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David Pines, Series Editor

Anderson, P.W., Baric Notions of Condensed Matter Physics

Bethe H. and Jackiw, R., Intermediate Q u a n ~ mMechanics, Third Edition
Feynman, R., Photon-Hadron Interactions
Feynman, R., Quantum Electrodynamics
Feynman, R., Statistical Mechanics
Feynman, R., The Theory of Ftrndamenral Processes
Norieres, P*,Theory of Interacting Fermi System
Pines, D., The Many-Body Problem
Quigg, C., Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak,and Electromagnetic Interactions
late, California Institute of Ethnology
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Editor's Foreword

Addison-Wesley's Frontiers in Physics series has, since 1961, made it possible for
leading physicists to communicate in coherent fashion their views of recent
developments in the most exciting and active fields of physics-without
having to devote the time and energy required to prepare a formal review or
monograph. Indeed, throughout its nearly forty-year existence, the series has
emphasized informality in both style and content, as well as pedagogical clari-
ty. Over time, it was expected that these informal accounts would be replaced
by more formal counterparts-textbooks or monographs-as the cutting-edge
topics they treated gradually became integrated into the body of physics knowl-
edge and reader interest dwindled. However, this has not proven to be the case
for a number of the volumes in the series: Many works have remained in print
on an on-demand basis, while others have such intrinsic value that the physics
community has urged us to extend their life span.
The Advanced Book Classics series has been designed to meet this demand. It
will keep in print those volumes in Frmliers in Physics or its sister series, Lecture
Notes and Suppkments in Physics, that continue to provide a unique account of
a topic of lasting interest. And through a sizable printing, these classics will
be made available at a comparatively modest cost to the reader.
These lecture notes on Richard Ft;ynnran8sCaltech course on Quantum
Electrodynamics were first published in 1961, as part of the first group of lec-
ture notelreprint volumes to be included in the Frontiers in Physics series. As is
the case with all of the Feynman lecture note volumes, the presentation in this
work reflects his deep physical insight, the freshness and originality of his
approach to quantum electrodynamics,and the overall pedagogical wizardry of
Richard Feynman. Taken together with the reprints included here of

Feynman's seminal papers on the space-time approach to quantum electro-

dynamics and the theon, of positrons, the lecture notes provide beginning
students and experienced researchers alike with an invaluable introduction to
quantum electrodynamics and to Feynman's highly original approach to the

Bavid Pines
Idrbana, Elf inois
December 2 997

The text material herein constitutes notes on the third of a three-semester

course in quantum mechanics given at the California Institute of Technology
in 1953. Actually, some questions involving the interaction of light and mat-
ter were discussed during the preceding semester. These are also included, as
the first six lectures. The relativistic theory begins in the seventh lecture.
The aim was to present the main results and calculational procedures of
quantum electrodynamics in as simple and straightfaward a way as possible.
Many of the students working for degrees in experimental physics did not
intend to take more advanced graduate courses in theoretical physics. The
course was designed with their needs in mind. It was hoped that they would
learn how one obtains the various cross sections for photon processes which
are so important in the design of high-energy experiments, such as with the
synchrotron at Cal Tech. For this reason little attention is given to many
aspects of quantum electrodynamics which would be of use for theoretical
physicists tackling the more complicated problems of the interaction of pions
and nucleons. That is, the relations among the many different formulations of
quantum electrodynamics, including operator representations of fields, explic-
it discussion of properties of the S matrix, etc., are not included. These were
available in a more advanced course in quantum field theory. Nevertheless,
this course is complete in itself, in much the way that a course dealing with
Newton's laws can be a complete discussion of mechanics in a physical sense
although topics such as least action or Hamilton's equations are omitted.
The attempt to teach elementary quantum mechanics and quantum elec-
trodynamics together in just one year was an experiment. It was based on the

idea that, as new fields of physics are opened up, students must work their way
further back, to earlier stages of the educational program. The first two terms
were the usual quantum mechanical course using Schiff (McGraw-Hill) as a
main reference (omitting Chapters X, XII, XIII, and XIV, relating to quantum
electrodynamics). However, in order to ease the transition to the latter part of
the course, the theory of propagation and potential scattering was developed
in detail in the way outlined in Eqs. 15-3 to 15-5. One other unusual point was
made, namely, that the nonrelativistic Pauli equation could be written as on
page 6 of the notes.
The experiment was unsuccessful. The total material was too much for one
year, and much of the material in these notes is now given after a full year grad-
uate course in quantum mechanics.
The notes were originally taken by A. R. Hibbs. They have been edited and
corrected by H. T. Yura and E. R. Huggins.

Pasadena, California
November 1961

The publisher wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the American Physical

Society in the preparation of this volume, specifically their permission to
reprint the three articles from the Physical Review.

Editor's Foreword

Interaction of Light with Matter-auantum Electrodynamics

Discussion of Fermi" mehod
Laws of Quantum electrodynamics

RCsumC of the Principles and Results of Special Relativity

Solution of the Maxwell equation in empq space
Relativistic partide mechanics

Ref a t i ~ s t i cWave Equation

Ktein-Gcrrdon, Pauli, and Dirac equations
Alpbra of the y matrices
kuivalence tramformation
Relativistic invariance
Hamiltonian form of the Dirac equation
Nonrelativistic approximation to the Dirac equation

Solution of rhe Dirac huation for a Free Particle

Defirtieion of the spin of a moving elecrron
Norrnalizatian af the wave functions
Methods of obtaining matrix elements
Intepretation of negative energy states

P o t e n ~ aProblems
l Itn, Quantum Eleetradynamics
Pair creation and annihilation
Consewation of energy
The propagation kernel
Use of the kernel K, ( 2 , l )
Transition probablility
Scattering af an electron from a coulomb potenrial
Galccllation of the propagation kernel for a free particle
Momentum repreenration

Relativistic Treatment of the Interaction of Particles with L i h t

Radiation from atoms
Scattering of gamma rays by atomic electrons
Digression on the density of final states
Cornpton radiation
Two-photm pair annihilation
Positron annihilation from rest
Pair production
A method of summing matrix elemenrs over spin states
E&cts of screening of the coulomb fieid in atoms

Interacdon of Several Electron

Derivation of the "mules" of quantum electrodynamics
Electron-electron scattering

Discussion and Interprebtion of h r i o u s ""Coxrecdon"Terms

Electroncelectron interaction
Electron-positron interaction
fro-photon exchange between eiectrons andlor positrons
SeXfeenergy of the electron
Method d integration of integrals appearing in
quantum electrodynamics
Self-energy integral with an external potential
Scattering in an ex ternal potential
ResoXution of the fictitious "inbred catastrophe"
Anocher vproaclx to the infared di&uXcy
Egect on an atomic electron
Chsed-loop processes, vacuum polarization
Scattering of light by a potential

Padi Principle and the Dirac Equation

Summary of Numerical Factors for Transition
Probabilities, Phys. Rev,, 84, 123 (1951)
The Theory of Positrons. Phys. Rev., 76, 749-759 (1949)
S p a c e - x ~Approach to @anturn Electrodynamics.
Phys. Rev., 76,169-189 (1949)
This page intentionally left blank
of Light ith Matter-

The theory of interaction of light with matter i s called wanturn electro-

d y n m i c s . The subject i s made to a p m a r more difficult &m it actually i s
by the very many equivalent methods by which it may be formulated, One af
the simplest is &at of Fermi. We shall take another starting point by just
postzzlating for the emission o r absorption of photons. In this form it i s most
immediately appXicabXe.

Suppose a11 the atoms of itbe u d v e r s e a r e in a, box. Classically the box

may be treated a s haviw natural modes d e ~ c r i b a b l ein terms of a distribu-
tion o-f: harmonic oscillatars with coupling between the oscillators and
The trarxsfUan to wanturn electrodynmics involves merely the assump-
tion that the oscifladars a r e quantum m e c h a ~ e a linstead cif classieal, They
then have energies (a +. X / 2 ) b , a = 0, 1 ..,, with zera-point e n e r w 112fiw.
The box is considered to be full of phstom with a~ distribution of energies
&W. The interaction of photom with: matter causeha the number of photons
of' t y m n t a increase by & l [emission or absorption).
Waves in a box can be repressxrted a s plane e t a d i a g waves, spherical,
waves, o r plane rmning wavtsa exp (iK * X$. One can say there i~ an instan-

t Revs. Modern Phys ., 4, 87 (1932).


tanems Coulomb interaction e 2 / r l j between all charges plus transverse

w v e s only. m e n the Coulomb forcea may be put into the Schr6diwer equa-
tion directly. a e r f o m a l means of e a r e s s i o n a r e M
in Hamiltonian form, field o p r a t o r s , etc.
Fermi's technique leads to an infinite self-energy term e 2 / r f i . It i s poa-
sibie to eliminate this term in s u i a b l e caarr3inate systems but then the trans-
verse waves contribute czn i d t n i ty (interpretaaon more obscure). This mom-
aly was one of the central problem8 of modern q?xmtm eleclr&pamics,

Second Lectuw

Without justification at this time the "laws of q u m t m ele,ectrdynamics9"
will be stated a s follows:
1, The amplitude that m atomic system will absorb a photon d u r i w the
process of transition from one state to another 18 emctly the same a s the
amplitude that the same transition will be made under the influence of a p-
tential equal to that af a classical e l e c t r o m w e t i c wave representing that
photon, provided: (a) the classical wave i s normalized t a represent an en-
ergy density equal t a b times the probabilty per cubic centinneter of find-
ing the photon; @) the real classical wave is split into two complex waves
e - hU" and e*' w t , and only the e- ""tart is kept; md (c) the potential acts
only once in mrturbatlon; that is, only terms to first order in the electro-
magnetic fietd strength should be retained.
mplacing the word "absorbedM by 'kmit?' in rule X r s q d r e s only that
the wave represented by exp (+iut) be kept instead of exp (-iwt).
2. Tbe n u m b r of states a v a i l h i e p r cubic centimeter of a given po2ar-
izatlon Is

Note this ia exactly the same a s the number of normal modes per cubic cen-
tirneter in classical theory.
3 , Photons obey Boee-Einstein atatistlcs, That is, the states of a csllese-
tion of identical photons must be symmetric (exchmge photons, add m p l i -
tudes). Also the statistical w e i e t of a state of n identical photons i s l in-
stead of the elassieal a!
Thus, in general, a photon may be represenbd by a solution of the classi-
cal Maxwell equations if properly normalized.
Although many forms of expression a r e p s s i b l e i t is most convenient to
describe the electromagnetic 8eld in terms of plane waves. A plane wave
can always be represented by a vector potential only (scalar potential made
zlero by suitable gauge transformation). The vector potential representing a
real classical wave i s talqen a s

A ZZ a e cos ( u t - f?;*x)

We want the nctrmalizatian of A to correspond to unit probability per eu-

bic centinneter of findiw the photon. Therefore the average e n e r a density
should be 60.

IFf = (l/e) (&A/ a t) = (Ua/e) s sin.(w t - K; X )


for a plme wave, Therefore the averscge energ;y density is equal to

( 1 / 8 r ) f l ~ 1+~1 ~ 1 ' ) = (1/4a)(w'a2/c') sin3(wt - K*@

Setting this equal to t-icc: we find that


- er f m p f-ilut - K * xll .c exp [+ilot - K * X ) 1)

Hence we take the mpUtade LhisLt an atomic system will absorb a photon
to be

For emission the vector poLentiaL is the s m e except for a positive exponen-

Example: Suppose an atom i s in an excited s t a b \ti with energy Et and

m h e s a transition, to a final state Jif with energy E r , The probability of
transition p r second i s the same a s the probability of transition m d e r the
Influence of a vector potential a8 expf-t-ifwt- K-X)] r e p r e s e n t i ~ gthe ernit-
ted photon. Aecasding to the laws of quantum mechanics (Fermi's golden
Trans. prob./sec = 2n/A /f(potential)il2* (density of states)

Density of states =

The matrix element U f i = /f@otential)f/2is to be computed from pertur-

bation theory. This is explained in more detail in the next lectws. First,
bowever, we shall note that more tjhm one choice for the potential may @v@
the s m e physical results. (This is to jusWfy the possibi&t;y of always chws-
in@ Q, = 0 for our photon,)

Tjzzz'rd Lecture

The representation of the plme-wave photon by the potantials

i s essentially a choice of 6"gauge." The fact that a freedom of choice edats

results from the i w a s i m c e of the Pauli equation to the; q u m t m - m e c h d c a l
gauge t r m f o r m .
The quantum-mechmical trmsformatfon, is a simple extension of the
classical, where, if

and if X is my scalar, then the substitutions

leave E and B invariant,

h quantum mechanics the additional transformation of the wave function

i s intrduced. The invariance of the Pauli equation i s shown as follows. The

Pauli equation. i s

The partial derivative with respect to time introducaes a term

( @ X / B t)Y and this may be included with 4e-jx @. Therefore the sub-

leave the Paul1 equation mchawed.

The vector potential A as defined for a photon enters the PauB H m i t -
tonian a s a perturbation pohntial for a transition from s t a k i to @talef.
Any time-dewdent perhrbation wMeh can ba written

rersults in. the matrix sbment U,$ given by

This emression indicates that the prturb2ttrion h a the a m 8 eB@ctae a time-

indepndent prhrbation. U(x,y,z) beween initial and fha1 states whose an-
ergies are, respectively, E ~ and ~ El.
w As~ i s well known? the most impor-
ta& contribution will come from the states such that Ef = Ef - wR.
Usim the previous results, the probabilly- of' a trmsritioxl per second is

f See, for exmplti3, L. D, Lznndau and E. M. Ufshitz, "@atnhm Meehan-

tca; Non-Relativistic Theory," Addison-Wesley, R e A i q , Massachu-
setts, 1958, Sec, 40.

To determine U f i , write

Because of the rule that f i e potential acts only once, which Is the s m e
a s requiring on& first-order terms to enter, the term in; A * A does not en-
ter this problem. Making use of A = aa exp [-i ( a t - XC X)] and the two
operator relations

where K-@= 0 (which follows from the choice of gauge and the Mmtvell
equatiom), we may write

This result is exact, It c m be simplified by uai% the ajlo-calked '4dipolet"

approximation. To derive tMs approximation consicler the term
(e/2mc) (p.e e f ' "X), whiclr is Ehci or&r of the velocity of an electron in the
atom, o r the current. The aponent can be exwaded.

K. x i s of the order ;ao/ic, where Q = dimension of the atam and h = wave-

Xewth, I[f +/A<< I, all terms of higher ordfits than the first in ao/h msby be
neglected. To complete the dipole a p p r o ~ m a t i o n ,it i s also necessary to
neglect the last term, This is e ~ i l done
y since the last term may be t&en
as the order of fiK/mc) = (2i~c/rnc') * (mv2/2mc2). Although such a term i s
negligible even this i s an overestimate, Wore correctly,

(efif/2mc)cr . (Kx a) e +iK" X v i e x [martsix element of

me matrix element i s

A g o d appro&xnatian allowa the separation

Then to the accuracy of this apprsximiation the integral is

l$*W +I Uf*(a = (Kx p ) ) ~I d v o l = o

since the @tawsare orlthwoml.

For the present, the dipole approximation i s to be used. Then

UZi =" -a---e Prr *

Using o p r a t o r algebra, pfl /m = Rwff X ft , SO that

Pft dS1 = a2[e2o'/(2n)'1(e x f f )' d a

where Xfi = $rl * X @$ d vol. The total probability i s obtained by inte-

grading Ptf aver din, thus
Total prob./sec = j a 2 7 (e lf )' dS2

me term s xfi i s resolved by noting ( F i g . 3-21

ixti el = lxfil sin. 8

FTG. 3-1

Substituting for 2,
Total prob./sec =
e2 3 1 1 x ~2l
54 G k3

&eorptioa of, The amplitude to go from state k to stab Z in time

T (Fig, 4-1) i s given from perturbation t;heoxty by

where the time dependence of l&

l (t] i s inacated by writing

U, (g) = ur, 8-

(haccord with the m l e s of b c h r e 2, the a r p m e n t of the exponential ia

minus and only t e r m s which a r e lin,@min the potential are included,) Using
&is time dependence m d p r f m m i n g the intt;;grat;fon,

the transition probability i s given by

This is the probability that a photon of frequency w traveliw in direction

(0, $B)will be, absorbed. The dependence on the photon direction i s contained
in the matrix element u j k * Far e x m p l e , s e e Eq, (4-1) far the directional
dependence in, the dipole approximation.
If the incident radiation contains a r a w e of fremencies a d directians,
that is, suppose

probabilit;y that a photon i s present with fre-

ency w to w -t dw and in solid aqXe dsZ
about the direction f@,@ci3)

and the probability of aboorption of any photon travicsling in the (B,@) direc-
tion is desired, it is necesrJary to integrate aver all fr-equencisa, Tbis ah-
sorption probability is

when T is large, the faotor ) an appreciable value only

a i n ? ~ ~ / z f ihas
for Ew near El Ek,ancl P(@,@,Q>) wf ll km substmtially eomtant over the
small r a e in o which contributes to the integral s o &at i t may be t&en
out af the integral. Similarly far ulk, ao that

' 1'
Trans. prob. = 2 ~ ( % ) -lulr $)dQ


This can also be written in terms of the incident iatensity (energy crossing
a unit area in unit time) by noting that

U s i w the dipole approximdion, in which

the total probability of absorption (per second) i s

It is evident that there is a relation b t w e e n the probability of sgontane-

ous emission, with aceompaying atomic transition from etate 1 to atate k,

Probability of spontaneous
= 2n(1i)-'(2nc)-~ j ~ ulk2
~ ~ /

and the absorption of a photon MUI accompan9ng atomic transition from

8 t a k k to state l, Eq. @-l), although the initial and final states a r e re-
versed since /ulkf= i/uklf This relation may be stated most simply in terms
of the concept of the probability n(u, 8 , (13) that a pmtieular photon state i s
accupied, Since there a r e (2trepo2dw df2 photon stales in frequensy range
diw and solid angle dBZ, the probability that there is some photon vvit-hin this
range is

Ewreessiw the probability of absorption in terms of n(w, 8, $1,

wk12 d o
Trans. prob./sec = 2 n ( ~ ) *lulk nfw,~,(13)(2nc)-~

This equation may be indewreted a s follows. Since a(w,@,cp)is the prob-

ability thiit, a phdon state i s occupied, the r e m a n d e r of the h r m s af the
rfght-hmd side must be the probhility per second that a jphoton in a& s t a b
will be absorbed. Comparing Eq, (4-4) with. the rate of spontanems emis-
sion s h w &at ~

R o b ./sec of absorptictn prob. /see of spontaneous

of a photon f r m a state emission of a photon into
(per photon in that stale) that state

h what follows, i t will be shown that Eq. (4-4) is correct even when there is
a possibility of more &an. one photon per: state provided nfo,8,$)is t&en a s
the mean number of photons W r state.
Lf the initial state consists of tulo photons in the same photon state, i t will
not be possible to a s t i n w i s h W1em md the statistical weight of the initial
s t a b will be 1/2 ! However, the m p l l h d e for ab~orptionwill be Mice that
for one photon. TaXcjng the statistical weight times the square of the m p U -
tude for this groesss, the transition prabrtbility per second i s found to be
twice that for only one photon per photon state. m e n there3. a r e Lhree N o -
tons per initial photon state md one is absorbed, the f o l l ~ M n gsix proceases
(shown on Fig. 4-22) can occur.

Any of the *ree incident photons rnw be absorbed and, in addition, there is
the possibility that the photons which a r e not absorbed may be interchanged.
The statistical wei&t of the initial state is 113 !, the statistical weight of the
final state i s 2/21 , and the amplitude for the process is 6. Thus the t r m s i -
tion probability i s (1/3 1)(1/2 1) (6)' = 3 times that if them were one photon
p r i d t i a t state, In general, the transition probability for n. photons per
initial photon state is n times that for a s i w l e photon per photon state, s o
Eq. (4-4) is correct if n(cr/,@,$yj) is t&en as the mean n u r n b r of photons per

A transition that results in the emission of a photon may be induced by

incident radiation. Such a process (involviw one incident photon) could be
indicated diagrammatieztlly, a s in Fig. 4-3.

One photon i s incident on the atom and two indlstinwiahable photons come
off. The statistical weight of the final state I s 1/2f and the amplitude for
the process i s 2, s o the probability of emission for this process is twice
that of Eipontanems emission. For n incident photons the statistical weight
of the, initial s t a b is f[nI, the statistical weight of the final s t a k i s
l/(n + 1) f , and the a p f i t u d e for the process is (n + 1)f times the amplitude
for spontaneous emission. The probability e r second) of emission is then
n + l times the probability of spontaneous emission. The n can be said to
account for the i d u c e d part of the transition rate, while the 1 i s the spon-
taneous part of the transition rats,
Since the gotentials used in computing the transition probability have
been normalized to om photon Wr cubic centimeter and the trmsition prob-
ztbiiity depends on the: square of the amplimde of the potential, it i s clear
t b t when there a r e n photonsr p r photon state the eorreet transition prob-
ability for abearption wodd ba obhia& by aormaliziw the potential8 ta n
pt.lotons per cubie centimeter [amplitude 6 times a s large). This i s the
basis for the validity of the so-called semiclassical ~ e o r y of radiation. h
'that theory absorption is calculated a s resultiw from the wrturbation by a
potential normalized to the actual energy In the field, that is, to energy nEw
if there a r e n photons, The correct transition pr&&ilily for e r n i ~ s i o ni s
not obtained this waly, however, because it is proportional to n + 1. The er-
r o r corresponds to omitting the spontaneous part of the t r a n ~ i t i o ngrab-
ability. In the semiclassical theory of radiation, the spontmeous part of the
emission probability i s arrived a t by general arguments, ixzctuding the fact
that its inclusion leads to the observed Planck distribution formula. Ein-
stein first deduced these re lationshipa by sem iclassicsl reasoning.

%XecLian Rule8 in the f)5pole Appr~~matton.

In the dipole approamatlon
the appropriate matrix element is

Tlxrs components of of X f r a r e xir, Ygr, zjf and

Selection rules a r e detemined by the conditions that cause t N s matrix ele-

ment to vanish, For example, if in hydrogen the initial and final shks a r e
S stabs [spherically symmetrical), X+ = O and transitions b t w e e n these
slates are "forbidden," For transitions from P to S sktes;, however,
X i f f 0 and they a r e 6iallowed.'p
Xn general, f o r single electron transitions, the selection rule is

This may be seen from the fact that the coordinates X , y, and z a r e essen-
tially the Legendre polynomial PI. If the o r b i k l angular momentum of the
initial sLak i s n, the wave function contains P,, But

Hence for the matrix element not ta vanish, the angular momentum of the
final stale must be n r ~ 1,
. SO that its wave function will conkin either $,?l
o r P,."$.
F o r a complex atam (more than one electron), the &miltonian i s

H = z ( 1 / 2 m ) P, - (e/c)A(x gl). + Coulomb terms

The tmnsition probability is proportional to [pm,/' = 15(pa),,1 where the
sum i s over all the electrons of the atom. As k s b e n shown, (Pafmn i s the
same, up to a consant, a s ( x , ) ~ , , and the transition probability is propor-
tional to

In particulm, for two electrons; the matrix element is

x 1 + x 2 behaves under rotation, of coordinat-ea similarly to Wlc? wave fmction

of gome "objectY%iGh unit a w l a r momentum. If the "object7' and the abm

in the initial state do not interact, then the produet (X* + x2)iEi (xI,xZ) can be
formally regarded a s the wave bnction of a system (atom -t otsject) having
possible values of J i -c- l, J1 , and Jz- l for total m ~ l a momentum.
r There-
fore the matrix element i s nonzero only if Jf , the final a.nwlar momentum,
* .
has one of the three values JI 1 o r Ji Hence the general selection rule
A J = a 1, O,
Parity, P w i t g is the prowrty of a wave function referring to i t s behaviar
upon reflection of all coordinates, That is, if

parity is even; o r if

parity 18 odd.
If" in the matrix elements involved in the dipole approximation one makes
the change of variable of integration x = --X\ the result i s

If the pwidy of %cf i s the s m e m &at of -$!l, it follows that

Hence tlze rule that p a ~ t ymust chawe in allowed transitions. For a one-
electron atom, L determines f&e gmity; tiherefore, L1 L = O would be forbid-
den. h mmy-electron atoms, L, does not determine the parity (determined
by algebraic, not vector, sum of individual electron m p l a r momfsnta), s o
hL = O transition8 can occur. The a- 0 transktions a r e always forbidden,
however, since a photon always c a r r i e s a m u d t of mlf;ular momentum.
All wave functions have ei&er even or d d parity. This can be seen from
the fact that the Hamiltonian (in the absenm of m external magnetic field)
is invariant under the parity operation. Then, if EIJlr(x) = E\k(x), i t i s also
true &at H@(-X) = f t ; J i ( - ~ ) . Therefore, if the state is nondegeneirab, it
bllows that e i a e r ?Pf -X) = Jir (X) o r Q (-X) = -S [X). If the state is degen-
erate, i t is possible that ?fr (-X) ;c {X) But then a complete solution would
be one of the linear combinations

4?(X) + %(-X) even parity

% (X) @(-X) odd parity

Forbzddelz Llirtcls, Forbidden. spectral lines mzty a p p a r in gases if they

a r e sufficiently rarefied, That is, forbiddenneess is not ablsolute in all cases.
It may simply me= thzt&the lifetime of the state is much longer &an if it

were allowed, but not infinite, Thus, if the colliaion rate i s small enough
(collisions of the second kind ordbnarify cause de-excitation in forbidden
cases), the forbidden trmsition may have sufficient time t s occur.
In the nearly exact matrix element

the dipole approximation replaces emix'at by 1. If Ws vanishes, the transi-

tion i s forbidden, as described in the foregoing, The next higher o r quadru-
pole approximation would then be to replace e-jK' X by 1 i/K* X , giving
the matrix element

For light; moving in the z direction and p l a r i z e d in the x direction, &is


met the trsrnsition probabiljity is proportional to

whereas in the dipole approximation i t was proportional to

Therefore the transition prob&ility in the qua&upole approxhation is at

least of the order of (Ka)' = a2/%, smaller than in the dipole approxima-
tion, where a i s of the order of the size of the atom, and h the wavelengtLh

Problem: Show that

and consequently that

Note that p,z can be written as the sum

From the preceding prciblern, the f i r s t part of p,z ie seen to be equivalent,

up to a constant, to xz, which behaves similarly to a wave function for

2, even pmity, The second p r l i s the

operator $, which behaves like a wave function for
even parity, Therefore the selecUm rules correspondi% to the Brst part
a r e Been to be A J = 2, +l, O with na parity chawe, This type of radiation
i s called electric quadrupole, The selection rules far the scseond part of p,z
a r e A J = rt I*OS no parity clzawe, md the e o r r e a p n d i q radiation i s eaUed
magnetic dipole. Hots that unless A J & 2, the two t y p s of radiation cmnot
be d i a t i w i s h e d by the change in m ~ l momentum
m or pwity. If A J = *l, 0,
Lfiey eirn only bbe d i s t i n ~ i s h e dBy the polarizatia~of thr; raaation. Bo& t m a
may occur simultmeously, producing interference.

that 1/2 112 and O -
In the case of electric qudrupole radiation, it is impticit in Lhs rules
X trmasitiona are forbidden (siren though &lmay
& l), since the required chawe of 2 for the vector m m l a r nclomentm i s im-
' be

possible in these caaes,

Continuing to higher approximations, i t is possible by a b i l w reasodng
to deduce the veotsr chawe in mmXas momentum, or mp1m momenhmn of
the photon, and the selection rules for parity chmge and cbmge of total m-
w l a r momentum AJ associated wit;h the varicrus multipole order8 (Table 5-11,

T N L E 5-1. Classification of Transitions and m e i r Selection Rules

Electric m p t i c EL~trie &wetic Ekectric

lMultipole dipole dipoh quadmpolt.: qwdrupole octupale

Actually all the implicit selection rules for A J , which become numerous
for the higher multipole orders, can be expressed explicitly by writing the
selection rule a s

where 2' is the multipole order o r 1 i s the vector change in angular mo-

Xt h r n s out that in so-eal led parity-favored trmsitions, wherein the p r d -

uet of the initial and final parities is ( - l ) l t - and the lowest possible mul-
tipole order i s J f J i , the transition probabilities for multipole typea con-

parity-unfavored transitions, where the parity product i s (-1) t -ji !r

tained witEtin the dashed vertical gnes in Table 5-1 a r e r o w h l equa1.t In
the lowest mullipob order 163 I Jf - Jy1 + L, this may not be true.

Quifibrim of b&%ticm. If a system i s in equiIibrim, the relative num-

ber of atoms p r cubic centimekr in two ~statee,say 1 and k, i s giiven by

according to statistical mechanics, when the energies differ by Em. Since

the system i s in eqtliubrim, the number of atoms goiw from s t a b k to l
per anit time by absorption of photons b must e q u d the number goi% from
l to k by emission. If n, photons of frequency w are present per cubic cen-
a m e t e r , then polaabili.t;les of absorption are proportional to n, mci proba-
Bility of emission is proportional to n, -t 1. Thus

Thia i s thds Planek black-bdy distribution law.

me SGatteri~af Ugh1, VVe discuser here the phenomena of an incident
photon being s c a t b r e d by an atom into a new direction ( a d possibly e n e r e )
(see Fig, 6-11. This may be considered a s the absorpt;ion of the incoming
photon and the ernisrsion of a new lpfroton by the atom. The WO photons t&ng
part in the phenomenon a r e represented by the vector potentials.

The number to !X determined i s the probability that an atom initially in state

k will be left in state 1 by the action of thds pert;urba#on LP r=: At + AS in the

"f For nuclei emitting gamma rays this d m s not seem to be true. Far an
obscure reason the magnetic radiaiLion predominates for each order of muI-

time T. This probability can be computed just aa any transition probability

with the use af Alk, where

Ths dipole! approdmation. is to be employed m d

where r pins are neglected,

In each i n b g r a l defining AXkreach. of the two vector potentials must ap-
p a r once and only once. Thus, in the f i r s t integral the term p h of fJ will

not appear in Ulk. The p r d u e t A . A = (A1+ A2) (Ai + Az) will conbibale
only its c r a s s - p r d u c t term 2A1&. The second in&gral will have no con-
t r i h t i o n from A . A , but will be efie sum of two terms. The f i r s t term con-
tains a U1, based on p * Az and a Unk based an p .At. The second h w Ul,
based on p AI and Unk cm p *AZ. The Lime sequerzcrzs r e s u f t i w in these
two terms can ba represented schematically a s shown in Fig, 6-2.
The integral resulting from We first term vAlf now be developd in de-
lai l.

Then the resulting integral i s




FIG, 6 - 2

expi-i(E,/fi)ltd - tal- iw exp f-i (Ek/fi)eaj db dt,

The integral is similar to the integrals considered previously with regard to

transition probabilities, and the sum becomes

where L& = (EI +&W - Ek - i), and the phase angle c# i s independent of n.
- - -
A term. wi& the denominator given by (E, b 1 Ek)(EI + b 2 E,) has been
neglected, since previws results show that only energies such that
El + m Ek + tiwl are important. The final result e m be written

where iM1 I s determined from Alk by integraaxlg over wz and a v e r q i n g

over e2. Then the complete expresssion. Ear the cro8s section cr is

The first term under the summation comes from tlxe "first termm 're-
viously referred to and t b second from the ""secand term." The last term
in the absolute brackets comes from A * A.
If l k, the scattering is incoherent, m d the result is called the '"man
effect,$8 If l = k, the s c a t b r i n g is coherent,
Further, note that if all the atoms are in, the ground state and l r k, f;hen
the energy of the atom can only i n c r e a ~ eand the frequency of the Ught ~3
can only decrease, This gives r i s e to "Stokes lines ."
The oppsaite e f h c t
gives @%ti-Stokes Unes .$'

Suppose wg = (coherent s c a l k r i w ) but further Ewl i s very nearly equal

to Ek -E,, where E, i s some possible energy level of the abm, Then one
b r m in the sum over n b c o m e s extremely large and d o m i m b s the remain-
der. The result is called "msomnce s c a t k r i w . " .B' @ is plo-d agaimt o,
then a t such vdctes of w the c r o s s section hais a s b w maximum (see
Fig, 6-31.

FIG. 6-3

The @'indexps oaf refraction of a gas e m be obtained by our scattering for-

mula, ft can be obtained, a,@ for other t y of ~ scatterilae;,
~ by consideriw the
lf&t s c a t b r a d in the forward direction.
bJslf-Enem, h o t h e r phenomenon &at must be considered in q u m
e l s c t s o d p a l c s i s t h pos~ibilft.Y
~ of m atom emitting a phobn and r e a b ~ o r b -
Ing the earne photon. This affects tfie diagonal element Akk. Its @Beatis
quivalent; to a sMft of energy of the level. h e find&

where e is the direction of polarization. This integral dive%@@.A more

exact relativistic calcuIation also gives a divergent integral. This means
that our fomulialian of ebctromametic effecter if; not really a completely
satisfactory theory. The modifications r e q ~ r e dto a v d d this difficulty of
the infinite self-energy will be &scusaed later. The net result i s a very
@mallsMft bE in position of energy. levels. mfs shift h m been observed
by L a b and &&erford.
the Principles
and Results of
Special Relativity

The principle of relativity is the principle that all physical, phenomena

would appear to be exactly the s m e if all the objects concerned were mov-
ixrg uniformly t q e t h e r at velocity V; that is, xza experiments made entirely
inside of a closed s p a c e ~ h i pmoviw mfornzly rrit velocity v (relative to the
center of gravity of the matter in the universe, for e x m p l e ) can debrrrine
e h i ~velocity. The p i n c i p l e has been verified exwrimentally Newton's
laws satisfy this principle; for they a r e urrebmged when subject ta a Gall-
lean transformation,

because they i nvolve only second derivatives , The e H qaations are

changed, h w e v s r , when subjected to this trainsfornnation, and early workers
in this fieid attempted to m&e an absoluta determination of velocity of the
earth using this featwe fmchelson-Morley exmriment). Failure to detect
any effects of this type ultimately led to Einstein" postulate that the Max-
well equations a r e of the @%me form in any coordinate system; and, in par-
ticular, that the velocity of light i s the same in all coordinate s y s k m s . The
transformation beween. coordinate system@wkich leaves the MmweXl equa-
tions invariant is th@ Lorentz transf.armatiarr:
where ta& u = v/c. Henceforth we shall use time u d t s s o that the speed of
light c i s unity. The latter form is written to demonstrate the analam with
rotation of a e s ,

X' = x cos 8 i- y sin 6

y' = -X sin B + y cos 6

Successive transforrnatians vl and v, o r ul and u2 add in the sense that a

single tran~farrnationva o r u3 will give the same final system if

Einstein postulated [theory of special relativity) that the Newton laws must
be modified in such a way that they, too, a r e unchawed in form under a
Lorentz transformation.
An interestin%; consequence of the Lorentz transformation i s that clocks
appear to run slower in moving systems; that is called time dilation.. In
transforming from one coordinate system to another it i s convenient to use
tensor analysis, To this end, a four-vector will be defined a s a set of four
quantities that transforms in the same way a s x,y,z and ct. The subscript
p will be used to desimate which of the four components is being considered;
for e x m p l e ,

The fallowing wantities a r e f our-vectors:

a --8
W.,"-,.. W - a a
+.,"-- (C,) four- dimensional gradient
a ~ " y y ~ v t

jyJ jzyP (jp ) current (and charge) density

A,, $8 A,* V (A,) vector (and scalar) potential

P,# Pyr P z r E (p,) momentum and total energy f


$ The energy E, here, is the total energy including the r e s t energy me2.

An invariant i s a quantity that does not change under a brexrtz transforma-

tion. If a u and bp a r e two four-vectors, the "product"

i s an invariant. To avoid writing the summation symbol, the following sum-

mation convention will be used, When the same index w c u r s twice, s~
over it, placing minus in front of first, second, and third compments. The
h r e n t z invariance of the continuity equation i s easily demonstrated by writ-
ing i t a s a ' 4product" of four-vectors V, and j, :

Conservation of chmge in all systems if it Is conserved in one system i s a

consequence of the invaiance of &is 'product,' ' t h e four-dimensional di-
vergence V e j , Another invariant is

p,p, = p e p = ~2 - pXZ - pY2 - p,' = E' - = m'

(E = total energy, m = r e s t mass, mc2 = r e s t energy, p = momentum.) Thus,

It i s also inlteresting to note that the phase of a free particle wave function
- -
~sxpf f-i/tr)fEt p fo] i s invariant since

The invariance of p,p, can be used to facilitate converting laboratory en-

ergies to eenter-of-mass energies (Fig, 6-4) in the following way (consider
identical particles, far simplicity):

xno-trixy~ sttltiona xy
particle padicle
hboratarjr system Center-of-mass system



The equations of e l e c t r & m a m i e ~ B = V X A and E = -- (i/c)(@A/@t)- V Q,

a r e easily written in temor notation,

where use i a made of the fact that (p is the fourth component of the four-
vector potential A p e From the foregoing it can be seen that B x , B,, B,, E,,
E,, and E, a r e the components of a secoad-ra& tensor:

This tensor i s antisymmetric (F = F,@) and the diagonal terms (Ir = v )
t" f"
a r e zero; thus there are only six ~ndewndentcomponents ( t h e e components
of E and three components of B) instead of sixteen.

The Mmwell equations V x B = 4n J -t- (a E / B L) and V -E =: 4np a r e wrltbn

C.) &
$3 *t
g "3c5 k3
0 cQ
-2 g 3
9 car
21car tn "g .2
83 4 9 E
c ; .*Q ).aC . )m& 3 l,
Its @.a S
."g @i 3$ a<
L.3 CU 3
.,a$$ EU
,=5 %
.I? k
m 2x8
*E:@ =S '2W
*@.S 9: win
z a $ 2
It Q ".g
- 4 k w g
mg a&
s 2 g ga 3 -l;;;
4 B g 3 2 b a o
$ z s % y
G ; 3.5:
;S --h g ; zo
lI%Z s
E Eg "S S@ 3,
$a% c


h empty space the plane wave solution of &e wave equation

where el, and k, a r e constant vectors, and k, i s subject to the condition


This may be seen from the fact that V, operating on e-lk' X has the effect
of multiplying by ik, (V, does not operate on er since the coordinates a r e
rectangular). Thus,

Note that in these operations P, AI, actually forme a second-rank tensor,

V, (V, A,f a &ird-rank tensor, and then contraction on the index v yields a
firat-r& tensor o r vector.
The k p i s the propagation vector with components

and the condition k *k = 0 meam

Problem: Show that lthe LLOmntz codition

implies that k e = 0.

m e n w o r M q in three dimensions it is customary to t a b the poiariza-

tion vector 63 such that; K * a = O and to let the @calmpotential cp = 0. But
this is not a unique condition; that is, i t is not relativistically invariant and
will, be true only in a one-coordinate system. This would seem to b a para-
dox attaching some uniqueness to the system in which K s = 0, a. situation
incompatible with relativity a e o r g . The "paradox, however, is resolved
by the fact tbat one can always make a so-called gauge transformation,
which leaves the field FP, unaltered but which does change e. Therefore,
choosing; fiC* c? =- O in a particular system amounts to selecting the certain
The gauge transformation, Eq. (1-31, is

where X i s a scalar. But V A = 0, the h r e n t z condition, Eq, (7-41, will

still hold if

This equation has a solution X = cremik* X , So

where a i s an arbitrary constant, Therefore,

i s the new polarization vector" obtained by gauge transformation. h ordinary


m u s , no matter what coordinate system, is used,

can be made to v a d s h by choice of the constant a .

