination B. If the sizes of the top and bottom flanges are not the same. A beam section may be classified differently for different design load combinations. Table B5. beam web. The compression flange may be different for different design load combinations. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements This Technical Note describes how the program checks the AISC-LRFD93 specification requirements for compact and noncompact beams. At each design location.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. BERKELEY.

b ≤ t 141 Fy . Technical Note 33 .Compact and Noncompact Requirements Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 ments. If the beam section does not meet all of the compact section requirements. the width-to-thickness ratio for the compression flange is limited to that indicated by Equation 2. Compact Section Limits for Flanges For compact sections. the width-to-thickness ratio for the compression flange is limited to that indicated by Equation 1. for noncompact sections Eqn. The width-to-thickness ratio for flanges is denoted b/t. b 65 ≤ . web. If the beam section does not meet all of the noncompact section requirements.10 . Equation 1 applies to both rolled sections selected from the program's database and to user-defined sections. 1 where Fyf is the specified yield stress of the flange considered. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Flanges This section describes the limiting width-to-thickness ratios considered by the program for beam compression flanges. it is checked for the noncompact requirements for the flanges. and is equal to bf/2tf for I-shaped sections and bf/tf for channel sections. for compact sections t Fyf Eqn. it is classified as noncompact for that design load combination. If the beam section meets all of those requirements. cover plate (if applicable) and lateral torsional buckling (if applicable) described herein. 2 where Fy is the specified yield stress of the beam or channel.2 Compact and Noncompact Requirements . it is classified as slender for that design load combination and the program does not consider it for composite beam design. Noncompact Section Limits for Flanges I-Shaped Rolled Beams and Channels For noncompact I-shaped rolled beams and channels. it is classified as compact for that design load combination.

kc = 4 h tw but not less than 0. for noncompact sections Eqn.16. b ≤ t 162 Fyf . Equation 5b defines the compact section limit for webs. Compact Section Limits for Webs When checking a beam web for compact section requirements.85 if a plastic stress distribution is used for moment and φb = 0. Compact and Noncompact Requirements Technical Note 33 . (Pu / φbPy) in the beam. When (Pu / φbPy) ≤ 0. 4 Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Webs This section describes the limiting width-to-thickness ratios considered by the program for beam webs. even if it exists. When (Pu / φbPy) > 0.3 . the width-tothickness ratio used is h/tw.125. The equation used for checking the compact section limits in the web depends on the magnitude of the axial compression stress ratio.763 Eqn.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.9 if an elastic stress distribution is used for moment. When calculating the axial compression stress ratio. and not including the concrete slab.125. The program computes the axial compression stress ratio (Pu / φbPy) based on the area of the steel beam alone not including the cover plate. the width-to-thickness ratio for the compression flange is limited to that indicated by Equation 3. the following two rules are used: The program takes Py as AsFy for rolled sections and bf-toptf-topFyf-top + htwFyw + bf-bottf-botFyf-bot for user-defined sections. Equation 5a defines the compact section limit for webs.5 kc .Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Compact and Noncompact Requirements User-Defined and Hybrid Beams For noncompact user-defined and hybrid beams. The program uses φb = 0. 3 where Fyf is the yield stress of the compression flange and.

If there is no axial force.75Pu ≤ φ b Py tw Fy    . or if there is axial tension only (i.e.. no axial compressive force).  Fy  P when u > 0. 5b In Equations 5a and 5b. 5a h 191   2. Noncompact Section Limits for Webs When checking a beam web of a beam for noncompact section requirements.125  φ b Py   253 ≥ . the value of Fy used is the largest of the Fy values for the beam flanges and the web. The noncompact section limits depend on whether the flanges of the beam are of equal or unequal size. Beams with Equal Sized Flanges Equation 6 defines the noncompact section limit for webs in beams with equal sized flanges. the width-to-thickness ratio checked is h/tw.33 − Pu ≤ φ b Py tw Fy   Eqn.Compact and Noncompact Requirements Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 h 640  1 − 2.4 Compact and Noncompact Requirements .74Pu ≤ φ b Py tw Fy       Eqn. when Pu ≤ 0. Beams with Unequal Sized Flanges Equation 7 defines the noncompact section limit for webs in beams with unequal sized flanges Technical Note 33 . h 970  1 − 0. the value of Fy used is the largest of the Fy values for the beam flanges and the web.125 φ b Py Eqn. 6 In Equation 6. only Equation 5a applies.

In Case A of the figure. the width-to-thickness ratio is taken as b1/tcp.5 . the cover plate is checked for compact section requirements as shown in Equation 8. In that case. Compact Section Limits for Cover Plates For both cases A and B shown in Figure 1. the value of Fy used is the largest of the Fy values for the beam flanges and the web.  0. 8 Compact and Noncompact Requirements Technical Note 33 .83  h tw Fy   c  where. it is not checked for compact requirements. 7 3 h 3 ≤ ≤ 4 hc 2 In Equation 7. The second condition checked in Case B takes b2/tcp as the width-to-thickness ratio and checks it as a plate projecting from a beam. Limiting Width-to-Thickness Ratios for Cover Plates The width-to-thickness checks made for the cover plate depend on the width of the cover plate compared to the width of the beam bottom flange.74Pu 1 −  φ b Py    . This second condition is only checked for the noncompact requirements. Two conditions are checked in that case. The first condition is the same as that shown in Case A. and it is checked as a flange cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Compact and Noncompact Requirements  h h 253  ≤ 1 + 2. b1 190 ≤ t cp Fycp where b1 is defined in Figure 1. In Case B of Figure 1. Equation 7 is Equation A-B5-1 in the AISC-LRFD93 specification. the width of the cover plate is greater than the width of the beam bottom flange.   Eqn. where the width-to-thickness ratio is taken as b1/tcp and is checked as a flange cover plate. Eqn. the width of the cover plate is less than or equal to the width of the beam bottom flange. Figure 1 illustrates the conditions considered.

6 Compact and Noncompact Requirements . tcp Eqn. or greater than that of the bottom flange of the beam.Compact and Noncompact Requirements Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Beam Beam Cover plate tcp b1 b2 b1 b2 Cover plate Case A Case B Figure 1: Conditions Considered When Checking Width-to-Thickness Ratios of Cover Plates Noncompact Section Limits for Cover Plates The checks made for noncompact section requirements depend on whether the width of the cover plate is less than or equal to that of the bottom flange of the beam. Case B in Figure 1. Case A in Figure 1. b1 238 ≤ t cp Fycp The term b1 in Equation 9 is defined in Figure 1. 9 Technical Note 33 . Cover Plate Width ≤ Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width is less than or equal to the width of the beam bottom flange. Equation 9 applies for the noncompact check for the cover plate.

both Equations 9 and 10 apply for the noncompact check for the cover plate.7 . b2 ≤ t cp 95 Fycp Eqn. 10 The term b2 in Equation 10 is defined in Figure 1. Compact and Noncompact Requirements Technical Note 33 .Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Compact and Noncompact Requirements Cover Plate Width > Beam Bottom Flange Width When the cover plate width exceeds the width of the beam bottom flange.

.

0. the concrete in the ribs is also considered. Overview Figure 1 illustrates a generic plastic stress distribution for positive bending. The distance yp is measured from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not cover plate) to the plastic neutral axis (PNA).©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.1 . CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending This Technical Note describes how the program calculates the positive bending moment capacity for a composite section assuming a plastic stress distribution. Note that the concrete is stressed to 0. The illustrated plastic stress distribution is the basic distribution of stress used by the program when considering a plastic stress distribution for positive bending. Note that if the metal deck ribs are parallel to the beam. it can be different on the two sides of the beam as described later. BERKELEY. INC. The distance zp is measured from the top of the concrete slab to the PNA..85f’c a zp CConc CSteel Fy Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TSteel Fy Beam Section Beam Elevation Plastic Stress Distribution Figure 1: Generic Plastic Stress Distribution for Positive Bending Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 .85 f'c and the steel is stressed to Fy.

one for a rolled section and the other for a user-defined section. The maximum concrete force. Technical Note 34 . MPFconc. 2 Eqn.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Figure 2 illustrates how the program idealizes a steel beam for calculating the plastic stress distribution. if applicable). Note that the maximum concrete force has contributions from the left and right sides of the beam that are treated separately and may be different. the terms related to the top and bottom fillets are ignored. Although not shown in those figures. MPFsteel. the fillets are idealized as a rectangular block of steel. Two different cases are shown. the deck type and orientation may be different on the left and right sides of the beam as shown in Figure 2 of Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab. For a rolled steel section. Equation 3b is used if the deck ribs are oriented parallel to the beam span. The depth of this rectangular block. 1 Location of the Plastic Neutral Axis The program determines the location of the PNA by comparing the maximum possible compressive force that can be developed in the concrete. with the maximum possible tensile force that can be developed in the steel section (including the cover plate. is: kdepth = k .twh) / 2kdepth The basic steps in computing the positive plastic moment capacity are: Determine the location of the PNA using Equations 3a through 10. kwidth. Eqn.2bftf . is: kwidth = (As .tf The width of this rectangular block. Calculate the plastic moment capacity of the composite section using Equation 11 together with the appropriate table chosen from Tables 2 through 11 depending on the location of the PNA. kdepth.2 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . Note that for user-defined sections. MPFconc. is calculated from Equation 3a if there is no metal deck. or if the metal deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam span. The idealization for the rolled section considers the fillets whereas the idealization for the user-defined section assumes there are no fillets because none are specified in the section definition.

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending tf-top k bf-top tw h kdepth kwidth kdepth kwidth k bcp bf-bot Idealization for Rolled Section tcp tf-bot tf-bot d hr tc bf-top tw h bcp bf-bot Idealization for User-Defined Section Figure 2: Idealization of a Rolled Section and a User-Defined Section used for Calculating the Plastic Stress Distribution Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending tcp tf-top d hr tc Technical Note 34 .3 .

After the general locations have been identified. If the PNA is within the slab. the concrete in the metal deck ribs is only considered effective in compression if the metal deck ribs are oriented parallel to the beam span. is calculated from Equation 4a if the beam is a rolled section or Equation 4b if it is a user-defined section. Also.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 MPFconc = [(0. 3b (0. the PNA is within the steel section. it important to remember that the concrete is assumed to take no tension. there are several general locations for it. MPFsteel. 4a When computing the location of the PNA. The maximum concrete and steel forces are compared to determine whether the PNA is within the concrete slab or the steel section.85f'c beff  t c +    wrhr Sr   )left +     )right   Eqn. If the PNA is within the steel section.85f'c beff  t c +    wrhr Sr The maximum steel force. 4b Eqn. If MPFsteel = MPFconc. If MPFconc > MPFsteel. The general locations are: Within the beam top flange. it is a straightforward process to determine the location of the PNA.4 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . the fact that the concrete slab can be different on each side of the beam complicates locating the PNA. 3a MPFconc = [(0. Within the beam top fillet (applies to rolled shapes from the program's section database only). If MPFsteel > MPFconc. Technical Note 34 .85f'c beff tc)left + (0. the PNA is at the top of the steel beam if there is full composite connection and within the steel beam if there is partial composite connection. the PNA is within the concrete slab. MPFsteel = (AsFy + bcp tcp Fycp) MPFsteel = (bf-toptf-topFyf-top + twh + bf-bottf-botFyf-bot + bcp tcp Fycp) Eqn.85f'c beff tc)right] Eqn.

