David Pines, Series Editor
Anderson, P.W., Baric Notions of Condensed Matter Physics Bethe H. and Jackiw, R., Intermediate Q u a n ~ m Mechanics, Third Edition Feynman, R., Photon-Hadron Interactions Feynman, R., Quantum Electrodynamics Feynman, R., Statistical Mechanics Feynman, R., The Theory of Ftrndamenral Processes Norieres, P*,Theory of Interacting Fermi System Pines, D., The Many-Body Problem Quigg, C., Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak,and Electromagnetic Interactions

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ynnran8sCaltech course on Quantum Electrodynamics were first published in 1961. since 1961.Editor's Foreword Addison-Wesley's Frontiers in Physics series has. These lecture notes on Richard Ft. It will keep in print those volumes in Frmliers in Physics or its sister series. the series has emphasized informality in both style and content. Taken together with the reprints included here of . made it possible for leading physicists to communicate in coherent fashion their views of recent developments in the most exciting and active fields of physics-without having to devote the time and energy required to prepare a formal review or monograph. that continue to provide a unique account of a topic of lasting interest. the freshness and originality of his approach to quantum electrodynamics.and the overall pedagogical wizardry of Richard Feynman. However. the presentation in this work reflects his deep physical insight. Over time. The Advanced Book Classics series has been designed to meet this demand. as part of the first group of lecture notelreprint volumes to be included in the Frontiers in Physics series. these classics will be made available at a comparatively modest cost to the reader. it was expected that these informal accounts would be replaced by more formal counterparts-textbooks or monographs-as the cutting-edge topics they treated gradually became integrated into the body of physics knowledge and reader interest dwindled. And through a sizable printing. this has not proven to be the case for a number of the volumes in the series: Many works have remained in print on an on-demand basis. Indeed. Lecture Notes and Suppkments in Physics. throughout its nearly forty-year existence. As is the case with all of the Feynman lecture note volumes. as well as pedagogical clarity. while others have such intrinsic value that the physics community has urged us to extend their life span.

vi EDITOR" SFOREWQRD Feynman's seminal papers on the space-time approach to quantum electrodynamics and the theon. E inois l f December 2 997 . the lecture notes provide beginning students and experienced researchers alike with an invaluable introduction to quantum electrodynamics and to Feynman's highly original approach to the topic. Bavid Pines Idrbana. of positrons.

this course is complete in itself. It was based on the . explicit discussion of properties of the S matrix. in much the way that a course dealing with Newton's laws can be a complete discussion of mechanics in a physical sense although topics such as least action or Hamilton's equations are omitted. The aim was to present the main results and calculational procedures of quantum electrodynamics in as simple and straightfaward a way as possible. some questions involving the interaction of light and matter were discussed during the preceding semester. The attempt to teach elementary quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics together in just one year was an experiment.. The course was designed with their needs in mind. These are also included. Nevertheless. These were available in a more advanced course in quantum field theory. are not included. It was hoped that they would learn how one obtains the various cross sections for photon processes which are so important in the design of high-energy experiments. For this reason little attention is given to many aspects of quantum electrodynamics which would be of use for theoretical physicists tackling the more complicated problems of the interaction of pions and nucleons. The relativistic theory begins in the seventh lecture. the relations among the many different formulations of quantum electrodynamics. Many of the students working for degrees in experimental physics did not intend to take more advanced graduate courses in theoretical physics. such as with the synchrotron at Cal Tech. etc. Actually. That is. including operator representations of fields.Preface The text material herein constitutes notes on the third of a three-semester course in quantum mechanics given at the California Institute of Technology in 1953. as the first six lectures.

specifically their permission to reprint the three articles from the Physical Review. R FEWMAN Pasadena. . students must work their way further back. to earlier stages of the educational program. and much of the material in these notes is now given after a full year graduate course in quantum mechanics. in order to ease the transition to the latter part of the course. and XIV. One other unusual point was made. XII. Yura and E. The first two terms were the usual quantum mechanical course using Schiff (McGraw-Hill) as a main reference (omitting Chapters X. 15-3 to 15-5. that the nonrelativistic Pauli equation could be written as on page 6 of the notes. R. namely. The experiment was unsuccessful. T. relating to quantum electrodynamics).viii PREFACE idea that. Huggins. Hibbs. California November 1961 The publisher wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the American Physical Society in the preparation of this volume. However. XIII. They have been edited and corrected by H. R. as new fields of physics are opened up. the theory of propagation and potential scattering was developed in detail in the way outlined in Eqs. The total material was too much for one year. The notes were originally taken by A. R.

( 2 . and Dirac equations Alpbra of the y matrices kuivalence tramformation Relativistic invariance Hamiltonian form of the Dirac equation Nonrelativistic approximation to the Dirac equation Solution of rhe Dirac huation for a Free Particle Defirtieion of the spin of a moving elecrron Norrnalizatian af the wave functions Methods of obtaining matrix elements Intepretation of negative energy states P o t e n ~ aProblems Itn.Contents Editor's Foreword Preface Interaction of Light with Matter-auantum Electrodynamics Discussion of Fermi" mehod Laws of Quantum electrodynamics RCsumC of the Principles and Results of Special Relativity Solution of the Maxwell equation in empq space Relativistic partide mechanics Ref a t i ~ s t i c Wave Equation Units Ktein-Gcrrdon. Quantum Eleetradynamics l Pair creation and annihilation Consewation of energy The propagation kernel Use of the kernel K. l ) Transition probablility Scattering af an electron from a coulomb potenrial Galccllation of the propagation kernel for a free particle Momentum repreenration . Pauli.

Rev. 84.CONTENTS Relativistic Treatment of the Interaction of Particles with L i h t Radiation from atoms Scattering of gamma rays by atomic electrons Digression on the density of final states Cornpton radiation Two-photm pair annihilation Positron annihilation from rest Brernsstrahlung Pair production A method of summing matrix elemenrs over spin states E&cts of screening of the coulomb fieid in atoms Interacdon of Several Electron Derivation of the "mules" of quantum electrodynamics Electron-electron scattering Discussion and Interprebtion of h r i o u s ""Coxrecdon"Terms Electroncelectron interaction Electron-positron interaction Positronium fro-photon exchange between eiectrons andlor positrons SeXfeenergy of the electron Method d integration of integrals appearing in quantum electrodynamics Self-energy integral with an external potential Scattering in an ex ternal potential ResoXution of the fictitious "inbred catastrophe" Anocher vproaclx to the infared di&uXcy Egect on an atomic electron Chsed-loop processes..169-189 (1949) .. 76. 749-759 (1949) Space-x~ Approach to @anturn Electrodynamics. Rev.. 76. Rev. Phys. vacuum polarization Scattering of light by a potential Padi Principle and the Dirac Equation Replcints Summary of Numerical Factors for Transition Probabilities. 123 (1951) The Theory of Positrons. Phys. Phys.


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. Suppose a11 the atoms of itbe u d v e r s e a r e in a. Classically the box in may be treated a s haviw natural modes d e ~ c r i b a b l e terms of a distribution o-f: harmonic oscillatars with coupling between the oscillators and matter. One af the simplest is &at of Fermi. The trarxsfUan to wanturn electrodynmics involves merely the assumption that the oscifladars a r e quantum m e c h a ~ e a l instead cif classieal. 1 . The box is considered to be full of phstom with a~ distribution of energies &W. a = 0. box. The subject i s made to a p m a r more difficult &m it actually i s by the very many equivalent methods by which it may be formulated. o r plane rmning wavtsa exp (iK * X$.. The interaction of photom with: matter causeha the number of photons of' t y m n t a increase by & l [emission or absorption). Waves in a box can be repressxrted a s plane e t a d i a g waves. One can say there i~ an instan- t Revs. 4. Modern Phys . We shall take another starting point by just postzzlating for the emission o r absorption of photons. .. with zera-point e n e r w 112fiw. They then have energies (a +. X / 2 ) b .Interaction of Light ith Matter- The theory of interaction of light with matter i s called wanturn electrod y n m i c s . waves. spherical. In this form it i s most immediately appXicabXe.. 87 (1932).

Fermi's technique leads to an infinite self-energy term e 2 / r f i . The amplitude that m atomic system will absorb a photon d u r i w the process of transition from one state to another 18 emctly the same a s the amplitude that the same transition will be made under the influence of a ptential equal to that af a classical e l e c t r o m w e t i c wave representing that photon. a e r f o m a l means of e a r e s s i o n a r e M in Hamiltonian form. Also the statistical w e i e t of a state of n identical photons i s l instead of the elassieal a! Thus. The vector potential representing a real classical wave i s talqen a s . Second Lectuw U W 8 OF QUANTUM EUCTRODPHAmC8 Without justification at this time the "laws of q u m t m ele. field o p r a t o r s . m e n the Coulomb forcea may be put into the Schr6diwer equation directly. add m p l i tudes). that is.ectrdynamics9" will be stated a s follows: 1. m (c) the potential acts d only once in mrturbatlon. the states of a csllesetion of identical photons must be symmetric (exchmge photons. in general. A plane wave can always be represented by a vector potential only (scalar potential made zlero by suitable gauge transformation). 3 .hU" e*' w t . Although many forms of expression a r e p s s i b l e i t is most convenient to describe the electromagnetic 8eld in terms of plane waves. That is. Photons obey Boee-Einstein atatistlcs. This momaly was one of the central problem8 of modern q?xmtm eleclr&pamics. Tbe n u m b r of states a v a i l h i e p r cubic centimeter of a given po2arizatlon Is Note this ia exactly the same a s the number of normal modes per cubic centirneter in classical theory. 2.4 QUANTUM E LECTRODfxiNAMfCS tanems Coulomb interaction e 2 / r l j between all charges plus transverse w v e s only. a photon may be represenbd by a solution of the classical Maxwell equations if properly normalized. and only the e. mplacing the word "absorbedM by 'kmit?' in rule X r s q d r e s only that the wave represented by exp (+iut) be kept instead of exp (-iwt). It i s poasibie to eliminate this term in s u i a b l e caarr3inate systems but then the transverse waves contribute czn i d t n i ty (interpretaaon more obscure).""tart and is kept. only terms to first order in the electromagnetic fietd strength should be retained. etc. provided: (a) the classical wave i s normalized t a represent an energy density equal t a b times the probabilty per cubic centinneter of finding the photon. @) the real classical wave is split into two complex waves e .

Now IFf = (l/e) (&A/ a t) = (Ua/e) s sin. Example: Suppose an atom i s in an excited s t a b \ti with energy Et and m h e s a transition.I N T E R A C T I O N QF L I G H T W I T H M A T T E R A ZZ a e cos ( u t .K-X)] r e p r e s e n t i ~ g ernitthe ted photon. Therefore the average e n e r a density should be 60.f?./sec = 2n/A /f(potential)il2* (density of states) Density of states = .*x) We want the nctrmalizatian of A to correspond to unit probability per eubic centinneter of findiw the photon. The probability of transition p r second i s the same a s the probability of transition m d e r the Influence of a vector potential a8 expf-t-ifwt. prob.c exp [+ilot .y density is equal to ( 1 / 8 r ) f l ~ 1 ~1 ~ 1 ' ) = (1/4a)(w'a2/c') sin3(wt + .K*@ Setting this equal to t-icc: we find that Thus - er f m p f-ilut . X ) * for a plme wave.(w t . Therefore the averscge energ.K * xll .K * X ) 1) Hence we take the mpUtade LhisLt an atomic system will absorb a photon to be For emission the vector poLentiaL is the s m e except for a positive exponential.K. Aecasding to the laws of quantum mechanics (Fermi's golden rule) Trans. to a final state Jif with energy E r .

The invariance of the Pauli equation i s shown as follows. then the substitutions leave E and B invariant. This is explained in more detail in the next lectws. (This is to jusWfy the possibi&t. we shall note that more tjhm one choice for the potential may @v@ the s m e physical results. bowever. where." The fact that a freedom of choice edats results from the i w a s i m c e of the Pauli equation to the. if and if X is my scalar. The Pauli equation. i s . The quantum-mechmical trmsformatfon. is a simple extension of the classical.) Tjzzz'rd Lecture The representation of the plme-wave photon by the potantials i s essentially a choice of 6"gauge. q u m t m . = 0 for our photon. h quantum mechanics the additional transformation of the wave function i s intrduced.m e c h d c a l gauge t r m f o r m . First.6 QUANTUM E LECTRQDUHAMICS The matrix element U f i = /f@otential)f/2 to be computed from perturis bation theory.y of always chwsin@ Q.

Usim the previous results. "@atnhm Meehantca.$ given by This emression indicates that the prturb2ttrion h a the a m 8 eB@ctae a timeindepndent prhrbation. Sec. 1958. As i s well known? the most impor~ w ~ ta& contribution will come from the states such that Ef = Ef . Lznndau and E. Massachusetts. the probabilly. D. respectively.of' a trmsritioxl per second is f See. Non-Relativistic Theory. U(x." Addison-Wesley. M. Therefore the substitutions ( @ X / B t)Y leave the Paul1 equation mchawed.z) beween initial and fha1 states whose anergies are. the matrix sbment U. R e A i q . Any time-dewdent perhrbation wMeh can ba written rersults in.wR. 40. E ~ and El. Ufshitz. L. for exmplti3. .y.INTERACTION O F LIGHT WITH M A T T E R The partial derivative with respect to time introducaes a term and this may be included with 4e-jx @. The vector potential A as defined for a photon enters the PauB H m i t tonian a s a perturbation pohntial for a transition from s t a k i to @talef.

I[f +/A<< I. write Because of the rule that f i e potential acts only once. we may write This result is exact. Wore correctly.XC X)] and the two operator relations where K-@= 0 (which follows from the choice of gauge and the Mmtvell equatiom). Although such a term i s negligible even this i s an overestimate. To derive tMs approximation consicler the term (e/2mc) (p. all terms of higher ordfits than the first in ao/h msby be neglected. A * A does not enter this problem.QUANTUM ELECTRQDYNAMICS To determine U f i .ao/ic. K. The aponent can be exwaded. which Is the s m e a s requiring on& first-order terms to enter. It c m be simplified by uai% the ajlo-calked '4dipolet" approximation. o r the current. . where Q = dimension of the atam and h = waveXewth. To complete the dipole a p p r o ~ m a t i o n .e e f ' "X). the term in. whiclr is Ehci or&r of the velocity of an electron in the atom. x i s of the order . This is e ~ i l done since the last term may be t&en y as the order of fiK/mc) = (2i~c/rnc') * (mv2/2mc2). Making use of A = aa exp [-i ( a t .it i s also necessary to neglect the last term.

Then e UZi =" -a--. din. SO that Pft dS1 = a2[e2o'/(2n)'1(e x f f )' d a where Xfi = $r grading Ptf aver l * X @$ d vol./sec = j a 2 7 (e (2x1 lf )' d 2 S . pfl /m = Rwff X ft . For the present.IPJTERAGTXON O F L I G H T W I T H M A T T E R (efif/2mc)cr . the dipole approximation i s to be used. thus The total probability i s obtained by intee2u4 Total prob. (Kx a) e +iK" X v i e x [martsix element of m matrix element i s e A g o d appro&xnatian allowa the separation Then to the accuracy of this apprsximiation the integral is l$ *W +I Uf*(a = (Kx p ) ) ~ d v o l = o I since the @tawsare orlthwoml.Prr * e m "f Using o p r a t o r algebra.

4 e2 5 G 3 1 1 x ~2l k3 Total prob.10 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS m term s xfi i s resolved by noting ( F i g . The amplitude to go from state k to stab Z in time T (Fig./sec = &eorptioa of lLig. 8 3-1 Substituting for 2. 3-21 e ixti el = lxfil sin.heoxty by . 4-1) i s given from perturbation t.

that is. absorbed. $B)will be.I H T E R A C T X O N O F LXGHT W I T H M A T T E R where the time dependence of l l (t] i s inacated by writing & U . Tbis ahsorption probability is when T is large..@) direction is desired. s e e Eq. the transition probability i s given by This is the probability that a photon of frequency w traveliw in direction (0. suppose probabilit.Q>) ll k substmtially eomtant over the wf m small r a e in o which contributes to the integral s o &at i t may be t&en out af the integral. If the incident radiation contains a r a w e of fremencies a d directians. the a r p m e n t of the exponential ia minus and only t e r m s which a r e lin. (g) = ur. the dipole approximation. (4-1) far the directional dependence in.) Using in &is time dependence m d p r f m m i n g the intt. prob. 8- iwt (haccord with the m l e s of b c h r e 2.y that a photon i s present with freency w to w -t dw and in solid aqXe dsZ about the direction f@. The dependence on the photon direction i s contained in the matrix element u j k * Far e x m p l e .ancl P(@.@m the potential are included. it is necesrJary to integrate aver all fr-equencisa.fon. = 2 ~ ( % ) -lulr 1' $)dQ where . Similarly far ulk. @.grat. ao that - ' Trans. the faotor has a i n ? ~ ~ / z f i ) an appreciable value only for Ew near El Ek.@ci3) and the probability of aboorption of any photon travicsling in the (B.

/sec = 2 n ( ~ ) *lulk nfw. Since there a r e (2trepo2dw df2 photon stales in frequensy range diw and solid angle dBZ.(13)(2nc)-~ d o wk12 (4-4) This equation may be indewreted a s follows. Comparing Eq. although the initial and final states a r e reversed since /ulkf= i/uklf This relation may be stated most simply in terms of the concept of the probability n(u. @-l). 8 .~. in which the total probability of absorption (per second) i s It is evident that there is a relation b t w e e n the probability of sgontaneous emission. (13) that a pmtieular photon state i s accupied.12 Q U A N T U M ELECTROf)'YNAMPCS This can also be written in terms of the incident iatensity (energy crossing a unit area in unit time) by noting that U s i w the dipole approximdion. prob. Ewreessiw the probability of absorption in terms of n(w. Trans. (4-4) with. $1. with aceompaying atomic transition from etate 1 to atate k. Probability of spontaneous emission/sec = 2n(1i)-'(2nc)-~ j ~ ulk2 ~ ~ / and the absorption of a photon MUI accompan9ng atomic transition from 8 t a k k to state l. the rate of spontanems emission s h w &at ~ . 8.cp) the probis ability thiit. Eq. a phdon state i s occupied.@. the r e m a n d e r of the h r m s af the rfght-hmd side must be the probhility per second that a jphoton in a& s t a b will be absorbed. Since a(w. the probability that there is some photon vvit-hin this range is .

TaXcjng the statistical weight times the square of the m p U tude for this groesss. a r e Lhree N o tons per initial photon state md one is absorbed. the transition probability for n. one photon per: state provided nfo. photons per initial photon state is n times that for a s i w l e photon per photon state.@. there is the possibility that the photons which a r e not absorbed may be interchanged. The statistical wei&t of the initial state is 113 !. (4-4) is correct if n(cr/. /see of spontaneous emission of a photon into that state h what follows.$yj) t&en as the mean n u r n b r of photons per is state. . Lf the initial state consists of tulo photons in the same photon state. and the amplitude for the process is 6. s o Eq. the m p l l h d e for ab~orption for one photon. i t will not be possible to a s t i n w i s h W1em m the statistical weight of the initial d will be Mice that s t a b will be 1/2 ! However. Thus the t r m s i tion probability i s (1/3 1)(1/2 1) (6)' = 3 times that if them were one photon p r i d t i a t state. (4-4) is correct even when there is a possibility of more &an. 4-22) can occur. the f o l l ~ M n g proceases six (shown on Fig.$)is t&en a s the mean number of photons W r state. the transition prabrtbility per second i s found to be twice that for only one photon per photon state. m e n there3. Any of the *ree incident photons rnw be absorbed and. In general. i t will be shown that Eq.8. in addition.I N T E R A C T I O N QF LIGHT W I T H M A T T E R R o b ./sec of absorptictn of a photon f r m a state (per photon in that stale) prob. the statistical weight of the final state i s 2/21 .

Such a process (involviw one incident photon) could be indicated diagrammatieztlly. For n incident photons the statistical weight of the. Since the gotentials used in computing the transition probability have been normalized to om photon Wr cubic centimeter and the trmsition probztbiiity depends on the: square of the amplimde of the potential. The n can be said to account for the i d u c e d part of the transition rate. that is. while the 1 i s the spontaneous part of the transition rats. The probability e r second) of emission is then n + l times the probability of spontaneous emission. initial s t a b is f[nI. Einstein first deduced these re lationshipa by sem iclassicsl reasoning. The correct transition pr&&ilily for e r n i ~ s i o n s i not obtained this waly. In the semiclassical theory of radiation. ixzctuding the fact that its inclusion leads to the observed Planck distribution formula. 4-3. One photon i s incident on the atom and two indlstinwiahable photons come off. to energy nEw if there a r e n photons. s o the probability of emission for this process is twice that of Eipontanems emission. This i s the basis for the validity of the so-called semiclassical ~ e o r y radiation. it i s clear t b t when there a r e n photonsr p r photon state the eorreet transition probability for abearption wodd ba obhia& by aormaliziw the potential8 ta n pt. the spontmeous part of the emission probability i s arrived a t by general arguments. The err o r corresponds to omitting the spontaneous part of the t r a n ~ i t i o n grabability. however. . and the a p f i t u d e for the process is (n + 1)f times the amplitude for spontaneous emission.lotons per cubie centimeter [amplitude 6 times a s large). h of 'that theory absorption is calculated a s resultiw from the wrturbation by a potential normalized to the actual energy In the field. because it is proportional to n + 1. the statistical weight of the final s t a k i s l/(n + 1) f . The statistical weight of the final state I s 1/2f and the amplitude for the process i s 2. a s in Fig.14 Q U A N T U M EILECTRODUMAMICS A transition that results in the emission of a photon may be induced by incident radiation.

zjf and Selection rules a r e detemined by the conditions that cause t N s matrix element to vanish. of coordinat-ea similarly to Wlc? wave fmction of gome "objectY%iGh unit a w l a r momentum. a s ( x .INTERACTION O F LIGHT WITH M A T T E R %XecLian Rule8 in the f)5pole Appr~~matton. the &miltonian i s H =z(1/2m) P . the dipole approamatlon In the appropriate matrix element is Tlxrs components of of X f r a r e xir. SO that its wave function will conkin either $ . . As k s b e n shown. up to a consant. . for two electrons.."$. and z a r e essentially the Legendre polynomial PI. if in hydrogen the initial and final shks a r e S stabs [spherically symmetrical). the wave function contains P. + Coulomb terms The tmnsition probability is proportional to [pm. f o r single electron transitions.(e/c)A(x gl).' p X general. however. a . If the "object7' and the abm . the selection rule is n This may be seen from the fact that the coordinates X . ) ~ . (Pafmn i s the same.. and the transition probability is proportional to In particulm. the matrix element is x 1 + x 2 behaves under rotation. But Hence for the matrix element not ta vanish.. ? l o r P.1 where the sum i s over all the electrons of the atom. X+ = O and transitions b t w e e n these slates are "forbidden." For transitions from P to S sktes. Ygr. X i f f 0 and they a r e 6iallowed. For example. the angular momentum of the final stale must be n r ~ 1. If the o r b i k l angular momentum of the initial sLak i s n. y. F o r a complex atam (more than one electron)./' = 15(pa)..

That is. The a. L.~ ) . It may simply me= thzt&the lifetime of the state is much longer &an if it . L1 L = O would be forbidden. If the state is degen. All wave functions have ei&er even or d d parity. Parity. it bllows that e i a e r ?Pf -X) = Jir (X) o r Q (-X) = -S [X). sum of individual electron m p l a r momfsnta). That is. h mmy-electron atoms.xZ) can be formally regarded a s the wave bnction of a system (atom -t otsject) having possible values of J i -c. J1 . does not determine the parity (determined by algebraic. s o hL = O transition8 can occur.nwlar momentum.16 Q U A N T U M 1ELE:CTRODYbJAMICs in the initial state do not interact.c {X) But then a complete solution would erate. parity is even.l. Forbidden. since a photon always c a r r i e s a m u d t of mlf. however. O. Therefore. If" in the matrix elements involved in the dipole approximation one makes the change of variable of integration x = --X\ the result i s If the pwidy of %cf i s the s m e m &at of -$!l. tiherefore. then the produet (X* + x2)iEi (xI.l for total m ~ l a momentum. if the state is nondegeneirab. Then. and Jz. the final a. spectral lines mzty a p p a r in gases if they a r e sufficiently rarefied. J i ( . o r if parity 18 odd. L determines f&e gmity. if EIJlr(x) = E\k(x). P w i t g is the prowrty of a wave function referring to i t s behaviar upon reflection of all coordinates. if * . This can be seen from the fact that the Hamiltonian (in the absenm of m external magnetic field) is invariant under the parity operation. Therer fore the matrix element i s nonzero only if Jf . has one of the three values JI 1 o r Ji Hence the general selection rule A J = a 1. not vector. i t is possible that ?fr (-X) be one of the linear combinations 4?(X) + %(-X) even parity odd parity % (X) @(-X) - Forbzddelz Llirtcls.ular momentum. For a oneelectron atom.0 transktions a r e always forbidden. i t i s also true &at H@(-X) = f t . it follows that Hence tlze rule that p a ~ t y must chawe in allowed transitions. forbiddenneess is not ablsolute in all cases.

moving in the z direction and p l a r i z e d in the x direction. Problem: Show that and consequently that Note that p. giving the matrix element - For light. The next higher o r quadrupole approximation would then be to replace e-jK' X by 1 i/K* X . In the nearly exact matrix element the dipole approximation replaces emix' by 1 If Ws vanishes. smaller than in the dipole approximation. but not infinite. were allowed.z can be written as the sum From the preceding prciblern. &is ~GOIZLBB mt the trsrnsition probabiljity is proportional to e whereas in the dipole approximation i t was proportional to Therefore the transition prob&ility in the qua&upole approxhation is at least of the order of (Ka)' = a2/%. tion i s forbidden. as described in the foregoing. which behaves similarly to a wave function for . up to a constant. Thus. the forbidden trmsition may have sufficient time t s occur. the transiat .I N T E R A C T I O N O F L I G H T W I T H MATTER. where a i s of the order of the size of the atom. the f i r s t part of p. and h the wavelengtLh emitled. to xz. if the colliaion rate i s small enough (collisions of the second kind ordbnarify cause de-excitation in forbidden cases).z ie seen to be equivalent.

Hots that unless A J & 2. raaation. m Lfiey eirn only b e d i s t i n ~ i s h e d the polarizatia~ thr. Classification of Transitions and m e i r Selection Rules Electric dipole m p t i c EL~trie &wetic dipoh quadmpolt. * - - T N L E 5-1. it is impticit in Lhs rules that 1/2 112 and O X trmasitiona are forbidden (siren though &may be l ' & l). +l. O with na parity chawe. or mp1m momenhmn of the photon. since the required chawe of 2 for the vector m m l a r nclomentm i s impossible in these caaes.: qwdrupole lMultipole Ekectric octupale Actually all the implicit selection rules for A J . which behaves like a wave function for even parity. i t is possible by a b i l w reasodng ma to deduce the veotsr chawe in m X s momentum. The selection rules far the scseond part of p.18 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYMAMXCS 2. This type of radiation i s called electric quadrupole. 0. even pmity. which become numerous for the higher multipole orders. In the case of electric qudrupole radiation. producing interference. The second p r l i s the operator $. the two t y p s of radiation cmnot be d i a t i w i s h e d by the change in m ~ l momentum or pwity. Continuing to higher approximations. Bo& t m a b By of may occur simultmeously. Therefore the selecUm rules correspondi% to the Brst part a r e Been to be A J = 2. can be expressed explicitly by writing the selection rule a s where 2' is the multipole order o r 1 i s the vector change in angular moment~. If A J = *l.z a r e A J = rt I*OS no parity clzawe. . md the e o r r e a p n d i q radiation i s eaUed magnetic dipole.h the varicrus multipole order8 (Table 5-11. and the selection rules for parity chmge and cbmge of total mw l a r momentum AJ associated wit.

the number of atoms goiw from s t a b k to l per anit time by absorption of photons b must e q u d the number goi% from l to k by emission. Thia i s thds Planek black-bdy distribution law. . X The number to ! determined i s the probability that an atom initially in state k will be left in state 1 by the action of thds pert. The WO photons t&ng part in the phenomenon a r e represented by the vector potentials. then polaabili. Thus .ion of the incoming photon and the ernisrsion of a new lpfroton by the atom. Far an obscure reason the magnetic radiaiLion predominates for each order of muItipole. 6-11.t In and parity-unfavored transitions. Since the system i s in eqtliubrim.XNTIERACTllOrJ O F L I G H T W I T H M A T T E R If) X h r n s out that in so-eal led parity-favored trmsitions. 6 - !r Quifibrim of b&%ticm. where the parity product i s (-1) t -ji the lowest mullipob order 13 I Jf .les of absorption are proportional to n. the relative number of atoms p r cubic centimekr in two ~statee.Jy1 + L.l ) l t tipole order i s J f J i . this may not be true.t. m i probac Bility of emission is proportional to n -t 1. VVe discuser here the phenomena of an incident e af photon being s c a t b r e d by an atom into a new direction ( a d possibly e n e r e ) (see Fig. m SGatteri~ Ugh1. This may be considered a s the absorpt. i s giiven by according to statistical mechanics. the transition probabilities for multipole typea contained witEtin the dashed vertical gnes in Table 5-1 a r e r o w h l equa1. If a system i s in equiIibrim. when the energies differ by Em.urba#on LP r=: At + AS in the "f For nuclei emitting gamma rays this d m s not seem to be true. photons of frequency w are present per cubic cena m e t e r . If n.say 1 and k. wherein the p r d t and the lowest possible muluet of the initial and final parities is ( .

QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS time T. of the two vector potentials must app a r once and only once. - e Then the resulting integral i s . A = (A1+ A2) (Ai + Az) will conbibale only its c r a s s . A .p r d u c t term 2A1&. The second h w Ul. In each i n b g r a l defining AXkreach. but will be efie sum of two terms. The Lime sequerzcrzs r e s u f t i w in these two terms can ba represented schematically a s shown in Fig.At. 6-2. The f i r s t term contains a U1. Thus. The p r d u e t A . is to be employed m d where r pins are neglected. The integral resulting from We first term vAlf now be developd in delai l. where Ths dipole! approdmation. in the f i r s t integral the term p h of fJ will not appear in Ulk. The second in&gral will have no cont r i h t i o n from A . This probability can be computed just aa any transition probability with the use af Alk. based on p * Az and a Unk based an p . m based on p AI and Unk c p *AZ.

and the sum becomes where L& = (EI +&W . Ear the cro8s section cr is . and the phase angle c# i s independent of n.) has been neglected.tal. A term.Ek . The final result e m be written - - - where iM1 I s determined from Alk by integraaxlg over wz and a v e r q i n g over e2. since previws results show that only energies such that El + m Ek + tiwl are important. The integral is similar to the integrals considered previously with regard to transition probabilities.I N T E R A C T I O N O F LIGHT WXTB MATTER first t/ atom FIG.2 expi-i(E. 6 .i). b 1 Ek)(EI + b 2 E./fi)ltd . wi& the denominator given by (E.iw exp f-i (Ek/fi)eaj db dt. Then the complete expresssion.

to a sMft of energy of the level.hen the energy of the atom can only i n c r e a ~ e the frequency of the Ught ~3 and can only decrease. The modifications r e q ~ r e d a v d d this difficulty of to the infinite self-energy will be &scusaed later. Further. the ground state and l r k. The net result i s a very @mallsMft bE in position of energy. levels. This integral dive%@@.$8 If l = k." The last term in the absolute brackets comes from A * A.. Its @Beatis quivalent. The result is called "msomnce s c a t k r i w . where E. h o t h e r phenomenon &at must be considered in q u m of e l s c t s o d p a l c s i s t h pos~ibilft. 6-31. 6-3 The @'indexpsf refraction of a gas e m be obtained by our scattering foro a scatterilae. m d the result is called the '"man effect. bJslf-Enem. h e find& where e is the direction of polarization. a.@ for other t y of ~ ~ lf&t s c a t b r a d in the forward direction. note that if all the atoms are in.Y m atom emitting a phobn and r e a b ~ o r b ~ Ing the earne photon. This affects tfie diagonal element Akk. the s c a t b r i n g is coherent. " . ft can be obtained. the scattering is incoherent. If l k." . by consideriw the mula. Then one b r m in the sum over n b c o m e s extremely large and d o m i m b s the remainder. i s some possible energy level of the abm. This gives r i s e to "Stokes lines The oppsaite e f h c t gives @%ti-Stokes Unes Suppose wg = (coherent s c a l k r i w ) but further Ewl i s very nearly equal to Ek -E. .. mfs shift h m been observed by L a b and &&erford.A more exact relativistic calcuIation also gives a divergent integral. B then a t such vdctes of w the c r o s s section hais a s b w maximum (see Fig.22 Q U A N T U M ELECTRQDYNALMICS The first term under the summation comes from tlxe "first termm 'reviously referred to and t b second from the ""secand term. .$' FIG. This means that our fomulialian of ebctromametic effecter if. f. ' @ is plo-d agaimt o. not really a completely satisfactory theory.

when subjected to this trainsfornnation.armatiarr: . xza experiments made entirely inside of a closed s p a c e ~ h i p moviw mfornzly rrit velocity v (relative to the center of gravity of the matter in the universe. and. The p i n c i p l e has been verified exwrimentally Newton's laws satisfy this principle. The e H qaations are changed. because they i nvolve only second derivatives . The transformation beween. phenomena would appear to be exactly the s m e if all the objects concerned were movixrg uniformly t q e t h e r at velocity V. and early workers in this fieid attempted to m&e an absoluta determination of velocity of the earth using this featwe fmchelson-Morley exmriment). for they a r e urrebmged when subject ta a Galllean transformation.the Principles and Results of Special Relativity The principle of relativity is the principle that all physical. h w e v s r . for e x m p l e ) can debrrrine ehi~ velocity. that the velocity of light i s the same in all coordinate s y s k m s . Failure to detect any effects of this type ultimately led to Einstein" postulate that the Maxwell equations a r e of the @%me form in any coordinate system. . that is. coordinate system@wkich leaves the MmweXl equations invariant is th@ Lorentz transf. in particular.

consequence of the Lorentz transformation i s that clocks appear to run slower in moving systems.) four.. here. is the total energy including the r e s t energy me2. An interestin%. a r e unchawed in form under a Lorentz transformation. X' = x cos 8 -X i y - sin 6 y' = sin B + y cos 6 Successive transforrnatians vl and v.# Pyr P z r E p - (p.where ta& u = v/c...z and ct. that is called time dilation. The latter form is written to demonstrate the analam with rotation of a e s . Henceforth we shall use time u d t s s o that the speed of light c i s unity."-a (C.. In transforming from one coordinate system to another it i s convenient to use tensor analysis. The subscript p will be used to desimate which of the four components is being considered.* V (A. too.. o r ul and u2 add in the sense that a single tran~farrnationva o r u3 will give the same final system if Einstein postulated [theory of special relativity) that the Newton laws must be modified in such a way that they.lxJ jzyP jyJ A.dimensional gradient .) vector (and scalar) potential P.. . a four-vector will be defined a s a set of four quantities that transforms in the same way a s x.) momentum and total energy f $ The energy E. $8 (jp ) current (and charge) density A."-. for e x m p l e . To this end. a ~ " y y ~ v t a -8 W - a +.y. The fallowing wantities a r e f our-vectors: W.

Conservation of chmge in all systems if it Is conserved in one system i s a consequence of the invaiance of &is 'product. m = r e s t mass. When the same index w c u r s twice.pY2 .pXZ . s~ over it..p. second. can be used to facilitate converting laboratory energies to eenter-of-mass energies (Fig. The h r e n t z invariance of the continuity equation i s easily demonstrated by writing i t a s a ' 4product" of four-vectors V and j. the "product" i s an invariant. mc2 = r e s t energy.p.' = E' - = m' (E = total energy. If a u and bp a r e two four-vectors. 6-4) in the following way (consider identical particles. It i s also inlteresting to note that the phase of a free particle wave function ~sxp f-i/tr)fEt p fo] i s invariant since f . the following summation convention will be used. : .' ' t h e four-dimensional divergence V e j . placing minus in front of first. far simplicity): xno-trixy~ particle sttltiona xy padicle Center-of-mass system hboratarjr system . p = momentum. Another invariant is pp .) Thus.S P E C I A L RELATXVfTU 25 An invariant i s a quantity that does not change under a brexrtz transformation. To avoid writing the summation symbol. and third compments. = p e p = ~2 .- The invariance of p.

B. B. E. - where use i a made of the fact that (p is the fourth component of the four. and E.(i/c)(@A/@t) V Q. The Mmwell equations V x B = 4n J -t- (a E / B L) and V -E = 4np a r e wrltbn : . thus there are only six ~ndewndent components ( t h e e components - of E and three components of B) instead of sixteen.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS but and The equations of e l e c t r & m a m i e ~ B = V a r e easily written in temor notation.@) and the diagonal terms (Ir = v ) t" f" a r e zero. X A and E = -.. a r e the components of a secoad-ra& tensor: This tensor i s antisymmetric (F = F. vector potential A p e From the foregoing it can be seen that B x .. E..

2 3 E S l.g .3 CU .? I 83 4 9 "g ..g.. a" g 3 -2 g d .=5 % m k tI . g S @ -.@@%g 3.S 4 B g 3 2 -l.a 3 . $ c5 " 3 tn k3 *t & 0 cQ -. zo h $a% c ."g @ $ L. . ) & @..4 k w g mg a s2gg3 SSm"@ a& $ z s % y G .. b a o .: z a It Q $ 2 "..) m $ 3 0.S 9 : =S win '2W 2x8 I Q *m .C.* .a$$ 3 . -Gg II X . l 9 car E9 S 21car c . *E:@ *@.It w*-. a< rr EU V 9 .a m Q C Its )i.5: lI%Z s Q lel E E " S 3. .

. m e n w o r M q in three dimensions it is customary to t a b the poiarization vector 63 such that. But . Thus. (V. a r e constant vectors. actually forme a second-rank tensor. f a &ird-rank tensor. of multiplying by ik. does not operate on er since the coordinates a r e rectangular). The k p i s the propagation vector with components and the condition k *k = 0 meam Problem: Show that lthe LLOmntz codition implies that k e = 0. and k. A. and k. i s subject to the condition that This may be seen from the fact that V operating on e-lk' X has the effect . K * a = O and to let the @calmpotential cp = 0. and then contraction on the index v yields a firat-r& tensor o r vector. (V. Note that in these operations P AI. V.Q U A N T U M ELE:CTRODVEJAMXCS 80LVTXON OF THE ELL EQUATION ZE-4 EMPTY SPACE h empty space the plane wave solution of &e wave equation where el.

is where X i s a scalar. however. is used. i t is not relativistically invariant and will. fiC* c? =. But V A still hold if = 0. h ordinary notation m u s . Therefore. a. Eq. no matter what coordinate system. choosing. Eq. The "paradox. (7-41. Therefore.this is not a unique condition.O in a particular system amounts to selecting the certain gauge. (1-31. unaltered but which does change e. can be made to v a d s h by choice of the constant a . the h r e n t z condition. i s the new polarization vector" obtained by gauge transformation. So where a i s an arbitrary constant. situation incompatible with relativity a e o r g . will * This equation has a solution X = cremik X . is resolved by the fact tbat one can always make a so-called gauge transformation. The gauge transformation. which leaves the field FP. be true only in a one-coordinate system. This would seem to b a paradox attaching some uniqueness to the system in which K s = 0. Clearly the field i s left unchmged by a gauge transformation for . that is.

for The four-momentum i s defined p. by dt2 The components of ordinary velacity a r e related as follows: It i s evident that u p u p = 1. s o that in ordinary notaNote that pc = m/(1 tion the mornentm P is given by ./(l . But mother quantity where dz. dy.30 the VpVv X - QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS OV X because the order of ditferentiations is immaterial. dz is an element of path of the particle and ds i s the proper time defined by is a four-vector and is called the four-velocity up Dividing @ves the relation between proper time and local time to be . = dt.v2)'/ '. = m/(l. . mv.v2)'/ 2t mvx/(l - mvy/(l .v2)'i2 i s the total energy E. &. = mu.p The components of ordinary velocity do not transform in such a mamer that (tanbe components of a four-vector.

the quantity f. But. The fourth component i s f4 = power - rate of chmge of energy - 4 3 This i s seen from the fact that m/ the o r d n a r y identity i s tlre total energy and also from Thus tfie refat-ivistic mrtlolfue of the Hevvdon equatiom i s d/ds ( . - dp. Like the veloeft.S P E C I A L RIELATIVIT'il where v is the ordinary velocity. the components of ordinary force d e f i n ~ d d/dt (moby menhm) cannot forrn the components of a four-vector./ds does form a four-vector with the components where FP i s the ordinary force. = m d2zp/ds2 The ordinary b r e n t z force i s anid the rate of chmge of energy is Then from the prece$iw definition of fow-fmce.y. p) = f. and .

which states that the aetion shall be a minimum. It is difficult to convert the Hamiltonian idea to a csvari m t o r four-dimensional formulation.( a L/ax./ds) FP.e k j 2 = m'. so that the relativistic a n a l o p e of the Newton. /dsP = e(dz.e ~+ mj2 ] t /~ 2 (8-6) which satisfies (H . /dsj2] = 0 In ordinary terms the equation of motion. ) . But the principle of least action. equation becomes m dZz. 1=o leads to these equations of motion. i s d/dt (mv/ = e(E -i- v x B) It em be shown by direct alpplication of f i e h g r w g e equations d/dt that the Lagrangian (a L/av.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Problem: Show that the expressions just given for f and f4 a r e equivalent to f = euP F p v . will f e d to the relativistic form of the equations of motion directly when expressed a s . Also the momenta conjugate to x is given by 8L/i3v or The corr e s p o n d i ~ Hami Etonian i s H = e 4 + [(P .e@l2 (P. ( 82 1 -3 Also show that this implies d/ds [(dz.

and that the correspondiw Hamlltonian i s Eq. leads to the same equations. Eq. leads to the equations of motion. Also find the expression for P.h& woeher "aetf an. where S is the action just given. '' "defined leads to the s m e result as for S in the foregoing. (8-6). . Eq. (2) Shclvv that c S = O (vaF i riation of S). (8-4). P~oblems:(1) Show that the Lagrangiinrr.SPECIAL RELATIVITY Note that by definition (ds/da lz = (dz p / d a ) ( d z P/daf It is interesting t. (8-51.

2 Mev Mass u d t of atomic weights =.MH kT = l ev when T =. We define the unlts of maas and time and length such 011151.Relativistic ave Equation The following convention wilt be used berrtiafter.520 caulornbs Accordiw to relativistic classical mechanics.e = 96. lI.2 Mev MH = Mass af hydrogen atom = 1. = Avogadrops number = 6. 931.00815 mztsa u d t s = Masa or" neutron = 784 kev -I.025 x N.E3Qli*K. 'che Hmiltaniain is given by . H. Table 9-1 (top of p q e 39) is given a s a useful reference far conversion to a stomary units. The following numerical values a r e useful: M p = rnasrs of proton = 1836.1 m = 938.

However. the operation d e k r mined by the square root i s undeaned. %us the reEativistie quantummechmieal Plmiltadan has not been obtained directly from the classical equation.8625 f @-'%cm evm 2/me2 Classical radiue of the e b ~ t r o n Bahr radius If the qumtum-mecbfctal operator -iV fs used f o r p . owrator is evaluabd by ordinary amrator algebra. (9. h relativistic notation it i s .r)/Zr Time e2 Fine-a truetwe constant (dimensionless) me2/% mc/A li/mc 3.RELATICVISTXC W A V E E Q U A T I O N T D L E 9-1. Eq. This equation waia first discovered by Schrainges as a possible relativistic equrztion. Notations and Udts Present notati on Mea~ng~ Customary notation Value m Mass of electron Energy m mc2 mc 5% '99 kev 0 1104 gauss ern Momenhnn Frequency Wave number bwth (Compton waveliewtt.1). it is g o e ~ i b l e define the square of the o p r to atar and to write where the square of an. It is usually referred to as the Klein-Gordon equation.

