I am dedicating this research work to my honorable teacher Sir Gulzar khan and my respectable parents who are the source of financial and moral support to me.

I am grateful to Almighty Allah, who granted success in my worn. Due to his blessings, i have been able to do my work successfully. I express my deep gratitude to my supervisor Sir Gulzar khan valuable suggestions, positive criticism and proper guidance. It would have been almost impossible for me to accomplish this task successfully without his help.I reserve my most cherished words of gratitude for my parents whose prayer gave me passion and courage during my whole life


• Introduction • Historical Background • Industry Profile • Division of Units • Major fan producing companies • Percentage of Production • Variety of Products • Raw Material • Exports • Countries to export Pakistan's fan

World’s Export of Industrial Fans:

• World Vs Pakistan Export of Fans: • World Vs Pakistan Export of Fans: • Projection • Regression Equation • Conclusion

Fan is a daily use item. Its utility increases, especially in the summer season. The industry is producing about 5 to 6 millions fans per annum and meeting successfully the local as well as export demand. Out of the total production, approximately 30 percent fans consist of pedestals, 7 percent consist of brackets and remaining 63 percent are ceiling fans. The industry belongs to light engineering industry category, and is one of the industries that existed at the time of independence. In the early 1950s it was declared as cottage industry and its more than 50 percent units still fall in this category. Fan industry is mainly confined to Gujranwala and Gujrat, cities of Punjab province of Pakistan. The reason for its remaining a cottage industry is that majority of the units does not have full facilities of production under one roof. They usually give offers to the units having machines for different parts like fan guard, blade castings, core lamination etc. These units have lathes, shapers, milling machines, and power pressers, die casting machines and electroplating equipments. Therefore, most of the units are simply assembling units. Thus, they do not give brand names to their products. Besides small and medium units, a few units are quite large and have integrated system i.e. from motor winding to high-pressure dies castings. These companies have reputed brands names and the qualities of their products are of international level. The units are the main players in export field. The industry is producing a variety of products indifferent sizes and designs. The major products are: Ceiling, Pedestals, Table, Table-Cum-Pedestal Fans, Circumatic Fans, Wall Bracket, Exhaust Fans And Propellers. The industry supplies quality products to the local markets, whether branded or unbranded, at competitive prices. About 400 units have a production capacity of 5 to 6 million fans, on single shift basis. The production is equal to demand, including a nominal quantity of exports. The actual production has remained about 2.5 million fans per annum, showing a 50 percent idle capacity. The demand for fan is continuously increasing due to increase in population and speedy migration towards a big cities, and exports. The other factor is that during the last few years, local demand for quality products is increasing fast as compared to low price goods. This means people are becoming quality conscious.

Industry Profile 2005-2006

Total capital investment Installed Capacity Current Capacity utilization Total Production Direct Employment Indirect Employment Annual Revenue Exports ( 2005-06 ) Imports (US $ Million )

Rs. 5 Billion 7 million Fan / year 80% 5.6 million Fan / year 30,000 people 40,000 people Rs. 5.25 Billion US $16.66 Million 0.16



Total capital investment Installed Capacity Current Capacity utilization Total Production Direct Employment Indirect Employment Annual Revenue Exports ( 2005-06 ) Imports (US $ Million ) GDP Contribution

Rs. 5 Billion 7 million Fan / year 80% 5.6 million Fan / year 30,000 people 40,000 people Rs. 5.25 Billion US $16.66 Million 0.16 -

Rs. 3-3.5 billion 5-6 Million Fans / year 50% 2.5-3 Million Fans/year 25,000 Rs. 2.25-2.7 billion US $ 3.89 Million Rs. 1.5 billion


UNITS PROJECT COST EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTION REVENUE GENERATED 8 Rs. 250-350 Million 200-300 60,000-250,000 Rs. 150-250 Million

UNITS PROJECT COST EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTION REVENUE GENERATED 50 Rs. 10-20 Million 60-80 20,000-60,000 Rs. 150-250 Million

UNITS PROJECT COST EMPLOYMENT PRODUCTION REVENUE GENERATED 450 Rs. 0.5-1.0 Million 20-25 2,000-10,000 Rs. 2.0-5.0 Million