Figures 3a and 3b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. Note it is very unlikely that the PNA would be below the beam web but there is nothing in the program to prevent it. Top of metal on the left side of the beam. Using this information. Within the beam bottom fillet (applies to rolled shapes from the program's section database only). starting with the item at the highest elevation and proceeding downward. This condition would require a very large beam bottom flange and/or cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Within the beam web. which is the sum of MPFsteel.5 . Top of metal on the right side of the beam. PNA in the Concrete Slab Above the Steel Beam The program considers the condition where the slab on the left and right sides of the beam are different. that is. As soon as the sum of forces exceeds MPFsteel. from highest elevation to lowest: Top of concrete slab on the left side of the beam. the program recognizes that the last location considered is below the PNA. it puts the following four items in order. Each of the PNA locations in the steel section is described following the description of the PNA in the concrete slab. for the condition where the PNA is in the concrete slab above the metal deck. When the program determines that the PNA is above the top of the steel section. Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . the sum of compressive forces is compared with the maximum tension value. Top of concrete slab on the right side of the beam. Next the program sums the compressive forces of those four items. the program can solve directly for the location of the PNA. Within the cover plate (if one is specified). Within the beam bottom flange. and the second to last location considered is above the PNA. As each item is added into the sum. when MPFconc > MPFsteel. respectively.

Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 zp CC 1 TF T TK T Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 3a: Rolled Steel Section with PNA in Concrete Slab Above Metal Deck. Positive Bending zp CC 1 TF T Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 3b: User-Defined Steel Section with PNA in Concrete Slab Above Metal Deck. Positive Bending Technical Note 34 .6 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending .

hr. of the metal deck ribs. Positive Bending Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . respectively.7 . of Metal Deck. for the condition where the PNA is within the height.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Figures 4a and 4b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. hr. Positive Bending CC 1 CC 2 TF T zp Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 4b: User-Define Steel Section with PNA within Height. of Metal Deck. hr. CC 1 CC 2 TF T TK T Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb zp TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 4a: Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Height.

8 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . the concrete compression forces (CC1 and CC2) may have different magnitudes and locations (elevations) for the left and right sides of the beam. The term y2. which is the distance from the top of the steel beam to the PNA. y2 = MPFsteel − MPFconc 2b f − top Fyf − top Eqn. PNA within the Beam Top Flange Figures 5a and 5b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. is shown in these figures and is defined by Equation 5. Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . for the condition where the PNA is within the beam top flange.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Note that in Figures 3a through 4b. respectively. 5 CC 1 CC 2 CF T TF T TK T zp Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb y2 TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 5a: Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Beam Top Flange.

Figure 6 shows the internal forces for this condition.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending CC 1 CC 2 CF T TF T zp Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb y2 TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 5b: User-Defined Steel Section with PNA within Beam Top Flange. Positive Bending Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . Positive Bending PNA within the Beam Top Fillet The PNA lies within the beam top fillet only if the beam section is a rolled section. CC 1 CC 2 CF T CK T TK T zp Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp TWeb y3 TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Figure 6: Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Beam Top Fillet.9 .

CC 1 CC 2 CF T CK T y4 CWeb Plastic neutral axis (PNA) zp TWeb yp TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 7a: Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Beam Web. y3 = MPFsteel − MPFconc − 2b f − top t f − top Fyf − top 2k width Fyw Eqn.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 The term y3. is shown in Figures 7a and 7b and is defined by Equation 7. it reduces to zero for user-defined beams. 6 PNA within the Beam Web Figures 7a and 7b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. y4 = MPFsteel − MPFconc − 2b f − top t f − top Fyf − top 2t w Fyw 2k width k depth Fyw 2t w Fyw − Eqn. for the condition where the PNA is within the beam web. respectively. Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . which for a rolled steel beam is the distance from the web toe of the top fillet to the PNA. and for a user-defined beam is the distance from the bottom side of the beam top flange to the PNA. is shown in Figure 6 and is defined by Equation 6. which is the distance from the bottom side of the beam top flange to the PNA.10 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . The term y4. 7 The last term in Equation 7 only applies to rolled steel beams.

Positive Bending Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . Figure 8 shows the internal forces for this condition.11 . CC 1 CC 2 CF T CK T zp CWeb y5 Plastic neutral axis (PNA) CK B TK B TF B TC P Beam Section Figure 8: yp Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Beam Bottom Fillet.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending CC 1 CC 2 CF T CWeb y4 Plastic neutral axis (PNA) yp zp TWeb TF B TC P Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 7b: User-Defined Steel Section with PNA within Beam Web. Positive Bending PNA within the Beam Bottom Fillet The PNA is within the beam bottom fillet only if the beam section is a rolled section.

It requires a very large beam bottom flange and/or cover plate. PNA within the Beam Bottom Flange Figures 9a and 9b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. is shown in Figure 8 and is defined by Equation 8. respectively. 8 Note that it is unlikely that the PNA will be this low. for the condition where the PNA lies within the beam bottom flange.12 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending y6 . y5 = MPFsteel − MPFconc − 2b f − top t f − top Fyf − top 2k width Fyw 2k width k depth Fyw 2k width Fyw − 2ht w Fyw 2k width Fyw − Eqn. Positive Bending Technical Note 34 .Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 The term y5. CC 1 CC 2 CF T CK T zp CWeb Plastic neutral axis (PNA) CK B CF B TF B TC P Beam Section Figure 9a: yp Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Beam Bottom Flange. which is the distance from the top side of the beam bottom fillet to the PNA.

13 . It requires a very large beam bottom flange and/or cover plate.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending CC 1 CC 2 CF T zp CWeb y6 Plastic neutral axis (PNA) CF B TF B TC P Beam Section yp Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 9b: User-Defined Steel Section with PNA within Beam Bottom Flange. y6 = MPFsteel − MPFconc − 2b f − top t f − top Fyf − top 2b f -bot Fyf -bot 4k width k depth Fyw 2b f -bot Fyf -bot − 2ht w Fyw 2b f -bot Fyf -bot − Eqn. PNA within the Cover Plate Figures 10a and 10b show the internal forces for a rolled steel section and a user-defined steel section. is shown in Figure 9 and 9b and is defined by Equation 9. which is the distance from the top of the beam bottom flange to the PNA. Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . for the condition where the PNA lies within the cover plate. respectively. 9 Note that it is unlikely that the PNA will be this low. Positive Bending The term y6.

14 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending y7 .Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 CC 1 CC 2 CF T CK T zp CWeb Plastic neutral axis (PNA) CK B CF B CCP TC P Beam Section Figure 10a: yp Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Rolled Steel Section with PNA within Cover Plate. Positive Bending y7 CC 1 CC 2 CF T zp CWeb Plastic neutral axis (PNA) CF B CCP TC P Beam Section Figure 10b: yp Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces User-Defined Steel Section with PNA within Cover Plate. Positive Bending Technical Note 34 .

If MPFsteel = MPFconc. is shown in Figure 10a and 10b and is defined by Equation 10. Calculating the PNA Location To calculate the location of the PNA for positive bending. the location of the PNA has been identified. 10 2b f − bot t f − bot Fyf − bot 2b cp Fycp Note that it is unlikely that the PNA will be this low.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending The term y7. If the PNA is within the steel section.15 . the PNA is at the top of the steel beam. y7 = MPFsteel − MPFconc − 2b f − top t f − top Fyf − top 2b cp Fycp 4k width k depth Fyw 2b cp Fycp − 2ht w Fyw 2b cp Fycp − − Eqn. the PNA is within the concrete slab. As described in an earlier section of this Technical Note. the program continues by assuming that the PNA occurs in the beam top fillet. which is the distance from the top of the cover plate to the PNA. the distance yp would become negative. If it is. the procedure described in the previous subsection of this Technical Note entitled "PNA in the Concrete Slab Above the Steel Beam" is followed. It requires an extremely large cover plate. there is no top fillet and the program skips directly to assuming that the PNA is in the beam web. If the calculated distance y2 is not within the beam top flange. If MPFsteel > MPFconc. If it does. In the event that the PNA were in the cover plate. the program starts by comparing the value of MPFconc to that of MPFsteel to determine whether the PNA is in the steel section or in the concrete slab above the steel section. the PNA is within the steel section. (Note that if the beam is a user-defined beam. Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . if MPFconc > MPFsteel. The calculated distance y2 is then checked to see if it actually is within the beam top flange. The calculated distance y3 is then checked to see if it actually is within the beam top fillet. If the PNA is in the concrete slab above the steel section. the program assumes that the PNA occurs in the top flange of the beam. The distance y2 is calculated using Equation 5. the location of the PNA has been identified.) The distance y3 is calculated using Equation 6.

kips. the location of the PNA has been identified. the bottom flange and finally the cover plate until the location of the PNA has been identified. If it is. Mn Tpiece xPNA-piece φbcpp In Equation 11. 11 φ bcpp where: Cpiece Piece = 1 ∑C 10 piece x PNA − piece = Compression force in a piece of the composite beam. kips. the PNA is not expected to be below the beam web. the program continues down the beam section through the bottom fillet. unitless. = Tension force in a piece of the composite beam. = Plastic moment capacity for positive bending. The distance y4 is calculated using Equation 7. However. = Distance from centroid of tension or compression force in a piece of a composite beam to the PNA.16 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . the ten pieces are: Technical Note 34 . = Resistance factor for positive bending when plastic stress distribution is assumed. the program continues by assuming that the PNA occurs in the beam web. The calculated distance y4 is then checked to see if it actually is within the beam web.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 If the calculated distance y3 is not within the beam top fillet. In any practical case. in. kip-in. Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending The plastic moment capacity for positive bending in a composite section is calculated from Equation 11: φ bcpp M n = φ bcpp Piece = 1 ∑T 10 piece x PNA− piece + Eqn. in the event the PNA has not yet been located.

or compression in the upper portion of the cover plate and tension in the lower portion. Cover plate: The force in the cover plate can be tension. or compression in the upper portion of the flange and tension in the lower portion. or compression in the upper portion of the flange and tension in the lower portion. tension is not allowed in the concrete. Beam web: The force in the beam web can be tension. Beam bottom fillet: The force in the beam bottom fillet can be tension. Beam bottom flange: The force in the beam bottom flange can be tension. Beam top fillet: The force in the beam top fillet can be tension. Concrete within height of metal deck on the left side of the beam: The concrete can only carry a compression force. or compression in the upper portion of the fillet and tension in the lower portion. tension is not allowed in the concrete. Concrete within height of metal deck on the right side of the beam: The concrete can only carry a compression force. Beam top flange: The force in the beam top flange can be tension. compression. on the left side of the beam: The concrete can only carry a compression force. tension is not allowed in the concrete. or compression in the upper portion of the web and tension in the lower portion. tension is not allowed in the concrete.17 . Concrete above the metal deck. compression. not including rebar. In Equation 11 the values used for Tpiece.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Concrete above the metal deck. compression. on the right side of the beam: The concrete can only carry a compression force. compression. compression. Cpiece and xPNA-piece depend on the location of the PNA. or compression in the upper portion of the fillet and tension in the lower portion. The appropriate values for these items are given in Tables Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . not including rebar.

A. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. N. A. N. N. 23a 24a 25a 26a 27a 28a C 12a 12a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 xPNA 21a 21a N. N. A. Table 1: Table to determine which table to use in conjunction with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. N. you may need to use values from two different tables listed in Table 1. A. N. A. A. A. 15a 16a 17a 18a 19a 20a xPNA N. N. A. N. N. N. Technical Note 34 . Table 1 serves as a guide to which of those tables to use based on the location of the PNA. A. N. Location of PNA Above rebar in concrete above metal deck In concrete within metal deck In beam top flange In beam top fillet In beam web In beam bottom fillet In beam bottom flange In cover plate Table 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Table 2: When the PNA is above the centroid of the rebar in the concrete above the metal deck. A. Note. N. A.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 2 through 11. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. N. A. A.18 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . A. because the metal deck and concrete slab can be in different locations relative to the PNA on the two sides of the beam.

A. Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . N. 23a 24a 25a 26a 27a 28a C 12b 12b 14a 14a 0 0 0 0 0 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22a 22a N. N. A. N. A. A. N. N. A. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. N. A. A. A. N. A. N. A. N. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (left) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. N. N. N. 15b 16a 17a 18a 19a 20a xPNA N. A. N. A. N. A. A. A. Table 4: When the PNA is in the beam top flange. N. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Table 3: When the PNA is in the concrete within the metal deck. A. A. A. 23b 24a 25a 26a 27a 28a C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15c 0 0 0 0 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23c N. N. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. 15a 16a 17a 18a 19a 20a xPNA N. A. A. N. A. N. N. A. N.19 . N. A. A.

A. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. A. A. N. A. A. N. A. N. N. A. A. N. N. A. N. A. N. N. N. N. A. N. 0 0 17b 18a 19a 20a xPNA N. A. N. A. 24b 25a 26a 27a 28a C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15d 16c 0 0 0 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23d 24c N. A. N. A. A. A. N. A. Technical Note 34 . Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. N. Table 6: When the PNA is in the beam web. A. N. A. N. A. A. A.20 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . 25b 26a 27a 28a C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15d 16d 17c 0 0 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23d 24d 25c N. 0 16b 17a 18a 19a 20a xPNA N. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. N.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 5: When the PNA is in the beam top fillet. A. N. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending.

Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. N. N. N. N. A. N. A.21 . A. N. N. A. 27b 27a 28a C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15d 16d 17d 18c 0 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23d 24d 25d 26c N. A. A. A. N.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Table 7: When the PNA is in the beam bottom fillet. A. N. A. 0 0 0 18b 19a 20a xPNA N. N. N. N. N. A. Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. N. A. A. A. 0 0 0 0 19b 20a xPNA N. N. 27b 28a C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15d 16d 17d 18d 19c 0 xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23d 24d 25d 26d 27c N. A. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. A. N. A. A. N. A. N. A. A. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. A. Table 8: When the PNA is in the beam bottom flange. N. A. A. N.

28b C 12b 12b 14b 14b 15d 16d 17d 18d 19d 20c xPNA 21b 21b 22b 22b 23d 24d 25d 26d 27d 28c Equations 12a and 12b are used for the compression force in the concrete above the metal deck. A. N. 12a Eqn.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 9: When the PNA is in the cover plate. Note that these equations are applied to each side of the beam separately. N. A. N. N. N. N. A. CC1 = 0. 0 0 0 0 0 20b xPNA N. Note that these equations are applied to each side of the beam separately. Equations 13a and 13b are used for the tension and compression forces in the rebar in the concrete slab above the metal deck. TR = ArFyr CR = ArFyr Eqn.85 f'c beff tc Eqn. 13a Eqn. N. N. N. A. A. N. A. use the equations specified in this table together with Equation 11 to determine the plastic moment capacity of composite section for positive bending. A. Piece Concrete above metal deck (left) Concrete above metal deck (right) Concrete in metal deck (left) Concrete in metal deck (right) Beam top flange Beam top fillet Beam web Beam bottom fillet Beam bottom flange Cover plate T N. A. A.22 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . 13b Technical Note 34 . 12b Note that for partial composite connection Equation 12b is replaced with Equation 3 of Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution. A. A.85 f'c beff zp CC1 = 0. A. A. N.

Note that these equations do not apply to user-defined sections. 16d Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . 15c Eqn. Also note that these equations only apply if the span of the metal deck ribs is oriented parallel to the beam span. 15a Eqn. Equations 15a through 15d are used for the tension and compression forces in the beam top flange.23 . 15d Equations 16a through 16d are used for the tension and compression forces in the beam top fillet. 14a Eqn. TKT = kwidth kdepth Fyw TKT = kwidth (kdepth . Note that these equations are applied to each side of the beam separately. 16a Eqn. 16b Eqn. C C2 = 0.85f c' b eff C C2 = 0. 16c Eqn.85f c' b eff w r (z p − t c ) Sr wrhr Sr Eqn. If the metal deck ribs are oriented perpendicular to the beam span. TFT = bf-top tf-top Fyf-top TFT = bf-top (tf-top . 14b Note that for partial composite connection Equation 14b is replaced with Equation 4 in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Equations 14a and 14b are used for the compression force in the concrete within the metal deck. there is no compression force allowed on the concrete within the metal deck ribs.y2) Fyf-top CFT = bf-top y2 Fyf-top CFT = bf-top tf-top Fyf-top Eqn.y3) Fyw CKT = kwidth y3 Fyw CKT = kwidth kdepth Fyw Eqn. 15b Eqn.

y6) Fyf-bot CFB = bf-bot y6 Fyf-bot CFB = bf-bot tf-bot Fyf-bot Eqn. 19d Equations 20a through 20c are used for the tension and compression forces in the cover plate. 20a Eqn. TFB = bf-bot tf-bot Fyf-bot TFB = bf-bot (tf-bot .Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Equations 17a through 17d are used for the tension and compression forces in the beam web. 18d Equations 19a through 19d are used for the tension and compression forces in the beam bottom flange. TCP = bcp tcp Fycp TCP = bcp (tcp . 19a Eqn.y4) Fyw CWeb = tw y4 Fyw CWeb = tw h Fyw Eqn. TKB = kwidth kdepth Fyw TKB = kwidth (kdepth . 20b Eqn. 18a Eqn.y5) Fyw CKB = kwidth y5 Fyw CKB = kwidth kdepth Fyw Eqn. TWeb = tw h Fyw TWeb = tw (h . 18b Eqn. 17c Eqn.24 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . 18c Eqn. 17b Eqn. 19c Eqn. Note that these equations do not apply to userdefined sections. 17d Equations 18a through 18d are used for the tension and compression forces in the beam bottom fillet.y7) Fycp CCP = bcp y7 Fycp Eqn. 17a Eqn. 19b Eqn. 20c Technical Note 34 .

Note that these equations are applied to each side of the beam separately. Equation 22b is replaced with Equation 6 in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution. 23c Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 . 22a xPNA = z p − t c − Eqn. xPNA = zp − t c 2 hr 2 Eqn.25 . xPNA = zp 2 tc 2 Eqn. 22b Note that for partial composite connection. Equations 22a and 22b are used for the distance from the center of the force in the concrete within the metal deck ribs to the PNA. xPNA = y p − d + t f -top 2 Eqn. 21a xPNA = z p − Eqn. 23a xPNA = t f -top .y 2 2 y2 2 Eqn. 23b xPNA = Eqn. Note that these equations are applied to each side of the beam separately.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Equations 21a and 21b are used for the distance from the center of the force in the concrete above the metal deck to the PNA. Equations 23a through 23d are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the beam top flange to the PNA. 21b Note that for partial composite connection Equation 21b is replaced with Equation 5 in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution.

25b xPNA = Eqn. Equations 25a through 25d are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the beam web to the PNA. hr and rd in Equation 23d must all be for the left side of the beam or all for the right side of the beam. It does not matter which side of the beam is used. Equations 24a through 24d are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the beam top fillet to the PNA. 25c xPNA = z p − t c − h r − rd − t f − top − k depth − Eqn. 24d Note the terms zp. but all of the terms must be consistent. tc. 24c xPNA = z p − t c − h r − rd − t f − top − Eqn. hr and rd in Equation 24d must all be for the left side of the beam or all for the right side of the beam.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 xPNA = z p − t c − h r − rd − t f − top 2 Eqn. tc. 23d Note the terms zp. but all of the terms must be consistent.y4 2 y4 2 h 2 Eqn. It does not matter which side of the beam is used. 24b xPNA = Eqn.y 3 2 y3 2 k depth 2 Eqn.26 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . xPNA = y p − d + t f − top + k depth 2 Eqn. 25d Technical Note 34 . 24a xPNA = k depth . 25a h . xPNA = y p − d + t f − top + k depth + xPNA = h 2 Eqn.

27b xPNA = Eqn. 26c xPNA = z p − t c − h r − rd − t f − top − Eqn.y 5 2 y5 2 3k depth 2 −h Eqn. but all of the terms must be consistent.27 . tc. xPNA = y p − d + t f − top + 2k depth + h + xPNA = t f -bot 2 Eqn. 26d Note the terms zp. 27d Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Technical Note 34 .y 6 2 y6 2 Eqn. 26b xPNA = Eqn. 26a xPNA = k depth . It does not matter which side of the beam is used. 27c x PNA = z p − t c − h r − rd − t f − top − 2k depth − h t f -bot 2 Eqn. It does not matter which side of the beam is used.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Note the terms zp. but all of the terms must be consistent. Equations 26a through 26d are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the beam bottom fillet to the PNA. hr and rd in Equation 26d must all be for the left side of the beam or all for the right side of the beam. tc. Equations 27a through 27d are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the beam bottom flange to the PNA. 27a t f -bot . xPNA = y p − d + t f − top + 3k depth 2 +h Eqn. hr and rd in Equation 25d must all be for the left side of the beam or all for the right side of the beam.

x PNA = y p − d + t f − top + 2k depth + h + t f -bot + xPNA = t cp 2 Eqn. 28c Technical Note 34 . Equations 28a through 28c are used for the distance from the center of the force(s) in the cover plate to the PNA. but all of the terms must be consistent.y 7 2 y7 2 Eqn. hr and rd in Equation 27d must all be for the left side of the beam or all for the right side of the beam. tc.28 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending . 28b xPNA = Eqn.Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Note the terms zp. It does not matter which side of the beam is used. 28a t cp .

The bottom of the bottom flange of the beam. Information on how the program calculates the location of the ENA and the transformed section moment of inertia for full composite connection is provided in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 35 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity This Technical Note describes how the program calculates the moment capacity of a composite section when an elastic stress distribution is assumed. These locations are: The top of the concrete on the left side of the beam. The smallest moment capacity calculated is the positive moment capac- Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity Technical Note 35 . The top of the top flange of the beam. BERKELEY. A moment capacity is calculated based on the allowable stress and the section modulus at each of these five locations that is applicable to the beam considered. Positive Moment Capacity with an Elastic Stress Distribution To calculate the positive moment capacity with an elastic stress distribution.. Information on how the program calculates the location of the ENA and the transformed section moment of inertia for partial composite connection is provided in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. the program first calculates the location of the elastic neutral axis (ENA) and the transformed section moment of inertia. The top of the concrete on the right side of the beam. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. The bottom of the cover plate. The positive moment capacity for a composite beam with an elastic stress distribution is determined by considering five locations in the composite section.1 .