Xn four-vector notation. The Klein-Gordan equation leads to a result that seemed s o unreasonable at the time i t was first brozzght to light that i t was considered a valid basis for r e j ~ c t i n g equation. By using. O and @== -Ze/r. let p = if**a@/at j = -if% V 9 . where p p p p = m2. c o n t r q to Diracss original of . &is e w a tion has the solution V = A exp (-ipp xp). and substituting V = ze2/r.36 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYNAMICS This equation does not allow for "~spin'>nd therefore fails to describe the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. Exercise: For the Klein-Gordon equation.J1 V Jlr *) .BA* ?k* = current density Then show (p. consider the equation for a free particle. Then the equation is Let E: = m + W. It i s proposed now far application to the . the student should obtain the fine-structure? split-tiw for hydrogen and compare with the correct values. However.e s s * / a t ) . potential.eqb3 ?fi* = charge density .Vj2/2rn a s a perturbation. The Dfrac equation proves ts be correct in predietiw the e n e r m levels of the hydragsn atom md i s the accepted d e ~ c r i p t i a n the electron. (W . since there results The apparent impossibflity of negative values of E led Dirae t a the development of a new relativistfe wzlve equation. 1) is a four-vector and show FPjp = 0. To s e e that the Illein-Gordon equation predicts such e m r g y states. To demonstrate its application to the hydrogen atom.Then. a particle with no spin. This result i s the possibiuty of negative energy the s t a b s . Neglecting the term on the right in comparison with the f i r s t term on the left gives the ordSnary S c h r ~ i n g e r eqtlation. let A =.rr meson. which c m be written where i s the R"A1embertian operatar. where m. then let \k= X (r) exp(-iEt).

equation i s [(H. m o s e of the KleinGordan equation can also be interpreted. This i n a e a t e s one manner in which "negative" energy solutions e m be interpreted. which by now have been satisfactorily interpreted. h following such a procedure. a different approach will be used here.e ~ ) j Then a possible relativistic version of the Pauli equa~. md it is often stated that only the Dirac equation produces a s a consequence the correct value of the electron" magnetic marnent.i E t ) ~ (x. since the Klein-Gordon equation i s a v a l d relativistic equation for p m ticles without 8pia. Lhen 9 = exp f + i E t ) ~ is a so* lution with -A and -Q. where Thus ( -iV appearing in the Schradinger equation has been replaced by [o . i*e. h s t e d of followiw the original meaocf in the development af the Dirac equation.R E L A T I V I S T I C W A V E EQUATION intent. a s the value that produces the greatest simplification. m e KEein-Cordon equation is actually the four-vector form of the S c h r B d i ~ e equation. It i s the solution for a particle of opposite charge to the electron. equation. Thus the Schrminger equation is where and the Klein-Gordon. a s further work on the PauE equaaon showed that the s m e value foklows just a s naturally. Because spin i s present fn the Dirac equation. This is incorrect. replacing A and (P.y. might be . Ms equation also leads to the existence of negative e n e r m levels. m d beemse the Kleixz-Gordon equ.. Exercise: Show if 3 -. this i~ not true.e@12 (-iV - - * = m2% Now the Pauli equation is also H* = E*. it is often stated that spin i s a relativistic requirement. the terms invalviw "spixltWill be included in the relativistic. but it was not at first clear why the mametic moment of the electron had to be taken a s Ae/2mcl This value did seem to follow naturally &om the D i r a ~ ewatiorr. (-iV.ion was thought to be invalid. The idea of: spin was first i n t r d u c e d by Pauli. With m analr ogous point of view. in analow to the Klein-Gardon equation. tion.z) is a solution of the KleinGordon equation with constant A and Q1. the Dirac equation can be d e v e l o ~ d the four-vector as form of the Pauli e q a t i a n . and absent in the Kleia-Gordon.e x p f . but the same mass.

but a very similar form [wi& M replaced by i( El/@ t)] is eorreQt. there r e ~ u l t s mese two equations may be written as one by e m p l o y i ~ particular a eanvention. and 9bhas been shown e q l i c i t l y .X. i.e. For canvellienee.: A form closer to that originally proposed by Dirac may be obtained as follows. wriW Now let the function X be defined by (g4 + Q r)@ = =g. Define a ntsur matrix wave ftllnetion as where the matrix character of 9. Thls pair of e p a t i a n s can be = rewritten (only to arrive a t a particular conventional f o m ) by w i t i n g - Then adding and subtracting the pair of eqationa for @. achallty . this i s incorrect.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Actually.. This is one form of the Dirac equation. Then Eq. (n4 ar t r ) ~ m@. n a e l y . The wave Eunctian jEr on which the o ~ r a t i o n s r e being carried out i s a actually a matrix. (9-5) implies.

if the auA1lmy definitiom a r e made. show Y =l : = y y 2 = yz2 = -1 . a r e similar. Then using fourvector notation. (Note: An example of the latter definition is 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 X. and Yb can be written as one in the form which is actually four equations in feu wave functions. the Dirac equation is that is.) The two equations in V. since 1 0 crx = P 0 0 0 yY and y.RELATXVISTXC W A V E E Q U A T I O N Than.

(9-41. F.(iVI. in four-vector notation. (9-9). The resulting equation. Usix a similar notation in the Pauli equation.40 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMfCS A similar f o m for the Qirae equation &&t be obtaned. (9-3) becomes . (9-9) by y p (iVp . . (9-10) must be replaced by the square of a single quantity y p (pp . (9-fa). AnalogcrusEy one might wess that the four-vector product (pI.e ~ ~-}L 'eyIIy. Eq. i s essentially ewivalent to Eq. 2 . Eq. (9-9) towrate on both sides of Eq. but also using a = y and setting Q = yd arbitrarily (to complete the defiation of a four-vector form of Q). (9-41.@Al. m u s wit21 H = i(a/a t) = i V and with ecp = eA4.Y = m'+ A W E B M OF THE y MATRICES In the p r e c e d i ~ g lecture the Dirac equation.ehI1)% m% was obtained. (9-4) can be written in a form similar to Eq. diEers from the Sehr3diwer equation. where we must invent four matrices yi. = yl. Now the Pauli equation. by comparison to the Klein-Gordon equation. Eq.@A.) and use Eq. (13-11)i s equivalent to (iVp .e A.).jP in Eq. Eq. by a different arwment. Ezercise: Show that Eq. in the replacement of the three-dimensional scalar product (p . eAI. together with a slpt3eial represenLaLion for the y %. .eh)' by the square of a single wantity * (p . This should be compared to Eq..). in four dimensions in analogy to the three matrices a in three dimensions . (9-9) again to simplify the right-hand side).

y.however. . y. . Note that with this definition of ucts and the rule for forming a scalar prod- Other new matrices may arise by forming produets of the matrices afready defined. .. The eornmutation relationships a r e or.) Similarly. that isa. products of three matrices. For example. The commutation relations&pa do not determine a unique representation for the y %. since this is all that is important in their use. The best way to d e f h e the y 'ss. (They cannot be farmed by a limar combination of the latter .her two-by-two matrix. The matri ces are ail independlent of y. in a unified notation. is to give their eomrrautatlon relationships. (10-5) are producta of y 's taken two at a time. and the foregoing is only one of many possible representation@. y..RELATIVISTIC WAVE EQUATION 41 where each element in these four-by-four matrices i s anof. the matrices of Eq.

yy = -yy The only new p r d u c t of four that can be farmed is @ven a s p c i a l name. thereforr?. are. this is called a Cliffod algebra o r hyprcomplex algebm.) and sat 1 . the produst could be recluced.z For later uae. G simpler example i s that of tvvo-by-two matrices. s k b e n linearly independent q eambh.42 Q U A N T U M E L E C T R O D YltJtJlMleS These are: the only new p r d u c t s of three.y. TMs w m e s with the fact t b t such a eombimtion can be expmesed by a four-by-four =atrix. wMch i s the algebra of the Pauli spin matrices . i t will be convenient to define from which it can be shown that . = -y.y. i s convenimt to define ano&er y matrix. since it occurs frequently: 4 Verify &at 0 -@x. For.tions of them may involve s h k e n arbitrary cons-b. thus y. yg. Pr&ucds of mom t b four muet conkin twa e q w l s o that they c m be reduced. y. y. (It is maaemarclcally inbmtsting then that all four-b-four matrices can be e w r e s s e d in the algebra af tbe y 53. the sa-cdled algebra of quaemions. if two of the matrices were equal. .

+bZazy.v. . the sc. . movirmp.) + 2a. the firet may be verified by vvritislg and.ay?. performing &is o p r a t i o n on all terms. .y.I .yz) + 2a. = -W y..&.?. commutes with itselt: and anticommutes with y.a.rr%h.?. + a.yzl + = -1391 + 2(b.l + + b. by using the cammutation .?.a.l = c%3sh( ~ 1 2+ y.YX l"I-lYlr = 4 v.a.2 +by%?.y.&. sinh (u/2) ) ((@/2)y.and y.ayYy .BzYz 1 28XYX1 + byr.) af the secoad factor produces ih since y.y. . y. + ayyy + a.cond faetor to the front.a.Y. By &P = = t Y t I(-&.$#yp = 4 a e b = -Z&Plc (2) Verify by expan&w in power series that =p Ifu/~)y.[(a. (bp?.) Zayv.?. v.yyi = cos (@/2) + y.yt2 + b.[(atvt + bz?. one obtains h. Doiw Ghia w t the first term.y.[(a.a.y.RELATIVISTIC W A V E EQUATION For e x m p l e .) =-g$ + 2 b e a Exercises: (l) Show that ?.Pl~x " id + 2%. .ayYy . ? .yy sin ( G / % ) (3) Show that . .a.

The Birac equa8 ~ ~ tion becomes The r p and S commute. m&e the following transformation of the wave function Ji( = S*'. o &at eqtjlations involvs ing the y ?s(the earnmutation relation8 spcifically) arc? the s m e in the transform representation. S i s called an equivawhere y . Thfs demonstrates a n d h e r representation for the y ' the s m e ? To answer this w e ~ t i o n . for the moment. transform in exactly the same m m n e r a s the y 'ss. The transformation y . (TO-I).md the Diraa equation i s in exactly the e r n e form a s the original. P r d u e t s of y 'ss. will the form of the Dirac equation. s o & i s equation may be written Multiplying by the inverse matrix. where S i s a constant m&rix W&& is msurned to have arz inverse S-' ( ~ = l). d =UTW1. and it is easily verified that the new y 'B satisfy the commutation relationships. Eq. (l0-3). since n i s a differential operator plus a function of position. = S-' lence transfomatian. = S-' y p S. . Eq. rem%. (10-3). Eq. m ie equivalent in all its result&. (10-l). that y transforms similarly to a four-vector.QUANTUM E L E C T R O D Y N A M f G S Suppose a n o ~ e representation for the y @s obt&ned which satisfies the r is f s m e commutatio~ relationships.531"IC NCE The relativistic invarimee of the Dfrac equation may be demonstrakd by assuming. Eq.

ying by y x . 2. and r e a r r a q i w b r m s gives By Eq. This leads to two possibilities in m M n g h r e n t z transformations: X .@ a r e Hernitian matrices in our special regresentation. the s a e special representation can be wed in. Use the stmdard representation in the Lorentz-tansformed coodirta& system. a . B is written where p = 7. That 18. The original term. Tr ansforming ylr a s a four-vector means a new representation tor the y 's. Eq. = ~ It will be noted that a. z . (10-11. and the cr 's salis& the follwutation relations: a X2 = a y Z ( Y =~p2 = 1 and all pairs anticommute. (10-S). The right-fimd side m is alao invariant.R E L A T I V I S T I C W A V E EQUATION That is. but Eqs. g . ~o that in this r-epressntation H i s H~smitian. . all Lorentz eoor&nate systems. HAMLTONXAN FORM OF THE D m C IEQUATXON To show that Ght? Dirac equation reduces to the SehrMinger equation for low velacities. (10-11) can be used to show that the new y '8 differ fii-@m old y 'a by an eqaivathe lenee transformation.. Eq. . thus i t is really not necessary to transform the y 's at all. . (10-5). i t is convenient to write it in I f a i l t o n i a n form. in which c w e the wave funetion will differ from that in (It) by an equivalence t r m s f o m a t i o n . Also a t r a s f o r m s similarly to a four-vector because i t is a combination of two four-vectors 'JI. Tmnsform the y % einzilarfy to a four-vector and the wave function remains the s m e (except for Lorentz tramfornation of c o o r a n a h s ) .Z . and AB The left-hand aide y s of the Dirac equaF! tion i s the product of two fow-veetorrr and hence invarrant u d e r h s e n t z transformations. may be written MultipI. .

All used in Schiff correspond. The Dirac equation is (wStb E.aya.Q U A N T U M EEEECREtOYNAMAnCS Exerczse: Show that a probability denaity p = 9 * ?Xr a d a probability current = @*a% satisfy the ~ontfnuity eqmtiorr Note: \Xr i s a four-component wave function. -9b2p this is the result of an equivalence transformation S2= ipa. Hence they are not true h In all representations. the waw function ?ka of but the et$ term. between the representations used bere and in Sehlff. h particular.j = : * * Q * S . It is easily verified that 5 " -1 hence S-l -S and = . Also the connponenb IYp2 here. R. this wilt be called s t d a r d representation md expressions in it will be l a b l e d S. 1949)differs fmm this one by negative s i g s on all tXTZ. %V"3. when appropriab The Hermitim property of cli! and i s necessary in order to get . . to -i&bf. and X should be noted that p mid a a r e Nerxnitim only l certain represenrlat a tions . c restor&) t It i s noted that the Hamilbnian found in Schiff ("manturn M e ~ h n i c s .R. they a r e Hermi tian in the repreeentaaon employed thus far. respectively. ~ ~ McGraw-Hill. New York. (If -l) a s f i e expressions for c h a g e and current density.

ha. This r e ~ u l its sometimes made plausibb by the a r cise determination of velocity implies precise determinations of position at t. 91f A is any operator &en its time derivative is For X the result i s clearly since x cornmutee with all terma in W except p * cr.wo times./at The terms in A and A. except the last. expand m follows: ?This argument i s not completely acceptable.k a r e ~ t speed of light. ao the : eigenvalues of a! a r e a l. .A. rso t b t in the limit the exwcted value of the velocity is the speed of Light. the momentum is completely uncertain a d all values me equaftly likely.i s (HA. For e x m p l e . But a = I.).$$) . that ia. Similarly it may be verified as a exercise that n < a > = J**(YY dvol Also matrix elements a r e formally the same a s before. &is is seen t~ imply t. one should bs able to nsreaaure the two quantities simultansously.? Similarly.H) .@A. Wiefi the rehtiviatle relation between velseity and mamentm. . Hence the eigexlvelocities of . . (P ..t velocitieo near the speed of light a r e more probabb. Then. for k commutes with p.eaA. by the uncertainty principle.p.REEATIVISTXC W A V E E Q U A T I O N The expected value of x is remembering that O now is a four-component wave hnction. = i (Hp.

etc. the time derivative of L may be . a y . one mi&t e x p e t that the anmlar momentum clpemlor is now From previous results for written k and P (p eh). since there is no direct comection b e h e e n this equation and 2 .QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Thihs seen to be the x component of The first and last t e r m form the x component of E. where F is the analowe of the Lorenlz force. T h i ~ equation i s sometimes regarded a s the analowe of Newton's equations. The followixrg relaaons may be verified a s true but their m e m i w i s not. Therefore. i t does not h a d directly to Newton" equations in the U d t of small veloeitiee and hence i~ not completely acceptable as a suitable analowe. yet completely understod. if at all: where in last relation a means the matrix. . From analogy to classical physics. so that o = --tar. But.

and a y terms. where L represents orbimomenhm for spin 112. and a . = + l ( H a . tag anwlar momentum and i-fi/2)o intrinsic a-Ear Thus total.@ y @ y l f y ) .y &en. e+.@/2)o may be regarded as the total anguf a r momentum o p r a t o r . .ay. this term vanishes.(Y~ Q . . Therefore it follows that and this is the first term of iwith negative sign. @ y ( Y x ~ x QyTyaxay. The z component i s seen to commute with the 8. IFinal3. so that cr. For a central force F.T. even wl& central forces. which vanishes M* central forces.RELATIVISTIC WAVE EQUATION The last term may be interpreted as torque. ang~ular momenhm i s conserved with central forces. a y . the angular molnanhtm L is But consider the time derivative of Ule operator a defined as where c = -a. + @x where - But so that This is seen to be the z component of -2or X ar . But then it is seen that L 0 because of the f i r s t krm. terms of H but not with the a . is.aXayH)= + ((Y. etc.OI. The operator L t.that eaneerved.

(2) fn a stationary nrr2lgnetic field 4 = 0. h &is case T b t is. Also. the previous equaaon may be writbn aa two eqiaaona (11)-4*)./3 a s given in b c t u r e 10. show that %fr. . vIrz in are the same as JlrZ in the PauXi eqwtion. if EPHuliia the Mnetle energy. X also me t cyclotron. f ~ g i (m = = a * (p.Pwblems: (1) h a stationary field $ 3 = 0. ltt will be assumed &at all ~ b n t i a l s etatiomry and statimary states are will be considered. show ~t h? and explain the simplicity of &is relationship. Nob that this is a consequence of the anomalous gyroma@etie ratio of the electron. @A/Bt = 0. (9-5)and w & a. and for a stationary s t a k . frewency of the electron equals its rate of precession in iil mapetic field. in the PauXf equation and EBirsc = W + m i~ the msrt plus kineWc errsrm in t e Erac ewtiont. BA/@ = 0 show tfiat t .eA)@ +pm* + e@3 iE i It w l be recalled wiLh ?k written as Eq. This m&es the work simpbr but is not necessary. i s a coastant of the motion.

that is. ( 9 . (11-4)gives +. eompari~on 2m. f 11-71 bcomes while the normalizing requirement + ObZ) v01 = 1. the lowe n e r w approximation (W V) < 2m will be made. For this remon It i s noted &at if W and V a r e are sometimes referred to a s the large and small components of and @. S&st.RELATIVISTXG W A V E EQUATI[QN 51 where.4 ) . Eq. 2m.BA) a& (11-5) for ilib gives V =- e$. if W and V a r e negiected in.itution of qb from Eq. keeping terms to order < v'. Simplifying a d solving Eq. r = ( p .. (11-6) md (11-7). to determine just what e r r o r may be expected from use of the Pauli equation. becornea d By use of the substitution the normalizing integral can bs lsinzplified to read (to order v2/cZ) .(v/c)O. Using the results of Leetrrre 11. respectively. to and. a e n JCrb -. the result I s This i s the Pauli equation. Thus - Then Eq. (11-6)into Eq. to order vZ/c2. a s befora. Now fAe approdxnation will be carried out to h3ec0XTd order. given by Eqs.

2ABA't.BA) . In particular ane should recall that A% -.ion also allowe easier interpretation sf Eq. (12-21.BA)A Then. [l + (o ~)~/(8rn~]l V) l1 + (cr. since rr = ( p . . (112-6) separately.r1'~ The techniques c>E o p r a l o r a k e b r a may be used to convert Q. r = A and (W V) = B in the foregoiqj. Term (1) give8 the ordinary scalar potential energ. (12-5) can be expanded as WX = VX +. Rewriting Eq.4f and dividing by 1 + (cr*w]2/(8m2). ( p -eAf x -+ 0 (51 EfX (12-6) (6) In this form the wave eqwtion may be interpreted by considering each term of Eq.QUANTUM ELEGTRQDYNAMICS This 8ubstitut. - V fain~e x E - 8B/at = 0 here).there results (W-V)X = (1/2m)(cr*~)\ . (12-2).(f/ltm)(p -.eA).~fl3c).(AB . and since there result8 fwiGh cr.(1/8rn~. (12-5) to a form more easily interpreted. BA' = A(AB .y a s it has a p p a r d before. (Wg Then applying Eq.(c?/rztnr)(rr*B)~ 1-31 -(1/8m')(~*p~~x (4 + ( e 2 / 8 m 2 ) ~ -2~ .sA)x . (12-.(@. s o Eq.(p (11 (21 .

pp. before the development of" the Dirac equation. Even. A charge moving &rough m electric field vvi& velocity 'tt feels an effective magnetic field B = v x E = ff[m)(p eA) x E. On the other hand. Near the origin the correct solution to the Dirac equation i~ praportioml to for the hydrogenie aloma .RELATIVISTIC WAVE EQUATION Term (2) can be interpreted a s the kinetic e n e r a . This term has no effect when the electron i s in a s-state ( L = 0). derives from The last term in tlris expansion i s e?quivalent to term (4). and term (6) i s just the energy (e/2m) x (o B) in W s for the anomalou~ morrxenh intraduced by PauU to describe neubons and protons (aee Problem 3 below). (12-6) Lo the Wdrogen atom and correct the energy levels to f i r s t order. - Problems: (1) Apply Eq. i. McGraw-Hilt. To understmd this interpretation cornides the part of term (6) given by a * ( p x E). Term (4) is a relativistic correction to the kinetic energy. + u/r3. Thornas showed that tMs simple classical armrnent i s incomplete and gave the correct term (6). The magnetic moment of the electron e/2m. the Paull spin effect. The factor p x r can be interpreted a s the angular momentum L to get fa* the spin-orbit coupling. however. - + - . In PauIi's mmodified equation. New York. t gchiff* "Wanturn Mechanics.which affects only the s-states (when the wave funetion i s nonzero a t r = Of. (5) reduces to V E = 4nZ&(r). In an inversesquare field this is proportional to o ( p x r)/r3. 323fif. The correction. The s i h a tion is d. a d again of terms (5) and (G). Terms (5) and (6) express the spin-orbit coupling. while the Schrbdinger equation gives 0 conatmt a s r 0. Term (31. A classical a r g m e n t can be made to Interpret term (6).e.? Note the difference of the wave functions a t the origin of coordinaks. So (5) and (6) together result in a continuaus hnction for spin-orbit coupling. flVe get a factor 2 too much this way. 1949.. This difference actualIy is too restricted in space to have any imporbnce. (e/2m)(1/4m2). the momalous moment does appeas w'rth the factor 2 vvhn multiplying terms (5) and (6). ilr~just a s i t appears in the P m I equation. a p p a r s a s the cmfficient of term ( 3 ) . The r e s u l b should be compared to the exact results.

Phys. Comwte t-he scattering mplitude vvith ct9(R) by the Born approdmation and campare with f i a t given by term (5). i. It ilts obtained by a d a n g a term for anomalous moments to the Rirac equation. 693 (1952). . (3) Pauli" e d i f i e d eqwl. this may be written in the more familiar "LHrzmiltoniarr" expression i(@/at)@= PI. and give r i s e t a a warre which i n b r f e r e s with nuclear scattering. lit is interpreted by term (5) of Eq. (12-7) vvith e = 01 . (4) Equation (12-7) cm be used to i n b r p r e t electran-neutron scattering in an atom. the a v e r w e p-cltential 5 i s defined a s that potential which. However. V E has a value different from 0. ~ X Z O W t b t In order to interpret cd(R) as a potential. M a t of the s c a t t e r i q of neutrons by atoms i s the ieotropie s c s t t b r i ~ from the nucleus. 4400 -11 0 ev. it w m @Xplained by the a s s m p t i o n of a neutron-electron interaction given by the potential e6(E1)... For slow n e a r a m . (12-6) [as m d i f i e d in Eq. $hi@ eEeet i s experimentally ohserved. t 10 -f L. acting over a sphere of radius e2/mc2. show that the resuiting V agrees with Using exprimental results within the slat. Since the electron charge is present outside Ule nucleus. (12-6) will naw p r d u c e the b r m s f a r protans. and a similar expree%sianfor neutronw. Foldy. = . Term (5) c m be used in a Born approxirnalf on to cornpub tlre m p l i t u d e for neutron-elecdron scattering.e. b t W = iB/a t and follow I tfirawh the procedures of this lectme to the s m e order af approamation. the electrons of the atom also scatter. thus Multiplyiq by P. 9 -+ p @ (P E)-cl! * E* ) Show t h d the s m e appsaamation which led to Eq.ed accuracy.1.where 5 i s the Dirac 6 function and R is the neua Itron-electron distance. 87. but Mth e = 0. when the effect was first discovered. Rev.ion can be applied to neutrons a d protons.91 35 eB/22hlM. However.. would p r d u c e the same effect.(2) @uppose A iuld $ depend on time.

RELATIVXSTXC W A V E E Q U A T I O N (5) Neglecting terms of order v2/c'. show that .

Solution of the Dirac Equation for a Free Particle Thirteenth L eeture It will be co~vttnlent use the form of the Dirac wuaaan rrlith the Y 'ET to when ao2. aP and the Dirac equation may be written (Recall that the quantity 4 = y p a P i s invariant under a Lorentz transformstiaa. In the smclal repreaenttstion.) X is neeesgarg to put the probhility density and current into a fourt 4 dimensional form. the prab&iUty deneity m current are given by . = yl.rriw for the free-particle wave hn~tiom Using the definition of Lecture 10.

ljln&rd h the a& fau&h components. the adjoint of an operator N is denoted by 3. _For exl ample. try as a aolution T't3 iis a four-componsnt column vector. (13-1) and (13-3) show that V j = O (conservation . then the probability densitqy and current may be written To verify this. and each explicit i (not th_ose cokliained in Ue y's) is replaced by -i. then N = -W. In general. = 0 and the Dirac To rsoltve &is. there a r e no potentials. If N = iyg = iy. . s o q u a a o n becomes 85.SOLUTION O F T H E D I R A C E Q U A T I O N If the relativiastic adjoint? of .yyy. of pr ohbility denkrily) .y. The adjoint Q i s the four-component row veclor st.i y p The EolloMw p r o p r t y tabs the place of the Hiermitian property s o u s e h 1 in nonrelativistie quantum mechanics: For a free particle. replace 5 by V*@ and note that p2 = 1 and that flyp = ap. repmsenktion. Muktiplicactlon by P c b g e s tke sign of the3 third ing \k* from a column vector to . y y . Ezercises: (1)Show &at the adjoint of 9 satisfies (2) From Eqs. and i s the E same a s N except &at the order of aE y appearing in i t i s reversed. y.y. y.1XI i s defined in the stiandard representation. i addition bo c n a raw vector. = . N = y y y x = -N. if N = y.

)ut .(p.(B. d = y.m)u~ . . it will now be assumed &at LaL hL Under these conditions.ipY)u4= O =Q =@ =O (E +. d called a Dirac spinor. (13-5) becomes Thus the maumed solution will be satisfactory if &a = mu.m)uz @ . (13-7) becomes (E . @ + ip. .y. Thus ul. To rslmplify paticte mmes in the xy plane. Eq.hat is.m)u4 . The problem i s now to determim what restrictions must be placed on the u% s d p% in order that the trial rJaXutian satisfy the Dirac equation.i p .t. + i%fua . The VU operation on each component of multiplies produces each component by -Qp. s o that the result of this operation on + s o that Eq.m)ui (E . s o writiw. and u4 are the components of a column vector. u ~ us.58 Q U A N T U M ELEGTEEODYNAMIGS .?b is 13four-component wave Ecrnction m 3 what is memt by US trial soluUon i s that each of the four components is of &is farm. m l u is . .p. i standard representation n By components. E - . ) ~-~(E I.

by multiplylw %is i~3quation $ gives by s m e former i the same cmdition as obt&ned b f o r e . It ia conve~ienl. (13-98) and also from Eq. Eqs. Thia is ao because bsubstihtion of the a a s m e d solution. (23-6) be a eolurtion. choose the indewndent solutions ao &at . E q . where the f o l l o w i ~ notation has been used: . us. A more elegant way of obtzliaiw exactly the s m e condition is to s t m t directly with Eq. (13-61. s~tates hs that the p. Il. These two value8 must agree in order that Eq. (13-9d). n u s W u% for Ulris two solutions can be t&en as . (13-9b) m d (113-$c) can be solved for u2/us giving 80 which also lsada to codition (13-10). Similarly. Thus T i is n& a surpridng condition. ints the Dirac equation @vs& only a condiaon an pair8 of the U%. Then. (23-7). U a d uz. ul. to each h w Luro componenb wUch are zero. must be &men a s to satfefy the relativistic ewation for total e n e r a . and the l a t b r $8 8 trivial solution (no wave knction) Evidently there we two Xinearly i n d e p ~ d e n solutiom o the free-parlick t f Dirac equation.SOLUTICQbJ Q F T H E D I R A G E Q U A T f Q N The ratio ug/u4 can be determined from Eq.

for exmple.h $ if W e = O. that in the coordlnab sgstern in which the p a r t i ~ br staHomry acre me WO passibb spin orlentai e exjistence of two solutiom t the eigeno tiane.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS These soluaons are not rrmnndized. p. Deaclting &ese eiganvalues by 8 . = -hI. besause p Ths combination yswof &ese two antieommutfng operators is an o p r a l o r that Is. I[f W * W is t e e n to be -1. To fincl the possible valuss of a. (13-23) by i y p . which commuke? with The eigenvalues of the owrator (iygfl) m w t n07ull be found (tlne i hais. multiply Eq. The sigaflicanw of the choice W W = -1 ia a s fof lows: In the ~ y s t e n r which in =p. ISEFmITEON OF THE 8Fm OF A MOVmG ELECTRON m a t do the two linearly independent solutions mean? There must ke some physical qumtity that can still be swcifisd. the eigenvalues af the o p r a t o r iySJW a r e rt: l. Mathexnatioally swmw. Qbserve h a t yti a~ticommutes with $. = O and pl = E. value. been added to nn&e eiwnvaluee come out real in w b t follows). equation #U = mu implies the exiabnce of an a p r a t m &At commutes with 6. - . wkch will u ~ w e l y determine the wave h e l i o n . Aleo observe that m y o p r a t a r [JFJ will anticommuter. A ia h w n .Mt. &at is. Then tXle particle ier at rsct. n i s operator will have to be discovered.

this becomes. If the electron is initially at re& w i a i& spin up o r down in the z direction. (13-11). s e e Eq. This staWs that in the e m r a n a t e systei?. axie s i ~ e positive (s = + X ) o r negative fs = -I). (13-14). l AnoWer way of obtaiaing the wave Eunction for a freely moving electron is to p r f s r m an eqavalence tran~farmation the wave function as in Eq. clearly demonstrated.S O L U T I O N O F T H E D I R A C EQUATXOPJ 62 m u s . M e n the particle moves in. i s S = -i. r We Exercise: Show that the first of the wave functions. of (10-12).min which the particle is at re&. s o the omrator quation for iygv k c o m e s g Using relationships derived in b c t u r e 10. and the relationship d t h spin is .] From Eq. W is an o r a n a r y vector fit has zero fowth conzwnent) Mth unit Iene~. It represents a particle m o v i q wi& momenbm p. and having its spin (in the coordinate syatem moving with the partide) atong We W. W * W -W * W = -1 or W W = 1.u = U. Eq.solution and the secand is the a = -I solution. S is gfven by cosh U = 1/(1 - 'f For a stationary particle y. the xy plme.tX1. If ws define u to satisfy bath 6~ = mu and iy&u = su. then the spinor for an electron m ~ v with~a veloeity v in the i e spatial direction k i s [For normafization. {XO-XX). t 8 stationary This choice m k e s fdCr the o oMrator. chmsts p to be y. . for particle.. this completely smeifies U.

t h t is. It i e poasibte to m b a rehtivistically invariant normalization by mtting U+ u equal to t b fowthi compomnl of a . (13-XI). Eq. the particle in a cubic centinneter. aml noting (~~-rn')'/' =h.Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYNAMICS (2m)'/2 cosh (u/2) = [ m ( ~ v5-li2+ - = (E + mjl/2 Writing f = (E+m). ik*iE = 1.y. get we For the case that g i s in the xy pime. may be written It is olear that this is a aolutian ts the free-m&lcle Birac equation for In namelativistie quantum mechanics. a plme wave is n a m d i z e d to give unity prob&illliy of andinl4. just with a normalization factor l / n Noticing that for an electron at rest y. a =?. t h i ~ gives the remlt. 9*4! transforms sfmifarly to the fourth component of a fourvector (it is the fotutth component o f four-vector current}.uo = uo . h malwous normalization for the relativistic plme wave mi@t be somea i l i~ b flowever. s o M s normala ization would not be invariant.

.:+ 1 s k t e .S Q L U T I O N O F T H E D I R A C EQfJATXQEJ sufbbie fom-vector .t h e normalizing factor must be chosen (E + m-/ )'" ((F)-'~. u) be equal to 2E. The Cl is the normaiizl_ng factor multiplying the wave functions of Eq. s o the wave function could be normalized by The constant of proportionality (2) Is chosen for convenience In later formulas. In order that (uy. E ia the fow& component of the momentum four-vector pp.X stab. the f o l l o u r i ~ k shorn to km true: cm w It will be conveniepll to have the matrk elemenb of all the 7% Sheen varlou~ initkl and f h a l s a t e s . Thu8 the normaffzing condition can be h b n I ~ B r. this normalising condition becomes The same result is o b h i m d f a r the s = ---. Workhg sut ( uyt U) for th@s = . For exampk. s o Table 13-1 has b e n worked out. (13-11). In terns of (uu).

64 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS T m L E 15-1.F i -fF2~1+ "(" o 0 2py 0 0 t + -Px*F2 + Pz+Ft 0 Yt 2E Pt * Pz- .Pi+PzfP2-F I 0 YX YY 7% FzPt+ + Pa. Matrh Elements for Particle Moviw i the xy Plane n 1 2m ~ P X F2Fi .


IkzrnzMng cases: To obtain the case &ere 71 is a p o a i t r o ~ rest, Lhe at table gives mg~a~~u~) t sFi = 0, pl+ = 1 = pi- in the table. For both if oxre p ~ at reat as wsitrons, the table gives (QzMul) wi& Fi = F2 = O; PI+ = p ~ = 1. +

Fourt~sen Lecture fh

The matrix element af m operator M between i&dial slate uI md final state ug will be denobd by

The matrix element Sa independent of the representations used if ~ e a ye r related by unitary eqavalence tramfornnatiow , That is,

where Ule groper& 8 = S-$ haa b e n a s s m e d for S. The straightfaward m e ~ to cornpub the matrix elemen& i s %limplyto d write a e m sut in matrix form and carry out the o~ratiions.l[n W e way the data in Table 13-1 were obtained. M a r m e a d s may be used, however, sometimes sfmpbr md sometim~ss leading to corollary information, a s illustrated by the following example. By dhs mormiklization canven-tiortr,

s l a ~ e = mu. Similarly, )Ilrr


(aYppu) m ( a y p ~ )
But also n&e thiat
{ B ~ Y U) = m(O[ypU) ,

beeawe Qg3 = g%l


m& Addiw the L v expreshsions, one obtains vo

From the relation proved in the i~3xerci~ee sat

it is seen that

h, +?,P = W ,
But p ia just a number, ,



it f~ilowtlthat

md aince flu = 2m,by normalization

(ilyp~) ZP,
mrt-hermor.~?, general relation the

is obtarSned. norn tM~3 i s It

SBESIZ why fjhe possible


P r o b l m : U&%

rne&dg andogma to the one just demoaslrated,

show that

X was found &at a neeeesary condition far solution of the Dirac equation t to exist i s E = pZ + m' '


The nneaniq of the positive enerw is clear but Llxat of the negative is not. It was at one time suggested by SckS&inger &at it should be arbitrarily excluded a s having no mead*. But lit waa found that &ere 858 two h n d w e n tal objections to tba excluaian of negative e m r m stsws, Tbe first ie Nysical, &eoretically physical, that is. For the f)irae equaaon yields the result &at starting wiLh a system in a polsiHve enerf3;Y slate &ere Is a probability of induced trasitions into mgative e n e r a s t a b s , Heme if they were exoluded thias would be a coneradiction. The a e c o d objection is mathematical. That is, excludiw the negative energy s t a k s lea& to an lineomplete set of wave functions, It is not possible to represent an arbitrary h c t i o n a s an expawion in functions of m incomplete aet. This sitxlation led Sehr0Mnger into 'insurnnount&le difficulties.
Prohlem: Suppose that ;for t < O a pmticle is in a positive enx direction with spinup in the z direction fs= +X), Then at t = 0, a constant pokntfal A=A,(A, = A y = 0) is turned on a d at t = @ ' it i s turned off. Find the probability t h t the I parLiele is in a negative energy s k & a t t = T. Answer:

srw stab moving in the

fialiabiliw of beiw in negative enerm eta@ at t = T

= A~/(A' + m5 sin' [(m2+ A$'/'T]

Nab &at when E = -m, 1/fl= m , s o Ithe ups apparently blow up. But actually the components of u also vagisfi when E = -m, so that ai Ximitiw process i s invalved. It may bcj avoided and the correct results abbinc3d simply by omitting l/fl and replacing F by zero of: and p* by 1 in the eomponent~ U. The poaitiva enerm level@form a conlC-inuw extending &am E = m $0 +m, and the negative e n e r g e s if accepted a s such form a n o w r continuum from E = -m to -m. Between +m and -m &are are no availhle aner,eif;Ylevels (see Fig, 14-1). Birac proposed the idea that ail the negative e n e r w levels a r e normalfy fiflsd, Explanations for the apparent obscurity af sueb a sett of electrons in negative enerp;y. statea, if It exists, usually cozltain a psychological a s w c t and a r e not very satisfactory. But, nevertheless, if such a sltua#on is assumed toedst, some of the important consequences are these: X, Ebctrans in positive enere;y states will not normally be observd to m a b transitions into negatiye energy states b c m s e these s t a k e a r e not available; they are already k l l , 2. With the sea of electrons in negative enerm levels unobsemrraible, a "oleH h it prducedt by a trmsition of one of its eleclrans into a positive exlerw state should manifest itself. The rnaPrifestatlion of the hole is regarded a s a positron and behaves like an electran with a positive charge.



positive energy levels


newtive energy levels normally

FIG, 14-1
3 , The Pauli ernclueion principle is implied in order that the negative sea may be full. That is, if my a m b e r rather than just one electron could occupy a given state, it would be impoaaibls to fill alI. the nagaX-ive e n e r m states, It i s in tMs way &at the Dirac a e o r y is sometimes consider& aa? "pr oaf H of the exclusion principle ho-r interpretation of negaave energy s t a b s haa been proposed by t;he prersent author. The furtdmental idea is &at the 'kncsgative en@rmt' states represent the s b b s of electrons movz'w baekwrd in gm@, In the c l a ~ s i c a equa~on motion l of


reversing the dlrectit-ion of p r a w r time s amounts to the s m e m reversing the s i c of Iha charge s o that the electron moving b a c h a r d in time would look like a. positron moving f a w a r d in time. In elementamty quantum m e c h a ~ c s , total amplitude for an ebctron to the go from xi,h to. x2,tz was compted by s m m i n g the mplitudes over all possible trajectories between xl,LI and xz,ta, aseuming t k t the f;rajectoriea atlways moved forwzurd in time. Thr~tee trajeetortazs might a p w a r i n one anerenslion aa shown in Fig. 14-2. But ~ t the new pdnt of view, a pssh aible trajectory mi&t b as shown in Fig. 14-3. Imtzginlng oneself an o b ~ e r v e r movtw a l o q in time in the ordinmy way, being conscious only of the present and pmt, the sequence of events w a l d apmar m follows:

14-2 --e t tr- t. h% t. both of Wlem amihilating. and newly arrived electron positron a r e preerent the positran meets with the injtial electron. else an eleclrtm-posritrcm pair is formed the initial electron.SOLUTION O F THE DIRAC EQUATION X1 X2 FIG.- tz only the initial electron present the irtitial electron still present but ~omewherfs. leaving only the previously creabd electran only one electron presexll T o handle this idea quantum m e c h d c a l l y two rules must be followed: .

and af fow-momentm -p. Y so 2. e m B P ' ~ wave function of a is the positron. Ulen e . If the energy E i s positive. That is.' ~ i's~ wave function of an eleotron with energy p& = E. the gmif. the electron proceedsfrom the matrix element for a positron is + . for aia electron move tial and final wave firnctiom must UIez mato a firwe state ing forward i a time from a past state trix elemsnt i s But moving backward in time. X calculating matrix rslementa far gositrom.10 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODPNAMZGS 1.i~w t b inin of reversed. to . E . with eaerm -E or L (. E E is negative.

m e s e are: @z states of pocaitive energy." !Ifz electron in "f~$ure. T U s represents pair amiMlat_ion. ""past. 4T12 posjiitive emrgy." "2 electron In "'fuh. Case I Case I1 Case IIX Gase TV FIG. the last lecture. interpreted a s 9 electron g Case I.'~ Case 11. 15-1 . Both This is electron scattering." Both states a r e in the paat. The positive energy. Both ?1"$." %2 positron in. UF2 states of negative enera interpreted as 4rl positron in "future. Case N." "2 positron in ""pst. The existence of negative energy states makes two more t p s of paths pssibfe. @2 negative energy. The negative energy." This is pair ereation." This is positron scattering. inbrpreted a s Ol positron in "future.rre. in ""past. and no%ing in the futwre.Potential Proble Fifteenth Lecture PAIR CREATION A m AINNXHIUTION Two possible pass of an electron b e i w scattered between the states 91 and were &seussed in. i n t e r p e w d as Jrl in ''ppa~t. T h e ~ e are: Case ZfX.

. = -Ez to an energy (future) of E = -Et..72 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS The EOW cases can be d i % r m m e d a s shown in Fig.. To s e e t h i ~ noLe that the .tl and the mass of the particle: . With the same perturbation energy. the mpfitude is large w a i n only if Ez= El + w o r -Epas. A positron goes from an energy (past) of E. the perturbation c a r r i e s in a. there is a resonance between E2 a& El + w. if the electron goes from the e n e r w El to E2 and if the wrt.. recall that in case I.the arrows point toward pctsitive or negative time according ta whether 16 is positive or negative. i s written where V i s the perbrbation potential and He is the u n m r b r b e d Hmiltonian. h thi~! nonrelativistic case (Scbiidinger equation). tfien h this perhrbation b r i w e in a positive e n e r w w . that iia. h common lan@we.a l a o w h time is increasing upward in all cases. includng a perturbation potential.. that is. For the free particle. the wave e w t i o n . + W . It can be seen that identical results hold for case rX.iEtt) dtl (25-1) AB has been shown.iwt . Note that in each d i w r u the arrows point from %i to q2. h case 1 the s m e integral holds but: E2 and El a r e negative.urbation potential i s taken proportional to exp(--iwt). To shaw this. s o that 1 the only contributing energies a r e those for which Ez Et + w .just a s i t does far the elect-ron case. 15-1. s o that Er. w h e a e r the state represented is that of an e l e ~ t r o n r a. amplibde for scattering is proportional to =Jexp[(iE2t . The arrows give the direetion af motion of the electron in the present interpretation af negative s n e r m slates... = w + E. = -Ef. positron. o CONSERVATION OF ENEMY Energy relations for the scattering in case I have been established in previous lectures. the kernel giving the ampllktde to go from point 1 to point 2 in space and time can be s b w n +mbe where! N ie a normalizing factor depnding on the time interval t z . positive energy o...

Eq. (15-G).1) may be . Defining the propalyatim kernel a s K ~ then the kernel is the aoluaon. = O. obtained from the sum The extension of these idea@to Lhe rslativistie case (Dirac equation) i s rstraightfomurardl.] lMultiplying &is equation by B.. then .1) glving a similar mplituds. . md I all the e stationary s t a h s # of the system a r e known. must satisfy the equation XL can be shown thrtt Kv can be compukd from the series ]n ease the complete H m i l t o d a n H = H@ + V is f d e p n d e n t of:time. a simpler Eom results: The equation for a free particle is obtained simply by letting calfiw the free-psrtiete k e r e l H.P R Q B L E N S I@ QUANTUM ELEGTRODYNAMfGS 73 Note that the kernel is defined to be Q for t2 tr. By chooalw a p a t i e u l a r form for the H a i l t o ~ a n the .@ satisfies the e p a t i o n The propagation kernel Kv(2. tf-zen Kv(2. It can be shown t b t W. . to the equation The matrix p i s inserted in the Imt term ia order that the kermll derived from the Hamiltonian be relativistically invariant. [Note the similarity to the nonrelativistic e w e . Dirac equation can be written . but in the presence of the p e r b b a t i o n potential V.

the ga%s a l o ~ g which the particle reversed is no l o w e r true. (15-8) and (15-9). ( +. s o can be expanded m Note that the kernel is now a four-by-four matrix. Juat aa Kv ean be expanded in the s e r i e s of Eq. the present erne The existence and interpretation of the negative ener&y eigenvaluea of the Birac equation allows the interpretation and inclu~fon such p.Thue the interpretation of Eq.(15-10) . states of the sysbm. (15-11) is important.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS The notation K replace8 the & of the wmelativistic case. (15-11) i s consistent with Eqs. (15-6). then may be defimd by rr - neg. of TaMw t4 2 t8 implies the elciaten~e v i s a & pa.(xz)& (xl) . and Eq. if the wave hnctiom @ a r e k n o w for all the .~the motion of a positron (secs Fig. repfaees Eq. The element of integration i s actually an element of volume in four-space.aells. Since this is true. P~oblenz:Show that ltAas defined by Eq. energies C I-i~. The section from of t4 t a tS repreeellf. The potential. Pn. the order of the terms in Eqt. (15-11) is completely analogms to that of Eq. 15-21" h a time-slationary A d d . s o that all component8 of 3 can be determined.(tz . On the nawslativfstic case. -ie$l"(l)can be interpreted as the amplitude per cubic eentimeter per seeand for the particle to be scattered anee at the paint f l f .irs. (15-4)a s the defining equation. its motion in time are excluded.

note that &eir difference is for all. (15-13) require& the idea af an e k e tron in a negative energy state. the interpretaaon of Eq. a solution af the hamqeneouss equation [i. a positron is present.). Although the kernel bA defined by Eq. 15-2 Another aolutution of Eq. (15-9) with zero right-hand side).(t2-tlll$n(~g)$n(~t) exp [ . This is. W e n the t i m n i ~ s ""reversed " (t2<. Thua when the t h i n g i s " o r d i n ~ y p p (L2 > e. energies ' neg. (15-9) i s ~~A(2. t2. term: by term. Eq.t l ) ~ # ~ ( x ~ ) ? ~ t2x ~ ) ( m pos. and only positive energy states contribute.P R O B L E M S I N Q U A N T U M ELECTROD'YPJAMIeS FIG. (15-9) (as shown below). ( t l . On the sUler hmd. an electron i e presexll. and only i negative sneref5"%. energies Equation (15-13) ha8 an interpretation comiaterrt with the positron interpretation of negative energy states..i ~ .1)= t C C exp[-iE. (15-13)does not have s o satisfactory an interpretation.takes contribute. tlf . The possibility that two such . Eq.e. (15-13) is also a satisfactory mathematical 8ofuLion of Eq. To show that both kernels a r e solutions of the smcs inhomogeneous equation.