UNITS PROJECT COST EMPLOYMENT 1000 Rs. 0.45-1.0 Million 5-20


WAHID INDUSTRIES (PAK FANS) Mission To enhance its reputation its reputation for quality in all its operation, providing a better quality product to the customers and make their satisfaction through which to maximize the business profit. Company profile Wahid Industry was setup in Gujrat as a modest manufacturing unit in 1936. It started its operation with the manufacturing of light engineering and utility goods. In 1945, for the first time in this region, the company embarked on the manufacturing of electric fans. It is a pioneering achievement of Mr. Abdul Wahid, the founder and lifetime chairman of the company. He simply took it as a challenge, undeterred by the attendant initial difficulties. His determined efforts were finally crowned with success. The project not only tool off under his dynamic policies but also register a phase of rapid growth and expansion, capturing a major share in the country’s markets. Thanks to the founder Presidents dictum, “no compromise on quality”, Pak fan today is not only synonymous with top quality fans but also an identified symbol for Wahid industries. Towards making Wahid industries limited, a self-reliant concern a modern automatic Japanese plant was installed in 1981. At this plant, we manufactured international quality enameled copper wire and marked under the brand name if Pak Super. This brand has taken a major share in local market. So the company is adopting those methods of production and quality control, which conform to meet international standards. The company has now its own facilities for accurate testing on the most modern and sensitive testing equipment. Every product is subjected to the most rigid test and eaves the factory only when it is finally “passed” by the experts. True to the company’s progressive business philosophy. Mian Ehsanullah, the director and son of founder president Mr. Abdul Wahid, is always on the look out for the world’s latest technologies to adopt and assimilate in the production of Pak fan. His father motto, “no compromise

no quality” is a creed for Mian Ehsanullah, which he adheres to most strictly. To live up to its progressive image the company keeps itself a breast of the latest technological developments around the world and this enables the company to continually introduce ever-new concepts in electric fans. The remote controlled and louver fans are quite recent examples. As a result of its innovative excellence and ever evolving technological processes, Pak fan remain the number choice- both at home and abroad, including the Middle East. In year 1999-2000 Pak fan achieved the highest international quality award ISO 9002 certified company. Pak fan also won the FPCCI trophy 1999-2000 and now Pak fan is the largest exporter and manufacturer and electric fans of Pakistan. Towards its role as a deposable corporate citizen, Wahid industries keeps on and encouraging and contributing to social uplift programs. The company runs a modern hospital named “Wahid Trust Hospital” equipped with the latest facilities and leading medical practitioners. “Pak fan is the name of durability and reliability”

Future Planning PAK FAN is very eager to improve its business activities, so far more improvement of quality assurance. In near future organization is interested in increasing its business area and wants to capture more market that it already has but not fully captured. This is why the management is keen to introduce the new iron under the name of Pak Iron Industry. GENERAL FAN COMPANY (G.F.C Fans) Mission The mission of G.F.C. FANS is to produce such quality products which provide entire satisfaction to all our customers the world over. Vision

The management and the workers of GFC FANS have a vision to supply in near future all types of electric fans to all the countries of the world where fans are being used. We see ourselves as one of the largest and most renowned fan manufacturing company in the world providing all types of fans to all the countries according to their required specifications and needs. Our vision is to enlarge our market from the present day Middle East to whole of Africa, Europe, and America including South America, Central America and Caribbean. We believe that we have a unique product, which has been developed by GFC, and no other country manufactures a pedestal fan like ours. This product is most useful in the hot tropical humid climates. We want to mark this product throughout the world and we foresee this product to dominate the entire International market. We want to set up an excellent after-sales-service and spare parts supply service to each and every country. We also want to set up home service centers throughout the world. We believe that within 10 years we can achieve an export target of US Dollars 40 Million. About company General Fan Company (Pvt.) Ltd. was formed in 1954 as a small manufacturing unit for electric fans. The company grew rapidly from its modest start because of the quality of its products. The company was one of the major exporters of fans in 1960's to Iraq. However, the company was in trouble in late 1970's due to differences in its partners. The present management took over the company in 1978 and Engineer Muhammad Ilyas took over as Chief Executive of the company. Under his dynamic leadership the company rew rapidly and G.F.C. became major recognized brand for fans in the Pakistani market. Mr. Muhammad Ilyas, the Chief Executive who is a foreign trained Electrical Engineer, brought in new technologies for fan manufacturing from developed countries and improved G.F.C. products in a continuous process. Automatic Capstan Lathe Machines and Die Casting Machines were introduced in 1982. Automatic Winding Machines were brought from Taiwan in 1985. A Japanese made modern Enameled Wire Manufacturing Plant was installed in 1987 for the manufacturing of quality enameled copper wire for own consumption as well as for the sale in the local market. Plastic Injection Molding Machines were installed in 1993 to manufacture own plastic parts for plastic fans like Exhaust Fans, Bracket Fans, Circumatic Fans and Table Fans. A modern tool room was set up for the manufacture of Dies, Molds and Models etc. The tool room consists of