Clearly the field i s left unchmged by a gauge transformation for

the VpVvX - O,Vp X because the order of ditferentiations is immaterial.

The components of ordinary velocity do not transform in such a mamer

that (tanbe components of a four-vector. But mother quantity


dz, = dt, &, dy, dz

is an element of path of the particle and ds i s the proper time defined by

is a four-vector and is called the four-velocity up Dividing by dt2
@ves the relation between proper time and local time to be

The components of ordinary velacity a r e related as follows:

It i s evident that u p u p = 1, for

The four-momentum i s defined

p, = mu, = m/(l- v2)'/ 2t mvx/(l - mvy/(l - v2)'/ ',

mv,/(l - v2)'i2
Note that pc = m/(1 - i s the total energy E, s o that in ordinary nota-
tion the mornentm P is given by

where v is the ordinary velocity.

Like the veloeft;y, the components of ordinary force d e f i n ~ dby d/dt (mo-
menhm) cannot forrn the components of a four-vector. But; the quantity

f, - dp,/ds

does form a four-vector with the components

where FP i s the ordinary force. The fourth component i s

f4 =
power -- rate of chmge of energy -
4 3
This i s seen from the fact that m/ i s tlre total energy and also from
the o r d n a r y identity

Thus tfie refat-ivistic mrtlolfue of the Hevvdon equatiom i s

d/ds (p,) = f, = m d2zp/ds2

The ordinary b r e n t z force i s

anid the rate of chmge of energy is

Then from the prece$iw definition of fow-fmce,


Problem: Show that the expressions just given for f and f4 a r e

equivalent to

f, = euP F p v

so that the relativistic a n a l o p e of the Newton. equation becomes

m dZz, /dsP = e(dz,/ds) FP, ( 8-23 1

Also show that this implies

d/ds [(dz, /dsj2] = 0

In ordinary terms the equation of motion, i s

d/dt (mv/ = e(E -i- v x B)

It em be shown by direct alpplication of f i e h g r w g e equations

d/dt (a L/av, ) - ( a L/ax, 1=o

that the Lagrangian

leads to these equations of motion. Also the momenta conjugate to x is

given by 8L/i3v or

The corr e s p o n d i ~Hami Etonian i s

H = e 4 + [(P - e ~+ mj2 ] t /~2 (8-6)

which satisfies (H - e@l2- (P- e k j 2 = m'. It is difficult to convert the

Hamiltonian idea to a csvari m t o r four-dimensional formulation, But the
principle of least action, which states that the aetion

shall be a minimum, will f e d to the relativistic form of the equations of

motion directly when expressed a s

Note that by definition

(ds/da lz = (dz p / d a ) ( d z P/daf

It is interesting t;h& woeher "aetf an, '' "defined

leads to the s m e result as for S in the foregoing,

P~oblems:(1) Show that the Lagrangiinrr, Eq. (8-51, leads to the

equations of motion, Eq, (8-4), and that the correspondiw Hamlltonian
i = O (va-
i s Eq. (8-6). Also find the expression for P, (2) Shclvv that cFS
riation of S), where S is the action just given, leads to the same equa-
ave Equation

The following convention wilt be used berrtiafter. We define the unlts of

maas and time and length such 011151;

Table 9-1 (top of p q e 39) is given a s a useful reference far conversion to

a stomary units,
The following numerical values a r e useful:
M p = rnasrs of proton = 1836.1 m = 938.2 Mev
Mass u d t of atomic weights =; 931.2 Mev
MH = Mass af hydrogen atom = 1.00815 mztsa u d t s
= Masa or" neutron = 784 kev -I- MH
kT = l ev when T =. lI,E3Qli*K.
H, = Avogadrops number = 6.025 x
N,e = 96,520 caulornbs

Accordiw to relativistic classical mechanics, 'che Hmiltaniain is given by


T D L E 9-1. Notations and Udts

Present Customary
notati on Mea~ng~ notation Value

m Mass of electron m
Energy mc2 0 '99 kev
Momenhnn mc 1104 gauss ern
Frequency me2/%
Wave number mc/A
bwth (Comp- li/mc 3.8625 f @-'%cm
ton wave-
e2 Fine-a truetwe
evm Classical radiue
of the e b ~ t r o n
2/me2 Bahr radius

If the qumtum-mecbfctal operator -iV fs used f o r p , the operation d e k r -

mined by the square root i s undeaned. %us the reEativistie quantum-
mechmieal Plmiltadan has not been obtained directly from the classical
equation, Eq. (9- 1). However, it is g o e ~ i b l eto define the square of the o p r -
atar and to write

where the square of an. owrator is evaluabd by ordinary amrator algebra.

This equation waia first discovered by Schrainges as a possible relativistic
equrztion. It is usually referred to as the Klein-Gordon equation. h relativ-
istic notation it i s

This equation does not allow for "~spin'>nd therefore fails to describe
the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. It i s proposed now far applica-
tion to the .rr meson, a particle with no spin. To demonstrate its application
to the hydrogen atom, let A =; O and @== -Ze/r, then let \k= X (r) exp(-iEt).
Then the equation is

Let E: = m + W, where m, and substituting V = ze2/r,

Neglecting the term on the right in comparison with the f i r s t term on the
left gives the ordSnary S c h r ~ i n g e reqtlation. By using; (W - Vj2/2rn a s a
perturbation, potential, the student should obtain the fine-structure? split-tiw
for hydrogen and compare with the correct values.

Exercise: For the Klein-Gordon equation, let

p = if**a@/at - e s s * / a t ) - eqb3 ?fi* = charge density

j = -if% V 9 - J1 V Jlr *) - BA* ?k* = current density

Then show (p, 1) is a four-vector and show FPjp = 0.

The Klein-Gordan equation leads to a result that seemed s o unreasonable

at the time i t was first brozzght to light that i t was considered a valid basis
for r e j ~ c t i n gthe equation, This result i s the possibiuty of negative energy
s t a b s . To s e e that the Illein-Gordon equation predicts such e m r g y states,
consider the equation for a free particle, which c m be written

where i s the R"A1embertian operatar. Xn four-vector notation, &is e w a -

tion has the solution V = A exp (-ipp xp), where p p p p = m2.Then, since

there results

The apparent impossibflity of negative values of E led Dirae t a the de-

velopment of a new relativistfe wzlve equation. The Dfrac equation proves ts
be correct in predietiw the e n e r m levels of the hydragsn atom md i s the
accepted d e ~ c r i p t i a nof the electron, However, c o n t r q to Diracss original

intent, Ms equation also leads to the existence of negative e n e r m levels,

which by now have been satisfactorily interpreted. m o s e of the Klein-
Gordan equation can also be interpreted.

Exercise: Show if 3 -- e x p f - i E t ) ~(x,y,z) is a solution of the Klein-

Gordon equation with constant A and Q1, Lhen 9 = exp f + i E t ) ~ * is a so-
lution with -A and -Q, replacing A and (P. This i n a e a t e s one manner in
which "negative" energy solutions e m be interpreted. It i s the solution
for a particle of opposite charge to the electron, but the same mass.

h s t e d of followiw the original meaocf in the development af the Dirac

equation, a different approach will be used here. m e KEein-Cordon equation
is actually the four-vector form of the S c h r B d i ~ e equation.
r With m anal-
ogous point of view, the Dirac equation can be d e v e l o ~ das the four-vector
form of the Pauli e q a t i a n ,
h following such a procedure, the terms invalviw "spixltWill be included
in the relativistic. equation, The idea of: spin was first i n t r d u c e d by Pauli,
but it was not at first clear why the mametic moment of the electron had to
be taken a s Ae/2mcl This value did seem to follow naturally &om the D i r a ~
ewatiorr, md it is often stated that only the Dirac equation produces a s a
consequence the correct value of the electron" magnetic marnent. However,
this i~ not true, a s further work on the PauE equaaon showed that the s m e
value foklows just a s naturally, i*e., a s the value that produces the greatest
simplification, Because spin i s present fn the Dirac equation, and absent in
the Kleia-Gordon, m d beemse the Kleixz-Gordon;ion was thought to be
invalid, it is often stated that spin i s a relativistic requirement. This is in-
correct, since the Klein-Gordon equation i s a v a l d relativistic equation for
p m ticles without 8pia.
Thus the Schrminger equation is


and the Klein-Gordon; equation i s

[(H- e@12 (-iV - * = m2%
Now the Pauli equation is also H* = E*, where

Thus ( -iV - appearing in the Schradinger equation has been replaced

by [o . (-iV- e ~ ) j Then
~ . a possible relativistic version of the Pauli equa-
tion, in analow to the Klein-Gardon equation, might be

Actually, this i s incorrect, but a very similar form [wi& M replaced by

i( El/@ t)] is eorreQt, n a e l y ,

This is one form of the Dirac equation.

The wave Eunctian jEr on which the o ~ r a t i o n sa r e being carried out i s
actually a matrix;:

A form closer to that originally proposed by Dirac may be obtained as

follows. For canvellienee, wriW

Now let the function X be defined by (g4 + Q r)@ = =g.

Then Eq, (9-5) implies. (n4 ar t r ) ~= m@. Thls pair of e p a t i a n s can be
rewritten (only to arrive a t a particular conventional f o m ) by w i t i n g

Then adding and subtracting the pair of eqationa for @,X, there r e ~ u l t s

mese two equations may be written as one by e m p l o y i ~a particular

eanvention, Define a ntsur matrix wave ftllnetion as

where the matrix character of 9, and 9bhas been shown e q l i c i t l y , i.e.,


Than, if the auA1lmy definitiom a r e made,

(Note: An example of the latter definition is

0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 X,
since crx =
P 0
1 0 0 0

yY and y, a r e similar.) The two equations in V, and Yb can be written as

one in the form

which is actually four equations in feu wave functions, Then using four-
vector notation, the Dirac equation is

that is, show

: =l = y y 2 = yz2 = -1

A similar f o m for the Qirae equation &&t be obtaned. by a different

arwment, by comparison to the Klein-Gordon equation, m u s wit21
H = i(a/a t) = i V, and with ecp = eA4, Eq. (9-3) becomes

in four-vector notation. Usix a similar notation in the Pauli equation, Eq.

(9-41, but also using a = y and setting Q = yd arbitrarily (to complete the
defiation of a four-vector form of Q), Eq. (9-4) can be written in a form
similar to Eq. (9-fa),

This should be compared to Eq. (9-9).

Now the Pauli equation, Eq. (9-41, diEers from the Sehr3diwer equation;
in the replacement of the three-dimensional scalar product (p - eh)' by the
square of a single wantity * (p - @A;). AnalogcrusEy one might wess that
the four-vector product (pI,- eAI,jP in Eq. (9-10) must be replaced by the
square of a single quantity y p (pp - @Al,), where we must invent four ma-
trices yi, in four dimensions in analogy to the three matrices a in three
dimensions , The resulting equation,

i s essentially ewivalent to Eq, (9-9) towrate on both sides of Eq. (9-9) by

y p (iVp - e A,) and use Eq. (9-9) again to simplify the right-hand side).

Ezercise: Show that Eq. (13-11)i s equivalent to

(iVp - e ~ ~-}L2 'eyIIy, F,, .Y = m'+

In the p r e c e d i ~ glecture the Dirac equation,

yl,(iVI, - ehI1)%
= m%

was obtained, together with a slpt3eial represenLaLion for the y %,


where each element in these four-by-four matrices i s anof;her two-by-two

matrix, that isa,

The best way to d e f h e the y 'ss,however, is to give their eomrrautatlon re-

lationships, since this is all that is important in their use. The commutation
relations&pa do not determine a unique representation for the y %, and the
foregoing is only one of many possible representation@. The eornmutation
relationships a r e

or, in a unified notation,

Note that with this definition of and the rule for forming a scalar prod-

Other new matrices may arise by forming produets of the matrices af-
ready defined. For example, the matrices of Eq. (10-5) are producta of y 's
taken two at a time. The matri ces

are ail independlent of y,, y,, y, , y, . (They cannot be farmed by a limar

combination of the latter .) Similarly, products of three matrices,
42 Q U A N T U M E L E C T R O D YltJtJlMleS

These are: the only new p r d u c t s of three. For, if two of the matrices
were equal, the produst could be recluced, thus y, y,y, = -y, y, yy = -yy .
The only new p r d u c t of four that can be farmed is @ven a s p c i a l name, yg,

Pr&ucds of mom t b four muet conkin twa e q w l s o that they c m be re-

duced, are, thereforr?, s k b e n linearly independent q
eambh.tions of them may involve s h k e n arbitrary cons-b. TMs w m e s
with the fact t b t such a eombimtion can be expmesed by a four-by-four =a-
trix. (It is maaemarclcally inbmtsting then that all four-b-four matrices
can be e w r e s s e d in the algebra af tbe y 53; this is called a Cliffod algebra
o r hyprcomplex algebm. G simpler example i s that of tvvo-by-two matrices,
the sa-cdled algebra of quaemions, wMch i s the algebra of the Pauli spin
matrices ,)

and sat

14, i s convenimt to define ano&er y matrix, since it occurs frequently:

Verify &at

For later uae, i t will be convenient to define

from which it can be shown that


For e x m p l e , the firet may be verified by vvritislg

and, movirmp; the sc;cond faetor to the front, by using the cammutation rela-
tionrahlips, Doiw Ghia with the first term, (bp?,) af the secoad factor produces

since y, commutes with itselt: and anticommutes with y,, h,and y, . By

performing &is o p r a t i o n on all terms, one obtains

&P = = t Y t I(-&,?, + a,?, + ayyy + a,y,) + 2a,y,l

+ b,y,[(a,yt - a?,, - ayYy - BzYz 1 + 28XYX1

+ byr,[(atvt - a,?, - ay?, - a,?,) Zayv,I +

+ bz?,[(a,v, - &,Y, - ayYy - a,yz) + 2a,yzl

= -1391 + 2(b,a,yt2 + b,a,y,2 +by%?; +bZazy;)

=-g$ + 2 b e a
Exercises: (l) Show that

?,Pl~x " id + 2%,YX

l"I-lYlr = 4

v,&, = -W
y,$#yp = 4 a e b

v,rr%h, = -Z&Plc

(2) Verify by expan&w in power series that

=p Ifu/~)y,y,l = c%3sh( ~ 1 2+) y, y, sinh (u/2)

((@/2)y,yyi = cos (@/2) + y,yy sin ( G / % )

(3) Show that


Suppose a n o ~ e representation
r for the y @s
ifs obt&ned which satisfies the
s m e commutatio~relationships, Eq. (l0-3); will the form of the Dirac equa-
tion, Eq, (TO-I), the s m e ? To answer this w e ~ t i o n ,m&e the fol-
lowing transformation of the wave function Ji( = S*', where S i s a constant
m&rix W&& is msurned to have arz inverse S-' ( ~ = l). 8 The ~ Birac
~ equa-
tion becomes

The r p and S commute, since n i s a differential operator plus a function

of position, s o & i s equation may be written

Multiplying by the inverse matrix,

where y ; = S-' y p S. The transformation y ; = S-' S i s called an equiva-

lence transfomatian, and it is easily verified that the new y 'B satisfy the
commutation relationships, Eq. (10-3). P r d u e t s of y 'ss,

transform in exactly the same m m n e r a s the y 'ss,s o &at eqtjlations involv-

ing the y ?s(the earnmutation relation8 spcifically) arc? the s m e in the
transform representation. Thfs demonstrates a n d h e r representation for
the y 'ss,md the Diraa equation i s in exactly the e r n e form a s the original,
Eq. (10-l), md ie equivalent in all its result&.

=UTW1;531"IC NCE
The relativistic invarimee of the Dfrac equation may be demonstrakd by
assuming, for the moment, that y transforms similarly to a four-vector,

That is,

Also a t r a s f o r m s similarly to a four-vector because i t is a combination of

two four-vectors 'JI, and AB The left-hand aide y s of the Dirac equa-
tion i s the product of two fow-veetorrr and hence invarrant u d e r h s e n t z
transformations, The right-fimd side m is alao invariant. Tr ansforming
ylr a s a four-vector means a new representation tor the y 's, but Eqs. (10-11)
can be used to show that the new y '8 differ fii-@m the old y 'a by an eqaiva-
lenee transformation; thus i t is really not necessary to transform the y 's
at all. That 18, the s a e special representation can be wed in. all Lorentz
eoor&nate systems.. This leads to two possibilities in m M n g h r e n t z
X . Tmnsform the y % einzilarfy to a four-vector and the wave function
remains the s m e (except for Lorentz tramfornation of c o o r a n a h s ) .
2. Use the stmdard representation in the Lorentz-tansformed coodirta&
system, in which c w e the wave funetion will differ from that in (It) by an
equivalence t r m s f o m a t i o n .


To show that Ght? Dirac equation reduces to the SehrMinger equation for
low velacities, i t is convenient to write it in I f a i l t o n i a n form. The original
term, Eq, (10-11, may be written

MultipI,ying by cy, and r e a r r a q i w b r m s gives

By Eq. (10-5), B is written

where p = 7, , a , ,Z - - yt y x , g , z , Eq, (10-S), and the cr 's salis& the follw-

utation relations: a X2 = a y Z= ( Y =~p2~ = 1 and all pairs anticommute.
It will be noted that a,@ a r e Hernitian matrices in our special regresen-
tation, ~o that in this r-epressntation H i s H~smitian,

Exerczse: Show that a probability denaity p = 9 * ?Xr a d a probability

current = @*a% satisfy the ~ontfnuityeqmtiorr

Note: \Xr i s a four-component wave function. and

Xt should be noted that p mid a a r e Nerxnitim only la certain represenrla-

tions . h particular, they a r e Hermi tian in the repreeentaaon employed thus
far; this wilt be called s t d a r d representation md expressions in it will
be l a b l e d S.R. when appropriab The Hermitim property of cli! and i s
necessary in order to get

,j = : * * Q * S . R. (If -l)

ahs f i e expressions for c h a g e and current density, Hence they are not true
In all representations. The Dirac equation is (wStb E, c restor&)

t It i s noted that the Hamilbnian found in Schiff ("manturn M e ~ h n i c s , ~ ~

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1949)differs fmm this one by negative s i g s on all
but the et$ term, Also the connponenb ?ka of the waw function
tXTZ, %V"3,
used in Schiff correspond, respectively, to -i&bf, -9b2p IYp2 here, All
this is the result of an equivalence transformation S2= ipa,aya, between
the representations used bere and in Sehlff. It is easily verified that 5" -1
hence S-l= -S and

The expected value of x is

remembering that O now is a four-component wave hnction, Similarly it

may be verified as an exercise that

< a > = J**(YY dvol

Also matrix elements a r e formally the same a s before. For e x m p l e ,

91f A is any operator &en its time derivative is

For X the result i s clearly

since x cornmutee with all terma in W except p * cr. But a = I, ao the

eigenvalues of a! a r e a l. Hence the eigexlvelocities of .k a r e ~ t speed
: of
light. This r e ~ u l its sometimes made plausibb by the a r
cise determination of velocity implies precise determinations of position at
t;wo times. Then, by the uncertainty principle, the momentum is completely
uncertain a d all values me equaftly likely. Wiefi the rehtiviatle relation be-
tween velseity and mamentm, &is is seen t~ imply t;ha;t velocitieo near the
speed of light a r e more probabb, rso t b t in the limit the exwcted value of
the velocity is the speed of Light.?

(P - @A;), = i (Hp, - p,H) - i s (HA, - A,$$) - eaA,/at

The terms in A and A,, except the last, expand m follows:

?This argument i s not completely acceptable, for k commutes with p;

that ia, one should bs able to nsreaaure the two quantities simultansously.

Thihs seen to be the x component of

The first and last t e r m form the x component of E. Therefore,

where F is the analowe of the Lorenlz force, T h i ~equation i s sometimes

regarded a s the analowe of Newton's equations. But, since there is no di-
rect comection b e h e e n this equation and 2 , i t does not h a d directly to
Newton" equations in the U d t of small veloeitiee and hence i~ not com-
pletely acceptable as a suitable analowe.
The followixrg relaaons may be verified a s true but their m e m i w i s not;
yet completely understod, if at all:

where in last relation a means the matrix;

so that

o, = --tar, a y , etc.

From analogy to classical physics, one mi&t e x p e t that the anmlar mo-
mentum clpemlor is now

k and

From previous results for (p eh), the time derivative of L may be


The last term may be interpreted as torque. For a central force F, this
term vanishes. But then it is seen that L 0 because of the f i r s t krm;that
is, the angular molnanhtm L is eaneerved, even wl& central forces.
But consider the time derivative of Ule operator a defined as

where c, = -a,ay, etc. The z component i s seen to commute with the 8,

e+, and a , terms of H but not with the a , and a y terms, so that cr, =
+ l ( H a , a y - aXayH)= + ((Y,T,OI,(Y~ Q , @ y ( Y x ~ x+ QyTyaxay-



so that

This is seen to be the z component of -2or X ar . IFinal3,y &en,

and this is the first term of iwith negative sign. Therefore it follows that

which vanishes M* central forces. The operator L t- @/2)o may be re-

garded as the total anguf a r momentum o p r a t o r , where L represents orbi-
tag anwlar momentum and i-fi/2)o intrinsic a-Ear momenhm for spin 112.
Thus total, ang~ularmomenhm i s conserved with central forces,
Pwblems: (1) h a stationary field $3 = 0, BA/@t = 0, show tfiat

i s a coastant of the motion. Nob that this is a consequence of the

anomalous gyroma@etie ratio of the electron. Xt also me
cyclotron, frewency of the electron equals its rate of precession in iil
mapetic field.
(2) fn a stationary nrr2lgnetic field 4 = 0, @A/Bt = 0, and for a sta-
tionary s t a k , show that %fr. vIrz in

are the same as JlrZ in the PauXi eqwtion, Also, if EPHuliia the
Mnetle energy. in the PauXf equation and EBirsc = W + m i~ the msrt
plus kineWc errsrm in the?Erac ewtiont, show ~t

and explain the simplicity of &is relationship.

ltt will be assumed &at all ~ b n t i a l sare etatiomry and statimary states
will be considered. This m&es the work simpbr but is not necessary, h
&is case

T b t is,

f ~ g i= (m = a * (p- eA)@ +pm* + e@3

It wilE be recalled wiLh ?k written as Eq, (9-5)and wi& a,/3 a s given in

b c t u r e 10, the previous equaaon may be writbn aa two eqiaaona (11)-4*),

where, a s befora, r = ( p - BA) a& V =- e$. Simplifying a d solving Eq,

(11-5) for ilib gives

It i s noted &at if W and V a r e 2m, a e n JCrb -- (v/c)O,, For this remon

+, and are sometimes referred to a s the large and small components of
@, respectively. S&st;itution of qb from Eq, (11-6)into Eq. (11-4)gives

and, if W and V a r e negiected in. eompari~onto 2m, the result I s

This i s the Pauli equation, Eq, ( 9 - 4 ) .

Now fAe approdxnation will be carried out to h3ec0XTd order, that is, to
order vZ/c2, to determine just what e r r o r may be expected from use of the
Pauli equation.

Using the results of Leetrrre 11, given by Eqs, (11-6) md (11-7), the low-
e n e r w approximation (W V) << 2m will be made, keeping terms to order
v'. Thus

Then Eq. f 11-71 bcomes

while the normalizing requirement + ObZ)d v01 = 1, becornea

By use of the substitution

the normalizing integral can bs lsinzplified to read (to order v2/cZ)


This 8ubstitut;ion also allowe easier interpretation sf Eq, (12-2). Rewriting

Eq. (12-21,

(W- V) l1 + (cr.
[l + (o ~)~/(8rn~]l

Then applying Eq. (12-.4f and dividing by 1 + (cr*w]2/(8m2),there results

(W-V)X = (1/2m)(cr*~)\ - (1/8rn~,(@.r1'~

The techniques c>E o p r a l o r a k e b r a may be used to convert Q. (12-5) to

a form more easily interpreted, In particular ane should recall that

A% -- 2ABA't. BA' = A(AB - BA) - (AB - BA)A

Then, since rr = ( p - ~fl3c), and since

there result8 fwiGh cr. r = A and (W V) = B in the foregoiqj,

f a i n ~ eV x E - 8B/at = 0 here), s o Eq, (12-5) can be expanded as

WX = VX +- (f/ltm)(p -- eA).(p - sA)x - (c?/rztnr)(rr*B)~
(11 (21 1-31
+ ( e 2 / 8 m 2 ) ~-+-2~0 . ( p -eAf x EfX (12-6)
(51 (6)
In this form the wave eqwtion may be interpreted by considering each
term of Eq. (112-6) separately,
Term (1) give8 the ordinary scalar potential energ.y a s it has a p p a r d

Term (2) can be interpreted a s the kinetic e n e r a .

Term (31, the Paull spin effect, ilr~just a s i t appears in the P m I equa-
Term (4) is a relativistic correction to the kinetic energy. The correc-
tion. derives from

The last term in tlris expansion i s e?quivalent to term (4).

Terms (5) and (6) express the spin-orbit coupling, To understmd this in-
terpretation cornides the part of term (6) given by a * ( p x E). In an inverse-
square field this is proportional to o ( p x r)/r3. The factor p x r can be

interpreted a s the angular momentum L to get fa* u/r3, the spin-orbit cou-
pling. This term has no effect when the electron i s in a s-state ( L = 0). On
the other hand, (5) reduces to V E = 4nZ&(r),which affects only the s-states
(when the wave funetion i s nonzero a t r = Of. So (5) and (6) together result in
a continuaus hnction for spin-orbit coupling. The magnetic moment of the
electron e/2m, a p p a r s a s the cmfficient of term ( 3 ) , a d again of terms
(5) and (G), i.e., (e/2m)(1/4m2),
A classical a r g m e n t can be made to Interpret term (6). A charge mov-
ing &rough m electric field vvi& velocity 'tt feels an effective magnetic
field B = v x E = ff[m)(p eA) x E, and term (6) i s just the energy (e/2m) x
(o B) in W s field. flVe get a factor 2 too much this way, however. Even, be-
fore the development of" the Dirac equation, Thornas showed that tMs simple
classical armrnent i s incomplete and gave the correct term (6). The s i h a -
tion is d;ir%eread for the anomalou~morrxenh intraduced by PauU to describe
neubons and protons (aee Problem 3 below). In PauIi's mmodified equation,
the momalous moment does appeas w'rth the factor 2 vvhn multiplying terms
(5) and (6).

Problems: (1) Apply Eq. (12-6) Lo the Wdrogen atom and correct
the energy levels to f i r s t order. The r e s u l b should be compared to
the exact results.? Note the difference of the wave functions a t the
origin of coordinaks, This difference actualIy is too restricted in
space to have any imporbnce. Near the origin the correct solution to
the Dirac equation i~ praportioml to

for the hydrogenie aloma , while the Schrbdinger equation gives 0

conatmt a s r -+0,
t gchiff* "Wanturn Mechanics, McGraw-Hilt, New York, 1949, pp. 323fif.
(2) @uppose A iuld $I depend on time. b t W = iB/a t and follow
tfirawh the procedures of this lectme to the s m e order af approa-
(3) Pauli" e d i f i e d eqwl;ion can be applied to neutrons a d pro-
tons. It ilts obtained by a d a n g a term for anomalous moments to the
Rirac equation, thus

Multiplyiq by P, this may be written in the more familiar "LHrzmil-

toniarr" expression

i(@/at)@= PI,, 9 -+ p @ (P E)-cl! * E)*

Show t h d the s m e appsaamation which led to Eq. (12-6) will naw
p r d u c e the b r m s

f a r protans, and a similar expree%sianfor neutronw, but Mth e = 0.

(4) Equation (12-7) cm be used to i n b r p r e t electran-neutron scat-
tering in an atom. M a t of the s c a t t e r i q of neutrons by atoms i s the
ieotropie s c s t t b r i ~from the nucleus, However, the electrons of the
atom also scatter, and give r i s e t a a warre which i n b r f e r e s with nu-
clear scattering. For slow n e a r a m , $hi@eEeet i s experimentally oh-
served. lit is interpreted by term (5) of Eq. (12-6) [as m d i f i e d in Eq,
(12-7) vvith e = 01 . Since the electron charge is present outside Ule
nucleus, V E has a value different from 0, Term (5) c m be used in
a Born approxirnalf on to cornpub tlre m p l i t u d e for neutron-elecdron
scattering, However, when the effect was first discovered, it w m @X-
plained by the a s s m p t i o n of a neutron-electron interaction given by
the potential e6(E1),where 5 i s the Dirac 6 function and R is the neua
Itron-electron distance.
Comwte t-he scattering mplitude vvith ct9(R) by the Born approd-
mation and campare with f i a t given by term (5). ~ X Z O W t b t

In order to interpret cd(R) as a potential, the a v e r w e p-cltential 5

i s defined a s that potential which. acting over a sphere of radius e2/mc2,
would p r d u c e the same effect,
Using = - 1.91 35 eB/22hlM, show that the resuiting V agrees with
exprimental results within the slat;ed accuracy, i.e., 4400 -11100 ev, t
-f L, Foldy, Phys, Rev., 87, 693 (1952).

(5) Neglecting terms of order v2/c', show that

of the Dirac Equation
for a Free Particle
Thirteenth L eeture
It will be co~vttnlentto use the form of the Dirac wuaaan rrlith the Y 'ET
when ao2;rriw for the free-particle wave hn~tiom

Using the definition of Lecture 10, = yl, aP

and the Dirac equation may be written

(Recall that the quantity 4 = y p a P i s invariant under a Lorentz transforms-

Xt is neeesgarg to put the probhility density and current into a four-
dimensional form. In the smclal repreaenttstion, the prab&iUty deneity m4
current are given by

If the relativiastic adjoint? of .1XI i s defined

in the stiandard representation, then the probability densitqy and current may
be written

To verify this, replace 5 by V*@ and note that p2 = 1 and that flyp = ap.

Ezercises: (1)Show &at the adjoint of 9 satisfies

(2) From Eqs. (13-1) and (13-3) show that V, j = O (conservation

of pr ohbility denkrily) .
In general, the adjoint of an operator N is denoted by 3, and i s the
same a s N except &at the order of aEE y appearing in i t i s reversed, and
each explicit i (not th_ose cokliained in Ule y's) is replaced by -i. _For ex-
ample, if N = y, y y , N = y y y x = -N. If N = iyg = iy,yyy, y, , then N =
-W, y,y,y, = - i y p The EolloMw p r o p r t y tabs the place of the Hiermitian
property s o u s e h 1 in nonrelativistie quantum mechanics:

For a free particle, there a r e no potentials, s o 85. = 0 and the Dirac

q u a a o n becomes

To rsoltve &is, try as a aolution

T't3 iis a four-componsnt column vector,

The adjoint Q i s the four-component row veclor h the

st;ljln&rd repmsenktion, Muktiplicactlon by P c b g e s tke sign of the3 third

a& fau&h components, in addition bo c ing \k* from a column vector to
a raw vector,

.?b is13four-component wave Ecrnction m 3 what is memt by US trial soluUon

i s that each of the four components is of &is farm,t;hat is,

, and u4 are the components of a column vector, mdl u is

Thus ul, u ~ us,
called a Dirac spinor. The problem i s now to determim what restrictions
must be placed on the u% s d p% in order that the trial rJaXutian satisfy
the Dirac equation. The VU operation on each component of +
each component by -Qp. s o that the result of this operation on produces

s o that Eq. (13-5) becomes

Thus the maumed solution will be satisfactory if &a = mu. To rslmplify

writiw, it will now be assumed &at paticte mmes in the xy plane, s o

Under these conditions, d = y, E - - y,p. in standard representation

By components, Eq. (13-7) becomes

(E - m)ui - (p, - ipY)u4= O
(E - m)uz - (B, + i%fua =Q
@, - i p , ) ~-~(E I- m)u~ =@
@, + ip,)ut -. (E +- m)u4 =O

The ratio ug/u4 can be determined from Eq. (13-98) and also from Eq.
(13-9d). These two value8 must agree in order that Eq. (23-6) be a eolurtion.

This is n& a surpridng condition. Il. s~tatesthat the p, must be &men 80

a s to satfefy the relativistic ewation for total e n e r a .
Similarly, Eqs, (13-9b) m d (113-$c) can be solved for u2/us giving

which also lsada to codition (13-10).

A more elegant way of obtzliaiw exactly the s m e condition is to s t m t
directly with Eq. (23-7). Then, by multiplylw %is i~3quationby $ gives

m e former is the same cmdition as obt&ned b f o r e , and the l a t b r $8 8

trivial solution (no wave knction) .
Evidently there we two Xinearly i n d e p ~ d e n solutiom
t of the free-parlick
Dirac equation. Thia is ao because bsubstihtion of the a a s m e d solution, E q .
(13-61, ints the Dirac equation @vs& only a condiaon an pair8 of the U%,
ul, U, a d uz, us. It ia conve~ienl;to choose the indewndent solutions ao &at
each h w Luro componenb wUch are zero, n u s W u% for Ulris two solutions
can be t&en as

where the f o l l o w i ~notation has been used:


These soluaons are not rrmnndized,


m a t do the two linearly independent solutions mean? There must ke
some physical qumtity that can still be swcifisd, wkch will u ~ w e l ydeter-
mine the wave h e l i o n . A ia h w n , for exmple, that in the coordlnab sgs-
tern in which the p a r t i ~ bier staHomry acre me WO passibb spin orlenta-
tiane. Mathexnatioally swmw, exjistence of two solutiom to the eigen-
value. equation #U = mu implies the exiabnce of an a p r a t m &At commutes
with 6. n i s operator will have to be discovered. Qbserve h a t yti a~ticom-
mutes with $; &at is, = -hI.Aleo observe that m y o p r a t a r [JFJ will
anticommuter;Mt;h $ if W ep = O, besause

Ths combination yswof &ese two antieommutfng operators is an o p r a l o r

which commuke? with that Is,

The eigenvalues of the owrator (iygfl) m w t n07ull be found (tlne i hais, been
added to nn&e eiwnvaluee come out real in w b t follows), Deaclting &ese
eiganvalues by 8 ,

To fincl the possible valuss of a, multiply Eq. (13-23) by i y p ,

I[f W * W is t e e n to be -1, the eigenvalues af the o p r a t o r iySJW a r e rt: l. The

tXle particle ier at rsct, p, -

sigaflicanw of the choice W W = -1 ia a s fof lows: In the ~ y s t e n rin which
=p, = O and pl = E. Then

m u s , W * W -W * W = -1 or W W = 1, This staWs that in the e m r a n a t e


systei?.min which the particle is at re&, W is an o r a n a r y vector fit has zero

fowth conzwnent) Mth unit Iene~;tX1,
M e n the particle moves in. the xy plme, chmsts p to be y,, s o the
omrator quation for iygv k c o m e s

Using relationships derived in b c t u r e 10, this becomes, for 8 stationary

particle, t

This choice m k e s fdCr the o, oMrator, and the relationship d t h spin is

clearly demonstrated. If ws define u to satisfy bath 6~ = mu and iy&u = su,
this completely smeifies U. It represents a particle m o v i q wi& momenbm
p, and having its spin (in the coordinate syatem moving with the partide)
atong We W, axie s i ~ e positive
r (s = + X ) o r negative fs = -I).

Exercise: Show that the first of the wave functions, Eq. (13-11), i s
We l solution and the secand is the a = -I solution.
S = -i-

AnoWer way of obtaiaing the wave Eunction for a freely moving electron
is to p r f s r m an eqavalence tran~farmationof the wave function as in Eq.
(10-12). If the electron is initially at re& w i a i& spin up o r down in the z
direction, then the spinor for an electron m ~ v with i ~a veloeity v in the
spatial direction k ies

[For normafization, s e e Eq, (13-14),]

From Eq. {XO-XX), S is gfven by

cosh U = 1/(1 -

'f For a stationary particle y,u = U.


(2m)'/2 cosh (u/2) = [ m ( ~ v5-li2+ = (E + mjl/2

Writing f = (E+m), a =?,y, aml noting (~~-rn')'/' =h,

we get

For the case that g i s in the xy pime, t h i ~just gives the remlt, Eq. (13-XI),
with a normalization factor l / n
Noticing that for an electron at rest y,uo = uo , may be written

It is olear that this is a aolutian ts the free-m&lcle Birac equation


In namelativistie quantum mechanics, a plme wave is n a m d i z e d to give

unity prob&illliy of andinl4; the particle in a cubic centinneter, t h t is, ik*iE = 1.
h malwous normalization for the relativistic plme wave mi@t be some-
a i l i~b

flowever, 9*4!transforms sfmifarly to the fourth component of a four-

vector (it is the fotutth component oaf four-vector current}, s o M s normal-
ization would not be invariant, It i e poasibte to m b a rehtivistically in-
variant normalization by mtting U+ u equal to t b fowthi compomnl of a

sufbbie fom-vector , For exampk, E ia the fow& component of the mo-

mentum four-vector pp, s o the wave function could be normalized by

The constant of proportionality (2) Is chosen for convenience In later for-

mulas, Workhg sut ( uyt U) for th@s = .:+ 1 s k t e ,

The Cl is the normaiizl_ng factor multiplying the wave functions of Eq.

(13-11). In order that (uy, u) be equal to 2E,t h e normalizing factor must
be chosen (E + m)-'/" ((F)-'~. In terns of (uu), this normalising condi-
tion becomes

The same result is o b h i m d f a r the s = ---.X stab. Thu8 the normaffzing

condition can be h b n I ~ B

r, the f o l l o u r i ~cm kw shorn to km true:

It will be conveniepll to have the matrk elemenb of all the 7% Sheen va-
r l o u ~initkl and f h a l s a t e s , s o Table 13-1 has b e n worked out.