'6 7 Q U A N T U M ELEGlPR0DUWAMPC:S solutions errist results from the fact &at boundary conditions have not been definitely fixed. t 1 ) r It might be e x p c t e d that a relativirstie ganc3raXization of this would be FIG. ~ . It i s not sdficient. in the re1at.f t j . is det&ned in Ws m l i ( b c h r e 15). the wave funetion at the got. acts a t the fnbrscact. 16-1 FIG. 16-1) by means of the nomelatfvistic kernel Ko(xz.lon of positron and electron paths. (15-121. however. by . Pn each case. We shall always use K . 16-2 m s turns out to b incorrect. Sixteenth Lecture U8E OX.1} In the nonrelativistic t. -Te&(3)." THE KERNEL K.heory it was poasibfe to calculate the wave function at a point xz at time tz from a knowbdge of the wave hnctian at m earltier time tl (see Fig. The kernel K + ~ defined by Eq.f) is not zero for tg c tie Men the kernel.(2.idsrtic ease. 1 amihilatfon) m d caBe N @dr creation) sham at the b g i a w of a s b e (see Fig. allows treatment of case 1 1 (pair . to h o w just the wave hnction ~t an e w l i e r time only b c a u m KJ2. 16-2) is given.

P R O B L E M S IN Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYplTAMXGS The firat term is Lfxe contribution from positive energy states at earlier times and the sacsnd term is the contribution. The amplitude for the point xz. from negaave energjr states at later t h e s e mis e q r e s s i o n c m be generalized to a t a k that it is meassary to h o w 9(xltx) on zt faw-d-innensfonat surilaee. f e first-order ampfitude far A transition (Born appra&mtion) is It lie converrierxt to let Theoe state &at &e particle has the free-particle wave function f just prior to scatteriw and Lbe free-particle wave hncticsn g juet a f k r s c a t t e r i ~ and .tz (see Fig. Using the expansion of ~ . 1 ) terms of K. 6~urrounid. ~ ( 2 .1). that it elinninabs any computation of the moti on aist ai free particle.(2. Eq. (16-121. mily be written .tz The a p l i t u d e to go from a state f to a state g under the action of a potential & is given by an expression similar to &at in nonrelativistic tbeary.ta first order. 16-3): where We is the four-vector normal to the surface that encloses xz. and assuin ming h a t the amplitude for transition from state f to state g as a free particle is zero ff and g arthogonal states).

16-4): FIG.3)e8((3)f(3) d ~ drc s If f(3) ie a negative energ. then i t represents a positron of the future instead of an electron of the past and t h process described by LMs ampli~ tude i s that of pair production.y statze. (I&-$). 16-4 The potential i s &at of a stat:fonary chwge 23 4. The second-order Germ would be written b -(1/2) Jjg(4)eA(4)K. Suppose the incident electron has momenhm in the x direction and the scattered electron has momentum in the xy plane (see Fig. We shall make use of the theory just presented to calculate the scattering of an electron from an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge %et. foy Eq.~ P I ' ~g(2) = u2e-@zex (four-component wave funetion) the Thus. first-order mplitude for transitim from state f to s t a b g (mamentum pi to miomentm p2) i s .QITAMTUM E L E C T R O D Y N A M I C S oigdMes integration over time a s well as space). The i ~ l i a 2 final wave funetism we plane waves: and f(1) = u ~ ~ .(4.

The matrix element M. Crosa boaon.ttis nzamer. a s salculabd in t. and one for each final wavB fmetion. o r particle in the initial state. s o the transition probability i s . (16-6). The kansition t probrzbitity. In our normalization. The n N is a p r d u c t of factors rJ one for each wave function. which was evaluated in nomeXativisUe scatMring theory: The probability of transition per second is given by Trans. for each particle in question. I)en@lty etabe. a three-dirnenoional F o w i e r trawform of the potential. m in the comwtation of trmsition probability. For the efsetson s c a t t e r h g problem of under consideration. bovving M.l The reason far this factor is that wave fmctions a r e nomallzed to where. tlxey should be normalized in the conventional nonrelativistic manner % * Q = 1 o r (Gyt u) = 1 (so N =: 1 for that e w e ) .P R O B L E M S IN Q U A N T U M E L E C T R O D Y N A M I C S 79 Separating space and time dependence in the waive funct. can be computed from Eq.ions. prob. this becomes The first intrzgral is juat V(Q). the only new faca tor is a normalizing factor (EM)-"vvhieh takes account for the fact t./sec = ~ ~ ( D N ) .' / M /(density of final states) x ~ (16-6) This i s a result from time-dependent ~ r t u r b a t i o n e o r y .hat the wave functions a r e not normalized to unity per unit volume. then N = 2E. is relativistieally i n v a r i a ~ and in the f u b e the chief interest will be in M .

( u2yt ul). = E2. in Eq. follows from the w t u r e of the time integral. s2= +l. the cross section is given in terms of the tmnsitfoxl probslbillty per second? aa The essential difference between the relativistic treatment of scatt_ering and the nonrelativistic treatment is c a n b i n d in &a matrix element. From Table 13-1. . vt = p i p t . (16-5)]. conservation of enerw.and ( m w ~ t u d e final momentm equal to mamitude of i d t i a l momentum folof lows from El = E2). Density of states = ~ ~ ~ $ n / ( z r ) ~ When the incoming plane wave i s normalized to one p & i c l e per cubic centimeter. where [E.where t h density of f i w l states has been obtained in the following mamer: ~ Density of states = hut = % = l + m s o dp2/dE2 = E2/p2 and ' . Therefare. for a pasLicfe moving in the xy plane and et = + 1.

Polarized eie etrons cauld h produced in this manner. Ths criterion for validfly of the Born approximation. the matrix element of yt is zero. T k i beaornes cc 1 ~ Z <c 137. sz= -t. a r e . th@propagation kernel. the atsaolute value of Gfie matrix element i s the = same a s for el = + 1. sZ -1.: same formula ae just given with 1 vZ sinZ(8/2) replaced by 1 . (2) S o w t h t this scattering forrnuJla is also correct for positrons ( u ~ e 8 i t r o staites In caloulatiw matrix element). ia For a free parlielie. Just as. irsl %e2m. the eigenfunction~(p. the scattering can actually be calculated emotly (correct to all orders in the potential) for ttza Coulomb pobntial. for the aonreliktivistic ease. ResuEl. Thus spin doe8 not change in scattering (in Born apgrodmation) a d the cross section i s independent of spin. T%ia e m c t salution of the Dirac equation involves h m r g e o m e t r i e t t knctians. ~ n - Seventeenth Lectam GALGUMTfQN OF THE PROFAWTXOM KERNEL FOR A FREE PARTICLE As shown in a previous lecture. used in obtaining tMs result. X was f i r ~worked out by Matt and i s a l z e d Mott scattering. When si = -1. s2 = -1 o r s1 = -1. In tha e d r e m e relativistic limit v o. s2 = -t 1.P R O B L E M S IN Q U A N T U M E L E C T R O D Y N A M I C S When st = + 1.I. Problems: (l) Calcdatr? Ule Rutherfod seatteriw law for the Klein-&&on equttticm (pstrticle with no spin). when there is no perturbing potential and the Mamiltonian of the system i s conatant in time. For moderate ener@ee (200 b v ) there is s m e prohbility for change in spin.

82 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYNAMICS a& the sum over n becomes an integral over p. for t2 tl.(pZ + m2)lh the up are changed accordingly and Ki(2. far t2> tl. by Wle w u a l rules for mzzt. + ip.. Then the propagation kernel for a f r e e particle i s . The up is the spinor cor- respondiw to momrsntm p. a s appropriate. For negative energy E.)(-p. is the opposite order to that usually encountered s o that the product i s a msttrix. poaitive o r negative e n e r w and spin up o r down. l The plculation will be made f i r s t for the case of t2 t. The factor 1/2Ep a r i s e s from the normalization u u = 2m o r uy. not a scalar.u = 2Ep used here. = . But (p. and p in the xy plane and spin up.' E + m2 and the matrix becornens . = + (p2 + The factor 1/(2zl3 is the density of states per unit volume of momentum space per cubic centFetar.. 1 spins f o r E. Under these conditions Note that U .) = -pZ = . T h t is. The up a r e those for positive energy. + ip.dx multiplieatioxz.1) becomes. We first calculate u p ~p for p ~ s i t i v e energy.

Now put t2 tl = t and xz .f. it i s elear h t t b only chwe is an additioml h r m -p. IN QUAPJTUM E LEGTRQDYNANLfGS By the same process.xt = X. " " ) " r . .-ipy P x . For L > 0. N up + ( ~ ~ u ~ b sdownn= : : ~ i .~ * ~ + m = : ] p l + m p i N The sign of the energy was not used in ctbhinlrrg thia r~38ultSO i t i~ the same for ei. the result in the spin down ease ia W upup = Q 0 0 E+m -p. the propbmtion b r n e l bcomes - The appearance of p in the form E p = (p2 + m')'/' in the time part of the exponential makes this a difficult iuxLegraI. in geukeral. may be verified easily dhat the sum of these malrieea for spin up and spin 1 down ia represented by In Ule genr~ral case when g is in any direetion. y.4 ~ ~ -E+m O 0 0 (spin dam) 0 Q 1 . Note a t It may also be written in the form .her siw. So.PROBLEMS.

.84 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYNAMICS where h this form only one integral insbad of f m r m e d be dome It may be verified as an exereiac.? Another expression for the foregoing fe ~+(t. Note t k t I+(t. s o that the region of the asymptotic approximation lie^ raughly within the dotkd cone around the t axis and is - FIG.x) ac-fly demnds only on /xtl not an its dfmtction. . 78. mis i n b g r a l h s been carried out vvdtfi the followiw result: where s = +(tZ x3'I2 for t > X.@ f o r large s i s proportional to e-lmS. It. & ( s ~ is a ) delta function and ~ ~ ' ~ 'is am ) ( Hankel function. 15-1 ?See Phys. In t b time-space diagram (Fig. for I+(L. can h 8 h 0 m that the asymptotic form of I.x) makes it good for all 1.xk -(l/srr2) = - - /oa d a exp I-(i/2)[(m2/(u) + or (t2 x2))) - Both of these farms a r e too compficabd to be of much. practical use. the accessible region of I 1x1 space in the ordinary sense.(t. a t for t 0 the r e s d t is the same except that the sign of t is changed. Rev.included in this volume. that is. W e n one% region of accessibility i s limibd to thc3 inside of the light cone. 27-1) the a p e e axis represents 1 1 and the diagx onat lines represent the surface of a light cone includiw the t axis. s o t b t putting It/ in place of t in the formula. It will be shown shortly t h t a tremendous simplification results from transformatf on ta momenhm represenhtion. and -i(x2 tZ}I/' for t X . large s implies t 2 >> / X I ' . 749 (1949).

mcfi vvhen it represent8 a len@hv" a s here).^ an infinll@simalin e e t i v e irnagimry part.x) becomes But E : = p2 + m 2 s o this i s = where p i s now a four-vector s o that d$ = dp4 dp. o r oaerwise . and p p p p .bis ia really a monnenbm-enerw represenbtion): . i s easily accomplished a s followe? {we actually bb Fourier transform of bath spas@and time. dp2 dp3. This The ir b r m in the denominator is introduced solely to enaure passage around the proper side of the singularities at :p = E along the path of integration.P R O B L E M S XN QUAPi[TflrM E L E C T E T O D Y N A M I W The first form i s seen t s be essentially the same a s the p r o m g a ~ o n e r e l k for a free mrticle used in nonrelativistic t. d. ha. E n &ia form the transformation to momentum representation. Hence It i s seen that the distance along fzcf in which this &comes small i s roughly the Campton wavelengW (recall &aL m -. b r e a f b r the ir term will be omitted. so I.heory. anar other region included in this a s p g t o t i c a g p r o ~ m a t i o n h t &tMn the is dotted cone along t6e / X / axis where large s implies [x12>> t2.(t. Its effect can h inaluded simply by imagining that m. Using the i n k g r a l relation above. : Passage on the wrong side will reverse the sim In the exponential on the right. possible 6gtra~ectorieafl e not limibd to regions within the lig& cone. a s in the new t k o r y . Problem: Work out the integral a b v e by contour integration. to The tranh~formtion momentum representation will ie facilihted by use of the inkgral f o m u l a lilow be made. ss h t in reality not much of the t 1x1 h3pee oubide the light - cone i s aceessible. If.

1) ihs unity.~UTXL represenbtion and 6(2.x) gives the propagation kernel (here x = ~2 ." m) to IE. applying the o m r a t o r i ( i p K.x i ) Ifi.where the dummy variable 6 h a ben. recalling that iJV o p r a t i n g on exp l-i(p From the identity X)] is the same a s multiplying by the kernel e m also be written By the same process used for X.I)i s the Green's anction of (IF. and id i s hewn ~t ijP i~ 6 in TX~OEXL~II. i8 Aemlfy &is: tranrsformation could have h e n obtstined in an elegant manner. substitukd for p in the p intc?gral.(t. t h t ih~.(2.1) in mornenturn represexllation is seen to k m T h i ~ the result which was sou&t.m). For K(2.(t. t b transform of K.x). . But Hence the 5 integration gives the result Finally.

i t will be convenient to convert all our e w t i a n s to this representation. (17-2) in the fact that (d m)""' is singular if p2 = m We ' . b v i n g an infinibsimal rtemtive imagiwry m r t . To convert the potential. As an emmple. SubstiMing into Eq.d l r n e n s i ~ ~ l Fourier t r a n ~ f o m s . consider t l Coulomb potential. shall have: to say Just how we a r e to k n d l e poles a r i s i q from G i source h s in integrals.1) has mare &an one solution is reflected in Eq. fast. (18-1) gives Here the vector Q is the s m c e part of the mamerttunn.PROBLEMS IN QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 87 Therefore the transform of &is equation can fie w r i t k n down immediately: a s before. The m l e &at @electsthe particular form we wmt i s &at m h considered as. conhim the momenbm (q). . This requires f o w . define Then the inverse transform is The function a(q) is interpreted as the amplitude that the ptential. (17-1) for K(2. - Eighteenth Lecture Since the p r o p m t i o n kernel for a free p r t i c l e i s so aimply expressed in momentum represenbtion. The fact that Eq. It is es~elally useful for problems involving free. p = Ze/r. ~ given by A = 0. The delta EuaeLion 6(q4) arise8 from the time demndenee of & ( X ) . . m o v i q p r t i c l e s .

this bcscomea If Eq.qg .PI) (18-5) d e r e the funetion &"X) i s to be lnterprehd a s 6(t1)&x2)6(y3)6(z4). this becomes h momentum representation. An adivankge of momenttlxkt represenbtioxl i s the aimplieity of computing m a t r k elements. (18-4) to ~ .(2. (58-2) i s uoed for K.41. (18-g). So the i n k m a l aver p reduces Eq. &call that in space representation the firot-order pert-urbatlon matrix element i s given by the integral For the free mrticle. this i s simply where pl ia d ~ f i n e d snailogclusly to the three-vector q.1).Then the Zntepal over rl i s zero for all except gf = di -t. this part of the inbgrrbl i s xl) d r l lexp tip xl) exp (-iql = (2n)'b4(p xl) exp (-ipl . this kernel can be writbn Writing the factors that d e p n d on 71. The second-order m t r i x element in s p c e represenbtion i s given by Substituting for a free mrticle and also expressing the gotenth1 functions as %eir Fourietr transforms by mean8 of Eq.88 Q U A N T U M E LEGTRODYNAM1C8 Utrfx Elfamentta.

P R O B L E M S f N Q U A N T U M ELEGTROIDVMAMIGS beegrating over 72 results in another S f u e u o n [similar to Eq. bving. T%e electron. 18-1 wave function ui and moves from 1 to 3 a s a free particle cf momanhm Xli.5 abfsorbed the um of the phoLon it Ghen movess from 3 to 4 a s a free particle of momentum 6% & by eonaervation + . r A t point 3. 18-1). At point 4. enter8 the region at 1 wi& FIG. it is scattered by a photon of m o f a d e r the action of the potential -ie$(ql)]. it i s scattered by a second photon of nnomenwnn 42[under the action of the pohntial -ie$(q2) absorbing We additional momen- . which differs from zero only *en Then inbgrating over ddq2 give6 finally mese reaults can be written down immediately by inswetion of a diagram of the interaction (see Fig. (18-5)].

Since the operator X/(& + dl . All indeterminate momenta qi a r e summed over d4qi//(21r)'. 123 (2951). mv. Fqnnnan. it is not necessary that (pl + di12 = m2. odffeiently l l aceumte A f b r the matrix element is debrxnined. A wtential containing the momentum q contribuks the amplihde -ie$(q) to N. even. An eketron in a virGual st_ab of momenl-um 6 contrib-uttls the amplitude. mlts r e p l a ~ em by m i~ in the inlegrsnd. R.. p22 = m'. m e rasults @ven in Eq8. To assume that fast electrons (and positrons) i ~ k r a ew i t h tt p h ~ t i a only once (Born appro&mtfort) Is often.y of trawltioa per second is given by - - . in computing the integral. the value of the integral la desired. ergy requires p12= m'. Fimlly. 3. m s s l m the sinwlarlties in a definite manner. importhe f l hnce o a virtual state is iaversely g r a p o ~ i o n at~ the degree to which the consemaaon law is violabd. f8ea Summary of numerical factors for tramition pmkbilitlea. but. then in the solution @lice the limit a s r 0.m) may be resolved as (fit + dl + m)/((Pt + dl)2 -mZ]. w i a the path of inbgration. it maves from 4 to 2 aa a free prartiele with. It is also c h a r h a m f&e diaparn that the in&gral need b h k n over qi ody. 2. 84. P = 2n/(n N) J MX ~ (density of final stabs) where fl N I s t k normalization factor defimd in b c h r e 16. b c a u m when $l and gi2 a r e The law of conservatim of enio debrmined by d2 = -pjl --&. i/(jp5 m) to PS. since the intermediate state is a virtual stak. the probabilit. (58-3') &ad (18-6) may h summrized by the following list of handy ruleat for computing the matrix element M = ( 5 2 ~:~ 1 ) 1. only a few termrs in the pertrxrbiltion series a r e necessary for eompuhtion. For relativistic work.. Remembr. P. An 0psrator C&eulus. wave funeu tion u2 and momenwm & = & + d¶+ 42.90 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS t n &)l. included in thts volum~ti* . Phys.

Relativistic Treat o the Interaction f of Particles ith Light h b c t w e 2 the rules governing nonrelativistic interaction of particlea with light were given. (19-11. but to obhin the correct tramition probability in a @ven coordinate sgsbm. which conk i m a similstr factor for each electron i the initial and final @&Le%. k normalized to 2w photo. photon pbntiszfs will. This becomes part of the normalization factor RN. n . the complex conjugab of thle expression i s A I = (4~e')'/~ exp (ik * X) . The mles 8 k b d what ]potentialis were to be used in the calculation of transition probabilities by perdurbation t.per cubic w ~ centimeter by dropping the ( 2 ~ ) .' /factor in Eq. the potential used in nonrefativiatic theory was For emission of a photon. These potentials are normalized to o w photon per cubic centimeder and hence the normalization i s not invariant under b e n t z transformatiom . m o s e pdentiala a r e a k a applicable to the relativistic theory if the m l r i x elements a r e eompubd a s described in k e k r r e 18.heory. i t ie necessary to reinsert a factor (2w)""fsr each photon in the initial and final s k t e s . e (19-ltl This makes any matrix element cornpub$ with Uzeacz pobntials invariant. For absorption of a photon. in the &&re. In a manner similar to that for the normlization of ebctron wave functions.

R. < f/H/i> = (4ne2)1/2J9f+[a!*eexp(ikex)]*i d vol to (19-2) Problem: %ow that in the nonrelativistic limit.ntation. Eq. hobn f (incamin X recoil electron FIG.) S. 19-1 .@A.repreat.ic (19-2) reduces x ew(fkerz)] d vot This ia the s a m msult a s was obtained from the h u l i ftqution.92 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS h moment. much greater than alaanie binding emr@ea). i s necessary are. A relativistic treatme& of scattering of photons from e bctrons will. p. is a unit vector wrpendicular t o the p r a ~ ~ t i vector. and e q = 0. between initial and final ahtes. now be given. T b t ia. prokbility per second is Trans. H = cr * (-iV . on MDUTION FROM A T O m The transition. 'I"his will lead to the B e i n . Heam e * e = -1. the amplitude to absorb (emit) a photon of polarization e s is -i(4ne2)'12d. camider the electrons to be free (energies a t which a re1ativisd./sec = 2%1 ~ 1 'x (density of final states) where H is the matrix element of the rebtivistic Wamiltonian. prob.N i s ~ mf o m u k far the Gomipt~n-effectc r a s s section. The polarization vector el. As an approxi-Lion.rtneral.

Thus. The momentum has been resolved into components. = q12 = 0 A s initial and fiml state electron wave functions. d2 = wZ(yt. The light is polarized perp n d i c u h r to the direction af propgation (see Fig.I M T E R A C T I O M OF" P A R T I C L E S W I T H L I G H T 93 For the incoming photon take as a potential A l p = alp exp (-iq! X) and for the outgoing photon take Az = exp (-iq2 * X). cos B . which will h designated tym A and tyw B: Type A has the electric vector in the z direction and type B has the electric vector in the y direction. et ql = O S eg q g = O 91 4 = 9t2 = 0 1 g and q2 q.Y . choose $2 = ~2 e x p (-ip2 * X) Conservation of energy and momentum (four equations) is written U the coordimte system is ehoaen 80 that electron n m b e r 1 i s a t m s t . 19-1). for a photon. SinrtiZarly the outgoing photon beam can be resolved into two t y w s of polsllrization: . the e n e r m and momentum a r e both equal to the frequency (in units In which c = X).yy sin 8) (19-6d) The l a t k r two eqwtioxrs follow from the fact that. The incoming photon barn can be resolved into two t y m s of polarization.

d).Ej(P0Pl) dGI (B-1) where EI = enerlS. Density of states = ( 2 n 1 . and (19-6a. p = momenturn. sin @ Conservation of energy of xnornenbxn d i e h t e s that either the angle of the recoil electron @ or the angle a t which the s c a t b r e d photon comes off @ completely determines the remaining quantities.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (4" 62 = Y z (B') 4%= y.V of pdlrticle 1.cos 8) This i s the well-hown formuh for the Campton shift in wavelength (or fieqaeney) .' (E1E2/ /p/) dE1 d& . its momentum can be elimimted by solving Eq. This can be written ~ ( W I02) - . m2 = mass of gartiole 2. p + p2 = p. g of particle 1. into ~ i c mrtiele 1 comes oul. If the electron direction i s unrimportant.y.~ . k m of t o h l energy E and total linear moment= g disintegrahs into a twoparticle fiml state.. E2 = energy of particle 2. f 19-31.h $1 [instead of Density of states = ( 2 ~ ) . c. a& El + E2 = E. 1 Another useful formula is in t e r m s of the f i m l energy of m r t i c b 1and its @l).cos 8) where the last line was obtained from the preceding line by u s i w Eqs. the following final state densities (per unit e m r g y inrterval) can h obdained. (19-5) for plz and sqwring the resultiw equation: = m 2 +o+O+Zmwl-2mw2-2wiw2 (I . m1 = mass h of m r t i c l e 1. It i8 azfmul. cos B . DlGREBJON ON THE DENSITY OF FmAL 8TATLS By the method discussed in the earlier part of the course. dQt = solid angle. (19-41.

(D-l). 19-2. Using the Compton relation Eq. (8)the electron emits a photon and subsequently absorbs the incident photon. . Density of states = (2n)-' E3E2 Special ease: m e n m s= 03: Density of states = (2n)-'E2 lpzl daz pt2 PI (D-6) The Gonrpton e f k c t has a Wo-particle final state: takiw particle I to be photon 2 and mrticle 2 to be electron 2. m e a e two procesees are shown diagrammatically in Fig.I N T E R A G T f Q N O F P A R T I C L E S W I T H LXQIZT /E2 = ar: E = m ) : Special eases: (a) m e n m2 = Density of states = (2~)""'Etjpl/ d Q f Density of states = (2n)-3[ E ~ dQl/(Et E ~ + E111 (B-4) M e n a Bystern disintegrates into a three-particle fiml state. from Eq. (19-7) to eliminate B. there a r e Wo ways in which the scattering can b p m n : (R) the incoming photon is absorbed by the electron and then the e b ~ t r o n emits the outgoing photon. Dens3ity af states = ( 2 v 3c~ $2 W? day Calculation of /M/'../mw The probabiliiw of transition per second i s given by iln woreung out the nrr%trix element M. this bcomes Density of states = ( 2 ~( ) ~ ~ ~~ w ~ ' dh2.

The t o b l matrix element is lthe e r n of thte.m)] at). of pohrization 6. M was fomd to be -i4ne2f [l/(& + PI1 . element for h e secand process 5. u s i w the: table of matrix elenrrents (TaMe 13-1) work out 1 two. (c) b v i n g re- mived momentum 13fl from the potential the electron travels a8 a free eleetron with momentum gig + &.e. and (e) we now ask for the amplitude. (b) the electron i s first scattered by a potential (i.. Twentieth Lecture Far Lhe R diagram. absorbs a photon). Ratf onalize these matrix elements and. (d) the electron emits a photon.h momentum represenktion. Exercise: Write down the mtrix. t b t the electron i s in a @Lateug . the matrix element M for the first proeess R i s b a d i n g from right to left the factors in the matrix element a r e interprebd as follows: (a) The initial electron enhra wit&amplitude ul.i 4 ~ ( G z ~ u ~ ) e2 and as an exercise the: u t r i x e bmant for the S diagram. was f ctu~d be to .= .

Using the identity the matrices may be removed from the denominator of R giviw The demomimtor i s seen to be 2mwl from the following relations: The matrix elements for the various spin and polarizatlorr eombimtion8 can be calculated straightforwardly from &is paint. Wealling that 61ul = mu$. Xt i s also f i e nemtive of the matrix element of the last term of R.m)]$2ul) = -i4aeZ( GZS U ~ ) The complete m a t r k element is the sum of these. so R may be replaced by the equivalexlC . Using the identity it i s seen t b t B t pl has only a time component &nd e1 only a space c o m p ~ m n s o u t pl * el = 0.-i4%eZ{&$1[~/(61 . s o that the eross section bcomes The p r o b l a now is actually to compute the matrix elements for R and S.d2. it i s seen &at and thig is the matrix element of the ffrst term of R. First R will be emsidered. But c e r h i n prelimimry manipulations wiZX reduce the h b a r involved.

(yy cos 6 y. spin sg = +l. with qz and &at ql (el *qi = 01 and Using this f o m of the matrix. Y .he y 'S h a b e n used. the S a t r i x i equivalent to s Substituting & = w .y. the matrix ebmrsts may be compubd easily. cos B yy sin 8 ) and bans. g i for this ease. sin 8 where the antieommubtion of t. sin B)[y. polarization (AB"). sz = final ntatrix elennent .98 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS By an exactly similar madpuhtion.y sin 8. posing the 21x1 factor. . Hence L. Expanded this becomes 2m(R+ S) = be writbn - - A till more usehl form is obtaizled by n o t i that pC1 anGeomxxzutes with ~ = 2ez eel -. But note that in. For example..yy sin 81 COS 8 ) since ez m e i = 0.sin @(l . this prciblenn pi. consider the case for polarization: 8. Thus. This eorreawnds to cases (A) and (B" )of h c t w e 19 and will be denoted by (AB". IXn the ease of spinup for the incoming particle and spin d o m for tke: outgctiw particb (st = -I). The matrix i s 2m(R+ S) = my. #2 = yy cos B . sz =: -11. the matrlx elements may be found by reference to Table 13-I. Pi$z. = p + i ~ y = O s i w e particle 1 is a t reat. is .(l.Y) and dz = w 2(y. the complete matrix m.cos B) - .[yyyx cos 6 ( 1 cos 8) + caa @ sin B -c. = y.


Q U A N T U M ELECTROLZYNAMrGS 2m ( F ~ F ~ } ' / ~ ( .%mplele. / (iy. ~ (s)u~) -(l -+R = C08 @)iF1p2+ sin 6 Pz+ Fi - The result@for the other combinations of polarization and spin a r e obtained in the same m a m e r and will only be presented in tbbular form (Table 22-1). for example. if gil were.w $ ~ / w ~ w ~ ]~ +4 0 68 ~ XL is clear h t all f w r of these formulae may be writkn simuft. ease (AA". m ~ is.ctmously in a form s f t Note t b t t h e ~ e o m u l a s a r e not adeqmLe for circular polarization.~ 2 1 ~ / ~ i @ 2 1 BB' [(&li . For any one of the polarization cases listed. 1a + y y ) . For ex. AB" [(@l. They m y b verified a s an e ~ r c i s e .s b k o averaged over incoming spin ~ k t e s . in By employing the relation and the squarre magnitude8 of the matrix elements for the various easea redurn. it i s seen thst because of the phas- . to Lhe expressions given In Table 20-2. a&er eorresfderable amount of afmbra.But this i~ seen to be simply the square magnitude of the noassro matrix element listed under the appropriate polarizatian case. 1 I%f2 is the sum of the square amplitudes of the matrix elements far autgoing spin.

For unpolarized light this c r o s s section must be averaged over all polartzalions. X) to momentum represeabtion.: w i l o r e s c r i b e d plane polarizao tion af the incomim and outgoiw photons i s This is the mein-Nfshim formula for polarized light. It is noted t b t diagram eases s u c h a s Fig. e v e s . In the "Thompson limit. Finally the cross section T r scatterine. 20-1 Mve been included In the previous derivation as a resuIt of the generality in the transformation sf of K. This can be seen from the relation Dlscussiclg d wi h this limit. such a s in Fig.INTERACTION O F PARTICLES W I T H LIGHT l01 all the calculations must be ing represented by the imaginary part of carried out before squaring the xnatrh elements in order to get the proper intederence.(2. Tnea the electron picks up very little energy in recoil.'" s << m. In fact. (They eorrespond to emission and reabsorlption of a third photon by the electron. 20-2. and wi . the Mlein-Nishim formula.) Twenty-first Leetgre a f?.:oz. all dfagram eases k v e Been included except higher-order effects to be discussed later.latn-Hishim Formula.

e (rebrded accelemtfon projected on plane l to R line of sight) Tbe scattered radiation polarized in the direction a2 i s determined by the component of the acceleration in this direction. The resulting probability can b obhined a s the sum 112 (probability if type A) f 112 @robbility if t.. Under the action of the electric field of the photon 1E = East exp (iut). the electron is given the acceleration Classically.I02 QUANTUM E L E C T R O D Y N A M I C S which i s the Rayleigh-Thompson s c a t t e r i w eroras section. suppose the i n e ~ m f ~beam has polar-ization of t p A.' and B' can be symbolized as U and A S . and gives cr (averaged over = ( 2 / 2 X M t + G ' + (112XE314". Thus. (2 2-11 a s follows ad (o i s an a r e a o r lenglth squared): m2= (rne/Ii)' = l e n e h aquared Avemgw 0 ~ 8 r Folari~ations. The total probability for scat* tering a photon of either palarkatton is AA' + AB*. Note that w i s still very large compared to the eigenvalcres of an aloxur.t BW) B) pdarizations) . A. Then suppose the ineoming beam is equally Xtkely ta be polarized ass type A or type IS. an accelerated c h r g e r a d i a b s to give the s c a t b r e d radiation & = . This can be obbined by summing the probabilities over the polarizations of the oulgohg barn and averaging over the incoming beam. The same result is obbined by a classical picture. The probbilitiea f& (or c r o s s sectians) for the two possible types of ouQoing polarization.It is often desired to have the s c a t k r i ~ c r o s s section for a beam r e g a d l e s s of the incoming o r outgoing polarization. The inbnsity of the scattered radiation of polarhation ez i s then (times per unit solid angle and p e r unit incident inknslty) The customary fii 's sn c % s a y be mplaced in Eq. in accordance with our origiml assumptions f a r Compton scattering. This ia the situation for unpolarized incomiw beam.ym B).

121 (1942). X[n the low-frequency limit (ol wz). Sf mpf e integrations fleldS h the high-frequency limit (wt- m) f Cf. (21-3) is i n k g r a h d over the solid angle the total c r o s s section for s c i a t k r i x through any angle i s obbfrted. Rev.l the c r o s s section (averaged over polar3 izations) given in Eq. Greiseen. Waltrsr Heftler. "Qumtu rXlhet3~ Rdi&tion. eft. the polarization of the outgoing beam is measured (still with an u w o b r i z e d incorniw b a r n ) . op. the pctlarizgtion is complete a t @ = a/2. (21-F).INTERACTION O F PARTICLES WITH LIGHT 103 E.. 4 $ Cf* Heftier." 3rd ed. Phys. (21-X). 1954. Equation (2 1-31 can be writtein - where the last five terms replace -sin2 B = cos2@ 1 using Eq. 53. . So.. its dependence on frequency mid ~ c a t t e raiw l e is given by the ratio ~ Probability of polarization type A' Probability of plarization t m e B ' (1/2)[AA8 B' + A) The forward radiation fB = 0) remains unpolarized. Rossi m K. of and B. W o r d . on the other b n d . Thus an unpolarized beam &comes plane-polarized when ~ c a t t e r e d through 90°. p. from Eq..P Tok1 %kcat@riw Cross Sscti~n. and the variable w goes between the limits mwl/(2wl + m) and w l a s 2 eoa B goes from 1to + 1. @Z. but zt cerlain degree af polarization will be found in light scattered through any nonzero angle.

T h interaction can be diagmxusnnerf a s s h o r n in Fig. when pair annihilation k k e s place in the abselllce of an externd potential. a t high frec. positron). fnbistinguishble from the f i r s t by any measure'. and. The conservation law gives (just cta for Gompton s c a t k r i q .and E. another phenomenon completely amlogous to Cornpton s e a t k r i n g is two-photon pair annihilation.where pair produeaon b c o m e s the i m p o r b t e f f ~ e t . So write $1 = IE-y. Two pfiobns a r e necessary (in the outgoing radiation) La mafnhin conservation af momentum and energy. This figure should b compared tie that for Compton scattering (Lecture 20). of the electron and pasitran a r e both posltive n u m b r s .6 . since particle 2 i s positron. . but the direction of gfi reveraczd). Y) where the emrgies E. From the quantum-eleetradynamleal point of view. s o the matrix element for this ineraction i s 111 second possibility.fueneie~. .p. 21-1. The only differences a r e that the direction of pha= -(m~mentum of ton di i~ reversed.104 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Thus CompLon scattering is a negligible effect.

Eq. * 2w1 2wz) a I + &12jZ x (density af sta&s) In a system where the electron is a t r e s t and the positron i s moving. 2 1 2 ) again no& similarity to Compton seatbrlng. (21-41. 21-2 The sum of the two m a t r h elements 13md the density of final states gives the e m s s section c (velocity of positron) = 2a/(2E2E. -2. i s oblafned from the first by inbrcbaaging the turo photons (see Fig. so the conservation law. the matrfx element is FIG. The density of final s k t e s i s Since p a ~ i c l e is a positron. pf* =$it+ Pfi Then This reduces to . Immediately. 2 gives gii' $2 = -g$.I N T E R A C T I O N O F P A R T I C L E S WXTH L I G H T 105 me&.

giving . we use + - plus -the fact t h e . irmcoming of particle.- where 8= a q l e between directions of plarization of lvvo photanrs (cos 6 = ef *ez) The sin2 B dependence indicates that the two photDns have their pohrizations a t sight mgles. TO get the prob&tlity of tmneitton per second for axly photon direction and m y polarization.m and ol w2 m (when the electron and positran a r e b happroximably a t rest. a s v. 1 From a comparison of the d h g r a m s . and Is the well-hown l/v law). In the cross section. this i~ for true other c r o s s sections when a process involves abh-fo~tion the. T k n the cro@ssection ie in analom with the mein-Nishina formufa. Thus -- -..* 2 /p+/ 4(2nj3 m(E+ + m)] x I&&$+ 2 ~ . c earnerved only with tvvo phobna of mornentra e q u d in magnitude but opposih in direction). momentum and energy can be t . To ealculab the positron lzel-fme in m electron density p (recil~ll that the p m c e d i w cm@@ section ws for a n electron density of one per cubic centimeter) as v+ 0. it is clear t k t the matrix elements f o r pair annihilation a r e the same as the m a l r k elements for the Compbn effeet if the s i p of (Ifl is changed.106 QUANTUM E LECTRQDYNAMICS Taking the velocity of the wsftron a 8 (p+j/E+ the Cross s e ~ a o n s i @ =(2~) dQ1/12E. TXON FROM REST The formula for positron-electron amihilation derived in betrxre 2 l div e q e s as the positron velocity approaches zero (cr l/v. it i s necessary to sum over solid angle (IdQ = 4n) and average over polarfzations (sin2 B = %/g). 0. this amounts to e b g i n g the s&n of w l . E.

76.where a i s an arbitrary eonsknd and.INTERAGTXON OF P A R T I C L E S WITH LIGHT f f a c h r s of e and E r e i n s e d d where required).1 shows the process and defims a w l e s t h t arise lawr. (6) sum the disinkgration r a k over gokrkatiorxs. resutLs in radiation. the bremsstrah. The following procedure is s u a e s b d : (L) s e t up formula for r a b of disinbgmtion.luag proeeaa can occur: (a) the electron interacts with the Coulomb field m d s u b q u e n t l y emits a photon.. and T = mean lgetime. When an electron p m s e s through the Coulomb field of a nucleus it i s deflecMd. wcording to the classical theory. Ore and S. (8) o b a i n the b f a l disintegration rate by i n k g r a t h g over photon spectrum and mgle.? (5)It is h o w t k t the m a t r h elements should be independent of a gauge traxlsfarmation $" = 6 t. and (9) compare with Q r r and Powel. 4 i s the momentum of a phobxl whose polarization is p! o r $'. (7) ob&in the photan smctrum. The diagrams for these pracTA. T b t is. Phys. The n triplet state d i s i a b g m h s into three photons a d has a l o e e r lifetime (see the nelrt problem). A s s o e k b d with this deflection i s an acceleration which. There a r e two (indistinmishabfe) orders in which. = (4) find the matrix element at* M f o r eight polarization eases. o r (b) the electron first emits a photon and then i n b r a e t e vvfth the: Cougomb field. wkile in the field of t h nueleus. (3) make a table of m a t r h elements ( s m e a s Table 13-1 but with = m%. L. . (5) find the raLe of disintegration for each ease. them i s a certain probability t b t the incident electron will m a b a tmnsition t a a different electron s b b with a. Show t b t s ~ b s t i t u t h g f o r 6 in the m a t r k elements for the Comp4 ton effect gives m = 0. The validity of t h h approximation was discussed in Lecture 16. Pawell. 1696 (19. (H?) Find the mean time required for a positron and electroa to disintegrab inlo &see pholons (spins must bt? parallel). ad. photon emit%d. h a r a e t i o n with the field of t nucleus i s necessary to k aatiafy conservation of enargy ancl momentum. Acceding ta qumtum efectrodymmics. S h w that only the singlet state (spins antiparallel) can disinbgrale i b two photn>ns. The Coulomb potential of the nucleus will be considered to act only once (Born approximation). (2) wriM M in the simplest possible form. Figure 22. where ro= elasaieal electron mdiua. Rev. PrabEeruzs: (L) Obbin the preceding result directly by u s l w matrix elements f o r an electron and positron a t rest. the electron eamot emit a photon md m&@ a transition to a different electron s t a b w k l e tmve l i w along in a vacuum.49).

Tfxe inkraetlan with the nucleus gives momentum @ to the electron.since the potential i s independent of time. Cornervation of enerm and momentum requires electron 2 J Coulomb field of the nucleus photon In hcttnre 18 it was s b w n that the Fourier t r m s f a r m of the Csufomb pobntial was propo&ional to &(Q4). 22-2. find eliectmn. The transition probability i given by s . o r enera must be conserved amow the incident electron. Thus El = E2+ W . This means t k t only traasilions for which Q4= O occur. a& phobn.essels a r e s h o r n In Fig.

the following dgferential eross section is obWned: . 22-2b. Notice tfnat there i s a. use agprop r h t e v(Q). The explaimtion of tkm factors in the f i r s t term. [ F o r pohntial other than Coulomb. M k r (l) summing over phoWn polariz a t i o n ~ .f the denomimlor of the m a t r k . The varis u s m a l r k elements can be worked out using Table 33-1. so we omit the delafls. and ( 3 ) averagf% over h c o m h g electron a p h sdates. is. Nothiw new ~ the is involved.(2) summing over outgoing efeetrsn spin stabs. reading from right to left. that an electron initially in state u l i s scattered by the Coulomb potential acquiring an additional momentum 5& . which the nueleus does mt move. where the f i r s t term comes from Fig.I N T E R A C T I O N QF P A R T I C L E S W I T H L I G H T Since the nueleus i s to be considered infinlkly heavy. the electron moves a s a free w r t i c l e with momentum 6% @ until it emits a photon of + polarization gd. f The outgoing photon can h polarized in either of t w directions. exactly a s w s d o in d ~ r i v i n g m e i n . We t h ~ n ask: 1s the eletctron in sbtf? u29 F o r the Coulomb pokntial (see Momenturn b p r e s e n b t i o n . Lecture 18) in a coordinate system in. for example. the Fourier transform of the space depndenee of the pohntiafi. Letting "S1Z = (G2 MU$). t b t is.M i s ~ n aeross section in Eczeture 20. the photon energy i s not d e b m i n e d (as i t was in the Compton effect. and the inearning and ouQofng electron each have two possible spin sbhs. spectrum of phoans.] 1Rationalkinf. for emmple). 22-2a and the second term from Fig.

matrix (22-3) fn b r m s of 4 insbad of @ 4 using the relationskipa gOPlz = -$z$ + 2~3 p2 . since it i s small. WriMng tlnc. sinZe2+ (E2 .2l - sin2et) (22-5) An apgratximale e q r e s s i o n with a simple inkrpretation in b r m s of the cross section can be obbined when the gboan Coulomb elastic s e a t t e r i ~ energy is small (small compared da resst mass of a l e c l r o ~ Zarge combut pared to electron binbiw energies). $14 =: -661 * in the numerator. this becomes + Ze PI. .P f208 @2)(Ei P1 f cs01) 2 . if tficlre i s elastic seatteriw from momentum pi Lo pz. so the last bracket may b i n b w r e k d as t k pmbability of phabn ernissian in frequency interval dw and solid a w l e da.Q U A N T U M EZ1E:CTRORYNAMId:S sin @a do2 sin dBt d@ 2plp2 sine1 sine2 cos C$(4E1E2 -GJ2+ 2w2) 2w2 (p.and neglecting where use is made of the fact thatJhe ma_trix element of M between states u2 and u l is to k ealeulakd and uz$z= m dtui = mule writbn The cross section f a r photon emission can then The firat bracket is the probability of transition for elastic scattering (see Lecture 161.