Wire Cut Machines, EDM Machines, Surface Grinders, Cylindrical Grinder, Shaper Machines, CNC Milling Machines and Copy Milling Machines. Automatic Rotor Balancing Machines were introduced in 1995 to further improve the quality of fans. Modern Continuous Stamping Presses were installed in 1997 for manufacture of motors of all type of fans such as Ceiling, Pedestal, Bracket, Exhaust and Circumatic Fans etc. Slitter Machine for slitting the electrical steel sheet coils was installed in 1999. The company started manufacturing Washing Machines in 1996. Due to its quality and excellent finish the product has become an instant success. Gas & Electric Geysers are being manufactured since year 2000. The Chief Executive Mr. Muhammad Ilyas is a pioneer in the export of electric fans from Pakistan. To initiate the export from Pakistan he attended an International exhibition for electrical appliances in 1993 in Abu-Dhabi. The company also participated In many trade delegations as well as exhibitions arranged by Export Promotion Bureau and Federation of Chamber of Commerce & Industry In Bangladesh, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain. Qatar, Sudan, Egypt, U.S.A. etc. G.F.C. was the first Pakistani company to export fans to the Middle East. G.F.C. Fans became an instant success due to their quality and durability in all the markets where these were introduced. General Fan Company has also set up a unit to manufacture capacitors used in electric fans, Washing machines and motors. Mr. Muhammad Ilyas (Chief Executive) and Mr. Muhammad Ijaz (Finance Director) are always on the look out for the latest technology for manufacturing of electric fans as well as for corporate management of the company. Now G.F.C. has established a new Computer department which keep its Executives update about any inquires. This shows the interest of management not only in manufacturing technology, but they also know the importance of information technology. G.F.C. has stepped in this Millennium fully equipped with manufacturing and information technology for Corporate Management and Marketing. G.F.C can rightly claim that they have all the best technologies in its workshops and in office, which are available for Design. Production and Management. Our products are now of International Standard, and we are truly an International Company. Our 600 Employees and Management are committed to Excellence in Quality. Credentials

General Fan Company (Pvt) Ltd. is a pioneer in the export of electric fans from Pakistan. To initiate the export from Pakistan we participated in International exhibition for electrical appliances in 1993 in Abu-Dhabi. The company also participated in many trade delegations as well as exhibitions arranged by Export Promotion Bureau and Federation of Chamber of Commerce & Industry In Bangladesh, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain. Qatar, Sudan, Egypt, U.S.A. etc. G.F.C. was the first Pakistani company to export fans to the Middle East. G.F.C. Fans became an instant success due to their quality and • durability in all the markets where these were introduced. By the grace of God, G.F.C. has been getting the Export Trophy from FPCCI for the export of electric fans for many years. The growth rate of fan export from G.F.C. has been continuously more than 100% per annum for the last 5 years. • 1/3rd of the total fans exported from Pakistan are G.F.C. Fans. G.F.C. has large International orders many times more than the previous years for the financial year 2001-2002 and we are looking forward to export fans to all parts of the world including United States and Europe. • • • • • Water and Power development authority has issued the renewal of Registration in 1997. Registration Renewal is an honorable success that G.F.C. has achieved. ISO-9002 Certificate assures that Manufacturing Quality of Electric Fans are according to International Standards. Engineer in Chief Branch has given the certificate of Enlistment/Registration dated: 23-2-2000 on best technical performance. Contract agreement for supply of G.F.C. Fans for "Army Housing Directorate" at 30 April 2001 and is a big achievement for G.F.C. Fans. Pakistan Standard Institution has certified according to 1961 ordinance. The institution hereby grants to G.F.C. Fans. (Hereinafter called "the License") this License is used as standard mark.

MILLAT INDUSTRIES Five decades now MILLAT has undoubtedly been a household name when it comes to the premier quality fans, thus making it the technology of this century. The third generation is now relishing the superb quality of its products after the two cherished it in their lifetime. The company came into operation in 1947 and became the pioneer company in manufacturing of fans. Initially the company started at a small manufacturing facility in the heart of Karachi at Lawrence Road. Due to its commitment to superior quality and innovative designs, Millat quickly became the market leader among the breed of brands. With increase in customer demand the company moved from Lawrence Road to its premises in site in 1960’s. From then on the company enjoyed a healthy market share and remained on the path of success due to its through commitment in producing quality products. With this addition of products, HM Esmail & Co now has a variety of electrical products to offer. The management of HM Esmail & Co has added same new designs in the areas of ceilings, bracket and ventilation fans along with the existing range including the everlasting ceiling, table, pedestal, wall and bracket fans and a full range of plastic models with innovative and elegant designs.

