This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A questionnaire is a series of questions asked to individuals to obtain statistically useful information about a given topic. When properly constructed and responsibly administered, questionnaires become a vital instrument by which statements can be made about specific groups or people or entire populations. Questionnaires are frequently used in quantitative marketing research and social research. They are a valuable method of collecting a wide range of information from a large number of individuals, often referred to as respondents. Adequate questionnaire construction is critical to the success of a survey. Inappropriate questions, incorrect ordering of questions, incorrect scaling, or bad questionnaire format can make the survey valueless, as it may not accurately reflect the views and opinions of the participants. A useful method for checking a questionnaire and making sure it is accurately capturing the intended information is to pretest among a smaller subset of target respondents Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. A well-designed questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants, they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. A questionnaire is a powerful evaluation tool and should not be taken lightly. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help your research. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used, the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. One does not collect data andthen see if they found something interesting. One form a hypothesis and an experiment that will help prove or disprove the hypothesis.
Market research is all about reducing your business risks through the smart use of information. It is often cited that 'knowledge is power', and through market research you will have the power to discover new business opportunities, closely monitor your competitors, effectively develop products and services, and target your customers in the most cost-efficient way. However in order to get useful results you need to make sure you are asking the right questions to the right people and in the right way.
.A good questionnaire is designed so that your results will tell you what you want to find out. give fast turnaround and will allow for probing. For example. 5. 2. In fact. 4. don¶t include it! 6. You can only do this if you¶ve remembered to record the gender of each respondent on each questionnaire. or are you more interested in interpreting feedback from respondents to bring out common themes? . even whether or not they are married). e. maybe you want to compare answers given by men and women. Telephone. Qualitative or Quantitative? . Postal. "How am I going to use this information?" If you don¶t know. quite often the shorter the better. . and as a general rule people are less likely to answer a long questionnaire than a short one. questions about financial matters.Start by writing down what you are trying to do in a few clear sentences.Make sure you cover everything you will need when it come to analysing the answers. make sure the interview is no longer than 10 minutes maximum (this will be about 10 to 15 questions). . Use simple and direct language. . 3. 1. postal surveys can be cheap but responses can be low and can take a long time to receive. .g.If your questionnaire is too long.There is no point conducting research if the results aren¶t going to be used ± make sure you know why you are asking the questions in the first place. The wording of a question should be simple and to the point. Do not use uncommon words or long sentences.There are many methods used to ask questions. Read each question and ask. .The questions must be clearly understood by the respondent.If you are going to be asking your customers to answer your questionnaire in-store. and telephone can be costly. but will often generate high response rates. Start with something general. . and each has its good and bad points. . 7.The following tips are designed to help you avoid some of the common pitfalls when designing a market research questionnaire.The method used will generally be determined by the subject matter you are researching and the types of respondents you will be contacting. Keep it short. What are you trying to find out? .g. face-to-face can be expensive but will generate the fullest responses. Web. web surveys can be cost-effective but hit and miss on response rates.Do you want to focus on the number e. try to remove some questions. Face-to-Face? . and design your questionnaire around this.We are all busy. age.Respondents will be put-off and may even refuse to complete your questionnaire if you ask questions that are too personal at the start (e. 87% of respondents thought this.g. How are you going to use the information? .
Place the most important questions in the first half of the questionnaire. budget. Questions should flow from the least sensitive to the most sensitive. Questions should flow from factual and behavioral questions to attitudinal and opinion questions. Complete some interviews with your colleagues BEFORE you ask the real respondents. The research objectives and frame of reference should be defined beforehand. Test your questionnaire on your colleagues. In the last stage you ask demographic questions. for example. According to the three stages theory (also called the sandwich theory). 9. . . The researcher must ensure that the answer to a question is not influenced by previous questions. Questions should flow from unaided to aided questions.Respondents sometimes only complete part of a questionnaire. but it¶s so often overlooked! 10.g. Leave enough space to record the answers.If you are going to include questions which may require a long answer e. It sounds obvious. intrusion and privacy. Then in the second stage you ask all the product specific questions. . If. . manpower. initial questions should be screening and rapport questions. then save your time and money. Question sequence y y y y y y y Questions should flow logically from one to the next. ask someone why they do a particular thing. By putting the most important items near the beginning. the results won't influence your decision or you can't afford to implement the findings or the cost of the research outweighs its usefulness.No matter how much time and effort you put into designing your questionnaire. don't bother doing the research. including the questionnaire's context of time. then make sure you leave enough room to write in the possible answers. the partially completed questionnaires will still contain important information.8. Questionnaire construction issues y y Know how (and whether) you will use the results of your research before you start. there is no substitute for testing it. Questions should flow from the more general to the more specific.
they are every bit as expensive in terms of design time and interpretation. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administer compared to other data collection methods. or standards of action. The level of measurement you use will determine what you can do with and conclude from the data. facts. Respondents should have enough information or expertise to answer the questions truthfully. The types of questions (closed. descriptions of past behavior. Every step needs to be designed carefully because the final results are only as good as the weakest link in the questionnaire process. however. multiple-choice. Their background may affect their interpretation of the questions. be it preferences (of products or services). You cannot. feelings. conclude what the average respondent answered. y y Conclusion It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multi-stage process beginning with definition of the aspects to be examined and ending with interpretation of the results. . and open) should fit the statistical data analysis techniques available and your goals. Unneeded questions are an expense to the researcher and an unwelcome imposition on the respondents.y y y y The nature of the expected responses should be defined and retained for interpretation of the responses. beliefs. The topics should fit the respondents¶ frame of reference. All questions should contribute to the objective(s) of the research. Questions and prepared responses to choose from should be neutral as to intended outcome. A biased question or questionnaire encourages respondents to answer one way rather than another. Even questions without bias may leave respondents with expectations. If the response option is yes/no then you will only know how many or what percent of your sample answered yes/no.