[The information below is based on recommendations from National Agriculture Research System.

The Effectiveness of the recommendations varies from place to place with changes in natural resource and climate. Farmers are advised to use the information on their own responsibility. KVK Baramati shall not be responsible for any consequences.]

[30-11-2009/ Dr.D.P.BHOITE)]

Silage preparation
Silage preparation is one of the important methods for storage of green fodder for dairy animals & it is necessary to adopt this method by Indian dairy farmers on large scale in situations like drought or heavy rainfall or scarcity of fodder.

What is silage making?
Silage making means preservation of chaffed cereal green fodder in anaerobic condition by way of fermentation method. In anaerobic condition (no air inside pit/tank),with the help of micro organisms, sugar contained in green fodder is converted in to Lactic acid ,which help to preserve the green fodder for longer duration. Respiratory function of living cells present in green chaffed fodder utilises Oxygen in air tight condition & releases water & carbon dioxide in closed environment in pit/tank. Due to Carbon dioxide releases in pit/tank, air inside is expelled outside as well as organism which depends on oxygen (Like bacteria & Fungi) cannot withstand in CO2 atmosphere in Tank/Pit. These effects in to preservation of chaffed green fodder in silo pit/tank as silage for longer duration (6 months or max. a year if good care is taken)

DR.D.P.BHOITE,M.V.Sc (Animal Reproduction)

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Hybrid Napier. Sugar cane tops. Land under fodder cultivation is emptied. it is impossible to cultivate or harvest fodder) Due to treatment of additive for silage. which takes more time for drying in making hay of these crops. The Effectiveness of the recommendations varies from place to place with changes in natural resource and climate. cereal green fodder like Green fodder maize. it is easily digestible to animals. Preference for cereal green fodder (monocotyledons) is due to it has more sugar content than protein. Silage is prepared in closed & air tight condition so there is no danger of fire. as sugar is utilised in fermentation process to make lactic acid by microorganisms. These cereal fodder crops have hard stem. Pit method or tank method. Planning for silage makingThere are two methods for silage making which are vastly used i. mineral & vitamins to dairy animals. so it increases appetite of dairy animals.P. fodder cutting. high rainfall & scarcity of fodder. For planning of silage.D.V. so it is less labour & time consuming practice. (In hay making.e. Farmers are advised to use the information on their own responsibility. farmers can supply energy. Oat. Situations like drought. These two methods are economically viable for dairy farmers. farmers may use silage for feeding to dairy animals. chaffing is done at one time only. So farmers’ can take more crops in same land in a year against traditional way where land is reserved for fodder until all crops is harvested. dry fodder is stocked & exposed for fire like situation) Due to lactic acid in silage. KVK Baramati shall not be responsible for any consequences. transporting & chaffing of fodder in traditional way requires more labour &time but in case of silage. Silage requires less space for storage as it is pressed in pit/tank than hay making. Important thing behind to adopt silage is in scarcity it provide supply of fodder to dairy animals. following aspects needs to pay attention- DR.P. so it is better to use these kinds of crops for making silage than hay.BHOITE)] Essential fodder crops for silage makingTo prepare best quality silage. transport.BHOITE. For daily cutting. and immediately it is used for plantation of other crops.etc.Sc (Animal Reproduction) Page 2 .M.] [30-11-2009/ Dr. Fodder sorghum. (Rain fed area where shortage of green fodder is for March to June & in high rainy area or water logged lands. Marwel etc are required. Silage is tasty & flavoured. so energy required for digestion is used for other purposes like milk production.D.[The information below is based on recommendations from National Agriculture Research System. Bajara. Benefits of silage makingSilage is storage system of green fodder which keeps all parts of fodder in appropriate condition for feeding than any other system of storage of fodder.