Millat Fans is engaged in the manufacture and export of all kinds of fans for consumer and industrial as well as export applications. Products We started with a big capacity of fans per annum and during a span of a decade, the company established itself among the top manufacturers in Pakistan. At present, Millat has been using latest technology, production machines and testing facilities with the installed capacity of fans per annum. The products are manufactured in line with Pakistan as well as international standards. The Certifications...we have Our products are ISI marked and also approved by apex test houses. The company is amongst the biggest suppliers to Undertakings and large industrial houses.

Quality Control We follow strict quality control at each and every step right from procurement of raw materials to in process goods. Each & every belt is checked and passed by our expert team of QC department before being sent to the finished goods store. SUPER ASIA ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES Super Asia is engaged in producing top order home appliances in South Asia. Recognition of its achievements in quality products is manifested in the form of the ISO 9002 certification. The success tale spread well over 25 years when Super Asia produced the first washing machine of Pakistan. Later on Super Asia started producing room air coolers, gas and electric geysers. Keeping in view the requirements and purchasing power of all the segments of the society Super Asia has introduced different washing machines to meet their demands. Super Asia has the honor to produce complete plastic body washing machine for the first time in Pakistan. Another hallmark in quality products is introducing the double action washing technology through side and center Plaster. In Pakistan Super Asia has not only introduced a large range of Room Air Coolers in plastic body, but in different sizes and values as well. Super Asia in order to maintain its superiority in producing public utility products has introduced hot and cold, and only cold-water dispenser. It was an instant success' due to its design, effectiveness and affordable price amongst the consumers. Similarly the complete range of super Asia fans is of international standard. There are different sizes, colors in Ceiling, Pedestal, Bracket, Circumatic and Exhaust Fans. Research based products of Super Asia enjoyed a sense of superiority over similar products in the open market. The objective is, however, to offer consumers products of international quality at affordable price and this can be judge by the fact that they are being exported to Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar from the last so many years, and their demand is growing day by day. The success story of Super Asia is due to its chairman Haji Mohammad Yousaf while Managing Director Haji Muhammad Afzal looks after the production aspects of the factory. He has a critical approach towards the products and their prices offered by their competitors. Haji Muhammad Ashraf, Chief Executive of Super Asia has played a leading role in the marketing aspects of the products. He is fully aware of modern trends

in the International Markets.It will not be out of place to mention the services of Mr. Faisal Afzal, Mr. Abdul Razaq, Mr. Sohail Yousaf and Mr. Umer Ashraf, that is looking after different departments of Super Asia. These four young fellows with their higher education and thriving on the experience of their seniors have produced excellent results. Apart from looking after the affairs of factory, chairman Haji Muhammad Yousaf is equally paying his attention towards religious affairs and social work. He has constructed a Mosque, Mian Muhammad Din Trust Hospital is another example, where free medical treatment is being provided to factory workers, and the needy of nearby localities. PAK UNION FAN INDUSTRIES Company Profile Established in1980, manufacturer of ELECTRIC fans in Pakistan in the brand name of Super Sonic, in different designs and sizes. It includes special varieties of ceiling, pedestal, exhaust, bracket fans, table and which display their professional expertise, skill and are equally renowned locally and abroad. As a corporate policy we believe in providing best of services to our clients with correct information. Our extra friendly activities keep our members and dealers cheerful and always ready to provide a helping hand.20 years in export now also available in Pakistan . Company Name: Address: Products/Services We Offer: Business Type: Geographic Markets: No. of Employees: Annual Sales Range (USD): Year Established: Pak Union Fan Industries. 83, G.T. road, Lahore, punjab, Pakistan We are manufacturer of all kind of Fans like Ceiling Fans, Pedestal Fans, Bracket Fans and Exaust Fans Manufacturer Worldwide 101 - 500 People US$2.5 Million - US$5 Million 1980