Cly s h o r n that a s f w l e photon of e n e r n greater t h n 2m camot c r e a b an electron positron pair without the presence of some other means of conserving momentum and energy. however. i {X) s is a positron state (melectron traveliw h c k w a r d in time). The arlrows in the diagram indicate that FIG. is eas. create a pair with the aid of a field. i s obhined for the e x t m photon. but t h phobn density is s o low t b t this process is extremely ~ ualikely. such as that of a nucleus. the bremsstraMung m a t r h elements can b w e d for thia process if 6%i s replaced by --$. (a. when the direction sf tim is taken into account. to which. It. A photnza can. with respect to the directions that the arrows point f a d without mgard to direction of increasim time). the particle i s f i r s t s c a t k r e d by the Coulomb potential and then by the phown. The differernce b t w e e n pair prduction. and (2) t b photon 4 is absorbed rather Lbn emftbd. 22-3 $l i s the positron momenlum and yJ2 i s the electron momentum. As with bremss t m h l u ~ there a r e two fncZiatinguirskble ways in which this can hppen: . these d h g r a m s look ercactfy like those for the brsmsstmkjluq pmeess: S t a f i i q with in case (a). Notice that. Two photons could get together and e r e a b a pair. it em f m p a ~ some momentum. A~lswer:Another faclor.) The incomfw photon c r e a h s a pair and subsequently the electron i n k r a c b with the field of the nucleus. The diagrams for these altfveisl are shown in Fig.XMTERACTXQN O F PARTXCLES W I T H L I G H T 115 Problem: Calculate the amplitude for emission of two low-energy photom by the for~g-cting meth&. m) . o r (b) t k p b t o n creates a pair and the po~itron interacts with the field of the nucleus. Neglect ql's in the numeratar but not in the denomimtor. similar to that in the precediw equations. and bremastrafilung. 22-3. in case the order of the events is reversed. As a result. and 4 by -4.

Formally. sin 8. This is the correct proeeahs a since the flml spin states do not Isrterfere l d these i s equal prokbility of initial spin in either direetion. positron A METHOD OF 8UM m EXIEMENm OVER SPm STATES Ely using current methods af computiw cross sections. = angle between electron-phobn plane and pohsitron-photon ghne) . for 6- E. -W for W E+ F i m r e 22-4 defines the angles (rS. (22-52. electrons with definik ineomiw and outgokg spin stabs. one first arrives at a cross section for '~ o l a r i z e d "eleetrans. t b t is. if .d8.for -E. Thus = ( 1 / 2 a ) ( ~ e ~ / ~ 'e2 @p ) ' .d+/w3) where the bmces a r e the sizme a s for brernsstraMung. In practice it is common that the incorn- 111% barn will b "unpolarized?' and the spins of the ourtgoing paflicles will be unobserved. of course.except for the follotviw substitutions: P.for O2 -P+ -8. since the l particles in the fiml s t a k a r e now a positron and electmn.- sin 8 .122 Q U A N T U M ELlEGTROTZcYNAMICS The $+ is t b n the positron momentum and i s the momentum of the absorbed photon.abs. d B . In this ease. The density of f i ~ skks is different. for E. one needs the cross section o b k h e d from t k t for " p l g r i ~ e d ? ~ eefeetrens by summiw prokbilltles over fiml spin BUL~B and a v e r w i w this sum aver Initial spin st. Eq.f o r P2 Pi -6.

that is. they belong the eigenvalue + m of the operator &. is the sum over initial spins for one sign of the energy.m) is a l h d a proleetion o p e r a b r for obviaus reasons. 1 $l t h t is. !if in Eq.2~u. just those satisfying IzJiut = mu$. this would be the same a s . the 2m factor on the right a r i s e s from the normlization uu = 21x1.ted by ul. just over posispins 1 tive eigenvalue s k h s . But the shbs u. and the sum i~ over all eigenstatas represen. So consider all U . the fallowing i s true: = ( G 2 ~ u( U I ~ u 2 ) 2 r n ( G 2 ~ ~ u 2 ) I) all Y where A and B a r e any operators o r matrices. together with the two we wish in Eqi. T b t is. that is. Let us call the l a t b r '"negative eigenvalue" sslisks.l Buz) = (G~AMI+ m)Buz) (pJi -t. which we want in Eq.l@f+m)~uz) = (:2~(dt+m)~u2)2m But rV ui(Iljf+m) = Q 8 w for negative eigenmlue slaks f o r positive eigenvalue states = ui(2m) s o the p m c e d i q sum also equals spins 1 C G 2 ~ u l ) a m ( GBuz) f CaneeXliw the 2m factors. (23-1)bring the t o k l to four. this gives spins 1 C (Gz~u!)('. The purpose spins I now is to develop a simple m e t h d for obkining these sums. C (. (23-2) the m a t r k elements of B were zero in negative eigenvalue states. Mow.)(. h a c e o r k n e e with t b u s w l rule f o r m a l r h multiplieatioa. Similarly it f"alX0~8 h t t . Similarly. Since 62= rnZF also has the eigenvalue -m. over only two of the four possible eigenakles. there a r e twa more solutions 05: &U = -mu wkich. (23-1) a r e nat all shks.I N T E R A C T I O N O F P A R T I C L E S W I T H LLCWT one needs @ -- 1 2 spins I C spins 2 C I(u2~uill~ where spins 2 mean8 the sum over final spin states for only one s i m of the the e n e r n .

it 18 seen that the last sum i s just the tmce o r spur of the matr"ur.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS spins 2 all U . where X is again any matrtx. -t. &12 represent electrons o r positrons. . when m e w m t s eolleetion and speeklizatfon of the previous results Is seen to give spim 1 spins 2 spins 1 spins 2 where the last niohtion means the spur of the m a t r k in the brackeds. It is true whether &. (.m ia immakrfal. Tke followiw list af the spurs of several frequently e n c o m b r e d matrices may k verffied easily: m It i s also true that the spur of the product of any add n u m b r of daggerad o p e r a b r s i s zero.plj2+ m)X. Nob that the o d e r of X and Fimlfiy. Remembering the normalization &u2 = 2m.

q. O and the Usirzg ra few af the formulas l i s k d p r e & ~ u ~ 1 y . Spur of this matrix i s seen t be o But p% p2 = E * . (23-5) with m2 = m4 Anotht?r way is: Since ytdI = 2Ei ~ % y t . 7. the case of Coulomb acatt. (23-31.E2.i s Been t h t it - 5.p2 .111 where v2 = p Z / ~ Z . by -g4 = p14 = yt. . p% * p2 = cos B cos 8. and Et = . the c r o s s section for anpolarized electrons is. t b t 18. since Eq. where V & i s the momentum representation () of the pobntial.eriw will be '%treatedw "using was previously this h c h i q u e . = y. which f o r a Codornb pobntlal it3 where Q i s the mamenbm t m m f e r r e d to the nucleus o r p% .p1 a h. This is the same c r o s s section obtained previously by other nnethds.. The spur can bt3 evaluabd irnmedia&ty from Eq.I H T E R A C T I O N O F P A R T I C L E S WITH LXCHT I l5 As an example. ' p so that finally the c r o s s section becomes = 1/2 ( Z ~ @ ' / Q ~ )8 + ~ ~ [ 4p2 (cos @ @mpok . The c r o s s secUon f o r pohrized e l e e t r o n ~ fomd to b Therefore. The cmas sections for the paf r production and brernsstrahlung processes contained tbe factor [v(Q)I'.SO thi8 i s 4~~-+ 4m2+ Also rn2 = E' -.

one should use the screened Coulomb podential. So as Q becomes small the imp o d n t range of R gets I a e e . It gives the result where F(Q) is the a b m i e structure factor given by and nm) i s the electron density as a funcUon of R. It i s in this way that screening af the Coufor a conhmgiakd proclamb field Ldcorszes effective. Thus if . formula. then s e r e e n h g effect wtll be i m p o a n t . This ahows clearly why the From this i t is seen that Qdn c r o s s sections for pair production and brc3mhsstrahXuw go up with e m r m .23-1 F o r very high energies E m. From the integral emression for V(Q) it is seen t b t the main eontributlon do the inkgrai comes when R m 1/Q. The value of ess can be estimabd from the farewinli?. The atomic radius i s given roughly by a o ~ . 28-11: Pr Pa g FIG. w h t i s the same. . - - or.1l6 Q U A N T U M ELECTRODYNAMICS Clearly V(Q) gets large a s Q gets small. and vice versa for the uppsi* inequalities. The minimum value of Q oec u r s when all three moxrrenk a r e I l n d up (F&.' / '. where a i s the Bohr radius. E from this estimate s e r e e n i w would appear to b imporknl. so t h t in this ease O a s Er 00 .

FIG. Now consider a n energetic Comptoa seatkrfng in which a third. by Eq. 24-1. Show that the cross section for this effect 18 given.rnit&d.XNTERACTXON O F P A R T l C L E S W I T H L I G H T P~oblrsm:h d i s c u s s i ~ bremslsptrahlung it was found t d t the c r o s s section for ernksion czf a low-energy pll~tQa IM approximakd as can where cfo i s the ecat%rfng cross sectlan (neglecting arnlssian). with the Klein-Nisfiina formula r e p l m i ~ m e m e m b r to assume q small . The three dkgmrwts are shown in Fig.) potential region . weak photon is e. (24-l). 24-1.

A second type of interaction gives a.(& )(4. a s shown in Fig. The potential creates a pair.(%) ($.) K.4. ( ~ " ( s . wMle electron b moves from 2 4 i s given the symbol 33.2). ( ~ ) . 4 (see Fig. - . ( ' ) operates only on those variables describing particle a. 24-2).Interaction of Several Electrons Even though the Dirac equation describes the motion of one particle only.If it ia assumed t b t no 6 inkractian betwem electrons takes place. A similar sitwtioa a r i s e s in the follovving occurrence. one electran moves into a r e a o n where ra potenaal is prewnt. The amplitude f o r electron a moving from 1 3.l) K .2) 1) ~ . ' ~ ) (4. Again. There a r e two possibilities for this occurrence. Hour the Pauli principle says that the wave function of a system compssctd of several electrons i s suck tbat the inbrchirnge of space variables for two pa@icles results in a c b n g e of alw for the wave function. we can o b h b the amplitude for the inbraetion of two o r more particles from the principles of quantum eleetradywmics [so long a s nuclear forces a r e not involved). 24-3).'(. 24-4. U ) . 2 ) . and similarly for K . Thus the amplitude (Including both possibilities) i s K = K. Finally one positron and two electrons emrge from the region. result indistfngufshable from the f i r s t by any measurement in aceo&nce with the Pauli principle. This diff e r s from the first caae by the i n t e r c h q e of w r t i c l e s k t w e s n gossitfana 3 and. then K can be written a s the product of kernels ~()31 . Initially. the total amplitude for the occwrenccz is the digerence b t w e e n the amplitude8 for the two possibilltiea.(3. F i r s t consider two electrons n n o v i ~ throu& a region where a p a h n t h l is present and assume t b t they do not interact with one another (see Fig. where the superscript means that K .



potentkl region



The prohbility of this occurrence, o r the previous, or any other similar occurrence is @ven by the a b ~ o l u t e w r e of the amplltuide times the n m s b r Pv, The Pv is actmlly the prokbility t k t a vacuum remains a vacu r n ; because of the possiMllty of pair p r o d ~ e ~ o int ,i a not d t y . The Pv can be camputsd by xnakiw a table of the x>rohbilities of alarting w t nothih ing and endiw with v a r i o ~ w b e r s of mirrs, a s ie shown in Table 24-1, n

TABLE 24-1

The sum of a11 t;hese psohbililies must e q a l udty, and Pv is delzernnined from this eqwtion, The magdtude of ]Piv demnds m the pobntial present. So the "probabifities &ken 8s me rely the s q w r e s of amplitudes (that is, oxnittiw the Pv b e t o r ) a r e actwfliy rehtive probabilities for various occurrences in a @ven pot;e&iaf, Use of 6 , (B'). For the present, the existence of more than m e possibility The t o b f amplifor an aeewrence ( t h Pauli principle) will t.le ~ g b e t e d . tu& can always be &rlved from one by inkrehanging p r o w r spaw vari a b l e ~ maMng W c o r r e s g o n a ~ , changes in sim, and summing all t b amplitudes so obkined,



The nonrehtivisac Born appro&mation to the amplitude for a n interaetion is

where, from earlier k;ctues,


Hate Wlat t5 = t6 since a nonrelativistic interaction affects both parLicZes simultaneously, The potential for the interaction i s the Cmlomb potential

Separate variables may be used for tBand t 6 , if the fmction 6(t5 - t6) i s ineluded aa a factor, Then

where the differential d~ includes both spa= and #me variables. It is conceivable t h t the rektivistie h r n e l couM be obtained by s u b s t i t u t i ~K + for K@, and introducing the i&a of a retarded potenLial by replaciw 6(tb t6) by 6(tS t g r6,@).Nowever this 6 function i s not quite right. Its Fourier transform cmtains both positive and negaave frequencies, whereas a photon has only positive energy. Thus

- --


To corrrsct this, define the fmctian

&,(X) =

exp(-iwX) dw/tr

which contains only positive e n e r g . The value of the fmction i s dekrmined by the ilttegral, mm,
4 (X) = lim ( l / ~ i ) ( X i ~ )

c -Q


= 6fm -t

(l/ni)(prineipal value 1/X)

Abbreviating tg ts 3 t and r g , ~ T, and taking account of the fact that both S t 5 5 tg and t 5 =P t6 a r e ~ a s i b l e the retarded potential i s ,



Exercises: (11 Show t b t

a relativistic invariant, the potential is &fining t2 r2 as e26, (gS,2). Another term h i c h must be included i s the magnetic int e r a d o n , proportism1 to -V, * Vb. In the n e t i o n used for the Dirac eqmtion, this prduct i s -a, orb. Z will k found emvedent to ext m p r e s s this in the equivalent form -(Be), * ( P c u ) ~ and in & i notstt;ion , ~ The~c: '8 P the retarded Coulomb potential. is proporZ;iomf to P come from the use of the relativistic b r n e l . Thus Lhe complete potentfal for the interaction becomes



and then Lhe first-order kernet is

Here the superscript on yp indicates on which set of variables the matrix opembs, just as for the superscripts on K, . The occurrence represenbd by this kerml. can be diagrammed a s in Fig, 24-5. This represents the e x c b q e of a virtual photon be-

FIG. 24-5

tween the electrons. The virtual photon can be polarized in any one of the four directions, t, X, y, z. Summation over these four possibilities is indicahd by the repeatttd index af The integral expression for tke kernel, Eq. (24-2), implies t k t t b amplitude f o r a photon to go from 5 6 (or from 6 5 depending on timing) i s b , ( s s , t ) Equation (24-2) can b taken a s another a?&bment of t b fundamen&l laws of qumtum electr&ynamics. (2) Show t h t



Thus, iz momentum space, r

From the r e s u l b of the fasrt lecture, it is evident t b t the laws: of electrodymmies could b s h b d a s follows: (1) The amplitude to emit (or absorb) a p h b n ie e y p , and (2) the amplitude for a phtobn to go from 1 to 2 is 6 , (91,$), where

in momentum representation. It is interesting to note that 6 , (si, ) 18 the same as I, (sI8$), quantity appearing i the derivation of the propagation the n kernel of a free particle, with m, t b particle mass, s e t e q w l to zero, A more direct comeetion with the MaweXl equations ean km seen by writing 7 r the wave equation. 0 klI, = 4 JP in momentum representation,


We now consider the eomeeti.on witfa the "rules" of quantum electrodynamics @ven in the second lecture. The amplitude f o r a to emit a phobn whfcb b absorbs will now bt; caletllarted aceordiw Lo those rule^ (see Fig, 25-1)- The amplikde tjRae electron a goea from 1Lo 5, emits a phobn of pohrizaaon 6 and direction K, t b a Ei;aes fmm 5 to 3 is given by

TMs amomts to summlw over four directions of polarization. subject to the dorementioned restrictions. (rs. which is equivalent to b absorbiw a% photx>n if t(. the s i p s of all the eqonentiala in the preceding amplitudes are chnged and t6 must bri? less t b n t5. md b. To obbfn the amplitude t h t my photon is exckngeb beWc3en a.I N T E R A C T I O N QF S E V E R A L E L E C T R O N S whereas the amplitude that b goes from 2 to 6.te)J P . gf will be replaced by yp and a summation over p will be taken. it is necessary to i n b g r a b over photon direction. absorbs a pbton of potarization p! and direction X: at 6. and inbgrate over t 5 m d t(.r8)]exp [-iK(ts . In summing over polarizations. then p e s from 6 Lo 4 is given by The amplitude t b t h t h these procesees occur.. sum over possible photon palarizations. Thus = 4?re2 C lexp [iK. sometMng t k t will be eviained fabr. t5 is just the product of the individual amplitudes. L1" iz absorbs h% photon.

25-2. The diagrams far the two idistlngulshablo proeesse s a r e s h a m in Fig.K'+ i ~ ) exp (-iwt) d w / 2 r ~ ] so that the foregoing egwtioa bcomera and cornwring this with the result of the last problem of Lect. .f 24 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Comparing this vvith the msult of the last lecture.ure 24 estabZisbs that the rules given in Leeturs 2 a r e consistent with relativistic electrodywmiics develop4 in the last lecture. The theory wit1 now be used to ob&in the electron-electron s e a t t e r i w e r a s s section. i t must b that This can be written i a form which makes the space-time symmetry evln dent by using the Faurier t r a n s h r m exp ( -iKlt/ ) = i 1 2 i ~ / ( w.

the second from diagram S . h the eenter-of-mass s y s k m . (see h n s i t y of F i m l g a b s . F o r ?ample. Thus the matrlx element c m be written The f i r s t term comes from diagram R. L e c h r e 1 ) The nzethd of L e c b r e 23 can be used to average over initial spin states and sum over_final spin states. Table 13-1 could be used to calculate M dimetly): . Dropp l w the integration over q puts the photon propagation in momentum represenktion directly. it is clear that in m_omentum representation the spinor part of the f i r s t bracket wJll become (u$Ypus) and the spinor part of the second bracket will become (u4ypuz) Integration over r and 76 g produces thtt consermtion laws given at the bottom of tbe diagrams. (25-4)] a s and electron s h t e 3 Since electron s t a e 1. (25-3) [with the aid of Eq. the prob~bility of transition per second i s 9. the sums ?er spin states that result from R by R matrices and R by S plus R by S matrices a r e By judicious use of the spur rehtions given in h c t a r e 23 the following differential eras8 section is obhined (alternatively.XNTERACTXON O F S E V E R A L E L E C T R O N S 125 The axnplitude expressed in momentum represenhtion is obtained a s follows: Write Eq. i s a plane wave of momentum i s a plane wave of momentum $$. and the summation over g Is implied.

p rneejon to produce a back-on equation with electron. This is tha approach uaed by Fermi (see Lecture I). z. Problems: (I) Calculate positron-el e c t r scatteriw by the pre cediq m e t h d . . one direction parallel to Q (pbLon momentum) and two directions trmaverse t Q o a r e hken. . and it will now be demonstrrz*d that the sum over four polarizatiam is also equivalient to drmsveree w8ves but plus an fnsbnbneous Goulamb hteraction. Assume t b t the p meson satisfies the D i r a ~ S = 1 3 and no anomalous moment. y. E h s b a d of chooeing space directions X.7896. T b Dirac q w t i o n for a probn i s (see p q e 54) T h u ~ pstrl-urbiq po&ntfali cm be k b n a s (see p q e 54) the and the coupfiw with a photon i8 Ths Sum ovsr Four Pokrtewtkow. (2) Y i d the cross section for a. 25-3). In ~ l a s s i c a electmdymmics. Remember t h t the particles a r e / 2 diastiwisbblie and hence there i s no fnterchnge of particles (3) Calculate t b e m e c b d electron-proton scatkring cross section assumiw the probn has no stmcture but: does k v e an momafoua moment. the m t r f x element can be writbn ?For the proton p = : 1. longltul dim1 waves can always be elimimbd in favor of tranwveree m v e s a& an i n s m h n e a u s Coulamb interaction.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS where x = E ' / ~ ~This i s called M"ci11edllerscattering (see Fig.

f Ln our special ease. / ~ ~ represents a Coulomb field in momentum space and yt ie the fourth component of the current density or* ctrarge. t Thus y. represents the y m&trix in either of the transverse directions. hvariance). for emmple. with the result y~ can be replaced by - Now l .. .I N T E R A C T I O N OF I3EVERAL E L E G T R Q M S 127 where y9 i s the y matrix for the Q diractlons and y. The matrix element of 4 = i s zero in general (from the argument f a r gaugr. it is easy to eee directly.. so t h t the first &mm represents a Coulomb ineraelfon white the second term conkins the i n b r - action tbough transverse waves.

t FIG.Discussion and Interpretation of Various "Correction"Ter Twenty -sixth Lectzlre In many pracesaes the b e b v i o r of electrons in the q u m t ~ m -electrodymmfc theory turns out 2s be the same a s predicted by slmpIer theories save far small ""earrection" b m a . 28-1. ELECTRON-ELECTRON mTEMCTIQ. It i s the purpose of the present lecture to point out and discuss a few such cases.N The simplest diagrams f o r the interaction a r e shown in Fig. The amplituide for the process h a b e n found -Co be praportioml. 26-1 128 . in momentum d.

(In the C. = O exacMy.G. The second term then constitutes a correction to the simple Coulomb interaction. In it y. since 4 =: & - From this identity it was deduced in the fast lecture that the amplitude far the process a s just given is equivalent to By taking the Fourier transform of the first term.) The correction term hcomes but It is recalled that u E . i n s k n m e o u s Coulomb powntial. denotes the y's for two directions tmnsverse to the dfrectisn of Q . F o r slow seen that it is the momexxtzlm repreaenktfon of a pure. is the large parfi and ub the small part and that in the nonrelativistic approximation . system. it C. Q) and Q i s the momentum e x c h w e d by the two electrons. the correction to the Coulomb potential may be simplified and i n b q r e t e d in a simple mamer. Note t k t in this case and s o that v b 2 and q2 i the denominator can be replaced by n with small error. to where q E {Q. where M.representation. I t follows that Also.

Cornider tbe dipole-djipole term arising in the correctiart factor. From this it is. the sum could a s well be over all three directions and then it is equivalent to a dot product. So altogether tt appears t b t the correction arises from current-current. That is.ween positive energy h3%&s) In free space trix is ]I . and diple-dipole interactions between the electrons. of the f o r e w i w ma- where the cornmuation relations for the a's have been used. easily seen that the amplitude for the correction ta the Coulomb potentllal may km w i e e n altogether in the form The first t e r n s in each of the brackets represend currents due to motion of the electron trmsverse do Q and the second k r m s represent the transverse components of the n n w e t i c dipole of each. = p. hence a r e referred to a s the Breit interaction. this term of the correction i s . These inbsactions a r e emacted even on the basis cif classicat theory and were d e s c r i b d by Breit h f o r e quantum eleetrodymmica. s o the x component. for example. since it follows that (taken bt. Since Q =p 1 R = p2 p4 it is - - But since crx Q is z e r s w k n Q and $ have the same direction. ourrent-dipole.130 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS Also.

ppesar t b t . 26-2 But it is still p s s i b l e by the same p h e n a m e n a l ~ i w l reasoniing to conceive of the d i e r a m in Fig. positron. w h r e V is the grad operatar. It to redo the a d y s i s ~ v e r t h e l e s s . 26-2. since the electron md positron a r e distinguishable. Thus. s o the correction is still small. It turns out that. e diagram. By Laking the Fourier transform t this will be seen ta ba the momentum repreeenbtion of the interaction bdvveen two dipoles as was sfaled. t Notice that (tq x Q) (Q X Q) exp I-iQ * X ) . For. i s the same a s -(qX V ) * (qX V) exp (-iQ * X ) . . which will appear in tmnsf o m h k g r a l . 2rn i s v e q f a w e . then - However. whichgreatly simplifies t h process and the result. FIG. wMeh i s the classical energy f o r inbraetin& m q n e t i c dipoles. This device enabtes an integration by p a d s . 26-3. the coupling i s -(vt V) * (CQ V )(X/r). it i s necessary t regard m electron-positron pair a s existo ing part of the time in the form of a vlfiual phobn h order to obhin agreement Wth eqerfment. leaving as the the Paul i principle w u l d not require tfi i n b r e only one Fig. sigcr?: trmsform of 1 a i s the [2 l/r. go% t b t the approxinnatian q4 (v/c)Q used a b v e applies anly liretween positive e n e r n sbt8s. which wwld represent vf s t u d amihllation of the eliectron and p s i t r o n with the photon later c r e a t i q a new pair.‘COR3"ZE:CTION" T E R M S 13 1. if one of the s h h s represents a. ifs necessary It would a.

however. The ground s b t e of positronium i s an S s. constitutes another fine-structure splitting of the $8 and 'S levels. n The &mariisiw fmm this d h g m m is small and.Q U A N T U M ELECTRODVNAMXCS V"j3 FIG. d e p e d i w on the spin arranged ment. It can be shown to . tlfe amplitudes of the two diagrams must be subtracted. The m a n life for two-pfioton mnihilation i s 1/8 1' sec and for three photons it is I l l X 1a6 sec l for P ~ o b l e m :Chc-tck the mean life 1/8 1 0 % ~ two-phobn amihibtfon usiw the c r o s s seedion already computed and u s i w m may be s i q l e t o r triplet. T b Pauli principle exknded to this ease continues to operate. whereas the '$3 state decays only by three-photon n 0 mnihilatlon. therefore. conservation of angular momentum prohibits the process in Fig. Thus this amounts to a fine-structure sepa0' 5 S ration of the ' and ' slates which can Ltc? shown to be 4.8 1" W. n An eleetron and positron can exist for a short time in a hydrogenlike bomd s b t e b a r n a s the a h m positronium. In view of the fact that a photon has spin 1. 26-3 differs from Fig. and the 'S state of positronium spin Q. 26-2 only in the intercknge of the '6final" skbs &. The correction t e r n @reit% interaction) arising from this same diagram contribubs a dipole-dipole o r @pin-spin interaction t k t is df. 26-3 from occurring i the $8 state. As has been illdicated i assigned problems. Fig. It does occur in the ' 8 state. 26-3 From the p o h t of view that positrons a r e electrons moving backward in time. $d.f"frennt fn the ' 5 and '8 skhs (tfie current-current md spin-current interactions are the same f a r b t h s h t e s ) . the 'S state can annin hilate only i two photons. F i e r e 26-2 contrlbuks the Coulomb v t e n t l a l holdiw the positronfum Itogetbr. since they diff e r only i which outgoiq (in the sense of the arrows) particle is which.ydrogen wave functions with the reduced =ss for psftronium.

however. 87. For tMs reason it is sometimes referred to a s the '%sfro&-mnge'"nteraetlon of the electron and positron. There i s still another correction. the fine-structure splitting in positroniurn i s given by f t PEEys. It i s referred to as s p l i t t i q due to the ('new amfhilatfon force*'' In order to calculate the term arising from Fig. where the electron o r positron may emit FIG. such a s Fig. 243-3. using f r q u m e y a s a measure of energy. Rev. one needs to eompub in this case tq2 C 4m2 = O in the C. 26-4 and reabsorb f i a own photon.7 X XO-a ev in the same direction a s the spin-spin splitting. 848 (1952). . This means that t a k i w the Fourfer transform one gets a (S function of the relative eoodinrzte of the electron and positron for the interaction in real space. and all matrix elements (Q a r e 1 o r O (regading parEicles a s essentially at r e s t in the positroniurn). system).G. a r f s i w from diagrams.amount to 3. Takiw this into account. s o the result is just a n u r n h r . This amounts to 2. 26-4.. not yet mentioned.044 X lo5 Mc. T b combined fine-structure splitting due to the effects already outlined turns out to be represented by where ac is the fine-atruelure consknt.

035& QA00Mc. so i t ia seen that this last correction. Although it k s not been necessary tw. i t comes under Ibe h e a d i q of self-action of the electron. indicated by the diagrams in Fig. In general. 26-5. It is referred to bath in pasitronium and in hydrogen as the Lamb-shgt correction because of its experimenbf observation by Lamb a s the source of the small splitting between the 'glj2 and Z~1i2 levels in hydrogen. though of orcfer a amaller t b n the main k m s . The amplfiude for case EE in space-time represenbtion is. f o r emmple. o r in momenhm representation it i s . eansider such high-order processes to secure agreement with e q e r i m e n t .134 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS having a value of 2.sbad of one a r e e x c h w e d . to be treated in more dehf2.0337 l@ Mc. TWO-PHmON =GUNGE: POSITRONS BETWEEN E UCTRONS A m / OR It i s easy to imagine t b t processes. later. The amplitude8 f o r the proceases may be written down easily but their calauhtion i s dgficult. may occur w k r e two photons in. i s necessary to abbin agmement with ewerfmenl. it may b c a r n e necessary a s experimenal result~ improve. The experimental value for the positronium fine atructum is 2.

In the present case. that is.. Feynman.R. 26-61. 27-1. followiw the usual procedure for s c a t e r i q processes. . Phys. as in Fig. inelrtded in this volume. P. the momentum may be s h r e d in any ratio b t w e e n the two photons. 28-6 where (see Fig. Then the propagation kernel for a free electron moving from point 3 to point 2 should include Lerrns repsesenliw this possibility.seventh tectgtiure SELF-ENEmY OF TEE ELECTRON t In Lecture 26 the fsllavviq idea.FIG. 78. in terms sf eaeh other but not indewndently. was introduced: An electron may emit and t b n absorb the same photon. It ia for this reason that the integral over g I a r i s e s in the e q r e s s i o n for the amplitude. Including only a first-order term (only one photon i s emltkd and absorbed). kernel is The correction term in this equation is written down by an inspection of the diagram. the resulting. '769 F1949). Twenty. Therefore the $. the initial and final monrenta a r e identical. Rev. Thus it i s possible to determine Ifi and Ih.

enstab. (27-31. expression (27-2) conbins the time-dependent part of the wave function. It is the second b r m of this expansion which i s represented by the inbgral on the right side of Eq. f (31. Second. To obbin the correct equation proceed a s follows: First. depend only on the intervaf 3-4. . because it was assumed that the wave functions used did not conhin Lime factors. Then write the inkgral in Eq.t). it is clear that the probability of the occurrence depends only on the interval in space and time b t w e e n points 3 and 4. F o r time-idependent perturbations. The represendation is not yet m equality. f (4) do already include the time-dependent part. The resultixtg wave function is Since the perturbation effect (AE)T is small.136 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS nondiagoml elements in the perturbation m a t r k will all be zr?ro. (27-1).i(AE)T -t and higher-order k r m s neglected. So suppose a c b g e of variable i s made so t h t d~ represents the elemenL of interval (in apace and time) beween 3 and 1. (27-1) where it i s clear t h t the operators K. A diagonttl element i s one in which the resulting wave functions of a particle remain in the same eie. proportional to the time interval T over which the perturbation i s applied. exp (-iE. and 6 . and not a t all on the absolute values of the space and time variables. In Eq. the second e ~ o n e n t l a can l be expanded a s 1 . so it should be omitted in Eq. it was shown in the development of perturbation theory t h t the only effect on such wave functions is a e h n g e in p b s e . (21-2). since c e r b i n normaliziq factors a r e different in the two expressions.

The r e s u l t i q expression i s The integral over d3xs gives a V which cancels with the denominator. the normalization of wave funetlone i s different for the two app r o a c h @ ~F o r the developnnent t h t led to Eq. from Using this expression. (27-4). and this fact presented a major obsbele to qumtum eleetrd. laws. FurLher. to e s h b l i s h an equality.~r~awries 20 years. the for fundamental. (27-21. wals used. For the present development the normalization is T k s . Its solution requires a change in. the change in E can be h k e n a s a ehmge in the mass of t b electron. since p is the same before and after the perturbation and = rn2 + p2. s o f imlly No& t b t the Integral is relatlvistically invariant. from using $u = mu and the relations of Lecture 10. eqressictn (27-3) must tctl3 divided by the normalizing inbgral of Eq. Then Eq. (27-6) becomes This integral i s divergent. and the inkgral. over dt3 gives a T which cancels with the left-hand side. t b normalization .Third. and t r a u z s f o r m i ~ momentum space. to The fntcjgrancf may be rewritten. Thus suppose that the propagation kernel for a photon i s .

only the sharl-range details a r e moetifiedl.r.e.(s2) can be understood from the following.rZ 0. as assumed.138 QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS (l/k2)c(k2) instead of just {l/k2). If a 2< 1. That i s to say.(s2). Thus. b+(s2)differs from zero only when a' = t2 . for all values of . The significance of the form of f. )lZ. Then {from the exponential term) dzfemnees will occur when the interval s 2 m l/ha.. the speed of light is 1. This i s clear from the fact that if the high-frequency components are removed from the Fourier e q a n e i o n of a function. In space representation the madlffcation t a b s the form The new function f. differs ~ i w i f i e a n t l y from 6. and the general behavior of f. The depar) ture i s obtained by a measure of 1 . . The original function. and suppose that s o long a s k2 << h'. by Eq. i s shown by Fig. c@) 1. In the present case the size of the interval over wKeh the function i s m d i f i e d can B described roughtg a s foUows: Consider a e large number. Call this value a2. an electromagnetic signal can = reach a point a t distance r only a t a time t such that tZ. then when < which is the size of the interval. . (27-81. But. depending on A ~the laws will be found undfected over any practical dislanee. This i s no longer true for f. r a this measure is negligible. where c(k2) i s s o chosen that c(O) = 1 and c(k9 0 as k2 -+W. only for small intervals. Thus a 2 i s sort of a "mean width" of f.r2= O or t = r (i. 27-2.

. t k t is. We now stop to d e s e r i b this method of inkgration. however. 4 0 grove the first of these.) to mean tbat either X o r k. A method k s k e n worked out to do these fairly efficiently. the m b u s sign in front of the k r m has not been explained s o far from this point of view. respeelively.k.).y. (27-XI). (27-6') in place of l/ka gives which ean be written as the sum of two inkgrals. METHOD OF m1C'EaMTION CF m"1C"EGMU I APPEAIRmQ D QUANTUM ELECTRODmAMICS We shall need to do many integrals of a form similar to the preceding one. Prom this. obtain the propagation kernel a s The second t e r n is that for the propagation of a photon of mass h. Feynman. wMch differ only by having m o r g in the numemtor. a practical (and general) representation of c(k2) i s and the simple form i s suggested. we use the rrohtion fl. on the righthand side the (1. 76. A convenient represenation for this kernel i s the integral Introducing this kernel into Eq. n o k 1 ?R. in which case. m o r ka (since g = k. P. 769 (1949).0) i s I o r 0. i s in the numerator. EveryLhing will be based on the fallotviryi: two integrals:? In Eq. . N o b that i n the article d% i s equivalent to 4$[d'k/(2~)~1 in our notation. Rev. included in this volume. to write a little more compactly.Choosing h2>> m2. Phys.

t b r e foXfows direetly Further differentiations give directly s u ~ c e s s i v e integrals i n c l u d i ~ more k factors in the numerator and higher powers of (k2 . if kk. respect to A o r with respect to p j . (27-13)with.2p * k . Two dgferentiratious with respect to L give Then the remaining integral i s which proves Eq. With 1 in the numerator. the integrmd i s an oc3d function.p fs substituted for the variab2e of' integration in Eq.A ) in the denamimtor . i s in the numerator. Write the integral Then for E L + k2. contour integration i s employed.t k t . Thus the integral i s zero. and contour integration of w gives with the contour in the upper half-plane. there a r e poles a t w = & [(L + k2)'/2 . the result i s By diEerentiatlng both sides of Eq. (27-1 1). SELF-ENERGY mTEaML WTH A% EXTERNAL PQTENTZAL Last time it was found that the self-energy of the electron is equivalent . 627-113. E k .it-].

(X . (28-3) with the substitutions .xp.) In [(l . It was also found that V s i q the definite inbgraf the denominattor of the InLegrand of Eq.x)h2 i s l z o t much larger than m"'. Chat the e r r o r i s snzarl]. it is legitimate to neglect m2x 2 in the numerator [it i s true > that when x m I."CORRECTION" TERM3 and t k t this could also be expressed in b r m s of integrals. (28-2) may be expressed a s so t k t Eq. for h2 a m2.x)A? + m2x2/m2x2] When h2 > m2. so that. (28-2) becomes xp f o r p and L ( l The integral over k can be done by u s i w Eq.X) for h . but the Lnbrval over which this IS true i s so small. giving The integral over L i s elernenbry and gives I = -2(32n2 i)""' 4 f dx (l. wlren the x integration i s performed. t .

A.U) = 2m. and mth. cannot be dehrmined. 8 1 % ~ e21fic self -action minas Am a s carnguted for a h e particle S When the electron is free. Now (ev1271) i s about 1 " so that oven if h. that is. the ez/gc seff-action k r m emctfy cancels the Am term and a theory using meXp s exactly correct. in order to calculate! s w h effects. . There is a shift in mass which d e p e d s on h and hence camot be determined theoretically. and e 2 h c self -action is equivalent to a theory using m e p . excluding the possibiXfty of selfaction. When the electron i s i not free. One can imagine an experimenkl mass and a theoretical mass which am r e l a h d by All our measurements a r e of m. 28-1. and the relatiomhips f a r this process.this can be simplified to 0. self-action is included. The intewretation of this result is a s follows. the mass without self-action. SCATTERmG I4 AS EXTERNAL PWENTUIZ 2 The diagram for scatkrine. (28-l)] Since $U = mu and (.xp. the fraction c b g e in mass will not be large. e 2 h c self-action is not q u f h equaX to the Am term and there i s a small correction to a theory using meXp This effect leads to the Lamb shift in the! hydrogen atoonn. i s many times m. t h e 0 0 u s i w mtt. we s h l l now consider the effect of self-action on the s e a t k r i n g of an electron by an e x b r m l pobntial . and.Q U A N T U M ELEeTROD"YbJAM1CcS The change in mass is [from Eq. in an e x k r m l potential is shown in Fig. Mare aecurably s b b d . a r e a s follows: Q~) Pobntial: d(9) = yt ( B ~ z ~ / &(Q) lfor Coulomb potential Matrix element: M = -ie(f"uzdul) Conservation relation: = fit + 4 .

The amplitude for process i s obkimed in the usual manner.aslrophe. '"drared eat." but which has a 11 FIG. dlagram I gives Ratiomliziw the denomimtors and in~erting convergence factor.First-order self-action will produce the diagrams shown in Fig. For example. 28-2. 28-2. . this the becomes This ewression also b p p n s to diverge for smaff photon marnenta (k) (a result whiefi has b e n called the.

This is equivalent to cutting off the inbgrai somewhere near k = h . Performing integrations in the order. y.Y ) $ ~ . 28-2) prdrtee a X contribution M2 -+ MS = -(e2/2n)r&. k. Temporarily the k2 ander d4k will be replaced by (k2 . To ftzcilibte the inbgratfon over k. (28-6) gives a s the m a t r h to be taken brjtvveen s t a k s u2 and ul e2 2n fn-- m X min +@tan@+= 4 where r = In ( A/m) + 9/4 . B * (qz)'n/2m. L. which just cancels a similar term i Ms. the following identity i s used: since h2 >> m2 >> h Z m i n .2 in (m/Amja) and 4m2 sinZB = q'. where h2rnin . n When q is small. and the sum M1+ M2 + M3 can be approximated by . and u s i w the ztppropriab integrals in Eq.h2min 1.It is shown in Lecture 30 that diagrams U and E (Fig. we make use of the identity l where $y = y ~ + (1 . . and tk physical interpretation i s left to Lectures 29 and 30. discussed la%r).144 QUANTUM ELECTRaDYNAM.ICS clear physical interpretation. to make the integral convergent. This substitution produces integrals of the form To evaluate these inbgrais.

i~le s scattered by a ysobntial..The (46 . 769 (1949). the prii mary effect is that of g. s o that doss not depend on the cutoff N o b that this result [and (28-9)md (28-%@)l h. f I t has been shown that w b n a paXlf. infinity. &v. from the ordinary potential d = ypAp appearing in the Dirac equation. one c m say that s this part of the self-action correction looks like a correction to t k electron" magnetic moment. . Reference to page 54 shows that the effect of a particle'^ having an anomalous magnetic moment is to subtract a potential p FP. [see Eq. and hence h em now be &ken to be. (7-1)I. in coordinate represerxlatian. (28-10) does.included in this volume. Phys. 28-2) a carreetion term a r i s e s wNeh is rdr FIG. 76. Since this i precisely what the f i r s t k r m of Eq. 28-2 I R. Feynmm. and that for diagram I (Fig. P.$4) can be writ&n out But qp is the gradient operator so this can be written.

it is seen to behave like a potential. IX. i s another correction k r m . 29-1. the effect of the mass correction together with the self-action represented in diagrams 1. is replaced by m mental mass.Am. Hence from the form of the foregoing equation. a. 28-2). For diagmnn IL the amplitude would appear to be X . when considered along with the effect of the mass correction. just cancelling the fast k r m in the preceding expression. and S is that the theory b e i w E developed must conlain the e m e r i m e n h l mass rather t b n the ''theoretical'' mass. and E (Fig. The minus sign i s used because the effect of the mass correction Am is to be s u b t m c k d from the results obhined from d k g r a m s X.It remains to show t k t the combined e f k e t of diagrams II and E1 (Fig. 28-2) done. Suppose that in the Dirac equation rn lh . Diagrammatiestlly its effect may be represented as in Fig. where m i s the e q e r i - The mass correction Am is just a number. It i s recalled that the necessity for considering. the theoretical mass. then . with zero momentum and Involves no matrices. so that in momentum representation it is a (S function of momentum.

pa . arising from l applied for d i a p a m s the fact t k t both of these amplitudes a r e i d i n i k . in fact. But by suht r a c t i w them p r o p r l y it will be found that their difference does not vanish. (Fig 28-2) eonbined in the parentheses is just Awnul. The method proposed to accomplish this subtraction will. 111" and F o r an electron which is not quite free. rn2 exactly. considering a s i w l e s e a t t e r i w event a s here. B*. X will be sdficient to calculate the t effect of seE-action and the mass: correction k t w e e n any t w of these scatb r i w s . owing to the factor 4 . however. since the result will evidently be the same bdween each pair of them. this correction to the pobntial represents all the effects of diagrams II[. s o that XI and 11' ssem to cancel. o a s being assochtc3d with the pobntial a t eaeh s c a t e r i n g ( n u r n b r of intervals e q u d s number of s c a t t e r i q s ) ."CORRECTION" TERMS and for diagram IfYFig.m in the denomimtor. the effect will accounkd for simply by r e g a r d i q a. eerrrectf on. But the part of the amplitude for diagram TX. actually free. q u a l t that calculated for om of the i n b r v a l s b t w e e n scatterings. An electron's M~story will have alwaya fnvolved a s e r i e s of scatterings. 29-X). In. These scatterings will h conaidered as oce u r r i w a t long but finite time intervals. but insbad : . a s will its future. Then. T k n . give the combhed effect of the self-action and mass correction of both diagrams 11 arxd K and Ifband 11' It iia based on the fact t h t an electron is never f 31. Hence their difference i s i n d e b m i m t e . A similar result m d E " This is a n e r r o r .