T m L E 15-1. Matrh Elements for Particle Moviw in the xy Plane

1 2m F2Fi - Pi+Pz- 0

YX ~ P X FzPt+ + Pa- F i o
YY 2py -fF2~1+"(" fP2-F I 0

7% 0 0 -Px*F2 + Pz+Ft

Yt 2E t + Pt * Pz- 0

IkzrnzMng cases: To obtain the case &ere 71 is a p o a i t r o ~at rest, Lhe

table gives mg~a~~u~) if oxre p ~ t sFi = 0, pl+ = 1 = pi- in the table. For both
at reat as wsitrons, the table gives (QzMul)wi& Fi = F2 = O; PI+ = p ~ =+ 1.

fh Lecture

The matrix element af m operator M between i&dial slate uI md final

state ug will be denobd by

The matrix element Sa independent of the representations used if ~ e a yr e

related by unitary eqavalence tramfornnatiow , That is,

where Ule groper& 8 = S-$ haa b e n a s s m e d for S.

The straightfaward m e ~ to d cornpub the matrix elemen& i s %limplyto
write a e m sut in matrix form and carry out the o~ratiions.l[n W e way the
data in Table 13-1 were obtained.
M a r m e a d s may be used, however, sometimes sfmpbr md sometim~ss
leading to corollary information, a s illustrated by the following example. By
dhs mormiklization canven-tiortr,

s l a ~ e)Ilrr = mu. Similarly,


(aYppu) m ( a y p ~ )
But also n&e thiat

, = m(O[ypU)
{ B ~ Y U)

beeawe Qg3 = g%l =: m& Addiw the Lvvo expreshsions, one obtains

From the relation proved in the i~3xerci~ee

it is seen that

h, +?,P = W , Y, =Z
But p, ia just a number, BO it f~ilowtlthat

md aince flu = 2m,by normalization

(ilyp~) ZP,

the general relation


is obtarSned. norn tM~3It i s why fjhe possible

SBESIZ normalization

P r o b l m : U&% rne&dg andogma to the one just demoaslrated,

show that

Xt was found &at a neeeesary condition far solution of the Dirac equation
to exist i s
E' = pZ + m'

The nneaniq of the positive enerw is clear but Llxat of the negative is not.
It was at one time suggested by SckS&inger &at it should be arbitrarily ex-
cluded a s having no mead*. But lit waa found that &ere 858 two h n d w e n -
tal objections to tba excluaian of negative e m r m stsws, Tbe first ie Nysi-
cal, &eoretically physical, that is. For the f)irae equaaon yields the result
&at starting wiLh a system in a polsiHve enerf3;Y slate &ere Is a probability
of induced trasitions into mgative e n e r a s t a b s , Heme if they were ex-
oluded thias would be a coneradiction. The a e c o d objection is mathematical.
That is, excludiw the negative energy s t a k s lea& to an lineomplete set of
wave functions, It is not possible to represent an arbitrary h c t i o n a s an
expawion in functions of m incomplete aet. This sitxlation led Sehr0Mnger
into 'insurnnount&le difficulties.

Prohlem: Suppose that ;for t < O a pmticle is in a positive en-

srw stab moving in the x direction with spinup in the z direction
fs= +X), Then at t = 0, a constant pokntfal A=A,(A, = A y = 0) is
turned on a d at t = @ it i s turned
I' off. Find the probability t h t the
parLiele is in a negative energy s k & a t t = T.
fialiabiliw of beiw in
negative enerm eta@ = A~/(A' + m5 sin' [(m2+ A$'/'T]
at t = T
Nab &at when E = -m, 1/fl= m , s o Ithe ups apparently blow up.
But actually the components of u also vagisfi when E = -m, so that
ai Ximitiw process i s invalved. It may bcj avoided and the correct
results abbinc3d simply by omitting l/fl and replacing F by zero
and p* by 1 in the eomponent~of: U.

The poaitiva enerm level@form a conlC-inuw extending &am E = m $0 +m,

and the negative e n e r g e s if accepted a s such form a n o w r continuum from
E = -m to -m. Between +m and -m &are are no availhle aner,eif;Ylevels
(see Fig, 14-1). Birac proposed the idea that ail the negative e n e r w levels
a r e normalfy fiflsd, Explanations for the apparent obscurity af sueb a sett of
electrons in negative enerp;y. statea, if It exists, usually cozltain a psycho-
logical a s w c t and a r e not very satisfactory. But, nevertheless, if such a
sltua#on is assumed toedst, some of the important consequences are these:
X, Ebctrans in positive enere;y states will not normally be observd to
m a b transitions into negatiye energy states b c m s e these s t a k e a r e not
available; they are already k l l ,
2. With the sea of electrons in negative enerm levels unobsemrraible, a
"oleH h it prducedt by a trmsition of one of its eleclrans into a positive
exlerw state should manifest itself. The rnaPrifestatlion of the hole is re-
garded a s a positron and behaves like an electran with a positive charge.

positive energy

newtive energy
levels normally

FIG, 14-1

3 , The Pauli ernclueion principle is implied in order that the negative sea
may be full. That is, if my a m b e r rather than just one electron could oc-
cupy a given state, it would be impoaaibls to fill alI. the nagaX-ive e n e r m
states, It i s in tMs way &at the Dirac a e o r y is sometimes consider& aa?
"pr oaf H of the exclusion principle.
ho-r interpretation of negaave energy s t a b s haa been proposed by
t;he prersent author. The furtdmental idea is &at the 'kncsgative en@rmt'
states represent the s b b s of electrons movz'w baekwrd in gm@,
In the c l a ~ s i c a equa~on
l of motion

reversing the dlrectit-ion of p r a w r time s amounts to the s m e m reversing

the s i c of Iha charge s o that the electron moving b a c h a r d in time would
look like a. positron moving f a w a r d in time.
In elementamty quantum m e c h a ~ c s ,the total amplitude for an ebctron to
go from xi,h to. x2,tz was compted by s m m i n g the mplitudes over all
possible trajectories between xl,LI and xz,ta, aseuming t k t the f;rajec-
toriea atlways moved forwzurd in time. Thr~teetrajeetortazs might a p w a r i n
one anerenslion aa shown in Fig. 14-2. But ~ t the h new pdnt of view, a pss-
aible trajectory mi&t b as shown in Fig. 14-3.
Imtzginlng oneself an o b ~ e r v e rmovtw a l o q in time in the ordinmy way,
being conscious only of the present and pmt, the sequence of events w a l d
apmar m follows:

X1 X2
FIG. 14-2

t only the initial electron present
the irtitial electron still present but ~omewherfs,
else an
eleclrtm-posritrcm pair is formed
tr- t, the initial electron, and newly arrived electron positron
a r e preerent
h% - the positran meets with the injtial electron, both of Wlem
amihilating, leaving only the previously creabd electran
t,- tz only one electron presexll

T o handle this idea quantum m e c h d c a l l y two rules must be followed:


1, Xn calculating matrix rslementa far gositrom, the gmif;i~w of t b ini-

tial and final wave firnctiom must reversed, That is, for aia electron move
ing forward i a time from a past state to a firwe state UIez ma-
trix elemsnt i s

But moving backward in time, the electron proceedsfrom +, to ,

Y so
the matrix element for a positron is

2. If the energy E i s positive, Ulen e - ' ~ i's~ wave function of an eleo-

tron with energy p& = E. E E is negative, e m B Pis' ~the wave function of a
positron. with eaerm -E or LE (,and af fow-momentm -p.
Potential Proble

Fifteenth Lecture
Two possible pass of an electron b e i w scattered between the states 91
and were &seussed in, the last lecture. m e s e are:
Case I. Both @z states of pocaitive energy, interpreted a s 9g electron
in ""past," !Ifz electron in "f~$ure.'~This is electron scattering.
Case 11, Both ?1"$, UF2 states of negative enera interpreted as 4rl posi-
tron in "future," "2 positron in ""pst." This is positron scattering.
The existence of negative energy states makes two more t p s of paths
p s s i b f e . T h e ~ eare:
Case ZfX. The positive energy, @2 negative energy, i n t e r p e w d as Jrl
in ''ppa~t," %2 positron in. ""past." Both states a r e in the paat, and no%ing in
the futwre. T U s represents pair amiMlat_ion.
Case N. The negative energy, 4T12 posjiitive emrgy, inbrpreted a s Ol
positron in "future," "2 electron In "'fuh,rre," This is pair ereation.

Case I Case I1 Case IIX Gase TV

FIG. 15-1

The EOW cases can be d i % r m m e d a s shown in Fig, 15-1. Note that in

each d i w r u the arrows point from %i to q2,a l a o w h time is increasing
upward in all cases, The arrows give the direetion af motion of the elec-
tron in the present interpretation af negative s n e r m slates. h common lan-
@we,the arrows point toward pctsitive or negative time according ta
whether 16 is positive or negative, that iia, w h e a e r the state represented is
that of an e l e ~ t r o no r a, positron.

Energy relations for the scattering in case I have been established in
previous lectures. It can be seen that identical results hold for case rX. To
shaw this, recall that in case I, if the electron goes from the e n e r w El to
E2 and if the wrt;urbation potential ihs taken proportional to exp(--iwt), tfien
this perhrbation b r i w e in a positive e n e r w w . To s e e t h i ~ noLe
, that the
amplibde for scattering is proportional to

=Jexp[(iE2t - iwt - iEtt) dtl (25-1)

AB has been shown, there is a resonance between E2 a& El + w, s o that

the only contributing energies a r e those for which Ez Et + w , h case 11
the s m e integral holds but: E2 and El a r e negative. A positron goes from
an energy (past) of E,,,, = -Ez to an energy (future) of E = -Et. With the
same perturbation energy, the mpfitude is large w a i n only if Ez= El + w
o r -Epas, = -Ef,, + W , s o that Er., = w + E,,.,; that is, the perturbation c a r
r i e s in a. positive energy o,just a s i t does far the elect-ron case.

h thi~!nonrelativistic case (Scbiidinger equation), the wave e w t i o n , in-

cludng a perturbation potential, i s written

where V i s the perbrbation potential and He is the u n m r b r b e d Hmilto-

nian, For the free particle, the kernel giving the ampllktde to go from point
1 to point 2 in space and time can be s b w n +mbe

where! N ie a normalizing factor depnding on the time interval t z - tl and

the mass of the particle:

Note that the kernel is defined to be Q for t2 tr. It can be shown t b t W;@
satisfies the e p a t i o n

The propagation kernel Kv(2,1) glving a similar mplituds, but in the

presence of the p e r b b a t i o n potential V, must satisfy the equation

XL can be shown thrtt Kv can be compukd from the series

]In ease the complete H m i l t o d a n H = H@ + V is f d e p n d e n t of:time, md

all the e stationary s t a h s #, of the system a r e known, tf-zen Kv(2,1) may be
obtained from the sum

The extension of these idea@to Lhe rslativistie case (Dirac equation) i s

rstraightfomurardl., By chooalw a p a t i e u l a r form for the H a i l t o ~ a n the
Dirac equation can be written

Defining the propalyatim kernel a s K ~ then

, the kernel is the aoluaon, to the

The matrix p i s inserted in the Imt term ia order that the kermll derived
from the Hamiltonian be relativistically invariant. [Note the similarity to
the nonrelativistic e w e , Eq. (15-G).] lMultiplying &is equation by B, a sim-
pler Eom results:

The equation for a free particle is obtained simply by letting = O, then

calfiw the free-psrtiete k e r e l H;, ,

The notation K, replace8 the & of the wmelativistic case, and Eq,(15-10)
repfaees Eq. (15-4)a s the defining equation,
Juat aa Kv ean be expanded in the s e r i e s of Eq. (15-61, s o can be
expanded m

Note that the kernel is now a four-by-four matrix, s o that all component8
of 3 can be determined. Since this is true, the order of the terms in Eqt.
(15-11) is important, The element of integration i s actually an element of
volume in four-space,

The potential, -ie$l"(l)can be interpreted as the amplitude per cubic eenti-

meter per seeand for the particle to be scattered anee at the paint f l f .Thue
the interpretation of Eq. (15-11) is completely analogms to that of Eq.

P~oblenz:Show that ltAas defined by Eq, (15-11) i s consistent

with Eqs. (15-8) and (15-9).

On the nawslativfstic case, the ga%s a l o ~ gwhich the particle reversed

its motion in time are excluded, Pn. the present erne is no l o w e r true.
The existence and interpretation of the negative ener&y eigenvaluea of the
Birac equation allows the interpretation and inclu~fonof such p.aells.
TaMw t4 2 t8 implies the elciaten~eof v i s a & pa;irs. The section from
t4 t a tS repreeellf;~the motion of a positron (secs Fig. 15-21"
h a time-slationary A d d , if the wave hnctiom @, a r e k n o w for all the
states of the sysbm, then may be defimd by

rr - C I-i~,(tz - tr)l +,(xz)& (xl)

neg, energies

FIG, 15-2

Another aolutution of Eq. (15-9) i s

~~A(2,1)= C exp[-iE,(t2-tlll$n(~g)$n(~t)

pos. energies

t C '
exp [ - i ~ , ( t l - t l ) ~ # ~ ( x ~ ) ? ~ t2
neg. energies

Equation (15-13) ha8 an interpretation comiaterrt with the positron inter-

pretation of negative energy states. Thua when the t h i n g i s " o r d i n ~ y p p
(L2 > e,), an electron i e presexll, and only positive energy states contribute,
W e n the t i m n i ~i s ""reversed " (t2<. tlf , a positron is present, and only
negative sneref5"%;takescontribute, On the sUler hmd, Eq. (15-13)does not
have s o satisfactory an interpretation. Although the kernel bA defined by
Eq. (15-13) is also a satisfactory mathematical 8ofuLion of Eq. (15-9) (as
shown below), the interpretaaon of Eq. (15-13) require& the idea af an e k e -
tron in a negative energy state.
To show that both kernels a r e solutions of the smcs inhomogeneous equa-
tion, note that &eir difference is

for all. t2, This is, term: by term, a solution af the hamqeneouss equation
[i.e., Eq. (15-9) with zero right-hand side). The possibility that two such

solutions errist results from the fact &at boundary conditions have not been
definitely fixed. We shall always use K , ~ .
The kernel K + ~ defined
, by Eq. (15-121, allows treatment of case 111 (pair
amihilatfon) m d caBe N @dr creation) sham at the b g i a w of a s b e -
ture. Pn each case, the got,tentiai, -Te&(3), acts a t the fnbrscact;lon of positron
and electron paths.

Sixteenth Lecture


In the nonrelativistic t;heory it was poasibfe to calculate the wave function
at a point xz at time tz from a knowbdge of the wave hnctian at m earltier
time tl (see Fig, 16-1) by means of the nomelatfvistic kernel Ko(xz,tz;f t j , t 1 ) r

It might be e x p c t e d that a relativirstie ganc3raXization of this would be

FIG. 16-1 FIG. 16-2

m s turns out to b incorrect, however. It i s not sdficient, in the re1at;idsr-

tic ease, to h o w just the wave hnction ~t an e w l i e r time only b c a u m
KJ2,f) is not zero for tg c tie Men the kernel, is det&ned in Wlis m
( b c h r e 15), the wave funetion at xz,tz (see Fig. 16-2) is given. by

The firat term is Lfxe contribution from positive energy states at earlier
times and the sacsnd term is the contribution, from negaave energjr states
at later t h e s e mis e q r e s s i o n c m be generalized to a t a k that it is me-
assary to h o w 9(xltx) on zt faw-d-innensfonat surilaee, 6~urrounid;iqthe
point xz,tz (see Fig. 16-3):

where We is the four-vector normal to the surface that encloses xz,tz

The a p l i t u d e to go from a state f to a state g under the action of a po-

tential & is given by an expression similar to &at in nonrelativistic tbeary,

Using the expansion of ~ , ~ ( 2 . 1in) terms of K,(2.1), Eq. (16-121, and assu-
ming h a t the amplitude for transition from state f to state g as a free par-
ticle is zero ff and g arthogonal states), fAe first-order ampfitude far
transition (Born appra&mtion) is

It lie converrierxt to let

Theoe state &at &e particle has the free-particle wave function f just prior
to scatteriw and Lbe free-particle wave hncticsn g juet a f k r s c a t t e r i ~ and
that it elinninabs any computation of the moti on aist ai free particle, The am-
plitude for transitfo~,ta first order, mily be written

oigdMes integration over time a s well as space). The second-order

Germ would bbe written

-(1/2) Jjg(4)eA(4)K,(4,3)e8((3)f(3) d ~ drc


If f(3) ie a negative energ;y statze, then i t represents a positron of the future

instead of an electron of the past and t h process
~ described by LMs ampli-
tude i s that of pair production.

We shall make use of the theory just presented to calculate the scattering
of an electron from an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge %et. Suppose the
incident electron has momenhm in the x direction and the scattered elec-
tron has momentum in the xy plane (see Fig. 16-4):

FIG, 16-4

The potential i s &at of a stat:fonary chwge 243,

The i ~ l i a 2and final wave funetism we plane waves:

f(1) = u ~ ~ - ~ P I ' ~g(2) = u2e-@zex (four-component wave


Thus, foy Eq. (I&-$),the first-order mplitude for transitim from state f to
s t a b g (mamentum pi to miomentm p2) i s
P R O B L E M S IN Q U A N T U M E L E C T R O D Y N A M I C S 79

Separating space and time dependence in the waive funct;ions, this becomes

The first intrzgral is juat V(Q), a three-dirnenoional F o w i e r trawform of

the potential, which was evaluated in nomeXativisUe scatMring theory:

The probability of transition per second is given by

Trans. prob./sec = ~ ~ ( D N ) - ' / Mx /(density

~ of final states)

This i s a result from time-dependent ~ r t u r b a t i o na e o r y , the only new fac-

tor is a normalizing factor (EM)-"vvhieh takes account for the fact t;hat the
wave functions a r e not normalized to unity per unit volume. The n N is a
p r d u c t of factors rJ one for each wave function, o r particle in the initial
state, and one for each final wavB fmetion,

for each particle in question. In our normalization, then N = 2E.l

The reason far this factor is that wave fmctions a r e nomallzed to

where, m in the comwtation of trmsition probability, tlxey should be nor-

malized in the conventional nonrelativistic manner % * Q = 1 o r (Gyt u) = 1
(so N =: 1 for that e w e ) ,
The matrix element M, a s salculabd in t;ttis nzamer, is relativistieally
t in the f u b e the chief interest will be in M , The kansition
i n v a r i a ~ and
probrzbitity, bovving M, can be computed from Eq. (16-6).
I)en@ltyof etabe, Crosa boaon. For the efsetson s c a t t e r h g problem
under consideration,

s o the transition probability i s

where t h density
~ of f i w l states has been obtained in the following mamer:

Density of states = % = l

hut = + m', s o dp2/dE2 = E2/p2 and

Density of states = ~ ~ ~ $ n / ( z r ) ~

When the incoming plane wave i s normalized to one p & i c l e per cubic cen-
timeter, the cross section is given in terms of the tmnsitfoxl probslbillty per
second? aa

The essential difference between the relativistic treatment of scatt_ering

and the nonrelativistic treatment is c a n b i n d in &a matrix element; ( u2yt ul).
From Table 13-1, for a pasLicfe moving in the xy plane and et = + 1, s2= +l,


[E, = E2,conservation of enerw, follows from the w t u r e of the time integral.

in Eq. (16-5)],and

( m w ~ t u d eof final momentm equal to mamitude of i d t i a l momentum fol-

lows from El = E2),

Therefare, vt = p i p t .

When st = + 1, s2 = -1 o r s1 = -1, s2 = -t 1, the matrix element of yt is

zero. When si = -1, sZ= -1, the atsaolute value of Gfie matrix element i s the
same a s for el = + 1, sz= -t- I. Thus spin doe8 not change in scattering (in
Born apgrodmation) a d the cross section i s independent of spin,

Ths criterion for validfly of the Born approximation, used in obtaining tMs
result, irsl %e2m cc 1. In tha e d r e m e relativistic limit v o. T k i beaornes
Z <c 137. Just as; for the aonreliktivistic ease, the scattering can actually be
calculated emotly (correct to all orders in the potential) for ttza Coulomb
pobntial. T%ia e m c t salution of the Dirac equation involves h m r g e o m e t r i e
knctians. Xt was f i r ~worked
t out by Matt and i s a l z e d Mott scattering. For
moderate ener@ee (200 b v ) there is s m e prohbility for change in spin,
Polarized eie etrons cauld h produced in this manner.

Problems: (l) Calcdatr? Ule Rutherfod seatteriw law for the

Klein-&&on equttticm (pstrticle with no spin). ResuEl;: same formula
ae just given with 1 vZ sinZ(8/2) replaced by 1.
(2) S o w t h t this scattering forrnuJla is also correct for positrons
(u~e ~ 8 i t r o staites
n In caloulatiw matrix element),

Seventeenth Lectam


As shown in a previous lecture, th@propagation kernel, when there is no
perturbing potential and the Mamiltonian of the system i s conatant in time,

For a free parlielie, the eigenfunction~(p, a r e


a& the sum over n becomes an integral over p. The up is the spinor cor-
respondiw to momrsntm p, poaitive o r negative e n e r w and spin up o r down,
a s appropriate, Then the propagation kernel for a f r e e particle i s , far t2> tl,

f o r E, = + (p2 + The factor 1/(2zl3 is the density of states per

unit volume of momentum space per cubic centFetar. The factor 1/2Ep
a r i s e s from the normalization u u = 2m o r uy,u = 2Ep used here. The
up a r e those for positive energy. For negative energy E, = - (pZ + m2)lh
the up are changed accordingly and Ki(2,1) becomes, for t2 tl,

The plculation will be made f i r s t for the case of t2 tl. We first calcu-
late u p ~p for p ~ s i t i v eenergy, and p in the xy plane and spin up. Under
these conditions

Note that U,;, is the opposite order to that usually encountered s o that the
product i s a msttrix, not a scalar. T h t is,

by Wle w u a l rules for mzzt;dx multiplieatioxz. But

(p, + ip,)(-p, + ip,) = -pZ = -E' + m2

and the matrix becornens

By the same process, the result in the spin down ease ia

W Q E+m -p,-ipy 0
upup = (spin dam)
0 P x - 4 ~ ~ -E+m 0
0 O 0 Q

11, may be verified easily dhat the sum of these malrieea for spin up and spin
down ia represented by

In Ule genr~ralcase when g is in any direetion, it i s elear h t t b only

chwe is an additioml h r m -p, y, . So, in geukeral,

up p i n= : : ~ i ; " " ) " r - ~ * ~ + m = : ] p l + m

+ ( ~ ~ u ~ b sdown

The sign of the energy was not used in ctbhinlrrg thia r~38ultSO i t i~ the same
for ei.f;her siw.
Now put t2 tl = t and xz - xt = X, For L > 0, the propbmtion b r n e l b-

The appearance of p in the form E p = (p2 + m')'/' in the time part of the
exponential makes this a difficult iuxLegraI, Note a t It may also be written
in the form


h this form only one integral insbad of f m r m e d be dome It may be veri-

fied as an exereiac; a t for t 0 the r e s d t is the same except that the sign
of t is changed, s o t b t putting It/ in place of t in the formula, for I+(L,x)
makes it good for all 1,
mis i n b g r a l h s been carried out vvdtfi the followiw result:

- -
where s = +(tZ x3'I2 for t > X, and -i(x2 tZ}I/' for t X . & ( s ~ is
) a
delta function and ~ ~ ' ~ 'is( am ) function.? Another expression for
the foregoing fe

~+(t,xk= -(l/srr2) /oa d a exp I-(i/2)[(m2/(u) -

+ or (t2 x2)))
Both of these farms a r e too compficabd to be of much. practical use. It will
be shown shortly t h t a tremendous simplification results from transforma-
tf on ta momenhm represenhtion,
Note t k t I+(t,x) ac-fly demnds only on /xtl not an its dfmtction, In t b
time-space diagram (Fig. 27-1) the a p e e axis represents 1x1 and the diag-
onat lines represent the surface of a light cone includiw the t axis, that is,
the accessible region of I 1x1 space in the ordinary sense. It; can h 8 h 0 m
that the asymptotic form of I,(t.@ f o r large s i s proportional to e-lmS.
W e n one% region of accessibility i s limibd to thc3 inside of the light cone,
large s implies t 2 >> / X I ' , s o that the region of the asymptotic approxima-
tion lie^ raughly within the dotkd cone around the t axis and is

FIG. 15-1
?See Phys. Rev., 78, 749 (1949);included in this volume,

The first form i s seen t s be essentially the same a s the p r o m g a ~ o nk e r e l

for a free mrticle used in nonrelativistic t;heory. If, a s in the new t k o r y ,
possible 6gtra~ectorieafl a r e not limibd to regions within the lig& cone, an-
other region included in this a s p g t o t i c a g p r o ~ m a t i o nis h t &tMn the
dotted cone along t6e / X / axis where large s implies [x12>> t2. Hence

It i s seen that the distance along fzcf in which this &comes small i s roughly
the Campton wavelengW (recall &aL m -- mcfi vvhen it represent8 a len@hv"
a s here), ss h t in reality not much of the t 1x1 h3pee oubide the light
cone i s aceessible.
The tranh~formtionto momentum representation will lilow be made, This
ie facilihted by use of the inkgral f o m u l a

The ir b r m in the denominator is introduced solely to enaure passage around

the proper side of the singularities at :p = E: along the path of integration.
Passage on the wrong side will reverse the sim In the exponential on the

Problem: Work out the integral a b v e by contour integration; o r

oaerwise ,

Using the i n k g r a l relation above, d,(t,x) becomes

But E: = p2 + m 2 s o this i s

where p i s now a four-vector s o that d$ = dp4 dp, dp2 dp3, and =

p p p p . b r e a f b r the ir term will be omitted. Its effect can h inaluded
simply by imagining that m. ha,^ an infinll@simalin e e t i v e irnagimry part. En
&ia form the transformation to momentum representation. i s easily accom-
plished a s followe? {we actually bb Fourier transform of bath spas@and
time, so I;bis ia really a monnenbm-enerw represenbtion):
where the dummy variable 6 h a ben. substitukd for p in the p intc?gral.

Hence the 5 integration gives the result

Finally, applying the o m r a t o r i ( i p K;" m) to IE,(t,x) gives the propagation ker-

nel (here x = ~2 - x i )

recalling that iJV o p r a t i n g on exp l-i(p X)] is the same a s multiplying by

From the identity

the kernel e m also be written

By the same process used for X,(t,x), t b transform of K,(2,1) in mornen-

turn represexllation is seen to km

T h i ~i8 the result which was sou&t.

Aemlfy &is: tranrsformation could have h e n obtstined in an elegant man-
ner. For K(2,I)i s the Green's anction of (IF- m), t h t ih~,

and id i s hewn ~t ijP i~ 6 in TX~OEXL~II.~UTXL

represenbtion and 6(2,1) ihs unity.

Therefore the transform of &is equation can fie w r i t k n down immedi-


a s before.
The fact that Eq, (17-1) for K(2,1) has mare &an one solution is re-
flected in Eq. (17-2) in the fact that (d m)""' is singular if p2 = m '. We
shall have: to say Just how we a r e to k n d l e poles a r i s i q from Ghis source
in integrals. The m l e &at @electsthe particular form we wmt i s &at m h
considered as. b v i n g an infinibsimal rtemtive imagiwry m r t ,

Eighteenth Lecture

Since the p r o p m t i o n kernel for a free p r t i c l e i s so aimply expressed in

momentum represenbtion,

i t will be convenient to convert all our e w t i a n s to this representation. It is

e s ~ e l a l l yuseful for problems involving free, fast, m o v i q p r t i c l e s . This
requires f o w - d l r n e n s i ~ ~Fourier
l t r a n ~ f o m s . . To convert the potential,

Then the inverse transform is

The function a(q) is interpreted as the amplitude that the ptential. con-
him the momenbm (q), As an emmple, consider t l Coulomb
~ potential,
given by A = 0, p = Ze/r.
SubstiMing into Eq. (18-1) gives

Here the vector Q is the s m c e part of the mamerttunn. The delta Euae-
Lion 6(q4) arise8 from the time demndenee of & ( X ) .

Utrfx Elfamentta, An adivankge of momenttlxkt represenbtioxl i s the aim-

plieity of computing m a t r k elements. &call that in space representation
the firot-order pert-urbatlon matrix element i s given by the integral

For the free mrticle, this becomes

h momentum representation, this i s simply

where pl ia d ~ f i n e dsnailogclusly to the three-vector q,

The second-order m t r i x element in s p c e represenbtion i s given by

Substituting for a free mrticle and also expressing the gotenth1 functions as
%eir Fourietr transforms by mean8 of Eq. (18-g), this bcscomea

If Eq. (58-2) i s uoed for K,(2,1), this kernel can be writbn

Writing the factors that d e p n d on 71,this part of the inbgrrbl i s

lexp tip xl) exp (-iql xl) exp (-ipl xl) d r l

= (2n)'b4(p - qg - PI) (18-5)

d e r e the funetion &"X) i s to be lnterprehd a s 6(t1)&x2)6(y3)6(z4).Then

the Zntepal over rl i s zero for all ~
except gf = di -t- 41, So the i n k m a l
aver p reduces Eq, (18-4) to

beegrating over 72 results in another S f u e u o n [similar to Eq, (18-5)],

which differs from zero only *en

Then inbgrating over ddq2 give6 finally

mese reaults can be written down immediately by inswetion of a diagram

of the interaction (see Fig. 18-1). T%e electron, enter8 the region at 1 wi&

FIG. 18-1

wave function ui and moves from 1 to 3 a s a free particle crf momanhm Xli.
A t point 3, it is scattered by a photon of m o f a d e r the action of
the potential -ie$(ql)]. bving;5 abfsorbed the um of the phoLon it Ghen
movess from 3 to 4 a s a free particle of momentum 6% + & by eonaervation
, At point 4, it i s scattered by a second photon of nnomenwnn
42[under the action of the pohntial -ie$(q2) absorbing We additional momen-

tun &)l, Fimlly, it maves from 4 to 2 aa a free prartiele with. wave fune-
tion u2 and momenwm & = & + d¶+ 42. It is also c h a r h a m f&e diaparn
that the in&gral need b h k n over qi ody, b c a u m when $l and gi2 a r e
even, io debrmined by d2 = -pjl --&.The law of conservatim of en-
ergy requires p12= m', p22 = m'; but, since the intermediate state is a vir-
tual stak, it is not necessary that (pl + di12 = m2. Since the operator
X/(& + dl - m) may be resolved as (fit + dl + m)/((Pt + dl)2 -mZ], the impor-
hnce of a virtual state is iaversely g r a p o ~ i o n at~
l the degree to which the
consemaaon law is violabd,
m e rasults @ven in Eq8. (58-3') &ad (18-6) may h summrized by the
following list of handy ruleat for computing the matrix element M = ( 5 2 ~:~ 1 )
1.. An eketron in a virGual st_ab of momenl-um 6 contrib-uttls the ampli-
tude, i/(jp5 m) to PS.
2, A wtential containing the momentum q contribuks the amplihde
-ie$(q) to N.
3. All indeterminate momenta qi a r e summed over d4qi//(21r)'.
Remembr, in computing the integral, the value of the integral la desired,
w i a the path of inbgration, m s s l m the sinwlarlties in a definite manner.
mlts r e p l a ~ em by m i~ in the inlegrsnd; then in the solution @lice the
limit a s r 0,
For relativistic work, only a few termrs in the pertrxrbiltion series a r e
necessary for eompuhtion, To assume that fast electrons (and positrons)
i ~ k r a ewl i t h tt p h ~ t i a only
l once (Born appro&mtfort) Is often, odffeiently
aceumte .
A f b r the matrix element is debrxnined, the probabilit;y of trawltioa per
second is given by

P = 2n/(n N) J MX ~
(density of final stabs)

where fl N I s t k normalization factor defimd in b c h r e 16.

f8ea Summary of numerical factors for tramition pmkbilitlea, R. P,

Fqnnnan, An 0psrator C&eulus, Phys, mv,, 84, 123 (2951); included in
thts volum~ti*
Relativistic Treat
of the Interaction
of Particles ith Light

h b c t w e 2 the rules governing nonrelativistic interaction of particlea

with light were given. The mles 8 k b d what ]potentialis were to be used in
the calculation of transition probabilities by perdurbation t;heory, m o s e p-
dentiala a r e a k a applicable to the relativistic theory if the m l r i x elements
a r e eompubd a s described in k e k r r e 18. For absorption of a photon, the
potential used in nonrefativiatic theory was

For emission of a photon, the complex conjugab of thle expression i s used,

These potentials are normalized to o w photon per cubic centimeder and
hence the normalization i s not invariant under b e n t z transformatiom , In
a manner similar to that for the normlization of ebctron wave functions,
photon pbntiszfs will, in the &&re, kw normalized to 2w photo- per cubic
centimeter by dropping the ( 2 ~ ) - ' /factor
~ in Eq. (19-11,giving

A I, = (4~e')'/~e exp (ik * X) (19-ltl

This makes any matrix element cornpub$ with Uzeacz pobntials invariant,
but to obhin the correct tramition probability in a @ven coordinate sgsbm,
i t ie necessary to reinsert a factor (2w)""fsr each photon in the initial and
final s k t e s . This becomes part of the normalization factor RN, which con-
k i m a similstr factor for each electron in the initial and final @&Le%.

h moment- repreat;ntation, the amplitude to absorb (emit) a photon of

polarization e s is -i(4ne2)'12d. The polarization vector el, is a unit vector
wrpendicular t o the p r a ~ ~ t i vector.
on Heam e * e = -1, and e q = 0.

The transition. prokbility per second is

Trans. prob./sec = 2%1 ~ 1 'x (density of final states)

where H is the matrix element of the rebtivistic Wamiltonian,

H = cr * (-iV - @A;) S.R.

between initial and final ahtes. T b t ia,

< f/H/i> = (4ne2)1/2J9f+[a!*eexp(ikex)]*i d vol (19-2)

Problem: %ow that in the nonrelativistic limit, Eq. (19-2) reduces


x ew(fkerz)] d vot

This ia the s a m msult a s was obtained from the h u l i ftqution.

