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Advances in e-commerce have resulted in progress towards strategies, requirements and development of ecommerce application. Nearly all the e-commerce
applications envisioned so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure, such as a browser on PC connected to the internet using phone lines on LAN. Many people do not use a PC outside the office, but keep the mobile phone at their side all the times. Mobile commerce is perfect for this group. M-commerce allows one to reach the consumer directly, not his fax machine, his desk, his secretary or his mailbox, but ones consumer directly, regardless of where he is. M-commerce is “the delivery of electronic commerce capabilities directly into the hands, anywhere, via wireless technology” and “putting a retail outlet in the customer’s hands anywhere.” This can be done with just a mobile
phone, a PDA connected to a mobile phone or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. M-commerce is also termed as wireless e-commerce.
BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
attention in the last few years. Advances in e-commerce have resutled in significant progress towards strategies, requirements and development of e-commerce
applications. Nearly all the applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed or stationary users with wired infrastructure, such as browser on a PC connected to the Internet using phone lines or a Local Area Network. A new e-commerce application such as “Wireless e-
commerce” or “Mobile e-commerce” will benefit one to reach the consumer directly, regardless of where he is.
The emergence of M-commerce, a synonym for wireless e-commerce allows one to do the same function that can be done over the internet. This can be done by
connecting a PDA to a mobile phone, or even a portable PC connected to a mobile phone. Mobile Commerce is perfect for the group who always keep a mobile phone by side all the times. A study from the wireless data and computing service, a division of strategy analytics, reports that the mobile commerce market may rise to $200 billion by 2004. The report predicts that transactions via wireless devices will generate about $14 billion a year.
We are aware that consensus within business and industry of future applications is still in its infancy. However, we are interested in examining those future applications and technologies that will form the next frontier of electronic commerce. To help future applications and to allow designers, developers and researchers to strategize and create mobile commerce applications, a four level integrated framework is proposed.
com 4 . The framework also provides a developer and provider plane to address the different needs and roles of application developers. rather they can build on the functionalities provided by others. content providers and service providers. By following this framework a single entity is not forced to do everything to build m-commerce systems. user infrastructure. Seminartopicsonline. middleware and network infrastructure which simplifies the design and development.Seminar Report M-Commerce This framework has four levels: m-commerce applications.
com 5 .Seminar Report M-Commerce Content provider can build its service using applications from multiple application developers and also can aggregate content from other content providers and can supply the aggregated content to a network operator or service provider. Wireless carriers can play a very active and important role in the mobile commerce applications and services due to the fact that mobile user is going through their network to perform all mobile Seminartopicsonline. Service providers can also act as content aggregators. but are unlikely to act as either an application or content provider due to their focus on the network and service aspects of m-commerce.
Mobile user is likely to prefer a common bill for voice. data and mobile commerce services. EMERGING MOBILE COMMERCE APPLICATIONS There are potentially an unlimited number of mobile applications. Seminartopicsonline. we attempt to identify several important classes of applications and provide examples within each class.com 6 . and mobile payments as shown in the figure.Seminar Report M-Commerce commerce transactions. mobile money transfer. They could involve a variety of applications such as mobile banking and brokerage service. Mobile Financial Applications [MFA] Mobile financial applications are likely to be one of the most important components of m-commerce.
com 7 . Micro-payments can be implemented in a variety of ways. A mobile device can communicate with a vending machine using a local wireless network to purchase desired items. In effect it collects money from the users and credits it to the vending providers.Seminar Report M-Commerce One interesting mobile financial application is micro payment involving small purchases such as vending and other items. a finish wireless provider. This approach ha been used by SONERA. One way is that the user could make a call to a certain number where per minute charges equal the cost of the vending item. Seminartopicsonline. in the famous Coke machine service.