SUPER INDUS ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES Super Indus electrical industries is a largest manufacturer of home appliances such as fans of all types and sizes, washing machines, room coolers, gas appliances. Super Indus electrical industry is working in Pakistan from last 35 years. We export our products to Bangladesh and Middle East countries since 15 years. Our motto is to provide excellent services to our customers. Company Name: Address: Super Indus Electrical Industries 58-A Small Industrial Estate No.1, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan Ceiling Fans, Pedestal Fans, Stand Fans, Wall Fans And Exhaust Fans, Washing Machine, Dryer Products/Services We Offer: Machines, Room Air Coolers, Gas Stoves, Cooking Ranges, Gas And Electric Water Heaters, Room Heaters Business Type/ Industry Focus: Geographic Markets: No. of Employees: Annual Sales Range (USD): Certificates: Year Established: Legal Representative/CEO: Fan, Washing Machine , Gas Cooker, Range, Stove , Water Heater / Manufacturer Mid East 101 - 500 People US$1 Million - US$2.5 Million our customers satisfaction is our certificate 1970 CEO

OTHER FAN PRODUCING COMPANIES Pakistan Fan Consortium Pak Punjab Fans Vision Enterprises Ace Electrical Appliances Pioneer Industries Golden Star Fans Global Technologies Sevendays Amin Industrial Corporation Falcon Enterprises

Raw material Moat of the raw material used by the fan industry are directly ort indirectly imported from different countries. Irregular and constrained supplies of some basic inputs are the main bottlenecks. Some of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of a fan are: electric steel sheets, aluminum, enameled copper wire, ball bearing, steel rod and PVC. Major fan producing countries are Japan, Korea Taiwan Hong Kong India and China. Japan is covering high quality market segment of fan market. Korea and Hong Kong are in middle segment of market while Pakistan India Taiwan and China are supplying comparatively low quality products at cheaper prices. Exports Although fans exports have great potential, their exports are negligible. In 1992-93, only two hundred thousand fans were exported to only two countries, Iraq and Yemen. But now the industry is exporting fans to more than countries. The figures given in table-I indicate that although the exports of ceiling fan increased from RS 134 thousand to 209 million rupees, the trade is fluctuating a great deal. As against ceiling fans, the increase is pedestal fan export is quite stable i.e., continuously rising. Pakistan has also started exporting parts of fans. During the last four years, as shown in table II, the amount earned from export rose from RS 4.2 million to RS 107 million in 1998-01, but decreased to about fifty percent the very next year, 2001-02. However, in spite of big fluctuations, it is believed that if some bottlenecks are removed there is a big scope for enhancing the exports of fans. The situation is that from very the beginning, the government has not given any incentives to encourage fan industries., whatever progress the industry made, it has made on its own resources, and is due to its dedicated and hard working manufacturers and laborers. In spite of lack of proper training the industry ha innovated and uplifted the standard to the level where its products can compete in the world markets. The main constraints hindering the growth of industry as well as export are: Ball bearing is an important part that ensures smooth running and noiseless working of an electric fan. Fan manufacturers are now importing this item because of smuggled ball

bearings local units are not producing quality products. Thus, anti-smuggling measures should be taken to save the local industry, which in turn would ensure regular supply of ball bearing to fan industry at reasonable prices. In the meantime, the import duty on ball bearings should be rationalized.

Like ball bearings, Electric Steel Sheet (ESS) is also a major item in fan manufacturing. It determines the quality, performance, durability and electric consumptions of a fan. However, due to ESS shortage and high prices, fan manufacturers are using Mild Steel Sheet (MSS). The motors manufactured from this material are not good quality and use more electricity. Prices of raw material are a major constraint in export. For instance, in some cases C & F prices of raw material in Pakistan are greater than C & F price of fans from India. Therefore, if the government really wants sot increases export of fan, custom duties on raw material should lowered to a reasonable level. There is an urgent need to establish a research department for innovation and to improve designs of fans according to the requirements of international buyers. Pakistan Standard Institute’s (PSI) procedure should be simplified and the latest technical laboratory should be set-up to test the fans. The PSI should establish its testing laboratory in the area where industry exists and test fans on two standards i.e., at local and international. The test reports should be given in a specific period. Further, an institute of labor training should immediately be established with the help of PEFM Association. The other measures to enhance the exports include organizing seminars, doing surveys of the foreign markets that would give the idea of how to export, where to export and what to export.