A relativistic treatme& of scattering of photons from e bctrons will, now

be given, As an approxi-Lion, camider the electrons to be free (energies
a t which a re1ativisd;ic treatment; i s necessary are, p;rtneral,ly, much greater
than alaanie binding emr@ea), 'I"his will lead to the B e i n - N i s ~ mf o m u k
far the Gomipt~n-effectc r a s s section,

hobn f (incamin

recoil electron
FIG. 19-1
I M T E R A C T I O M OF" P A R T I C L E S W I T H L I G H T 93

For the incoming photon take as a potential A l p = alp exp (-iq! X) and for
the outgoing photon take Az = exp (-iq2 * X). The light is polarized per-
p n d i c u h r to the direction af propgation (see Fig. 19-1). Thus,

et ql = O
S eg q g = O

91 41 = 9t2 = 0
g and q2 q, = q12 = 0

A s initial and fiml state electron wave functions, choose

$2 = ~2 e x p (-ip2 * X)

Conservation of energy and momentum (four equations) is written

U the coordimte system is ehoaen 80 that electron n m b e r 1 i s a t m s t ,

d2 = wZ(yt- Y , cos B - yy sin 8) (19-6d)

The l a t k r two eqwtioxrs follow from the fact that, for a photon, the e n e r m
and momentum a r e both equal to the frequency (in units In which c = X). The
momentum has been resolved into components, The incoming photon barn
can be resolved into two t y m s of polarization, which will h designated tym
A and tyw B:

Type A has the electric vector in the z direction and type B has the elec-
tric vector in the y direction. SinrtiZarly the outgoing photon beam can be
resolved into two t y w s of polsllrization:

(4" 62 = Y z (B') 4%= y, cos B - y, sin @

Conservation of energy of xnornenbxn d i e h t e s that either the angle of the
recoil electron @ or the angle a t which the s c a t b r e d photon comes off @
completely determines the remaining quantities. If the electron direction i s
unrimportant, its momentum can be elimimted by solving Eq. (19-5) for plz
and sqwring the resultiw equation:

= m 2 +o+O+Zmwl-2mw2-2wiw2 (I - cos 8)
where the last line was obtained from the preceding line by u s i w Eqs, f 19-31,
(19-41, and (19-6a, c, d). This can be written

~ ( W-I02) - cos 8)

This i s the well-hown formuh for the Campton shift in wavelength (or fie-
qaeney) .
By the method discussed in the earlier part of the course, the following
final state densities (per unit e m r g y inrterval) can h obdained.
k m of t o h l energy E and total linear moment= g disintegrahs into a two-
particle fiml state,

Density of states = ( 2 n 1 - ~
- Ej(P0Pl) (B-1)

where EI = enerlS;V of pdlrticle 1; E2 = energy of particle 2; pg = momenturn,

of particle 1; dQt = solid angle, into ~ i c mrtiele
h 1 comes oul;; m1 = mass
of m r t i c l e 1; m2 = mass of gartiole 2; a& El + E2 = E, p1 + p2 = p.
Another useful formula is in t e r m s of the f i m l energy of m r t i c b 1and its
azfmul;h $1 [instead of @l). It i8

Density of states = ( 2 ~ ) - ' (E1E2/ /p/)dE1 d&


Special eases: (a) m e n m2 = /E2 = ar: E = m ) :

Density of states = (2~)""'Etjpl/ d Q f

Density of states = (2n)-3[ E ~ dQl

E ~/(Et + E111 (B-4)

M e n a Bystern disintegrates into a three-particle fiml state,

Density of states = (2n)-' E3E2

Special ease: m e n m s= 03:

Density of states = (2n)-'E2 lpzl daz pt2 PI (D-6)

The Gonrpton e f k c t has a Wo-particle final state: takiw particle I to be

photon 2 and mrticle 2 to be electron 2, from Eq, (D-l),

W? day
Dens3ity af states = ( 2 v 3c~ $2

Calculation of /M/'. Using the Compton relation Eq. (19-7) to eliminate

B, this bcomes

Density of states = ( 2 ~( ) ~ ~ ~~dh2,,/mw

w ~ '

The probabiliiw of transition per second i s given by

iln woreung out the nrr%trix element M, there a r e Wo ways in which the scat-
tering can b p m n : (R) the incoming photon is absorbed by the electron and
emits the outgoing photon; (8)the electron emits a photon
then the e b ~ t r o n
and subsequently absorbs the incident photon. m e a e two procesees are
shown diagrammatically in Fig, 19-2.
h momentum represenktion, the matrix element M for the first proe-
ess R i s

b a d i n g from right to left the factors in the matrix element a r e interprebd

as follows: (a) The initial electron enhra wit&amplitude ul; (b) the elec-
tron i s first scattered by a potential (i.e., absorbs a photon); (c) b v i n g re-

mived momentum 13fl from the potential the electron travels a8 a free elee-
tron with momentum gig + &; (d) the electron emits a photon. of pohrization
6,; and (e) we now ask for the amplitude, t b t the electron i s in a @Lateug .
Exercise: Write down the mtrix; element for h e secand process
5, The t o b l matrix element is lthe e r n of thte;se two. Ratf onalize
these matrix elements and, u s i w the: table of matrix elenrrents
(TaMe 13-1) work out 1 Mfz,

Twentieth Lecture

Far Lhe R diagram, M was fomd to be

-i4ne2f [l/(& + PI1 - m)] at)- = - i 4 ~e2( G z ~ u ~ )

and as an exercise the: u t r i x e bmant for the S diagram. was f ctu~dto be

- d2- m)]$2ul) = -i4aeZ( GZS U ~ )

The complete m a t r k element is the sum of these, s o that the eross section

The p r o b l a now is actually to compute the matrix elements for R and S,

First R will be emsidered, Using the identity

the matrices may be removed from the denominator of R giviw

The demomimtor i s seen to be 2mwl from the following relations:

The matrix elements for the various spin and polarizatlorr eombimtion8 can
be calculated straightforwardly from &is paint, But c e r h i n prelimimry
manipulations wiZX reduce the h b a r involved. Using the identity

it i s seen t b t

But pl has only a time component &nd e1 only a space c o m p ~ m n st o

pl * el = 0, Wealling that 61ul = mu$, it i s seen &at

and thig is the matrix element of the ffrst term of R. Xt i s also f i e nemtive
of the matrix element of the last term of R, so R may be replaced by the

By an exactly similar madpuhtion, the S a t r i x is equivalent to

Substituting & = w - -
- Y,) and dz = w 2(y, Y , cos B yy sin 8 ) and bans-
posing the 21x1 factor, the complete matrix m;ly be writbn

A till more usehl form is obtaizled by n o t i that

~ pC1 anGeomxxzutes with
ql (el *qi = 01 and with qz and &at = 2ez eel -. Pi$z. Thus,

Using this f o m of the matrix, the matrix ebmrsts may be compubd easily.
For example, consider the case for polarization: 8; = y,, #2 = yy cos B - y,
sin 8. This eorreawnds to cases (A) and (B" )of h c t w e 19 and will be de-
noted by (AB". The matrix i s

2m(R+ S) = my, (yy cos 6 y, sin B)[y,(l- cos B) - yy sin 81
since ez m e i = 0. Expanded this becomes

2m(R+ S) = -y,[yyyx cos 6 ( 1 cos 8) + caa @ sin B -c- sin @(l - COS 8 )

- y, sin 8

where the antieommubtion of t;he y 'S h a b e n used. IXn the ease of spin-
up for the incoming particle and spin d o m for tke: outgctiw particb (st = -I),
sz =: -11, the matrlx elements

may be found by reference to Table 13-I. But note that in, this prciblenn pi,
= p,g + i ~ y =i O s i w e particle 1 is a t reat, Hence L;ke final ntatrix elennent
for this ease, polarization (AB"), spin sg = +l, sz = -1, is

2m ( F ~ F ~ } ' / ~ ( ; ~+(s)u~)
R = -(l -- C08 -
@)iF1p2+ sin 6 Pz+ Fi

The result@for the other combinations of polarization and spin a r e obtained

in the same m a m e r and will only be presented in tbbular form (Table 22-1).
They m y b verified a s an e ~ r c i s e .
For any one of the polarization cases listed, 1 I%f2 is the sum of the square
amplitudes of the matrix elements far autgoing spin- s b k o averaged over in-
coming spin ~ k t e s .But this i~ seen to be simply the square magnitude of
the noassro matrix element listed under the appropriate polarizatian case,
For ex;%mplele,
in ease (AA",

By employing the relation


the squarre magnitude8 of the matrix elements for the various easea redurn,
a&er eorresfderable amount of afmbra, to Lhe expressions given In Table

AB" [(@l- ~ 2 1 ~ / ~ i @ 2 1

BB' [(&li - w $ ~ / w ~ w+ ~4 ]~ 0 68 ~

XL is clear h t all f w r of these formulae may be writkn simuft;ctmously in

as form

Note t b t t h e ~ ef o m u l a s a r e not adeqmLe for circular polarization, m ~ is,t

if gil were, for example, 1/a (iy, + y y ) , it i s seen thst because of the phas-

ing represented by the imaginary part of all the calculations must be

carried out before squaring the xnatrh elements in order to get the proper
Finally the cross section Tor scatterine;: w i l o r e s c r i b e d plane polariza-
tion af the incomim and outgoiw photons i s

This is the mein-Nfshim formula for polarized light, For unpolarized light
this c r o s s section must be averaged over all polartzalions.
It is noted t b t diagram eases s u c h a s Fig. 20-1 Mve been included In

the previous derivation as a resuIt of the generality in the transformation sf

of K,(2, X) to momentum represeabtion. In fact, all dfagram eases k v e Been
included except higher-order effects to be discussed later, (They eorre-
spond to emission and reabsorlption of a third photon by the electron, such a s
in Fig. 20-2,)

Twenty-first Leetgre

as f?;latn-Hishim Formula. In the "Thompson limit,'"

Dlscussiclg d
wi<< m. Tnea the electron picks up very little energy in recoil, and wi .:oz.
This can be seen from the relation

h this limit, the Mlein-Nishim formula, e v e s


which i s the Rayleigh-Thompson s c a t t e r i w eroras section, Note that w i s

still very large compared to the eigenvalcres of an aloxur, in accordance with
our origiml assumptions f a r Compton scattering.
The same result is obbined by a classical picture. Under the action of
the electric field of the photon 1E = East exp (iut), the electron is given the

Classically, an accelerated c h r g e r a d i a b s to give the s c a t b r e d radia-


& = - - e (rebrded accelemtfon projected on plane l to

R line of sight)
Tbe scattered radiation polarized in the direction a2 i s determined by
the component of the acceleration in this direction. The inbnsity of the scat-
tered radiation of polarhation ez i s then (times per unit solid angle and
p e r unit incident inknslty)

The customary fii 's sand c % s a y be mplaced in Eq. (2 2-11 a s follows

(o i s an a r e a o r lenglth squared):

m2= (rne/Ii)' = l e n e h aquared

Avemgw 0 ~ 8 rFolari~ations,It is often desired to have the s c a t k r i ~

c r o s s section for a beam r e g a d l e s s of the incoming o r outgoing polariza-
tion. This can be obbined by summing the probabilities over the polariza-
tions of the oulgohg barn and averaging over the incoming beam. Thus,
suppose the i n e ~ m f ~beam
f & has polar-ization of t p A. The probbilitiea
(or c r o s s sectians) for the two possible types of ouQoing polarization, A,'
and B' can be symbolized as U*and A S . The total probability for scat-
tering a photon of either palarkatton is AA' + AB*. Then suppose the ineom-
ing beam is equally Xtkely ta be polarized ass type A or type IS. The result-
ing probability can b obhined a s the sum 112 (probability if type A) f
112 @robbility if t;ym B), This ia the situation for unpolarized incomiw
beam, and gives
cr (averaged over = ( 2 / 2 X M t + GB') + (112XE314".t BW)

E, on the other b n d , the polarization of the outgoing beam is measured

(still with an u w o b r i z e d incorniw b a r n ) , its dependence on frequency mid
~ c a t t e raiw~l e is given by the ratio

Probability of polarization type A' (1/2)[AA8+ BA')

Probability of plarization t m e B'

The forward radiation fB = 0) remains unpolarized, but zt cerlain degree af

polarization will be found in light scattered through any nonzero angle. X[n
the low-frequency limit (ol wz), the pctlarizgtion is complete a t @ = a/2.
Thus an unpolarized beam &comes plane-polarized when ~ c a t t e r e dthrough
Tok1 %kcat@riw Cross Sscti~n.l3 the c r o s s section (averaged over polar-
izations) given in Eq. (21-3) is i n k g r a h d over the solid angle

the total c r o s s section for s c i a t k r i x through any angle i s obbfrted. So, from
Eq, (21-X),

and the variable w2 goes between the limits mwl/(2wl + m) and w l a s

eoa B goes from 1to + 1. Equation (2 1-31 can be writtein

where the last five terms replace -sin2 B = cos2@- 1 using Eq. (21-F).
Sf mpf e integrations fleldS

h the high-frequency limit (wt- m)

f Cf. Waltrsr Heftler, "Qumtu rXlhet3~of Rdi&tion," 3rd ed., W o r d , 1954;

and B. Rossi m4 K. Greiseen, Phys. Rev,, @Z, 121 (1942).
$ Cf* Heftier, op. eft., p, 53,

Thus CompLon scattering is a negligible effect, a t high frec;fueneie~,where

pair produeaon b c o m e s the i m p o r b t e f f ~ e t .

From the quantum-eleetradynamleal point of view, another phenomenon

completely amlogous to Cornpton s e a t k r i n g is two-photon pair annihilation.
Two pfiobns a r e necessary (in the outgoing radiation) La mafnhin conser-
vation af momentum and energy. when pair annihilation k k e s place in the
abselllce of an externd potential. T h interaction can be diagmxusnnerf a s
s h o r n in Fig, 21-1. This figure should b compared tie that for Compton
scattering (Lecture 20). The only differences a r e that the direction of pha-
ton di i~ reversed, and, since particle 2 i s positron, = -(m~mentum of
positron), So write

$1 = IE-y, - p,. Y)

where the emrgies E- and E, of the electron and pasitran a r e both posl-
tive n u m b r s . The conservation law gives

(just cta for Gompton s c a t k r i q , but the direction of gfi reveraczd), s o the
matrix element for this ineraction i s

1'1.16second possibility, fnbistinguishble from the f i r s t by any measure-

I N T E R A C T I O N O F P A R T I C L E S WXTH L I G H T 105

me&, i s oblafned from the first by inbrcbaaging the turo photons (see Fig.
2 1-22); again no& similarity to Compton seatbrlng.
Immediately, the matrfx element is

FIG. 21-2

The sum of the two m a t r h elements 13md the density of final states gives
the e m s s section

c (velocity of positron) = 2a/(2E- 2E, * 2w1 2wz)

a I + &12jZ
x (density af sta&s)

In a system where the electron is a t r e s t and the positron i s moving. The

density of final s k t e s i s

Since p a ~ i c l e2 is a positron, $2 = -g$, so the conservation law, Eq. (21-41,


gii' pf* =$it+ Pfi


This reduces to

Taking the velocity of the wsftron a 8 (p+j/E+ the Cross s e ~ a o ni s

@ =(2~) 4(2nj3 m(E+ + m)] x

dQ1/12E- * 2 /p+/ I&&$+
~ , 1 2

From a comparison of the d h g r a m s , it is clear t k t the matrix elements

f o r pair annihilation a r e the same as the m a l r k elements for the Compbn
effeet if the s i p of (Ifl is changed. In the cross section, this amounts to
e b g i n g the s&n of w l . T k n the cro@ssection ie

in analom with the mein-Nishina formufa.


The formula for positron-electron amihilation derived in betrxre 2 l di-
v e q e s as the positron velocity approaches zero (cr l/v; this i~
other c r o s s sections when a process involves abh-fo~tion
true for
of the, irmcoming
particle, and Is the well-hown l/v law). To ealculab the positron lzel-fme
in m electron density p (recil~llthat the p m c e d i w cm@@
section ws for a n
electron density of one per cubic centimeter) as v+ 0, we use

plus -the fact t h e , a s v, 0, E,- m and ol -- -
w2 m (when the electron
and positran a r e btch.approximably a t rest, momentum and energy can be
earnerved only with tvvo phobna of mornentra e q u d in magnitude but opposih
in direction). Thus

where 8= a q l e between directions of plarization of lvvo photanrs (cos 6

= ef *ez) The sin2 B dependence indicates that the two photDns have their
pohrizations a t sight mgles. TO get the prob&tlity of tmneitton per second
for axly photon direction and m y polarization, it i s necessary to sum over
solid angle (IdQ = 4n) and average over polarfzations (sin2 B = %/g), giving

f f a c h r s of e and E r e i n s e d d where required), where ro= elasaieal elec-

tron mdiua, and T = mean lgetime.

PrabEeruzs: (L) Obbin the preceding result directly by u s l w matrix

elements f o r an electron and positron a t rest. S h w that only the sin-
glet state (spins antiparallel) can disinbgrale inb two photn>ns. The
triplet state d i s i a b g m h s into three photons a d has a l o e e r lifetime
(see the nelrt problem),
(H?) Find the mean time required for a positron and electroa to dis-
integrab inlo &see pholons (spins must bt? parallel), The following
procedure is s u a e s b d : (L) s e t up formula for r a b of disinbgmtion;
(2) wriM M in the simplest possible form; (3) make a table of m a t r h
elements ( s m e a s Table 13-1 but with = m%, = (4) find
the matrix element at* M f o r eight polarization eases; (5) find the raLe
of disintegration for each ease; (6) sum the disinkgration r a k over
gokrkatiorxs; (7) ob&in the photan smctrum; (8) o b a i n the b f a l dis-
integration rate by i n k g r a t h g over photon spectrum and mgle; and
(9) compare with Q r r and Powel.?
(5)It is h o w t k t the m a t r h elements should be independent of a
gauge traxlsfarmation $" = 6 t. ad,where a i s an arbitrary eonsknd
and, 4 i s the momentum of a phobxl whose polarization is p! o r $',
Show t b t s ~ b s t i t u t h g4 f o r 6 in the m a t r k elements for the Comp-
ton effect gives m = 0.

When an electron p m s e s through the Coulomb field of a nucleus it i s de-

flecMd, A s s o e k b d with this deflection i s an acceleration which, wcording
to the classical theory, resutLs in radiation. Acceding ta qumtum efectro-
dymmics, them i s a certain probability t b t the incident electron will m a b
a tmnsition t a a different electron s b b with a, photon emit%d, wkile in the
k nucleus i s necessary to
field of t h nueleus, h a r a e t i o n with the field of t
aatiafy conservation of enargy ancl momentum, T b t is, the electron eamot
emit a photon md m&@ a transition to a different electron s t a b w k l e tmv-
e l i w along in a vacuum. Figure 22- 1 shows the process and defims a w l e s
t h t arise lawr,
The Coulomb potential of the nucleus will be considered to act only once
(Born approximation). The validity of t h h approximation was discussed in
Lecture 16. There a r e two (indistinmishabfe) orders in which, the brems-
strah;luag proeeaa can occur: (a) the electron interacts with the Coulomb
field m d s u b q u e n t l y emits a photon, o r (b) the electron first emits a pho-
ton and then i n b r a e t e vvfth the: Cougomb field. The diagrams for these prac-

TA, Ore and S, L. Pawell, Phys. Rev., 76, 1696 (19.49).

essels a r e s h o r n In Fig. 22-2. Tfxe inkraetlan with the nucleus gives mo-
mentum @ to the electron. Cornervation of enerm and momentum requires

electron 2

J Coulomb field
of the nucleus

In hcttnre 18 it was s b w n that the Fourier t r m s f a r m of the Csufomb pobn-

tial was propo&ional to &(Q4),since the potential i s independent of time.
This means t k t only traasilions for which Q4= O occur, o r enera must be
conserved amow the incident electron, find eliectmn, a& phobn, Thus
El = E2+ W . The transition probability is given by

Since the nueleus i s to be considered infinlkly heavy,

Notice tfnat there i s a, spectrum of phoans; t b t is, the photon energy i s not
d e b m i n e d (as i t was in the Compton effect, for emmple). Letting "S1Z =

where the f i r s t term comes from Fig, 22-2a and the second term from Fig.
22-2b, The explaimtion of tkm factors in the f i r s t term, for example, is,
reading from right to left, that an electron initially in state u l i s scattered
by the Coulomb potential acquiring an additional momentum 5& , the electron
moves a s a free w r t i c l e with momentum 6%+ @ until it emits a photon of
polarization gd, We t h ~ nask: 1s the eletctron in sbtf? u29 F o r the Coulomb

(see Momenturn b p r e s e n b t i o n , Lecture 18) in a coordinate system in. which

the nueleus does mt move, [ F o r pohntial other than Coulomb, use agpro-
p r h t e v(Q), the Fourier transform of the space depndenee of the pohntiafi,]
1Rationalkinf;f the denomimlor of the m a t r k , f

The outgoing photon can h polarized in either of t w directions, and the in-
earning and ouQofng electron each have two possible spin sbhs. The vari-
s u s m a l r k elements can be worked out using Table 33-1. exactly a s w s
d o in~d ~ r i v i n gthe m e i n - M i s ~ n aeross section in Eczeture 20, Nothiw new
is involved, so we omit the delafls. M k r (l) summing over phoWn polari-
z a t i o n ~ ,(2) summing over outgoing efeetrsn spin stabs, and ( 3 ) averagf%
over h c o m h g electron a p h sdates, the following dgferential eross section
is obWned:

sin @a do2 sin dBt d@

2plp2 sine1 sine2 cos C$(4E1E2 -

-GJ2+ 2w2) 2w2 (p; sinZe2+ sin2et)
(E2 - P2 f208 @2)(Ei- P1 f2cls01)

An apgratximale e q r e s s i o n with a simple inkrpretation in b r m s of the

Coulomb elastic s e a t t e r i ~cross section can be obbined when the gboan
energy is small (small compared da resst mass of a l e c l r o ~but Zarge com-
pared to electron binbiw energies). WriMng tlnc; matrix (22-3) fn b r m s of
4 insbad of @

using the relationskipa gOPlz = -$z$ + 2~3* p2 , $14 =: -661 + Ze PI,and neglecting
4 in the numerator, since it i s small, this becomes

where use is made of the fact thatJhe ma_trix element of M between states
u2 and u l is to km ealeulakd and uz$z= dtui = mule
The cross section f a r photon emission can then writbn

The firat bracket is the probability of transition for elastic scattering (see
Lecture 161, so the last bracket may b i n b w r e k d as t k pmbability of
phabn ernissian in frequency interval dw and solid a w l e da, if tficlre i s
elastic seatteriw from momentum pi Lo pz,

Problem: Calculate the amplitude for emission of two low-energy

photom by the for~g-ctingmeth&, Neglect ql's in the numeratar but
not in the denomimtor.
A~lswer:Another faclor, similar to that in the precediw equations,
i s obhined for the e x t m photon.

It. is eas;Cly s h o r n that a s f w l e photon of e n e r n greater t h n 2m camot

c r e a b an electron positron pair without the presence of some other means
of conserving momentum and energy. Two photons could get together and
e r e a b a pair, but t h phobn~ density is s o low t b t this process is extremely
ualikely. A photnza can, however, create a pair with the aid of a field, such
as that of a nucleus, to which, it em f m p a ~some momentum. As with brems-
s t m h l u ~ there
, a r e two fncZiatinguirskble ways in which this can hppen:
(a.) The incomfw photon c r e a h s a pair and subsequently the electron i n k r -
a c b with the field of the nucleus; o r (b) t k p b t o n creates a pair and the
p o ~ i t r o ninteracts with the field of the nucleus. The diagrams for these al-
tfveisl are shown in Fig. 22-3. The arlrows in the diagram indicate that

FIG. 22-3

$l i s the positron momenlum and yJ2 i s the electron momentum. Notice that,
with respect to the directions that the arrows point f a d without mgard to
direction of increasim time), these d h g r a m s look ercactfy like those for the
brsmsstmkjluq pmeess: S t a f i i q with in case (a), the particle i s f i r s t
s c a t k r e d by the Coulomb potential and then by the phown; in case m)the
order of the events is reversed. The differernce b t w e e n pair prduction. and
bremastrafilung, when the direction sf tim is taken into account, is {X) is
a positron state (melectron traveliw h c k w a r d in time), and (2) t b photon
4 is absorbed rather Lbn emftbd, As a result, the bremsstraMung m a t r h
elements can b w e d for thia process if 6%i s replaced by --$, and 4 by -4,

The $+ is t b n the positron momentum and i s the momentum of the ab-

sorbed photon, The density of f i ~ skks l is different, of course, since the
particles in the fiml s t a k a r e now a positron and electmn. Thus

= ( 1 / 2 a ) ( ~ e ~ / ~ 'e2
) ' @,p- sin 8 , d B , sin 8- d8- d+/w3)

where the bmces a r e the sizme a s for brernsstraMung, Eq. (22-52,except

for the follotviw substitutions:

P- f o r P2 -6- for O2 E- for E+

-P+ Pi -8, for 6- -E, for E,
-W for W

F i m r e 22-4 defines the angles (rS, = angle between electron-phobn plane and
pohsitron-photon ghne) .



Ely using current methods af computiw cross sections, one first arrives
at a cross section for '~ o l a r i z e d "eleetrans, t b t is, electrons with definik
ineomiw and outgokg spin stabs. In practice it is common that the incorn-
111% barn will b "unpolarized?' and the spins of the ourtgoing paflicles will
be unobserved, In this ease, one needs the cross section o b k h e d from t k t
for " p l g r i ~ e d ?eefeetrens
~ by summiw prokbilltles over fiml spin BUL~B
and a v e r w i w this sum aver Initial spin st;abs. This is the correct proeeahs
since the flml spin states do not Isrterfere lad these i s equal prokbility of
initial spin in either direetion. Formally, if

one needs

@ -- 1
2 spins I
spins 2

where mean8 the sum over final spin states for only one s i m of the
spins 2
the e n e r n , that is, over only two of the four possible eigenakles. Similarly,
is the sum over initial spins for one sign of the energy. The purpose
spins I
now is to develop a simple m e t h d for obkining these sums.
h a c e o r k n e e with t b u s w l rule f o r m a l r h multiplieatioa, the fallowing
i s true:

) I ~ u 2=) 2 r n ( G 2 ~ ~ u 2 )
( G 2 ~ u (I U
all Y
where A and B a r e any operators o r matrices, the 2m factor on the right
a r i s e s from the normlization uu = 21x1, and the sum i~ over all eigenstatas
represen;ted by ul, But the shbs u, which we want in Eq, (23-1) a r e nat all
shks, just those satisfying IzJiut = mu$. T b t is, they belong the eigen-
value + m of the operator &. Since 612= rnZF$l also has the eigenvalue -m,
t h t is, there a r e twa more solutions 05: &U = -mu wkich, together with the
two we wish in Eqi, (23-1)bring the t o k l to four. Let us call the l a t b r
'"negative eigenvalue" sslisks,
Mow, !if in Eq. (23-2) the m a t r k elements of B were zero in negative
eigenvalue states, this would be the same a s , that is, just over posi-
tive eigenvalue s k h s . So consider spins 1

C (;2~u,)(;l@f+m)~uz) = (:2~(dt+m)~u2)2m
all U,

ui(Iljf+m) = Q for negative eigenmlue slaks

= ui(2m) f o r positive eigenvalue states

s o the p m c e d i q sum also equals

C G 2 ~ u l ) a m ( GBuz)
spins 1
CaneeXliw the 2m factors, this gives

spins 1
(Gz~u!)(';l Buz) = (G~AMI+ m)Buz)

(pJi -t- m) is a l h d a proleetion o p e r a b r for obviaus reasons. Similarly it

f"alX0~8t h t

spins 2 all U,

where X is again any matrtx. Remembering the normalization &u2 = 2m.

it 18 seen that the last sum i s just the tmce o r spur of the matr"ur. (;plj2+ m)X.
Nob that the o d e r of X and -t- m ia immakrfal,
Fimlfiy, when m e w m t s

eolleetion and speeklizatfon of the previous results Is seen to give

spim 1 spins 2 spins 1 spins 2

where the last niohtion means the spur of the m a t r k in the brackeds. It is
true whether &, &12 represent electrons o r positrons.
Tke followiw list af the spurs of several frequently e n c o m b r e d matrices
may km verffied easily:

It i s also true that the spur of the product of any add n u m b r of daggerad
o p e r a b r s i s zero.

As an example, the case of Coulomb acatt;eriw will be '%treatedw "using

this h c h i q u e . The c r o s s secUon f o r pohrized e l e e t r o n ~was previously
fomd to b

Therefore, since 7, = y,, the c r o s s section for anpolarized electrons is, by

Eq, (23-31,

The spur can bt3 evaluabd irnmedia&ty from Eq. (23-5) with m2 = m4 5; O and
-g4 = p14 = yt. -
Anotht?r way is: Since ytdI = 2Ei ~ % y tit,i s Been t h t

Usirzg ra few af the formulas l i s k d p r e & ~ u ~ 1 ythe

, Spur of this matrix i s
seen to be

But p%* p2 = E - p1 a h, p% * p2 = cos 8, and Et = .E2,SO thi8 i s

4~~-+ 4m2+ cos B

Also rn2 = E' - ,'p so that finally the c r o s s section becomes

@mpok = 1/2 ( Z ~ @ ' / Q[ ~ )8 + ~4p2 ~

(cos @ - 111

where v2 = p Z / ~ Z .This is the same c r o s s section obtained previously by

other nnethds.

The cmas sections for the paf r production and brernsstrahlung processes
contained tbe factor [v(Q)I',
where V(&) i s the momentum representation
of the pobntial; t b t 18,

which f o r a Codornb pobntlal it3

where Q i s the mamenbm t m m f e r r e d to the nucleus o r p% - p2 - q.


Clearly V(Q) gets large a s Q gets small. The minimum value of Q oe-
c u r s when all three moxrrenk a r e I l n d up (F&, 28-11:

Pr Pa


F o r very high energies E m,

so t h t in this ease

From this i t is seen that Qdn - O a s Er - 00 . This ahows clearly why the

c r o s s sections for pair production and brc3mhsstrahXuw go up with e m r m .

From the integral emression for V(Q) it is seen t b t the main eontribu-
tlon do the inkgrai comes when R m 1/Q. So as Q becomes small the im-
p o d n t range of R gets I a e e . It i s in this way that screening af the Cou-
lamb field Ldcorszes effective. The value of for a conhmgiakd proc-
ess can be estimabd from the farewinli?; formula, The atomic radius i s
given roughly by a o ~ - ' / ', where a. i s the Bohr radius. Thus if

or, w h t i s the same,

then s e r e e n h g effect wtll be i m p o a n t , and vice versa for the uppsi* in-
equalities, E from this estimate s e r e e n i w would appear to b imporknl,
one should use the screened Coulomb podential. It gives the result

where F(Q) is the a b m i e structure factor given by

and nm) i s the electron density as a funcUon of R,


P~oblrsm:h d i s c u s s i ~
bremslsptrahlung it was found t d t the c r o s s
section for ernksion czf a low-energy pll~tQacan IM approximakd as

where cfo i s the ecat%rfng cross sectlan (neglecting arnlssian). Now

consider a n energetic Comptoa seatkrfng in which a third, weak
photon is e;rnit&d, The three dkgmrwts are shown in Fig. 24-1,

FIG, 24-1.

Show that the cross section for this effect 18 given, by Eq. (24-l), with
the Klein-Nisfiina formula r e p l m i ~ m e m e m b r to assume q
small ,)

Interaction of
Several Electrons
Even though the Dirac equation describes the motion of one particle only,
we can o b h b the amplitude for the inbraetion of two o r more particles
from the principles of quantum eleetradywmics [so long a s nuclear forces
a r e not involved),
F i r s t consider two electrons n n o v i ~throu& a region where a p a h n t h l
is present and assume t b t they do not interact with one another (see Fig,
24-2). The amplitude f o r electron a moving from 1 3, wMle electron b
moves from 2 4 i s given the symbol 33;(3,4; U ) .If it i6a assumed t b t no
inkractian betwem electrons takes place, then K can be written a s the
product of kernels ~,(')(3,1) K,(& )(4,2), where the superscript means that
) operates only on those variables describing particle a, and similarly
for K , ( ~ ) .
A second type of interaction gives a, result indistfngufshable from the
f i r s t by any measurement in aceo&nce with the Pauli principle. This dif-
f e r s from the first caae by the i n t e r c h q e of w r t i c l e s k t w e s n gossitfana 3
and, 4 (see Fig, 24-3). Hour the Pauli principle says that the wave function of
a system compssctd of several electrons i s suck tbat the inbrchirnge of space
variables for two pa@icles results in a c b n g e of alw for the wave function,
Thus the amplitude (Including both possibilities) i s K = K,(%) ($,l) K , ' ~ ) (4,2) -
1) ~ , ( ~ " ( s , 2 ) ,
A similar sitwtioa a r i s e s in the follovving occurrence. Initially, one elec-
tran moves into a r e a o n where ra potenaal is prewnt. The potential creates
a pair. Finally one positron and two electrons emrge from the region,
There a r e two possibilities for this occurrence, a s shown in Fig. 24-4.
Again, the total amplitude for the occwrenccz is the digerence b t w e e n the
amplitude8 for the two possibilltiea.


2 2

The prohbility of this occurrence, o r the previous, or any other similar

occurrence is @ven by the a b ~ o l u t es w r e of the amplltuide times the n m -
b r Pv, The Pv is actmlly the prokbility t k t a vacuum remains a vac-
u r n ; because of the possiMllty of pair p r o d ~ e ~ o int ,i a not d t y . The Pv
can be camputsd by xnakiw a table of the x>rohbilities of alarting with noth-
ing and endiw with v a r i o ~n w b e r s of mirrs, a s ie shown in Table 24-1,

TABLE 24-1

The sum of a11 t;hese psohbililies must e q a l udty, and Pv is delzernnined

from this eqwtion, The magdtude of ]Piv demnds m the pobntial present.
So the "probabifities &ken 8s me rely the s q w r e s of amplitudes (that is,
oxnittiw the Pv b e t o r ) a r e actwfliy rehtive probabilities for various oc-
currences in a @ven pot;e&iaf,
Use of 6 , (B'). For the present, the existence of more than m e possibility
for an aeewrence ( t h Pauli principle) will t.le ~ g b e t e d .The t o b f ampli-
tu& can always be &rlved from one by inkrehanging p r o w r spaw var-
i a b l e ~ maMng
, W c o r r e s g o n a ~changes in sim, and summing all t b am-
plitudes so obkined,

The nonrehtivisac Born appro&mation to the amplitude for a n interae-

tion is

where, from earlier k;ctues,


Hate Wlat t5 = t6 since a nonrelativistic interaction affects both parLicZes

simultaneously, The potential for the interaction i s the Cmlomb potential

Separate variables may be used for tBand t 6 , if the fmction 6(t5 - t6) i s
ineluded aa a factor, Then

where the differential d~ includes both spa= and #me variables. It is con-
ceivable t h t the rektivistie h r n e l couM be obtained by s u b s t i t u t i ~K + for
K@, and introducing the i&a of a retarded potenLial by replaciw 6(tb t6) -
- --
by 6(tS t g r6,@).Nowever this 6 function i s not quite right. Its Fourier
transform cmtains both positive and negaave frequencies, whereas a photon
has only positive energy. Thus

To corrrsct this, define the fmctian

&,(X) = exp(-iwX) dw/tr

which contains only positive e n e r g . The value of the fmction i s dekrmined

by the ilttegral, mm,

c -Q
4 (X) = lim ( l / ~ i ) ( X i ~ )

= 6fm -t (l/ni)(prineipal value 1/X)

Abbreviating tg ts 3 t and r g , ~S T, and taking account of the fact that both
, retarded potential i s
t 5 5 tg and t 5 =P t6 a r e ~ a s i b l e the

Exercises: (11 Show t b t

&fining t2 r2 as a relativistic invariant, the potential is
e26, (gS,2). Another term h i c h must be included i s the magnetic in-
t e r a d o n , proportism1 to -V, * Vb. In the n e t i o n used for the Dirac
eqmtion, this prduct i s -a, orb. Zt will km found emvedent to ex-
p r e s s this in the equivalent form -(Be), * ( P c u ) ~ and
, in & i notstt;ion
the retarded Coulomb potential. is proporZ;iomf to P The~c:P '8
come from the use of the relativistic b r n e l . Thus Lhe complete po-
tentfal for the interaction becomes

and then Lhe first-order kernet is

Here the superscript on yp indicates on which set of variables the

matrix opembs, just as for the superscripts on K, .
The occurrence represenbd by this kerml. can be diagrammed a s
in Fig, 24-5. This represents the e x c b q e of a virtual photon be-

FIG. 24-5
tween the electrons. The virtual photon can be polarized in any one of
the four directions, t, X, y, z. Summation over these four possibilities
is indicahd by the repeatttd index af The integral expression for

- -
tke kernel, Eq. (24-2), implies t k t t b amplitude f o r a photon to go
from 5 6 (or from 6 5 depending on timing) i s b , ( s s , t ) Equation
(24-2) can b taken a s another a?&bment of t b fundamen&l laws of
qumtum electr&ynamics.
(2) Show t h t

Thus, irz momentum space,

From the r e s u l b of the fasrt lecture, it is evident t b t the laws: of electro-

dymmies could b s h b d a s follows: (1) The amplitude to emit (or absorb)
a p h b n ie e y p , and (2) the amplitude for a phtobn to go from 1 to 2 is
6 , (91,$), where

in momentum representation. It is interesting to note that 6 , (si, ) 18 the
same as I, (sI8$), the quantity appearing in the derivation of the propagation
kernel of a free particle, with m, t b particle mass, s e t e q w l to zero, A
more direct comeetion with the MaweXl equations ean km seen by writing
the wave equation. 0 klI, = 47r JP in momentum representation,

We now consider the eomeeti.on witfa the "rules" of quantum electrody-

namics @ven in the second lecture. The amplitude f o r a to emit a phobn
whfcb b absorbs will now bt; caletllarted aceordiw Lo those rule^ (see Fig,
25-1)- The amplikde tjRae electron a goea from 1Lo 5, emits a phobn of
pohrizaaon 6 and direction K, t b a Ei;aes fmm 5 to 3 is given by

whereas the amplitude that b goes from 2 to 6, absorbs a pbton of potari-

zation p! and direction X: at 6, then p e s from 6 Lo 4 is given by

The amplitude t b t h t h these procesees occur, which is equivalent to b ab-

sorbiw a% photx>n if t(; t5 is just the product of the individual amplitudes.
L1" iz absorbs h% photon, the s i p s of all the eqonentiala in the preceding
amplitudes are chnged and t6 must bri? less t b n t5.
To obbfn the amplitude t h t my photon is exckngeb beWc3en a. md b, it
is necessary to i n b g r a b over photon direction, sum over possible photon
palarizations, and inbgrate over t 5 m d t(;, subject to the dorementioned
restrictions. In summing over polarizations, gf will be replaced by yp and
a summation over p will be taken, TMs amomts to summlw over four di-
rections of polarization, sometMng t k t will be eviained fabr, Thus

= 4?re2C lexp [iK. (rs- r8)]exp [-iK(ts - te)J


Comparing this vvith the msult of the last lecture, i t must b that

This can be written in a form which makes the space-time symmetry evl-
dent by using the Faurier t r a n s h r m

exp ( -iKlt/ ) = i 1 2 i ~ / ( w-
~ K'+ i ~ ) exp
] (-iwt) d w / 2 r

so that the foregoing egwtioa bcomera

and cornwring this with the result of the last problem of Lect;ure 24 estab-
Zisbs that the rules given in Leeturs 2 a r e consistent with relativistic elec-
trodywmiics develop4 in the last lecture.

The theory wit1 now be used to ob&in the electron-electron s e a t t e r i w

e r a s s section. The diagrams far the two idistlngulshablo proeesse s a r e
s h a m in Fig. 25-2.

The axnplitude expressed in momentum represenhtion is obtained a s

follows: Write Eq, (25-3) [with the aid of Eq. (25-4)] a s

Since electron s t a e 1, i s a plane wave of momentum and electron s h t e 3

i s a plane wave of momentum $$, it is clear that in m_omentum representa-
tion the spinor part of the f i r s t bracket wJll become (u$Ypus) and the spinor
part of the second bracket will become (u4ypuz) Integration over rg and 76
produces thtt consermtion laws given at the bottom of tbe diagrams. Drop-
p l w the integration over q puts the photon propagation in momentum repre-
senktion directly. Thus the matrlx element c m be written

The f i r s t term comes from diagram R, the second from diagram S , and the
summation over g Is implied. h the eenter-of-mass s y s k m , the prob~bility
of transition per second i s

(see h n s i t y of F i m l g a b s , L e c h r e 19). The nzethd of L e c b r e 23 can be

used to average over initial spin states and sum over_final spin states. F o r
?ample. the sums ?er spin states that result from R by R matrices and
R by S plus R by S matrices a r e

By judicious use of the spur rehtions given in h c t a r e 23 the following dif-

ferential eras8 section is obhined (alternatively, Table 13-1 could be used
to calculate M dimetly):

where x = E ' / ~ ~This

. i s called M"ci11edllerscattering (see Fig. 25-3).

Problems: (I) Calculate positron-el e c t r scatteriw by the pre -

cediq m e t h d .
(2) Y i d the cross section for a, p rneejon to produce a back-on
electron, Assume t b t the p meson satisfies the D i r a ~equation with
S = 1/23 and no anomalous moment. Remember t h t the particles a r e
diastiwisbblie and hence there i s no fnterchnge of particles
(3) Calculate t b e m e c b d electron-proton scatkring cross section
assumiw the probn has no stmcture but: does k v e an momafoua
moment. T b Dirac q w t i o n for a probn i s (see p q e 54)

T h u ~the pstrl-urbiq po&ntfali cm be k b n a s (see p q e 54)

and the coupfiw with a photon i8

Ths Sum ovsr Four Pokrtewtkow. In ~ l a s s i c a electmdymmics,

l longltu-
dim1 waves can always be elimimbd in favor of tranwveree m v e s a& an
i n s m h n e a u s Coulamb interaction. This is tha approach uaed by Fermi (see
Lecture I), and it will now be demonstrrz*d that the sum over four polariza-
tiam is also equivalient to drmsveree w8ves but plus an fnsbnbneous Gou-
lamb hteraction. E h s b a d of chooeing space directions X, y, z, one direc-
tion parallel to Q (pbLon momentum) and two directions trmaverse to Q
a r e hken, the m t r f x element can be writbn
?For the proton p =: 1,7896.

where y9 i s the y matrix for the Q diractlons and y,, represents the y m&-
trix in either of the transverse directions, The matrix element of 4 =
- i s zero in general (from the argument f a r gaugr;. hvariance). t Thus
y~ can be replaced by y, with the result

Now l . / ~
~ a Coulomb field in momentum space and yt ie the
fourth component of the current density or* ctrarge, so t h t the first &mm
represents a Coulomb ineraelfon white the second term conkins the i n b r -
action tbough transverse waves,

f Ln our special ease, it is easy to eee directly, for emmple,

and Interpretation
of Various
Twenty -sixth Lectzlre

In many pracesaes the b e b v i o r of electrons in the q u m t ~ m

mmfc theory turns out 2s be the same a s predicted by slmpIer theories save
far small ""earrection" b m a . It i s the purpose of the present lecture to
point out and discuss a few such cases.