E i s a small quantity. If and 36 a r e the momentum representatives of the scattering potent i a l ~ a and R (any two s c a t k r i n g ~ ) . .then the m a t r k of the amplitude to at go from the initial sttzte a t a to the ffml sLaZ.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS by the uncertainty principle. one can wrile. Problem: Show t h t for two noncammuting (or eornmuting) operators A and B. gince T is h r g e . the following expansion i s truer Using the result of the precedfw problem. Let 6 = (1+ E)&. 29-2). this m a t r h is (a) Without wrturbation (b) With prturbatfon of self-action and maists correction It is the value of this matrix earnpared to t h t of the unperturbd matrix w u c b gives the desired correction tern (see Fig.e a t b without axly perturbat-ions I s up to brms of order E With the perturbations of self -action and mass cor- rection. and T is the interval between scatterings. whem I?(@ i s the momentum af a free electron.

also noted that since s a t b t the foregoing result may h written This i s just -k2/2a)r times the matrix for no perarbation.. &. 28-21. Hence the correetion 2erm due to diagrams 11. The integral in the second term h already b e n . and g. Then in .pfi = Q in this eaae and gives the result It To this order in E the $% in the numerator may be replaced by PJOfs. fII. r i s e h an "energy correction'9or the f r e e e l e e t r o ~ amlogous ta the -ss correction hvotved here.""CORRECTXOM" TERMS s o that t b foregoing m a t r h becomes The f i r s t and last t e r m s a r e identical. It should be noted t k t the dZfleulity in obtaining the proper subtraction of the self-action and mass corrections just clarified does not represent a ""dvergence " v a b l e m of qtrmtum eleetrodymmics. It may be easily verified that this would givr. one c b s e same n o m e m value at3 a reference of potential. i s = mu. hence may be 8 cancefed. except bere replaces 6. regarded a free electran as m o v u in a uniform nomero pokntial. done essentially in eomputiq diagmxn I (Fig. a s was slated earlier. It i s a tsiczal problem which could as well a r i s e in nanrelativistic quantum mechanics if. and 111' i s obhined simply by replacing the s c a t h r i w potential $ by -(e2/2r)r$. E ' . & s o that Ilf = . up to terms of order E . that is. for example.

caneel upon proper subtmction but in principle the problem is the same as the present one. This c h n g e of the field i s met3ssarily accompanied by radiation. h the theory of brehmsstraMuw. is .~arithically s h . In this simple ease the i d i n i h term would. the probability of emitting any photon Thus where sin2 B = between k = Q and k = K&. however. a r i s e s from the physical fact t k t it i s impossible to sea%er an electron.dd) -7-8nm sin 28 RESOLUTION QF THE FXCTnIOU8 "H e2 28 ED CATMmOPHEf' From the correction term just debrmined. the e r o s s section for scattcsriw of an electron with the emission of m photons is where a i s the eross section for the potential 6 only. ~ ~ This result." the difference of idinite terms would appear if one used free-electron wave functions. the complete correction &run a r ising from self -=lion and rnaas correction i s +8bn6+4 tan 28 sk + -Mid . it was s h a m t k t the e r o s s section for emission of one low-energy photon is PrclbEem: Show that the integral over all directions and the sum over plarizations of the foregoing c r o s s section i s . This c r o s s section . and it i s this divergence wMch was i a formerly referred do a s the "i d r a r e d c a t a ~ t r o p h e .a "theoretical emrgy" a d subtracted the effect of the "energy correction. indeed. to order e2.~ ) ~ / 4 r n ~ . with the emission of 7ao photons. it Is seen t b t . diverges 1ol. When the electron is scattered.n .computing the anrrplibde for a s c a t t e r i q process where one used . t h electromagnetic field rnust c h n g e from t b t of a ehrrrge moving with momentum pi to that for momentum pz. F inally..+ 0.

54 (X937). but i s kept finite temporarily by the artifice of the dc m. and the c b n e e of two and more photons below K. the scattering experiments have been accurate enough to verify the existence of the large term but not accurate enough to verify the exact contributions of the smaller k r m s . Therefore. Each of these k r m s i s infinite. actually. however. be seen by gatheriw the previous results and by w r i l i w C h n c e of scatbring and emitting no ptrotoo of energy > K&. . These same considerations apply in any process involving the deflection f F. the chance of emitting one photon. The other terms have small effects. Rev. Nordsieck. does not d i v e r s .which diverges logarithmically. one should ask: W h t i s the e h n e e 3 of scattering ~ t the emission of no photon of energy g r e a b r t h h F o r there will always be some v e soft photons emitbd.t. To date. namely. effectively. . Hence they do not provide a nontrivial test of quantum electrodynamics. 52. what i s sought In answer to the last question is the chance of s e a t k r i n g and emittlng no plboton. ? ~ It has been rshown by Bloch and Nordsieck that the same idea applies to all orders. Their sum. Phys. It i s interesting that the largest k r m in the quantum-electrodynamic corrections to the scal. tbe dilemma of the diverging s e a t b r i n g cross section actually a r i s e s from a s k i q an improper question: What i s the c b n e e of s c a t t e r i q with the emission of no photons ? Instead. since such long wavelen@hs a r e involved. as may . Bloch and A. + (terms inde- of s r d e r e 4 ) terms independent This does not depelld on hmin and hence resolves the " i d r a r e d c a b ~ t r o p h e . ~ Then. (but these t e r m s a r e of order e4 and higher and heme a r e neglected). may be obbined from classical eIeetrodymmies.eriq cross section.. of e n e r m below Q .

152 QUANTUM E L E C T R Q D U M A M f C S af free electrons.? AHOTHm WPIROAGH TO 1["m W ]EX? DIFFICULTY h s t e a d sf introducing an artificial mass. (30-4)becomes for . Eq.l)(l- 28/tan 2e)l + t? tan B The term t o be s u b t m c k d Is i . Then using d = 2p. small q. B r o w and R. Usiw sin2 8 = q2/4m2. The best way tn handle the problem i s to calculate everything in t e r m s of the Xmi. Thus we must subtract from the previous resulLs the contributions of all photons with momentum magnitude l e s s t b some n u m b r kg > h . > The previous result i s {l + (eZ/2n)[2 in (m/Xmi. . and then to ask only questiana which can Izave a sensible answer a s verified by the evenha1 elimiwtion of"the hmia. We assume ko a p o r p ~ and neglect both K and the f i r s t two k2 in this integral. Feynman. the integral i s approximately Then This i s the brrn to b subtracted from expression (30-1). Do as much as possible and compare msults with those of L.$'. assume no weak photons contribute. P. . Problem: Prepare diagrams and integrals needed for the radiative corrections (af order e2) to the KleiwNishina formula.

The second is the freeparticle effect a s noted in previous lectures. (30-l).Subtracting this f m m Eq.An approximate ctt. . The kernel i s not well FIG.similar sum over negative energies for The photon propilt. also with q small. + EFFECT 04 4 9 ATOMIC ELEGTROPiT 2 Consider the hydrogen atom with a potential V = e2/r and a wave function (R) exp (-iEo t) = qo(xI. gives The last k r m is [ln (M[/2b) (131/24)1.ation kernel can b @ w a d e da s t 2 < t.l. 30-1 enough determined to make exact calculation of this integral p o s ~ l b l e . Take the wave function to be normalized in ) the conventional =mere The effect of tlre self-energy of the electram i s to s h g t the energy level by an amount The f i r s t integml fst written down from Fig. 30-1.lculation c m be made with the farm .

(A m term) (30-7) This form implies the use of +* instead of and a4= 1.(JE I + U + E. Then the correction to the potential i s that cornpubd in Eq.) + ik(xZ.6 . T hufs the perfod between s e a t b r i q s Is of the o r d e r T = tf/Rydbrg. (S. + K E --a . Consider the electron a s a f r e e particle inbrmit%ntly seellt&red by the Coulomb pokntial. Then it Is v e v probable t b t an ernitbd photon will be r e a b o r b e d before? two interactions b t w e e n the electron: a d the poknthf have taken place. since with a Goulomb potential V ~ = 4nze26m). 30-2). This is in momentum space. and only in the s states is V different from 0 a t 1R = 0. This wil b done by separating the effect into the sum of t b e e cantrilbutiw effects. Another approach to the motion of an electron in a hy$mgen a b m i s the following. A > = 137 Ryd. (30-5) for small q @lus anomalous moment correction).R)]@. With such a h.~ ~ 1(aPexp (iK R)].Q') $ M (aZ/at2 . It will. = a. To tmnsfarm to ordimry space. The s c a t b r t w s cause p h s e shift in the wave function of the order of fftydbrgfi ) . (30-6) becomes = C +f bp +D (-iK * R)lon ( . use s2 P (4a2 .v2)V Thus the correction i s This cormetion i s of greatest inzporbnce for the s state.the effect of photons of satisfactory value i s k c ko must b included.t.@ . The c b f e e of fq is dekrmined by the inequalities m ko > R y d b r g . [a exp (iK R)lno dSk/4nk . Eq.$) = 4% $exp [-ik(ts .. Take the lower limit of the momentum of the "self-action" photons a s very large compared to the Rydberg. it is very improbable for two o r more s c a m r i w s to take place between emission and absoqtfon (see Fig.xl)j d'k/2k(2~)-~ % + ik(xz-~$1d3k/2k(2n)" tz t1 = 4n J'exp[+ik(tz -tl) I f s i q these expressions.)-~ . be seen that two of these effects mR () .l * dSk/4nk - exp (-iK .



FIG. 30-2


are i d e p n d e n l of the potential V and thus a r e ctznceled by s i r n i h r terms in the A m correction for a, free particle, Thus for only one situation must the effect be eompuhd. X all cases, s i ~ c e i s small, the nonrelativistic n k approxfmalian to expression (30-7) may be used, (1)The contribution of negative energy sLiztes: Neglecting k with respect to m gives

The matrix element for cx4 i s very small, and only the elements for at need
be considered. Then the sum over negative s k t e s i s

If this sum is continued for +n, a negligible term of order vZ/c2 i s added. Thus the sum i s approximately

- C J [(aan) (ano)/2m1 k2 dk/k = (a
a f states X


k2 dW2mk

This i s il-kdependen-1: V, and thus i s ~ a n ~ e l by a similar quantity in the of ed Am term, (2) Longitudinal positive energy states (ap Q k/k) : As an exercise the reader may show



X k/k) @

(ik * R) lno

= :

(En - Eg)/k f e wf

and the contribution of these bmms summed over positiv

- (E, - ~

~ ) ~expk(ik R, exp (-ik * R, ( , + k / ~ 1, ) )o E

Writing H = p2/2m (V commutes with the exponent), this

t This brm is f n d e ~ n d e n of V, a d thus is also eaneele tfon. (3) Tramverse p0sitive energy s h t e s : Since ko is la size of the atom, the dipole approximation can k used. t m in the sum of Eq, (30-7) &comes

w r iting

+ k - E@)-' = l/k - (E,

- Ed/(En + k -

the term in l[k can be split off from the rest of the ink independent of V and tfrtzs canceled by the Am correcti averaging over direetiom,

in the nonrelativistic approximation. Thus the inbgral

U s h g the relation

ICf. H, Betbe, Ph.ys, Rev., 72, 339 (1@47)* .

and the fact that energy s b t e s is

> E, >

- E@,one part of the sum over transverse positive

This cancels with the In

of Eq, (30-77, leaving the final correction as


momalo~s moment correction

This sum has b e n carried out n u m e r i ~ a l l y be compared with the observed to Lamb shift,

Another process which is still of f i r s t order in e Z has not been consid ered in the s c a t k ~ n by a potential. h a b a d of the potential scattering the g particle directly, it can do s o by f i r s t creating a pair which subsequently annihilates, creating a photon which does the scattering. Wagram 1 (Fig. 32-1) applies to this process; diagram fl applies to a similar process, with the o r d e r in time c h g e d slightly, The amplitude for these processes i s i4m2
( ~ Z Y ~ ~ I ) $ J U spin states


rrn Y~
1 1


where u is the spinor pax% of the closed-loop wave function. The f i r s t parenthesis is the ampffbde for the electron to be scattered by the photon; 1/q2 i s the photon propagation factor; and the second parenthesis i s the amplitude for the closed-loop process which produces the photon. The expression i s i n h g r a h d over p &cause the amplitude for a positron of mom e n b is desired. b the sum over four apin s k t e s of U, two s h t e s take c a r e of the processes of dlagram I and two s k t e s take c a r e of the proce s s e s of diagram XI. No projection opemtors a r e required, s o the method of spurs may be used directly to give

a form which eorrlains b t h X and E (so aa usual i t i s not necessary to make separate diagqams flor pmeesrses whose only difference is the order in time).




This integral also diverges, but a phobn convergence factar, as used in the previous lectures, Is of no v d u e b e c a u s e now the integral i s over p, the momentum of the positron. 12 the intermediate step, The method which. has h e n . x used to circumvent the divergence d@fi.culLyis to subtract from ttris integral, a similar integral with m replaced by M. M i s taken to be much: larger


FIG. 31-1

t b m, and this results in, a t w e of cutoff in the inkgraf, over p, When this i s done, the amplitude i s f'auxxl to be t

(4m2 + ~


" + 1/1 / 19 3



(3 f -3)

?See R. P. Feynman, Phys. Rev,, 76, 769 (1949) included in this volume, ;

while the e2 term fs the correctian due to processee of the type just d e s c r i b d . carreetion i s r e s p ~ n s i b l e 21 Mc in the Lamb shift and the {ln fnn/2(E.SO that.(1/5)) . Thus the correction can be interpreted a s a small reduction in the effect of all potentials. for small q.E@)] for + (11/24)) term in (50-7" i s replaced by (ln (m/2 (E. The second diagram differs from the f i r s t only in the direction of the arrows of the electron lines. the ampiitude for the second process i s the negative of thszt for the first. The amplitude for the process is . However. considering only the divergent part of the correction. and an indiatinguisbble a l b r m t i v e . " The other term."CORRECTION" TERMS where = 4m2 sin2 8. P~obEem:Set up the integrals for each of the two diagmms in Fig. which. since it represents a perturbation 2e2/15r (v2 This V). becomes Notice that (GzYpul) = (G2$u1). and one can introduce an experimental charge eeXp a theoand retical c k r g e eth related by where B @ ) = -(e2/31h) ln ( ~ / m ) ' . Xn general. Eo)j + (11/24) . 32-22. b s zero net amplitude. i s more interesting.. the bgher-order processes s h o r n in Fig. Since the amplitudes add. the net amplitude i s zero. in a manner analogous to the mass correction d e s e r i b d in Lecture 28. m y closed-loop process of this t m involviq an odd number of couplings to a potentbl (includiw photon). Reversing such a direction i s equivalent to c b n g i n g an electron to a positron. i s indicated by the diagrams in Pig. This i s referred to a s '"charge renormalization. the effective potential i s The 1 comes from the theory without radiative corrections. 31-2 and show that they are equal and opposite in s i p . The 115 term i s due to the ""palirization of the vacuume?* - One possible process for the scattering of light. 31-3 can take place. Since there a r e three such couplings. Thus the coupling with each potential would c b n g e siw.

FIG. 31-3 .

More eorrrplfcabd closed-loop processes are convergent. But when all six a l b r m t l v e s are &ken into account. the sum leave8 no divergent Wrm. . This integml appears b d i v e ~ e five similar brms r e s u l t f q from permutiw the o d e r of phatans.

For three pairs the amplitude is lL3/3!. Suppose the diagram for t ti i s a s s b m in Fig. however (see Fig.Pauli Principle and the Dirac Equation fn Lecture 24 the probability of a vacuum remaining a vacuum under the i d u e n c e of a potential w%scalculated. FIG.IJ2/2. then. The amplitude for the ereatlon and ihilation of one pair is (to f i r s t nonvanishing or-der) The amplitude f a r the creation and annihilation for two pairs is a factor L f o r each. The total amplitude i for a vacuum to remain a vacuum is. to avoid counting each twice when integrating over all d q and d ~ it ~ s . The use of minus signs for the amplitude for an odd number of pairs can be given the following justification in k r m s of the Pauli principle. The completion of this proeess cart occur in two ways. The potential c m create and amfhilate pairs (a closed-low process) htweerz times ti and t2. hence the amplikde of the second must be subtracted from that of the first.The second way can be thought of a s obkfnod by the inbrchmgc? of the two electrons. where the I comes from the amplitude to remain ai vacuum with nothing happening. 31-4. 31-4 . 32-5). but.

P A W L 1 PRIEMCIPLE A N D DXRAG E Q U A T I O N S 163 FIG. One involves the sign of the real part. The s e c o d involvew the Pzruli princi. that amplitudes for an odd number of loops must h subtraete. a vacuum is P . For if we assume this. btwe?en the relativistic Dirae equation and the exclusion principle. = /c.. But the second process i s a one-loop proce s s . We see. a property just of K. same comeetion. We shall prove that i t i s inconsistent to assume that electrons a r e completely independent and wave funetions for several electrons a r e simply products of individual wave functions (even though we neglect their Interaction). and the Dirae equation. that it could not be consistent to i n t e v r e t the Dfrac equation as we do unl e s s the electrow o k y Fermi-Dirac s k t t s t i e s . therefore. Tberts Is.. two arguments a s to wfi?Jthe e q r e s s i o n must be e'L.I .-. We have.P. whereas the first process is a two-loop p m c e ~ s s o i t can b~ concluded . Paul has given a more ebborate proof of the necessity f a r the exclusion principle but this argument mafices it plausible. This quesUon 9f the eomection between tire exclusion principle? and the Birac equation is s o interesting that we shall try to give another argument that does not involve closed loops. therefore. The probability for a vacuum to remain.ple. then P robability of vaeuum = Pv remaining a vacuum Probabiltty OF vacuum =Pv to 1 pair Probgbility of vacuum to 2 pairs PV a 1 p&rs I ~ l ~ a i r I ' 2 3 a i pairs ~ C IK~ IKI pair/' . so it i s clear t h t terms d the? s e r i e s must a l t e r a t e in sign in order t k t this prokbility b not grealter than unity. therefore. 31-5 according to the Pauli principle.d. = exp (-2 real part of L) The real past of L (It. of L) may be shown Lo be positive.

Elnsbin-Bose sbtfsties). Such a f m h r n e n h i relaaon ought to h v e rt cleat: m simple exposition. The Inconsistency can bt. P.a)l' db and 1 is quantitatively exactly compensabd f o r by the exclusion principle. So the meinGordon q u a t i o n requf reh~Base statistiee . (31-8)j./K. (31-IQ) is reversed. If the wave f"urmctiions a r e h k e n symmetric (charges reversed add amplitudes.@.a)/' /K(2 pair)l'.a)/ The probability that the electron goes from a to b and one pair is produced is P [ ~ + ( b . elirnimtad by assurning that elsctrona obey Fermi-Dirae s b t i s t i c s md a r e not independent. @. of 1pair) + @rob. (31-11) ia also reversed. the inquality Eq. [see Eq. F o r t k k e r m l sf the Klefnaorbon equation. f a r a spin-zero pa&fcle neither F e m i . Und e r tbse c . Therefore. these a r s m e n t s to show t b t t b o [~.@. i2 the electron goes from a to b with two pairs produced i. of 2 pairs) += a * 1 (31-8) The probability that an eIeetron goes from a to b md t h t nothfng else b p pew i s P.l~. Now since the electron must go somewhere.a)j"t~(1 wfr)j2 because we should not allow the case that the electron in Ifre pair is in the same sbte as the electron a t b. h symmetrical statistics the? preeence of a pa&ieXe in a sate (say 6 ) erthances the chance t h t another i s created in the same s h t e . i t turns out that the sign of the ineqmli+ in Eq. y However.D i r a c statistics nor independent particles a r e possfbfe. d . t i q t t r y to s h a r p n . i r e u m ~ W c e s origiml electron md the sfeetran af the pair the a r e not independerrrd a d Probability of electron from a to b plus 1 pair pmdueed < jM. Thus 1 = Pv [ l -F @rob.@.164 QUANTUM E L E C T R B D Y N A M I C S Now. the sum of these probabilities i s the prohbility of a vaeuum becoming m y tMng and tMs must bit? unity. a )I K ( ~ pair) i2. and the probability that . Thus the probability for an electron to go from a to b with any n u m k r of pairs produced i s '. it is a p r o ~ d of the Dirac kernel that and an inconsiskncy reaults.




The exact values of the numerical factors smearing in the rules of If for cornputing transition probabilities are not clearly stated there, so we give a brid summary here." The probability of transition per w a n d from an initgaal s h & of enerm E to a final state of the same total egeru (warn& ta be in a continuum) is given by

is the ddesity of final states p r unit enerw where is the square of the matrix range at enerm E and element taken between the initial and find state of the trandtion matrix iTn appropriate to the problem. N is a normiizing constant. For bound states conventioi~alky t;lates it is a prdnct noxmafized it is 1. For free pa~icle of a fachr N , for each prticle in the initial and for each in the hnal energy state. N , depnds on the normdization of the wave functions of the mrticles (photons are considerect m particlm) which is used In wmputing the matrix element of 3n. The simplest mfe (which dms not destroy the apprent covariance of X ] , isZk N,=2t,, where r , is the enerw of the particle. This corrmpnds to chooliing in momentum space, plane wava for photons of unit vettor potential, e2= --l. For electronsit commpnds to udng (&S)= 2m (so that, for example, if an electron is deviated from initial @I to final h,the sum over ail initiai and fincil spin strxtes of 1 isp~($~3-nrj%Cpx+m)%~ j, Choice of nomaIization (@rc)-iresulls in H,=1 for electrons, The I matrix 311 is evaluaM by making the diagmms and foliowing the rules of 11, but with the following debnition of numerical factors. (We give t h m here for the spesial case that the initial, final, and intermdiate
*In I and 1 the unfartunate conventian was made thst dab 1 mans d k * f R ~ d k d k t @ n for mementurn qace in&pats. The )~ frrcter (2x1- here serves no usefut purpage so the cmventian will be abandoned.In thiogeetion d4khas itrruhalmeaning, *qn genera!, 1Vi ia the article density. It is N,=(&ynr) far



states consist of fret? particla. The momentum space reprwntation is then most convenient.) First, write down the matrk directly without numerim1 factors, Thus, eEectron propgation factor is (p--4-1, virtual photon factor is with coupIings r,.. -7,. A real photon of polarization v ~ t o c, conr tributes factor e, A potential (timm the eletron charge, c ) A,(%) contxihutes momentum g with amplitude a(q), where @p = JA,(f) expliq. zlfd4sl. ,] ( (Note: On this point we deviak fran the definition of U in I which b there (h)-% as Iarge.) A spur is taken on the times matrices of a ccimed lwp. Because of the Pauli principle the sign is alter& on conkibutions comapanding to an exchallge of e l ~ t r o n identity, and for each closd imp. one multiplies by (2xj4d*$= (2n)--"dpfd~Jfi&$~ and integrate over all values of any undetermined momentum variable p, (Note: 6 n this point we again differ?@) is then obtained The correct numerical value of by muftipfication by tfie following factors. (I) A factor (4r)te for each coupling of an electron to a photon. Thus, a virtual photon, having two such couplings, contrihues 4r8,(In the units here, ef= 11137 -proximately and (ha)& is just the charge on an efeetron in hmviside units.) (2) A further factor 1: for each virtual photon. For m m n tbeorim the ckanges d i s c u d in 11, Sec, I0 are made in writing m, then further factoa are (1) (4n)bg for each maan-nucleon coupling and (2) a factor -i for each virtual spin one meson, but 3-1'for each virtuat spin zero mmn. 'This s a m s for tmmition probabilities, in which only tfie abwjute quare of IFn is requird, To get X to be the actual phast: shift p~tr unit volume and time, additional fators of i for mch virtual electron propapation, and --i for each peential or photon internetion, are necemry, Then, for enwu perturbation problems iR the enerw shift is the e w t e d value of EZ for the unperturbd starte in question dividd by the normalization consrant N , belonging to each particle comprising the unprturbed state. The author has profitcsd from diseussio~s with M, Pahkin and L, Brown,


io mrklf and ~ & * d + ( d f l 6 ?Lhtcer rs thddotttc field arnp~ttde~ @ / td a ]k for umty. 61h. r , ~f + ta ss

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The problem of the khavior of positram and electrons in given nrtrrna1 potentkb, nqlwting their mutml inwaction, is m d y d by repking the &mv of holes by rt, reink~retrttian the soluof tions of the Dlrac equation. It is possible to write down a complete slution of tL problem; in terms of: baundary conditions on the wave function, and thi salution contajw ;rutamarialky all the pcrsibilities of virtuat (and real) pair f o r m h n rrnd annihiiaGon rolfether with the ordinary scattering procem, including the w r r s t relative signs of the various terms. In this saiution, the ""negative energy sbtegB'appfzbr in a form wbieh may be pictured (as by Stiickelberg) in wace-time as waves traveEng away from the external potmtiaf badwards in time. E ~ r i m e n k l l ysuch a wave carrebponds to a positran appr-h, in$ the potential and annihilating the electron. A particle moving forward in d a e (electron) in a potential may be scatered forward in time (ordinary mtcclring) or backward (pair anni2lilatioian). When moving backward (positron} it may be wattered M w a d

in time (po~trona t t e r i w ) or fomard (pair produc6on). For such a parricle tfte amplitude for transition from an ioitial to a hnal s a t e is analysed to any ordw in the poten&f by mn&derlng it to undergo a q u e n c e of such scattierings. T e amplitude for a process involving m n y such particles i h s the product of the transition amplitad= for each prLicle. The mclu&on principte requires that antisymmetric mmbinatiuns of amplitudes be c b m n for these mmplete p r o c m wbjch diifer only by exchaage of partid-. It e m s that a congatent interpre~arionis only posJIbk if thr! =elusion pdaciple is adopted, The exclusion principle n d not he &km h t o m u n t in intermediate sitam. Vacuum prAlenrs do not azise for chsrgw which do not i n m t w t one another, but these are anaimd nererthelm in ih mticiparion of application t quantum etatrodynadcs. o The resnlts are also e r & in momentumener@ vdables, lt kuivafence to the wcond quanthtion t h a r y of bej is proved in arm ~pacia;.

1, INTRQDUCBON as a h a l e rather than breakhg it up into its pieces. & the first of ~t of papers dealing with the I t is as though a bambardier wnglow over a road solution of problems in quantum electrdyna&. 'ud"n'Y three an' it '8 when two of The main prinGpb is deal direct& with the to them come tagetbr and diaP~ar 'gain that he riX&ZtZ3 to the Ham2tonhn differential equations rather than tbt he has Over long in " with these equations beaxsefves. Here we treat simpk singXe". over-aa spm'-tim' Point of v'ew 'ads to cont;he nrotia,sn ejectrons and porjitrons in given pwr We consider the interactions siderable simplifiation in m n y problems. One can take patentiais, into account a t the same time process@ which ordiof &eae particles, that is, quantum elEtrdmamics, of chargm in a fixed polential is usually n a ~ l y would have to be considered separately. f i r The of second quantization of the example, when cansidering the scattering of an electron tr<?atd by the d the thmry of holes, by a potential one a u t o m t i a l l ~ into account the electran the we show that bq. a suitable choiu: and inter- egects of virtuzb pair productions. The =me eqwtion, Dirac's, rvhich descrihs the deflection of the world line prebtion of the solutions of Dirac,s qttatron the of an electron in a field, can atso describe the deltectian be equally we,l treated in a manner which Is (and in just as simple a manner1 when it is large enough fundamentally no more complicatd than SchMinger,s to rever* the time-senw of the world line, and thereby method dealing with one or more The vaii- c o r r w n d to pair annihilation. Quantum mechanically ous and annihilation aprators in Ihe dlrclc~onof the world lines is rqlaced by the tional electron field view are required becaune the direction of propagation of number of particles, is not conxrved, i.e., pairs m y bc ~ b view is i ~ dzerent from thtof the Or datroyed. On the "lter h'nd charge tonian method which considers the future as developing c o n w e d which su@nts that if we the charge* mntinuovsly from out of &e p s i , Here we imagine the not tbe prticle, the mulls can be sirnplifid, entire space-time hktory laid out, and that we just the a ~ p r o ~ h a t i o n chsicai relativistic theory become aware of incrembg portions of it succemively. of the of an electron pair (eleftron A , positron B) rn =tterkg problem this over-rtllview oj the mmsaigbt be rwresentd by the start of two ~ r l d plete xattering p r w w is simikr to the $-matr* viewfrom the point of creation, 1- ' h e ~ ~ grim of~&@ p i a t of H e k n h r g , The temporal order of events durr d then continue until it annihilat~ aaother ing the sattering, analyEd such detail by pitran %dl eimtron, c, at a world p i n t 2, Betw*n the times 11 the &nziltanian difierential equation, is irrelevant. The and I2 there are then t h r e world lines, before and after rehtion of thae viewpoints will be d k a d more onfy one.. However, the war@ lines of c, B, and A fully In the intduction to the s ~ o n paper, in which d wether farm one continuous line albeit the "mitron the more camplicated interactions are analyzed. partJ' B of thL continuous line is d k e c w backwar& The deveiapment stemmtxi from the idea that in nonin t h e . Follawinp the chwge mtker than the particlm rektivistic quantum mechanics the amplitude for a comespnds to considering this wntinuous world line given procm can be mmidered as the sum of an ampii749



A quantum mechanical system is dezribert equally well by specifying the function K, or by specifying the &mi;ltonian E from which it results. For some purposes the specificatbn in terms of K is easier to use and SCHRI)DTNGBR% EQUATEOR visualize. We desire eventurtlly to d k u s quantum We begin by a brief discussian of the rehtion of the electrodpamics from this point of view. non-rektivistic wave eqmtion to its solution. The ideas To gain a greater familiarity with the K function and will then be extended to rehtivistic particles, satisfying the point of view it suggests, we consider a simple Dirac's quation, and Plslaitfy in the succading paper to perturbation problem. Imagine we have a partick in hteracthg rehtivistic particles, that is, quantum a weak potential U(x, 11, a function of psition and ekctrodynamics. time. We wish to cafcufate K@, 1) if U ditfers from The Schriidinger equation zero only for 1 between 9 and to, We shall expand X in inc~eshg powers of U : X(2, 1 ) s Ro(2,l)+K(lf(2, 1)+K(2)f2, l)+ * - .. (6) dwribes the change in the wave function J, in an infinitminzaf t h e At as due to tbe aperation of an To zero order in U, IC is that for a, free prtkfe, Ko(2, l),' I), oprator exp(-iHdl). One can ask also, if $(xi, 11) is To study the first order correction K""f(Z, first contlze wave function at x, at time tl, what is the wave sider the case that U digers from zero only for the between s m e t b e t a infinitesimal time interval function a t t h e tz>&7 I t can always be written as and la;+dta(lg<k<Is).Then i $(l) is the wave function l at xl, it, the wave function at XQ, fa is

tude for each space-the path availab1e.l In view of the fact that in cltassical physics positrons could be viewed as electrons procding along world lines toward the pSt (reference 7, the was lnade removes in the relativistic case, tbe restriction that the paths must proceed always in one direction in time. It was dkc o v e d that the results could be even more easily understoob frorn a more familiar physical viewpoint, that of sfattered waves, This viewpoint is the one used in this paper. Aflrtr the equations were worked out physially the prwf of the equivalence to ttie sr?cond quantization theory was founds2 First we diwuss the relation of the Hamiltonian digerenth1 equation to its solution, using for an example the Schrifidingerquation, Next we deal in an analogous way with the Dirac equation and show how the solutions m y be interpreted to apply to positrons. The intepretatim w e ~ not to be conistent unless the s electronsobey the exclusion principle. (Charge obying the Klein-Grdon equations can be described in an analogous manner, but here consistency apparently requires Bose statistics.)$ A represenhtion in momenturn and energy varhbles which is uselul for the caiculation of matrix elements is dexribd. A proof of the equivafence of the methd to the theory of holes in second quantization is given in the Appendix. 2, GmBX'S WNCTION T-ATMEET OF

(where we write 1 fox xi, tl and 2 for X*, la) in t h i case 1)=x (bm(xa>@$(xz) exp(- iE,(ba-ti)), (3)

for le>lI.TiVe shall find it convenient for Is<&r to define =Q (2) ia not valid tr). then readily shown that in general K can be defined by tht solution of <i3/3l$-R~)K(2~ G(2, l) = (4) which is zero for l%<%where 6(2,1)== b ( 1 2 - 1 ~ ) 8 ( ~ 2 - z t ) X ~ @ S - Y Z ) & (and ~ - ~ ~ ~ I Z the subserigt 2 on Lfz means that the oprator acts on the vaxiables of 2 of K(2, 1). When E is not constant, (2) and (4) are wIid but K is Iess easy to evaluate than (3),$ Ur, can call 8(2,1) the total amplitude for arrival at X*, 12 starting frorn XL, I.E. (It results from adding an arnplitude,expiS,foreach,space time path loetween these pints, where S is the action along the path," The transition amplitude for fxnding a particlie in state ~ ( x s , at time 12, if at 11 it was in +<X,, t d , is t2)

where K is a Green's function for the linear Eq, (l), (We have limited ourselva to a single prticle of cc+ ofd;llEtte X, but the eqmtions are obviously of greater since from i 8 to tl the particle is free. For the short ~ e r a E t y . 1 II is a cnnst;mt operator having eigen- intemaf &a we solve (I) as If values B,,, eigedunctions 4, M, that $(X, Ir) can be ex- $(ss fa+ bla) =exp(- iEhla)J"(~, fa) pand& C, C n + n ( ~ ) , then $(X, 2%) =ern(-.iE,(tz- h)) = (1-iH,&aiUd13rt(x,IS), XC,rb,(x). Since C,= J@,*(xjarl)Jr(xl, E1)C%72gP one fiads 4 For 8, non-relativistle free particle, where S$, enp(ip.xf, =
8 R P feynmn Rev. Mod. Pbys. 2@ 367 (tP@), be 'wuvalen& of the entire ,prmGdure (including photan inkmtianri) 6th the wmk d Eiebmngcr and Tamaaaga has k m demstrsted by F 5. Rymn, Phys. Rev. 73, MJIM9). . * Thm m W a l a-rampiesof the general relabon af $pipin and stortislia d d a d by W,h ,Phys. Rev. 58, ?E6 (1Mj. &

E, .pP/2nr, (31 &v@, as is weiI b w n I
Ke(z, 1)

-1e x p l - ( i p - x ~ - i p ~ x ~ ) - i # ( 1 ~ - t t ) r " Z n ~ p ( 2 r ~ - ~

for #*>t~, KB=O fw k <k. and

In (b) is ilfustratd the secmd order r w a s (Eq !10)). as a symbol with four indica (fer each prarlic.= a&&.6 3. waves mitered I 3 are %atfeteda a i n at P H ~ W the the equation for $(X*.3. Thus $(X.. is any four vector (but not a matrk) we write a=afiy. Therefore Rd. 3)). Thus the total ampiitude for a r ~ v a a t 2 from l can l be considered as the sum of the amplitudes for variaus alternative routes. E % troni both of poGiive and of nmlive inergkm proceding from In the case that the potential exists for an extended time.a/d+= Ba/at-t-isa" V.where we put 8-. This ntay occur for any point 3 so that summing over these alternatives gives (9). 4)). In pzlrticukr if a. I(&)) it may go from I to 3 (amplitude &(St l)).. far since after It+dla the partick is again free. Ko(2.3.+d.. Gall V= y. digem from Paufi's by a factor i for P==l . the elmtron charge) and a are D k c matrices.2) ~ ( l ) @ ~ . We use the summation convention &. (8) which we shag cali the amplitude scattered by the ptentiaf. 4 fuld that the scond order contribution to the total aqlitltde K""(Z. get scattered there by the potential (scattering amplitude -z'U(3) per unit volume and time) and then go from 3 to 2 [amplitude K&!. it may be scattered twice by the potential (Fig. (Eq. but is scattered by the patential U. there (-iU(3)) then prmeeds ta =me other pint. gets s c a t t e d 1 . 1 by a symbol S. (9) this way. We shall im@ne = @ . (9)).4 and 2qJra l h real. Summing over all pssible places and times for 3 . The four tnat~ces B tan be comidered m trmform@a. We represent four-vwtom like x. laCbl. giving the zero order term in (6)). where p= l.)= S K . In (10). 1: T - s~ha (01 OR=. a/& for a = l. l a ) ) by the extra piece A$= z'U(xa. TmflNIBET OR THE D m C EQVATIOPI where the integral can now be extend& over all space and time. Figtlre t (a) illustrsrtm the situation in 5rst &er. will m a n a/a6 for p ~ 1 . ( X ~ . and 2. to 4 %is. Note that ab+ba= 2ct-b and that &=G@@. ~ & a ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ " ~$(2) iSK0(2. No being the Hamiltonian of a free prdcle. The wave function at 2 is given by $(X..In)): ever In Dirae one-electron theory K44 3) wenld rqrmat elcc- 2 $g:r:p.l. &&in. U(3) can be generafizd to A 43) -aaA(3) where A 6. 2. A.. AII that would =em to be necessry in the previous equations is to consider EZ aa the Birac Hamiltonian. (our y. It may go directly from I to 2 (amplitude K&?. It goes f r ~ m to 5 ( K @ @I)). ta)hta. @ ~ & ~3.= 4. From the definition (2) of K then. 2. l$) #(xa. The satisfyr p 7 * 3 . t. I).@ 19) fbi CI(1DER. 4.H ~ + U and with R=&@>. kernd 3) (1(3)Ko(3. A .. The sym'boI a/8z. L. in space time (amplitude Re(&3)) is scattered w i n (--ilZ(4)) and then proceds to 2 (&(. (8 This urn be radily verifid directfy fram ( I f just as (9) whae the first inte@ exleads aver ciU s w e and all times peater than the 6.Be+U. We can undersund the result (B). l(b}). fi and S. a pure number. ing: as a four vcrctor r.te).6. J. The SEhrodiner (md Dim) njuatian a n be visualid W describing the fact that pfane waves are mttered srrawvely bp a potential.l.X. E@(@# t.. alpwring h the m n d term.mrdied by chmdng 8 different ~attering K. and k>rb .&3) is rfie am~fitude a free prtide rarting at point 3 the change in the wave function at 2 brought about by the potenthi is (suhtitutc (7) into (8) and f8) into cm*. isi A.4 matrix which operating on the initial wave function. we find was. ais - - We are rintpky wlving by suamive apprdmaticns an in-1 quation (deducible dimctly from (1) WE& l j l . )digers from what it would be if the potential were zero (namety (1-iHobta)$(x..h.(4. 4 ~ a/az.ldh%. ~ p ~226. Fm. 1%.atb~-ds-ada= a. are the scalar and vector potentkg (timm e.)$&~. d7a-d8r&a. gives the firm1 wave function.3). 1)=0 for tzS11. = where &M= -f. is2. Or (see Fig. Then Ko can still be de&n& by (3) or (4) and is mow a 4 . We can imitgine that a prticle traveb as a free particle fram point to point.3). Qne can in this way obvbusly write down any of the terms of the expansion ((i). so that a is a matrk with a vector (a wit1 often be used in place ymbol for the vector). -a/ay. Automatically them wilt be no contribution if !a is outside the mnge 18 to ka b a u s e of our definition. l i ~ i b t . it may be booked upon tls a sum of effects from ! each interval &a so that the total eEfect is obtain& by integrating over 13 ccswe11 as Xa. To discuss this we s b l l define a convenient r e C tivistic notation. Thus the vector and scalar potential ( t h e s e} A. 1) i s We shall now extend the methcrd of the last section to apply to the D h c equation.