The advertising messages sent to the user can be location-sensitive and can inform a user about various on-going specials (shops.com 8 . much targeted advertising can be done. malls and restaurants) in surrounding areas as shown in figure. Seminartopicsonline.Seminar Report M-Commerce Mobile Advertising Mobile advertising is also a very important class of mobile commerce applications. Using demographic information collected by wireless service providers and information on the current location of mobile users.
com 9 .Seminar Report M-Commerce This type of advertising can be performed using Short Messaging Service (SMS) or by using short paging messages to mobile users. a third party may be needed to provide location services. However this may require a sharing of revenues between the network service provider and location service provider. Seminartopicsonline. a user-specific message can be sent independent of the user’s current location. Since the services need the current location information of a user. The messages can be sent to all users located in a certain area.
it can locate a truck (preferably in nearby area) and just-in-time delivery of goods can be performed. and inclinations. The tracking of goods may help service providers in determining the time of delivery to customer. thus improving customer service and obtaining a competitive edge over other business. pictures and video clips can be produced for individual users with specific needs. One very interesting application is “rolling inventory”-which may involve multiple trucks carrying a large amount of inventory while on move.com 10 . content rich advertising involve audio. Whenever a store needs certain goods/items. The rolling inventory and delivery application can Seminartopicsonline. It is also possible that direct advertising to users may be performed without much control from the wireless service providers. interests. services and even people. Mobile Inventory Management (MIM) This class of application involves location tracking of goods.Seminar Report M-Commerce As more wireless bandwidth becomes available.
Seminar Report M-Commerce reduce the amount of inventory space and cost for both vendors and stores and may reduce the time between when an order is placed and the goods are delivered (shown in figure). Location tracking of components can be broken into two components: indoor and outdoor. Indoor tracking can be performed by a chipset (TX/RX) And location information may be transmitted over a satellite or cellular/PCS system Seminartopicsonline.com 11 .
Using a mobile device and centralized/distributed database containing information on products. Currently many people are going to several stores to find an item (certain brand/size of TV. Product Location and Search (PLS) This class of application includes locating an item in a particular area or location. there could be multiple places where such an item or items of similar attributes are located. Potentially. a user should be able to find the exact location of the store where a certain item is located. they Seminartopicsonline. In the case of multiple stores/vendors carrying an item desired by a user.com 12 . After that the user can buy online using a browser on his/her mobile devise.Seminar Report M-Commerce to the component supplier where such information is needed. This is concerned with finding an item with certain specifications and whether it is available in a specified area or not. VCR or an automobile) and compare prices and features.
From the technological point of view. Proactive Service Management Seminartopicsonline.Seminar Report M-Commerce could compete to get customer by real time manipulation of prices or by offering instant discounts. which in turn can interface several different stores/dealers and decide if the item is available or not.com 13 . a mobile user can send a query message to a centralized location (shown in figure).
automobiles can be equipped with smart sensors that keep track of how much wear and tear a car component has Seminartopicsonline. One such application may involve collecting information about the aging components of an automobile (shown in figure).com 14 . accidents and even fatalities.Seminar Report M-Commerce This class of application is based on collecting pertinent information about current or near future user needs and providing services to users proactively. From the technological point of view. This would help reduce anxiety levels of owners and improve the general conditions of automobiles on the road leading to the reduced number of traffic jams.
Wireless Business Re-engineering Many insurance business situations involve going to customer’s premises. a claim adjuster goes to the customers place. In such a scenario. This process takes a long time and is not very efficient. security. takes picture and stores them in his/her mobile device for uploading to the companies database.Seminar Report M-Commerce gone through. To improve this business practice. taking notes of a particular situation. a wireless re-engineering application can be used which allows on-the-spot claim adjustment. Using a small printer attached to the mobile device. he/she prints a claim check. reliability and cost of deployment. Some implications of such applications are privacy. This entire process is performed in minutes as opposed to days. This information can then be transmitted using a radio/microwave/satellite system to a specified service center or other location.com 15 . going back to the office and then taking suitable actions. Seminartopicsonline.
adaptable and smart user interface that learns from and with user. • Ability to display rich and usable contents. several functional components are necessary as highlighted in the first figure. • Ability to accept user input in many forms including voice. many sophisticated mobile commerce applications require other capabilities. Seminartopicsonline. • Dynamic.Seminar Report M-Commerce WIRELESS USER INTERFACE AND MIDDLEWARE ISSUES To make the application described previously a reality. Although it is able to do some simple mobile commerce transactions using a simple hand-held device. For example.com 16 .