The simplest diagrams f o r the interaction a r e shown in Fig. 28-1. The
amplituide for the process h a b e n found -Co be praportioml, in momentum

FIG. 26-1

representation, to

where q E {Q, Q) and Q i s the momentum e x c h w e d by the two electrons.

Also, since 4 =: & -I t follows that

From this identity it was deduced in the fast lecture that the amplitude far
the process a s just given is equivalent to

By taking the Fourier transform of the first term, it C- be seen that it is

the momexxtzlm repreaenktfon of a pure, i n s k n m e o u s Coulomb powntial,
The second term then constitutes a correction to the simple Coulomb inter-
action. In it y, denotes the y's for two directions tmnsverse to the dfrec-
tisn of Q ,
F o r slow elleetmns, the correction to the Coulomb potential may be sim-
plified and i n b q r e t e d in a simple mamer. Note t k t in this case


s o that v b 2 and q2 in the denominator can be replaced by with

small error. (In the C.G. system, = O exacMy.) The correction term h-


It is recalled that u E , where M, is the large parfi and ub the small

part and that in the nonrelativistic approximation

Also, since

it follows that (taken bt;ween positive energy h3%&s)

In free space ];I = p, s o the x component, for example, of the f o r e w i w ma-

trix is

where the cornmuation relations for the a's have been used. From this it
is. easily seen that the amplitude for the correction ta the Coulomb potentllal
may km w i e e n altogether in the form

The first t e r n s in each of the brackets represend currents due to motion of

the electron trmsverse do Q and the second k r m s represent the transverse
components of the n n w e t i c dipole of each. So altogether tt appears t b t the
correction arises from current-current, ourrent-dipole, and diple-dipole
interactions between the electrons. These inbsactions a r e emacted even on
the basis cif classicat theory and were d e s c r i b d by Breit h f o r e quantum
eleetrodymmica, hence a r e referred to a s the Breit interaction.
Cornider tbe dipole-djipole term arising in the correctiart factor. Since
Q = p1 R = p2 p4 it is-

But since crx Q is z e r s w k n Q and $ have the same direction, the sum
could a s well be over all three directions and then it is equivalent to a dot
product. That is, this term of the correction i s
‘COR3"ZE:CTION" T E R M S 13 1.

By Laking the Fourier transform t this will be seen ta ba the momentum

repreeenbtion of the interaction bdvveen two dipoles as was sfaled.
go% t b t the approxinnatian q4 (v/c)Q used a b v e applies anly liretween
positive e n e r n sbt8s. For, if one of the s h h s represents a, positron, then

However, 2rn i s v e q f a w e , s o the correction is still small. It ifs necessary

to redo the a d y s i s ~ v e r t h e l e s s .

It would a;ppesar t b t , since the electron md positron a r e distinguishable,

the Paul i principle w u l d not require tfi i n b r e e diagram, leaving as the
only one Fig. 26-2.

FIG. 26-2

But it is still p s s i b l e by the same p h e n a m e n a l ~ i w lreasoniing to con-

ceive of the d i e r a m in Fig, 26-3, which wwld represent vf s t u d amihllation
of the eliectron and p s i t r o n with the photon later c r e a t i q a new pair. It
turns out that; it i s necessary to regard m electron-positron pair a s exist-
ing part of the time in the form of a vlfiual phobn h order to obhin agree-
ment Wth eqerfment.

t Notice that (tq x Q) (Q X Q) exp I-iQ * X ) , which will appear in tmns-

f o m h k g r a l , i s the same a s -(qX V ) * (qX V) exp (-iQ * X ) , w h r e V is
the grad operatar. This device enabtes an integration by p a d s , whichgreatly
simplifies t h process and the result, Thus, sigcr?:the trmsform of 1[a2 i s
l/r, the coupling i s -(vt V) * (CQ V )(X/r), wMeh i s the classical energy
f o r inbraetin& m q n e t i c dipoles,

FIG, 26-3

From the p o h t of view that positrons a r e electrons moving backward in

time, Fig. 26-3 differs from Fig. 26-2 only in the intercknge of the '6final"
skbs &, $d. T b Pauli principle exknded to this ease continues to oper-
ate; tlfe amplitudes of the two diagrams must be subtracted, since they dif-
f e r only in which outgoiq (in the sense of the arrows) particle is which,

An eleetron and positron can exist for a short time in a hydrogenlike

bomd s b t e b a r n a s the a h m positronium, The ground s b t e of positronium
i s an S md may be s i q l e t o r triplet, d e p e d i w on the spin arrange-
ment. As has been illdicated in assigned problems, the 'S state can anni-
hilate only in two photons, whereas the '$3 state decays only by three-photon
mnihilatlon, The m a n life for two-pfioton mnihilation i s 1/8 10' sec and
for three photons it is I l l X 1a6 secl

P ~ o b l e m :Chc-tck the mean life 1/8 1 0 % ~for two-phobn ami-

hibtfon usiw the c r o s s seedion already computed and u s i w h,ydrogen
wave functions with the reduced =ss for psftronium.

F i e r e 26-2 contrlbuks the Coulomb v t e n t l a l holdiw the positronfum

Itogetbr, The correction t e r n @reit% interaction) arising from this same
diagram contribubs a dipole-dipole o r @pin-spin interaction t k t is df;f"frennt
fn the ' 5 and '8 skhs (tfie current-current md spin-current interactions
are the same f a r b t h s h t e s ) . Thus this amounts to a fine-structure sepa-
ration of the ' 5 and 'S slates which can Ltc? shown to be 4.8 10"' W,
In view of the fact that a photon has spin 1, and the 'S state of positro-
nium spin Q, conservation of angular momentum prohibits the process in Fig.
26-3 from occurring in the $8 state. It does occur in the ' 8 state, however.
The &mariisiw fmm this d h g m m is small and, therefore, constitutes an-
other fine-structure splitting of the $8 and 'S levels. It can be shown to
amount to 3.7 X XO-a ev in the same direction a s the spin-spin splitting. It
i s referred to as s p l i t t i q due to the ('new amfhilatfon force*''
In order to calculate the term arising from Fig, 243-3, one needs to eom-

in this case tq2 C 4m2(Q = O in the C.G. system), and all matrix elements
a r e 1 o r O (regading parEicles a s essentially at r e s t in the positroniurn),
s o the result is just a n u r n h r , This means that t a k i w the Fourfer transform
one gets a (S function of the relative eoodinrzte of the electron and positron
for the interaction in real space, For tMs reason it is sometimes referred
to a s the '%sfro&-mnge'"nteraetlon of the electron and positron.
T b combined fine-structure splitting due to the effects already outlined
turns out to be represented by

where ac is the fine-atruelure consknt. This amounts to 2,044 X lo5 Mc,

using f r q u m e y a s a measure of energy.
There i s still another correction, however, not yet mentioned, a r f s i w
from diagrams, such a s Fig. 26-4, where the electron o r positron may emit

FIG. 26-4

and reabsorb f i a own photon. Takiw this into account, the fine-structure
splitting in positroniurn i s given by f

t PEEys. Rev., 87, 848 (1952).


having a value of 2.0337 l@ Mc. The experimental value for the positro-
nium fine atructum is 2,035& QA00Mc, so i t ia seen that this last correction,
though of orcfer a amaller t b n the main k m s , i s necessary to abbin
agmement with ewerfmenl, It is referred to bath in pasitronium and in hy-
drogen as the Lamb-shgt correction because of its experimenbf observa-
tion by Lamb a s the source of the small splitting between the 'glj2 and Z~1i2
levels in hydrogen, In general, i t comes under Ibe h e a d i q of self-action of
the electron, to be treated in more dehf2. later,


It i s easy to imagine t b t processes, indicated by the diagrams in Fig.
26-5, may occur w k r e two photons in;sbad of one a r e e x c h w e d . Although

it k s not been necessary tw, eansider such high-order processes to secure

agreement with e q e r i m e n t , it may b c a r n e necessary a s experimenal re-
s u l t ~improve. The amplitude8 f o r the proceases may be written down easily
but their calauhtion i s dgficult. The amplfiude for case EE in space-time
represenbtion is, f o r emmple,

o r in momenhm representation it i s
FIG, 28-6


(see Fig. 26-61, Thus it i s possible to determine Ifi and Ih, in terms sf eaeh
other but not indewndently; that is, the momentum may be s h r e d in any
ratio b t w e e n the two photons, It ia for this reason that the integral over gI
a r i s e s in the e q r e s s i o n for the amplitude.

Twenty- seventh tectgtiure


In Lecture 26 the fsllavviq idea, was introduced: An electron may emit
and t b n absorb the same photon, as in Fig. 27-1, Then the propagation ker-
nel for a free electron moving from point 3 to point 2 should include Lerrns
repsesenliw this possibility. Including only a first-order term (only one
photon i s emltkd and absorbed), the resulting; kernel is

The correction term in this equation is written down by an inspection of

the diagram, followiw the usual procedure for s c a t e r i q processes. In the
present case, the initial and final monrenta a r e identical. Therefore the
$.R, P. Feynman, Phys. Rev., 78, '769 F1949); inelrtded in this volume,

nondiagoml elements in the perturbation m a t r k will all be zr?ro. A diagonttl

element i s one in which the resulting wave functions of a particle remain
in the same eie;enstab, F o r time-idependent perturbations, it was shown in
the development of perturbation theory t h t the only effect on such wave func-
tions is a e h n g e in p b s e , proportional to the time interval T over which
the perturbation i s applied, The resultixtg wave function is

Since the perturbation effect (AE)T is small, the second e ~ o n e n t l a can

be expanded a s 1 - i(AE)T -t and higher-order k r m s neglected. It is the
second b r m of this expansion which i s represented by the inbgral on the
right side of Eq. (27-1). The represendation is not yet m equality, since
c e r b i n normaliziq factors a r e different in the two expressions.

To obbin the correct equation proceed a s follows: First, it is clear that

the probability of the occurrence depends only on the interval in space and
time b t w e e n points 3 and 4, and not a t all on the absolute values of the
space and time variables. So suppose a c b g e of variable i s made so t h t
d~ represents the elemenL of interval (in apace and time) beween 3 and 1.
Then write the inkgral in Eq. (27-1)

where it i s clear t h t the operators K, and 6 , depend only on the intervaf

Second, expression (27-2) conbins the time-dependent part of the wave
function, exp (-iE,t), because it was assumed that the wave functions used
did not conhin Lime factors. In Eq. (27-31, f (31, f (4) do already include the
time-dependent part, so it should be omitted in Eq, (21-2).
Third, the normalization of wave funetlone i s different for the two ap-
p r o a c h @ ~F, o r the developnnent t h t led to Eq. (27-21, t b normalization

wals used. For the present development the normalization is

T k s , to e s h b l i s h an equality, eqressictn (27-3) must tctl3 divided by the nor-

malizing inbgral of Eq, (27-4).
The r e s u l t i q expression i s

The integral over d3xs gives a V which cancels with the denominator, and
the inkgral, over dt3 gives a T which cancels with the left-hand side, s o
f imlly

No& t b t the Integral is relatlvistically invariant, FurLher, since p is

the same before and after the perturbation and = rn2 + p2, the change in E
can be h k e n a s a ehmge in the mass of t b electron, from

Using this expression, and t r a u z s f o r m i ~to momentum space,

The fntcjgrancf may be rewritten; from

using $u = mu and the relations of Lecture 10. Then Eq. (27-6) becomes

This integral i s divergent, and this fact presented a major obsbele to

qumtum eleetrd;~r~awries for 20 years. Its solution requires a change in; the
fundamental, laws. Thus suppose that the propagation kernel for a photon i s

(l/k2)c(k2) instead of just {l/k2), where c(k2) i s s o chosen that c(O) = 1 and
c(k9 0 as k2 -+W. In space representation the madlffcation t a b s the form

The new function f, differs ~ i w i f i e a n t l yfrom 6, only for small inter-

vals. This i s clear from the fact that if the high-frequency components are
removed from the Fourier e q a n e i o n of a function, only the sharl-range de-
tails a r e moetifiedl. In the present case the size of the interval over wKeh
the function i s m d i f i e d can Be described roughtg a s foUows: Consider a
large number, )lZ, and suppose that s o long a s k2 << h', c@) 1. Then {from
the exponential term) dzfemnees will occur when the interval s 2 m l/ha. Call

this value a2, and the general behavior of f, i s shown by Fig. 27-2. Thus a 2
i s sort of a "mean width" of f, . If a 2<< 1, as assumed, then when

which is the size of the interval. The significance of the form of f,(s2) can
be understood from the following. The original function, b+(s2)differs from
zero only when a' = t2 - rZ= 0. That i s to say, an electromagnetic signal can
reach a point a t distance r only a t a time t such that tZ- r2= O or t = r
(i.e., the speed of light is 1). This i s no longer true for f,(s2). The depar-
ture i s obtained by a measure of 1 - r, But, by Eq. (27-81, for all values of
r a this measure is negligible. Thus, depending on A ~the , laws will be
found undfected over any practical dislanee,
Choosing h2>> m2, a practical (and general) representation of c(k2) i s

and the simple form i s suggested,

Prom this, obtain the propagation kernel a s

The second t e r n is that for the propagation of a photon of mass h; how-

ever, the m b u s sign in front of the k r m has not been explained s o far from
this point of view.
A convenient represenation for this kernel i s the integral

Introducing this kernel into Eq. (27-6') in place of l/ka gives

which ean be written as the sum of two inkgrals, wMch differ only by having
m o r g in the numemtor, t k t is, m o r ka (since g = k,y,).

We shall need to do many integrals of a form similar to the preceding
one, A method k s k e n worked out to do these fairly efficiently. We now
stop to d e s e r i b this method of inkgration,
EveryLhing will be based on the fallotviryi: two integrals:?

In Eq, (27-XI), to write a little more compactly, we use the rrohtion fl;k,)
to mean tbat either X o r k, i s in the numerator, in which case, on the right-
hand side the (1;0) i s I o r 0, respeelively. 410 grove the first of these, n o k

?R, P, Feynman, Phys, Rev,, 76, 769 (1949); included in this volume. N o b
that i n the article d% i s equivalent to 4$[d'k/(2~)~1 in our notation.
t k t , if kk, i s in the numerator, the integrmd i s an oc3d function. Thus the
integral i s zero, With 1 in the numerator, contour integration i s employed.
Write the integral

Then for E L + k2, there a r e poles a t w = & [(L + k2)'/2 - it-], and contour
integration of w gives

with the contour in the upper half-plane, Two dgferentiratious with respect
to L give

Then the remaining integral i s

which proves Eq, (27-1 1). E k - p fs substituted for the variab2e of' integra-
tion in Eq. 627-113, the result i s

By diEerentiatlng both sides of Eq. (27-13)with. respect to A o r with respect

to p j , t b r e foXfows direetly

Further differentiations give directly s u ~ c e s s i v eintegrals i n c l u d i ~more k

factors in the numerator and higher powers of (k2 - 2p * k - A ) in the de-
namimtor .


Last time it was found that the self-energy of the electron is equivalent

and t k t this could also be expressed in b r m s of integrals,

It was also found that

V s i q the definite inbgraf

the denominattor of the InLegrand of Eq. (28-2) may be expressed a s

so t k t Eq. (28-2) becomes

The integral over k can be done by u s i w Eq. (28-3) with the substitutions
- X) for h , giving
xp f o r p and L ( l

The integral over L i s elernenbry and gives

I = -2(32n2 i)""'
dx (l;xp,) In [(l - x)A? + m2x2/m2x2]

When h2 >> m2, it is legitimate to neglect m2x 2 in the numerator [it i s true
that when x m I, (X - x)h2 i s l z o t much larger than m"', but the Lnbrval
over which this IS true i s so small, for h2 a m2, Chat the e r r o r i s snzarl],
so that, wlren the x integration i s performed, t

The change in mass is [from Eq, (28-l)]

Since $U = mu and (;U) = 2m,this can be simplified to

Now (ev1271) i s about 10", so that oven if h, i s many times m, the fraction
c b g e in mass will not be large, The intewretation of this result is a s fol-
lows. There is a shift in mass which d e p e d s on h and hence camot be de-
termined theoretically. One can imagine an experimenkl mass and a theo-
retical mass which am r e l a h d by

All our measurements a r e of m,xp, that is, self-action is included, and mth,
the mass without self-action, cannot be dehrmined, Mare aecurably s b b d ,

a theory using m e p , 8 1 % ~
A. t h e 0 0 u s i w mtt, and e21fic self -action minas
is equivalent to
e 2 h c self -action Am a s carnguted for a
h e particle S
When the electron is free, the ez/gc seff-action k r m emctfy cancels the
Am term and a theory using meXpi s exactly correct. When the electron i s
not free, e 2 h c self-action is not q u f h equaX to the Am term and there i s
a small correction to a theory using meXp This effect leads to the Lamb
shift in the! hydrogen atoonn, and, in order to calculate! s w h effects, we s h l l
now consider the effect of self-action on the s e a t k r i n g of an electron by an
e x b r m l pobntial ,


The diagram for scatkrine; in an e x k r m l potential is shown in Fig. 28-1,
and the relatiomhips f a r this process, excluding the possibiXfty of self-
action, a r e a s follows:
Pobntial: d(9) = yt ( B ~ z ~ / &(Q)
Q~) lfor Coulomb potential
Matrix element: M = -ie(f"uzdul)
Conservation relation: = fit + 4
First-order self-action will produce the diagrams shown in Fig. 28-2. The
amplitude for process i s obkimed in the usual manner, For example, dla-
gram I gives

Ratiomliziw the denomimtors and in~ertingthe convergence factor, this


This ewression also b p p n s to diverge for smaff photon marnenta (k) (a

result whiefi has b e n called the; '"drared eat;aslrophe," but which has a

FIG. 28-2,

clear physical interpretation, discussed la%r). Temporarily the k2 ander

d4k will be replaced by (k2 - h2min 1, where h2rnin m2, to make the inte-
gral convergent. This is equivalent to cutting off the inbgrai somewhere
near k = h ,in , and tk physical interpretation i s left to Lectures 29 and 30.
To ftzcilibte the inbgratfon over k, the following identity i s used:

since h2 >> m2 >> h Z m i n . This substitution produces integrals of the form

To evaluate these inbgrais, we make use of the identity

where $y = y ~ +l (1 - Y ) $ ~ . Performing integrations in the order, k, L, y,

and u s i w the ztppropriab integrals in Eq. (28-6) gives a s the m a t r h to be
taken brjtvveen s t a k s u2 and ul

e2 m 4
X min

where r = In ( A/m) + 9/4 - 2 in (m/Amja) and 4m2 sinZB = q'.

.It is shown in Lecture 30 that diagrams U and EX (Fig. 28-2) prdrtee a
contribution M2 -+ MS = -(e2/2n)r&, which just cancels a similar term in Ms.
When q is small, B * (qz)'n/2m, and the sum M1+ M2 + M3 can be approxi-
mated by
The (46 - $4) can be writ&n out

But qp is the gradient operator so this can be written, in coordinate repre-


[see Eq. (7-1)I. Reference to page 54 shows that the effect of a particle'^
having an anomalous magnetic moment is to subtract a potential p FP,
from the ordinary potential d = ypAp appearing in the Dirac equation. Since
this is precisely what the f i r s t k r m of Eq. (28-10) does, one c m say that
this part of the self-action correction looks like a correction to t k elec-
tron" magnetic moment, s o that

N o b that this result [and (28-9)md (28-%@)ldoss not depend on the cutoff
h, and hence h em now be &ken to be. infinity, f

I t has been shown that w b n a paXlf.i~lei s scattered by a ysobntial, the pri-

mary effect is that of g, and that for diagram I (Fig, 28-2) a carreetion term
a r i s e s wNeh is

rdr I
FIG. 28-2

R, P, Feynmm, Phys, &v., 76, 769 (1949);included in this volume.

It remains to show t k t the combined e f k e t of diagrams II and E1 (Fig. 28-2),

when considered along with the effect of the mass correction, i s another
correction k r m ,

just cancelling the fast k r m in the preceding expression. It i s recalled that

the necessity for considering. the effect of the mass correction together with
the self-action represented in diagrams 1, a, and SE is that the theory b e i w
developed must conlain the e m e r i m e n h l mass rather t b n the ''theoretical''
Suppose that in the Dirac equation

rn lh , the theoretical mass, is replaced by m - Am, where m i s the e q e r i -

mental mass; then

The mass correction Am is just a number, so that in momentum represen-

tation it is a (S function of momentum, Hence from the form of the foregoing
equation, it is seen to behave like a potential. with zero momentum and In-
volves no matrices, Diagrammatiestlly its effect may be represented as in
Fig. 29-1, The minus sign i s used because the effect of the mass correction
Am is to be s u b t m c k d from the results obhined from d k g r a m s X, IX, and
EX (Fig, 28-2) done, For diagmnn IL the amplitude would appear to be

and for diagram IfYFig, 29-X),

But the part of the amplitude for diagram TX. (Fig 28-2) eonbined in the pa-
rentheses is just Awnul, s o that XI and 11' ssem to cancel, A similar result
applied for d i a p a m s m d El" This is a n e r r o r , however, arising from
the fact t k t both of these amplitudes a r e i d i n i k , owing to the factor 4 - m
in the denomimtor. Hence their difference i s i n d e b m i m t e , But by suh-
t r a c t i w them p r o p r l y it will be found that their difference does not vanish.
The method proposed to accomplish this subtraction will, in fact, give
the combhed effect of the self-action and mass correction of both diagrams
11 arxd Kf and Ifband 1311'. It iia based on the fact t h t an electron is never
actually free. An electron's M~storywill have alwaya fnvolved a s e r i e s of
scatterings, a s will its future, These scatterings will h conaidered as oc-
e u r r i w a t long but finite time intervals, Xt will be sdficient to calculate the
effect of seE-action and the mass: correction k t w e e n any t w of these scat-
b r i w s , since the result will evidently be the same bdween each pair of
them. T k n , the effect will accounkd for simply by r e g a r d i q a, eerrrec-
tf on, q u a l to that calculated for om of the i n b r v a l s b t w e e n scatterings,
a s being assochtc3d with the pobntial a t eaeh s c a t e r i n g ( n u r n b r of inter-
vals e q u d s number of s c a t t e r i q s ) . Then, considering a s i w l e s e a t t e r i w
event a s here, this correction to the pobntial represents all the effects of
diagrams II[, In, B*,and 111"
F o r an electron which is not quite free, pa .:rn2 exactly, but insbad

by the uncertainty principle, and T is the interval between scatterings.

gince T is h r g e , E i s a small quantity. Let 6 = (1+ E)&, whem I?(@ i s the
momentum af a free electron.
If and 36 a r e the momentum representatives of the scattering poten-
t i a l ~at a and R (any two s c a t k r i n g ~ ) ,then the m a t r k of the amplitude to
go from the initial sttzte a t a to the ffml sLaZ;e a t b without axly perturba-
t-ions I s

up to brms of order E With the perturbations of self -action and mass cor-
rection, this m a t r h is

(a) Without wrturbation (b) With prturbatfon of self-action

and maists correction

It is the value of this matrix earnpared to t h t of the unperturbd matrix

w u c b gives the desired correction tern (see Fig, 29-2).

Problem: Show t h t for two noncammuting (or eornmuting) oper-

ators A and B, the following expansion i s truer

Using the result of the precedfw problem, one can wrile.


s o that t b foregoing m a t r h becomes

The f i r s t and last t e r m s a r e identical, up to terms of order E , hence may be

cancefed. The integral in the second term h8 already b e n . done essentially
in eomputiq diagmxn I (Fig. 28-21, except bere replaces 6, &, and g&,
s o that Ilf = - pfi = Q in this eaae and gives the result

To this order in E the $% in the numerator may be replaced by PJOfs.

It i s
also noted that since = mu,

s a t b t the foregoing result may h written

This i s just -k2/2a)r times the matrix for no perarbation. Hence the cor-
reetion 2erm due to diagrams 11, fII, E ' , and 111' i s obhined simply by re-
placing the s c a t h r i w potential $ by -(e2/2r)r$, a s was slated earlier.
It should be noted t k t the dZfleulity in obtaining the proper subtraction of
the self-action and mass corrections just clarified does not represent a
""dvergence " v a b l e m of qtrmtum eleetrodymmics, It i s a tsiczal problem
which could as well a r i s e in nanrelativistic quantum mechanics if, for ex-
ample, one c b s e same n o m e m value at3 a reference of potential, that is,
regarded a free electran as m o v u in a uniform nomero pokntial. It may
be easily verified that this would givr;. r i s e h an "energy correction'9or
the f r e e e l e e t r o ~amlogous ta the -ss correction hvotved here, Then in
computing the anrrplibde for a s c a t t e r i q process where one used ;a "theo-
retical emrgy" a d subtracted the effect of the "energy correction," the
difference of idinite terms would appear if one used free-electron wave
functions.. In this simple ease the i d i n i h term would, indeed, caneel upon
proper subtmction but in principle the problem is the same as the present
F inally, the complete correction &run a r ising from self -=lion and rnaas
correction i s

tan 28

e2 28
sk + -
8nm Mid - dd) -sin


From the correction term just debrmined, it Is seen t b t , to order e2,
the e r o s s section for scattcsriw of an electron with the emission of m pho-
tons is

where a. i s the eross section for the potential 6 only. This c r o s s section
diverges 1ol;~arithicallya s h ,in .+ 0, and it i s this divergence wMch was
formerly referred do a s the "i d r a r e d c a t a ~ t r o p h e . ~ ~
This result, however, a r i s e s from the physical fact t k t it i s impossible
to sea%er an electron, with the emission of 7ao photons, When the electron is
scattered, t h electromagnetic field rnust c h n g e from t b t of a ehrrrge mov-
ing with momentum pi to that for momentum pz. This c h n g e of the field i s
met3ssarily accompanied by radiation,
h the theory of brehmsstraMuw, it was s h a m t k t the e r o s s section for
emission of one low-energy photon is

PrclbEem: Show that the integral over all directions and the sum
over plarizations of the foregoing c r o s s section i s

where sin2 B = - ~ ) ~ / 4 r nThus

~ . the probability of emitting any photon
between k = Q and k = K&, is
which diverges logarithmically,
Therefore, tbe dilemma of the diverging s e a t b r i n g cross section actually
a r i s e s from a s k i q an improper question: What i s the c b n e e of s c a t t e r i q
with the emission of no photons ? Instead, one should ask: W h t i s the e h n e e
of scattering ~ t the h emission of no photon of energy g r e a b r t h 3
F o r there will always be some v e soft ~ photons emitbd.
Then, effectively, what i s sought In answer to the last question is the
chance of s e a t k r i n g and emittlng no plboton, the chance of emitting one pho-
ton. of e n e r m below Q , and the c b n e e of two and more photons below K,
(but these t e r m s a r e of order e4 and higher and heme a r e neglected).
Each of these k r m s i s infinite, actually, but i s kept finite temporarily
by the artifice of the dc m;, . Their sum, however, does not d i v e r s , as may
be seen by gatheriw the previous results and by w r i l i w

C h n c e of scatbring and emitting no ptrotoo of energy > K&,

+ (terms inde-

of s r d e r e 4 )
terms independent

This does not depelld on hmin and hence resolves the " i d r a r e d c a b ~ t r o p h e . ? ~
It has been rshown by Bloch and Nordsieck that the same idea applies to all
It i s interesting that the largest k r m in the quantum-electrodynamic
corrections to the scal;t;eriq cross section, namely,

may be obbined from classical eIeetrodymmies, since such long wave-

len@hs a r e involved. The other terms have small effects. To date, the scat-
tering experiments have been accurate enough to verify the existence of the
large term but not accurate enough to verify the exact contributions of the
smaller k r m s . Hence they do not provide a nontrivial test of quantum elec-
These same considerations apply in any process involving the deflection

f F. Bloch and A. Nordsieck, Phys. Rev., 52, 54 (X937).


af free electrons, The best way tn handle the problem i s to calculate every-
thing in t e r m s of the Xmi, and then to ask only questiana which can Izave a
sensible answer a s verified by the evenha1 elimiwtion of"the hmia.

Problem: Prepare diagrams and integrals needed for the radia-

tive corrections (af order e2) to the KleiwNishina formula. Do as
much as possible and compare msults with those of L. B r o w and
R. P, Feynman.?


h s t e a d sf introducing an artificial mass, assume no weak photons con-
tribute. Thus we must subtract from the previous resulLs the contributions
of all photons with momentum magnitude l e s s t b some n u m b r kg >> h .
The previous result i s

{l + (eZ/2n)[2 in (m/Xmi, - l)(l- 28/tan 2e)l + t? tan B

The term t o be s u b t m c k d Is

, neglect both K and the f i r s t two k2 in this

We assume ko a pi o r p ~ and
integral. Then using d = 2p, - $', the integral i s approximately


This i s the brrn to b subtracted from expression (30-1).

Usiw sin2 8 = q2/4m2, for small q, Eq. (30-4)becomes
Subtracting this f m m Eq. (30-l), also with q small, gives

The last k r m is [ln (M[/2b)+ (131/24)1.


Consider the hydrogen atom with a potential V = e2/r and a wave func-
tion (R) exp (-iEo t) = qo(xI,) Take the wave function to be normalized in
the conventional =mere The effect of tlre self-energy of the electram i s to
s h g t the energy level by an amount

The f i r s t integml fst written down from Fig. 30-1. The second is the free-
particle effect a s noted in previous lectures. The kernel i s not well

FIG. 30-1

enough determined to make exact calculation of this integral p o s ~ l b l e ,An

approximate ctt.lculation c m be made with the farm

- similar sum over negative energies for t 2 < t,

The photon propilt;l;ation kernel can b @ w a d e da s

6 , (S,,$) = 4% $exp [-ik(ts - t,) + ik(xZ- xl)j d'k/2k(2~)-~
= 4n J'exp[+ik(tz -tl) + ik(xz-~$1d3k/2k(2n)"
tz t1
I f s i q these expressions, Eq. (30-6) becomes

= C +fbp
(-iK * R)lon (E, + K - ~ ~ 1(aP
- l exp (iK R)],@

dSk/4nk - exp (-iK .R)]@,(JE, I + U + E,)-~


[a exp (iK R)lno dSk/4nk - (A m term) (30-7)

This form implies the use of +* instead of and a4= 1, = a.

Another approach to the motion of an electron in a hy$mgen a b m i s the
following. Consider the electron a s a f r e e particle inbrmit%ntly seellt&red
by the Coulomb pokntial. The s c a t b r t w s cause p h s e shift in the wave
function of the order of fftydbrgfi ) , T hufs the perfod between s e a t b r i q s
Is of the o r d e r T = tf/Rydbrg. Take the lower limit of the momentum of
the "self-action" photons a s very large compared to the Rydberg. Then it
Is v e v probable t b t an ernitbd photon will be r e a b o r b e d before? two inter-
actions b t w e e n the electron: a d the poknthf have taken place; it is very
improbable for two o r more s c a m r i w s to take place between emission and
absoqtfon (see Fig, 30-2). Then the correction to the potential i s that corn-
pubd in Eq. (30-5) for small q @lus anomalous moment correction), This

in momentum space, To tmnsfarm to ordimry space, use

s2 P (4a2 - Q') $ M (aZ/at2 - v2)V

Thus the correction i s

This cormetion i s of greatest inzporbnce for the s state, since with a Gou-
lomb potential V ~ = V 4nze26m), and only in the s states is differentm(R)
from 0 a t 1R = 0.
The c b f e e of fq is dekrmined by the inequalities m ko >> R y d b r g . A
satisfactory value i s = 137 Ryd. With such a h,the effect of photons of
k c ko must b included, This wil b done by separating the effect into the
sum of t b e e cantrilbutiw effects. It will. be seen that two of these effects

probable improbable
FIG. 30-2

are i d e p n d e n l of the potential V and thus a r e ctznceled by s i r n i h r terms

in the A m correction for a, free particle, Thus for only one situation must
the effect be eompuhd. Xn all cases, s i ~ c ek i s small, the nonrelativistic
approxfmalian to expression (30-7) may be used,
(1)The contribution of negative energy sLiztes: Neglecting k with respect
to m gives

The matrix element for cx4 i s very small, and only the elements for at need
be considered. Then the sum over negative s k t e s i s

If this sum is continued for +n, a negligible term of order vZ/c2 i s added.
Thus the sum i s approximately

- C J [(aan)(ano)/2m1 k2 dk/k = (a * k2 dW2mk

aXf states

This i s il-kdependen-1:of V, and thus i s ~ a n ~ e l by

e d a similar quantity in the
Am term,
(2) Longitudinal positive energy states (ap Q k/k) : As an exercise
the reader may show

X@ k/k) (ik * R) lno =: (En - Eg)/k f e wf

and the contribution of these bmms summed over positiv

- (E, - ~ 1),, exp (-ik * R),o (E, + k

/ k(ik~ R
~ ) ~exp

Writing H = p2/2m (V commutes with the exponent), this

This brm is f n d e ~ n d e n of
t V, a d thus is also eaneele
(3) Tramverse p0sitive energy s h t e s : Since ko is la
size of the atom, the dipole approximation can km used. t
in the sum of Eq, (30-7) &comes

w r iting

(E, + k - E@)-' = l/k - (E, - Ed/(En + k -

the term in l[k can be split off from the rest of the ink
independent of V and tfrtzs canceled by the Am correcti
averaging over direetiom,

in the nonrelativistic approximation. Thus the inbgral

U s h g the relation

I.Cf. H, Betbe, Ph.ys, Rev., 72, 339 (1@47)*

and the fact that >> E, - E@,one part of the sum over transverse positive
energy s b t e s is

This cancels with the In of Eq, (30-77, leaving the final correction as

-E- m o m a l o ~ smoment correction

This sum has b e n carried out n u m e r i ~ a l l yto be compared with the observed
Lamb shift,


Another process which is still of f i r s t order in e Z has not been consid -
g a potential. h a b a d of the potential scattering the
ered in the s c a t k ~ n by
particle directly, it can do s o by f i r s t creating a pair which subsequently
annihilates, creating a photon which does the scattering. Wagram 1 (Fig.
32-1) applies to this process; diagram fl applies to a similar process, with
the o r d e r in time c h g e d slightly, The amplitude for these processes i s

i4m2 C
spin states
( ~ Z Y ~ ~ I ) $ J U rrn

where u is the spinor pax% of the closed-loop wave function. The f i r s t pa-
renthesis is the ampffbde for the electron to be scattered by the photon;
1/q2 i s the photon propagation factor; and the second parenthesis i s the am-
plitude for the closed-loop process which produces the photon. The expres-
sion i s i n h g r a h d over p &cause the amplitude for a positron of mo-
m e n b is desired. b the sum over four apin s k t e s of U, two s h t e s take
c a r e of the processes of dlagram I and two s k t e s take c a r e of the proc-
e s s e s of diagram XI. No projection opemtors a r e required, s o the method of
spurs may be used directly to give

a form which eorrlains b t h X and E (so aa usual i t i s not necessary to make

separate diagqams flor pmeesrses whose only difference is the order in time).

This integral also diverges, but a phobn convergence factar, as used in the
previous lectures, Is of no v d u e b e c a u s e now the integral i s over p, the mo-
mentum of the positron. 1x2 the intermediate step, The method which. has h e n .
used to circumvent the divergence d@fi.culLyis to subtract from ttris integral,
a similar integral with m replaced by M. M i s taken to be much: larger

FIG. 31-1

t b m, and this results in, a t w e of cutoff in the inkgraf, over p, When

this i s done, the amplitude i s f'auxxl to be t

(4m2 + ~ ~ "+ 1
/ 1/91
3 ~ ~ (3 f -3)

?See R. P. Feynman, Phys. Rev,, 76, 769 (1949); included in this volume,

where = 4m2 sin2 8, which, for small q, becomes

Notice that (GzYpul) = (G2$u1),SO that, considering only the divergent part
of the correction, the effective potential i s

The 1 comes from the theory without radiative corrections, while the e2
term fs the correctian due to processee of the type just d e s c r i b d , Thus
the correction can be interpreted a s a small reduction in the effect of all
potentials, and one can introduce an experimental charge eeXpand a theo-
retical c k r g e eth related by

where B @ ) = -(e2/31h) ln ( ~ / m ) ' , in a manner analogous to the mass cor-

rection d e s e r i b d in Lecture 28. This i s referred to a s '"charge renormal-
ization. " The other term,

i s more interesting, since it represents a perturbation 2e2/15r (v2V). This

carreetion i s r e s p ~ n s i b l efor 21 Mc in the Lamb shift and the {ln fnn/2(E,- E@)]
+ (11/24)) term in (50-7" i s replaced by (ln (m/2 (E, Eo)j + (11/24) - (1/5)) .
The 115 term i s due to the ""palirization of the vacuume?*

One possible process for the scattering of light, and an indiatinguisbble

a l b r m t i v e , i s indicated by the diagrams in Pig. 32-22. The second diagram
differs from the f i r s t only in the direction of the arrows of the electron lines,
Reversing such a direction i s equivalent to c b n g i n g an electron to a posi-
tron. Thus the coupling with each potential would c b n g e siw, Since there
a r e three such couplings, the ampiitude for the second process i s the nega-
tive of thszt for the first. Since the amplitudes add, the net amplitude i s zero.
Xn general, m y closed-loop process of this t m involviq an odd number of
couplings to a potentbl (includiw photon), b s zero net amplitude,

P~obEem:Set up the integrals for each of the two diagmms in Fig.

31-2 and show that they are equal and opposite in s i p .

However, the bgher-order processes s h o r n in Fig. 31-3 can take place.