Table 1: Table to determine which of Equations 1a through 1e apply to a particular location in a composite beam Location in Beam Top of concrete on left side of beam Top of concrete on right side of beam Top of beam top flange Bottom of beam bottom flange Bottom of cover plate Equation 1a 1b 1c 1e 1f Technical Note 35 . the term y is substituted for the term yeff. Compression 0.85f’ Es c E c Fyr Fyf-top Elastic neutral axis (ENA) d yeff hr tc tcp Tension Fyf-bot Fycp Composite Beam Note: For a fully composite beam yeff = y. Note that in these equations. Allowable Elastic Stress at Key Points Figure 1: Allowable Stresses for Positive Bending at Various Key Locations of the Composite Beam Section Equations 1a through 1e are used to calculate the positive moment capacity at the seven key locations in the beam section. Table 1 lists the location to which each equation applies.2 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity . if there is full composite connection. Figure 1 illustrates the allowable stress assumed for each of these locations.Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 ity for the beam.

1e The positive moment capacity of a composite beam with an elastic stress distribution is the smallest of the moment capacities obtained from the equations included in Equations 1a through 1e that are applicable to the beam considered.bot φbcpeMn = φbcpeFycp Ieff y eff Eqn.85f c' -right  E c-left     I eff   d + h r -right + t c-right . Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity Technical Note 35 . Note that the term φbcpe in these equations is the resistance factor for positive bending in a composite beam when Mn is determined from an elastic stress distribution. the term "ABS" means to take the absolute value of the amount in the associated brackets. 1d Ieff y eff + t cp Eqn. the program does not need to consider the moment capacity associated with that equation.y eff ] Eqn. 1b In Equation 1c.y eff      Eqn. 1a  Es  * φ bcpe M n = φ bcpe  0.3 . φ bcpe M n = φ bcpe Fyf -top I eff ABS [d . 1c φbcpeMn = φbcpeFyf . If the denominator of Equation 1c is zero.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity  Es  * φ bcpe M n = φ bcpe  0.y eff      Eqn.85f c' -left  E c-left     I eff  d +h r -left + t c-left .

.

BERKELEY. Mp. including a cover plate. and whether the beam web is classified as compact or noncompact. For other cases such as a user-defined section or a section with a cover plate. including the cover plate if it exists. the section properties are calculated in a manner similar to that described in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 20 Transformed Section Moment of Inertia. It does not calculate Mn if the section is slender. The exact methodology used to compute the plastic moment capacity in the other cases depends on whether the beam.. if the beam is compact or noncompact. Mn. start in the box labeled a. Figure 1 shows a flowchart that directs you to the appropriate section in this chapter for calculating the moment capacity of the steel section alone. except that there is no concrete or reinforcing steel to consider. Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 . if applicable. Note that the criteria used by the program to determine if a section is compact or noncompact for the AISC-LRFD93 specification is described in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements. then those properties are used to compute the moment capacity. The plastic moment.1 . Overview The program only calculates the moment capacity. for a noncomposite rolled steel beam section without a cover plate is calculated as Mp = ZFy. Steel Beam Properties If properties for the steel section alone are available directly from the program's section database. The figure has boxes labeled a through g. INC.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 36 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone This Technical Note describes how the program calculates the moment capacity of a noncomposite steel beam. is doubly or singly symmetric.

Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Is section doubly No symmetric or a channel? Yes a Refer to “Moment Capacity for a Doubly Symmetric Beam or a Channel Section” in this Technical Note. or in a user-defined section. Moment Capacity for a Doubly Symmetric Beam or a Channel Section Figure 2 shows a flowchart that determines the equations the program uses to calculate Mn for a doubly symmetric steel section alone or a channel section alone. Information relating to how the program calculates the compact and noncompact section requirements is in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements. The following subsection discusses the unbraced length checks in the program that are used to determine how to calculate Mn for a doubly symmetric beam Technical Note 36 . The torsional constant is determined by summing the torsional constants for the various components of the section. Is the beam web compact? Yes b Refer to “Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Compact Web” in this Technical Note. This process is repeated to get properties about both axes. the section moduli and radius of gyration are calculated using standard formulas. if applicable. start in the box labeled a. d e f g Figure 1: Flowchart For Determining Which Section of this Chapter Applies in Calculating Plastic Moment for Steel Section Alone After the moment of inertia has been calculated. by summing the J's for the top flange.2 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone . web. bottom flange and cover plate. No Is the beam web noncompact? Yes c Refer to “Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Noncompact Web” in this Technical Note. For example. No Beam section is classified as slender and is not designed. it may be determined by summing the J's of a rolled section and the cover plate. Go to next trial section. if applicable. The figure has boxes labeled a through k.

lateral torsional buckling criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1. Lp and Lr. f j Figure 2: Flowchart For Calculating Mn for a Doubly Symmetric Steel Section Alone or a Rolled Channel Steel Section Alone or a channel section.2a and flange and web local buckling criteria in AISCLRFD93 Appendix F1(b) equation (AF1-3).Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Are the web. Definitions of each of these items are listed below. k No a No Is Lb ≤ Lr? No Yes d Is Lb ≤ Lr? Yes h Are the compression flange and compression cover plate compact? Yes i Determine Mn based on smallest of yielding criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1. No Is the web noncompact? Yes g No Beam section not designed. No c Beam section not designed. Lateral Unbraced Length Checks The unbraced lengths listed in Figure 2 are Lb.1. Subsequent subsections discuss each of the code sections mentioned in Figure 2 that are used to calculate the moment capacity. Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 .2a.1. compression flange and compression cover plate compact? Yes Is Lb ≤ Lp? Yes b Determine Mn based on yielding criteria in AISCLRFD93 Section F1.1 and lateral torsional buckling criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.3 . Go to next trial section. Go to next trial section. e Determine Mn based on smallest of yielding criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.

Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Lb = Laterally unbraced length of beam. ry is taken for the steel beam section including the cover plate. in. the program takes Cw from its built-in database. including channels. is determined from Equation 1 which is also Equation F1-4 in AISC-LRFD93. For user-defined sections Cw is calculated using Equation 3. if applicable. 2 FL = smaller of (Fyf − Fr ) and Fyw In Equation 2. length between points which are braced against lateral displacement of the compression flange. Fr. The Fyf term in Equation 1 is for the compression flange. The warping constant.5 ksi for user-defined shapes. The limiting unbraced length for full plastic capacity. in. Lp = 300ry Fyf Eqn. in. Technical Note 36 . Limiting laterally unbraced length of beam for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. Note that Equation 3 actually applies to symmetrical sections but it is also used when the flanges have different dimensions. For rolled sections. Lp = Lr = The unbraced length of a beam. The limiting unbraced length for lateral torsional buckling. Lr = ry X1 FL 2 1 + 1 + X 2 FL . Lp. is determined from Equation 2 which is also Equations F1-6 through F1-8 in AISC-LRFD93. 1 In Equation 1. Lb is determined from the input data. Cw. is based on the steel beam alone ignoring the cover plate if it exists. where π X1 = Sx EGJA 2 C S  and X 2 = 4 w  x  I y  GJ  2 Eqn. or a beam segment. the compressive residual stress in the flange is taken as 10 ksi for rolled shapes and 16. Limiting laterally unbraced length of beam for full plastic bending capacity. Lr.4 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone .

4 In Equation 4. 7 Equation 7 applies to both flange local buckling and web local buckling. Cb is calculated using Equation 5. Cb = 2. Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 .  M n = C b M p − M p − M r   ( ) L L   b r − L p   ≤ M p − L p   Eqn.1 The yielding criteria is that Mn = Mp. M r = FL S x where FL is as described for Equation 2.5 . which is shown herein as Equation 7. In Equation 4. 5 Refer to the notation in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 29 General and Notation for an explanation of the terms in Equation 5. The process for determining Mp has been previously described in the section entitled "Overview" in this technical note. 3 Yielding Criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.2a is based on AISCLRFD93 Equation F1-2.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone t f − top t f − bot    − Iy d −  2 2    Cw = 4 2 Eqn.5M max 12. In this case Mn is given by Equation 4. Lateral Torsional Buckling Criteria in AISC-LRFD93 Section F1.2a The lateral torsional buckling criteria in AISC LRFD F1. 6 AISC-LRFD Appendix F1(b) Equation A-F1-3 The limit state for flange and web local buckling is based on AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-3.5M max + 3M A + 4M B + 3M C Eqn. Lr is calculated using Equation 2. Eqn. Lp is calculated from Equation 1 and Mr comes from Equation 6.  λ − λp Mn = Mp − Mp − Mr   λr − λ p  ( )     Eqn. which is also AISC-LRFD93 Equation F1-3.

The Fyf in these equations is for the compression flange. 9b In Equation 9a and 9b. The bf and tf terms are for the compression flange. Equations 9a and 9b are taken from AISC-LRFD93 Table A-F1. kc = 4 h t w but not less than 0. The smaller value of Mr is used. or Equation 9b if it is a user-defined section.6 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone . for rolled shapes Eqn. 9a λr = 162 FL kc . 10 Technical Note 36 . λp is given by Equation 8a if the section is a rolled or user-defined Isection.763. bf 65 ≤ 2t f Fyf bf 65 ≤ tf Fyf Eqn. 8b λr is given by Equation 9a if the section is a rolled beam or channel. λr = 141 FL . Web Local Buckling For web local buckling using Equation 7: Mr is calculated using Equations 10 and 11 for both the top and bottom flanges separately. FL is as defined for Equation 2. or Equation 8b if the section is a rolled channel.1.Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Flange Local Buckling For flange local buckling using Equation 7: Mr is calculated per Equation 6. λ is equal to bf /(2tf) for I-sections and bf/tf for channels. In Equation 9b.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0. Mr = ReFyfSx Eqn. 8a Eqn. for user-defined shapes Eqn.

Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 . Re = 12 + a r 3m − m 3 ≤ 1. Most of the formulas associated with this flowchart are based on AISCLRFD93 Specification Appendix F section F1and Table A-F1. See the description accompanying these equations for more information. Re is equal to 1. 11 Equation 11 comes from the definition of Re given with Equation A-G2-3 in AISC-LRFD93 Appendix G. See the description accompanying these equations for more information. start in the box labeled a. λ is equal to h/tw.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone In Equation 10. but not more than 10. if any.7 . if any.1.0 for rolled shapes and is given by Equation 11 for user-defined shapes. Equation 10 is taken from AISC-LRFD93 Table AF1.1. In Equation 11 the term ar is the ratio of the web area (htw) to the flange area (bftf). λp is given by Equation 5a. and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress. The figure has boxes labeled a through n. λr is given by one of Equations 6 and 7 in Composite Beam Design AISCLRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements depending on the type of member and the amount of axial compression. or 5b in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements depending on the axial load in the member. Information relating to how the program calculates the compact and noncompact section requirements is in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements.0 12 + 2a r ( ) Eqn. Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Compact Web Figure 3 shows a flowchart that determines the equations the program uses to calculate Mn for a singly symmetric steel section alone with a compact web.

Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Is web compact? Yes a Are the compression flange and compression cover plate compact? Yes b No This is the wrong flowchart. Subsequent subsections describe each of the AISC-LRFD93 Specification Appendix F equations mentioned in Figure 3 that are used to calculate the moment capacity. Note: WLB = Web local buckling FLB = Flange local buckling LTB = Lateral torsional buckling Are the compression flange and compression cover plate noncompact? Yes f No e No Beam section not designed. Go to next trial section. Go to next trial section. Is beam compact for LTB? Yes c No g No Is beam noncompact for LTB? Yes h Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-1 for WLB A-F1-1 for FLB A-F1-2 for LTB. d i k n Figure 3: Flowchart For Calculating Mn for a Singly Symmetric Steel Section Alone with a Compact Web The following subsection describes the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) checks in the program that are used to determine how to calculate Mn for a singly symmetric beam with a compact web.8 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone . the plastic moment capacity of the section. AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-1 for WLB For this case Mn is equal to Mp. Is beam compact for LTB? Yes j Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-1 for WLB A-F1-3 for FLB A-F1-1 for LTB. Beam section not designed. AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-1 for FLB For this case Mn is equal to Mp. No l No Is beam noncompact for LTB? Yes m Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-1 for WLB A-F1-3 for FLB A-F1-2 for LTB. Technical Note 36 . Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-1 for WLB A-F1-1 for FLB A-F1-1 for LTB. See Figure 1. the plastic moment capacity of the section.

In Equation 12e. FL and Sx are for the beam compression flange (not cover plate). 12e λr = Eqn. 12b Eqn. FL is for the beam compression flange (not cover plate).763. user-defined beams . 12f In Equation 12b.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-3 for FLB AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-3 for flange local buckling is interpreted by the program as shown in Equations 12a through 12f. tf and Fyf are for the beam compression flange (not cover plate). In Equation 12f. and kc = 4 h t w but not less than 0. FL is for the beam compression flange (not cover plate).  λ − λp Mn = Mp − Mp − Mr   λr − λ p  ( )   ≤ Mp   Eqn.35 ≤ kc ≤ 0. Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 . rolled beams and channels Eqn. 12a where M r = FL S x Eqn. In Equations 12c and 12d.9 . 12d Eqn. 12c λ= bf 2t f λp = λr = 65 Fyf 141 FL 162 FL kc . bf. AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-1 for LTB For this case Mn is equal to Mp. the plastic moment capacity of the section.

(57000)(1) Lb 2 I y J B1 + 1 + B 2 + B1      Eqn.Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-2 for LTB AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-2 for lateral torsional buckling is interpreted by the program as shown in Equations 13a through 13d and Equations 14a through 14c. 13c λ= Lb ryc 300 Fyf λp = Eqn. 14c Technical Note 36 .25 2    Iy   Lb      I yc   I yc   h   B 2 = 25 1 −  Iy   J   Lb    Iy J     2 Eqn.  M n = C b M p − M p − M r   ( λ ) λ − λ  −λ  r  p p   ≤ M p   Eqn.10 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone . M r = FL S xc ≤ Fyf S xt Eqn. 13b Eqn. When calculating FL. the term Fyf is the yield stress of the tension flange. the term Fyf is the yield stress of the compression flange and when calculating FyfSxt. M cr = where. 14a   I yc   h  − 1 B1 = 2. 13d The term λr in Equation 13a is the value of λ for which Mcr as defined by Equations 14a through 14c is equal to the smaller of FLSxc and FyfSxt where FL is the smaller of (Fyf . 13a where.Fr) and Fyw. 14b Eqn.

Is beam compact for LTB? Yes c No g No Is beam noncompact for LTB? Yes h Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-3 for WLB A-F1-1 for FLB A-F1-2 for LTB. start in the box labeled a. Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-3 for WLB A-F1-1 for FLB A-F1-1 for LTB.11 . d i k n Figure 4: Flowchart for Calculating Mn for a Singly Symmetric Steel Section Alone with a Noncompact Web Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 .1. Then it divides that value of Lb by ryc to get λr. Go to next trial section.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone To calculate λr for Equation 13a. See Figure 1. Go to next trial section. Is beam compact for LTB? Yes j Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-3 for WLB A-F1-3 for FLB A-F1-1 for LTB. No Note: WLB = Web local buckling FLB = Flange local buckling LTB = Lateral torsional buckling Are the compression flange and compression cover plate noncompact? Yes f No Is web noncompact? Yes a Are the compression flange and compression cover plate compact? Yes b This is the wrong flowchart. the program determines the value of Lb for which Mcr is equal to the smaller of FLSxc and FyfSxt. The figure has boxes labeled a through n. No l No Is beam noncompact for LTB? Yes m Determine Mn based on smallest of the following AISC-LRFD93 Appendix F equations: A-F1-3 for WLB A-F1-3 for FLB A-F1-2 for LTB. Most of the formulas associated with this flowchart are based on AISCLRFD93 Specification Appendix F section F1and Table A-F1. e No Beam section not designed. Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Noncompact Web Figure 4 shows a flowchart that determines the equations the program uses to calculate Mn for a singly symmetric steel section alone with a noncompact web. Beam section not designed.

Technical Note 36 . 15c Equation 15c comes from the definition of Re given with Equation A-G2-3 in AISC-LRFD93 Appendix G. Re is given by Equation 15c.1. Equation 15b is taken from AISC-LRFD93 Table A-F1. The lateral torsional buckling checks and all but one of the Appendix F equations mentioned in Figure 4 are described in the previous section entitled. Mr = ReFyfSx Eqn. This equation is described in the following subsection. but not more than 10. AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-3 for WLB AISC-LRFD93 Equation A-F1-3 for web local buckling is interpreted by the program as shown in Equations 15a through 15g.Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Information relating to how the program calculates the compact and noncompact section requirements is in Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 33 Compact and Noncompact Requirements. 15a In Equation 15a: Mr is calculated using Equations 15b and 15c for both the top and bottom flanges separately.0 12 + 2a r ( ) Eqn. 15b In Equation 15b.  λ − λp Mn = Mp − Mp − Mr   λr − λ p  ( )   ≤ Mp   Eqn. The smaller value of Mr is used. Re = 12 + a r 3m − m 3 ≤ 1. the term ar is the ratio of the web area (htw) to the flange area (bftf)." Refer to that section for more information. λ is equal to h/tw. In Equation 15c. "Moment Capacity for a Singly Symmetric Beam with a Compact Web. The one equation that has not been described previously is AISC-LRFD93 Specification Appendix F Equation A-F1-3. and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress.12 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone .

  Eqn. or 15e depending on the axial load in the member.125 φ b Py Eqn.  Fy  P for u > 0. 15d λp = 191   2. λp = 640  1 − 2. for Pu ≤ 0.33 − Pu φ b Py Fy   Eqn. 3 h 3 ≤ ≤ 4 hc 2   .75Pu φ b Py Fy    . Equation 15f defines λr for beams with equal sized flanges. 15f In Equation 15f. Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone Technical Note 36 .83  1 −  h  φ b Py Fy   c   where.13 .Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone λp is given by Equation 15d. Equation 15g is based on Equation A-B5-1 in the AISC-LRFD93 specification. the value of Fy used is the largest of the Fy values for the beam flanges and the web. 15e λr is given by either Equation 15f or Equation 15g.74Pu 253  1 + 2.125  φ b Py   253 ≥ . if any.74Pu φ b Py Fy       Eqn. 15g In Equation 15g. the value of Fy used is the largest of the Fy values for the beam flanges and the web. λr = 970  1 − 0. Equation 15g defines the noncompact section limit for webs in beams with unequal size flanges: λr =  h  0.

.

Mn X% comp Mn steel beam = Nominal flexural strength (capacity) of the steel beam section alone as determined from Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 36 Moment Capacity for Steel Section Alone. 1 = Required percent composite connection. = Nominal flexural strength (capacity) of composite section with X% composite connection. kip-in. kip-in. Estimating the Required Percent Composite Connection The program uses Equation 1 to estimate the required percent composite connection (PCC) for a composite beam. kip-in. In particular. unitless..1 . INC.  M u − φM n steel beam PCC =   φM n X % comp − φM n steel beam  where. PCC Mu   * X%   2 Eqn. This Technical Note describes partial composite connection for a plastic stress distribution. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 37 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Partial composite connection for an elastic stress distribution is described in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection and Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 35 Composite Section Elastic Moment Capacity. it describes how the positive moment capacity of the composite beam using a plastic stress distribution is calculated for partial composite connection. = Required flexural strength. that is. BERKELEY. the applied factored moment. Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Technical Note 37 .©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES.

2d 2a. or No Metal Deck Exists Deck Ribs Parallel (Solid Concrete Slab) to Beam Span 2b.2 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution . 2c 2b. The program initially uses Equation 1 with Mn X% comp equal to the Mn for full (100%) composite connection to estimate the required percent composite connection (PCC) for a composite beam. This process continues until a PCC that provides an adequate moment capacity is found. using the last considered PCC for X% and Mn X% comp. If the moment capacity is adequate. the iteration is complete. 2c 2a.Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 X% = Percent composite connection that Mn X% comp is based on. Calculating MPFconc The program calculates MPFconc as the smaller of the values obtained from the equations specified in Table 1 for the particular circumstances of the beam considered. φ Equation 1 is based on Example 3 in Vogel (1991). with some rearrangement of terms. unitless. the program calculates a new PCC. and determines a new moment capacity. Table 1: Table identifying equations to be used to calculate initial value of ΣQn for partial composite connection Deck Orientation Deck Ribs Perpendicular to Beam Span. It is either φbcpe or φbcpp. For 50% composite connection use X% = 0. If the moment capacity is not adequate. The program checks the moment capacity using this PCC. = Resistance factor that was used when calculating Mn for full composite connection. Equation 1 might be considered the LRFD equivalent to Equation 2 in Composite Beam Design AISCASD89 Technical Note 21 Elastic Stresses with Partial Composite Connection. unitless. 2d Beam Type Rolled Beam from Database User-Defined Beam Technical Note 37 .50.

Location of the PNA The location of the PNA for partial composite connection with a plastic stress distribution is calculated using the method described in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending for full composite connection except that the value used for MPFconc is that obtained from one of Equations 2a through 2d.3 .85f'c beff  t c +    wrhr Sr   left +   Eqn. For 50 percent composite connection PCC is 0. the term PCC is the percent composite connection. 2a MPFconc = (PCC) [(0. not 50.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution MPFconc = (PCC) [(0. 2b (0.85f'c beff  t c +    wrhr Sr   right ]   MPFconc = (PCC) (AsFy + bcp tcp Fycp) Eqn.85f'c beff tc)right] Eqn. 2d In Equations 1a through 1d. as appropriate.5. The next subsection describes how the program initially estimates PCC. Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Technical Note 37 . instead of that obtained from Equation 3a or 3b of Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending. as appropriate.85f'c beff tc)left + (0. 2c MPFconc = (PCC) (bf-toptf-topFyf-top + twh + bf-bottf-botFyf-bot + bcp tcp Fycp) Eqn.