Jaggary. Treatment for Silage1. corner edges should be making round so that while filling & pressing chaffed fodder. 1 kg common salt. He has to plan for silage for four summer months (i.P. this kind of fodder is less suitable for silage making.V.you may divide it with 16 kg. so go through following pointsThere are four milking dairy animals Farmers have to make silage for four months i. plaster wall of silo pit or tank with cement or moistened soil. then go for building tank for silage making than pit method.e.D. Procedure for filling silo pit/tankWhen fodder crop is in cob stage or Tussling stage.BHOITE)] How many dairy animals farmer’s have? How many days farmer’s have to feed animals with silage? Is sufficient green fodder is available with farmer to prepare required silage? On the above points. If ground water level is nearer. decide to plan for silage making. harvest it for preparation of silage. there is example for you-One dairy farmer has four adult milching dairy animals. number of animals & duration of feeding silage to animals.This means 9600kg of chaffed green fodder is require to make silage for four dairy animals for four months.[The information below is based on recommendations from National Agriculture Research System. DR. Per ton of chaffed green fodder requires 1 kg Urea. Wall of pit/tank should be air proof to avoid air too come inside in pit /tank through cracks or crevices .] [30-11-2009/ Dr.e. In rectangular pit. Pit/tank method for silage makingDepending upon local situation like ground water level. Prepare separate solution in 15 to 20 litres of water for Urea. 1 kg mineral mixture & 1 litre of Whey. needs proper treatment of additives like2. So for four months i. The Effectiveness of the recommendations varies from place to place with changes in natural resource and climate. If plastering cement to the wall of pit/tank is uneconomical. air will not remain inside in the corners of pit or tank. Farmers are advised to use the information on their own responsibility. March to June). To decide dimension of pit/tank for 9600 kg chaffed green fodder .To avoid this situation.M.contains 16 kg of chaffed green fodder.BHOITE. Very mature stage is not good for preparing silage as its sugar content is decreased as well as fibre percentage in increased. Mineral mixture & common salt in separate pots/buckets & then spread it on layer of pressed chaffed green fodder while filling silo pit/tank.e.Sc (Animal Reproduction) Page 3 . 120 days for four animals requirement of silage is 9600 kg. For pit method. KVK Baramati shall not be responsible for any consequences. 2 kg jaggary.D. so you may have to make 600 cubic feet of pit/tank as 20 foot long × 6 foot wide × 5 foot high. 3. 120 days Maximum per day feeing of silage is 20 kg per animal so per day feeding for four animals as 80 kg. decide shape & size of constructing pit/tank for silage making. select location for making pit at higher level on ground so that rain waer may not percolate in to pit. then you may use HDPE plastic paper (200 micron) to cover pit/tank inside out position. For making best quality & balanced silage.P. In one cubic foot in pit or tank (1 cubic foot = 1 foot long × 1 foot wide × 1 foot high).

press it with wooden plank(Like Mortar) in such a way that air will not entangled in chaffed fodder.BHOITE)] After harvesting fodder crops. Then sprinkle it with prepared solution of Jaggary. make pieces of 1.P. With the help of chaff cutter machine. let it dry for 5-6 hours in shed so that moisture content of fodder will decreases from 80% to 65-70%. Mineral mixture & common salt in separate pots/buckets & then spread it on layer of pressed chaffed green fodder while filling silo pit/tank. chaffing of fodder is essential component.  Covet it with Trash.  It will require 45 to 60 days to make good quality of silage. Common salt & whey.D. KVK Baramati shall not be responsible for any consequences.5c. Urea.  Start to fill chaffed green fodder in pit or tank. Soil & dry hay to protect it from entering rain water in to it. Wheat straw. length of green maize. Farmers are advised to use the information on their own responsibility.V.Sc (Animal Reproduction) Page 4 .m.[The information below is based on recommendations from National Agriculture Research System. The Effectiveness of the recommendations varies from place to place with changes in natural resource and climate.BHOITE.D.Fodder bajara etc for filling silo pit.m.] [30-11-2009/ Dr. clean& dry it. DR.Care to be taken to avoid silage making in rainy days or crops containing dew drops in winter season because moisture is more in this situation so there may be chances for development of mould in silo pit during storage period.5 feet above the ground level(In pit).  Prepare separate solution in 15 to 20 litres of water for Urea. If possible to temporary arrangement of shed above the silo pit/tank.P. Jaggary. to 2 c.sorghum.sugarcane tops.marwel.  Cover with plastic film inside pit/tank in such way that it will cover all sides of pit/tank.  After making 4” thick layer of chaffed green fodder.  Follow the same procedure until filling of pit/tank 1 to 1.Then covet it from plastic film from all side carefully.M. Mineral mixture.  For making silage. Following steps to be taken while filling silo pit Prior to filling silo pit / tank.

M.Good quality silage has sweet & sour taste.P. pH. (Ref-“ Adhik dudhasathi hirwa chara”.[The information below is based on recommendations from National Agriculture Research System. If it is not in use. it will eat it with good liking.D.BHOITE.P. Farmers are advised to use the information on their own responsibility. Quality of SilageMould. then cover it carefully with plastic film so that air will not go inside in silage.2004) DR.Good quality silage has faint green or brownish colour. Initially fed animals with 5-6 kg silage by adding it with chaffed green fodder to develop taste to animals.M. Rotten silage has black colour.] [30-11-2009/ Dr. not well pressed. there will be growth of mould. The Effectiveness of the recommendations varies from place to place with changes in natural resource and climate.If silage while filling pit/tank.5 to 4.BHOITE)] Use of silageAfter 8-10 weeks. Once animal likes sweet-sour taste of silage.Good quality silage has pH of 3.K.Author.2.ICAR.Kokate. KVK Baramati shall not be responsible for any consequences.D.V. Odour. Open pit/tank initially from one side of for use.BAIF-2004 & Handbook of Animal Husbandry.Sc (Animal Reproduction) Page 5 . Colour. silage is ready as feed for animals.

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