It is c k the hdex 2 on 17% indiating dgerentiation with rmpct from &e deftnition t h t the difference K@-K+ is the to the coordhtes sss which are reprewated as 2 in sum of (3) over all neetive enerp. We would now expet to choo*. consider its in Fig.y statm. Then (since is> t l ) . repreen~ng amplitude to go from 1 to 3 as a free the particle. It differs from K+(2.* neptive e n e w stittes are not availabk to the electron in (3) is rephced by its d j o k t & cbn*fl. and @ is *. that +. for the spttciaf solution of (12). by $n. however. In generat K+") ~ati$fies ( l ) .3). 1) l]) wKch it a h satbges.. 1). That is. for The function 11=. The formuk arising from this choice. lf 7) X+m(Z. m namely TL m.1) and W . 1(a) an if oat k n ~ d e r tbat wava ~~ibttemd the ptential can s by electron after kkg z a t t e r d by a potential io a small M w m d a in drne as ia Fig. = .(2. If a ptentiilf A is acting a s h i k r function. purely for relativistic convenience. 3)d(3)Kt(3. 1) = - ~SK+(Z. LQ. l). Since K B ~ in S k t cam. PITo the dmtron &mX. that is with tht mibiitit 2 a arrivfngat 3 fram 2' and a n z k a n g k t h p i t i v e and negative rabs of c k w e of phase. (14) and so on. The D i m equsrtien wrmits anaiher mlutien K+(2 1) witran. a y &erefore h rreprwnteci by the =me sum over nega~ve O K+(h".expmion of the intern1 equation K+cA'(Z.I) w n a w for 12<it and for t3>& is given by (3) where 4. The one elecbon orda rwM t y Pcf of virtuadlpai: Probuction at 4 Ihe positron goin to 3 (as does (3) with K+= KO)that the m t b r d ampEtude to b aoi&tied. l)dzdrs. mms m. exteml field A =A . wave 19 mtLerd to times previous. for a m p l e . is y We shall choose the solutrion d e h h g Kc(2. ('5) and the succmive t e r n (131. I). But there are other mlutions of (12). i)drr. (84) DP theory of Dirac rather than to the hob theory of the F%@ 2. s&er from the drawback that they apply to the one electron keta WW OIIMB.(2. 2). For example. II+mXe whem Ke(2. Therefore the choice K+=Ko is ) unsa&facby. is order mmction. get mttered there by the p & n t M (now the matrix A(3) ins-4 of U(3))and coatlnue to 2 as free.4IA(4) M+(4.1) d&ed in the a b n m of a homogenmus Dhae equa~on all t i m s and m a t is field.n(l) X~p(-iE~@a-h)) for It<lt.for In<lx i s the %mt order comeetion given by the analoee of (9) it fobws that our new kernel. 1)= i6(2. according to the p i t r a n herdter.1)m be d e h d . i the mrrHt mond order s or&&& a t 1 e ~ r e & o nfor h & g at 2 an according to the msitron t h m q m y be wen ar. f12) mlution of the homogenaus Dirsc eqwGon. mrg&iw Ql the sunr (3)ouer wgolifx? g y states.1) by a e n e w s k t a aka for Ca<ll. to the time of mtkring. 2 (a). 2(b)). 1) -- ssKI(2. This is intcpreted in the wand ays (b) (c) by nortiag that there is new the pad. follows (Fig. 1) so that K+(Z. italogom to -Crvso for t2> 18 Xexp(-iB. r n OR the other haad.3)A(3)15+(3. (13) R+(2$l ) = x p o ~ 4n(2)6n(1) sn after the mtteriw. ars long as 12>11. n are just the prowrtim of R0(2. %%is view is proved equlvdent to h k h t y : electram tmveLing bekwards in time are rmmizad m etrons. K+")(Z.h &at E4 and tr both lie betwan tt and k First s u p p 4> t s (F&. ?his o n be pirrvd as dmilar to o r $ l i ~ ~ y another poitlt 2 will p r o c d toward mitive t h e s . at w t t e fb) a m t that the ektron ts mttclled bwkwwds in time horn J t 4 o wavm sfatkred mm 3 to in (4 r rmat with both positive and nqatlve energh. & s m e as a speciat w m p b h t tz3El and that potential vani*la a r e p t in ktcrml f z . But this gaerence m a t be a wiuGoa of the IE+(2. and E.region 3 of space t h e . are the eigenfwctians and energy valum of a parGcle satisf h BkacJsequation. prticle bwoma by I t must *erefore dBer from the old wlution K@ a (iVa-m>K+(2. Thus the I& equation for a partick.(tg-lll) 4i)nf2i(i. (14) are the power =rim Ifih koim of K+ ~atiom (13) and (14) wiif now give results quivdent to tfiose of the 6 t m n halie a w ~ . mmt md (G determining the propgation of a free stales o ~ l yNow this new solu~on =My (12) for ilU tima in orda that the rwrewnk&a be cornpieb. 1)for tt> 1% is 1 I(!%= u j (3) m podioe w g y h . That (141.

g. as tr>t. A &n& pair at I md 1 is rreaM frrm rmm. 7 &e idea that p i t m m a n repiewnted as elrrvoos with proper time r e v e d retative to tme em &S been k w d b the author and othms. ( $ 3 ) dacribes the wattering of a psitron. This alternative is alrmdy included in (14) as. A'fl these amphttldes are rehtive to the ampiitude that a vwuum will remain a vacuum. proceeding to 4 (K+(4. I)). The pr&lern is one of iniepretadon a p d I y in a way that will alsa 've urrreet r a d t s for other r&-.3) far ( P < ~ J is fmhus) the sum of only negative energy componenb. the contributions vary with 11 as e:p(-i\E.3) is reflected in the fact that in hale theary the amplitude has its sign reversed in accordance with the Pauli principle and the fact that the electron arriving at 2 has been exchanged with one in the %a. gositran a t 2 will annihihte at 3.< La. ! With ehi inteqretation real pair grduction i aho s dmribed carretly (W Fig.tcseof a re&on of space time contaking Fto. Several dilferent prwcan be demibed by the =me form& de ndiag on the time relations of the variables 11. The positron (or rather. bowwer.@ this. ihe electron of which is that fwnd later at 2. all procesw involving virtual p i r s are correctly dwritrted in this way. is a normalizing mtanttt) P. The fact that the entire sum is taken as negrttive in computing IC+(4. C . 2fc)). and subvequently no particles wijl he prewnt. It) r e p m n t s the electron prweding from 1to 3.3)). (3 & . in In positron theory there is an additional contribution due to the possibiiity d virtual pair prduction (Fig. If ta>ta>ls./ (to-14)) as they would if the enera of the mtermediate state were t E. A pair could be created by the potential A(4) at 4. Thus I)/* is the probattUity that: (a) An electron at 1 will be ~cattered 2 (and 00 other psirs form in vacuum).@ t is. X)) to posihn 3 where it gets scatter& (A(3)). Thb is true here too. This tkerefore sul~geststhat negative energy cornponents created by scattering in a p t e n t k l be consider& as waves propgating from the scattering mint toward the p t . On the other hand if IS is less than h. The fact that in hole theay the hok prweeds in the mnner CA and electron of negative energy is r e k t e d in the fact that K+(4. arriving finally at 2. (~+(41(2. a e i n n e c m s ~ l y a positive energy sCate. scatrering agin. 3. 2. and To to higher orders. particuisrly by StBckeikr~E c. tl<la<ta where d8iVr is the volunte element of the c l a d 3dirmensioml surf. The scatterin@ may. electron at. contributions far which l. the same expression gives the amplitude that a pair. (This will be discussed more fully later. (d) A at 2 io metered ta 1./. psitxon at 1 crezrtad by A(3) from a vacuum. electron at 1. That is. Thh is correctly descGbed by (l+ for fC+(4. for examph. P. since in the phasa ap(-iEn(lr-ls)) d e s m g K+(& 3) in (17). self-enmgy. if t2= tI<t g . positive.. 4) de~ribes electron (after the pair prducthe tion at 4) proceeding from 4 to 2. and that such waves r q m n t the propgation of a positron annihilating the eltt~tronin tfie p ~ t e n t h i . the hob) PEW& to 3 where it annihilates the electron which has arfived there from l. as It> tr. and its study will lead us to an inltrvretation of K+(4. which is taken as unity. ERis negative but so is Ir-lg.1) is tbe sum of the e e k 2 sflttteh in the potential to all orders."THEORY OF the electron assumed originauy in a positive enerw state propagates in that state (by f(+(3. then at time just one ctl~tron be present (having been scattered a t 3) wilt and it will be a t 2. K+(4. 3) contains only positive energy compnents in its expansion. of coum.. It.]GA~(~.3) for Ir<la. which it must do as a positive energy ekdron.) X The analsue of (2) can be easily worked our.3) must therefore represent the propagation of the positron or hole from 4 to 3. The eqressions such as (14) can still be d e w h W as a pawge of the ekctron from 1 to 3 (K+(3. For example in (13) if the equatbn gives the amplitude that if a t time $1 one electron is present at 1. scatkring at 3 by A@). In hale theaq the real e n e r a of these intermdiate s b m is. A(4). f t then prmeds to 4. Likewis if 6% and I 1 exceed ta we have (minus) the amplitude for Snding a single pair. Ckewiss: K+@. ~ "t has often boen noted &at the one-electron theory s patently gives the m e matrix e h e n t s for lhi pr as dam hofe theory. The fmtor K+(2. e. be toward both future and past times* an electron prapagakimg backwards in time king recag&ed ats a positron. at (b Electron at 1 and pasitmu at 2 annihilate leaving noFmg. 3). After being scattered at 4 It then p r w d s on to 2. That it d m SO is clear.

the amplitude for finding a charge a t 2 is deter&& both by the amplitude for Gnfmdinh: an electron preriotls to the measurement and by the amplitude for h d h g a positron after the measurement. om be removed irs follows. for emmpie. Viewed as a s M y state problem we w y wish. of coumt by mlving the Dirac equation8 (iV-m>+(1)= v(l)#(l). V. the transition element to h d it in slate g($ is.dsurfoce htwbls. If K+") is de&& as in +. Then t gfter one more scattering the An equation for the teal am~htude for a r ~ G n g 1 either dirwtly or after any numhr of at by m t t h n e is ob~sined summing (24) over all K from 0 to CO . $(2)= 4 . -iS@(xi)~x+(z.Ve have h e n emphasizing scattering problem.@. and using (12). just for the mticXe a r ~ * a t 1 with am~litude{(l) is ~ scatter4 (A(z)). That is. I)V(l)+(l)drx. I)). We clan a h obhin exprwions for transirion amplitudes. l ) deamws exponentially in spce-&L ddir~tbns).i b ( z . but be motion in a fix& V.1 Ilvhi& is a satution sbnal region if its values on the surface of that re@on of the free particle e q u a t h for all 4 and is f(xr) for are sp&ed. where N.m. . (25) s i n e g* = #B. since the i n t e p l now biryq aver-aU swe-time. For m n y problem the total potenhl A+ V may be split conveniently into a h one. Hence.3) =#(3). that an efwtran with original free wave function was scattered K times in the potential.~)B@x&+(2. prsg&m to 2. A. . from (131. ihd is scattered again (A(2)). positron in g ( ~ )ek. to find &at initial condition 4 (or better just s c This is the $1 which l& to a p ~ d i motion of mast p m c t i d y done. If a potenthi acts sommhere in the internal betwan O and T. There may have been no electron pment initially but a pair was created in the masurement (or atso by otber external &eieXds). 314(3)K+(3*I)@j(xr)hlhr.h a at a given time tt=O.function $(l) of four varirrblm XI. athg the h. if yr= @. and another.. & comiderd as a perturktioa. and we then ask for the amplitude that it in slate g(2). what is the amplitude for finding it at T w i a ae(pgi~ve enew) wave function The amplitude for h&mg &e electron anywhere after l= 0 it. f. ( 2 l . 2'. cornider the case that the 3-surfam g(2) over-all s p ~ e .. E g(2) is a negative energy state we are sol+@ a problem of annihilation of electron in 1(1).(I) is the i ~ w e ~ d tivistic calculations. l)@j[xl)@x~= f(3) and previous to h. tion amplitude to wwnd order (from (14)) is where fr. and of aU s p c e a t the time T> t g . V either famard or backward in time to arrive a ~ 1. comkts m n t k l l y of all space at =me time say t = O be p r f o r m d since JK+(3.The ampfitude for this contingency is spified by the amplitude for fxnding a po~itronin the future. we define the state by the ticle) is determind at any point inside a four-dimen. migbt be inteqreted as mmning that even in a problem involving but one char@ the amplitude for findkg the charge a t 2 is not determined when the only thing known in the amplitude far finding an electron (or a positron) at an earlier time. t. Thus the first order e g s t on tbe transition ampEtude is. dra(X). positive energy (elmtron) comwnenls in $(l) contribute to the first integral and only nwtive energy (wsitronf com~nen:ntf @(X? of the =con&.paint 2. The transithe inward &awn norm& N will be B and -8. given by (19) with $(l) r q h d by f ( x ) . and N(1) h N. The h f state is m e w i ~ defined by a functian To intewret this. like () For emmpk if at 1=0 we have an elecS. tron prmnt in a state with (positive enerw] wave fmction f(x). which it m is. k=Q.t h e Then aur sudace integrah can . in anatqy to (S). the wave function #(2) ( this case for a free par.(l)r. (21) Eqrwions such a this ean be simplifid and the s which are inconvenient for rela. (26) deducd from (25) by bpmting on both sides by iVa. There results q l h d e r connecting these to wmpIete the chsure of the * s u d a e may be very distant from X so that it gives no appreciable contribution (as R+(2. can dealt ~f it is first view& a %atrering prablem can ask for the amplitude. the second in&@ait vanwing. K+ i6 repked by K+cA). [ ~ + \ 2 . That of dehing a s k t e by the wave function f ( x ) . say in a hydrogen atom. The JQ(s. This illustrates fhe rehtion b e t w m tht? p o h b of view. Instead drawn unit nomaI to the s d a c e a t the paint X. Rence.

Here we amurnr: that they do not interact. the true probability that if one has no partictes prewnt inithay there will be none finally.JK+(AA"(3. But if a real efectron is present in a cerbin state 1.POSITRONS 755 (t6) with V for A. (For example if one starts with a vxuum one can calculate the rektive probability that there rewins a .2). and antisymmetric combinatims are always taken. + I . (W Starting with an electran at 1 a single pair i eleetrans at 3 4 (c) A pair a t 1. to xa at while b gaes from X$ at t* to xp at t q is the product The s p b o l s a. eqressions such as (23) are valid and u%ful with K+ replaced by and the functions f(t).R(4. In a succeding paper w e d k w s the interaction between such charges. term (14). hovvever. since the electrons represented are identical. (26) in the potential V (rather than free particle wave functions) We wish next to consider the case that there are two (or more) distinct charges (in addition to pairs they may I prduce IIvirtual states). It is obviously simpler to disregard the exclusion principle completeb in the intermediate states. that considering the exclutusion principle also requires another change which reinstate the quantity. due to the preEnce of an electron at 1 Now one process that can be visualized rls occurring in the vacuum is the creation of a p i r a t 4 follow& by a re-annihilation of the same pair at 3 (a proces which we shall call a closed loop path).tA) and K . ptential X+. For we are computing amplitudes relative to the amplitude that a vauurn at tl will still be a vacuum at E*. AII the amplitudes are relative and their quares give the rehtive probabilities of the various phenomena. But this just reisstates the quantity which it was argued shouM not have been included in (14). 4 is found sian princiF1ef r&uirw that the amplitudes exchsnge of two eiclctrons be subtracted. This quantity P.2) --K. are interested in the alkration in this amplitude We . the necessary minus sign coming autamaticaIly from the definition of K+.3. 4). Q. They commute?. apply to the Dirac four component spinors corraponding to particle a or b respectiveiy [the wave function now having 16 indices). the space time varhble appearing in the kernels suffice to d e h e on what they operate. 2 is a pair newly creaee$ in the potential. 1.) ampIitude for arrival of charges a t 3. No account need be taken of the excitusion principte in Lntemdiate states. b can be omittd. while the mcond term reprwnts the Intedering amplitude that the pair a t I. The par~cles idential however and satisfy the are exclusion principle. (It is normlisd wuming that when an intqral i yx?rform& over mints s 3 and 4. 1 ) & f ~ l @ .that: (a) Etmtrans at I and 2 are -9attered to 3. Some problems involving two distinct charges (in ail&tion ta virtual airs they may prduce): c. The principle requires only that one calculate K(3. 2(c)) is that a pair is made a t 4 with the e i ~ t r o n prweeding to 2. is the prabab~iity . 4(c)). For emmple the amplitude thi~t. (where ~) is defind a d cjzlculated as for a single particle. lnJe can expect &at if we have tvvo particles a and b.4. 1 2 to get the net . It may tT& obje-cted that ifit happns that the eiwtron cmted a t 4 is in the sam state as the one coming from 1. and K+b &come K+.then the process annot occur bemuse of the exclusion principle and we should not have includd it in our FE. In this case each particle behrlves independendy of the other. 4 annihilate and what is found a t 3. can be crzkutatd by normalizing the relative probabilities such that the sum of the prohbilities of a11 mutuaUy exclwive dtemaGvm is unity. In a.1 This expmsion is correct for p i t r o n s also (Fig. We shall see. and the psitrsn to 3 where it iuxnikiktes the electron arriving from 1. (say I t s i r ) are later found at xa and (with t 2 =ig> 13) is given by the =me expression The h t t r repreen& the amplitude that the electron em prwee& from 1 to 3 and the psitron from 4 to 2 [Fig. 6 sinpliy indiate that the matrices apgearing in the K . one divida by 2. W must therefore subtrset f r m our rejative amplitude the term correspndiag to this prxess. Abwlute prohbiiities result if: one nnultipiim each of the prolsabilities by P*. for example.4 (and no paws are farmed). those pairs for which the electron was created in state 1 in the vacuum must now be excludd. g(2) reQl"ced by solutions for all space and time of the Dlrac Eq. the ampfitude that particle a goes from x l at Is.Rereafter the a. l The generaEzation to ~ v e r a particles is clmr.1Ajj4. efectron and a psitron found Initially at x2 and an X. I)k.4.fAjf4. As an example consider wain rqression (14) for I r > l ~ and s u p p w t4<ta SO that the situation reprant& (Fig. There k an additional factor K+(A' for each particle.

Furry. For exawler consider a. Then these there be no particles both initially and finally. paper. or two p k s ."" - . Bose sbtistics gives Ce=exp(+l. $mail chwe in potential AA. be inter. This h a no e@eton the noorrnalizstion c o ~ a t Tbe spur.of erreh for consistency. That is.j2=eq(-Z*reat part of L). its negative h m with &R odd number ~f otentisl intemtors d k u d in more detail in the succding p p r . and otherwise we compute it as follows. fact that the =me loop could be comidered as s h d n g at either potential. a pair could be E p The fact that the interchange must change the m. there m y be famed in the vacuum two c l o d h p s .amplitude for a pair creation is --K+ rather than +K+. sa that the sum is m a if the number of % m-tions is odd. SX X25 (1937)A 3 4 r e h n for k in terms of K+. (The exclusion principle k d i q a m . FEVNMAN vacuum (unity). hops. thc pertwhtian in L. or one pair is created. Reai procemes are completely indepndent of what gaes on in the vacuum. The sum is P. 3 result after m m i n g over n by (131. L.This value agrea with the one calculatrxf interactors are each iA. h ddiition to these si_ngle loops wa have the posrsibilily that two independent p i r s may be cratted and each pair m y annihilate itself again. the electson and connection with vacuum p h r h ~ o in the succw&g p i b o a could both go an to 2 and there annihilate. To a first approxima. greakr than unity which & p p = meaninglm ilthe quantities are interpreted as we lzave etc.-l.) Put in this form the theory is camplete and there are no divergence problems. of single imps h -L is a coweqnence of the is to multiply aU amplituctes by C. P. We can wirs later destroy themselves m that we have two . The elwtrons ~ u M at a given t h e . one. The total s vacuum-vaeuum amplitude i then C 1-L+L2/2-LB/6+ = .- exp(-L). internal. and the conbibution in amplitude from this alternative is just the prduct of the contribution f r m each of the laops considered singly. Thus the e+~ur f wmh c u s d here for tbe l3irac eftf~trons. This aeorm is due to W. in the succeeding paper. two. L. The total contribution from all such pairs of loops (it is still consistent to dkregard the exclusion principle for these virtwl stzLtm] is L2/2 for in Ls we count every pair of b p twice.) and consquentIy a value of P. is m y to express. created which eventually annihilates itself q a h .") is hard to obbin because nf 1he78etor (l/$ in the nth term.lIr from cbanhngf the sign o A. is taken since one has to s m over aU for the probability that a vacuum remin vacuum is paible spins for the pair. Our choice of K+ apitpparently requires the exclusion principIe.) tion L is Syxnmebical statistks would l e d to The quantity L has an S n i t e imaginav part (from '. Tfrc?(I/#) L caneded by the fact that AA can a p p r The term K&. in any of the n poten(ials. For that reaon procesw %curing in the vacuum are analyzeil in the next section. Such sign of the contribution requires that the terms in C. Charges o k y b g the Klein-hrdon equation a n be qually well tmted by the mthctds which arc? dkinis taken aver all ri 7 3 and r~this hss no effect and we are How this i done is s left with (-. dL due to a.higher orders are finite). Sp. in which an independent method of abtsining P. etc. that. But reversing the motion of an electron makes that in this case Bose shtktics a p w r to be requird it k k v e lib a posiitive chr& thus chmging the 5. and the minus sign r m l t s since the from (30). H. (14) and using (15) is Rev. is discussed. There is the possibility that virtunl electrons in the vacum may interact efectrompetially with the real electrons. situation in vacuum ampLitude. to deal with interactions between done hem. the situation is not so simph. The factor 8 arises from the given by P.. is. The fact that the contribuAn alternative way of obtaining absolute amplitudes tion to c. ??hp. . the vacuum to Pauli principle. However. (30) the succemive terms representing the amplitucle from zero. etc. is lem &an one. for example. The real part of tappears to be p l t i v e as a conEquence of the Dirac equation and prowrtim of K+ m that P. We will &&cmthis in n For a pair could be created sily a t 1. The give sera ~by&catly is &mu% faf each Lop the eloctmn a n real part of L corn= out nqative for this equation so ihis go arcrund one m y or in the op&te direction and w must sdd e these ampEtub. a path would appear as a c l o d loop on s space-time apwar with alternate signs. The next order term would beB directly by ~normaiizingprobbitities.756 R. = wsume C l if no potential is present during the h o p ..= IG. The sum of the amplitudes resulting from all also rapnsibfe in in similar way for the fact that the such dngle clo*d loops we tall. the absolute amplitude that which two pairs of prticfm are creatd. The sum of aH such terms givm &. I) 8etuay inkmte*jto are. however.' 4 potential intembon. When we c a m . It ckanged fanning a kind of figure eight which is a single dsem from unity because.

) and momentum (pLx spzlce L@-m and the t m e f o m of 6(2. propgate with momeatm jh+q is not a mac oprator but a functbn giitisfyiw (factor (ar+g-m)-" until it is m t & r d again by the potential. i. and obtain tions. That is m.e a n define how these poles are to h the state represents a prsitron of four-momentum -#z.. 13. say. The m t r k eiement (22) far going from a state #l.twice) the probbility that an electron of arbimt. the sewnrf above the real axis. Php. is re. zero for for (. f f " i?i]*dp~dppdlbd@4. Eence d one wishes one can write since the efectron of momentum pi may pick up q from the wtentil. m that the function varies in emh far the probabitity of transition from Pi. (23) are easily worked.tron.P ~ x ~ = P P ~ * S .= +E and pc= -E. is negadve p--ta2==0. (a/axg. A free particle wave function for an eelectron of montenrum $8 is esl eq(-ipl. --a+= i(E - - . Bl@fis the fiXa&ek function and 8(@) is tfia The practicrrt evahatian of the hetrix ektemenes in wme problems is often simplged by working with mornentm and enerm variabim rather than s p c e and time. urtegraf over aU P. to bring the to?d to p%.) and (32) are not yet completely The% =me matrices apply directly to positron prob d e h d for there acre poles in the in&@&& when lems.P ~ . values of q are possible. for &-. m.@ is M where +pf+paa)c then the integals involve P4 essenthlly as with the operators written in op ite order a d exglicir J'exp(-z'~~(tg-Ir)]dpr(p*z.P ? " ~ ~ i Cl . m a y problem we are For m a n s &at E has a s m l l negative imaginary part. W etay be w f u I "Iq(x I) is (2iLi)-t(Da(~ 8)-iD(x i)) wllrrrs 0 and D me thn: in gmeral aaaiyses in avaidiw wmpLica&ns fmm inffniteiy 1 functtad dL. t =zzt> spin with momentum pi will make transition t o h . P l r ~ C . $at&.firrrxt by W. Explicitly the fmction isl"(x. has p i t i v e time component. If we call: E=+(mz$-$ae m y aIso be writ&n ( @ E @ u ~ ) ( ~ % M u I ) . The I+(r.e. R@"[ Mod.+E pole. Birac one-electfon kernel. Then we fust pole is blow.= . w is an elecevalated by the rule that m s's tm&ed lo hawe an and we are desribing pair prcxluction if z'~jsi&sid n-egrstipte imgirsa*y p&. 1) is a constant.P r .&?)-l which has poles at appearance of i changed to B times the complex p. I t khaves asymptotiaHy as =p(-im). is -4e(M(q)?~) where we have i m g i n d A expand& m a Founer inte~al = B ' ~ ~ . for If the time component of. the not wnceraed about the spin of the hnal sate. I m i q over J 1 s b t m we can i m r t the projection operator f the $4. to PI with mse as requird by tlhe other definition (17). to a strtte of momentum #a. an8 (2m)-a@1+ m) and so obtain @?n)-Y&a(p~+ nt)iwul) p. remate fiudaces. one integrates over q. ~bitmry spin. ~ @ s .x) where ut is a constant spinor wtisffiq the Dirac eqation pl@l =msl so that Pb=m2.y uhe fa< k. etc. out. #*-Pt-q.. This is k c a w the functiion &(2. If the incident state is u n p l a r i d we Other dutions of (12) result from other p r e ~ r i p can sum on its spim too.POSITRONS 757 P<#. nameIy (ifi*(P-m)-Z that D i m &tta function of sZ.E at the pole. Mow mn slum the probabifity over the two 4 .becomm rephe& by KO. T'he p b ~ b i l i t y an event w h m mtrix element is of pbmd by nt-i6 and the Emit taken a9 M from above. (34) mpresious are all valid for positrons when $'S with a U the --ib is kept with m bere tao the furzc~en a p p r d e s I+ where a=+(@-X*)# for P>xa and S= -i(#-P)b for rare for inhi& p l i v e and nepdve timm. To p r ~ sumt (?E)-%q(-iE(1g-t1f). This iategrating on $4 first. spinor zc~. l ~corresponding if h-tr>O the cxrrntour can k completed around the to the two spin directions. the true can be seen imme&iately from (121. or 1%-tl<O the upper semicuck mcrst br? us&.a ) . for the represenktion of the o p r a b r iV-nt in e n e r g B) (p. .)(a/dx~~).t ) = (4a)-V(sP)+ (rnI8~s)Rt@~(ms). The reciprod matrix and we select the component of momentum q = f t ~ .203 (1441). The rwhcement of nr by m-z"B conjugate transpose of @M).ving a residue from a u s e $2 has another eigenvalue. where The irmtqrals (31. a(q). decaying exponentially in spce-like directiansmES By means of such transforms the matrix elements Iike (221. -m. This i s not a complete set bewmicircie Lebelow the real axis thus gi. l) is fairfy complicated but we shall find that its F o u ~ e transform r is very simple. TKi a n be seen by i w i n i n g that we calculate K+ by (z-i@lst) is proprtionaf to the absolute square.1)-%n be interpreted as &+nt)w--&)-l The second order term (23) is the matrix element p-m*= (p-m)CpT"E) is a pure n m h r not involving between and un of 7 ntstrices. For example if 9 4 in the fachr w-nr2)-1 conis sidered to have a positive i m ~ n a r y part R. p i c b g up the remking moSince all mentum.

. k x o is ROW bern.. . g..negative energim are inserted. @*(X).") functions in the way dissussd in the previous swtians. or The principle on which the proof will be based can now be illustrstad by a Simple example. Deduction fr@m Second QwtizaG~ioa In this section we shall show the equivalence of this t h a r y with the hole t h m v of the p&tron "aording to the theary of w a n d quantization of the electron field m a given patential. On our = scale fzZB%)=energy/m so the probgbilities must be corrected by the 8ppropriate factars.. 19431.6) with rapcct t l and use cummutao tion relations of N and Jlf Gotlsequentfy 9 0 . R. . (We have u d functions nar&lized ta (8%) l . paxticuhrly H. where C-T. giving f*"(x)#(x. if @(X. AB is well known @(X. where F. (i.l)&%. = & * ~ Z * . by ~ ( x . TKis we can now use in the form SFpOlt~Fm~*S-SFer*l(l(7 4) In our one electron problem this substitution replxes r by two terms r = tx$f. the negative ones i n i k l y are (48f ~**(x~~fxld. mum& nrthogonal. Dyson. and xt respectively. f1==0. Beliore ptting P1 through the o p a t o r we shall add to it another Wrator F" arising from a function Y ( r f containing DlJr negcJive energy compnents and so c h m that the resulting f has d y puziliv~ones. while * * ( X ) is the correwonding creation operatoor. we wish to calculate the matrix element whwe the mend e x p r h n has. is writing S for exp(. . (40) To simpiify this we shall have to m commutation refationk betwwa a @* operator and S. " * FWr*S.. (digermtiate * ( X .$ef(x)fu-(-iV-A)+Ar+mB)*(x)d% and %(X) h an operator annihihtmg an electron at pmition X.PIP*. If the initial and 6nal state vectors representing this situation are X. (391. repiwing (9.) The author has mmy pmpk to thank for fruitful convemtians a b u t this sugect.~(-i&Bril" and h . . Now x@*P*in the East term in (45) is tine cornpia exnjugate of PXB. for P .G&$SfiLFf * PIP^. whmef in E"*=$**(x)f(x)dfx is the wave function j(x) at T arising f r ~ m a t 0. one electron iniriaily and tinally and & for We mi&t try putting P thrwgh the operator S using (m.instad of the conventional f'LZ@u) (%*U-) = l. w k h must be added in order that the soiution ol Ttimrs equation at time T will have only H t i v e e n s w mmponenq jIrg(II. and holes at gt(x)..* givt?s zero when acting on the vacuum s a w m all negative enerdes are full. T ) is tbat saluaion of the Dirac egustion a t time T whirh is +(X)a t 1-0. g*(x). - - We awume that the potential A differs from zero only for times lwtween O and T so that a vtzcuum can be defined at these times. r)d% (412 where we have defined @(X.l)). Sidarly.Leipzig. a d tt =0 The fPoe(ns) . i ) must also sstisfy...2Sx3 (x$GSr"~~.the Rirac equation (digerentiate (41) with repect to 1.iax/ar=Nx. (i*(x). all negative energy sates filled.FV. does enntda negative energy mmpnents creatd in the poltentht A and the method must be skghtly modified. (X$ . while the a o n d is no since Ehe . . 1) jJBf~&)~(X) for emmpte G Wentzel Ei~tjechllgis d& Quarrlm~ d m f & k ( ~ r a n z~ i u t k k e . This is the centrat idca of the demonstration. at time T what is the amplitude that we find electrons in sates gr(x). and some pasitrons. - ." the state of this field a t any time is repreanred by a wave function X mtisfying Xexpl-i&tHdfl. We conkemplate a situation in wfrich at 1-0 we have present -me electrons in states represented by ordinary spinor functions fg(x). i t w i @i~=J@*(x) X*(x)B)x annihilates ane with wave function #(X). That is. in terns of X* The opemtor which is rr conwuence of the groperties of efr) (Xhe others are FGm -(.' ."r m r)*(r. and that the factor involves the K. T b e are descriw as holes in the negative energy m. is .') (44) where the "'"p~'' and "neg" serve W remindm of the sign of the energy mmpnents fontknect in the oiperators. -. for fhe initkl state would reault fmm thc vacuum if we crfrated the elmeons in j a r jzj . J. find the amount. . is d&ped. We ask. the amplitude for hadry: a vacuum at time T .F and F*@= -&W*).. m. T)d% then Qr"*=Slf"*PI. IT rqresents the virruum slate (that is. Tn this end consider e~[-i&iEdI')cg+ Xexp(-t-i&H&') and mpand this quantity in terms of %*(X). Our problem is to evaluate R and show that i t is a simple factor times C*. . t)dfpae~~tld"rr. is X .. But F" as work& cut hem.' of neggtive energy component . Now muftiply n i d this wuation by mp(+i&Wd~') . The first of these reducm to - L ~ creates an electron with wave funcrion +(X).iATli"dl). k e n obtirineci by use of the definition (38) of C and the generai mmmu@&n relragon .. The problem presc?nted by [M) is this: Givea a functien fm. C. A.. SF*mFW*S. while the ha1 state is CI*G"S**. p. . and if we d d n e @*= JQ*(x)+(r)dk and @'*-f**(x)g(x. the efectrons which would nomally fill the holm having wave functions pa(xj. . where N-. Bethe and F'. That is we want S(FW*+ P . but withj.. all positive @ner@a empty).. (which defines +(X. Then . . C h a p f r m a k e . if we h d one at l=O. cr.(x) a t time 0. .QsfQt*. fpoh and the negative ones h l l y (zero).- - r as abve. F"@ would wrnish and we would have vdu& r to a factor times C. The M t i v e ones &ally are therefore (wing (19)) fpoll"(xl)J K + ~ A ) ( ~ . f" to .Hence we must 6nd . and the situatian interpreted in accordance with the timing rehtions d i m m d abve.Zence s a t e X."'*xo). We know tbe padtive emere commnents initially. Q* are oprators deftnd Iike 9 in XQIQI. Thus if f antained oniy p i l i v e enerw a m w n e n a .. s w tbe Dirac 6) a s equetion. fs(x). . This is a bou&ry value pmhlern for Pvhich ttie kennel K+td. S u p m we h v e just." c a t i o n operator F. To do this we krst express X . arid annibitated t h m in p ~ pp. use (42) and integrate by parts). P. .

& m e factor of C() i (52) times --&a is.'"*FI*. .. prducing an additional term Jg~*(x)fi~~r'(xjd"r tima an exprmsinn with one tess eletron in iniriaX and ftnal state.THEORY OF POSITRONS s u b t w t d to keep in f.-Qp*Qzf*. This dmcriba in the expected manner the annlhiiation of the pair. The em T (A) in &cA) refers to that part of the potential A after The h term va&hes for it involvm (from the Kc(A"2. etc. or its quiva!ent *p. etc. and in the m n d l p t e = . For 1030 we have the mmpie& prohiem. from second quantizrltion by induction consideidering a series of problems each wntaining 8 patentiaf die .'(afd*x. Cp. Cal! this C.. a n be pushed through the =p(-i&erEdfl) in a manner exmtly analogous LO (47) when f is a function.(@ is what is d e 6 d ar. U.. Then for lo=IX" we have zero potential a t slt times.neg*BA*aeg is just H . Mow this opmtor. a c f d u c ~ o n the quations fw quantum electroof & d m m i a W & a p w r in tae succetding paper may be w r k d out uru'ng very rjnikr principles. ) by s relation such as (41) obGning two terns R=(xo**.. and Jt. etc. hut having pawnlid zero for times from Q to Ip. just L(t~-&)-l.e. until i t r w h m Pt. wMch give zero operating into xe'.. The iy. ttibutiou more nearly like the one we wish.+(&L(IoI/&DZC~(IO)that integration so from T 0 Jo-O ebhti&es ( 0 .. (581 can be written by Wh ((50.. ex@) which will be reduced to a simple factor times C.. from the usual commutation rdarion of o*and *. h e r a l l y we faave. on ~ gives zero so we are left with t w terns in the current density. as 6 4 ..$SA?ir. I). hs we therdare obtain for the derivative of CSthe exprmien - . . Then ir is exchanged with PI to produce an additional simpler term with a factor 7"Jpl*jx)Jtn.."'(x)dt or with taixi. I b. to dmpler terms mnlaining two bss operatm which may in turn he furher rerluced by u i n g h*in a fimitar maner. 'PLPP''WO).or more precisely just the **(X) part of (38). r =Jg*(x)f."* and C.*" thrmgh anti commuting PI". t t . according to (29) (mfe~nce101.<h sad X@is an eigenfuncgon of HT with an eigwvalue (enwgy of va-m) which we m fake as zero. After all the F* are used the @*'S can be r e d u d in a similar manner. (An altermtive derivation results from the congideratian that the operator *(X.. I)J~~~(xI)$'x~QBXO(49). gives R is rrducd.ttive enerw aperator a t time 0. WnaHy on rmching the Q* with w&ch it anticommutes it can be &mpfy m v e d over to juxawktion with X@* where i t gives zero. This is the effect of the vacuum ewectatian current of the e l ~ t r o n s the in sea which we should hsve subtract4 from our original Hamifronian in the c n s b m a ~way. gives by (48) as expect4 in accordance with the r m n i n g of the previous sections (i. no pairs a n be praduced. . The prmf is rmdify atended to the m m gmeml e x p r d o n R. operating on pasitive and negative energy states rmpectively.(la) i a a this ddigermce arises from the tlrcra p o t m m AA-A during the s h r t time interval AteB Hen= -dG.the linear integral equations which are quivaient to it. " * In the first term the order of Pt. ( which can be a m l y d by induction. However for photon fie& it L deair. with the q e c t e d facltlrs (and with attwoating $gm requird by the a l u s i o u prindpfef. Ufe). since B& is identicat to the c o n a b t vamnm Bmiltonian Br for .PIPS* -(X$.. W t r o n pt.. w that C. Nett it is =changed with C*prociuetng an addition -Jg~*(x)ftpo7"(~)$% times a similar term..ife) by methods anartogous to those wed in rerlucing R. After all this is done we an? left *ply with the ex4) pected factor times Cr (amming the net cha~ge the same I is n initial and final state.m*@ABaeI and S.(r'(2. l)) only t WCive $ n e w components of W .) X this way we hsve written the Ilofution to the general problem n of the mntion of electrons in given potentih.*@A~.. First one replwa Fa* # l . electron fi. The s e n d term is imihrly b d l e d by moving Ptm.Qs*Qtu* -GLGISP*~...(lo-dlo) a r k s from th-e Narnstonian N60-ar~ which diEers from Hga just by baving an extra ptentiol during the short interval AC Hence.) That is. can be considered as Jt*(x)f. and only the term..flAwnO. sap^ we know C for a prohhm &e the one we want and baving the =me ptentials far time t ktween Jame k and T."(xg) onfy those wava which return from the potential and not t h m arriving directly at IS from the K+(2.* which gives zero acdng on X*).r is then inter&angd. The P.).(T)-O and CI(T)=I. Aodyds s the Vacam Rablem f We &aft almlate C. They are movd through the S in the opposite direction in such a manner as to p r d u ~ a purely e neg. *..(@. In the m e n d term onIy nqative comwnmts of **(X$) appear. l) p r t of k'. . . 3) Starting from the theory of the eleictromagnetic W d in secand q m b G o n . to first order in hie. from extra fi(xg) in (49j gives a r a as it is orthogonal to pg(x1)).(P*. This is &ven by (3Cj)m d (29) a d it is readity demonsirat& that ti also is corrmt m w d i n g to m o n d quaotilation.G&lFgpgSr*SI. will renrain. (20) with replacing K. The latter V.&=O (the FJPi*(xs)K+tA){2.(x) where fw(x) is written far the p i l i v e energy a m w e n t of the m r a t a r @A*(X).*@AIV. able to h v e an emlicit form for C in terms of the wtenentiafs. \t+fx)fPo...the q e e t a t i o n value of BA taken over a negative energy states ( d n u s 'Vma. l ) which satisfies the Dirac equarion also satis&. We muld aim have written 759 The value of C. Tlre Paul-Wei&opf Ebwv o f the RIein-hrdon q m t i o n can a m e n t I y be a n a l y d in emntiallv the =me way as that U& here for Dirac electrow..Cu..(x). The operator % can be imagined to be split into ttrvo pieces Wm. I. The mmaining term 0. where in the ftxslt t r h== . The &tor CVIs obtain& by normalization. then ifr"fx8) is interchanged in order with %(X$)it will give zero oprating an X@.(rd)/dCo.. the w r m p n d i n g Eliamiltonian Bto and the sum of contrihtions for all dngle loops. using relstions amlogow to ( 5to (49).'"* is moved in this way accerr when acting on X* '&us gively through the P's untif it. we have Therefare h e me-electron problem.

We a n then fee how the matrix elecation can be achieved in writing down these matrix ment for any proems a n be written down directly. After The shpYIfication in the formulaeresults minly fram the msf correction is mde. We have Been () P. (2) EIectr&ynamics is modified by altering the interaction of electrons at short distanw. are insnsitive to the deltlils of the modification used (exucpt at extrme energies). ~l spce-the view in X. each term partkular. Phmomem directly obwvable. the matrix elements diverge fox comp1e-x process. the rjeE-enew expression is written down. When the t e r m are to express in simpb t e r n the miofutionof problem in combhd and shpW&. Such e k n p cauid not be dirmtly abservd. metbad is therefare availabie for the involving electrons and p h t o m . hwever. 1430 (%W. corrapnds to a canection to the ektron =ss. X this paper two things are done. The actual ewluation of integrals a p p r i n g in the matrix ehrrrents m y be faciliktect. Tke rmults then agree with these of Schwlnger. was positive eneqy ektrons are iavo1vd. F 4 Pkyska.electrdmamim. Furaer. The methods appiy as well to chrges obeying the Klein-&don of equaGon. Lrmfer &l& 1.imble to d e h y d intctractions of rehtivistic ektrons responding to the inclusion of an increwkg number of and we represent in &at way the kws of quantum virtual quanta. 0 b y the order of operators "or cr d i m d o n of this rnodifiation in elmial phy* gee I. the rektivistfc invaxhnce of quantum electrdynamics. Feyman# P b .re done. For such phmomena. WE-energydiverges. in the virtual stam considered. unambiguous. Iikft New Fwk (Receivd May 9.lntd R. for m e of the theories i t is no longer tme that a d i r e l y obwmbie phenomma am inansicive to t6e d e ~ oE ! h the nrMfifiCation d. by dealing directty with the so&aliionof the were on an unrehtiv&tic bash (reA~ted the circumin HamiltonLn differentbl equations. with the e x ~ t i a n t * of b relating ta problems of vacuum pofarizstion. 74 939 (IW). . I t is the p u p s of this p p e r to The~fare. Phys. 74. All matrix efements are new finite. A md%cation2 i the n de&h how this may I. Althowh a mdifreation like that used in elecrrodynadcs a n make alt matrices finite for all of the meson &wries. Rev. Pt would be very d a c u f t to mske the modifLcatian which is p r o p a d if one insisted on having the quatinns in Eamiltoniarn farm. Being simply a rmhtement of mnventional elwtrodynamia. timing seem consist-ent and satisfactoq to d e h e the rnatrix relsrtions are not significant. a phydcai point of view is availabte which perraits thew to be wrirtwt down directly for any swiltc probtem. other real pramsses are the fact that prevbus methods unnecmrijty ~ p a r a k d finite and i w n s i ~ v e the ""width" of the cut-off In to into individual t e r m pro that were claefy related the interaction. Further. C d Usimsicy. The rela(ion of this to the mnre mnventional Narniltoniau point of view is dwmd.PHYSICAL REVIEW VOLUME 76. bnesftcr refwrd to as B. The separations previously m d e lyzed.stance that apprently momentum but not enerw Es nique L applid to include interaetions and in that way commed in intermdkte s b t a ] . nothing has k n done other than a resbtedkmtly from a physical point of view. simifar to the ment of c o n v c m ~ o electrodymmia in other k m . the effwts of longitudinal and tramverscl wava can k combined together. Here the =me kch. N U M B E R 6 SEPTIBABER $ 5 . interaction k t w e n chaqes is next made. 76. It does. herurfter referred in wbicb virtual p are R. quantum. 1941) 13epat. should be considered as a canTEEEof paper of a profcerling one1 (If in direct amwhich the tinuation motion elttctrons. in the matrk must be maintained. the mdAcation p r o p o d is not comBetween two elctrctrons there were t w t e r m 4 e p n d i q pletely satisf~tory theoretialfiy (it k & to some &&e on whkh electron emitted and which absorbd the culties of conwmation of energy). The Latter are maEwted in a mnner suaested by Pauti and Bethe. IUustrative amples are given. which gives finite rerrults for these matrkes atso. P. P. a lmit can be takm as the ran@ of the mdificatlon goes to zero. For most practical ca1culations in quantum electreWe kgin by dimming the solution in space and time dynamics tht3 galutian is ordinarily in term of the Schrijdmger equation for particles interacting of a. and to the variow m m n t h m ~ e s nuclear farces. 169 . the result is =g-eddent. by m e t M s dwribed in the qpmdix. in the simpler cam. Rev. The matrk is work& out as an insbntaneously.' physirsally. and it is metfis of handling the divr?rgent intgrtrlrj which shown that the seff-energy is made convergent and a p p a r in these matrix eIemen&. Feynman. neglecting interaction. In elements for complex procmss. For example. We shall aka diseusr. The only eEccts ~ n G r i v e te the m d i b t i o n are changa in m s s and charge of the electron%. Vet. A complete. successive t e r m cor. Ild k & to of the m e a d # and results wit1 be found in 8 b brief summ produced can be combined with others in which only R P Feynmn. g Y s . 1 R.1949) and p r m w h i y consistent. 749 ft9&). howevw. Rev. The siroplifiaaon in writing the e r c p h o n s results from on ecmphmis sn the over-abl @ace-time view rmlting from a study of the 3101ution of the equations of dmaadynamics. I t a p p r s that a considerable simplifi. in the expansion can be written down and understood So far. matrk element. Furthermore. exchange of a quantum Unfortunately. (1) It is s b w n that a cona sidwable rjmptilteation can be attained in writing down matrix ekments for mmplen p r w w s in electrodynamics. The results are inrmdiateky generalthe expawion h pwers of &/h.

One is as the description of the behavior of a fieid (Maxwetl's equations). Nevertbetefs.s'22$.3 of that paper). many of the properties of the integrab are a n a l y d using fomal properties of invariant propagation functions. consistency of the theory."$~$F~437~~~3. Rev. the field point of view is less practical when dealing with clwe collisions of particb (or their action on themseIves). to remove them from the expreaions for real procmses. by i t ~ l f I t will be theomtically incomplete.2% 357 (1941. prduction of light. (I~~(i..- element for all real pracems as the lintit of that computed here as the cut-off width goes to zero. ~ Rev. in the intermt of keeping simple things simple the derivation will appar in a separate paper. This was m&e easier by the reinterpretation of the theory of holes (I). Swond. the phenomenon of pair creation. although each term of increasing order in &/&c can be written down it would be desirabk to see some way of expressing things in finite form to ail orders in 4 f i c at once. Furthermore. Xext the m d i fication of the del&-function interaction crould be made directly from the analogy to the chssical c a ~ This . P. The fi& point of view separates these aspects into two slrnphr prob lems.3 (226) 1949. the result being an expremion of the delayed interaction of the particles. it is not at all clear that the convergence factors do not u p t the physical. Roughiy. The results are then equivalent to those of Schwinger4 who does not make explicit use of the convergence factom. The first section is. h an Appendix a method is given for calculating the i n t q r a l apparing in the matrix elemen& for the simpler pracesw. I t was then modiified in xcordance with the requirements of the Dirac equation and. however. The other is as a description of a direct interaction at a distance (albeit deliayed in time) between chitrga (the solutions of Lienard and Wiechert). preGous to their evaluation. The apl"lbc d i n e Voi. in two respects.. the fieid paint of view is mmc pnrctical for probjems invofv- . and absaption of light. A practical advanlage of the presnt methrxl is that ambiguitks can be more easily rwlved. FinaIly for practicaI caicuktions the expressions were developed in a power series in @/he. On the other band. Since we can write dawn the solution to any physical problem. The paint of view which is taken here of the interaction of charges digers from the more usual point of view of field theory. neither methd appcars to be thoroughly satisfactory theoretically. On the other hand. M&. although it will be physicay evident that the results obtained are equivdlent to tbme obtained by conventionalelectrdynamics the mthemticstl proof of tbis is not includtid. The method of Schwinpr is to identify the terms corresponding to corrections in mass and charge and. This is an impractical point of view because many kinds of sources produce the same kind of &ects. The possible application of these methods to the d various meson theories is d k u ~ e briefly. we have a complete theory which could stand . But one of the properties is that the intqrah are inPlnite and it is not clear to what extent this invalidates the demonstrations. The canventional electrdynamics was expressrtd in the Lagrangian form of quantum mechanics described in the Reviews of Modem lPhysics? The motion of the fietd osciIktors could be integrated out (as described in Section 1. 486 (1949). First. 75.~3~. Neverthelesl. OR the other hand. it was thought Best to pubtish the results fiwt in this paper. The formulas corresponding to a charge particle of zero spin moving in accordance with the Klein Gordon equation are also given. For here the source and ahsarber are ilot radily distinguishable. Both of these limitations will be removed in a subsequent paper (see afm Byson". Since the result was easier to understand tfian the Qrivation. Considerable time has been spent to make these first two pawrs as cornpiete and as physically plausible as posible without relying on the hgrangian m e a d . devoted to n dbcussion of the relations of thew viewpoints. BrieAy the genesis of this theory was this. there is an intimate exchange of quanta. The fields are so closely determined by the motions of the particles that it is just as well not to *prate the question into two problems but to consider the process as a direct interaction. R. I t is r e a l i ~ d cannot carry the conviction of truth wl~lchwould accompany the derivation. AIthough in the limit the two methds agree. it does appmr that we now have available a complete and definite method for the cajculation of physical processes ro any order in quantum electrodynamics. P~Y.. therefore. f i y n w n . the limit of zero cut-off width can be taken for all real processes. A similar technique sugeted by Paul4 and by Bethe can k applied to problems of vacuum polarktion (resulting in a renormalization of char@) but agab a strict physical basis for the rules of convergence is not known. sinrply by direct calculation of the otherwise divergent integrals. ~~~~~~+~~ Electrodynamics can Be boked upon in two equivalent and complementaryways. After malrs and charge renormatization. From the htter point of view light is considered as an interaction of the charges in the source with t h m in the absorber. the familk S m i I tonian form of quantum mmhanics must be compared to the over-ali space-time view used here. This has the advantage of showing that the resul~s be strictly indepndent can of particular cut-o@methods. U1. because it is not that such a description generally familiar.It was apaarent that each term in the series had a simple physical intergretation. was still not complete b e a u s the hgrangian method had been w o r M out in detail only for particles obeying the non-reiativistic Schradinger equation.