The amplitude for the process is
FIG, 31-3
plus five similar brms r e s u l t f q from permutiw the o d e r of phatans, This
integml appears b d i v e ~ elogarfthmlcaly, But when all six a l b r m t l v e s
are &ken into account, the sum leave8 no divergent Wrm, More eorrrplfcabd
closed-loop processes are convergent,
Pauli Principle
and the Dirac Equation
fn Lecture 24 the probability of a vacuum remaining a vacuum under the
i d u e n c e of a potential w%scalculated, The potential c m create and amf-
hilate pairs (a closed-low process) htweerz times ti and t2, The amplitude
for the ereatlon and ihilation of one pair is (to f i r s t nonvanishing or-der)

The amplitude f a r the creation and annihilation for two pairs is a factor L
f o r each, but, to avoid counting each twice when integrating over all d q and
d ~ it ~i s ,IJ2/2, For three pairs the amplitude is lL3/3!. The total amplitude
for a vacuum to remain a vacuum is, then,

where the I comes from the amplitude to remain ai vacuum with nothing
happening. The use of minus signs for the amplitude for an odd number of
pairs can be given the following justification in k r m s of the Pauli principle,
Suppose the diagram for t ti i s a s s b m in Fig, 31-4. The completion of
this proeess cart occur in two ways, however (see Fig, 32-5)- The second
way can be thought of a s obkfnod by the inbrchmgc? of the two electrons,
hence the amplikde of the second must be subtracted from that of the first,

FIG. 31-4

FIG, 31-5

according to the Pauli principle. But the second process i s a one-loop proc-
e s s , whereas the first process is a two-loop p m c e ~ s s, o i t can b~ concluded
that amplitudes for an odd number of loops must h subtraete.d. The prob-
ability for a vacuum to remain. a vacuum is

P ,,-,,,= /c,I = exp (-2 real part of L)

The real past of L (It.P. of L) may be shown Lo be positive, so it i s clear

t h t terms d the? s e r i e s must a l t e r a t e in sign in order t k t this prokbility
b not grealter than unity,
We have, therefore, two arguments a s to wfi?Jthe e q r e s s i o n must be
e'L, One involves the sign of the real part, a property just of K, and the
Dirae equation. The s e c o d involvew the Pzruli princi.ple, We see, therefore,
that it could not be consistent to i n t e v r e t the Dfrac equation as we do un-
l e s s the electrow o k y Fermi-Dirac s k t t s t i e s , Tberts Is, therefore, same
comeetion, btwe?en the relativistic Dirae equation and the exclusion princi-
ple. Paul has given a more ebborate proof of the necessity f a r the exclu-
sion principle but this argument mafices it plausible,
This quesUon 9f the eomection between tire exclusion principle? and the
Birac equation is s o interesting that we shall try to give another argument
that does not involve closed loops, We shall prove that i t i s inconsistent to
assume that electrons a r e completely independent and wave funetions for
several electrons a r e simply products of individual wave functions (even
though we neglect their Interaction). For if we assume this, then

P robability of vaeuum
= Pv
remaining a vacuum

Probabiltty OF vacuum
to 1 pair =Pv 23
a 1 p&rs I ~ l ~ a i r I '

Probgbility of vacuum
to 2 pairs PV C IK~
a i pairs
IKI pair/'

Now, the sum of these probabilities i s the prohbility of a vaeuum becoming

m y tMng and tMs must bit? unity. Thus

1 = Pv [ l -F @rob, of 1pair) + @rob. of 2 pairs) += a * 1 (31-8)

The probability that an eIeetron goes from a to b md t h t nothfng else b p -
pew i s P,/K, @,a)/ The probability that the electron goes from a to b
and one pair is produced is P, [ ~ + ( b , ai2 )I K ( ~ pair) i2, and the probability that
the electron goes from a to b with two pairs produced i. P,l~,@,a)/'
/K(2 pair)l'. Thus the probability for an electron to go from a to b with
any n u m k r of pairs produced i s

[see Eq. (31-8)j. Now since the electron must go somewhere,

However, it is a p r o ~ d of
y the Dirac kernel that

and an inconsiskncy reaults. The Inconsistency can bt; elirnimtad by assurn-

ing that elsctrona obey Fermi-Dirae s b t i s t i c s md a r e not independent, Un-
d e r tbse c ; i r e u m ~ W c e sthe origiml electron md the sfeetran af the pair
a r e not independerrrd a d

Probability of electron from

a to b plus 1 pair pmdueed
< jM,@,a)j"t~(1 wfr)j2

because we should not allow the case that the electron in Ifre pair is in the
same sbte as the electron a t b.
F o r t k k e r m l sf the Klefnaorbon equation, i t turns out that the sign of
the ineqmli+ in Eq, (31-IQ) is reversed, Therefore, f a r a spin-zero pa&f-
cle neither F e m i - D i r a c statistics nor independent particles a r e possfbfe.
If the wave f"urmctiions a r e h k e n symmetric (charges reversed add ampli-
tudes, Elnsbin-Bose sbtfsties), the inquality Eq. (31-11) ia also reversed.
h symmetrical statistics the? preeence of a pa&ieXe in a sate (say 6 ) ert-
hances the chance t h t another i s created in the same s h t e , So the mein-
Gordon q u a t i o n requf reh~Base statistiee ,
t i q to t r y to s h a r p n , these a r s m e n t s to show t b t t b
[~,@,a)l' db and 1 is quantitatively exactly compen-
sabd f o r by the exclusion principle, Such a f m h r n e n h i relaaon ought to
h v e rt cleat: md simple exposition,


states consist of fret? particla. The momentum space
TMBSITZBH PROBABILImS reprwntation is then most convenient.)
First, write down the matrk directly without
The exact values of the numerical factors smearing numerim1 factors, Thus, eEectron propgation factor
in the rules of If for cornputing transition probabilities is (p--4-1, virtual photon factor is with coupIings
are not clearly stated there, so we give a brid summary r,.. -7,. A real photon of polarization v ~ t o c,r con-
here." tributes factor e, A potential (timm the eletron charge,
The probability of transition per w a n d from an c ) A,(%) contxihutes momentum g with amplitude a(q),
initgaal s h & of enerm E to a final state of the same total where @,(p] = JA,(f) expliq. zlfd4sl. (Note: On this
egeru (warn& ta be in a continuum) is given by point we deviak fran the definition of U in I which b
there (h)-% times as Iarge.) A spur is taken on the
matrices of a ccimed lwp. Because of the Pauli principle
the sign is alter& on conkibutions comapanding to an
exchallge of e l ~ t r o nidentity, and for each closd imp.
where is the ddesity of final states p r unit enerw one multiplies by (2xj4d*$= (2n)--"dpfd~Jfi&$~and
range at enerm E and is the square of the matrix integrate over all values of any undetermined mo-
element taken between the initial and find state of the mentum variable p, (Note: 6 n this point we again
trandtion matrix iTn appropriate to the problem. N is a differ?@)
normiizing constant. For bound states conventioi~alky The correct numerical value of is then obtained
noxmafized it is 1. For free pa~iclet;lates it is a prdnct by muftipfication by tfie following factors. (I) A factor
of a fachr N , for each prticle in the initial and for (4r)te for each coupling of an electron to a photon.
each in the hnal energy state. N , depnds on the Thus, a virtual photon, having two such couplings,
normdization of the wave functions of the mrticles contrihues 4r8,(In the units here, ef= 11137 -proxi-
(photons are considerect m particlm) which is used In mately and (ha)& is just the charge on an efeetron in
wmputing the matrix element of 3n. The simplest mfe -
hmviside units.) (2) A further factor 1: for each virtual
(which dms not destroy the apprent covariance of photon.
X ] , isZkN,=2t,, where r , is the enerw of the particle. For m m n tbeorim the ckanges d i s c u d in 11,
This corrmpnds to chooliing in momentum space, plane Sec, I0 are made in writing m, then further factoa are
wava for photons of unit vettor potential, e2= --l. (1) (4n)bg for each maan-nucleon coupling and (2) a
For electronsit commpnds to udng (&S)= 2m (so that, factor -i for each virtual spin one meson, but 3-1'for
for example, if an electron is deviated from initial @I to each virtuat spin zero mmn.
final h,the sum over ail initiai and fincil spin strxtes of 'This s a m s for tmmition probabilities, in which
1 isp~($~3-nrj%Cpx+m)%~ j, Choice of noma- only tfie abwjute quare of IFn is requird, To get X
Iization (@rc)-i I resulls in H,=1 for electrons, The to be the actual phast: shift p~trunit volume and time,
matrix 311 is evaluaM by making the diagmms and additional fators of i for mch virtual electron propa-
foliowing the rules of 11, but with the following debni- pation, and --i for each peential or photon internetion,
tion of numerical factors. (We give t h m here for the are necemry, Then, for enwu perturbation problems
spesial case that the initial, final, and intermdiate the enerw shift is the e w t e d value of E iRZ for the
unperturbd starte in question dividd by the normal-
*In I and 11 the unfartunate conventian was made thst dab
) ~ mementurn qace in&pats. The
mans d k * f R ~ d k d k t @ n for ization consrant N , belonging to each particle compris-
-fusing frrcter (2x1- here serves no usefut purpage so the cm- ing the unprturbed state.
ventian will be abandoned.In thiogeetion d4khas itrruhalmeaning, The author has profitcsd from diseussio~s with
M, Pahkin and L, Brown,
*qn genera!, 1Vi ia the article density. It is N,=(&ynr) far
io mrklf hddo and ~ & * d + ( d f l - ~ @ / d 6 ] for 61h.
?L htcer rs t r , ~f tttc field arnp~ttde+ ta t a k ss umty.
This page intentionally left blank

The problem of the khavior of positram and electrons in given in time (po~trona t t e r i w ) or fomard (pair produc6on). For
nrtrrna1 potentkb, nqlwting their mutml inwaction, is m d y d such a parricle tfte amplitude for transition from an ioitial to a
by repking the &mv of holes by rt, reink~retrttianof the solu- hnal s a t e is analysed to any ordw in the poten&f by mn&derlng
tions of the Dlrac equation. It is possible to write down a complete it to undergo a q u e n c e of such scattierings.
slution of tL problem; in terms of: baundary conditions on the The amplitude for a process involving m n y such particles is
wave function, and thi salution contajw ;rutamarialky all the the product of the transition amplitad= for each prLicle. The
pcrsibilities of virtuat (and real) pair f o r m h n rrnd annihiiaGon mclu&on principte requires that antisymmetric mmbinatiuns of
rolfether with the ordinary scattering procem, including the amplitudes be c b m n for these mmplete p r o c m wbjch diifer
w r r s t relative signs of the various terms. only by exchaage of partid-. It e m s that a congatent interpre-
In this saiution, the ""negative energy sbtegB'appfzbr in a form ~arionis only posJIbk if thr! =elusion pdaciple is adopted, The
wbieh may be pictured (as by Stiickelberg) in wace-time as waves exclusion principle n d not he &km h t o m u n t in intermediate
traveEng away from the external potmtiaf badwards in time. sitam. Vacuum prAlenrs do not azise for chsrgw which do not
E ~ r i m e n k l l ysuch
, a wave carrebponds to a positran appr-h- i n m t with one another, but these are anaimd nererthelm in
in$ the potential and annihilating the electron. A particle moving mticiparion of application to quantum etatrodynadcs.
forward in d a e (electron) in a potential may be scatered forward The resnlts are also e r & in momentumener@ vdables,
in time (ordinary mtcclring) or backward (pair anni2lilatioian). kuivafence to the wcond quanthtion t h a r y of bletj is proved
When moving backward (positron} it may be wattered M w a d in arm ~pacia;.

1, INTRQDUCBON as a h a l e rather than breakhg it up into its pieces.

THIS & the first of ~t of papers dealing with the I t is as though a bambardier wnglow over a road
solution of problems in quantum electrdyna&. 'ud"n'Y three an' it '8 when two of
The main prinGpb isto deal direct& with the them come tagetbr and diaP~ar 'gain that he riX&ZtZ3
to the Ham2tonhn differential equations rather than tbt he has Over long in
with these equations beaxsefves. Here we treat simpk singXe"".
t;he nrotia,sn ejectrons and porjitrons in given over-aa spm'-tim' Point of v'ew 'ads to con-
patentiais, pwr We consider the interactions siderable simplifiation in m n y problems. One can take
of &eae particles, that is, quantum elEtrdmamics, into account a t the same time process@ which ordi-
The of chargm in a fixed polential is usually n a ~ l ywould have to be considered separately. f i r
tr<?atd by the of second quantization of the example, when cansidering the scattering of an electron
electran the d the thmry of holes, by a potential one a u t o m t i a l l ~ ~~
into account the
we show that bq. a suitable choiu: and inter- egects of virtuzb pair productions. The =me eqwtion,
prebtion of the solutions of Dirac,s qttatron the Dirac's, rvhich descrihs the deflection of the world line
be equally we,l treated in a manner which Is
of an electron in a field, can atso describe the deltectian
(and in just as simple a manner1 when it is large enough
fundamentally no more complicatd than SchMinger,s
to rever* the time-senw of the world line, and thereby
method dealing with one or more The vaii- c o r r w n d to pair annihilation. Quantum mechanically
ous and annihilation aprators in Ihe dlrclc~onof the world lines is rqlaced by the
tional electron field view are required becaune the direction of propagation of
number of particles, is not conxrved, i.e., pairs m y bc ~ b view i is
~ dzerent from thtof the
Or datroyed. On the "lter h'nd charge tonian method which considers the future as developing
c o n w e d which su@nts that if we the charge* mntinuovsly from out of &e p s i , Here we imagine the
not tbe prticle, the mulls can be sirnplifid, entire space-time hktory laid out, and that we just
the a ~ p r o ~ h a t i oofn chsicai relativistic theory become aware of incrembg portions of it succemively.
the of an electron pair (eleftron A , positron B) rn =tterkg problem this over-rtllview oj the mm-
saigbt be rwresentd by the start of two ~ r l d plete xattering p r w w is simikr to the $-matr* view-
from the point of creation, 1- ' h e ~ ~ grim r of~&@d p i a t of H e k n h r g , The temporal order of events dur-
p i t r a n % d lthen continue until it annihilat~aaother ing the sattering, analyEd such detail by
eimtron, c, at a world p i n t 2, Betw*n the times 11 the &nziltanian difierential equation, is irrelevant. The
and I2 there are then t h r e world lines, before and after rehtion of thae viewpoints will be d k a d more
onfy one.. However, the war@ lines of c, B, and A fully In the intduction to the s ~ o n paper, d in which
wether farm one continuous line albeit the "mitron the more camplicated interactions are analyzed.
partJ' B of thL continuous line is d k e c w backwar& The deveiapment stemmtxi from the idea that in non-
in t h e . Follawinp the chwge mtker than the particlm rektivistic quantum mechanics the amplitude for a
comespnds to considering this wntinuous world line given procm can be mmidered as the sum of an ampii-
tude for each space-the path availab1e.l In view of the (where we write 1 fox xi, tl and 2 for X*, la) in t h i case
fact that in cltassical physics positrons could be viewed
as electrons procding along world lines toward the 1)=x(bm(xa>@$(xz) exp(- iE,(ba-ti)), (3)
pSt (reference 7, the was lnade removes in
for le>lI.TiVe shall find it convenient for Is<&r to define
the relativistic case, tbe restriction that the paths must =Q (2) ia not valid tr).
proceed always in one direction in time. It was dk- then readily shown that in general K can be defined by
c o v e d that the results could be even more easily tht solution of
understoob frorn a more familiar physical viewpoint,
that of sfattered waves, This viewpoint is the one used <i3/3l$-R~)K(2~ l) = G(2, (4)
in this paper. Aflrtr the equations were worked out which is zero for l%<%where 6(2,1)== b ( 1 2 - 1 ~ ) 8 ( ~ 2 - z t )
physially the prwf of the equivalence to ttie sr?cond X ~ @ S - Y Z ) & (and I Z ~the
- ~subserigt
~~ 2 on Lfz means
quantization theory was founds2 that the oprator acts on the vaxiables of 2 of K(2, 1).
First we diwuss the relation of the Hamiltonian When E is not constant, (2) and (4) are wIid but K is
digerenth1 equation to its solution, using for an example Iess easy to evaluate than (3),$
the Schrifidingerquation, Next we deal in an analogous Ur, can call 8(2,1) the total amplitude for arrival
way with the Dirac equation and show how the solu- at X*, 12 starting frorn XL, I.E. (It results from adding an
tions m y be interpreted to apply to positrons. The arnplitude,expiS,foreach,space time path loetween these
intepretatim w e ~ not s to be conistent unless the pints, where S is the action along the path," The
electronsobey the exclusion principle. (Charge obying transition amplitude for fxnding a particlie in state
the Klein-Grdon equations can be described in an , at time 12, if at 11 it was in +<X,, t d , is
~ ( x st2)
analogous manner, but here consistency apparently
requires Bose statistics.)$ A represenhtion in momen-
turn and energy varhbles which is uselul for the caicu-
lation of matrix elements is dexribd. A proof of the
equivafence of the methd to the theory of holes in A quantum mechanical system is dezribert equally well
second quantization is given in the Appendix. by specifying the function K, or by specifying the
&mi;ltonian E from which it results. For some purposes
2, GmBX'S WNCTION T-ATMEET OF the specificatbn in terms of K is easier to use and
visualize. We desire eventurtlly to d k u s quantum
We begin by a brief discussian of the rehtion of the electrodpamics from this point of view.
non-rektivistic wave eqmtion to its solution. The ideas To gain a greater familiarity with the K function and
will then be extended to rehtivistic particles, satisfying the point of view it suggests, we consider a simple
Dirac's quation, and Plslaitfy in the succading paper to perturbation problem. Imagine we have a partick in
hteracthg rehtivistic particles, that is, quantum a weak potential U(x, 11, a function of psition and
ekctrodynamics. time. We wish to cafcufate K@, 1) if U ditfers from
The Schriidinger equation zero only for 1 between 9 and to, We shall expand X in
i n c ~ e s h gpowers of U :
X(2, 1 ) s Ro(2,l)+K(lf(2, 1)+K(2)f2, l)+ * - .. (6)
dwribes the change in the wave function J, in an
infinitminzaf t h e At as due to tbe aperation of an To zero order in U, IC is that for a, free prtkfe, Ko(2, l),'
oprator exp(-iHdl). One can ask also, if $(xi, 11) is To study the first order correction K""f(Z, I), first con-
tlze wave function at x, at time tl, what is the wave sider the case that U digers from zero only for the
function a t t h e tz>&7 I t can always be written as infinitesimal time interval between s m e t b e t a
and la;+dta(lg<k<Is).Then il$(l) is the wave function
at xl, it, the wave function at XQ, fa is

where K is a Green's function for the linear Eq, (l),

(We have limited ourselva to a single prticle of cc+
ofd;llEtte X, but the eqmtions are obviously of greater since from i 8 to tl the particle is free. For the short
~ e r a E t y . 1If II is a cnnst;mt operator having eigen- intemaf &a we solve (I) as
values B,,, eigedunctions 4, M, that $(X, Ir) can be ex- $(ss fa+ bla) =exp(- iEhla)J"(~, fa)
pand& C, C n + n ( ~ ) , then $(X, 2%) =ern(-.iE,(tz- h)) = (1-iH,&a- iUd13rt(x,IS),
XC,rb,(x). Since C,= J@,*(xjarl)Jr(xl, E1)C%72gP one fiads 4 For 8, non-relativistle free particle, where S$,= enp(ip.xf,
8 R P feynmn Rev. Mod. Pbys. 2@ 367 (tP@), E, .IpP/2nr, (31 &v@, as is weiI b w n
be 'wuvalen& of the entire ,prmGdure (including photan Ke(z, 1) -1e x p l - ( i p - x ~ - i p ~ x ~ ) - i # ( 1 ~ - t t ) r " Z n ~ p ( 2 r ~ - ~
inkmtianri) 6th the wmk d Eiebmngcr and Tamaaaga has k m
demstrsted by F. 5. Rymn, Phys. Rev. 73, MJIM9). (z&m-g@p-rr))-t exp(#dn(xl- XI)*(~~-~I)-~)
* Thm m W a l a-rampiesof the general relabon af $pipin and for #*>t~,and KB=O fw k <k.
stortislia d d a d by W,h&,Phys. Rev. 58, ?E6 (1Mj.
where we put 8-;Be+U, No being the Hamiltonian
of a free prdcle, Thus $(X, l i ~ i b t , )digers from T
what it would be if the potential were zero (namety 1:
(1-iHobta)$(x, l a ) ) by the extra piece
A$= -
z'U(xa, l$) #(xa, ta)hta, (8)
which we shag cali the amplitude scattered by the
ptentiaf. The wave function at 2 is given by s~ha
(01 OR=,@ 19) fbi CI(1DER. E@(@#

$(X., t.)= S K . ( X ~ . 1%;X,, laCbl.)$&~,t.+d.ldh%, Fm. L. The SEhrodiner (md Dim) njuatian a n be visualid
W describing the fact that pfane waves are mttered srrawvely
bp a potential, Figtlre t (a) illustrsrtm the situation in 5rst &er.
since after It+dla the partick is again free, Therefore Rd.&3) is rfie am~fitudefar a free prtide rarting at point 3
the change in the wave function at 2 brought about by 2 $g:r:p; ~ & a ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ "
the potenthi is (suhtitutc (7) into (8) and f8) into cm*, (Eq, (9)). In (b) is ilfustratd the secmd order r w a s
the equation for $(X*,In)): the waves mitered I 3 are %atfeteda a i n at P H ~ W -
(Eq !10)),,
ever In Dirae one-electron theory K44 3) wenld rqrmat elcc-

~$(2) iSK0(2, troni both of poGiive and of nmlive inergkm proceding from
3) (1(3)Ko(3,2) ~ ( l ) @ ~ , @ ~ & ~3K,(4,3),
, to 4 %isE%. is2,mrdied by chmdng 8 different ~atteringkernd

In the case that the potential exists for an extended was, Qne can in this way obvbusly write down any of
time, it may be booked upon tls a sum of effects from the terms of the expansion ((i),6
each interval &a! so that the total eEfect is obtain& by
integrating over 13 ccswe11 as Xa. From the definition (2) 3. TmflNIBET OR THE D m C EQVATIOPI
of K then, we find We shall now extend the methcrd of the last section
to apply to the D h c equation. AII that would =em
to be necessry in the previous equations is to consider
EZ aa the Birac Hamiltonian, J, as a symbol with four
where the integral can now be extend& over all space indica (fer each prarlic;te). Then Ko can still be de&n&
and time, d7a-d8r&a. Automatically them wilt be no by (3) or (4) and is mow a 4 - 4 matrix which operating
contribution if !a is outside the mnge 18 to ka b a u s e of on the initial wave function, gives the firm1 wave func-
our definition, Ko(2, 1)=0 for tzS11. tion. In (10), U(3) can be generafizd to A 43) -aaA(3)
We can undersund the result (B), (9) this way. We where A 6, A. are the scalar and vector potentkg (timm e,
can imitgine that a prticle traveb as a free particle the elmtron charge) and a are D k c matrices.
fram point to point, but is scattered by the patential U. To discuss this we s b l l define a convenient r e C
Thus the total ampiitude for a r ~ v a al t 2 from l can tivistic notation. We represent four-vwtom like x, 1 by
be considered as the sum of the amplitudes for variaus a symbol S,, where p= l, 2,3,4 and 2qJra l h real. Thus
alternative routes. It may go directly from I to 2 the vector and scalar potential ( t h e s e} A, A , isi A,.
(amplitude K&?, I), giving the zero order term in (6)). The four tnat~ces@a,B tan be comidered m trmform-
Or (see Fig. I(&)) it may go from I to 3 (amplitude ing: as a four vcrctor r, (our y, digem from Paufi's by a
&(St l)), get scattered there by the potential (scatter- factor i for P==l , 2,3). We use the summation conven-
ing amplitude -z'U(3) per unit volume and time) and tion &,h,= a&&- atb~-ds-ada= a.6. In pzlrticukr if
then go from 3 to 2 [amplitude K&!, 3)). This ntay a, is any four vector (but not a matrk) we write
occur for any point 3 so that summing over these a=afiy, so that a is a matrk with a vector
alternatives gives (9). (a wit1 often be used in place ymbol for the
&&in, it may be scattered twice by the potential vector). The satisfyr p 7 * 3 - . ~ p ~226,
f i, = where &M= -f- l,
(Fig. l(b}). It goes f r ~ m1 to 5 ( K @ @I)),
, gets s c a t t e d
there (-iU(3)) then prmeeds ta =me other pint, 4,
in space time (amplitude Re(&3)) is scattered w i n and S,,= 4, Note that ab+ba= 2ct-b and that &=G@@,
(--ilZ(4)) and then proceds to 2 (&(;l, 4)). Summing = @ . aisa pure number. The sym'boI a/8z, will m a n
over all pssible places and times for 3 , 4 fuld that the a/a6 for p ~ 1 . 4and
~ - -
a/az, -a/ay, a/& for a = l,
scond order contribution to the total aqlitltde 2,3. Gall V= y,a/d+= Ba/at-t-isa" V. We shall im@ne
K""(Z, 1) is
We are rintpky wlving by suamive apprdmaticns an in-1
quation (deducible dimctly from (1) WE& l j l - H ~ + U and (8
with R=&@>,

whae the first inte@ exleads aver ciU s w e and all times
This urn be radily verifid directfy fram ( I f just as (9) peater than the 6, alpwring h the m n d term, and k>rb
expmion of the intern1 equation
K+cA'(Z,1) l])

wKch it a h satbges.
We would now expet to choo*, for the spttciaf solu-
tion of (12), II+mXe whem Ke(2,I) w n a w for 12<it
and for t3>& is given by (3) where 4, and E, are the
eigenfwctians and energy valum of a parGcle satis-
f h BkacJsequation, and @*, is by $n.
The formuk arising from this choice, however, s&er
keta from the drawback that they apply to the one electron
W DW P OIIMB, LQ, (84) theory of Dirac rather than to the hob theory of the
F%@ 2. The D i m equsrtien wrmits anaiher mlutien K+(2 1) witran. For example, consider its in Fig. 1(a) an
if oat k n ~ d e r tbat
s wava ~~ibttemd by the ptential can electron after kkg z a t t e r d by a potential io a small
M w m d a in drne as ia Fig. 2 (a). This is intcpreted in the wand
orda rw- (b) (c) by nortiag that there is new the pad- region 3 of space t h e . The one elecbon ays
M t y Pcf of virtuadlpai: Probuction at 4 Ihe positron goin to 3 (as does (3) with K+= KO)that the m t b r d ampEtude
to b. aoi&tied. ?his o n be pirrvd as dmilar to o r $ l i ~ ~ yat another poitlt 2 will p r o c d toward mitive t h e s
w t t e fb) a m t that the ektron ts mttclled bwkwwds in
time horn J to 4
tht mibiitit 2 a
TL wavm sfatkred mm 3 to in (4 r rmat with both positive and nqatlve energh, that is with
arrivfngat 3 fram 2' and a n z k a n g k t h p i t i v e and negative rabs of c k w e of phase, PITo
the dmtron &mX. %%is view is proved equlvdent to h k h t y :
electram tmveLing bekwards in time are rmmizad m etrons. wave 19 mtLerd to times previous. to the time of
mtkring. n rnare just the prowrtim of R0(2,3).
herdter, purely for relativistic convenience, that +,* OR the other haad, according to the p i t r a n
in (3) is rephced by its d j o k t &= , cbn*fl. neptive e n e w stittes are not availabk to the electron
Thus the I)& equation for a partick, mms m,in sn after the mtteriw, Therefore the choice K+=Ko is
exteml field A =A ,y, is unsa&facby. But there are other mlutions of (12).
We shall choose the solutrion d e h h g Kc(2, 1) so that
K+(Z, 1)for tt> 1% is 1h I(!%= u j (3) m podioe w g y
md m, (G determining the propgation of a free stales o ~ l yNow . this new solu~onmmt =My (12) for
ilU tima in orda that the rwrewnk&a be cornpieb.
prticle bwoma
I t must *erefore dBer from the old wlution K@by a
(iVa-m>K+(2, 1)= i6(2, l), f12) mlution of the homogenaus Dirsc eqwGon. It is c k
the hdex 2 on 17% indiating dgerentiation with rmpct from &e deftnition t h t the difference K@-K+ is the
to the coordhtes sss which are reprewated as 2 in sum of (3) over all neetive enerp;y statm, ars long as
12>11. But this gaerence m a t be a wiuGoa of the
IE+(2,1) and W , 1).
The function 11=,(2,1) is d&ed in the a b n m of a homogenmus Dhae equa~onfor all t i m s and m a t
field. If a ptentiilf A is acting a s h i k r function, ay &erefore h rreprwnteci by the =me sum over nega~ve
K+(h",(2,1)m be d e h d , It differs from K+(2,1) by a e n e w s k t a aka for Ca<ll. Since K B ~ in O S k t cam,
%mt order comeetion given by the analoee of (9) it fobws that our new kernel, I),for In<lx i s the
namely mrg&iw Ql the sunr (3)ouer wgolifx?m g y states. That is,

K+")(Z, 1) = - ~SK+(Z, 3)d(3)Kt(3, i)drr, (13) R+(2$l ) = x p o ~a. 4n(2)6n(1)

Xexp(-iB,(tg-lll) for t2> 18
-Crvso 4i)nf2i(i;n(l)
lf 7)
repreen~ngthe amplitude to go from 1 to 3 as a free
particle, get mttered there by the p & n t M (now the X~p(-iE~@a-h)) for It<lt.
matrix A(3) ins-4 of U(3))and coatlnue to 2 as free.
order mmction, italogom to is Ifih koim of K+ ~atiom (13) and
(14) wiif now give results quivdent to tfiose of the
X+m(Z, 1) -- ssKI(2,4IA(4)
6 t m n halie a w ~ ,
That (141, for a m p l e , is the mrrHt mond order
e ~ r e & o nfor h & g at 2 an or&&& a t 1
M+(4,3)A(3)15+(3, l)dzdrs, (14)
according to the msitron t h m q m y be wen ar, follows
and so on. In generat K+") ~ati$fies (Fig. 2). & s m e as a speciat w m p b h t tz3El and
( l ) , ('5) that potential vani*la a r e p t in ktcrml f z - h
&at E4 and tr both lie betwan tt and k
and the succmive t e r n (131, (14) are the power =rim First s u p p 4> t s (F&. 2(b)). Then (since is> t l )

the electron assumed originauy in a positive enerw With ehi inteqretation real pair grduction is aho
state propagates in that state (by f(+(3, X)) to posihn dmribed carretly (W Fig. 3). For example in (13) if
3 where it gets scatter& (A(3)). f t then prmeds to 4, tl<la<ta the equatbn gives the amplitude that if a t
which it must do as a positive energy ekdron. Thh is time $1 one electron is present at 1, then at time just
correctly descGbed by (l+ for fC+(4, 3) contains only one ctl~tronwilt be present (having been scattered a t 3)
positive energy compnents in its expansion, as tr>t,, and it will be a t 2. On the other hand if IS is less than h,
After being scattered at 4 It then p r w d s on to 2, for examph, if t2= tI<t g , the same expression gives the
a e i n n e c m s ~ l yin a positive energy sCate, as It> tr. amplitude that a pair, electron at 1, gositran a t 2 will
In positron theory there is an additional contribution annihihte at 3, and subvequently no particles wijl he
due to the possibiiity d virtual pair prduction (Fig. prewnt. Likewis if 6% and I 1 exceed ta we have (minus)
2fc)). A pair could be created by the potential A(4) the amplitude for Snding a single pair, electron at. 2,
at 4, ihe electron of which is that fwnd later at 2. The psitxon at 1 crezrtad by A(3) from a vacuum, If
positron (or rather, the hob) PEW& to 3 where it ta>ta>ls, ( $ 3 ) dacribes the wattering of a psitron,
annihilates the electron which has arfived there from l. A'fl these amphttldes are rehtive to the ampiitude that
This alternative is alrmdy included in (14) as; con- a vwuum will remain a vacuum, which is taken as
tributions far which l,< La, and its study will lead us to unity. (This will be discussed more fully later.)
an inltrvretation of K+(4,3) for Ir<la. The fmtor The analsue of (2) can be easily worked our.@Xt is,
K+(2, 4) de~ribesthe electron (after the pair prduc-
tion at 4) proceeding from 4 to 2. Ckewiss: K+@, It)
r e p m n t s the electron prweding from 1to 3. K+(4,3)
must therefore represent the propagation of the positron
where d8iVr is the volunte element of the c l a d 3-
or hole from 4 to 3. That it d m SO is clear. The fact dirmensioml surf;tcseof a re&on of space time contaking
that in hole theay the hok prweeds in the mnner CA
and electron of negative energy is r e k t e d in the fact
that K+(4,3) far ( P < ~ J is fmhus) the sum of only
negative energy componenb. In hale theaq the real
e n e r a of these intermdiate s b m is, of coum,
positive. Thb is true here too, since in the phasa
ap(-iEn(lr-ls)) d e s m g K+(& 3) in (17), ERis nega-
tive but so is Ir-lg. That is, the contributions vary with
11 as e:p(-i\E,/ (to-14)) as they would if the enera
of the mtermediate state were t E,/.The fact that the
entire sum is taken as negrttive in computing IC+(4,3)
is reflected in the fact that in hale theary the amplitude
has its sign reversed in accordance with the Pauli
principle and the fact that the electron arriving at 2
has been exchanged with one in the %a.@To this, and
to higher orders, all procesw involving virtual p i r s Fto. 3. Several dilferent prw- can be demibed by the =me
form& de ndiag on the time relations of the variables 11, It,
are correctly dwritrted in this way. Thus P,]GA~(~, I)/* is the probattUity that: (a) An electron at
1 will be ~catteredat 2 (and 00 other psirs form in vacuum).
The eqressions such as (14) can still be d e w h W as
a pawge of the ekctron from 1 to 3 (K+(3, I)), scatkr-
ing at 3 by A@), proceeding to 4 (K+(4,3)), scatrering
(b Electron at 1 and pasitmu at 2 annihilate leaving noFmg.
A &n& pair at I md 1 is rreaM frrm rmm. (d) A
at 2 io metered ta 1. (~+(41(2,1) is tbe sum of the e e k 2
agin, A(4), arriving finally at 2. The scatterin@ may, sflttteh in the potential to all orders. P, is a normalizing
bowwer, be toward both future and past times* an
electron prapagakimg backwards in time king recag-
&ed ats a positron.
This tkerefore sul~geststhat negative energy corn-
ponents created by scattering in a p t e n t k l be con-
sider& as waves propgating from the scattering mint
toward the p t , and that such waves r q m n t the
propgation of a positron annihilating the eltt~tronin
tfie p ~ t e n t h i . ~
"t has often boen noted &at the one-electron theory s patently
gives the m e matrix e h e n t s for lhi pr- as dam hofe theory.
The pr&lern is one of iniepretadon a p d I y in a way that will
alsa 've urrreet r a d t s for other r&-, e.g., self-enmgy.
7 &e idea that p i t m m a n & repiewnted as elrrvoos with
proper time r e v e d retative to tme em &S been k w d b
the author and othms, particuisrly by StBckeikr~E. c, C!
paint 2, and N(1) h N,(l)r, where N,(I) is the i ~ w e ~ dtivistic calculations, om be removed irs follows. Instead
drawn unit nomaI to the s d a c e a t the paint X. That of dehing a s k t e by the wave function f ( x ) , which it
is, the wave function #(2) (m this case for a free par- h a at a given time tt=O, we define the state by the
ticle) is determind at any point inside a four-dimen- function $(l) of four varirrblm XI, t.1 Ilvhi& is a satution
sbnal region if its values on the surface of that re@on of the free particle e q u a t h for all 4 and is f(xr) for
are sp&ed, k=Q. The h f state is m e w i ~defined by a functian
To intewret this, cornider the case that the 3-surfam g(2) over-all s p ~ e - t h e Then
. aur sudace integrah can
comkts m n t k l l y of all space at =me time say t = O be p r f o r m d since JK+(3, l)@j[xl)@x~= f(3) and
previous to h, and of aU s p c e a t the time T> t g . The JQ(s;~)B@x&+(2,3) =#(3), There results
q l h d e r connecting these to wmpIete the chsure of the
s u d a e may be very distant from X* so that it gives no
appreciable contribution (as R+(2, l ) deamws expo-
nentially in spce-&L ddir~tbns),Hence, if yr= @, since the i n t e p l now biryq aver-aU swe-time, The transi-
the inward &awn norm& N will be B and -8,
tion amplitude to wwnd order (from (14)) is

for the mticXe a r ~ * a~t 1 with am~litude{(l) is

scatter4 (A(z)), prsg&m to 2, [ ~ + \ 2 , I)), ihd is
where fr...@, 2'. positive energy (elmtron) scattered again (A(2)), and we then ask for the ampli-
comwnenls in $(l) contribute to the first integral and tude that it in slate g(2), E g(2) is a negative energy
only nwtive energy (wsitronf com~nen:ntf of @(X? state we are sol+@ a problem of annihilation of elec-
the =con&, That is, the amplitude for finding a charge tron in 1(1), positron in g ( ~ )ek,
a t 2 is deter&& both by the amplitude for Gnfmdinh: f;Ve have h e n emphasizing scattering problem, but
an electron preriotls to the measurement and by the be motion in a fix& V; say in a
amplitude for h d h g a positron after the measurement. hydrogen atom, can dealt ~f it is first
migbt be inteqreted as mmning that even in a view& a %atrering prablem can ask for the
problem involving but one char@ the amplitude for amplitude, dra(X), that an efwtran with original free
findkg the charge a t 2 is not determined when the only wave function was scattered K times in the potential. V
thing known in the amplitude far finding an electron either famard or backward in time to arrive a ~ 1.
t Then
(or a positron) at an earlier time. There may have been the gfter one more scattering
no electron pment initially but a pair was created in
the masurement (or atso by otber external &eieXds).The
ampfitude for this contingency is spified by the
amplitude for fxnding a po~itronin the future.
We clan a h obhin exprwions for transirion ampli- An equation for the teal am~htude
tudes, like (S). For emmpk if at 1=0 we have an elec-
tron prmnt in a state with (positive enerw] wave
fmction f(x), what is the amplitude for finding it at
T w i a ae(pgi~ve enew) wave function for a r ~ G n gat 1 either dirwtly or after any numhr of
The amplitude for h&mg &e electron anywhere after m t t h n e is ob~sinedby summing (24) over all K from
l= 0 it; given by (19) with $(l) r q h d by f ( x ) , the 0 to CO ;
second in&@ait vanwing. Rence, the transition ele- $(2)= 4 . ( 2 l - i b ( z , I)V(l)+(l)drx. (25)
ment to h d it in slate g($ is, in anatqy to (S), just
Viewed as a s M y state problem we w y wish, for
emmpie, to find &at initial condition 4s (or better just
the $1 which l& to a p ~ d i motion c of +.
This is
mast p m c t i d y done, of coumt by mlving the Dirac
s i n e g* = #B. equation8
If a potenthi acts sommhere in the internal betwan
O and T; K+ i6 repked by K+cA).Thus the first order (iV-m>+(1)= v(l)#(l), (26)
e g s t on tbe transition ampEtude is, from (131, deducd from (25) by bpmting on both sides by iVa- m,
athg the h, and using (12). This illus-
314(3)K+(3*I)@j(xr)hlhr. (21) trates fhe rehtion b e t w m tht? p o h b of view.
For m n y problem the total potenhl A+ V may be
Eqrwions such as this ean be simplifid and the split conveniently into a h& one, V, and another, A,
;dsurfoce htwbls,
which are inconvenient for rela- comiderd as a perturktioa, If K+") is de&& as in

(t6) with V for A, eqressions such as (23) are valid

and u%ful with K+ replaced by and the functions
f(t), g(2) reQl"ced by solutions for all space and time
of the Dlrac Eq. (26) in the potential V (rather than
free particle wave functions)