support for authenticating user. Seminartopicsonline. Many of these capabilities will increase the size and weight significantly.Seminar Report M-Commerce • Location awareness and ability to track users. and thus. Some of these features are already available in handheld devices. • Multi network interfaces for increased and reliable wireless access. services and applications. ability to discover and download upgraded applications and software proactively. • An operating system that can manage resources to support many of the functions. • Ability to work with and adapt to mobile commerce applications with diverse requirements. • • Possible support for context awareness. products and devices. • Basic security features to handle malicious code. potentially affect the usability and portability of these devices.com 17 .
networks and technologies. middleware unites different applications.Seminar Report M-Commerce Wireless and mobile middleware for mobile commerce Traditionally. the World Wide Web consortium (W3C) had developed several recommendations.com . Mobile middleware can be defined as an enabling layer of software that is used by the applications development to connect the m-commerce applications with different networks and operating systems without introducing mobility awareness in the applications. allowing user access via a common interface. from PCs to TVs to palm devices to cellular phones. tools. To allow for web content to be accessible from everywhere. 18 These Seminartopicsonline.
WIRELESS NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE In this section the wireless networking requirements for various mobile commerce applications are being discussed. and the ability to roam across multiple and wireless networks. Mobile commerce applications would present five general networking requirements: location management.com . content and style of HTML and XML documents. and a Document Object Model (DOM) which defines a language independent application programming interface that applications can use to access and modify the structure.Seminar Report M-Commerce recommendations include the Extensible Makeup Language (XML) for richer semantic information. we To help network five designers developers. network dependability. improved Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and Extensible Style Sheet Language (XSL) to further separate content from presentation. multicast support. 19 translate these Seminartopicsonline. and support for Quality-Of-Service.
Seminartopicsonline.Seminar Report M-Commerce networking requirements into more specific attributes as shown in the table.com 20 .
Seminar Report M-Commerce Wireless infrastructure requirements for mobile commerce Networking Specific attributes requirements Multicast support 1. across 1. group connectivity under mobility/failure 4. 1. impact and frequency component failure 2. 2. Network dependability synchronization/ atomicity of of transactions from multiple users 1. Roaming 3.com multiple networks networks 2. fault-tolerant design user access to multiple networks levels of network availability bandwidth requirements delay and delay variation tolerable loss characteristics handoff among multiple wireless 21 Quality -of –service 4. Seminartopicsonline. support for multicast in infrastructure wireless networks 2. support for multicast in ad hoc networks(much more wireless difficult due to dynamic topology and other factors) 3. 3. keeping track of users across networks .
a global and comprehensive wireless infrastructure for mobile commerce applications is presented as shown in the figure.com 22 . This infrastructure also supports efficient location management. multicast and fault tolerance to increase levels dependability.Seminar Report M-Commerce After identifying the various networking requirements and specific attributes. Seminartopicsonline.
Seminar Report M-Commerce Seminartopicsonline.com 23 .
com 24 . Service providers can Seminartopicsonline.Seminar Report M-Commerce M-COMMERCE ISSUES FOR CARRIERS AND DEVELOPERS Wireless carriers can play a very active and important role in the mobile commerce applications and services due to the fact that a mobile user is going through their network to perform all mobile transactions.
maturity of application software.Seminar Report M-Commerce also act as content aggregators but are likely to act as a clearing house for content and application providers in advertising and distributing their products to its customers. There are some important issues for developers of mcommerce applications. Seminartopicsonline. These include the development of new business models for charging wireless customers and for revenue division among providers. middleware support. another issue is hoe to divide revenues among multiple carriers. and because several carriers are likely to be involved in completing a mobile commerce transaction. These issues are presented in the table below. There are many important issues that need to be addressed before mobile commerce applications can be widely deployed.com 25 . Wireless carriers are also to face challenges involving how to price mobile commerce services. vendor support and user trust necessary for conducting mobile transactions.
Seminar Report M-Commerce Due to the potential values of many mobile commerce applications.com 26 . asymmetric processing and requirements Application Development storage Use of any existing Software Development Kit (SDK) Simulation of environment where application will be used Maximum number of simultaneous users The size of application code Seminartopicsonline. It is possible that the mobile middleware may provide most of such functions and thus reducing the amount of work needed to support atomic transactions. atomic transactions may be necessary. Some important issues for applications developers Issues Comments Network Band width and delay requirements (realprocessing and time vs. non-real time applications) storage Mobile device capabilities Disconnected operation Multicasting for group communications Symmetric vs.