As an example. The use of the Hamiltonian farces one to c h o w the field viewpaint rather than the interaction viewpoint. We UIustrate these points in the next wction by studying the solution of Schrtidinger's equation for nonrelativistic particles interacting by an instantaneous Coufomb potential (Eq. el~trodynamics (Eq.. By foraking the Hamiltonlan method. however. But "his is. The &miltonian form of the equations develops the future from the instanhneous presnt.1 2 that the extra interactions near the end pints have small relative egects. For practical problem this means choosing such Iong time internals to-lr and t d . We study by the same methods as in I. We shall discover that the solutions. In a real physical system such is not the case. can be thought of as the anrpliitude that particle a gaes from x l at 11 to ~8 at fa and that particle b goes from X* at 12 to ~4 at 16. Eq. their values can be computed a t the next instant in time.because of the over-all space-time view that they prmil. and corresponds to a dserent 34imensional cut of spam-time. 4). the wedding of rehtivity and quantum mechanics can k accomplished mast naturally. are as easy to understand when interactions are delwed as when they are instanbneous.g. Xf the i . by requirhg that one specify ksides the present motion of the particles.. far difftzrent observers in relative motion the instanhneous p r w n t is dlgerent. The dBerence is only that in the latter the action is instantaneow so &at the Hamiltonian method requires no extra variables.. When the particles do i n t e r ~ tone can only define . For collisions it is much easier to treat the process as a whole.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS h g real quanta. at .. 1) of the cwrdinates X. and second because the important -pest in the probiernsj with which we shall deal is the effect of virtual quanta. The wave function a t a given time is a functbn $(X.'. and X&of each particb. There is such an enormous advantage. These digerences are irrelevant.' at time 1' wiH get to X. however. We shall emphasize the interaction viewpoint in this paper. xe".. In this case we can obviously d e h e a quantity like K".. e. Inasmuch as any physical proMem can be defined in terms of scnttering procresses we cto not lose much in . Such ideas are only useful for events taking a long time and for which we can readily obtain informatian during the interveningperid. in a mttering prcsblm it may wet1 be that the particle are so well sparat& initially and finally that the interaction at these times is nqligihle. We shall be dixussing the solutions of equatiow rather than the time digerential equations from which they come. one cannot predict the future by simply knowing the present motion of the particles.4. We start by considering the non-relativisticca* descrikd by the Schr6dinger equation (I. to the conapt that we shalt continue to use it.' The Mpcller interaction matrix for the the coltision of two electrons is not essentially more complicated than the nonrelativistic Rutherford formula. but for which the time 6 need not tze the same for partides a and 6 (likewise for 19. rebtivistic invarhce will be selfeviclent. for the mlutian is the same in any space time frame. while the interaction view is best for 17 1 the discussion of the virtual F a n & involved. ' particbs are free and do not interact this is where Kffeis the KOfunction for particle a consikred as free. first because it is less familiar and &erefore requires more discussion. we sre not interested in the precise temsequence of events. t . the interaction of two particles using the same notation as X. xt. while in the formr relativistic case it is delayed and the Hamittonian method is very cumkrsom. t view~ointof the thfiary af the S matrix of Heisenk tterg.. of course. This is done in the Namiltonian electrodynamics. however. X). 2) precisely if the interaction vanishes ktween tt and 12 and also between ta and I. Thus the tempsral analyses of diaerent observers is different and their Hamiltonian equations are developing the process in different ways. yet the mathemtical machinery used to obtain the former from quantum electrodynamics is vastly more complicated than Schrijdinger" equation with the 8/rl* interaction needed to obtain the latter. I t is not of interest to be able to say how the situation would look at each instant of time during a collision and how it progresses from instant to instant. If particles interact through a delayed interactioil. Thus call K(x. xt. Again energy values can be defined by the avmage rate of change of phase over such bng iime intewals that errors initially and finally can be neglected. The Hamilttonian method is not well adapted to represent the direct action at a distance between charges because that action is dekyed. When the salution is mrdihed to include the effects of delay it1 the interaction and the relativistic properties of the electronswe obtain an expression of the laws af qumtum. l . X many problems. The Hamiltonian method represents the future as developirtg out of the present. 2). If the values of a complete set of quantitim are known now. 6') the amplitude that particle a at X. for example.whife particle b at X at 1 gets to rl. imgining that we can neglwt the effect of interactions between 11 and t s and between ta and t 4 . the close collisions n of i . X*. the values of a host of new variables (the cmrdinates of the held oscillators) to keep track of that aspect ol the past motions of the particles which determines their future bhavior. One would also have to know what the motions of the particles were in the past in view of the interaction this may have an the future motions. the quantity K@. As a further point.

We wish to describe electrdynamics as a dehyed interaction between particles.4. (1)) should be (1. Wheeler and K.). 1. and ybr are the Dirac mtrices applying to the R& order correction to K(3. Tt will serve as a prototyp enabling us to write dowir the corresi>otwting quantities involving the exchange of two where ts=.V~)&+(S~$). (9)of X by an obvious general. I t can be understood (see Fig.) : \Ve shall rtow intevret Eq. Et describes the effect of exchange of one quantuin (therefore first order in 8 ) between two electrons. ezist . Exchange of one quantum betam two eler-trons. 157 (194511.This turns out to be not quite right: for when this interaction is repraented by photons they must be of only positive energy.f . the interaction is simply that given by a Coulomb potenthi e / where r is the disbnee between the particlm. that the aujOmb dctes instantaneous^. the first-order visticalily symmetrical way. respecout emctly as was Eq. and a like term for the eEect of a an b.lo. imagine first that. the frrst-order effect is obtained by intepating ventional eliectrodynamicf. P. A. 1. or J. ? It. . This is our fundamental equation for e!ectrodynamics. by this approximation. Analagous t h o m n . X£ we can make Hence we have for electronsobeying the Dirac equation. 1S . ) K ~ . (2r]-t(4+(t-r)+ 8 + ( . where ra. X should t where instead be replaced by S + f f p ~ . the thlliy to avoid this approximation that the wmpIicated relativistic case.@zdl. (2) is altered to hGt order because they c& exchange a quantum.-~606e-m) to the uantum mechanics but it would l& us too far astray to d i m s delay m the efxect of b on a. I.l in no light R w . I&s to a themy We h o w . (4) in tl.~ 6 + ( .tl=. exhibits interaction fhroueh halftaking the speed of light advanced and hall-rekrded potentiais. l)) where d r .g ste A. .r ) ) =&+(@-rg)* this means rIe-f4(tgp) is replac& by 6+(s&$) where a general theoretiml se-rise.. ~ .(V. for there is nothing signgcrmt in chms.r square of the relativistically in. ~ ~ = r ~ r is " . It is a coilsequence of confE=l. manner ivhich wiil prmit us to write down the higher order terms. M . bowever. in ckaical ejectrodynadm. while the Fuurier transform of S(Ebb-r5~f contains frequencim of both signs. Retativistic invariarlce is on to. Xf it ~ . Eq. in the c h i c 4 tintit. %cm now. I ROW the ptentiat were on at all or more quanta betwen two electronsor the interaction f times (so that strictly K is not defined unless t4= ta and of an elestron with itself.2) can be worked the spinor corrmpnding to pilrticies a and b. & i (2) by something like r. Thus. I t is or in (see A. The fundamentaf. Since in rehtivistically. the ~ ~ is not made it is not easy to study interacting particles variant interval between points 5 and 5. Since Fre.l ~ e -which arises when tS<k and corresponds to a emitting the quantum which b receives. To sez? how this may be done.tively (the factor BD@b king abrjorbed in the definition. this IS rquibut is delayed by a time aiitbin a closed box from which valent to purely reardd (e. wGcb we can write as an integral over both tp clear. CluGmliy. "as'can go to S (ampkitude K+(5.. interaction at a disbnce cannot be defined invariantly.classical electrodynamics there is also an interaction ing 11=14 if X ~ + X ~as absolute sinulitaneity of events through the vector potential. x m y . This su$gesls simply replacing rs88(ts. Hence. hys.2) the rmulu of this interaction can be expressed very simply. the eomg~lete . ii. ( )~ 2)didra. which.4. l ) as saying that the amplitude for ""a" to go from 1 to 3 and " P t a go from 2 to 4 X & ( ~ .r L ~ ) ~rs) This is to be averaged with ~ ~ a . ( 6 .interaction Eq. Feynmsn as uaity. iation to two particles: Eq. of K+). (4). Since one sums over p it contains the effects of and 1s if we include a ctelta-function 6(15-ta) to insure both longitudinal and transvem waves in a retaticontribution only when ts==fe. (171.t a x tar. effect of interaction is fcallmg to. the approxiwtion of assuming a meaning to Iif(3. If: this 2r be turned on only for a very short time &loat time C. structure of the older quantum dectrodynamics has been built up.

157 (tM). m y go ((Fig. and finally arrke at 2 (K+(2. The interference eEects for scattering of electrons by positram discussed by Bhabk will be seen to reult directly in this formulation..l)d?seof tbe potential A (5)-dJKt/4. we must include similar terms to represent the interaction of a charge with itself. wi8 be a b satid= o/atlscj")4na(2. be disregarded in intermediate states. One way to daduce the correct mtea far reat quanw from (4) is to note that in a c l o d system att quanta can be considered as virtual (i.e ofthe f. The amplitude K(2. as expected. be viewed also as a single electron (namdy in case one electron was created in a pair with a positron destined to annihilate the other electron).. is c.3. It is disregarded in intermediate states. SELF-ENERGY PROBLEM Having a term representing the mutual interaction of a pair of charges. This is related to the self-enerw of a free electran in the fonowing mzmner. for two charges it requires only that one calculate K(3. 6 ) 6 + ( s r & ~ ~ X&(&.6)).=4xJ. abmrlts the quantum fyb.x )=Ce(%)is just the exprm sion (X. The correct terms of higher order in 8 or involving larger numbers of electrons (interacting with themscllves or in pairs) can be written down by the same kind of reamning.1) for a singte particle to gt from 1 to 2 diEers from K+(2. title b in p i n g fmm 2 to d ~ k il 2rt. Eq. S u p p e initklfy. It might be noted that (Q) can be rewritten as dmribtng the d? on a. and shaU content ourselves by only stating the rules applying to them? The result of the analysis is. Each quantum interacls only once (either in emission or in abwrption). X there are among quanta. some pl which are identical then the o weight of the state is (l/%!)f what it would be if these quanta were considered as &Berent (similarly for the final state). Thus to the interaction between such electrons rnust comeswnd the possibility of the action of an efrrctron on itself.(SSB*).) and then proceed to 3 (&(3.The quantum meanwhile proit ceeds from S to 6. when account is taken of the Pauli principle. the relation of the Einstein A and B coeftlcients can be r(edumd. Phya. emit it quantum (re). 5) XA(5)K+(5. For example.i k . of the transition element between positive energy free electron s t a t e gives the M6ltr scattering of two electrons. P. rtbwrb it (. *These considerations make it a p w E unlikely h%b cont from B " c u f ~ e ~ t ' ~ ~ ( 6 ) = 617 g (6 2) roduc~db pat(4 & ~ tention of f. prxeed to 4. If"B(3. (5) sucewfut m n q t in quantam efeetr0dynatnies. or scahr r.5)).rt tK. We must sum over all the passitxle quantum polarizations and positions and times of emision 5 . from (41.. the amplitude that an eliectron in going from 1 ta 2 absorbs a quantum whose vector potential. a t electmm do not aet on & e w i v a . CalcuIation. - - . provided the qumtities are norma'lized in the usual manner to represent single quanta. (K+(3. In a succeeding paper they will. The quantum y) rnust go from 3 to 4 (&+(srsZ)). AS our primaqy concern wiH be for prmases in which the quanta are virtual we shall not include bere the detailed analysis of processes involving real quanta in initial ar finat state. In particukr.* This intemtion is the hewt of the s d X energy prciblem. 1. h a t they can be included by the same line ot reasoning as is used in discussing the virtuat processes. For undm mme circumstancm what appars to be two distinct electrons may. They will be nhstrated by mamptes as we preceed. A more practical direet deduction of the aprmsions for real quanta will be given in tke aubmuent paper. l)). A Wbsier and R. 3. in all cases. as all such aftemativa are auto&aticail_ycontained in (4). according to I.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 773 emit a qumtum (longitudinal. 2)dvr arnsmg from awe^$ equations C3tAA. After a long time ts-lir the perturbation will alter Ir Althougb in the esprmsions stemming from (4) the quanta are virtual. (K+(4. l) to first order in 8 by a term I t arises becaufa the electron instad of going from 1 directly to 2. suitably normalized.2)-K(4. all be deduced from conventional quantum electrodynamics. 2) first to 3. and of abmrption 6. we h v e an electran in state j(1) which we imrrgine to be a positive enerfly solution of Dim%equation for a free particle. time It. The Bo?. they have a known w r c e and are eventuaity absorbed) so the. 1. Fqynman Rev M&. exp(. terms like ff.e. this is not actually a theoreticat limitatton.4. For exampfe. (14)) ocwr on& when there is more than one quantum invoived. in such a system the present dmriptiorr is complete and equivalent to tbe conventional one..2)). Meantime '%" gms to 6 (R+(6.2) to get the net amplitude for arrival of charges at 3 and 4. The formulas are intexpreted to apply to poscitrons in the manner discus& in I.3)). The exclusion principle for interacting charges is handled in exactly the same way as for non-interacting charges (X).) and proceeds to 4 (K+(4. Consider to first order in 8 the action of an eelwtron on itself in an otheherwisc:force free redon. transvers.1). t)-iJK+(3. Eq. (13)) far scattering in a potential with A (3) replaced by C (3).4)). w ~ c h does with amplitude S.1 I* s 17. Actually if Is>& it would be better to say that ""a" absorbs and ""bbmits but no attention need be paid to these matters. in the inithl state. The only effect of the statistics is to change the wight I of initial or final sbtes.etstatistics of the quanta can.

Eq.i f a Z : Hence. the exact kernel for an electron in the potenttal. for the wave functions have been normalid to unit integrated over all space-time $74. Eq.=EbE. . For this we shall need the Eourier Transfom of $(ss?) which is Firi. 72. the of mult is af order VT. the integrals exten&ng over the vofurne V and time intervai 2= Since K+($. A. 3) dqends only on the &Eerence the integmi on 4 of the =ordinates of' 4 and 5. we have AE=Z [(1271~+(4. This is because we are asking for the amplitude that an atom initsly with no photon in the field.. When integrated on 3. as Am(au) where Am is an equivalent n change in mass of the electron.774 R. The efftsst is promrtional to V . and mhnt. witl diB appear after tirne T with no photon. the result would simpfy be proportionaI to T . Pbys.339 (1947). In the mn-relativistic region the exprmion for bE c be worked out as hhas been done by BetheeL"n the m rehtivistic regian (pints 4 and 3 as close together as a Gompton wave-length) the lil. for i f the e E s t were quivalent to a change in enerw AE. 3.Cv'. (53). 1 ~e1p( This is ha. The imaginary part of"^ when catcufated does indeed give the correct rate of mdiation from atomic states. F E Y N M A N volume.~a)6+(IaI)dr(1 (9) 3 ~ ~ ) the wave function. for the expraions are only approximate (rmaXogous to the situation for two interacting charges). of the atom. 1 ) for &-0 b 6+(st. and j by a wave function (of space and time) for an atomic state. The evaluation of (91.1) given in I. X this form invariance is obvious. (2f)). is very much simpl%& by w o r ~ n g the mmentum and in energy varkbles. Uli).") from B. In interpreting (9)we have Witty warned that the wave functions are nomalized so that (as%) = (iiy41r)= l.(nwhich should appear in (8) can be rqhced to first order in V by K+ plus K+(i". The imaginary p r t is negative and in exp(-ddET) produce an exponenthlty decreiasing amplitude with tirne. we are dealing inwrretfy with fox quanta. therefore. rather than s p a end time. example. Eq. It is zero for the ground state and for a free eledron. (71 The time intewal T= 12-ll (and the spatial volume V over which one integrates) must be taken very large. The equation may therefore be made independent of the normaliation by writing or since (&/m)(Bu) the left side as (M>(ar4%). If the atom is in a state which can radiate. pleE*Gam* Tbb is d i s f u d in rrfemam S in which it is inted out that cclnccpt of a mve function IOW m mif &e arc de~syd which a n be obt. (32) noting that 1+(2.d prexntly. P . Mommtum space. is the enerp (p3 and momentum of the electron and ~1 is a constant &-index symjbot. The tlmgonaI element (g=f) is therefore J J ~ ( ~ ) B K ~ o ( z1)fij(1)8rt@s. Eq. I k'("(2. the amplitude for arrival in f at f a is alter& by a factor exp(-idE(t%-&)).ii~edfrom (32 and (5) or from I. or to first order by the BiBmence . This is expected. Rev. Bcthe. emitted just before which would normaHy be rabsorbed at times aher t ~ . . This expression will be sirnp1ifit. . 1) from (6) is actually substituted into (7) f the surface integrs~is be perfomed as was done in can obkining I.) where p.1. Xntewdan af m eiatroa with itself. One can likewise obtain an expression for the energy shift for sn eIectron in a hydrogen atom. (22) rmulting in Putting for fll) the plane wave u ex:xp(-@. $v= a result (except nmr the sudaces of the redon) i~dependent 3.(2. Ir=@8/r. Simply replace K+ in (g). as are11 as all the other more complicated eqressions ariing in t h m problems. If normaliad to volume V. Eq. The problem is then very shilar to the radiationless scattering probjem m d below. In general the &E which rauEts is not real. The amplitude that g(2) is contained is m1cuXated as in ( Il+. (8) becomes w=n2). this ampfltude must decay with time. which can then be took& upon as a superposition of free particle mlutions (actually it only contains f).

We have now achieved our simplification of the form the second is the velocity operator by which this potential is multiplierl in the Birac equation tvhen an external of writing matrix elements arising from v~rtualprocesses. 3) Or again if the quantum is both emitted and rethat the electron of momentum p emits (7. The (There is a amplitude of propagation of quanta is k2. When this is integrated on R#. and makes its way now with mo. (31)) for the equal to the expressions (16) and (17) given in B for (I.QUANTUM ELEC'rHODYNAMICS 775 l0 1 FIG. Fbr example. The zero-der answer is a screond quantum of momentum -q?.?.will be defiected to vector e t so that its interaction i s e~. First for the case illus. This form far the self-enerm the same prceess. ta arrive in final state of momentum p*. There are is. the various terms coming from resiis easier to work with than is (9)dues of the pies of the interand (12). The first y.). propagating on then (factor @. The F means ( K e R ) .). f&tor b/*i for each virtual quantum). abmrbs a quantum of momentum q.find the ntktrix: For in this case. momentum space fbf FIG.the exprmians.). Eq. For example.R to the next event (factor which is to abfitrrb the quantum (another 7.=rz"~. firstf2a quantum of momentum k is emitted (r. One integrates aver a11 quanta. reprexnts the current which gneratm the vector gatential. then we can make the genera1 rule that all poles are to be resolved by considering the Inasses of the particles and quanta to have inffnitesimal tregative imaginary parts.k-m)-q with the new mommtum until the quanturn is reabsorbed (7. burier transform of K+. I. carret normalization). tian due to virtual radiation of one quantum. The equation can be understood by imagining (Fig. Likewise light goes as l/&.y.r. for this is the reciprocal D'AAiembertian operator of the wave equation of light. while These terms are discussed in detai! below.) quantum absorbed &fore the scattering takes place one finds a of momentum R.3. and sum on polarization p. S(a)) in which an electron in state in space and time as a eq(-iq-z). the electron then having momentum PS-.. Comptan scattering. Ittirttarrvt correction to scattering. the result can be shown to be exactfy where we have used the expr~sion Eq.Q<b)l k-m)-i) mentum P. . polariation simpty the matrix element of a between states l and 2. Using the same tine of rmoning.scattering.5. Procesm in which a number of real quanh is field acts on an electron. (151. we imagine that quanta are parIf ticles of zero mass. consider the conider the scattering in a potential A = A. The reawn an electron of momentum P or if both emission and absorption occur after the propagates as l j ( p . k. (Fig. plarizatian and in stare of momentum p~=pl. next. 4(4) ciprocal of the Dirac equation operator.The matrix for "S First. emits state $2 where p t = p ~ C q . &fa).m ) is that this operator is the re.(Fig. other probfems may given initially and finally offer no problem (assuming be set up directly in momentum space. Next ~tis scattered by the potential (matrix a) receiving additional mamntum q. here refer not to the order in true time hut to W e next ask for the first order (in 8) radiative comecthe suatsion of events alan the the electron.and hence propagating with factor @I. more prwkky. Erl.k-?)-'. Using these results we see that the xlf-enerm (9) is the matrix element between a and 16 of the matrix w- . (34). varying Gompton eflFect (Fig. to the or%r aftrajectory of of the mat+ Tbst qpearance in several ways this can happn. trated in Fig. and we are simply solving this equation. etc.. The quantum propagate front emission to absorption (k+) and we integrate over all quanta (&K). An eliectron initiebtly p.I or more precisely the limit as M of (k-k+i&)-L Further @R means (2~)-~dkldFE2dkadkp.

The condition that f is to have no discontinuity in value on the light cone impties k2C(ka) appraaches a r o as k2 approaches infinity. many of them are meaningkm. a departure other thain simply rewriting ezpressions in a simpler form.($\s") is the same inlegxa1 t&en over only positive frequenciies for &> tl and over only negative ones for I. Pair annihgation with emission of two quanta. a convergence factor C(#) where 5. vve can expect aU such integrals with their times convergence hcrors to converge and that the result of d may be a p r e ? r ~fox pwitive RI as (A. since e(kz) faus off at temt as rapidly as 1/k2. The exprasion for the sezenergy matrix is now - .this prKess is ez@l+ql-ns)-%el...mj-'@z+@~(P~+(lam)-1@. then the Fourier trwform of f+. tum theary is ta =$ace the &+(ss) appsring the quantum mechanical interaction by a new function f+(s2). no more s than a re-expresion of conventional qusntum electrodynamia.That is. implying that =me average (with weight G(X)dX) over values of X may be taken afterwards. propagation of an electron while that quantum is in where g(KeK)is h---" the density of oscillators and the held.r<l~ analop to the relation of &(ss) to S($). For practical pupwe sfxall suppose kg) herafter that Cfk2) is simply -X2/( k2--. which. are given by the =me matrk. apparendy. We desire to make a modificationof quantum eleetrodmmics analogous to the modification of classical electrodynamics described in a previous article.xtz)d4k. for prol~agationof quanta of mrnenlum k is (15) the second &m arising b a u s e the ernhion of sz may also precede the abmqtion of el (Pig. As a consquence. mdif"ication in the quanThe obviom comespondin@. There the &(slag) appearing in the action of interaction where J(s)is a function of small was rephced by width and great height. etc. The in (@==j(z-z) be written* as can function l. compared to m. TEE G Q ~ X C i E N G E PROCESSES WTE OF VIRTUAL QUANTA *This reIalion is given incarrecdy in A. This is of no influence for the Dirm electron. 3) and 4(s4a2f.~ k C ( k ~ ) . @ z C P ~ + q l .~ 2 ) . The function f+(s1z2) m y still b v e a discontinuity in value on the Ii@t cone. Since in all procmes the quantum momentum will be cantabed in at teat one extra factor 01 the form Cp-R-.. That is X2 may be assumed to have an infxniteshal negative imaginary p a t .m)-' representing X cos(]R ~)dkrEKg(K. however.~ . discas& below. p i t r o n statw being t h w with negrttive time component of B. the interaction involves g d i e n t s of the potential which reinstates the d function if f has discontinuities. total matrix for The the Compton effect is. In terms of G(k)the condition is %'his condition will also be U & in discusing the convergence of vvacuun? polarization integmIs. to obtain the Klein Nishina formula. This sixndy means that the ampfitude is (see Appendix A) Thew expressions are. a has been indicated. equiitian just preceding lb. from the coincidence of the B-function Only at this point singufarities in K+($..h2)-koting where &"G(X)dX= l and G involves values of X large and dropphg terms of order d h . then. Sfb)). (26)) all such pracessrts will now be finite and detinite {excepting the p Itb c l o ~ loop.) The poles are defined by rephcing k2 by @+is in the limit 6-4. converges. writing F+{#) -. R). Wether E v q int-al over an intemediate quantum which quanta are abmrbed or emittd depends on whether the prwiousty invofved a fczctor b k / R Zh now suppiied with time compnent of q is positive or negative. For example. One takm rather than W . A. is it necasary to m&e a real dqarture from conventional electrodynamics. the &f-energy exprasim (9) or (ll) gives an infinite result when waluatd*The infinity ariscrs. The integral of (IQ) with C(P) X2(kZ-. d inlegr%Isarsover the moments in which the of the electrons rather than the quanta). Q. matrix elements of this between initial and find electron states @ 1 + ~ ~ = # 2 . For a particle satisfying the Rlein Gordon equation. We can postulate that if the Fourier transform of the classical J(st22) is the integral over all R of F(k2)exp(-ik.

but at =me time far past suffered a scattering by a potential b. 7 ~ ~ ~ (1941)). it was rncrrrrectty joined onto Bethe's non-relativistrc Phyg. as their ai~utatton.61 a&? . Here the onIy dqendence on the convergence factor is in the term fa. the energy is very nearly dekrmined m that 8'2 is very nearly m2. The author feels unhepptly raponsble. though larp. F.) We shall compare the effect on the matrix (25) of the virtual quanb and af the chanp of mass Art&. This is. This raufts in for the very considsnrble delay in the publiarran of French's adding a term --(l/@ to the I arithm in W Eq. The remaining terms give for smaI1 q. But. T b t is. French has finally shown that a l h u g h the ex.W. Rev. 11 we limit our discusion to the egects times o Am and of the virtual radiation of one quantum bef tween two such scatterings each of tlre eEfects will be finite.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 177 When applied to a state of an electron of Illamenturn P Vile mwt now study the remaining terns (13) and satisfying pzl=mu. Weidopf.'* r t d i y pointed out u the author.The egect of a virtual quantum is where fq*)t = 2%sin@ we have assumed the m.. and the amplitude to first order in AE by -iAB. and q*/kz.! where The integral (12) becomes 1 is the time it is acting. Fn hp4 388 used by the Phys...This has the same result (to this order) as replacing pleted simulaneously with the author's eady in LOIKJ. the other terms (131. and their Blgerence is determinate. where r=. however. F. B. The remainder can be expressed as a muttiple -r(f2) of the unperturbed amplitude (25).so that they converge for physically. Tllis foolnote is spprwriately result now agrees with that o f 7 R. h private communiration. As we shall see in a moment. "That the result given in B in Eq.. it gives for the change in mass (as (14). Such a the well-known infra-red cabstrophy. (19) so thst the result o t c ~ o n e dby this error.h e potential$ a and 6 in (25) pression far the radiationless ~at&d:ringB... Xntqral (12 1 is also not eonverpnt because of sorbed a t any time previous to the scattering.(so that Ptlkr=ml). .-l author should have been in2k. Kroll and . We suppofe that the electron approaching the scrtttering potential a has not been free for an infinite which when integrated (see Appendix B) gives (e2/2r) time. Rench.>.lnX.n-S/5--.<<m<X. A simple and direct rnethod of mrsking this comprison is just to evatuate the integral on k in (26) and subtract from the resuit the exprmsion (27) where Am is givm in (21). He shows that the reiatiain Ln?k. which is infinite. For this reason proceps has the e8ect of a change in mass of the electron we catculate (as disrzusd in B) the vatue of the integml in the state 1. Eq. (U) whik that of a chan~e mass can be written of and we are interested in the digerence (25)-(27). ~ e i w k o p f aad 5. (19) was in error W= re- -~(191~)a(#'- (281 y V. numbered. (24./m.1n(XJrn)-+9/4-2tn(~ltm. (9)) the i n t e p l (19) for the self-energy and the reult is. gave a (l and diflerent result. For the quantum a n be emitted and ablarge k. Rev. In the integrails we include the since pla=mz. It therefore changes the energy by dE meuming the photons ta have a smaff mass Xm.. &low& to operate on the initial s b t e SE. the major effect of this term wuld be eanceted by the e @ ~ t of ckange of mass 6%. Hence the factor folloGring af#I-mf-%iii be just Am. (18) or (2.a m . m. 75 1248 (19%) and N E. if one ROW tries 10 expand l/(P1-m) We can now cornpteb the discussion of the radiative =(P~+m)/(nP-tlf~) one obtains an infinite result. d X . (14) give contributions which just cancel the ra term. Fren& ind V. rs correct. The integrar on k in (13) can be performed (aftw mdtiplimtion by C(R3) since it involves nothing but h B. which shows the change in magnetic moment and the Lamb shift ils intepreted in more detail in B. corrections to sattering. (If the time is long between b and a. -%rwt)a . result. The situation can be analyzed in the following manner. just what is expected convergence factor C(kZ).ctrix to and operate between statetr of momentum #I and $z=#~+q and have neglected term of order &. The propagation from b to a is represented by a matrix in which one is to integrate possibly over P7depending on deails of the situation)..

may facilitate analysis some~vhat removing the effort and ambiguities that may be involved in trying to rearrange the othmwl'w divergent terms. integral in (19) L vaLd only if &t ) can tron the same type of term arises from the eBerts of a virtual embsion and abmvtion both previous t. The total energy a h r k d by distant absorkn will not c h d with the energy loss of the m.The probkm was solved in the manner here in order to illustrate how the use of such convergence factors.. The error. just &lis emy to interpret But by what should the imaginary part. Comparison to (28) gives for r the e ~ r e s i o n The integrd can be imediatdy evaluated. An equak term -&a arEses from virtual tmnsitions after the wttering (14) m that the entire 7a tern in (22) is crmeeled. as the imaginary part of (81. B) "fie b tbe. This means. PR this problem of the radiative corrwtions to scattering the net result is insensitive to the cut-off.ource. One might. the general expm&on (valid for any operators A. One can say therefare.).$ of A. App~dix).(1-&r(p"l))b. ga t f a t its eAmt (trapsout i the limit. for a repfacd by Pdm. The rephcement of 8+ by f+ given in (161. Since W-m)-" w+m)/(P'2-ntl) =.Cp+mf/2m2e.On the other hand the light ra&ted at very large disknces from a fource is indepndent of f4. simply lead to the same factor r so that the exprmion (23) may be used directly and these renormalization integrah need not be computed afresh for each problem. 6 be rqlaced? The choice of . but the presumption is very st-rong tbat it is sadsfactciry. turns out to be just equal to that givm in (25). that this attempt to find a consistent moditiation d quantum efectrocfynamics is incomplete (see aim the quation of closed loops. the Ioctation of the ppoles of (57)) is arbitra-ary and almost certainty f incorrect. (17) is not determined by the analam with the cksical problem.o the other prmesm. In the clrossical limit only the real part of 4 (i.e. king of order P where 2" is the i time between the scatterings b and a.) which when a-ctingon the state ut is just 7. the result depends slightly an the function f+.3%*. we have miLde here (in defining. We are in a situation analogous to that in the classiral theoq i f the entire f function is made ta contain only retwded cont~butions A. I the radiation resistance is calculated for an atom. R e shall compute corrections to it or only to its own order (s-9 in the limit e-4. the limit of I @ ~ as f i ' * q S (assuming the integrals have an infra) red cut-off). The reason that r is just the value of (12) wben q2==0 can also be seen without a direct calculation as follows: Let us call the vector rzT length m in the dimtion of p so that if &'z=m(l+~}2we have P'==((+E)# and we ' b k e t as very smalt. The daire to make the methods of simplifying the calculation of quantum electrdynamic prwesses more wide@ available has prompted this publication befare an analysis of &e eorrecg form for f+ is complete. (It is a k strong that a ~ t i s f a c t o qform for f+ can be found. (we One desires instad the analogue of (I. This prob'tem is being studied. In the finit.. The tern (27) can be written approximatelyBP as - using the expression (19) for Ant. of course.. as fie-* the net effect on the scattering is -3ra where r.-nu-m)=@-mlg so the net resuit ts ap rommatdy a@-m]b/4m%nd is not of order I/c but smaller.$l%t= mwt. They. Far it could turn out that any correct form of j+ which will guarantee energy consemtion may at the same time not be able to make the self-enera integral finite. to first order. then.consistenq of this procedure. the correct physics might be considered to be that obtained by letting A-+ccl after mass rrmormahtion. since the enerm discrepancies discussed vanish in the limit h+w. the quantity (25) is of order €4 T. m we have. For the same r m m the term @t+nr)/2str in (28) is efiectivefy 1 and we are left with -r of (23). But since mv. therefore.) In the awlpb of the raaative corrections to sattering one type of tern was not considmed.we have pp@-m) -.16 In mare complex problems stmting with a free efecwrwian is not exact becawe the substitution of btn opmteg on a state such k replmed by m. The net of the two egects b thmefore approgmatelyg6 a term n w of order l c (since W-rn)-"@?~) / Y (2m2e)-9 and therefore the one daired in the hmrt. I have no proof of the matlrematicaf.@~/nt. since it is the same as the integral (12)) but with q= Q. that by a simple rearrangement of terms prwious to the integration we could have avoided the use of the convergence factom completdy (see for example Lfuuuisw7). try to take the psition that. The result is therefore r. is of order a(p"-nr)-l@-nt)W-m)-ib which is o((L+e)&+nt)(p--ntf X ((X+ef#++#(2~+. The potentiali . n We have used. wen when they are actually unby necasary. l/(&%). bejaw).

which is not gaugg invariant.. From this point of view the clmeif loop path I d i n g to (32) is unnatural. emitting a quantum q=#b-fi. from the source of electrons to the apparatus which measuretr t h m . the xatiering of light by fight would be zero. Such a suggestion must m e t -era1 qurrstions.)).~ One e x p c a the current (31. since the integral was originally S@. One can st?e this best by calculating J.. Closed Ioops would be exeluded. The mtrix eiment for this procem (and the othm vvhich can be oblirined by reanan&ng the or&r in time of the vadous events) is FXG.-$a+~)d~p&'pb and both p and f i b get wnvergence factom. It might be: assumed that the only wths of meaning are those which start Irorn the source arid work their way in a cantinuous path [pssibly containing m n y time reveals) to the d e t ~ t o r . etc. that is q. From dl one p i n t of view we are consideriry~ routes by which a given elelron can get from one lugion of spa=-tim to another.. I altering the kernel from K to & another.1) used above i s i n c a r r ~ and is to be replaced by a modified function K+' having no shgularity on the light cone. We have alrady found that this may be done for electrom moving in a fixed potentid.will ..==O dnce I. howW ever. AI1 momenta P. converges but the result is unsatisfa&~ry. exp(-iqex) creates a pair of electrons (see Fig. Among o t k r things. rnormenta B. between states 1 an&2 of the ori&naI electron (%qy.%. Lacking such ii. T be sure.lS This will multiply the inteeand of (32) by G(p-m2)C((P+ q)2-ntZ). late. a pair of electrom once created cannot annihilate one another again. by which (fa~tox it absorbed (matrix element of 7. Ziee B. demonstration the prmumption is that the diaculties of vacuum polarlzsltion axe not sia easily An alternative prmedure discusrjed in B is to msume t that the function K+(2. is a gradient. One way to avoid such difffmjties is apparent. this d a s seem to indicate o that the closed loops are necessaxy. -#b. is then chmacteristic for this prablem of ~ h r i m t i o n of the vacuum.. are ealculatitd.) to be conserved.=O or qJ. The modififation of S to f afters the amplitude with which the cumnt j .l). The eqrasion within the spur Fcomes (P+q-rn)-lg(irCP-m)-Iy. One sees at once that J. a E e t the scattered e l ~ t r o n but it can ..+@ proced from there to annihi. it is always passibk that these mlnatters of probabiliity consewstion. which m a n s the spur and the inte@ on d4p. which qwntum scatters the original electron from slate 1 to state 2.=g. prohcing a quantum (factor y) which propagates TV($)> over to the other eiedron. with closed Imps excludd.e. The eEect of this is to provide a convergence fmtar C(p-m*) for every integrsI over electron momenta. (In irddician tfte chsrge rmonnslizationh -7/6 irddd to the iomithm. i. taJs for the diation (and the conseqjuent convergeace factar C(ltn) for the quant. This leads to the condition J. The integrat now . or @. and -M. "Added tci the terms givcn k i a w (33) there is a tern 4{k"--2@'+.g. and spin slates of the virtual. Atthough we are not exprimeatally sure of these phenomena.=O. Again. But when the eqnpresion (32) is integatd with such canvergmce f ctors it does not satisfy this condition. which can be written as the difference of two terms: (P-m)-%# &+ @.=O which is equivalent to qJ. fect on mLtenngz (30)- ~ This is b m u the potential praducm the pair with amplitude proprtionai to a. is s techrii ue also makm self-energy and rdiationlm rcatW tering integrals even without t k mdifieacion of 6. far - U Et would be very intcrmting to calculate the Lamb shiR wmrately enou h to be sure that the 20 memyclm -CM from vacuum p%xbtion are actually present.. Also one expects no current if a. The pmbbility that no p k i prduced by a potential is s not unity and its dwiation from unity arise from the imaginary part of J. Is symmetrical.m)-LyL' Each of these terns would give the same result if the integration d4$ were 6thout a convergence fxtor. times a constant. ib consequent current canservation and the general mnsistency of the thmry. One can imagine that the ctosd loop path of the pitron-eiectron produces a current which is the source of the quanta which a t on the ~ c o a e l ~ t r o nThe qmndty d . 61. will work themselves out as dmply i t 1 the case of interacting particIes as for thow in a fixed potenthi... the electrons of momenta p.y. directly from (32). V m u m piariaation ef5.d. etc. do nothing to prevent the divergence of the integral (32) and of its edects. electron are admitted.. divergm badly.j..) 5 .QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 779 which we can assume to vary as e.fqrjbr for C(kJ) -Xt(&X'))'.. which does not satisfy the Dirac equation we have iost the gauge invariance. K'. The d o 4 lwps are a conNquence of the w a l hole theory in electrodynmicts. iTlfis pair then mnnihilatm. they are require$ ta keep probability conmwed.

After this is done the finat term rem&ning in (331.hz(bzl-.o $p such a2(i). A method of ma-king (32) convergent without spiling the gauge invariance has been found by Bethe and by Pauli.Q Rev. i= l to N are a set af plane wave dtistwbing poentialis crrrrying momentit q. The gauge invariance is clear. the current producing the potmtkl. photon. . for it first order egect vve would require the mtrix element of q betwm twa slilltes $S and Pa=bl+~. To show that this is the case we mnsider the aampiitude for emiaion (real or virtual) of a photon and show that the divergence of this amplitude'-XZ)-l sa that (p-ns2)-Vw-nt2) . To prove this in general. Then 8.l)t as q2 g w from below to above 4ma. Rev... is ealied J. {To make the necessary analytk continuation. Any rndirect eEi?cu &bey may b e via tha ezciusjm prin+te have a b d y k n hdudtd. since q. in cancehtion in (32) however.&..e#z@l) the xnsztrix 1) element vanish&. This would have the =me effect as a chnge in charge.But we have taken this digerence for each propagation betwecm internetions with photons. =0.. (e. so that we would have a Werence A(%) betwwn a2 and the e x p ~ m e n tally observe$ ckrge. - - In the usual form of quantum electrodynamics the tongitudinal. Therefore what we have to show is that the corresponding matrix elements of q.)therefore gives a current proprtional to the current prduckg the potenthl.q..p . After thh renormaliation of clzarge Is made.q 2 / h t ) f becomes -i(qz/4m2. Once the simple problem of a single closed loop is solved there are no further divergence diacutties for more complex proce~. &-t-A(l?z). namely lyP"=p+q. Next they annihslate. Likewise if we take the factor G P . Far exrtnrpk.=q vanish.analogourj to the difference between m and the o h w e d mass.. 48. contains the ~ 1 4 9 3effectsz1 polruization of the vacuum. which is conserved t3jJax. a pair is am@ v~rtualty along with a./a%#:. the imaginary part representing the Ioss in amplitude required by the fact that the probicbility that no quanta are produe& by a potential able to produce p i r ~ ((@)b> 2m) decrea~eswith time.=4dr with a current j. The term $On(X2/nz2))(qsq. The convergence factor for light can be lmked upan as the resuft of supwsition of the e@ects of quanta of mrious masses (same contributing negativeiCy). . that is.Four or moP-e potential interactio~ give integals which are wavergent even without a cons vergence factor as is well Emown.~ - + &*C(h)XzdX=O. imagine m to have a smdl negative imaginary part.@)a.(q. d[e2)/d= (28/3?r) Itl(X/m).For smlt $ it behavm as (2/1S)q2 (adding -8 to the logitrithm in the Lamb effect). For qz> (2mj2it is where sinhu= (@/4m2. But since q=Ps-#f and (G&@*) =r n ( 9 ~ ~= (zi. which groves the contention in this case. of A. so that ( I .. below) (for example.the first can be converted into the hecond by a shift of This does not reult the origin of 8.)'lIr=O is carried along as a supykmenhry condition. &rbr. -g&. and transverse waves are given wparate treatment. This cbrge depnds Iogarithmically on the cut-off..4f) (1935f..g.q.. is simply -$a.l]$ and l/tanB.. absorbin this pbton. Phys.)O and = in fact our so1utioq dso satisfies aAddz. no egfects will be e d t i v e to the cut+E. Phya. m m may be emisions or absoxptionsof the same or &Berent quanta) and cornider a matrix for the Lxansitbn from a state of momentum t.m 2 } .(m22)and the corresponding quantity over the =me rmge of p. The amplitude for emission for photons pohrized in the p direction invojvm matrix elements of 7. Any Imp with an odd numkr of interactions gives zero (1.L ---m2--X*)-+e are taking the dig=enm of the resdt for electrons of mass ns and mass (Xz+m2n2)k. Su& loops are disrqardsd on the gmads that tghey do not intern! anything and are &meby completely unobmablc. but with m repbced by (m2+Xz)k is J. Afternately the condition (MJdx. In the prmnt form no such special camiderations are necessary far we are dealing with the dueions of the equation -mA.reference 5)). 48. R. S5 (19351. It dso vanishm in m r e camplex situsttions (menti&y &came of relatlan (34). They suggest instead that once created with a certain mass the ekectron should continue to propagate with this m a s through all t h potential illteractions until It closes its loop. For example. suppse a. Uehlin . the function G(X) satisfying m ( X ) d X = I ernd Then in the expression for JNFP the range of p inlegation can be extended to infinity as the integral now converges.m 2 ) = . integrated over some finite range of p. That is if the quantity f32). the B"1embertian of the ptentml. That means at least .i tanhg= +i(@-4m2)1fqS)-b. B There are i q s mmpletely withntut externa. for the convergenca: factor is aaltered by the substitution.(d+X2) we should calculate I t is zero for a free light quantum (qZ=Q).--O. The situation i analogous to that for self-csnergy.g*&.y.1 interactions. The result of the integration using this method is the interal on d over G@) of X (see Appendix C) with q2= b2 sina@. try putting ez=qz in the rnatrk (15) for the Compton EBect)..) =O Oprrtting (as it always wiU) on a potential of zero divergence the (g.) Closed loops containinga number of quanta or potential interactions larger than two produce no troubte.