We wish next to consider the case that there are two

(or more) distinct charges (in addition to pairs they may
prduce IIIvirtual states), In a succeding paper w e
d k w s the interaction between such charges. Here we
amurnr: that they do not interact. In this case each
particle behrlves independendy of the other. lnJe can
expect &at if we have tvvo particles a and b, the ampfi-
tude that particle a goes from x l at Is, to xa at while
b gaes from X$ at t* to xp at t q is the product

The s p b o l s a, 6 sinpliy indiate that the matrices

apgearing in the K , apply to the Dirac four component
spinors corraponding to particle a or b respectiveiy [the
wave function now having 16 indices). In a. ptential FE. Q. Some problems involving two distinct charges (in ail&-
tion ta virtual airs they may prduce): c,JK+(AA"(3. I)k;fAjf4,2)
X+, and K+b &come K+,tA) and K . + I . (where ~) --K,1Ajj4, 1 ) & f ~ l @ , is the prabab~iity ,that: (a) Etmtrans
is defind a d cjzlculated as for a single particle. They at I and 2 are -9attered to 3,4 (and no paws are farmed). (W
commute?.Rereafter the a, b can be omittd; the space Starting with an electran at 1 a single pair i
eleetrans at 3 4 (c) A pair a t 1, 4 is found
time varhble appearing in the kernels suffice to d e h e sian princiF1ef r&uirw that the amplitudes
on what they operate. exchsnge of two eiclctrons be subtracted.
The par~clesare idential however and satisfy the
exclusion principle. The principle requires only that one term (14). We shall see, hovvever, that considering the
calculate K(3,4; 1,2)- R(4,3; 1,2) to get the net exclutusion principle also requires another change which
ampIitude for arrival of charges a t 3,4. (It is normlisd reinstate the quantity.
wuming that when an intqral is yx?rform& over mints For we are computing amplitudes relative to the
3 and 4, for example, since the electrons represented are amplitude that a vauurn at tl will still be a vacuum at
identical, one divida by 2.1 This expmsion is correct E*.We are interested in the alkration in this amplitude
for p i t r o n s also (Fig. 4). For emmple the amplitude due to the preEnce of an electron at 1. Now one process
thi~t,an efectron and a psitron found Initially at x2 and that can be visualized rls occurring in the vacuum is the
X, (say I t s i r ) are later found at xa and (with creation of a p i r a t 4 follow& by a re-annihilation of
t 2 =ig> 13) is given by the =me expression the same pair at 3 (a proces which we shall call a closed
loop path). But if a real efectron is present in a cerbin
state 1, those pairs for which the electron was created
The h t term repreen& the amplitude that the electron in state 1 in the vacuum must now be excludd, W
prwee& from 1 to 3 and the psitron from 4 to 2 [Fig, must therefore subtrset f r m our rejative amplitude the
4(c)), while the mcond term reprwnts the Intedering term correspndiag to this prxess, But this just reis-
amplitude that the pair a t I, 4 annihilate and what is states the quantity which it was argued shouM not
found a t 3, 2 is a pair newly creaee$ in the potential. have been included in (14), the necessary minus sign
The generaEzation to ~ v e r a particles
l is clmr. There k coming autamaticaIly from the definition of K+. It is
an additional factor K+(A' for each particle, and anti- obviously simpler to disregard the exclusion principle
symmetric combinatims are always taken, completeb in the intermediate states.
No account need be taken of the excitusion principte AII the amplitudes are relative and their quares give
in Lntemdiate states. As an example consider wain the rehtive probabilities of the various phenomena,
rqression (14) for I r > l ~ and s u p p w t4<ta SO that the Abwlute prohbiiities result if: one nnultipiim each of
situation reprant& (Fig. 2(c)) is that a pair is made the prolsabilities by P*, the true probability that if one
a t 4 with the e i ~ t r o nprweeding to 2, and the psitrsn has no partictes prewnt inithay there will be none
to 3 where it iuxnikiktes the electron arriving from 1. finally. This quantity P, can be crzkutatd by normal-
It may tT& obje-cted that ifit happns that the eiwtron izing the relative probabilities such that the sum of the
cmted a t 4 is in the sam state as the one coming from prohbilities of a11 mutuaUy exclwive dtemaGvm is
1,then the process annot occur bemuse of the exclusion unity, (For example if one starts with a vxuum one can
principle and we should not have includd it in our calculate the rektive probability that there rewins a

vacuum (unity), or one pair is created, or two p k s , etc. h ddiition to these si_ngle loops wa have the posrsi-
The sum is P,-l.) Put in this form the theory is cam- bilily that two independent p i r s may be cratted and
plete and there are no divergence problems. Reai proc- each pair m y annihilate itself again. That is, there m y
emes are completely indepndent of what gaes on in be famed in the vacuum two c l o d h p s , and the
the vacuum. conbibution in amplitude from this alternative is just
When we c a m , in the succeeding paper, to deal with the prduct of the contribution f r m each of the laops
interactions between charges, however, the situation is considered singly. The total contribution from all such
not so simph, There is the possibility that virtunl elec- pairs of loops (it is still consistent to dkregard the
trons in the vacum may interact efectrompetially exclusion principle for these virtwl stzLtm] is L2/2 for
with the real electrons. For that reaon procesw %cur- in Ls we count every pair of b p twice, The total
ing in the vacuum are analyzeil in the next section, in vacuum-vaeuum amplitude is then
which an independent method of abtsining P, is
discussed, C=
, 1-L+L2/2-LB/6+ .- exp(-L), (30)
the succemive terms representing the amplitucle from
zero, one, two, etc., hops. The fact that the contribu-
An alternative way of obtaining absolute amplitudes tion to c, of single imps h -L is a coweqnence of the
is to multiply aU amplituctes by C,, the vacuum to Pauli principle. For exawler consider a. situation in
vacuum ampLitude, that. is, the absolute amplitude that which two pairs of prticfm are creatd. Then these
there be no particles both initially and finally, We can wirs later destroy themselves m that we have two
wsume C,= l if no potential is present during the h o p , The elwtrons ~ u M at , a given t h e , be inter-
internal, and otherwise we compute it as follows. It ckanged fanning a kind of figure eight which is a single
dsem from unity because, for example, a pair could be Emp. The fact that the interchange must change the
created which eventually annihilates itself q a h . Such sign of the contribution requires that the terms in C,
a path would appear as a c l o d loop on s space-time apwar with alternate signs, (The exclusion principle k
d i q a m , The sum of the amplitudes resulting from all also rapnsibfe in in similar way for the fact that the
such dngle clo*d loops we tall, L, To a first approxima- amplitude for a pair creation is --K+ rather than +K+.)
tion L is Syxnmebical statistks would l e d to

The quantity L has an S n i t e imaginav part (from

L;"" ',higher orders are finite). We will &&cmthis in
For a pair could be created sily a t 1, the electson and connection with vacuum p h r h ~ o in n the succw&g
p i b o a could both go an to 2 and there annihilate. paper. This h a no e@eton the noorrnalizstion c o ~ a t
Tbe spur, Sp, is taken since one has to s m over aU for the probability that a vacuum remin vacuum is
paible spins for the pair, The factor 8 arises from the given by
fact that the =me loop could be comidered as s h d n g P,= IG,j2=eq(-Z*reat part of L),
at either potential, and the minus sign r m l t s since the
interactors are each iA. The next order term would beB from (30). This value agrea with the one calculatrxf
directly by ~normaiizingprobbitities, The real part
of tappears to be p l t i v e as a conEquence of the Dirac
equation and prowrtim of K+ m that P, is lem &an
one. Bose sbtistics gives Ce=exp(+l;) and cons-
quentIy a value of P, greakr than unity which & p p =
etc. The sum of aH such terms givm &.la meaninglm ilthe quantities are interpreted as we lzave
done hem. Our choice of K+ apitpparently requires the
exclusion principIe,
Charges o k y b g the Klein-hrdon equation a n be
qually well tmted by the mthctds which arc? dk-
in- is taken aver all ri 7 3 and r~this hss no effect and we are
left with (-- lIr from cbanhngf the sign of A. Thus the e+~urwmh c u s d here for tbe l3irac eftf~trons.How this is done is
its negative h m with &R odd number ~f otentisl intemtors d k u d in more detail in the succding p p r . The
give sera ~by&catlyihis is &mu% faf each Lop the eloctmn a n real part of L corn= out nqative for this equation so
go arcrund one m y or in the op&te direction and we must sdd
these ampEtub. But reversing the motion of an electron makes that in this case Bose shtktics a p w r to be requird
it k k v e lib a posiitive chr& thus chmging the 54- of erreh for consistency.'
potential intembon, sa that the sum is m a if the number of
m-tions is odd, This aeorm is due to W, H. Furry, ??hp. in any of the n poten(ials. 3% result after m m i n g over n by
Rev. SX X25 (1937)- (131, (14) and using (15) is
A 3 4 r e h n for k in terms of K+.") is hard to obbin
because nf 1he78etor (l/$ in the nth term, However, thc per-
twhtian in L, dL due to a. $mail chwe in potential AA, is m y
to express, Tfrc?(I/#) L caneded by the fact that AA can a p p r The term K&, I) 8etuay inkmte*jto are.

P<#, Bl@fis the fiXa&ek function and 8(@) is tfia

D i m &tta function of sZ. I t khaves asymptotiaHy
The practicrrt evahatian of the hetrix ektemenes in as =p(-im), decaying exponentially in spce-like
wme problems is often simplged by working with directiansmES
mornentm and enerm variabim rather than s p c e and By means of such transforms the matrix elements
time. This is k c a w the functiion &(2, l) is fairfy
Iike (221, (23) are easily worked, out, A free particle
complicated but we shall find that its F o u ~ e transform
r wave function for an eelectron of montenrum $8 is
is very simple, nameIy (ifi*(P-m)-Z that
esl eq(-ipl.x) where ut is a constant spinor wtisffiq
the Dirac eqation pl@l=msl so that Pb=m2. The
m t r k eiement (22) far going from a state #l, to a
strtte of momentum #a, spinor zc~, is -4e(M(q)?~)
= B ' ~ ~ - P ~ x ~ = P P ~ * S - P ? " ~ ~f i C
f l ," P l r ~ C , where we have i m g i n d A expand& m a Founer
i?i]*dp~dppdlbd@4,the urtegraf over aU P. inte~al
true can be seen imme&iately from (121,
for the represenktion of the o p r a b r iV-nt in e n e r g
(p,) and momentum (pLxB) spzlce L@-m and the t m e
f o m of 6(2, 1) is a constant, The reciprod matrix and we select the component of momentum q = f t ~ - P ~ .
&-.1)-%n be interpreted as &+nt)w--&)-l for The second order term (23) is the matrix element
p-m*= (p-m)CpT"E) is a pure n m h r not involving between and un of
7 ntstrices. Eence d one wishes one can write

since the efectron of momentum pi may pick up q from

the wtentil, a(q), propgate with momeatm jh+q
is not a mac oprator but a functbn giitisfyiw (factor (ar+g-m)-" until it is m t & r d again by the
potential, ~ @ s - P r - a ) , p i c b g up the remking mo-
mentum, #*-Pt-q, to bring the to?d to p%.Since all
where --a+= (a/axg,)(a/dx~~).
The irmtqrals (31;) and (32) are not yet completely
values of q are possible, one integrates over q.
The% =me matrices apply directly to positron prob
d e h d for there acre poles in the in&@&& when lems, for If the time component of, say, is negadve
p--ta2==0, w e a n define how these poles are to h the state represents a prsitron of four-momentum -#z,
evalated by the rule that m s's tm&ed lo hawe an and we are desribing pair prcxluction if is an elec-
z ' ~ j s i & s i dn-egrstipte imgirsa*y p&. That is m, is re- tron, i.e., has p i t i v e time component, etc.
pbmd by nt-i6 and the Emit taken a9 M from above. T'he p b ~ b i l i t yof an event w h m mtrix element is
TKi a n be seen by i w i n i n g that we calculate K+ by (z-i@lst) is proprtionaf to the absolute square. This
iategrating on $4 first. If we call: E=+(mz$-$ae m y aIso be writ&n ( @ E @ u ~ ) ( ~ % Mwhere u I ) , .@ is M
+pf+paa)c then the integals involve P4 essenthlly as with the operators written in op ite order a d exglicir
J'exp(-z'~~(tg-Ir)]dpr(p*z- &?)-l which has poles at appearance of i changed to -
p,= +E and pc= -E. The rwhcement of nr by m-z"B conjugate transpose of @M).For m a y problem we are
i(E B times the complex
m a n s &at E has a s m l l negative imaginary part; the not wnceraed about the spin of the hnal sate. Then we
fust pole is blow, the sewnrf above the real axis, Mow mn slum the probabifity over the two 4 . l ~corresponding
if h-tr>O the cxrrntour can k completed around the to the two spin directions, This i s not a complete set be-
wmicircie Lebelow the real axis thus gi.ving a residue from a u s e $2 has another eigenvalue, -m. To p r ~ sum- t
the $4- +E pole, or - (?E)-%q(-iE(1g-t1f), If m i q over J 1 s b t m we can i m r t the projection operator
1%-tl<O the upper semicuck mcrst br? us&, an8 (2m)-a@1+ m) and so obtain @?n)-Y&a(p~+ nt)iwul)
p,= - E at the pole, m that the function varies in emh far the probabitity of transition from Pi, m, to PI with
mse as requird by tlhe other definition (17). ~ b i t m r yspin, If the incident state is u n p l a r i d we
Other dutions of (12) result from other p r e ~ r i p can sum on its spim too, and obtain
tions, For example if 9 4 in the fachr w-nr2)-1 is con-
sidered to have a positive i m ~ n a r ypart R;.becomm
rephe& by KO,uhe Birac one-electfon kernel, zero for for (.twice) the probbility that an electron of arbimt.y
fa< k. Explicitly the fmction isl"(x, t =zzt> spin with momentum pi will make transition t o h . The
I+(r,t ) = (4a)-V(sP)+ (rnI8~s)Rt@~(ms),(34) mpresious are all valid for positrons when $'S with
where a=+(@-X*)# for P>xa and S= -i(#-P)b for a U the --ib is kept with m bere tao the furzc~enI+ a p p r d e s
rare for inhi& p l i v e and nepdve timm. W etay be w f u I
"Iq(x I) is (2iLi)-t(Da(~ 8)-iD(x i)) wllrrrs 01 and D me thn: in gmeral aaaiyses in avaidiw wmpLica&ns fmm inffniteiy
functtad dL.firrrxt by W. $at&, R@"[ Mod. Php. 13,203 (1441). remate fiudaces.
negative energim are inserted, and the situatian inter- Xexpl-i&tHdfl. AB is well known @(X,6) saws tbe Dirac
preted in accordance with the timing rehtions d i m m d equetion, (digermtiate * ( X ,6) with rapcct to l and use cummuta-
tion relations of N and Jlf
abve. (We have u d functions nar&lized ta (8%) .- l
instad of the conventional f'LZ@u) = (%*U-) = l. On our
scale fzZB%)=energy/m so the probgbilities must be Gotlsequentfy 9 0 , i ) must also sstisfy,the Rirac equation (diger-
corrected by the 8ppropriate factars,) entiate (41) with repect to 1, use (42) and integrate by parts).
That is, if @(X, T ) is tbat saluaion of the Dirac egustion a t time
The author has mmy pmpk to thank for fruitful T whirh is +(X)a t 1-0, and if we d d n e @*= JQ*(x)+(r)dk and
convemtians a b u t this sugect, paxticuhrly H. A. @'*-f**(x)g(x, T)d% then Qr"*=Slf"*PI, or
Bethe and F'. J. Dyson,
The principle on which the proof will be based can now be
illustrstad by a Simple example. S u p m we h v e just. one electron
cr. Deduction fr@mSecond QwtizaG~ioa iniriaily and tinally and & for
In this section we shall show the equivalence of this t h a r y with
the hole t h m v of the p&tron "aording to the theary of w a n d
We mi&t try putting P thrwgh the operator S using (m,
quantization of the electron field m a given patential," the state
SF*mFW*S,whmef in E"*=$**(x)f(x)dfx is the wave function
of this field a t any time is repreanred by a wave function X
at T arising f r ~ m
j(x) a t 0. Then
where N-.$ef(x)fu-(-iV-A)+Ar+mB)*(x)d% and %(X) h
an operator annihihtmg an electron at pmition X, while * * ( X ) is whwe the mend e x p r h n has, k e n obtirineci by use of the defi-
the correwonding creation operatoor. We conkemplate a situation nition (38) of C, and the generai mmmu@&n relragon
in wfrich at 1-0 we have present -me electrons in states repre-
sented by ordinary spinor functions fg(x), fs(x), . mum& -
nrthogonal, and some pasitrons, T b e are descriw as holes in which is rr conwuence of the groperties of efr) (Xhe others are
the negative energy m, the efectrons which would nomally fill the FGm -(;F and F*@= -&W*). Now x@*P*in the East term in
holm having wave functions pa(xj, @*(X), . . .. We ask, at time T (45) is tine cornpia exnjugate of PXB, Thus if f antained oniy
what is the amplitude that we find electrons in sates gr(x), p i l i v e enerw a m w n e n a , F"@ would wrnish and we would have
g*(x), .. . and holes at gt(x), (i*(x),. .. If the initial and 6nal state vdu& r to a factor times C, But F" as work& cut hem, does
vectors representing this situation are X, and xt respectively, we enntda negative energy mmpnents creatd in the poltentht A
wish to calculate the matrix element and the method must be skghtly modified.
Beliore ptting P1 through the o p a t o r we shall add to it
another Wrator F" arising from a function Y ( r fcontaining DlJr
negcJive energy compnents and so c h m that the resulting f
We awume that the potential A differs from zero only for times has d y puziliv~ones. That is we want
lwtween O and T so that a vtzcuum can be defined at these times.
IT rqresents the virruum slate (that is, all negative energy S(FW*+ Pm.,"'*) FWr*S, (44)
sates filled, all positive @ner@aempty), the amplitude for hadry: where the "'"p~'' and "neg" serve W remindm of the sign of the
a vacuum at time T , if we h d one at l=O, is energy mmpnents fontknect in the oiperators. TKis we can now
use in the form
SFpOlt~Fm~*S-SFer*l(l- (47)
writing S for exp(- iATli"dl), Our problem is to evaluate R and
show that i t is a simple factor times C*, and that the factor involves In our one electron problem this substitution replxes r by two
the K,") functions in the way dissussd in the previous swtians. terms
To do this we krst express X , in terns of X* The opemtor -
r = tx$f;FV,2Sx3 (x$GSr"~~,"'*xo).
The first of these reducm to

creates an electron with wave funcrion +(X).L i t w i @i~=J@*(x)

X*(x)B)x annihilates ane with wave function #(X).Zence s a t e as abve, for P , k x o is ROW bern, while the a o n d is nro since Ehe
X. is X , = & * ~ Z *...PIP*. while the ha1 state is CI*G"S**. c a t i o n operator F.,,'"* givt?s zero when acting on the vacuum
XQIQI. . where F,, C,, P,, Q* are oprators deftnd Iike 9 in s a w m all negative enerdes are full, This is the centrat idca of
(391, but withj,, g,, p,, (i, repiwing (9; for fhe initkl state would the demonstration,
reault fmm thc vacuum if we crfrated the elmeons in j a r jzj . .- The problem presc?nted by [M) is this: Givea a functien fm.(x)
, . -.Hence we must 6nd
arid annibitated t h m in p ~ pp, a t time 0,to find the amount, f.,"', of neggtive energy component
R;..(X$ ..QsfQt*. . .G&$SfiLFf * PIP^. - (40) w k h must be added in order that the soiution ol Ttimrs equa-
tion at time T will have only H t i v e e n s w mmponenq jIrg(II.
To simpiify this we shall have to m commutation refationk be- This is a bou&ry value pmhlern for Pvhich ttie kennel K+td, is
twwa a @* operator and S, Tn this end consider e~[-i&iEdI')cg+ d&ped. We know tbe padtive emere commnents initially, fpoh
Xexp(-t-i&H&') and mpand this quantity in terms of %*(X), and the negative ones h l l y (zero). The M t i v e ones &ally are
giving f*"(x)#(x,l)&%, (which defines +(X,l)). Now muftiply therefore (wing (19))
this wuation by mp(+i&Wd~') . .~(-i&Bril" and h nid
~ * * ( x ~ ~ f x l dm. . " r r)*(r, r)d% (412 - J K + ~ A ) ( ~t)dfpae~~tld"rr,
fpoll"(xl) ,
where we have defined @(X,1) by ~ ( x , where C-T, f1==0.Sidarly, the negative ones i n i k l y are
for emmpte G Wentzel Ei~tjechllgis d& Quarrlm-
~ d m f & k ( ~ r a n z~ i u t k k e ,Leipzig, 19431, C h a p
f r m a k e , a d tt =0. The fPoe(ns)
s u b t w t d to keep in f,,"(xg) onfy those wava which return The value of C,(lo-dlo) a r k s from th-e Narnstonian N60-ar~
from the potential and not t h m arriving directly at IS from the which diEers from Hga just by baving an extra ptentiol during
K+(2, l) p r t of k',(r'(2, I), as 6 4 . We muld aim have written the short interval AC Hence, to first order in hie, we have

Therefare h e me-electron problem, r =Jg*(x)f,,'(afd*x.Cu,

gives by (48)

as expect4 in accordance with the r m n i n g of the previous sec- we therdare obtain for the derivative of CSthe exprmien
tions (i.e., (20) with replacing K,),
The prmf is rmdify atended to the m m gmeml e x p r d o n R,
(# .lcan
which ), be a m l y d by induction. First one replwa Fa*
by s relation such as (41) obGning two terns
R=(xo**.-Qp*Qzf*..G&lFgpgSr*SI;(P*.. .PIPS* . ex@)

-(X$- -
.Qs*Qtu* -GLGISP*~,,'"*FI*." 'PLPP' * 'WO), which will be reduced to a simple factor times C,ife) by methods
In the first term the order of Pt,,"* and C;r is then inter&angd, anartogous to those wed in rerlucing R. The operator % can be
prducing an additional term Jg~*(x)fi~~r'(xjd"rtima an exprm- imagined to be split into ttrvo pieces Wm. and Jt,,, operating on
sinn with one tess eletron in iniriaX and ftnal state. Nett it is pasitive and negative energy states rmpectively. The iy,,, on
=changed with C*prociuetng an addition -Jg~*(x)ftpo7"(~)$% gives zero so we are left with t w terns ~ in the current density,
times a similar term, etc. WnaHy on rmching the Q* with w&ch *,m*@ABaeI and S,$SA?ir,,, The latter V.neg*BA*aeg is just
it anticommutes it can be &mpfy m v e d over to juxawktion .the q e e t a t i o n value of BA taken over aH negative energy states
with X@* where i t gives zero. The s e n d term is imihrly b d l e d ( d n u s 'Vma,flAwnO,* which gives zero acdng on X*). This is the
by moving Ptm,,*" thrmgh anti commuting PI", etc, until i t effect of the vacuum ewectatian current of the e l ~ t r o n sin the
r w h m Pt. Then ir is exchanged with PI to produce an addi- sea which we should hsve subtract4 from our original Hamif-
tional simpler term with a factor 7"Jpl*jx)Jtn,,"'(x)dt or ronian in the c n s b m a ~way.,
FJPi*(xs)K+tA){2, I)J~~~(xI)$'x~QBXO from (49),with taixi.&=O (the The mmaining term 0,,,*@A~,,,, or its quiva!ent *p,,*@AIV.
extra fi(xg) in (49j gives a r a as it is orthogonal to pg(x1)). This can be considered as Jt*(x)f,,,(x) where fw(x) is written far the
dmcriba in the expected manner the annlhiiation of the pair, p i l i v e energy a m w e n t of the m r a t a r @A*(X). Mow this
electron fi, W t r o n pt. The P,,'"* is moved in this way accerr opmtor, \t+fx)fPo,(x),or more precisely just the **(X) part of it,
gively through the P's untif it. gives when acting on X* '&us a n be pushed through the =p(-i&erEdfl) in a manner exmtly
R is rrducd, with the q e c t e d facltlrs (and with attwoating $gm analogous LO (47) when f is a function. (An altermtive derivation
requird by the a l u s i o u prindpfef, to dmpler terms mnlaining results from the congideratian that the operator *(X, l ) which
two bss operatm which may in turn he furher rerluced by u i n g satisfies the Dirac equarion also satis&- the linear integral equa-
h*in a fimitar maner, etc. After all the F* are used the @*'S tions which are quivaient to it,) That is, (581 can be written
can be r e d u d in a similar manner. They are movd through the by Wh ((50,
S in the opposite direction in such a manner as to p r d u ~ ae purely
neg;ttive enerw aperator a t time 0, using relstions amlogow to
(45) to (49). After all this is done we an? left *ply with the ex-
pected factor times Cr (amming the net cha~geis the same In
initial and final state.)
Xn this way we hsve written the Ilofution to the general problem
of the mntion of electrons in given potentih. The &tor CVIs
obtain& by normalization. However for photon fie& it L deair-
able to h v e an emlicit form for C. in terms of the wtenentiafs. I
This is &ven by (3Cj)m d (29) a d it is readity demonsirat& that
this also is corrmt m w d i n g to m o n d quaotilation. where in the ftxslt term h==T , and in the m n d l p t e = . t t , The
(A) in &cA) refers to that part of the potential A after The
ht term va&hes for it involvm (from the Kc(A"2, l)) only
b. Aodyds sf the Vacam Rablem WCive $ n e w components of W , wMch give zero operating into
We &aft almlate C, from second quantizrltion by induction xe'. In the m e n d term onIy nqative comwnmts of **(X$)
consideidering a series of problems each wntaining 8 patentiaf die appear. U, then ifr"fx8) is interchanged in order with %(X$)it will
ttibutiou more nearly like the one we wish. sap^ we know C, give zero oprating an X@, and only the term,
for a prohhm &e the one we want and baving the =me ptentials
far time t ktween Jame k and T, hut having pawnlid zero for
times from Q to Ip. Cal! this C,(@, the w r m p n d i n g Eliamiltonian
Bto and the sum of contrihtions for all dngle loops, Ufe).Then
for lo=IX" we have zero potential a t slt times, no pairs a n be will renrain, from the usual commutation rdarion of o*and *,
praduced, I;(T)-O and CI(T)=I, For 1030 we have the mm- m e factor of C,(&) i (52) times --&a is, according to (29)
pie& prohiem, w that C,(@ is what is d e 6 d ar, (38). (mfe~nce101, just L(t~-&)-l;(la) i a a this ddigermce arises
h e r a l l y we faave, from the tlrcra p o t m m AA-A during the s h r t time interval
AteB Hen= -dG,(rd)/dCo- +(&L(IoI/&DZC~(IO) so that integration
from T 0 Jo-O ebhti&es (30).
Starting from the theory of the eleictromagnetic W d in secand
q m b G o n , a c f d u c ~ o nof the quations fw quantum electro-
d m m i a W&& a p w r in tae succetding paper may be w r k d
since B& is identicat to the c o n a b t vamnm Bmiltonian Br for out uru'ng very rjnikr principles. Tlre Paul-Wei&opf Ebwv of
;<h sad X@is an eigenfuncgon of HT with an eigwvalue (enwgy the RIein-hrdon q m t i o n can a m e n t I y be a n a l y d in emn-
of va-m) which we m fake as zero. tiallv the =me way as that U& here for Dirac electrow.

R. P, F
13epat.lntd 4 Pkyska, C d Usimsicy, Iikft New Fwk
(Receivd May 9,1949)

Xa this paper two things are done. (1) It is s b w n that a con- and p r m w h i y consistent, metbad is therefare availabie for the
sidwable rjmptilteation can be attained in writing down matrix involving electrons and p h t o m ,
ekments for mmplen p r w w s in electrodynamics. Further, a The siroplifiaaon in writing the e r c p h o n s results from on
phydcai point of view is availabte which perraits thew to be ecmphmis sn the over-abl @ace-time view rmlting from a study
wrirtwt down directly for any swiltc probtem. Being simply a of the 3101ution of the equations of dmaadynamics. The rela(ion
rmhtement of mnventional elwtrodynamia, howevw, the matrix of this to the mnre mnventional Narniltoniau point of view is
elements diverge fox comp1e-x process. (2) EIectr&ynamics is dwmd. Pt would be very d a c u f t to mske the modifLcatian
modified by altering the interaction of electrons at short distanw. which is p r o p a d if one insisted on having the quatinns in
All matrix efements are new finite, with the e x ~ t i a nof tb* Eamiltoniarn farm.
relating ta problems of vacuum pofarizstion. The Latter are The methods appiy as well to chrges obeying the Klein-&don
maEwted in a mnner suaested by Pauti and Bethe, which gives equaGon, and to the variow m m n t h m ~ e sof nuclear farces.
finite rerrults for these matrkes atso. The only eEccts ~ n G r i v ete IUustrative amples are given. Althowh a mdifreation like that
used in elecrrodynadcs a n make alt matrices finite for all of the
the m d i b t i o n are changa in m s s and charge of the electron%, meson &wries, for m e of the theories i t is no longer tme that
Such e k n p cauid not be dirmtly abservd. Phmomem directly a! d i r e l y obwmbie phenomma am inansicive to t6e d e ~ oEh
obwvable, are insnsitive to the deltlils of the modification used the nrMfifiCation d.
(exucpt at extrme energies). For such phmomena, a lmit can The actual ewluation of integrals a p p r i n g in the matrix
be takm as the ran@ of the mdificatlon goes to zero. Tke rmults ehrrrents m y be faciliktect, in the simpler cam, by m e t M s
then agree with these of Schwlnger. A complete, unambiguous, dwribed in the qpmdix.