Seminar Report M-Commerce Support for secure transactions Support for fixed users Compatibility and interoperabilit y Independence from the underlying wireless access technologies Independence functionalities Interoperability with IP Compatibility with Wireless Application from the device Desirable features Protocol (WAP) Support for intermittent connectivity Adaptive to the user and network environment Support for “atomic” transactions Easy upgradability User specified features invocation INTERESTING RESEARCH ISSUES IN MOBILE COMMERCE Seminartopicsonline.com 27 .
Seminar Report M-Commerce There are many interesting research problems in mobile commerce. network and protocol limitations • Role of different wireless networking standards • Adoption factors of mobile devices that are significantly different in different parts of the world Seminartopicsonline. • Security and privacy problems that are unique to wireless networks and mobile devices. • Middleware issues that are unique due to device. The problems that are unique to m-commerce are: • Novel applications and services made possible due to the wireless networks and mobile devices.com 28 . Some of these are unique due to the limitations of mobile devices and wireless networks and some are similar to research problems that are currently being addressed by e-commerce research developers.
CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH Seminartopicsonline.com 29 . The research problems that can be addressed by the existing e-commerce research with some modifications and extensions are: • Strategy of new service offering • Role of m-commerce providers • Trust building • Adoption of new services • Pricing models and sensitivity analysis.Seminar Report M-Commerce • Context and location awareness in unique to mobile commerce as many of the applications are sensitive to the context and the location of a user.
reviewed networking requirements.com 30 . several interesting research problems that are currently being addressed or should be addressed by the research and development community. It introduced several new classes of applications. Seminartopicsonline. It presents many issues that cover many disciplines and may best be addressed by an active participation of computer and telecommunications experts.Seminar Report M-Commerce Mobile commerce is an interesting and challenging area of research and development. and discussed application development support. social scientists. It is believed that user trust will play a crucial role in acceptance and widespread deployment of mobile commerce applications. economists and business strategists. Since the area of mobile commerce is very new and still emerging.
• M. Oliphant.ask.com www. IEEE Computer (February 2001).org/imt www.gov/e911 IMT-2000.http: // www.fcc.Seminar Report M-Commerce REFERENCES • G.google. Geolocation and assisted GPS.itu.com • • • Seminartopicsonline. The mobile phone meets the Internet. http: //www. Djuknie and R. IEEE spectrum (August 1999) • FCC e911. Richton.com 31 .
developers and researchers to strategize and create mobile commerce applications. support from Seminartopicsonline. Also. nearly all e-commerce applications envisioned and developed so far assume fixed are stationary users with wired infrastructure. Since there are potentially an unlimited number of mobile commerce applications.Seminar Report M-Commerce ABSTRACT Advances in e-commerce have resulted in significant progress towards strategies. several important classes of applications such as mobile financial proactive search be applications. successfully define. However. To allow designers. and wireless It is re-engineering discussed how attempted identified. architect and implement the necessary hardware/software infrastructure in support of mobile commerce. a four level integrated framework for mobile commerce is proposed. to make mobile commerce applications a reality.com 32 . location and to management. requirements and developments of e-commerce applications. service mobile inventory product are to management. networking requirements is addressed. A new e-commerce applications that will be possible and significantly benefit from emerging wireless and mobile networks is envisioned.
some open research Seminartopicsonline.com 33 . and problems is presented.Seminar Report M-Commerce wireless carriers is discussed.
REFERENCES Seminartopicsonline. INTERESTING RESEARCH IN M-COMMERCE 8. INTRODUCTION 2.Seminar Report M-Commerce CONTENTS 1.com 34 . BACKGROUND & MOTIVATION 3. WIRELESS NETWORKING INFRASTRUCTURE 6. WIRELESS USER INFRASTRUCTURE AND MIDDLEWARE ISSUES 5. M-COMMERCE ISSUES FOR CARRIERS AND DEVELOPERS 7. EMERGING MOBILE COMMERCE APPLICATIONS 4. CONCLUSION 9.
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