Export of fans Years Ceiling Pedestal

(000 RS) 1998-99 1999-00 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 Parts Of Fans Exported Years 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 4.2 16.6 109.7 67.9 Millions 1341289 817621826 1863615137 255232432 1568966370 5925161554 208963183613

Fans Exporters by Type:

(Millions RS)

Fans Type Ceiling Fans Pedestal Fans Table Fans Exhaust Fans Other Fans Fan Blowers Other Fans N.S Total

2001-2002 2002-2003 2.6 32.4 1.1 0.1 2.9 24.0 3 45 15.7 66.4 -0.1 6.9 13.2 9.7 42

2003-2004 59.3 161.6 -0.1 5.1 0.7 5.3 232.1

2004-2005 208.9 183.6 0.9 -27.2 -2 422.6

2005-2006 90.3 150.8 0.8 ---20.1 --362

Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics.

Countries to Export of Pakistan’s Fan:


Other Fan
44% 14% 25% 17%

Fan under 125 Watt
48% 19% 17% 16%

E xp o rts o f P a k is ta n 's F a n
60% 48% 50% 44% 40% 25% 30% 17% 16% 14% 19% 17% 20% 10% 0% UAE BANGLADESH SAUDI ARAB OTHERS

% age

O th e r F a n F a n u n d e r 125 W a tt



0.02% 2% 3% 3% 1% 5% 4%


9% 14% 19% 33% 7%










0.1% 1% 1% 20% 44% 6% 5% 3% 2% 2% 2% 13%

World Vs Pakistan Export of Fans: VALUE IN US $ OTHER FAN FAN UNDER 125 WATT WORLD PAKISTAN US $ 3.9 Billion US $ 30 Million 73% 34% 27% 66%

World Vs Pakistan Export of Fans: Type Ceiling Fans Pedestal Fans Table Fans Exhaust Fans Other Fans Fan Blowers Other Fans Total 1998-99 2.6 32.4 1.1 0.1 2.9 24.9 3.0 45.0 1999-00 15.7 66.4 -0.1 6.9 13.2 9.7 42.0 2000-01 59.3 161.6 -0.1 5.1 0.7 5.3 232.1 2001-02 208.9 183.6 0.9 -27.2 -2.0 422.6



Other Fan Unit Value (US $)

Fan under 125 Watt (US $) 17 46 30 16 5


16 64 48 40 38

Average Unit Price Comparasion
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 64 46 16 17 48 30 16 5 USA MALAYSIA INDIA PAKISTAN CHINA Other Fan 40 38 Fan under 125 Watt (US $)


US $

years 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006 2007

Installed capacity (000) 234 233 243 245 241 153 244 265 277 388 355 399 389 387 243 265 345 365 345 345 456 489 478 477 566 546 534 576 588 678 889 8879 88889 99987 70000 78999

Steel consumption production (000) (000) 543.7 566.2 577.33 599.2 588 689.23 683.3 776.3 568.9 889.23 992.5 776.6 778 669.23 667.34 889.56 998.4 998.56 889.45 1,073.90 1,048.10 1,098.20 1,252.70 1,044.70 1,002.20 1,068.60 1,015.80 989.3 1,106.50 1,071.20 1,042.90 1,140.20 1,180.00 1,137.20 768 1,008.80

123 233 122 147 198 189 233 267 248 289 288 277 345 498 377 398 478 498 477 566 567 667 445 445 668 776 786 546 456 345 665 545 765 457 765 587

Dependent Variable: P Method: Least Squares Date: 05/18/10 Time: 20:34 Sample(adjusted): 1970 2005 Included observations: 36 after adjusting endpoints Variable Coefficient Std. Error C 115.80201730 106.165001703 A B R-squared Adjusted R-squared S.E. of regression Sum squared resid

t-Statistic Prob. - 0.28327298 1.09077394097 6687

0.0013889535 0.00091171794 1.52344659713 0.13717369 9327 0023 2359 0.6028783262 0.11810462404 5.10461238193 1.35519391 81 9 003 0.5147522107 62 0.4853432538 38 140.44872893 1 650952.90012 8 227.52991134 2 1.7314036921 3 Mean dependent var S.D. dependent var Akaike info criterion Schwarz criterion 437.111111 111 195.775786 884 12.8072172 968 12.9391772 083 17.5032461 063 6.58262067 988e-06

Log likelihood Durbin-Watson stat

F-statistic Prob(F-statistic)


Y=production A=installed capacity B=consumption of iron

CONCLUSION: According to my expectation both a and b are positive and significant.this shows that the production depends upon the installed capacity and the availibity of steel and they greatly effect the production.

• • • • • • •


%2CMISC&IndexArea=company_en&Country=PK&CompanyType=&Search Text=Fan • • • • •


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