Note that the distance a1 can be different on the left and right sides of the beam. As soon as the sum of forces exceeds MPFconc. Top of metal on the left side of the beam. the sum of compressive forces is compared with the MPFconc as determined in one of Equations 2a through 2d. the effective portion of the slab is determined as follows: The program first puts the following six items in order. Bottom of metal on the left side of the beam. from highest elevation to lowest. to determine how much of the concrete slab is effective for partial composite connection: Top of concrete slab on the left side of the beam. Bottom of metal on the right side of the beam. Top of metal on the right side of the beam. In this case.4 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution .Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Determining the Effective Portion of the Concrete Slab When different composite decks and or spans are specified on each side of the beam. Next the program sums the compressive forces of these six items. starting with the item at the highest elevation and proceeding downward. Top of concrete slab on the right side of the beam. and the second to last location considered is above the bottom of the effective concrete. Using this information. the program recognizes that the last location considered is below the bottom of the effective concrete. a1 represents the distance from the top of the concrete slab to the bottom of the effective concrete. Technical Note 37 . As each item is added into the sum. Figure 1a shows the internal concrete forces for a rolled steel section (a userdefined steel section is similar) for the condition where the bottom of the effective concrete is in the concrete slab above the metal deck. the program can solve directly for the location of the bottom of the effective concrete.

of the metal deck ribs. a2 represents the distance from the top of the metal deck ribs to the bottom of the effective concrete.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution a1 CC 1 Bottom of effective concrete Beam Section Figure 1a: Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Rolled Steel Section With Bottom of Effective Concrete in Concrete Slab Above Metal Deck. hr. In this case. hr. Bottom of effective concrete Beam Section Beam Elevation Beam Internal Forces Figure 1b: Rolled Steel Section With Bottom of Effective Concrete Within the Height. Note that the distance a2 can be different on the left and right sides of the beam. Positive Bending With Partial Composite Connection Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution a2 CC 1 CC 2 Technical Note 37 . Positive Bending With Partial Composite Connection Figure 1b shows the internal concrete forces for a rolled steel section (a userdefined steel section is similar) for the condition where the bottom of the effective concrete is within the height. of the Metal Deck Ribs.5 .

Moment Capacity of a Partially Composite Beam with a Plastic Stress Distribution The moment capacity for partial composite connection with a plastic stress distribution is calculated using the method described for full composite connection in the section entitled "Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending" in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending with the following changes: Equation 12b in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending is replaced with Equation 3. If the bottom of effective concrete is within the height of the metal deck.85f c' b eff wra 2 Sr Eqn. xPNA = z p − a1 2 Eqn. Technical Note 37 . a2 is set equal to 0.Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 The program obtains the distances a1 and/or a2 using an iterative solution technique. 4 Equation 21b in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending is replaced with Equation 5.6 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution . C C2 = 0.85f'c beff a1 Eqn. a1 is set equal to tc. CC1 = 0. If the bottom of effective concrete is in the concrete above the metal deck. 5 Equation 22b in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending is replaced with Equation 6. 3 Equation 14b in Composite Beam Design AISC-LFRD93 Technical Note 34 Composite Plastic Moment Capacity for Positive Bending is replaced with Equation 4.

March. Thus it is not necessary to check for the PNA location within the concrete slab.7 . concrete or reinforcing steel below the bottom of the effective concrete is not considered in the calculation. Steel Committee of California. 1991. 6 When calculating the moment capacity.” Steel Tips. Reference Vogel. Technical Information & Product Service. Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution Technical Note 37 . R. “LRFD-Composite Beam Design with Metal Deck. not the concrete slab.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Partial Composite Connection with a Plastic Stress Distribution xPNA = z p − a 1 − a2 2 Eqn. Note that the PNA for a partially composite beam always lies within the steel beam section.

.

Bending Check The program uses Equation 1 to perform bending checks for both composite and noncomposite beams. For negative bending in a composite Mn φ Bending and Deflection Checks Technical Note 38 . Bending Check Locations For each design load combination the program checks bending at the following locations: Point of maximum moment for the design load combination considered. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 38 Bending and Deflection Checks This Technical Note describes how the program checks bending and deflection for AISC-LRFD93 design. φbcpe is used.. BERKELEY.1 . For positive bending in a composite beam with an assumed plastic stress distribution. For positive bending in a composite beam with an assumed elastic stress distribution. 1 = The maximum required flexural strength. φbcnp is used.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. φbcpp is used. Point load locations for the design load combination considered. kip-in. kip-in. the maximum applied factored moment. Mu Eqn. = Moment capacity for full composite connection or partial composite connection.0 φ Mn where. unitless. For negative bending in a composite beam with an assumed plastic stress distribution. as applicable. Mu ≤ 1 . that is. INC. = Resistance factor for bending.

If the beam is specified to be noncomposite. φb is used.2 Bending and Deflection Checks .Bending and Deflection Checks Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 beam with an assumed elastic stress distribution. For partial composite connection Ieff is used in the deflection calculations. φbcne is used. For full composite connection Itr is used in the deflection calculations. Technical Note 38 . Deflection Check Deflection is calculated as described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. Note that camber is subtracted from the total load deflection for checking.

The reduction factor. INC. CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 39 Shear Connectors This Technical Note begins by defining the program's default allowable shear connector loads for AISC-LRFD93 composite beam design. The program calculates Qn for each side of the beam separately using Equation 1 and uses the smaller value in the calculations. If there is formed metal deck. only applies to the 0. 1 Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection Between Maximum Moment and Point of Zero Moment Positive Bending The total horizontal shear to be resisted between the point of maximum positive moment (where the concrete is in compression) and the points of Shear Connectors Technical Note 39 . Note that the reduction factor is different depending on whether the span of the metal deck ribs is oriented parallel or perpendicular to the span of the beam.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Qn = 0. Eqn.. RF that is specified in Composite Beam Design AISC-ASD89 Technical Note 25 Shear Studs. The terms f’c and Ec can be different on the two sides of the beam.5Asc f c' E c It does not apply to the AscFu term. BERKELEY.1 . is reduced by a reduction factor. Shear connector capacities are defined for both shear studs. if specified. Shear Stud Connectors The capacity for a single shear stud is calculated using Equation 1. Next the equations used for determining the number of shear connectors on the beam are provided. RF. the value of Qn obtained from either Equation 1 or from the overwrites. term in Equation 1.5Asc f c' E c ≤ AscFu Equation 1 is based on AISC-LRFD93 specifications Equation I5-1.

Table 1: Table Defining Equations to be used to Calculate Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection Deck Rib Span Relative to Beam Span Use Smaller of These Equations 3 as noted and 4a 3 as noted and 4b 3 as noted and 4a 3 as noted and 4b Note About Ac in Equation 3 Ac in Eqn. 3 is the area of concrete in the slab above the metal deck Beam Section Rolled section from the program database User-defined Rolled section from the program database User-defined Perpendicular Parallel Ac in Eqn. is given by Equation 5. 5 Technical Note 39 . including the concrete in the metal deck ribs ΣQ n −100 = 0. 4a Eqn.2 Shear Connectors . the number of shear connectors between a point of maximum positive or negative moment and adjacent points of zero moment.85f c' right A c right ΣQ n −100 = A s Fy + b cp t cp Fycp ΣQ n −100 = b f -top t f .85f c' left A c left + 0. ΣQn-100. 3 is the area of concrete in the slab. N1. 4a or 4b as applicable.Shear Connectors Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 zero moment for full composite connection.top Fyf . Table 1 defines the conditions where the various equations are applicable and it defines what to use for Ac left and Ac right (both simply called Ac in the table) in Equation 3 for each condition. is given by the smaller of Equations 3. 4b Number of Shear Connectors Between Maximum Moment and Point of Zero Moment For full composite action. N1 = ΣQ n −100 Qn Eqn.top + ht w Fyw + b f -bot t f -bot Fyf -bot + b cp t cp Fycp Eqn. 3 Eqn.

kip-in.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Shear Connectors In Equation 5. unitless. Equation 8 is not specified by AISC but is used by CSI as the LRFD equivalent of Equation I4-5 in the AISC-ASD89 specification. 6 In Equation 6. if there is 70% composite connection. for AISC-LRFD93 design is given by Equation 7. ΣQn-100 is as determined in the previous section entitled "Horizontal Shear for Full Composite Connection" and Qn is determined as described in the previous section entitled "Shear Stud Connectors. Thus. PCC. considering partial composite connection if applicable. 8 Maximum moment capacity of composite beam. Mn steel alone = Mu N1 = = Shear Connectors Technical Note 39 . PCC = ΣQ n − PCC ΣQ n −100 Eqn. For example. ΣQn-PCC = 0. ΣQn-PCC is equal to the percent composite connection times ΣQn100. Number of shear connectors required between the point of maximum moment and the point of zero moment. the number of shear connectors between a point of maximum positive (not negative) moment and adjacent points of zero moment.7 ΣQn-100.  M u − φ M n steel alone N 2 = N1   φ M n comp − φ M n steel alone  In Equation 8. 7 Between Point Load and Point of Zero Moment The program uses Equation 8 to check that the number of shear connectors provided between a point load and a point of zero moment is sufficient." For partial composite connection. or end of the slab. N1. Moment capacity of steel beam alone. is given by Equation 6. Mn comp =     Eqn. N1 = ΣQ n −PCC Qn Eqn. kip-in.3 . the percent composite connection. Moment at point load location. kip-in.

This is equal to either φbcpe. φbcne. φbcpp. Resistance factor used to determine moment capacity of composite beam. unitless.Shear Connectors Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 N2 = Number of shear connectors required between the point load considered and the point of zero moment. or φbcnp depending on whether there is positive or negative bending and whether the stress distribution considered is elastic or plastic. Technical Note 39 .4 Shear Connectors . φ = Equation 8 is checked at each point load location. unitless. or end of the slab.

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93

Technical Note 40

Beam Shear Capacity
This Technical Note describes how the program calculates the allowable shear stress for AISC-LRFD93 composite beam design.

Shear Capacity
Refer to Figure 1 for a flowchart showing how the program considers beam vertical shear. AISC-LRFD93 Equations F2-1 through F2-3 are reproduced here as Equations 1 through 3 respectively. For

h 418 ≤ , Vn = 0.6 Fyw Aw tw Fyw

Eqn. 1

 418   0.6Fyw A w   F  418 h 523  yw  < ≤ For , Vn = h Fyw t w Fyw tw
For

Eqn. 2

523 Fyw

<

132,000A w h ≤ 260 , Vn = 2 tw  h    t   w

Eqn. 3

Note that in Equations 1 through 3, Aw, the area of the web, is calculated as shown in Equation 4 where Ctop and Cbot are the depths of copes, if any, at the top and bottom of the beam section. The copes are specified in the overwrites. Aw = (d - Ctop - Cbot) tw Eqn. 4

Beam Shear Capacity

Technical Note 40 - 1

Beam Shear Capacity
h 418 ≤ ? t Fyw
w

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93
No No 418 h 523 < ≤ ? Fyw t Fyw
w

Is

Is

Is

523 h < ≤ 260 ? Fyw t
w

No

Beam section not designed.

Yes
Determine Vn from LRFD Section F2.2 equation F2-1; see Equation 1.

Yes
Determine Vn from LRFD Section F2.2 equation F2-2; see Equation 2.

Yes
Determine Vn from LRFD Section F2.2 equation F2-3;, see Equation 3.

Figure 1: Flow Chart for Calculating Beam Vertical Shear Capacity

Checking the Beam Shear
The program checks the beam shear at the ends of the beam using Equation 5.

Vu ≤ 1 .0 φ v Vn
where, Vu

Eqn. 5

= The required shear strength, that is, the applied factored shear, kips. = Shear capacity, kips. This term is calculated from Equation 1, 2 or 3, as appropriate, and as indicated in Figure 1. = Resistance factor for shear, unitless.

Vn

φv

Limitations of Beam Shear Check
Following are some limitations of the program's beam shear check for composite beams. No check is made for shear on the net section considering the bolt holes. No check is made for shear rupture on a beam with the top flange coped as described in AISC-LRFD93 specification Chapter J, section J4.