(we mediate factors in the seeond term X .2-Ka)-1 the net effect is -( will process for light polarimd i d i r ~ t i o n is e.(pk+p-n)-E.(Po+ g-m)-" + which is equivaient to +a~n&. . m>-L )-.r.. Wmce as shown a b v e the result is ha no dect a ~i~~~eiectron since a tIransformation sera. See W. .QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS 781 aw UN ffsptM-' (@1-%)-'4%w h ~ e p ~ = f i (and in the ~t+~~ product.. Or again it m y act between the pf&ntiaI ak and a&* for each K. (Yg* ' ((E(Z-ka"/ff2)(yt. taming momentum -k. Fhya. (6V-n)+=?@ which ir lormaliy idmtikl to the Wualiw computing cross e i o n s for such Eght.ionalizr?d above that g N ~ ~ For* m ~ h r i ~ e d BrOgresX since p no longer equal to a numhr.) Section 1 4 Tbe fvnrrian in this r f i o n has only one component Thin has a uwful conwquence in that in and is not a spinor. ~ r f ..-m)-%. implies MP=@. Let us choose for tbe valuepr of p. r The usual elimination of bngitudinal and m l a r virtual photons (fading to an instantilne.l If &e+~-m)-'@a. There remain onIy the term8 representation of the Coulomb potential. where Xi"== (H.u # @ ~ . -yd. 2 for these are reprewnted by transverse quanta. resulting in an insantanmus the 5rst of which may be converted to the other by the interaction. The fact that l / R 2 does not contain kr mans tkat R4 tro that the sum break into the diBermce of tvvo sums.. but it look at first m though in the sum on all four vaiues of p. q.A s A ($5)+ r@ is zero. vat The methods may be readily extended to partic1a of spin zero satisfying the Klein Gordan equ~ltion? These cancel the two terns originally d i ~ u s d that ~ \ t ..i~ianand ~ h r p t i o n si&lar.. wave for which A . givm ~ e r oIIence k t r K is equivalent to K 4 r t and .= dv/azR wiU tater i n t ~ m t over ail R). Thus SuPPSe the matrix elmeat far some ~f W.S. It is removes easy to see ia The equations d i s c u d in this m t i ~ were deduce$ from the n formuia(ion of the Kfein CIordon quauon given in reference J.m)+ a equivglent to m rrcting on the X (P@-#g-m) 8s initial state.P-~I)-lmmt..f . . fC" t k for of t h m tn which a we how the argument denominatorthe spin 1/2. aqildx.m)-Iq is. This m. of r.yr)d4R/flCIP.g . The most general matrix element is simply a 1inar combination of &m. 13.-E-q-m]-'ar since (Be+ g. the virtual quanta interact through terms like 7 .. tween states p and #M+Q in a situation in which not only are the a. Real proceseces correspnd to .. qt= (Z. But we must find (76. But p does equal 0 &ht ing in the S directi~nwe would ordharity calculate (p-p)@ so that (P-n)-1 may now be interpret& F (mp+d ~t)a-P'#~(P. Define x=krrt+RyK. .Cpk+~-m>-l k-I xq@r-mI-"ak However.k2dbk.t)== l. +r)+(x. m e i s f ~ m ~ cornmu@n O ' diretions rather than just the two special polarization ~d&~+fl&. . arFflff+ & vecam.. acted on by potential X = k of matrix ele. .. acting but also another potentiai a expf-@-%)where a = q. Next consirier the matrix be. .k). The pole occurs when @ S O .which is equivalent to -aNn(p. the time 1. Now it is c l a r that on& two p g ~ n d i d to K are effective. but i n c e (k. and the d3W. This give + N-l Z: QN R[ k-t I-WI N-1 (pl+q-nt>-fa. Rev.k has no eRecr since we are e have =id kittie more than that a potenthl A. far any a.. Likewise if it acts after all the potentiab k.( y r r . for momentum + k (the r w w d sign af rke momenta in the ments for em.m gives zero on the final state. A typkat &rm in a virtual transition is 7. (34) 9 KLEfR \TOOWN EQUATEON . from the ends of the range of suxnmtion. 9 - - - so that on mulriptying by k2d*k=d4h(k.n t ) . interpret o to mean a& m t h r t h u Lt. E the of the equations in momentum~prrce wrnato &rmal17 identrcd n e.* yx). equivatent to Cpo+ q.K)l.Z+M.m)-"q(gr- If @$-m)-"a 1-1 XncirIentally.2+M.. potentials produced by charge density. The m a n s just scalar wava. for flW2 quanta.~ [yIrl. m@ impgm that %wuom . &r+ Q. and we have shorn a h m that k replacing the 7 .it6 1) This unpolar* tight is a r e ~ t i v i s t i a ~ ~&S S aU in vlrtue of the fact that the many fompnent wave y .(iVz+m)-m-I(V$+ B2*)31+(2. eis disturbed b an added powriatinterhave no dKt.m ) . that is.* y t ) .k)=kig(rr-* .lu c* M. . I-lence any w ~ v e emitted will the eatin: on the c*rme care is rmuiret2 when satisfy dAJazs= 0. But weaawejI sum M. we would have four Ends of polarization instad of two. of k.~. b i ~ l light one can quard over au four by UM? of the Kemmer-Duffin matirccs F. cmrdinate repremtation integrations by pab.. -7.% ~ ~ @ ~ . i n f e q. in which case it givm U H ~ @ . 203 f1W}. the? ciiretion ol vector part K.-~N -1 N. We skI1 not change the exprwion for these two 1. .m 2 @ = i a ( A M ~ ) / ~ % ~ i ~ . An alternative format method of making the computing probabilities for tmnsition for unplariad equatrions valid for spin zero and also for spin 1 is ( ~ a u m a . Pauh.and consider ik.. in invaknt EOncep afld permiB some shPr&atiom in functio~1(" (5 components for spin O 10 for %iracI) mtisfies t./P is just tfie momenturn replacement of k by K-l.iyact prwioustoalla.. N-l +a# a @Cltl-m)-ba. v ~ L B ~ ~ / ~ s ~ . since f t ~ . y r P d * R where the represent some interve~irmg matrices... Mod. -rf+(x. terms with larger i are written to the left). is.2+lli( f ordinate space will be valid of the function K $2 1) is sven ari for p&. .with the exceprianto (n3-n)W-m')--" from wave vmtor Xight &-nr)-l h& been rat. can be integrated first.. r 3 . or a = q) annot be Exactly this term would arise if a system. $'=@q(-i@):ctr)tt it. *-P.&f. Likewise iongitu&mal wave (that prticie. / i ) n . l/r.rd-lr""(rzs on we can still cancIude (rrr. and t m pqendicular directions 1. poles in the fomulae for virtual procmstzs. it give q ( p ~ .~~ Coulomb potential] can of c o w be performed here too (although it is nat pzrticu:ularIyuseful).?K)"R8K4(yr*. Now k=kdrg-krE.r .

In this ase the slf-energy converges but depends qmdratically on the cut-off X and is not necesmrily (as is readily shown by the usual method of demon. C. the final momentum being P. The Base order. 0. e act. and only negative frequencies from the sudace future to 2. operatm.= 4 comes from the A. h . This integral diverge quadratically and would not without the C(k2) E converge if Cf ) = . the wave function $42) satisfies +DJI-m2$=O.+g) a. associated with the possibiiities of psrir production. or one absorbed. (32)).1) defined in (1. inside a space tine region it is given by giving. we must use a stronger convergence factor. term in (a).. carry momentum qb. In these terms a-c would aPwrAs a further example the self-enerp of a particle of momentum p. is the notation as in (33).~]. for exampke.. Since the interaction occurs through the gradients of the ptential.A. Thr: prctpagatian factor is now (Pp- r ~ @ ) . The radiative corrections to stratiqg Green" theorem) the inteeal being over an scattering after mass renormatization are insensitive to entire &surface boundary of the region (with nomal the cut-od just as for the Birac equation.statistics by the rule that if two processes lead to the same state but with two e l ~ t r o n sexchanged.X2)-*.) (illustrated in Fig.Fq.12) are and ..small compared to m. The matrix element is the sum of three term w=p. their sponding to 2.--@b+qe.X4(R?. it is far the Femi case (see I). and a..dJ. IVhen there are several particles one can obtain Bose vector M.~ a particle af momentum p.F)./azP. 2. exp(-iqb-~)~ G exp(-iqc.rbility (and also a char@ renormalization of oppsite sign to that expect&).= 0. fia--flo+qa and Pb=fiD+qb. by which two quanta can act at the same time.a + p. b.n and a new ps&bilityarige$.. There is only one new point here. Illrere is no a-c term for the order a. operating together in a similar manner. b. after B-a operates the momentum is #g+q. Fermi statisties wautd give a gain In prob. In an actuaf problem there would be other terms like (36) but with alterations in the order in which the quanh a. The caupling to the etcsctromagnetic fteld 1s now. act-tng at the same instant and arixs from the A.+. 7) The important kernel is now I+@. The term A d . Xt is ftta=ft.XZ/(k2.(X)dX.m t s the msibility of the simultanwus emission and absorption of the same virtual quantum. The final term comes from c. one emitted) at the same time. tern and repre- FIG. (36). X this case equivalence to the and positrons in direct analogy to the Uirac case. af simult&aeaus interaclian with two quanta a+. (b). far . Klein-Gordom particle in three plenkialq Eq.)/dx. b. These gradient aprators in momentum space mean respectively the momentum after and before the potential A. Imp to the vacuum polarination is the ogpofite of what As an example. For a free particle. Only the positive frequency companents of JI contribute from the surface preceding the time corre. and a. and B.A. These can be interpreted as elmtrons ampritudres are to be added (rather than subtracted as n for Fermi statistics).+q. thus permits a new type of process in which two quanta can be emitted (or absorbed. the term in statistics mean that the sign of contributian of a closed A&.d. It.+qb or p&.p. The imaginary part for (@)t> 2% is again positive representing the loss in the probability of finding the final state to be a vacuum. The second term comes from b. m that Together b. The right-hand side of (35) a n be considered as a second quantization treatment of Pauli and Weisskopf source ofnew waves and a series of t e r m written down should be demonstrabke in a way very much like that to represent matrix elements for processes of increasing given in I (appendix) for B i r u electrons.iA. At a pint.). where the g. expf-iq. The first come when each potential acts through the perturbation ia(A. to act in that order on a particle of original momentum pep SO that.. G we have assumed. or in general (27) with &XzC. for exam@€ C<kf? -. 7. suppose three quanta or ptentials.

q is equivalent to the pseuctosalar interaction ZMF-"& beaus9 i f taken between free prticle wave functions of the nucleon of momenta fit and &=fi~+q. For IOW order prwesses p---"r. diverges loerithmically and so must be cut off.the self-enerw mtrix of ~ ~ ~ ~ a nucleon of momentum in this theory is factors. 2 . Rev. Soc.yr and sum over i= X. 75.~ Although t h w divergencies tan be held. Calculations. The n e c e sary intqrals are made finite by convergence factors C ( ~ % . Pseudoscalar mesons with peud+vector coupiing carre. that is. Were the factor for emission or ahsolrfrtion of a mmon is gy.Wethe. 3. (SpecifimIly repface the say. yFar~emmple. and since 7 5 anticommutes with p? and p3 ovrating on the state 2 equivalient to K as is fix on the state l. peudoscalar theory gives a more important interaction in second order than it does in first. With scaIar (I) or pseudoscalar (7s) neutral mmns the result. the resutts then are sensitive to the method used for convergence and the size of the cut*@ values of X. The factor g. APPLECATXQR TO MESON T R B O m S ELEG The theories which have been cfeveioped to dmribe mesons and the interaction of nucieons can be easily expressd in the languag us& kre. The nucleon is then asumed to interact with mesons. but since ysZ== is not small. we consider the case of neutral mmns.7-) and T+ change neutron to proton (T+ on proton=O) and T. Next consihr charged mesons in the absnce of an electromagnetic field. the situation is just as in eletrodynamics. hovirever. But here there is a lurtlrer difference from electrodynamics for scalar or pseudmalar mewas in that the polarizaf. Am. by strong enough convergence M. Phya. as is proved by our discussion on Iongitudinal wavm In efectrodynamics.r p 7 ~ with a subwquent sum over all p and v ) for virtual m a n s ) . There is no loner . by r. These extra gradients invoive the danger of producing higher divergencies for real proce e s .QUANTUM it?." replaces the electric charge e. Scalar mesons with vector coupling . As is well known. 7++ T . but agreement with exprimental results is not obbined. AA.chngm proton to neutron. it is the momentum of the m w n if absorbd. due to the effecls of virtual mmons. These theories will therefore give quite different rmults in the majority of prcrctical problems. this theory with neutral msans gives zero for all procam. This shows that the inleractiotl is unusua!)iy are& in tire non-relativistic limit (for example the expected value 8 1 of 7 for a free nucleon is zero). pseudoscalar coupling repftrce 7 by ~ ~ = i y . are essentiaiiy iindepndent of cut-08. to sum upon.~ r p i(r+. One can introduce imtopic spin opratrtrs in an obvious way. 24. direction. is diret!y proportional to the mcmn potentiai. 1645 (1949). anaiogous to the vacuum wlarization in electrodynamim. The nucleons are usualiy assum& to eiatisfy Dirac's equation so that the factor for propagation of a nuclean of momentum j5 is where M is the mass of the i nuciwn (which implies that nucleons can te created in pairs). =H. to fowet order in the interactions can be made very emily for the various theories. or the negative of the mornentum of a meson emitted. we have Other t y p s of maon theov result from the reptace.S b ~ & W. For scalar msons with as scalar coupling the only change is that one replaces the y by 1 in emission and absorption. Thus the pseudomlar coupling comtsnt should be chosen to fit nuclear forces illcluding these imprtant second order prmesm. HeitIer. the "mesonic charge. First. a direction of polarization. f i r pseudo. After this renormalization the results depend only on gradients of the meson potential and. swn& to 7 king replaced by p-'~raq while vector mesons with tensor coupling comapond ta using (2fi)-q(rr~-517u). y& gives a logarithmially divergent interaction of neutron and electr~n?. the various theories digering in the form assumed for this interaction. The part sensitive to the cut-off. For example. when this mefan is ""palarized" in the p.%The equivalence of psudoscaIar and psudovector coupling rvhich holds for low order processes therefore does not hold when the pseudoseatar theory is giving its most importa~tteffects.B $ ) in eiectroctynamics. This is in addition to the mesonic chars rmorrnaIizatian coming from the prdudion of virtual nuclwn pairs by a meson. 2 (Wahiqtan. ment of y by other expressions (for example by k ( ~ ~ ~ e . in that the result: converges without need for a cut-off and depends only on gradients of the meson potential. E"11)rs. X alcuhting the mrrectia~lsto scattering of a nun 7) cleon by a neutral vector rneson field ( . " result from the replacement of r by y where q is the final mornentum of the nucleon minus its initial momentum. p..$]-"rather than q-* as it is for light) where p is the mass of the meson.ion also gives a term in the induced current proportional to the meson potential representing l therefore an additional renormalization of the mass cf tlte mesoa wlxich usuatly de~xnds quadratimlly on the cut-off. It may thereby be rmoved by a renormalization of mesonic char@ g. The amplitude for propagation of a meson of momentum q in intemedhte s t a t e is (q2.) It is just as easy for practical problems simply to keep track of whether the particle is a protan or a neutron on a &=gram drawn to help write down the 1949). Bull. We shall content oumlva therefore with a brief summary of the methotis which can be used. scalar mesom. 2 where neutral y ~ . The theo:ory closest to electrodynamics is the th-eory of vector m w n s with vector coupling. Most likely alI of our are present formuIatio~ls quantitatively unsatisfactory.

This exciuda certain procBses.q is omitted the . are removed by subtracting the term p-*q. " ~ p -. The proof that a perturbatim q gives zero. It is important here to use the method of calculation of Bethe and Pauli. smttering of mesons by nucleons. 5(a)) in the neutron scattering of positive mmns. if the tern --plu2q. .s) corresponds to he directly evaluated. for a free particle In this appn&x a method will be iltustrated by which the mllltiplicatian by the 4-4 mtrix (or tensclr) P.. if represented by the interaction v would not satisfy the condition that the divergence of the poteential is zero. In the presencce of an electromagnetic field. . The source of mesons of a $ven charge is not consented. etc. minus for the reverse) reprwnting the new possibility of a simulti~neousemission (or a b m ~ t i o n )of meson and photon. This has the consequencl?that vector me. Probably a of the formulations are incorrect. The spin zero mesons. where s the source for such m w u h is the matrix element of A. and qg=qt+k are the mommta before and after the the relatias of one intqrat to another and their exprminn in interaction. - . two tentiak a. a virtual meson is assumed to have the same 'Lmass'Vuring all its intemctions with the etectromagnetic field. given here. the left yieids the (@--&-g and finally the interaction He wishes to thank Profesmr J. such as rsq where q is the final minus the initial moanturn of the nucleon.+ci-"a/a. The right hand side gives in momentum representation 7. A separate convergence factor is not provided for each meson propagation between etectromagnetic interactions. But it appears that this f a d s in the conventional formalism to negative energia for the spin zero component. Emission of positive or absorption of negative virtual memns are represented in the %me term.v m ~ I jwhieE. By taking the divergence finite and gauge invari~ntresults for the problem of a/d+ of both sides./ax. is obtained.. so that . He ia also gratttful far Professor the giginat equation can be rewritten as Bethe's criticisms of the m a n u z ~ p t and for innumer.=(b.di~ described far electrons. thesign of the charge being determined by temporal relations a for electrons and positrons. can be represented by a l o u r . This shows one of the advantages of the . = ( q z . That is.a ) 8 ~ ~ . vmuum polarization. e r . raulting theory dexribe a combination of mesans of spin one and spin zero. as this is clearly the same thing as subtracting from the original 7. the vector potential A must be subtracted from the momentum of the p t o n . ii(b)) would appear in the scattering of negative means by neutrons.. whenever the nucleon it. When the coupling involves a gradient.Q) far absorption and for emission for bath charged and neutrnl mesons.c . conclude that tttp.rr-0). nuclear magnetic momnts. there is an additional coupling f r b A (plus when going from proton to neutron. (The correstion term p-%q. terms uZ simpler inlegrats m y be f d t i t a t d by the m e a d s with m&k (a-bR. reading of the manuscript. of momentum p satisfia q. coupled by vector coupling 4.That k.) X( m e 6rst+rder intmmtion (front the Proea equaann) simpkr integrals appearing in problems in electrodynamics can w i t f i n rlectmmagnetie potendai o rrp(-ih. Ashkin for his careful s . -~**~. meson production by nuclear cotiisions and by gamma-rays. wy) become a proton no longer able to do so.fdz.q make the problem of diverging intepals still more serious (for example the interaction ktween two protons correspnding to the exchange of t w charged vector mesons depnds q u d ratically on the cut-off if catculateb in a straightforward way).q. The integmk arl%ng in more cornpiear prmlead to rather eamplicated functions.) The asymmetfy in emission and abb w ~ t i o n only apparent. r j s ~ f i . The promation of vixtuili prticles of momentum q from state v to C is reprmated by f droceedlng in t h way find generaliy that arueIes o spin one ~ r ( . Tibe two extra gradients q. .f-Zg.-~-~~.&. That is.p 1 ~ ~ w b e p. The meson interacts in the scalar or pseudoscalar c m as a particle obeying the Klein-Sordon equation.q in emission and as =y. Betk for his expknation of a method of obtaining betw&n states of neutron and protan. Finally. ~an the hgran&n gives the 7. no good apeement with experiment results.-#*q.method of second quantization of meson fielids over the present formulation. in abmqtion if the real ensrssxon of m m n s with a non-z@rodivergence of potential is to be avoided. and are not valid if g v / L is large. neutron ekctron xattering.y. .. An uncertainty U arises since the calculatians are only to fint order in g%. There such errors of sign are obvious while here we seem to be able to write seemingly innocent expressions which can give absurd results. and onIy the first term (Fig. The result far mass p and for (fi2+X") are subtract& and the difference intqrated over the function G(X)dX. B m y act simulmmaaty.~ q . able discussions during the development of this work. The interaction is to be takenn as 7. Ptseudovectxlr mesans with pgudovector coupling correspond to using YJ(Y. only the analogue of s ~ o n d term (see Rg. the mesan 4 must be emittect first (in arder of operators.q ~ p ~ . fails. not time) for the neutron cannot absorb the negative meson ql until it beclomes a protan. on absoiorption.r(ds~/ax~)~. but the study of nuttiplieation by the matrix I f . One is tempted in this formulatkn to choose . sons. s 4ari-?as. when these are available. a&erwise gauge invariance is not insured. Calculations are very easily caded out in this way to lowest order in $ for the various theories for nucleon interaction.a + q ~ . However. dirjcussed for longitudinal electromagnetic waves. that is. for a neutron capable of emitting negative mesons may (on emitting one. matrix ekment.+bIraI... a proton it interacts wi* the field in the w.p. and accept the admixture of spin zero simply 7 .r. For example in the scattering of a negative meson from 8 to qz by a neutron. mesons. The vector meson field pokntiats ortisfy The author is particularty indebted to Professor comparison to the Klein Nishina formula (IS).g gives zero in the neutral cm..P~fr. 4. a term ~ .

we first rationJEze factors @. k " d * k ~ ( @ l X((p8-A]*-m"-"@2-k)~-m33~1 (24 m e matrix e ~ r d o may be simpiifid.k. or with r a p t to p* there follows directly wi)j '(1. (l. W.=a..e. The integral m kc s h w s third order polea a t k4= +(P+rl)b and k. Writing kc= (ICVLL))-f-e and emandin8 (kr*-lc'"-L)-~~-*(e+2(Iri.=L) and further in the numerator. since r..Z p z .m Z . In order to crrllculate the integral in (2a) the inkgrat may be written as tbe sum of three t e r n (since k== s r J . k-m)-Ia&~ Jf ka.)dik(&-L)-ei.ta and ertend tfie integral on L from X#-..+2A. but we desire to work with greater gmesality. rather t h n frnm zero ta h'. 0) corresponding entries are to be U&. RQR. S v @ " P k-f-mlailtt 1 -k . without change of the value of the integral since the ~ontribution from the mi-circle vanish= in the b i t .ha)-Wa. (98) where we shall take C(RI)to be lypicaliy -A2(8"-Xyi and d " (2r)*dRldk&b&k4. More complex p r m s w of the En order involve mare facton rt fike (@a. k . such as deducible from f14a) by successjve dilferentiahns with r a p t to a or 6. k. The factors @-k)*-m' may be writ& whsxe h=&-Bf. such aa (8@J(1. Higher order prmmses involving two or more virtual quanta involve simitar integrals but with factors possihiy involving k+# instead of just A. snd A a vector. The integrals so far only contain one factor in the denornilla.2p6. p.K . Since.-@. (loaf where A... We akw have fkod"R(V-L)-a=O k space. and for 1 8 by k. In our specific problem (64. )d'b(R"-2p.ind in diaTerenr In compkicatcrd problems &ere may be more factors f V. is seen to be . ff~a) Further diBerentiations give dirertty succasive integrals including more k factors in the numerator and higher powers of (BP.B-A.k.k-.A ~ ) .r)-i. Particularly useful are where by (1. start with hesimplest convergent one.A-. Thus the contour can be sbmnk about the pole R4... numhr mmmuting with all matricerr.5 -(hq+Ljb.kl.-& so that Al.R-Af)*(iP1-2p~~h-A~-~.)-Mestahkishing (10a). we make use of all of tbe identiem. Expmeons betwmn two -ymBs be thereby redue& by induccan tion.l%~(~-~)-s= (8iL)-1. %c contour can be closed by an infinite semi-circle below tbto axis. R.. k For this integral is J(2x)*dR&E(k4#. AB==ZA. The potes in all the factors factors R e k. as kOk. to h'. (l&) .. Now for the factor C(&}/@ we shall use -K(&.)* and ot the end intel"hufi we can q l a c e 0 grate the result with respect to L from m to X% We can for l many p r ~ t i wp u w s consider As very I s s e retative t~ m* or p. is a.B--BA where A .(3i/32s)jeer 4r@dK(RI+ I.k. &.tor. B. and we can consider dmlinp with cases of greater generality in that the diEerent denomimtors need not have B e %me value of the msss m. 85 t first order radiatianlem mttering problem: b We Ben have to do inkmats of the farm j ~ ~ ( ~ 8 . being the toeacitnt of the term cl.) is rqtaced by 1. ka. 6(2(E+L)4)-6 SO O U integd is ~ .k)'.p.. dt=mI-P1: etc. kOkJ we m a n that in the place of this symbol either ' 8 Or may s(.R . This r q r e n t s the prduet of two recipro~llsas a parametric integral over one a& wilI therefore permit integrals with two factors to be expressed in terms of one. fmwining. if R is any e x p r e e n . k. (la) At)-" X ( V . We shall do the integrals of sucmgve complexity by inducGen."s+L]~)-~ powm of in t the residue. When the ~ d d n a lintegral anverges even without the convergence factor. Bnd.t d ~ . Rn.-. it will be obvious since the & fntemtian wili then wavergent to infutity. --Ar.k-A)-' .U.k+Itl){(P-R}*-rn*]-l obtaining.-k-m}-IrPk-"d4RC(kl). T h q can k sinlpliged by metb& s ~ i o g m t-o t h o s U& on s th h s t order integralri.2 r i times the residueai this pole.2p... f t a P W r s to h n to do so a j t e the integraeons are pertormed. ( s u ~ a r by some work of Sehwinger's involving Gaussian inted grals). U. b.w+a)>w+&)+.B. and the 4%have infinitesimal negative i r n a g i ~ r y parts.-j~. -1: 1 is far I. pp. for JSby h. in accordance with our defmitions. is RE. of magnitude K==(W. ka)d%(kr-2pl. - p.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS As a tpimi problem eonsider the integral (12) appearing in 7. O)&l. am d e degnite by the assumptian that L. k .f. has B small negative ima&nary part only the first i s below the real axis. k.. We write t h e results as (318i)(1/3L) from the symmetry in the (Ifa) i (8 ] (l.i.+(k-"+L)f and the resulting R+ integral is . bL7ld%(V-L)*(A"-2pl.R.K-d. C are any three vector-matricm (i. Fand a eorraponding increase in the number of R's which m y appear in the numerator. linear combinations of the four 7's). To obtain results for two factors we make use of tbe identity by (&-l.i-* or other powers of these factors (the (&--L)-"" may Fte considered ss a special case of such a factor with #. calling L-pa=d shows that By digerentiating both sides of (f2a) with respat to A. 'This am he written as where in the hrackeu (f. that I. and show .. the (S.. and the intqrsl eztending on k-gd4kC(Wk""d%'6flk").d ) in the denominator. For other powers of: a.~ .K-L)-a where the K)b vector R. Substituting R= @--P in (1Xa). To perfom an integral. EX an infrered catastrophe exists in the b & g d one can imply m m e quantei have a smaE mass X..k. k d and ( 1 .

Then f"l-rp. k. The general expra&on aftbough rmdily abtained is a rather complicated camhination of rootsand lagarithms. .f l-z)#~ and A. and (@-2pr-kj. k and gives the self-eneru (21) whea ft is r ~ l g by m. They.R. first The term.k)'") gives (1%. For the last term the u w r limit of L must be kept as X". and these methads m n become impractical in their present form. after rationa2idng the matrix denominators and using Pf =##-r)i" requira the integrals (Ba).. gives -#)l% . using (IS*)..This is af the form (164 ". in {l. codder the case that the second factor is just (@--L)* and in the first put #*=P. hsd?. We naw turn to the integrals on L as rmuired in (h).g = x2lcdx(k-)-2&*k-&~. Asm~Lp The integrals on y give. as p .2 p ~ . s in (81. since (X-X)~.Laz. PI=-$ so that (18a) gives. but if L is put q u a I to zero there results z p* *.. (201 of t text. as we have dirscumd. k. using (4a:ita) remove the 7.2 p z z ~ .-xA~+(l -xj.. me.)d4k(V-L)*(l-2k"k-A)* from (14a) where vP1-1-(1 -rPz. Other integrals can he obtained again by pramet& differentia(18a) with respect to tion.write. which then h m e s (h*/ma]($(t -X)*). The term (12) in the radiationlms mttering. R.&i& ln(x(1 -a+ -$ 1 arid . ~-A. $#=Q. (kf-2@.~&/8rlrpt@+nrlt2In(hg/=a1+2) in (19) is -p(in(ht/='3 where#.k. . are given in f17a)."C(p#l<<X* the r integrals which remain are trivial.k )are cornbind by a Wrameter y. -#(2 In(~~/nr")+5)7.2p. being the integral of ratio of plymmials. sec. (l). We therefore need the integrah - (21a) whlch we witl then intelgrak with r m p t to y from O to 1. For p r o c e w of tncrea&ngly higher orders the wmplexity and difficulty increases rapidly. There results (8i)l(1.) gives no trauhle for brge L. therefore#l e d to integrab with two Emrametem (e.g. ba or p*.'s. application to radiative corrartion to scattering below). the denominator of w n d degrw in x.. &-rh+(f -x)L.. The methods of calculztion given in this paper are deceptively simple when applied to the lower order p r m m .]"(Y . d for the lmer limit of the k integral. This is an integrat with three denaminatare which we do in tw stagea. A. &#=it.)d*kR()rZ-Zp~*k-rl~)-~which may now be evaluated by (IZa) and is ~4(i-z)dxln(x(l-z)*)= --(1/4) find sv that substitution into (19) (after the U-k-m)-' replac& hy (p.(@/8r)C8rn(tn(h2imZ)+1) . Then sjnee . (17s) (note that d. s or prforming the integmt on I. k.-"l-2ps* k]-'i~f6 & ( @ . d m.k)t--mS= Rs. ThisagrecPs with tr.2 h * h ) T again lading to elementary integrals. Next we do the integrals (224 imm&tely from (2&) A=@: Integrals with three facrors can be reduced ta those involving tw by udng (I4a) again.2p.R) ( l . where px=x#t't.k. The integral in (18a) is etementary. For exampie difierentlation of (L&). is not equal ta m'-fir? so that the expraian (164 is (81)&tM~$(l.k+m)(Re. As an erample.d z ) . Assuming X... One finds The self-energy inlegrat f 19) is W that it requires that we find fusing the principle uf (8n)) the integral on L from 0 to XP of since (P. lis in the sell-energy case. with &$=l. This infra-rd catastrophe is anaiyed by 0 using h . First h e fwtars (g-2pl.. M m t n g now that h+>m* we n w f e t (X-s)Lpnf rehtive to xXs in the arwment of the l w t h m ..k. which leads to a diverging integral on z at.

hut rather equal their actual value minus their value for nzP. of coum.tq to simplify the cakculation mmewhat. ~ ~ f d n tc .(iifl= - 5SSPEY. noting that the spur of any odd number of y matrices vanishes and Sp(AB)=S#(BA) for arbitrary A . Eq.(~z. higher order carrections to the MQIHhr Katter- Matrix I ~ c ~ papde@w.. . We shall indicate the method of caieulstion by studying . m.. as required by (32).lba-ms~z~~ (S@ where m. and evaluating the spur gives (33).v-. p-@.which now convergesand Itas been evaluatlrd by (13a) with p-ifqq and A-&+l.. Appndix D. ts@f @%+mr)@s-~z~@a-t-~a)@~-mt)f I ( 4= ~ P . it follows from p$--).g(1-f-rl). are arbitrary four-vecbrs and constmts. This is not true for Borne of the m w n r m . in (31aJ p r e n c s no probEem.2=mz that Q=-# so that sinct? @. f32a) FIG.iI m a n a term -CXa in I(mq-I(m2+XI) which vattisha since we will integrate the raults tima G(h]l?)dX and &PdXPG(X)dA=O. h saviriowly unique in the miidnas of its divergeaa. B. (1-2). . to Smplify: yltps~jb8~~-~PIQ#O by = -2@2-qfa@3+ql = -2fm-g)a(m+g). n e c e m y ta dlEerentiak h m* i s also when calculating I' and I f i 3 h e r e mulls with another unimprtant conshnt C'. T i means that the lwrithm ~ M n ong hs integnrting I. (32) Itbere ue have repiaad P by B.?n2+P.. oprating on the initial s a t e is m. T m rwults h +&.?.g-mP+jqs and fP+p.. dropping the constants 6. and likewise # I when it appears at the left is replacable by m.@- t4+n)rp@+1~+r~>~4~ X (Q.- (where D.+i@l"d@iZ. More C@mpi@8: ) PrabXenrs compla prohiems =hnus for lhe that ad three iilweatjons.) The renormalization term requ~resthe correqonding integrab for the special case 4-0. We have set 4m' sin%. pr-ts no new a aubsequmt integral on L and i i d y on problems.#s-mm~a)(pt-P4-"mrc) The factors in the denminator. The S#(I)=B anti we aim k v e the integral. C. - (Pt.Pe-~@O +(Pt. Since &=#tf q on where q is the momentum carried by the potential. However.$(gf)@+~g+L). 787 - where we assume X*>>& and have put some terms into the arbitrary eonsbnt C which is indepndent of Xvhut in principfecould ' depend on 92) and which drops out in the inkegrat on G(X)dh. in the vanrum polariza ikon lxrobicm require the caIculation of the integral. like qaq= -q1u+2(a. (32') we do not wish I($+) but rather J6"[l(m*f -l(mD+ h))s(h}dhh We can calculate the difference I(="-I(mr+XP) by first cakulating the derivative l'(m9+L) of I with respect to m%t &+L and later L from eero to dE~erenlialinlJ(%l. so that the charge renormalization depnds onky fogaritbmically an ha. The inkrxtlon betweem two electrons tn order One adds the contrribution af every figure ~nvoivingtwo vrrtual quanb.r bD3w-t-C&. but we can cfigerentiste again to get I " < ~ ~-B p . C3Oa) Btrt the integral on ) will not be found in our list for it is badly divergent.@ p . P P S ~ C P -iq)2-ma)-h((P+ t~)"f&~l-~. of cuum. g -. Vacuum Palmizat-ion The expressions (32) and (32') for J. s h ~ eElectrdynamics . X t has been simpiified by frequent use of the fact that p. The mmplek problem requires the furlher integral. Combining tbesa quanti. How ta get I%@ may intggrate I" with respect to L as an indefinite integral and w may clmese any c m v e t f a ar&rwy cm&&. -y).=P~+g(l-y). I t is interesting that the terms of order X9nh* go out.l=ana/tan@ where B is dehnetl hy 4mx sin2@= is useful forlr q" na wc*a/secV and @. A tern.QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS These i n t e ~ a i s y were performed as fotlovrs." .-Sdy = j n ~ g sin2B)-Va where n goes from e to 4-8. P ~ ' P ~~p 4. We may take ~'(rn(+~f (%)-'E Ct~'g&~D-2+f 8. J.- The value of the integral (31. En a very similar way the integral with rtp" in the numerator can be worked out.p ~ ~ R g-+-~-t- =Jiff ~:p~-~d~.C(A2+ma)h(h~m-2-f-f~-CfX2J.ties. L .a) times d differs fram (33a).~a-mrmd(P~. as d i s c u d in Section 7.m".~+ip2)-"drr + c 3 d -- (3 1 a) ::fl-lg i ( t ~ l q ~ q ~ ~ i ( ip .-fqz. (Thus.4 U 1)) and integrate s from --l ta-f-l: - ' ~(~a') J-y : I P .&@lz. This still diverges. This is bemm a constant C in Iwl .m?*)-"@+ f 1 ~ 1 7 .g ~ t 1 ~ 4q2 itre combined as usual by f8a"l -f for symmetry we sul>strtute .8. pu~=~m2-g~yjf The substitution 2y.#~-mlmd(@~.q)q is equivalent to just -@a ince -m-M has zero matrix element. because the resuits an the right are not actually the inkgrals on the left. The spun are C" maluated in the usual way. It is. respect ta N10 find. p ~ " a ~ . Thew rrtsultsare subtituted into the original swtexing formula (2a). giving (22).

For example (S&) mexchanged. 9 are &wIy relrrled Co radiative corrections (altfnough s o m w h t more dtffiatt to evaluate. 8c b ctearly retailed to our vacuum change of quantum of momentum PI-Pn The ampfitude for t h ~ s poiarizalion problem. Figures ge. ? i &s is h e %me as for the radktive correction to wattering for a deamtion P1-&. for one of the slaka is not that of a free e l ~ l r o n(nl+q)~Zm~). that ( 3 W contejns over thirty terms Ctf the conventional methd is imposrrible.. If the time of a b q l i o a . the mond pair by an exprwsion obtain& by digerentiation (15a) with resnect to b and callina the parameter y.) (38a) and (39a). 8a. S this s-cattercarrapnding tn Fig. and uh P . They can be simplified by rationdizing the One rmwn that (37%)is modified is that two quanta may be nominaha and combining them by (f4aI. Figure D shows the types of terms arising from corrections to the term of Fig. where @*-@~)g=h%n%. The s u b q u e n t integrals on tbe momm. consider two el~trons.~ ~ ~ k ) ~ ( k ~ + the intqrais~nn~ ~ ~ ~ d?5-now involve two factors and can be performed by the meshads as is clear from the dgure and the genera1 rule that electrons of given earlier in the appndix. of momentum k mntribute @ In in detail.) goes as (&h) In(m/h. This is physically clear since t)re fong wave quanta are not decked by byhart-lived intermediate*}-~. h e v e zero since tbe vacuum polarimtian has zero eetect an free fight quanta. and when integated gives a term proporprocess.9. y.)(I -2@ ct&@l.. From term d must be subtracted explicidy the effect of mass Am. for all exchanges of this type is The first twa may be combined by {l4a) with a parameter z and . the largat part of the egect. w i b I e distortions of Fig. of the type of Fig. &h. to The term may be combined with the renormalimtion terms resultWe shall diwuss corrections to @?a) to the next order in @/h. We have not included the p d b i l i ~ e s Campton scattering.~tf(irar. tor the interaction quantum k by elweon 2 is tater thaa the absorrpttion. h d i a t ~ v e (a) of Fig.k)-'(kf+ 2P~. in the manner of Fig. s Tbe result shows an infra-red atastrophe.This may hppen . 54 (1937). F. W h cut-vg at X.. of the duction of the numhr of terns. (1. second eannot abwrb it dircxtty for only neutrons can absorb In integrating over all the= alkmatives vve have considered all pvsitive mesons. Terms e. as analymd in &S.8f and &g. This convergent without cut-o8 and reducible by the methads outIine$ in tbb awendix. gts=D. Sa. ~er~erving the last. j are renormdization terms. 8d which give (sr~~~af(@rv. Their mntribudon is ing is r e p r m t e d by two terms. mm'der the radialive correction to the along the trajectories.The total matrix element volves the factors (E. qs*-=O. (4) and Fig.. Tht? contfibutions of all possibje ways that an event can =cur are to be added. The other terms are relaacivety easy to evaluate.This integal on k will be m n to be precisely the inteuai (12) for the radiative corr~tions mttering. and the other in state of momentum #S. To this rame order there are a h Ihe p J b i E t i m of Fig. which we have worked out. = the effect proportional to h(m/h. For example. the electron a t 1 gdng to 4 through the exFiwUy the term Fig. The in ~ matrix element for this prmess is proportional to (translating (4) to Rlomentum space) means that one adds with equal weight the intepals corresponding to each lopologidly dishnct figure. is renormaliad the Lf the charge (3Sa) in accordance with the exclusion principle.k)-'. betwmn protons retrulting from the exchange of two merians only of this comapnds to the v~rtualstate @S+& k i n g a psitron (m the term conesponding to Fig. (first order in @/kG) because they exchange a quantum of momentum ~ ~ P i . 8b remains.and 8i are similarly awlyzed.dq-'. Appendix D..4 exchangd. Term 8a. 5.. Norrfsieck. 8a which prewrve the order of events As a m n d milmple. in (33) is ontitttrd so t h e i s no remaining tion exrsts to each order so &at we need consider in detail only dependence on the cut-08. ing from the Blgerence of the eFtects of mass change and the terms. Phys. A imiiar situa. 8%. and that quanta. As seen from Q. (ricr. The infra-red eBects ansem from a final adjustment of the field from the asymptotic coulomb fieid characteristic of the electron of mrrection to the Compton e t k r i n g term FIG.f l a ~ P r . .. Terms p.nmnt contribute in antpEtude (. timct-s the uncolrected ampfitude. i37af +- as is r-dily 9wiFted by Iaheling the dkgram. g. the subtraction of ?he only new i n t e m b we requtre are the convergent i n t e ~ a l s the same terms with 3. l. Fig.term lu(X/nt) in J. (25) and (27) leading t (28) o with @'=fit+qt a=es &=ea. in state one tgt of momentum p. intepating on d% and summing aver p and P. 9a gives an integral ing.Zq. to the corrections to (37a). Calling k the momentum of tbe virtual qumtum. rp. There rcsults a SO that ~ q ~ factor ( k . 8b. Rev. Bloch and A. for if the lrrst protsn emits a p s i t ~ v e e n the m of andyL). . to the Campton mttering.k)-~k*(q'+ P. t i t e r they are found in states us. bowwer.~l)lr&+. . 52. For the Mllfer sattedng.Z$t.P--m)-"etw~en inter.k. we add all alkrnrnaWorking with charged memns there is often a considerable reliver. Terms 6 a i d G of Fig.must be subtracted from tional to (@.P B e manner of Q. (There is also the possibility that it is the electron at 2 which Rg. The total is insensitive t the cut-08 X. 6naUy arrrva at 3. so that we can cornider the carrectians to each one separakly. and the interaction oi a neutron with an electromagnetic fieid. for example.5) and Fig.parameters s and y are complicated and have not been worked out acGons 7 .yBsp)(~l~.

to the sum of the shows the nfation to the case of p s e u d m b r a q l i n g . is p times the matrix element of v. in The interactiou m y m u r h u e the neutron of momentum #X emits a w t i v e mema k o d n g s proton w&ch proton interact~ with the field rnd then rwbsorh the m w o (Fig. In this cage U. next gives the Iseattering mplitude of slow electrons on neutrons. We assume that it does this in the rtlennw of a d a r potential 8a&fying the Kfein &rdon @. E z p a n a in powers of q the timt k r m gives the W. Thk Is coupling fnqlsting the masg diarence of ncutron and pmwn). since y. (351. to all mdem in the emmpie in (rila) the find yr& a n be written as ydk-#t-f-R. no terms like (43a) or (&a] and a remainder.m e change in sign arises km= ysk. The complete w r d o n for the coaection is a very compEa& expr&on involving tramendental i n t v l s . pknendal can Inteation of a protsn with an e ! ~ t m r n ~ e t j c be slmjtarfy amtymd. Tbe figure rtlusmtes the case for a mudoscalar megon with m u d o v ~ t o =upling. This is true.QUANTUM ELECTRODVNAMfCS momentum fit before B e mllision to tbat characte~scicof rur electron movinp in a new directian $2 after the cotlision.magnetic mamenb of nmtron and protan for charged m a n s is netk momcmt of the neutron and is insensitive to the cut-o8t. the sfattering matrix ta f i s l W& in Ilrc? and depends logaritbmially on the cut-off.&-M]. %is makes the intepals a little m i e r and also &wry is qual. m e p s e u b l a r terms do not d ~ e n d seensitiveiy an the cut-all. r @1-R-dd)yoS-2By.if sin@ when operating on the initial neutron state.2 g ~ s . that for arbitrary q. The difference term affects the detron-neutron inktaction but not the =-tic moment of the neutPon. if the m m n s were charged. We cheose the emmple of p n d a wakr m m s with pseudovector aupting. r p m ~ n t i n g r the virtuel m w n i s nestive. The irsl-order inkractian between an elmtron and a neutron is given by t heme calculalion h by amidering the =change of a quantum between the eleetroron and the nuclmn. the states diEe~ag momentum by q. h the limit of small p it will vary aa qa-aq which reprmntci tlre int-eraaian of s parng a magnetic moment. neutrd -R#. The matrix far tfiig p m . m e sum of the mmhind.the secand term keading to n simpler term con@ning no tpll-K-Mf-g factor and combining One 9implifies the rnRs and with a slmilar one from (-1. There is an d k t of virtual m w n s on the e l e c t r a w e t i ~ r v r t i e s of the proton even in the c m that the p U&ng convergence factors in Ibe m n e t d m m d in the stsction m m n s are netltmi. for any type or mixtures of mcson coupling.S) determines the kcactteflng of a neutron by such a held.. For matrir for a neutron and the matrix for a ( P ~ ~ f # t + q ) . in (42a) in an analogow way. Finally there are two terms wiging the differenu? in eBwts af w u d o v ~ t o and pseudwalar coupling. Appendix D.10a). It is a n d q o u ~ I-he d i a t i v e wrrstions to to & on meaon theeries a integral can be evaluated and the resuib the mtterlng of eIeetrons due to virtual photons. IOb) . There finalty r a u l b terms like (4laf. The change in amplitude due to an Jmtramagnetic field A=a exp(-@. between the initial and Rnaf states of the electron.y p @ s . anticommutes wtth fit and k. fmm the rdi part of the pudovector mapling (Figs. (42aI but with m d o e a h r coupling 2dfy6 instad of where we have put I=k11-Q. (Fig. aternatively it may be the m m n which interacts with the lieid. 10. The first term cancels the @~-k-m-%nd gives a term which just canceis (@%l. &r@mgdk powliol far a proton m d i n g to neutral m a n The qrEssions may be simplified and a m b i n d =mewhat hiore integrstion. According to thn: meson tkory a neutron interacts with an electrornwetjc potential a by first emitting a virtual cchsgetl mem. l&. As a tinal e m p l e we consider the i n b a r i o n of a neutron with an ekctromagnetic field in virtue of the fact that the neutron may m emit a virtual ~ g a t i v e m n . a like m a n e r the lading faetor y6k in (4la) is Xn written as . the the m e as the proton m m n t dcuiatedl for the comaponding In fact it is mdily w n by camparing d i w r n s . 780 Frc. 1Odf but the diaerence term dewnds on it w t & c a i i y .

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