Technical Note 40 - 2

Beam Shear Capacity

©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC., BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001

COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93

Technical Note 41

Input Data
This Technical Note describes the composite beam design input data for AISCLRFD93. The input can be printed to a printer or to a text file when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command. A printout of the input data provides the user with the opportunity to carefully review the parameters that have been input into the program and upon which program design is based. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 5 Input Data for further information about using the print Composite Beam Design Tables Form, as well as other non-code-specific input data for composite beam design.

Beam Overwrites Input Data
The program provides the printout of the input data in a series of tables. The tables typically correspond to the tabs used in the Composite Beam Overwrites form. The column headings for input data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Table 1 of this Technical Note. Recall that the composite beam overwrites apply to all beams to which they have been specifically assigned. To access the composite beam overwrites, select one or more beams and then click the Design menu > Composite Beam Design > View/Revise Overwrites command. Information about composite beam overwrites is available in Composite Beam Design AISCLRFD93 Technical Note 31 Overwrites.

Input Data

Technical Note 41 - 1

Input Data

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Beam Location Information
This information does not correspond to one of the tabs in the composite beam overwrites. This data is provided to help identify the beam to which printed overwrites apply. X Y Length Global X coordinate of the center of the beam to which the overwrites apply. Global Y coordinate of the center of the beam to which the overwrites apply. Length of the beam to which the overwrites apply. Type of beam design. The choices are Composite, NC w/ studs and NC w/o studs. NC w/ studs is short for noncomposite with minimum shear studs. NC w/o studs is short for noncomposite without shear studs. Note that this option allows you to design a noncomposite floor beam in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor. This item is Yes if the composite beam is shored. Otherwise, it is No. Note that this item supersedes the Shored Floor item in the composite beam preferences. If the beff left width is program calculated, this item reads "Prog Calc." Otherwise, this item is the user-defined width for beff left. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for description of the effective width of the slab. If the beff right width is program calculated, this item reads "Prog Calc." Otherwise, this item is the user-defined width for beff right. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 8 Effective Width of the Concrete Slab for description of the effective width of the slab. If the beam yield stress is based on the material property specified for the beam, this item reads "Prog Calc." Otherwise, this item is the user-defined yield stress of the beam. If the beam minimum tensile strength is based on the material property specified for the beam, this item reads "Prog Calc." Otherwise, this item is the user-defined minimum tensile strength of the beam.

Beam Properties
Composite Type

Shoring Provided

b-eff Left

b-eff Right

Beam Fy

Beam Fu

Technical Note 41 - 2

Input Data

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Input Data

Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Cover Plate
This information is included on the Beam tab of the overwrites. Plate Width Plate Thick Plate Fy Consider Cover Plate Width of the cover plate. Thickness of the cover plate. Yield stress of the cover plate. If this item is "Yes," the specified cover plate is considered in the design of the beam. Otherwise, the cover plate is not considered in the beam design.

Beam Unbraced Length
Beam unbraced length data is provided for both the construction condition and the final condition. The headings for these two types of beam unbraced lengths are “Beam Unbraced Length (Construction Loading)” and “Beam Unbraced Length (Final Loading).” The types of data provided in each of these tables is identical and is documented once here. Bracing State This item can be "Prog Calc," "User Bracing," or "Length Given." Prog Calc means that the program determines the braced points of the beam. User Bracing means that you have specified the actual bracing for the beam. The user-defined bracing may be point or uniform bracing along the top and bottom flange of the beam. Length Given means that you have specified a single maximum unbraced length for the beam. If the Bracing State item is "Length Given," this item is the userspecified maximum unbraced length of the beam. Otherwise, this item is specified as N/A. If the Bracing State item is "Length Given," this item indicates whether the user-specified maximum unbraced length of the beam (the Unbraced L22 item) is an absolute (actual) length or a relative length. A relative length is the maximum unbraced length divided by the length of the beam. If the Bracing State item is not Length Given, this item is specified as N/A. If the Cb factor is calculated by the program, this item reads "Prog Calc." Otherwise, the user-defined Cb factor that is used in determining the allowable bending stress is displayed. (Note that when the Cb factor is program calculated, it may be different for each design load combination, and for a given design load combination, it may be different for each station considered along the length of the beam.)

Unbraced L22

L22 Absolute

Cb Factor

Input Data

Technical Note 41 - 3

Input Data

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION

Point Braces
The heading of the point braces data table specifies whether the point braces are program calculated or user-defined, and whether the distances used to locate the point braces (Location item) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam. Location This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the point brace. As described in the preceding description, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. The choices for this item are TopFlange, BotFlange or BothFlngs. TopFlange means only the top flange is braced at this point. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is braced at this point. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are braced at this point.

Type

Uniform Braces
The heading of the uniform braces data table specifies whether the point braces are program calculated or user-defined, and whether the distances used to define the extent of the uniform braces (Start and End items) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam. Note: Details about the location and type of program calculated point and uniform braces is only reported after you have run the design. Before you run the design, this information is not available. Start This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform brace. As described in a previous description, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform brace. This distance is always larger than the Start item. As described previously, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. The choices for this item are TopFlange, BotFlange or BothFlngs. TopFlange means only the top flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are uniformly braced along the specified length.

End

Type

Technical Note 41 - 4

Input Data

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Input Data

Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data
COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION This item is either Left or Right. It indicates to which side of the beam the deck label and deck direction specified in the same row apply. This item is either “Prog Calc,” if the deck label is determined by the program, or it is the label (name) of a defined deck section, if this is a user-specified overwrite, or it is "None" if no composite deck has been specified on the side of the beam. This item is “Prog Calc,” “Parallel,” or “Perpendclr.” Prog Calc means that the direction of the deck span (parallel or perpendicular to the beam span) is program determined. Parallel means that the span of the metal deck is parallel to the beam span. Perpendclr means that the span of the metal deck is perpendicular to the beam span. Minimum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the beam. Maximum longitudinal spacing of shear studs along the beam. Minimum transverse spacing of shear studs across the beam flange. Maximum number of shear studs in a single row across the beam flange. This item is “Prog Calc” if the allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud is determined by the program, or it is a userdefined allowable horizontal load for a single shear stud. The uniform spacing of single shear studs along the length of the beam.

Deck Properties
Beam Side

Deck Label

Deck Direction

Shear Stud Properties
Min Long Spacing Max Long Spacing Min Tran Spacing Max Conn in a Row Stud Qn

User-Defined Shear Stud Pattern
Uniform Spacing

User-Defined Uniform Stud Sections
The heading of the uniform stud sections data table specifies whether the distances used to define the extent of the stud sections (Start, End and Length items) are absolute (actual) distances or relative distances. A relative distance is the distance divided by the length of the beam. Note: User-defined shear stud patterns are described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 15 User-Defined Shear Stud Patterns.

Input Data

Technical Note 41 - 5

Input Data

Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93

Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data
COLUMN HEADING Start DESCRIPTION This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform stud section. As described previously, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform stud section. As described previously, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. This is the length of the uniform stud section. As described previously, it may be an absolute or a relative distance. The number of uniformly spaced shear studs in the uniform stud section. If the live load and total load deflection limits are specified as absolute (actual) distances, this item is Yes. If they are specified as a divisor of beam length (relative), this item is No. The live load deflection limit for the beam. The total load deflection limit for the beam. If this item is Yes, the program calculates the camber for the beam. If it is No, the program does not calculate a camber, but if desired, the user can specify the camber. User-specified camber when the program does not calculate the beam camber. This item is “Prog Calc” if the number of effective beams for vibration calculations is determined by the program, or it is a user-defined number of effective beams. This item is Yes if the beam depth limitations (Minimum Depth and Maximum Depth items) are considered by the program for beams with auto select section lists. This item is No if the beam depth limitations are not considered. Minimum actual (not nominal) beam depth considered in the auto select section list if the Limit Beam Depth item is Yes. Maximum actual (not nominal) beam depth considered in the auto select section list if the Limit Beam Depth item is Yes.

End

Length Number

Deflection, Camber and Vibration
Deflection Absolute

Live Load Limit Total Load Limit Calculate Camber

Specified Camber Neff Beams

Other Restrictions
Limit Beam Depth

Minimum Depth Maximum Depth

Technical Note 41 - 6

Input Data

A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. This item is “Prog Calc” if the reducible live load factor is determined by the program.7 . More information about the EQ Factor is available from Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 42 Overwrites. EQF Input Data Technical Note 41 . The EQ Factor is a multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Maximum percent composite connection considered by the program for the beam. This represents the reducible live load factor.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Input Data Table 1 Beam Overwrites Input Data COLUMN HEADING Minimum PCC Maximum PCC RLLF DESCRIPTION Minimum percent composite connection considered by the program for the beam. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the composite beam design overwrites. or it is a user-defined reducible live load factor.

.

" Do not confuse this with the Section Label. as well as the Summary of Composite Beam Output.. BERKELEY. which would be identified as "W18X35.Short Form COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Label associated with the line object that represents the beam. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 3 Interactive Composite Beam Design for more details on the interactive design. The program provides the output data in a series of tables.©COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES. Table 1 Output Details . INC. Basic Beam Information Beam Label Group Beam Output Details Technical Note 42 . The column headings for output data and a description of what is included in the columns of the tables are provided in Tables 1 and 2 of this Technical Note.1 . Beam section label (name). CALIFORNIA DECEMBER 2001 COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN AISC-LRFD93 Technical Note 42 Output Details This Technical Note describes the composite beam output for AISC-LRFD93 that can be printed to a printer or to a text file in either short form or long form." Name of the design group (if any) to which the beam has been assigned. Similar output also appears on screen if you click the Details button in the Show Details area of the Interactive Composite Beam Design and Review form. A typical label beam would appear as "B23. See Composite Beam Design Technical Note 6 Output Data for information about using the Print Composite Beam Design Tables Form. Short Form Output Details This output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command and select Short Form in the Output Details area of the resulting form.

Length of each composite beam segment separated by commas. Fy.Short Form COLUMN HEADING Fy Fu Stud Layout DESCRIPTION Beam yield stress. Story Length Loc X Loc Y RLLF Story level associated with the beam. Length of the beam. This item has a slightly different meaning. Seg. The lengths are listed starting with the composite beam segment at the I-end of the beam and working toward the J-end of the beam. A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load.2 Output Details . Fu. depending on whether the shear studs are user-defined or calculated by the program.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Output Details . When the number of shear studs is calculated by the program. Global Y coordinate of the center of the beam. This item is Yes if the beam is shored and No if it is unshored. Beam minimum tensile strength. It is equal to the number of shear studs required in the segment divided by the maximum number of studs that fit in the segment. When the shear studs are user-defined. a stud ratio is reported for each composite beam segment. Length Stud Ratio Shored Technical Note 42 . the total number of studs is reported instead of the stud ratio. Global X coordinate of the center of the beam. Number of studs in each composite beam segment separated by commas. They are listed starting with the composite beam segment at the I-end of the beam and working toward the J-end of the beam.

one or more items have been overwritten for this beam. Otherwise. N/A is reported for this item. The deck section labels (names) on the left and right sides of the beam.Short Form COLUMN HEADING Camber DESCRIPTION The camber for the beam. This price is intended for comparison of alternative designs only. Diameter of shear studs. This item corresponds to the EQ Factor item in the composite beam design overwrites. Perpendclr means that the deck span is perpendicular to the beam span. Thickness of the cover plate. If no cover plate is specified by the user. This item is Yes if the specified cover plate is considered in the design.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 1 Output Details . Parallel means that the deck span is parallel to the beam span. shear studs and camber.3 . Comparative Stud Diam EQ Factor Overwrites b-cp t-cp Fy-cp Consider-cp Deck Left and Deck Right Dir. N/A is reported for this item. It is not intended to be used for cost estimating purposes. N/A is reported for this item. If no cover plate is specified by the user. it is No. Price of the beam using the input price parameters for steel. If this item is Yes. Yield stress for the cover plate. Left and Dir. The deck directions on the left and right sides of the beam. Width of the cover plate. If it is No. if this item is "Yes." you may want to print the long form output. If no cover plate is specified by the user. Thus. nothing has been overwritten. The slab effective widths on the left and right sides of the beam. The values for all overwrite items are included in the long form output. A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Right beff Left and beff Right Output Details Technical Note 42 . This item may be calculated by the program or it may be user-specified.

Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Output Details . plus cover plate alone (if it exists). Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate. Itr. even if it exists) to the elastic neutral axis (ENA) of the beam. even if it exists) to the ENA of the beam. not including cover plate. Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate. Moment of inertia of the steel beam alone.4 Output Details . Do not confuse the left and right ends of the beam with the left and right sides of the beam. y .Short Form COLUMN HEADING Ctop Left and Ctop Right DESCRIPTION The program calculated cope of the beam top flange at the left and right ends of the beam. Distance from the bottom of the beam bottom flange (not bottom of cover plate. Moment of inertia of the steel beam. with partial composite connection. if it exists. Cbot Left and Cbot Right Itrans Ibare Is Ieff PCC ytrans ybare yeff q Technical Note 42 . The program calculated cope of the beam bottom flange at the left and right ends of the beam. even if it exists. Effective moment of inertia for partial composite connection. with full (100%) composite connection. Transformed section moment of inertia for full (100%) composite connection for positive bending. Allowable horizontal shear load for a single shear stud. The left end of the beam is the I-end and the right end of the beam is the J-end. Percent composite connection. The left end of the beam is the I-end and the right end of the beam is the J-end. including cover plate. even if it exists) to the ENA of the beam. Do not confuse the left and right ends of the beam with the left and right sides of the beam.

Location of plastic neutral axis (PNA) for partial composite connection (PCC). Pmax Combo PCC PNA The design load combination associated with Pmax. if any. The Steel Frame Design postprocessor does consider axial load. Factored nominal flexural strength with partial composite connection. Final Neg means it is a negative moment for final loading. is in the beam.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 1 Output Details . Important note: This value is not used in the Composite Beam Design postprocessor design.5 . Final Pos means it is a positive moment for final loading. Pmax The largest axial load in the beam for any design load combination. you may want to design it noncompositely using the Steel Frame Design postprocessor. Location of plastic neutral axis (PNA) for full composite connection. Const Pos means it is a positive moment for construction loading.Short Form COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Moment Design This table of output data reports the controlling moments for both construction loads and final loads. This item is either Constr Pos. Constr Neg. PCC phi Mn Full PNA Full phi Mn Type Combo Mu Output Details Technical Note 42 . Design load combination that causes the controlling moment for the moment type considered in the table row. If there is a significant amount of axial load in the beam. Factored nominal flexural strength with full composite connection. It is reported to give you a sense of how much axial load. Final Pos or Final Neg. Const Neg means it is a negative moment for construction loading. The controlling factored design moment for the moment type considered in the table row.

This item is either OK or NG. Final Left or Final Right. The maximum factored shear strength associated with the controlling moment. Constr Left means it is a construction loading shear at the left end of the beam. This is Mu divided by φMn. Block Vu phi VN Ratio Technical Note 42 .Short Form COLUMN HEADING phi Mn DESCRIPTION Maximum factored flexural strength associated with this load combination. fv. This is the bending stress. Type This item is either Constr Left. divided by the allowable bending stress. OK means that the beam passes the Check. Combo Design load combination that causes the controlling shear for the shear type considered in the table row. Constr Right. The controlling factored shear for the shear type considered in the table row. Final Rght means it is a final loading shear at the right end of the beam. It indicates whether the program check for block shear (shear rupture) passed or failed. Fv.6 Output Details . If the item indicates NG. Final Left means it is a final loading shear at the left end of the beam. Ratio Shear Design This table of output data reports the controlling shears for both construction loads and final loads.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Output Details . and NG (no good) means it did not. you should check the block shear by hand for the beam. Constr Right means it is a construction loading shear at the right end of the beam.

The controlling deflection for the deflection type considered in the table row.Short Form COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Deflection Design This table of output data reports the controlling deflections for both live load and total load. indicating that deflection is one of the criteria checked when determining if a beam section is considered acceptable. Type Consider Actual Target Output Details Technical Note 42 . This item is always Yes.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 1 Output Details . The computed camber is subtracted from the total load deflection before the deflection is reported.7 . Design load combination that causes the controlling deflection for the deflection type considered in the table row. Type Consider This item is either Live Load or Total Load. Frequency or Murray Damping. Calculate vibration frequency or percent damping of the beam. Limit The deflection limit for the deflection type considered in the table row. Ratio Vibration Design Neff The effective number of beams used in the vibration evaluations. Combo Deflection Note: Deflection is described in Composite Beam Design Technical Note 11 Beam Deflection and Camber. Indicates whether vibration was considered in the design. Minimum acceptable frequency or damping required. This is the controlling deflection divided by the deflection limit.

Shoring Provided beff Left beff Right Fy Fu Technical Note 42 . Indicates whether the member is acceptable for vibration requirements. Minimum tensile strength of the beam. Program calculated or user-defined effective width of concrete slab on left side of beam. Yield stress of beam. Program calculated or user-defined effective width of concrete slab on right side of beam. The long form output details report provides all of the data described in Table 1 for the Short Form Output as well as the data described in Table 2 Output Details . Long Form Output Details This output is printed when you click the File menu > Print Tables > Composite Beam Design command to open the Print Composite Beam Design Tables form and select Long Form under Output Details.Long Form COLUMN HEADING Beam Property Overwrites Composite Type DESCRIPTION Indicates user-specified overwrite values or program calculated values. or noncomposite without studs. Either composite or noncomposite (NC) with studs.Long Form.8 Output Details .Short Form COLUMN HEADING Ratio Ok DESCRIPTION Target divided by actual.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 1 Output Details . Table 2 Output Details . Yes or No.

Program calculated if zero is specified. This item is filled with "N/A" unless the unbraced length for buckling about the local 2-2 axis is user defined and is a single maximum unbraced length for the entire beam. with 0 indicating the left end of the beam and 1 indicating the right end of the beam. The choices for this item are TopFlange. TopFlange means only the top flange is braced at this point.9 . Distance from the left end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform brace that braces the beam for buckling about the 2-2 axis. BotFlange or BothFlngs. End Output Details Technical Note 42 . Maximum unbraced length for buckling about the 2-2 axis of the beam.Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 2 Output Details . Absolute L22 Cb Factor Program Calculated Point Braces for Construction Loading: Location This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the point brace. Unitless factor used in determining allowable bending stress. A "No" indicates that they are specified as relative distances from the left end of the beam. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are braced at this point. Type Program Calculated Uniform Braces for Construction Loading: Start Distance from the left end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform brace that braces the beam for buckling about the 2-2 axis.Long Form COLUMN HEADING DESCRIPTION Beam Unbraced Length Overwrites (Construction Loading): Bracing State Unbraced L22 User defined or program calculated. As described in the preceding description. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. A "Yes" for this item indicates that the unbraced lengths are specified as absolute distances form the left end of the beam. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is braced at this point.

The choices for this item are TopFlange. Program calculated if zero is specified. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. Maximum unbraced length for buckling about the 2-2 axis of the beam. Type Program Calculated Uniform Braces for Final Loading: Start Distance from the left end of the beam to the starting point of the uniform brace that braces the beam for buckling about the 2-2 axis. This item is filled with "N/A" unless the unbraced length for buckling about the local 2-2 axis is user-defined and is a single maximum unbraced length for the entire beam. A "No" indicates that they are specified as relative distances from the left end of the beam. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is braced at this point. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are uniformly braced along the specified length. Beam Unbraced Length Overwrites (Final Loading): Bracing State Unbraced L22 User defined or program calculated. TopFlange means only the top flange is braced at this point. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are braced at this point. BotFlange or BothFlngs. with 0 indicating the left end of the beam and 1 indicating the right end of the beam. it may be an absolute or a relative distance. TopFlange means only the top flange is uniformly braced along the specified length.10 Output Details . Absolute L22 Cb Factor Program Calculated Point Braces for Final Loading: Location This is the distance from the I-end of the beam to the point brace.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 2 Output Details . A "Yes" for this item indicates that the unbraced lengths are specified as absolute distances form the left end of the beam. Unitless factor used in determining allowable bending stress. BotFlange or BothFlngs. Technical Note 42 . As described in the preceding description.Long Form COLUMN HEADING Type DESCRIPTION The choices for this item are TopFlange.

. Tran Spacing Max. Type Deck Property Overwrites: Beam Side Deck Label Deck Direction Left and right. Long Spacing Min. BotFlange or BothFlngs. Horizontal shear capacity of a single stud. User defined or program calculated. A "No" indicates that they are specified as the length of the beam. Camber and Vibration Overwrites: Deflection Absolute A "Yes" for this item indicates that the deflection limits are specified as absolute distances.Long Form COLUMN HEADING End DESCRIPTION Distance from the left end of the beam to the ending point of the uniform brace that braces the beam for buckling about the 2-2 axis.g. User defined or program calculated. Long Spacing Minimum allowed longitudinal spacing of the shear stud connectors. e. The choices for this item are TopFlange. L. in a Row Qn Deflection. Shear Stud Property Overwrites: Min. BothFlngs means both the top and bottom flanges are uniformly braced along the specified length.11 . Maximum allowed number of shear stud connectors in a single row across the beam flange. L/360 Output Details Technical Note 42 .Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Output Details Table 2 Output Details . divided by some number. TopFlange means only the top flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. BotFlange means only the bottom flange is uniformly braced along the specified length. Max. Maximum allowed longitudinal spacing of the shear stud connectors. Minimum allowed transverse spacing of shear stud connectors. Conn.

Yes or No. Effective number of beams used in the vibration calculations. Maximum shown. Zero is not specified. Minimum PCC RLLF EQF Technical Note 42 . Maximum percent composite connection considered by the program Minimum percent composite connection considered by the program A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load. Specified value or N/A if not specified. Minimum shown if specified. A multiplier applied to earthquake loads. Limiting total load deflection used when deflection limitations are considered in selecting the optimum beam. Total Load Limit Calculated Camber Specified Camber Neff Beam Other Restriction Overwrites: Limit Beam Depth Minimum Depth Maximum Depth Maximum PCC Yes if user inputs depth limit. 44 inches is not specified.Output Details Composite Beam Design AISC-LRFD93 Table 2 Output Details . if specified.12 Output Details .Long Form COLUMN HEADING Live Load Limit DESCRIPTION Limiting live load deflection used when deflection limitations are considered in selecting the optimum beam.