T EEE paper should be considered as a direct can-

tinuation of a profcerling one1 (If in which the
motion of elttctrons, neglecting interaction, was am-
positive eneqy ektrons are iavo1vd. Furaer, the
effwts of longitudinal and tramverscl wava can k
combined together. The separations previously m d e
lyzed, by dealing directty with the so&aliionof the were on an unrehtiv&tic bash (reA~tedin the circum-
HamiltonLn differentbl equations. Here the =me kch- stance that apprently momentum but not enerw Es
nique L applid to include interaetions and in that way commed in intermdkte s b t a ] , When the t e r m are
to express in simpb t e r n the miofutionof problem in combhd and shpW&, the rektivistfc invaxhnce of
quantum electrdynamics. the result is =g-eddent.
For most practical ca1culations in quantum electre- We kgin by dimming the solution in space and time
dynamics tht3 galutian is ordinarily in term of the Schrijdmger equation for particles interacting
of a. matrk element. The matrk is work& out as an insbntaneously. The results are inrmdiateky general-
expawion h pwers of &/h, the successive t e r m cor- imble to d e h y d intctractions of rehtivistic ektrons
responding to the inclusion of an increwkg number of and we represent in &at way the kws of quantum
virtual quanta, I t a p p r s that a considerable simplifi- electrdmamim. We a n then fee how the matrix ele-
cation can be achieved in writing down these matrix ment for any proems a n be written down directly. In
elements for complex procmss, Furthermore, each term partkular, the rjeE-enew expression is written down.
in the expansion can be written down and understood So far, nothing has k n done other than a resbte-
dkmtly from a physical point of view, simifar to the ment of c o n v c m ~ o electrodymmia ~l in other k m .
spce-the view in X. I t is the p u p s of this p p e r to The~fare,the WE-energydiverges. A md%cation2 in
de&h how this may done, We shall aka diseusr; interaction k t w e n chaqes is next made, and it is
metfis of handling the divr?rgent intgrtrlrj which shown that the seff-energy is made convergent and
a p p a r in these matrix eIemen&, corrapnds to a canection to the ektron =ss. After
The shpYIfication in the formulaeresults minly fram the msf correction is mde, other real pramsses are
the fact that prevbus methods unnecmrijty ~ p a r a k d finite and i w n s i ~ v eto the ""width" of the cut-off In
into individual t e r m pro that were claefy related the interaction,'
physirsally. For example, exchange of a quantum Unfortunately, the mdAcation p r o p o d is not com-
Between two elctrctrons there were t w t e r m 4 e p n d i q pletely satisf~torytheoretialfiy (it ke& to some &&-
on whkh electron emitted and which absorbd the culties of conwmation of energy). It does, hwever,
quantum. Vet, in the virtual stam considered, timing seem consist-ent and satisfactoq to d e h e the rnatrix
relsrtions are not significant. 0 b y the order of operators
in the matrk must be maintained, We have Been (I), "or cr d i m d o n of this rnodifiation in elmial phy* gee
in wbicb virtual p& are R. P, Feyman# P b . Rev. 74 939 (IW), herurfter referred
to Ild k
produced can be combined with others in which only 8 b brief summ of the m e a d # and results wit1 be found in
R P. Feynmn, g Y s . Rev. 74, 1430 (%W, bnesftcr refwrd
1 R. P. Feynman, Phys. Rev, 76, 749 ft9&), Lrmfer &l& 1. to as B.
element for all real pracems as the lintit of that com- was still not complete b e a u s the hgrangian method
puted here as the cut-off width goes to zero. A similar had been w o r M out in detail only for particles obeying
technique sugeted by Paul4 and by Bethe can k the non-reiativistic Schradinger equation. I t was then
applied to problems of vacuum polarktion (resulting modiified in xcordance with the requirements of the
in a renormalization of char@) but agab a strict Dirac equation and. the phenomenon of pair creation.
physical basis for the rules of convergence is not known. This was m&e easier by the reinterpretation of the
After malrs and charge renormatization, the limit of theory of holes (I). FinaIly for practicaI caicuktions the
zero cut-off width can be taken for all real processes, expressions were developed in a power series in @/he,It
The results are then equivalent to those of Schwinger4 was apaarent that each term in the series had a simple
who does not make explicit use of the convergence fac- physical intergretation. Since the result was easier to
tom. The method of Schwinpr is to identify the terms understand tfian the Qrivation, it was thought Best to
corresponding to corrections in mass and charge and, pubtish the results fiwt in this paper. Considerable time
preGous to their evaluation, to remove them from the has been spent to make these first two pawrs as corn-
expreaions for real procmses. This has the advantage piete and as physically plausible as posible without
of showing that the resul~scan be strictly indepndent relying on the hgrangian m e a d , because it is not
of particular cut-o@methods, On the other hand, many generally familiar. I t is r e a l i ~ dthat such a description
of the properties of the integrab are a n a l y d using cannot carry the conviction of truth wl~lchwould ac-
fomal properties of invariant propagation functions. company the derivation. On the other band, in the
But one of the properties is that the intqrah are inPlnite intermt of keeping simple things simple the derivation
and it is not clear to what extent this invalidates the will appar in a separate paper.
demonstrations, A practical advanlage of the presnt The possible application of these methods to the
methrxl is that ambiguitks can be more easily rwlved; various meson theories is d k u ~ e briefly.
d The formu-
sinrply by direct calculation of the otherwise divergent las corresponding to a charge particle of zero spin
integrals. Neverthelesl;, it is not at all clear that the moving in accordance with the Klein Gordon equation
convergence factors do not u p t the physical. con- are also given. h an Appendix a method is given for
sistency of the theory, AIthough in the limit the two calculating the i n t q r a l apparing in the matrix ele-
methds agree, neither methd appcars to be thoroughly men& for the simpler pracesw.
satisfactory theoretically. Nevertbetefs, it does appmr The paint of view which is taken here of the inter-
that we now have available a complete and definite action of charges digers from the more usual point of
method for the cajculation of physical processes ro any view of field theory. Furthermore, the familk S m i I -
order in quantum electrodynamics. tonian form of quantum mmhanics must be compared
Since we can write dawn the solution to any physical to the over-ali space-time view used here, The first
problem, we have a complete theory which could stand section is, therefore, devoted to n dbcussion of the
by i t ~ l f I. t will be theomtically incomplete, however, relations of thew viewpoints.
in two respects, First, although each term of increasing
order in &/&c can be written down it would be desirabk
to see some way of expressing things in finite form to
ail orders in 4 f i c at once, Swond, although it will be Electrodynamics can Be boked upon in two equiva-
physicay evident that the results obtained are equivd- lent and complementaryways. One is as the description
lent to tbme obtained by conventionalelectrdynamics of the behavior of a fieid (Maxwetl's equations). The
the mthemticstl proof of tbis is not includtid. Both of other is as a description of a direct interaction at a
these limitations will be removed in a subsequent paper distance (albeit deliayed in time) between chitrga (the
(see afm Byson". solutions of Lienard and Wiechert). From the htter
BrieAy the genesis of this theory was this, The can- point of view light is considered as an interaction of the
ventional electrdynamics was expressrtd in the La- charges in the source with t h m in the absorber. This is
grangian form of quantum mechanics described in the an impractical point of view because many kinds of
Reviews of Modem lPhysics? The motion of the fietd sources produce the same kind of &ects. The fi& point
osciIktors could be integrated out (as described in Sec- of view separates these aspects into two slrnphr prob
tion 1.3 of that paper), the result being an expremion of lems, prduction of light, and absaption of light. OR
the delayed interaction of the particles, Xext the m d i - the other hand, the field point of view is less practical
fication of the del&-function interaction crould be made when dealing with clwe collisions of particb (or their
directly from the analogy to the chssical c a ~ This . ~ action on themseIves). For here the source and ahsarber
- are ilot radily distinguishable, there is an intimate
~~~~~~+~~ exchange of quanta. The fields are so closely determined
Rev. 75, 486 (1949). by the motions of the particles that it is just as well not
R. P. f i y n w n , Rev. M&. P~Y.;.2% 357 (1941. The apl"lb- to *prate the question into two problems but to con-
sider the process as a direct interaction. Roughiy, the
c d i n e Voi. U1,3 (226) 1949. fieid paint of view is mmc pnrctical for probjems invofv-

h g real quanta, while the interaction view is best for far difftzrent observers in relative motion the instan-
the discussion of the virtual F a n & involved. We shall hneous p r w n t is dlgerent, and corresponds to a
emphasize the interaction viewpoint in this paper, first dserent 34imensional cut of spam-time, Thus the
because it is less familiar and &erefore requires more tempsral analyses of diaerent observers is different and
discussion, and second because the important -pest in their Hamiltonian equations are developing the process
the probiernsj with which we shall deal is the effect of in different ways, These digerences are irrelevant, how-
virtual quanta, ever, for the mlutian is the same in any space time
The Hamilttonian method is not well adapted to frame. By foraking the Hamiltonlan method, the
represent the direct action at a distance between charges wedding of rehtivity and quantum mechanics can k
because that action is dekyed. The Hamiltonian method accomplished mast naturally.
represents the future as developirtg out of the present, We UIustrate these points in the next wction by
If the values of a complete set of quantitim are known studying the solution of Schrtidinger's equation for non-
now, their values can be computed a t the next instant relativistic particles interacting by an instantaneous
in time. If particles interact through a delayed inter- Coufomb potential (Eq. 2). When the salution is mrdi-
actioil, however, one cannot predict the future by hed to include the effects of delay it1 the interaction
simply knowing the present motion of the particles. and the relativistic properties of the electronswe obtain
One would also have to know what the motions of the an expression of the laws af qumtum. el~trodynamics
particles were in the past in view of the interaction this (Eq. 4).
may have an the future motions, This is done in the
Namiltonian electrodynamics, of course, by requirhg
that one specify ksides the present motion of the We study by the same methods as in I, the interaction
particles, the values of a host of new variables (the of two particles using the same notation as X. We start
cmrdinates of the held oscillators) to keep track of that by considering the non-relativisticca* descrikd by the
aspect ol the past motions of the particles which de- Schr6dinger equation (I, Eq. X). The wave function a t
termines their future bhavior. The use of the Hamil- a given time is a functbn $(X,, X*, 1) of the cwrdinates
tonian farces one to c h o w the field viewpaint rather X, and X&of each particb. Thus call K(x,, xt,, t ; xe", xt,', 6')
than the interaction viewpoint;. the amplitude that particle a at X,,' at time 1' wiH get
Xn many problems, for example, the close collisions to X, at .iwhife particle b at X; at 1' gets to rl,at i . Xf the
of particles, we sre not interested in the precise tem- particbs are free and do not interact this is
sequence of events. I t is not of interest to be able
to say how the situation would look at each instant of
time during a collision and how it progresses from in- where Kffeis the KOfunction for particle a consikred
stant to instant. Such ideas are only useful for events as free. In this case we can obviously d e h e a quantity
taking a long time and for which we can readily obtain like K", but for which the time 6 need not tze the same
informatian during the interveningperid, For collisions for partides a and 6 (likewise for 19; e.g.,
it is much easier to treat the process as a whole.' The
Mpcller interaction matrix for the the coltision of two elec-
trons is not essentially more complicated than the non- can be thought of as the anrpliitude that particle a gaes
relativistic Rutherford formula, yet the mathemtical from x l at 11 to ~8 at fa and that particle b goes from X*
machinery used to obtain the former from quantum at 12 to ~4 at 16.
electrodynamics is vastly more complicated than When the particles do i n t e r ~ tone
, can only define
Schrijdinger" equation with the 8/rl* interaction the quantity K@,4; l , 2) precisely if the interaction
needed to obtain the latter, The dBerence is only that vanishes ktween tt and 12 and also between ta and I,.
in the latter the action is instantaneow so &at the In a real physical system such is not the case. There is
Hamiltonian method requires no extra variables, while such an enormous advantage, however, to the conapt
in the formr relativistic case it is delayed and the that we shalt continue to use it, imgining that we can
Hamittonian method is very cumkrsom. neglwt the effect of interactions between 11 and t s and
We shall be dixussing the solutions of equatiow between ta and t 4 . For practical problem this means
rather than the time digerential equations from which choosing such Iong time internals to-lr and t d - 1 2 that
they come, We shall discover that the solutions,because the extra interactions near the end pints have small
of the over-all space-time view that they prmil, are as relative egects. As an example, in a mttering prcsblm
easy to understand when interactions are delwed as it may wet1 be that the particle are so well sparat&
when they are instanbneous. initially and finally that the interaction at these times
As a further point, rebtivistic invarhce will be self- is nqligihle. Again energy values can be defined by the
eviclent. The &miltonian form of the equations de- avmage rate of change of phase over such bng iime
velops the future from the instanhneous presnt. But intewals that errors initially and finally can be neg-
"his is. t
k view~ointof the thfiary af the S matrix of Heisen- lected, Inasmuch as any physical proMem can be defined
tterg. in terms of scnttering procresses we cto not lose much in
This turns out to be not quite right: for when this
interaction is repraented by photons they must be of
only positive energy, while the Fuurier transform of
S(Ebb-r5~fcontains frequencim of both signs. Xt should
instead be replaced by S + f f p ~ - r Lwhere

This is to be averaged with ~ ~ a - ~ 6 + ( - l ~ e -which

arises when tS<k and corresponds to a emitting the
quantum which b receives. Since
Fre, I, The fundamentaf.interaction Eq. (4). Exchange of one
quantum betam two eler-trons. (2r]-t(4+(t-r)+ 8 + ( - f - r ) ) =&+(@-rg)*
this means rIe-f4(tgp) is replac& by 6+(s&$) where
a general theoretiml se-rise. by this approximation. Xf it ~ , ~ ~ = r ~ r is; "the - r square
~~ of the relativistically in-
is not made it is not easy to study interacting particles variant interval between points 5 and 5, Since in
rehtivistically, for there is nothing signgcrmt in chms- classical electrodynamics there is also an interaction
ing 11=14 if X ~ + X ~as
, absolute sinulitaneity of events through the vector potential, the eomg~leteinteraction
at a disbnce cannot be defined invariantly. I t is (see A, Eq. (1)) should be (1- (V,.V~)&+(S~$), or in the
thlliy to avoid this approximation that the wmpIicated relativistic case,
structure of the older quantum dectrodynamics has
been built up, We wish to describe electrdynamics as
a dehyed interaction between particles. X£ we can make Hence we have for electronsobeying the Dirac equation,
the approxiwtion of assuming a meaning to Iif(3,4; 1,2)
the rmulu of this interaction can be expressed very
To sez? how this may be done, imagine first that. the
interaction is simply that given by a Coulomb potenthi
e2/r where r is the disbnee between the particlm. If: this
be turned on only for a very short time &loat time C, where ra, and ybr are the Dirac mtrices applying to
the R& order correction to K(3,4; 1,2) can be worked the spinor corrmpnding to pilrticies a and b, respec-
out emctly as was Eq. (9)of X by an obvious general- tively (the factor BD@b king abrjorbed in the definition,
iation to two particles: x
Eq. (171, of K+).
This is our fundamental equation for e!ectrodynamics,
Et describes the effect of exchange of one quantuin
(therefore first order in 8 ) between two electrons, Tt
will serve as a prototyp enabling us to write dowir the
corresi>otwtingquantities involving the exchange of two
where If ROW the ptentiat were on at all or more quanta betwen two electronsor the interaction
times (so that strictly K is not defined unless t4= ta and of an elestron with itself. It is a coilsequence of con-
fE=l,), the frrst-order effect is obtained by intepating ventional eliectrodynamicf. Retativistic invariarlce is
on to, wGcb we can write as an integral over both tp clear, Since one sums over p it contains the effects of
and 1s if we include a ctelta-function 6(15-ta) to insure both longitudinal and transvem waves in a retati-
contribution only when ts==fe. Hence, the first-order visticalily symmetrical way.
effect of interaction is fcallmg to- t a x tar;) : \Ve shall rtow intevret Eq. (4) in tl, manner ivhich
wiil prmit us to write down the higher order terms. I t
can be understood (see Fig, l ) as saying that the ampli-
tude for ""a" to go from 1 to 3 and " P t a go from 2 to 4
X&(~,,)K~.1 ( S) ,~ ~ , ( 62)didra,
, (2) is altered to hGt order because they c& exchange a
quantum. Thus, "as'can go to S (ampkitude K+(5, l))
where d r .;.@zdl.
We h o w , bowever, in ckaical ejectrodynadm, that ? It, and a like term for the eEect of a an b, I&s to a themy
the aujOmb dctes instantaneous^, which, in the c h i c 4 tintit, exhibits interaction fhroueh half-
taking the speed of light advanced and hall-rekrded potentiais. CluGmliy, this IS rqui-
but is delayed by a time valent to purely reardd aiitbin a closed box from which
as uaity, This su$gesls simply replacing rs88(ts,l in no light
R w . M&
(e.g ste A, or J. A. Wheeler and K. P. Feynmsn
hys. ii, 157 (194511. Analagous t h o m n . ezist ;i
(2) by something like r,-~606e-m) to the uantum mechanics but it would l& us too far astray to d i m s
delay m the efxect of b on a, %cm now.
emit a qumtum (longitudinal, transvers, or scahr once (either in emission or in abwrption), terms like
r,,) and then proceed to 3 (&(3,5)). Meantime '%" ff, Eq, (14)) ocwr on& when there is more than one
gms to 6 (R+(6,2)), abmrlts the quantum fyb,,) and quantum invoived. The Bo?;etstatistics of the quanta
proceeds to 4 (K+(4,6)).The quantum meanwhile pro- can, in all cases, be disregarded in intermediate states.
ceeds from S to 6, w ~ c hit does with amplitude S,(SSB*), The only effect of the statistics is to change the wight
We must sum over all the passitxle quantum polariza- of initial or final sbtes, XI there are among quanta, in
tions and positions and times of emision 5 , and of the inithl state, some pl which are identical then the
abmrption 6. Actually if Is>& it would be better to weight of the state is (l/%!)of what it would be if these
say that ""a" absorbs and ""bbmits but no attention quanta were considered as &Berent (similarly for the
need be paid to these matters, as all such aftemativa final state).
are auto&aticail_ycontained in (4).
The correct terms of higher order in 8 or involving 3. SELF-ENERGY PROBLEM
larger numbers of electrons (interacting with themscllves Having a term representing the mutual interaction
or in pairs) can be written down by the same kind of of a pair of charges, we must include similar terms to
reamning, They will be nhstrated by mamptes as we represent the interaction of a charge with itself, For
preceed. In a succeeding paper they will, all be deduced undm mme circumstancm what appars to be two dis-
from conventional quantum electrodynamics. tinct electrons may, according to I, be viewed also as
CalcuIation, from (41, of the transition element be- a single electron (namdy in case one electron was
tween positive energy free electron s t a t e gives the created in a pair with a positron destined to annihilate
M6ltr scattering of two electrons, when account is the other electron). Thus to the interaction between
taken of the Pauli principle. such electrons rnust comeswnd the possibility of the
The exclusion principle for interacting charges is action of an efrrctron on itself,*
handled in exactly the same way as for non-interacting This intemtion is the hewt of the s d X energy prcib-
charges (X). For exampfe, for two charges it requires lem. Consider to first order in 8 the action of an eelwtron
only that one calculate K(3,4; 1,2)-K(4,3; 1,2) to on itself in an otheherwisc:force free redon. The amplitude
get the net amplitude for arrival of charges at 3 and 4. K(2,1) for a singte particle to gt from 1 to 2 diEers
It is disregarded in intermediate states. The inter- from K+(2, l) to first order in 8 by a term
ference eEects for scattering of electrons by positram
discussed by Bhabk will be seen to reult directly in
this formulation. The formulas are intexpreted to apply
to poscitrons in the manner discus& in I.
AS our primaqy concern wiH be for prmases in which
the quanta are virtual we shall not include bere the I t arises becaufa the electron instad of going from 1
detailed analysis of processes involving real quanta in directly to 2, m y go ((Fig, 2) first to 3, (K+(3, l)), emit
initial ar finat state, and shaU content ourselves by only it quantum (re), prxeed to 4, (K+(4,3)), rtbwrb it
stating the rules applying to them? The result of the (y,), and finally arrke at 2 (K+(2,4)). The quantum
analysis is, as expected, h a t they can be included by rnust go from 3 to 4 (&+(srsZ)).
the same line ot reasoning as is used in discussing the This is related to the self-enerw of a free electran in
virtuat processes, provided the qumtities are norma'lized the fonowing mzmner. S u p p e initklfy, time It, we h v e
in the usual manner to represent single quanta. For an electran in state j(1) which we imrrgine to be a posi-
example, the amplitude that an eliectron in going from 1 tive enerfly solution of Dim%equation for a free par-
ta 2 absorbs a quantum whose vector potential, suitably ticle, After a long time ts-lir the perturbation will alter
normalized, is c,, exp(- i k - x )=Ce(%)is just the exprm
sion (X, Eq. (13)) far scattering in a potential with
A (3) replaced by C (3). Each quantum interacls only
Ir Althougb in the esprmsions stemming from (4) the quanta are
virtual, this is not actually a theoreticat limitatton. One way to
daduce the correct mtea far reat quanw from (4) is to note that
in a c l o d system att quanta can be considered as virtual (i.e.
they have a known w r c e and are eventuaity absorbed) so the;
in such a system the present dmriptiorr is complete and equiva-
lent to tbe conventional one. In particukr, the relation of the
Einstein A and B coeftlcients can be r(edumd. A more practical
direet deduction of the aprmsions for real quanta will be given
in tke aubmuent paper. It might be noted that (Q) can be re-
written as dmribtng the d? on a, If"B(3, t)-iJK+(3, 5)
XA(5)K+(5,l)d?seof tbe potential A (5)-dJKt/4, 6 ) 6 + ( s r & ~ ~
X&(&, 2)dvr arnsmg from awe^$ equations - C3tAA,=4xJ,
*These considerations make it a p w E unlikely h%tb con-
& ~ g (6 2) roduc~db pat-
from B " c u f ~ e ~ t ' ~ ~ ( 6 )(4= 617
title b in p i n g fmm 2 to d ~ k ils 2rt;e ofthe f.rt tK.1 I* tention of f. A Wbsier and R. P. Fqynman Rev M&. Phya.
17, 157 (tM),b a t electmm do not aet on & e w i v a , wi8 be a
- o/atlscj")4na(2,1). (5) sucewfut m n q t in quantam efeetr0dynatnies.
774 R. P , F E Y N M A N
the wave function, which can then be took& upon as volume. If normaliad to volume V, the result would
a superposition of free particle mlutions (actually it simpfy be proportionaI to T , This is expected, for i f the
only contains f). The amplitude that g(2) is contained e E s t were quivalent to a change in enerw AE, the
is m1cuXated as in (L, Eq, (2f)), The tlmgonaI element amplitude for arrival in f at f a is alter& by a factor
(g=f) is therefore exp(-idE(t%-&)), or to first order by the BiBmence
- i f a Z : Hence, we have
J J ~ ( ~ ) B K ~ o ( z1)fij(1)8rt@s.
, (71
AE=Z [(1271~+(4,3 1 ~e1p(ip.~a)6+(IaI)dr(1
~ ~ ) (9)
The time intewal T= 12-ll (and the spatial volume V
over which one integrates) must be taken very large, integrated over all space-time $74. This expression will
for the expraions are only approximate (rmaXogous to be sirnp1ifit.d prexntly. In interpreting (9)we have
the situation for two interacting charges).la This is Witty warned that the wave functions are nomalized
ha, fox example, we are dealing inwrretfy with so that (as%) = (iiy41r)= l, The equation may therefore
quanta. emitted just before which would normaHy be be made independent of the normaliation by writing
rabsorbed at times aher t ~ . the left side as (M>(ar4%), or since (&/m)(Bu)
If k'("(2, 1) from (6) is actually substituted into (7) and mhnt.=EbE, as Am(au) where Am is an equivalent
the surface integrs~iscan be perfomed as was done in change in mass of the electron, Xn this form invariance
obkining I, Eq. (22) rmulting in is obvious.
One can likewise obtain an expression for the energy
shift for sn eIectron in a hydrogen atom. Simply replace
K+ in (g), ,by Il+.Cv', the exact kernel for an electron in
Putting for fll) the plane wave u ex:xp(-@.1;,) where the potenttal, Ir=@8/r, of the atom, and j by a wave
p, is the enerp (p3 and momentum of the electron function (of space and time) for an atomic state. In
w=n2), and ~1 is a constant &-index symjbot, (8) general the &E which rauEts is not real. The imaginary
p r t is negative and in exp(-ddET) produce an ex-
ponenthlty decreiasing amplitude with tirne. This is
because we are asking for the amplitude that an atom
initsly with no photon in the field, witl diB appear
after tirne T with no photon, If the atom is in a state
which can radiate, this ampfltude must decay with
time, The imaginary part of"^ when catcufated does
the integrals exten&ng over the vofurne V and time indeed give the correct rate of mdiation from atomic
intervai 2= Since K+($, 3) dqends only on the &Eerence states. It is zero for the ground state and for a free
of the =ordinates of' 4 and 5, the integmi on 4 eledron.
$v= a result (except nmr the sudaces of the redon)
In the mn-relativistic region the exprmion for bE
i~dependentof 3, When integrated on 3, therefore, the cm be worked out as hhas been done by BetheeL"n the
mult is af order VT. The efftsst is promrtional to V , rehtivistic regian (pints 4 and 3 as close together as a
for the wave functions have been normalid to unit Gompton wave-length) the lil;(nwhich should appear
in (8) can be rqhced to first order in V by K+ plus
K+(i",(2,1) given in I, Eq. (53). The problem is then
very shilar to the radiationless scattering probjem
m d below.

The evaluation of (91, as are11 as all the other more

complicated eqressions ariing in t h m problems, is
very much simpl%& by w o r ~ n gin the mmentum and
energy varkbles, rather than s p a end time. For this
we shall need the Eourier Transfom of $(ss?) which is

Firi, 3. Xntewdan af m eiatroa with itself.

Mommtum space, Eq. Uli). which a n be obt;ii~edfrom (32 and (5) or from I,
Tbb is d i s f u d in rrfemam S in which it is inted out that Eq. (32) noting that 1+(2, 1 ) for &-0 b 6+(st;") from
cclnccpt of a mve function IOW mmif &e arc de~syd
pleE*Gam* B, A, Bcthe, Pbys, Rev, 72,339 (1947).

l0 1 fbf
FIG,5. Comptan scattering, Erl, (151.
FIG.3, Ittirttarrvt correction to scattering, momentum space
trated in Fig. &fa),find the ntktrix:
I, Eq. (34). The F means ( K e R ) - I or more precisely
the limit as M of (k-k+i&)-L Further @R means
(2~)-~dkldFE2dkadkp.If we imagine that quanta are par-
ticles of zero mass, then we can make the genera1 rule
that all poles are to be resolved by considering the For in this case, firstf2a quantum of momentum k is
Inasses of the particles and quanta to have inffnitesimal emitted (r,), the electron then having momentum
tregative imaginary parts, PS--k, and hence propagating with factor @I- k-?)-',
Using these results we see that the xlf-enerm (9) is Next ~tis scattered by the potential (matrix a) receiving
the matrix element between a and 16 of the matrix additional mamntum q, propagating on then (factor
@- k-m)-q with the new mommtum until the quan-
turn is reabsorbed (7,). The quantum propagate front
emission to absorption (k+) and we integrate over all
quanta (&K), and sum on polarization p. When this is
integrated on R#, the result can be shown to be exactfy
where we have used the expr~sion(I, Eq. (31)) for the equal to the expressions (16) and (17) given in B for
burier transform of K+. This form far the self-enerm the same prceess, the various terms coming from resi-
is easier to work with than is (9)- dues of the pies of the interand (12).
The equation can be understood by imagining (Fig. 3) Or again if the quantum is both emitted and re-
that the electron of momentum p emits (7,)a quantum absorbed &fore the scattering takes place one finds
of momentum R, and makes its way now with mo- (Fig. .Q<b)l
mentum P- R to the next event (factor w-k-m)-i)
which is to abfitrrb the quantum (another 7,). The
amplitude of propagation of quanta is k2. (There is a
f&tor b/*i for each virtual quantum). One integrates
aver a11 quanta. The reawn an electron of momentum P or if both emission and absorption occur after the
propagates as l j ( p - m ) is that this operator is the re- scattering, (Fig. 4(4)
ciprocal of the Dirac equation operator, and we are
simply solving this equation, Likewise light goes as
l/&, for this is the reciprocal D'AAiembertian operator
of the wave equation of light. The first y, reprexnts
the current which gneratm the vector gatential, while These terms are discussed in detai! below.
the second is the velocity operator by which this poten- We have now achieved our simplification of the form
tial is multiplierl in the Birac equation tvhen an external of writing matrix elements arising from v~rtualproc-
field acts on an electron. esses. Procesm in which a number of real quanh is
Using the same tine of rmoning, other probfems may given initially and finally offer no problem (assuming
be set up directly in momentum space. Fbr example, carret normalization). For example, consider the
conider the scattering in a potential A = A,?, varying Gompton eflFect (Fig. S(a)) in which an electron in state
in space and time as a eq(-iq-z). An eliectron initiebtly p, abmrbs a quantum of momentum q,, plarizatian
in stare of momentum p~=pl,r,will be defiected to vector e t so that its interaction i s e~,y,=rz"~, and emits
state $2 where p t = p ~ C q . The zero-der answer is a screond quantum of momentum -q?, polariation
simpty the matrix element of a between states l and 2. ta arrive in final state of momentum p*.The matrix for
W e next ask for the first order (in 8)radiative comec- "S First, next, etc., here refer not to the order in true time hut to

tian due to virtual radiation of one quantum. There are is, the suatsion of events alan the trajectory of the electron. Tbst
more prwkky, to the or%r af qpearance of the mat+ in
several ways this can happn, First for the case illus- the exprmians.
this prKess is ez@l+ql-ns)-%el,
The total matrix for for prol~agationof quanta of mrnenlum k is
the Compton effect is, then,
@ z C P ~ + q l - mj-'@z+@~(P~+(la-m)-1@,, (15)
the second &m arising b a u s e the ernhion of sz may
also precede the abmqtion of el (Pig. Sfb)). One takm rather than W .That is, writing F+{#) -.- - ~ - ~ k C ( k ~ ) ,
matrix elements of this between initial and find electron
states @ 1 + ~ ~ = # 2 - ~ 2 ) , to obtain the Klein Nishina
formula. Pair annihgation with emission of two quanta,
etc., are given by the =me matrk, p i t r o n statw being
t h w with negrttive time component of B, Wether E v q int-al over an intemediate quantum which
quanta are abmrbed or emittd depends on whether the prwiousty invofved a fczctor b k / R Zh now suppiied with
time compnent of q is positive or negative. a convergence factor C(#) where
Thew expressions are, as has been indicated, no more
than a re-expresion of conventional qusntum electro- The poles are defined by rephcing k2 by @+is in the
dynamia. As a consquence, many of them are mean- limit 6-4. That is X2 may be assumed to have an infxni-
ingkm. For example, the &f-energy exprasim (9) or teshal negative imaginary p a t ,
(ll) gives an infinite result when waluatd*The infinity The function f+(s1z2) m y still b v e a discontinuity
ariscrs, apparendy, from the coincidence of the B-function in value on the Ii@t cone, This is of no influence for the
singufarities in K+($, 3) and 4(s4a2f.Only at this point Dirm electron. For a particle satisfying the Rlein
is it necasary to m&e a real dqarture from conven- Gordon equation, however, the interaction involves
tional electrodynamics, a departure other thain simply g d i e n t s of the potential which reinstates the d func-
rewriting ezpressions in a simpler form. tion if f has discontinuities. The condition that f is to
We desire to make a modificationof quantum eleetro- have no discontinuity in value on the light cone impties
dmmics analogous to the modification of classical k2C(ka) appraaches a r o as k2 approaches infinity, In
electrodynamics described in a previous article, A, terms of G(k)the condition is
There the &(slag)appearing in the action of interaction
was rephced by where J(s)is a function of small
width and great height,
The obviom comespondin@; mdif"ication in the quan-
tum theary is ta =$ace the &+(ss) appsring the %'his condition will also be U& in discusing the con-
quantum mechanical interaction by a new function vergence of vvacuun? polarization integmIs,
f+(s2). We can postulate that if the Fourier trans- The exprasion for the sezenergy matrix is now
form of the classical J(st22) is the integral over all R of
F(k2)exp(-ik.xtz)d4k, then the Fourier trwform of
f+.($\s") is the same inlegxa1 t&en over only positive fre-
quenciies for &> tl and over only negative ones for which, since e(kz) faus off at temt as rapidly as 1/k2,
I.r<l~in analop to the relation of &(ss) to S($), The converges. For practical pup- we sfxall suppose
function l(.@)==j(z-z)can be written* as herafter that Cfk2) is simply -X2/( implying
that =me average (with weight G(X)dX) over values of
X may be taken afterwards. Since in all procmes the
quantum momentum will be cantabed in at teat one
extra factor 01 the form Cp-R-.m)-' representing
X cos(]R ~)dkrEKg(K. R), propagation of an electron while that quantum is in
where g(KeK)is h---" times the density of oscillators and the held, vve can expect aU such integrals with their
d pwitive RI as (A, Q. (26))
may be a p r e ? r ~fox convergence hcrors to converge and that the result of
all such pracessrts will now be finite and detinite {ex-
cepting the p Itb c l o ~ loop,
d discas& below,
in which the inlegr%Isarsover the moments
of the electrons rather than the quanta),
where &"G(X)dX= l and G involves values of X large The integral of (IQ) with C(P) -
X2(kZ-- h2)-koting
compared to m. This sixndy means that the ampfitude and dropphg terms of order d h ,
is (see Appendix A)
*This reIalion is given incarrecdy in A, equiitian just pre-
ceding lb.

When applied to a state of an electron of Illamenturn P Vile mwt now study the remaining terns (13) and
satisfying pzl=mu, it gives for the change in mass (as (14). The integrar on k in (13) can be performed (aftw
h B, Eq. (9)) mdtiplimtion by C(R3) since it involves nothing but
the i n t e p l (19) for the self-energy and the reult is.
&low& to operate on the initial s b t e SE,(so that
Ptlkr=ml). Hence the factor folloGring af#I-mf-%iii
be just Am, But, if one ROW tries 10 expand l/(P1-m)
We can now cornpteb the discussion of the radiative =(P~+m)/(nP-tlf~) one obtains an infinite result,
corrections to sattering. In the integrails we include the since pla=mz. This is, however, just what is expected
convergence factor C(kZ),so that they converge for physically. For the quantum a n be emitted and ab-
large k. Xntqral (12 1 is also not eonverpnt because of sorbed a t any time previous to the scattering. Such a
the well-known infra-red cabstrophy. For this reason proceps has the e8ect of a change in mass of the electron
we catculate (as disrzusd in B) the vatue of the integml in the state 1. It therefore changes the energy by dE
meuming the photons ta have a smaff mass Xm;,<<m<X, and the amplitude to first order in AE by -iAB.! where
The integral (12) becomes 1 is the time it is acting, which is infinite, T b t is, the
major effect of this term wuld be eanceted by the e @ ~ t
of ckange of mass 6%.
The situation can be analyzed in the following
manner, We suppofe that the electron approaching the
scrtttering potential a has not been free for an infinite
which when integrated (see Appendix B) gives (e2/2r) time, but at =me time far past suffered a scattering by
times a potential b. 11 we limit our discusion to the egects
of Am and of the virtual radiation of one quantum be-
tween two such scatterings each of tlre eEfects will be
finite, though larp, and their Blgerence is determinate.
The propagation from b to a is represented by a matrix

in which one is to integrate possibly over P7depending

on deails of the situation). (If the time is long between
b and a, the energy is very nearly dekrmined m that
8'2 is very nearly m2.)
We shall compare the effect on the matrix (25) of the
where fq*)t = 2%sin@and we have assumed the m;ctrix to virtual quanb and af the chanp of mass Art&,The egect
operate between statetr of momentum #I and $z=#~+q of a virtual quantum is
and have neglected term of order &,,,/m, d X , and
q*/kz. Here the onIy dqendence on the convergence
factor is in the term fa, where
r=;1n(XJrn)-+9/4-2tn(~ltm,,>. (U)
As we shall see in a moment, the other terms (131, whik that of a chan~eof mass can be written
(14) give contributions which just cancel the ra term.
The remaining terms give for smaI1 q,
and we are interested in the digerence (25)-(27). A
(24. simple and direct rnethod of mrsking this comprison is
just to evatuate the integral on k in (26) and subtract
from the resuit the exprmsion (27) where Am is givm
which shows the change in magnetic moment and the in (21). The remainder can be expressed as a muttiple
Lamb shift ils intepreted in more detail in B.'* -r(f2) of the unperturbed amplitude (25);
"That the result given in B in Eq. (19) was in error W=
r t d i y pointed out u, the author, h private communiration,
re- -~(191~)a(#'- (281
y V. F. ~ e i w k o p faad 5. B. Rench, as their ai~utatton,a m - This has the same result (to this order) as replacing
pleted simulaneously with the author's eady in LOIKJ, gave a
diflerent result. French has finally shown that a l h u g h the ex- h e potential$ a and 6 in (25)
- -%rwt)a
(l and
pression far the radiationless ~at&d:ringB, (18) or (2.61 a&?
rs correct, it was rncrrrrectty joined onto Bethe's non-relativistrc Phyg. Rev. 75 1248 (19%) and N. E. Kroll and ,W, Fn hp4
result. He shows that the reiatiain Ln?k,,-- l used by the Phys. Rev. 7 ~ ~ ~ (1941)).
3 8 8 The author feels unhepptly raponsble.
author should have been in2k,n-S/5--.lnX,,,. This raufts in for the very considsnrble delay in the publiarran of French's
adding a term --(l/@ to the I arithm in W Eq. (19) so thst the result o t c ~ o n e dby this error, Tllis foolnote is spprwriately
result now agrees with that o f 7 R. Fren& ind V. F, Weidopf, numbered.
(1-&r(p"l))b. In the finit, then, as fie-* the net tron the same type of term arises from the eBerts of a
effect on the scattering is -3ra where r, the limit of virtual embsion and abmvtion both previous t;o the
) f i ' * q S (assuming the integrals have an infra-
I @ ~ as other prmesm. They, therefore, simply lead to the
red cut-off), turns out to be just equal to that givm in same factor r so that the exprmion (23) may be used
(25). An equak term -&a arEses from virtual tmnsitions directly and these renormalization integrah need not
after the wttering (14) m that the entire 7a tern in be computed afresh for each problem.
(22) is crmeeled. PR this problem of the radiative corrwtions to scatter-
The reason that r is just the value of (12) wben q2==0 ing the net result is insensitive to the cut-off. This
can also be seen without a direct calculation as follows: means, of course, that by a simple rearrangement of
Let us call the vector rzT length m in the dimtion of terms prwious to the integration we could have avoided
p' so that if &'z=m(l+~}2we have P'==((+E)# and we the use of the convergence factom completdy (see for
b k e t as very smalt, king of order P i where 2" is the example Lfuuuisw7),The probkm was solved in the

-time between the scatterings b and a, Since W-m)-"

w+m)/(P'2-ntl) =,Cp+mf/2m2e, the quantity (25)
is of order €4or T. R e shall compute corrections to it
manner here in order to illustrate how the use of such
convergence factors, wen when they are actually un-
necasary, may facilitate analysis some~vhatby remov-
only to its own order (s-9 in the limit e-4, The tern ing the effort and ambiguities that may be involved in
(27) can be written approximatelyBP as trying to rearrange the othmwl'w divergent terms.
The rephcement of 8+ by f+ given in (161, (17) is
not determined by the analam with the cksical prob-
lem. In the clrossical limit only the real part of 4 (i.e.,
just &lis emy to interpret But by what should the
imaginary part, l/(&%),of 6, be rqlaced? The choice
using the expression (19) for Ant, The net of the two we have miLde here (in defining, m we have, the Ioctation
egects b thmefore approgmatelyg6 of the ppoles of (57)) is arbitra-ary and almost certainty
incorrect, If the radiation resistance is calculated for
an atom, as the imaginary part of (81, the result de-
pends slightly an the function f+,On the other hand the
light ra&ted at very large disknces from a fource is
a term n w of order l/c (since W-rn)-"@?~) indepndent of f4,The total energy a h r k d by distant
Y (2m2e)-9 and therefore the one daired in the hmrt, absorkn will not c h d with the energy loss of the
Comparison to (28) gives for r the e ~ r e s i o n m;ource. We are in a situation analogous to that in the
classiral theoq i f the entire f function is made ta
contain only retwded cont~butions(we A, App~dix).
One desires instad the analogue of (I;),,$ of A. This
prob'tem is being studied,
One can say therefare, that this attempt to find a
The integrd can be imediatdy evaluated, since it consistent moditiation d quantum efectrocfynamics is
is the same as the integral (12)) but with q= Q, for a incomplete (see aim the quation of closed loops, bejaw),
repfacd by Pdm. The result is therefore r.@~/nt.) Far it could turn out that any correct form of j+ which
which when a-ctingon the state ut is just 7,as$l%t= mwt. will guarantee energy consemtion may at the same
For the same r m m the term @t+nr)/2str in (28) is time not be able to make the self-enera integral finite,
efiectivefy 1 and we are left with -r of (23).16 The daire to make the methods of simplifying the
In mare complex problems stmting with a free efec- calculation of quantum electrdynamic prwesses more
"fie wrwian is not exact becawe the substitution of btn wide@ available has prompted this publication befare
b tbe. integral in (19) L vaLd only if opmteg on a state such an analysis of &e eorrecg form for f+ is complete. One
&t ) can k replmed by m, The error, however, is of order might, try to take the psition that, since the enerm
a(p"-nr)-l@-nt)W-m)-ib which is o((L+e)&+nt)(p--ntf
X ((X+ef#++#(2~+.3%*. But since mv,,we have pp@-m) discrepancies discussed vanish in the limit h+w, the
-.-nu-m)=@-mlg so the net resuit ts ap rommatdy correct physics might be considered to be that obtained
a@-m]b/4m%nd is not of order I/c but smaller, ga t f a t its eAmt by letting A-+ccl after mass rrmormahtion. I have no
(trapsout in the limit.
We have used, to first order, the general expm&on (valid for proof of the matlrematicaf.consistenq of this procedure,
any operators A, B) but the presumption is very st-rong tbat it is sadsfac-
tciry, (It is a k strong that a ~ t i s f a c t o qform for f+
can be found.)

In the awlpb of the raaative corrections to satter-

ing one type of tern was not considmed. The potentiali

which we can assume to vary as e, exp(-iqex) creates

a pair of electrons (see Fig, 61, rnormenta B,, -#b. iTlfis
pair then mnnihilatm, emitting a quantum q=#b-fi,,
which qwntum scatters the original electron from slate FXG.5. V m u m piariaation ef-
1 to state 2, The mtrix eiment for this procem (and fect on mLtenngz (30)-
the othm vvhich can be oblirined by reanan&ng the
or&r in time of the vadous events) is

not unity and its dwiation from unity arise from the
imaginary part of J,,, Again, with closed Imps ex-
cludd, a pair of electrom once created cannot annihi-
late one another again, the xatiering of light by fight
This is b m u the~ potential praducm the pair with would be zero, etc. Atthough we are not exprimeatally
amplitude proprtionai to a,y,, the electrons of mo- sure of these phenomena, this d a s seem to indicate
menta p, and -M,+@ proced from there to annihi- that the closed loops are necessaxy, To be sure, it is
late, prohcing a quantum (factor y,) which propagates always passibk that these mlnatters of probabiliity con-
(fa~toxTV($)> over to the other eiedron, by which sewstion, etc., will work themselves out as dmply i t 1
it absorbed (matrix element of 7, between states 1 the case of interacting particIes as for thow in a fixed
an&2 of the ori&naI electron (%qy,%,)). AI1 momenta P, potenthi. Lacking such ii. demonstration the prmump-
and spin slates of the virtual. electron are admitted, tion is that the diaculties of vacuum polarlzsltion axe
which m a n s the spur and the inte@ on d4p, are not sia easily
ealculatitd. An alternative prmedure discusrjed in B is to msume
One can imagine that the ctosd loop path of the that the function K+(2,1) used above i s i n c a r r ~ and
pitron-eiectron produces a current is to be replaced by a modified function K+' having no
shgularity on the light cone. The eEect of this is to
provide a convergence fmtar C(p-m*) for every inte-
which is the source of the quanta which a t on the grsI over electron momenta.lS This will multiply the
~ c o a ed l ~ t r o nThe
. qmndty inteeand of (32) by G(p-m2)C((P+ q)2-ntZ), since the
integral was originally S@,-$a+~)d~p&'pb and both
p, and f i b get wnvergence factom. The integrat now
converges but the result is unsatisfa&~ry.~
One e x p c a the current (31;) to be conserved, that is
q,j,=O or qJ,,=O. Also one expects no current if a,
is then chmacteristic for this prablem of ~ h r i m t i o n is a gradient, or @,=g, times a constant. This leads to
of the vacuum. the condition J,g,.=O which is equivalent to qJ,,==O
One sees at once that J,, divergm badly. The modifi- dnce I,, Is symmetrical. But when the eqnpresion (32)
fation of S to f afters the amplitude with which the is integatd with such canvergmce f ctors it does not
cumnt j,, will a E e t the scattered e l ~ t r o n but
, it can satisfy this condition. I& altering the kernel from K to
do nothing to prevent the divergence of the integral (32) another, K', which does not satisfy the Dirac equation
and of its edects. we have iost the gauge invariance, ib consequent cur-
One way to avoid such difffmjties is apparent. From rent canservation and the general mnsistency of the
one p i n t of view we are consideriry~dl routes by which thmry.
a given elelron can get from one lugion of spa=-tim One can st?e this best by calculating J,d, directly
to another, i.e., from the source of electrons to the from (32). The eqrasion within the spur Fcomes
apparatus which measuretr t h m . From this point of (P+q-rn)-lg(irCP-m)-Iy, which can be written as the
view the clmeif loop path I d i n g to (32) is unnatural. -
difference of two terms: (P-m)-%# &+ @- m)-LyL'
It might be: assumed that the only wths of meaning are Each of these terns would give the same result if the
those which start Irorn the source arid work their way integration d4$ were 6thout a convergence fxtor, far
in a cantinuous path [pssibly containing m n y time
reveals) to the d e t ~ t o r .Closed Ioops would be ex- U Et would be very intcrmting to calculate the Lamb shiR
wmrately enou h to be sure that the 20 memyclm -CM
eluded, We have alrady found that this may be done from vacuum p%xbtion are actually present.
for electrom moving in a fixed potentid. isW s techrii ue also makm self-energy and rdiationlm rcat-
Such a suggestion must m e t -era1 qurrstions, howW tering integrals even without t k mdifieacion of 6, taJs for
the diation (and the conseqjuent convergeace factar C(ltn) for
ever. The d o 4 lwps are a conNquence of the w a l the quant;l). Ziee B.
hole theory in electrodynmicts. Among o t k r things, "Added tci the terms givcn k i a w (33) there is a tern
they are require$ ta keep probability conmwed. The 4{k"--2@'+.fqrjbr for C(kJ) -Xt(&-
5 X'))', which is not gaugg
invariant, (In irddician tfte chsrge rmonnslizationh -7/6 irddd
pmbbility that no p k is prduced by a potential is to the iomithm.)
the first can be converted into the hecond by a shift of I t is zero for a free light quantum (qZ=Q).For smlt $
the origin of 8, namely lyP"=p+q.This does not reult it behavm as (2/1S)q2 (adding -8 to the logitrithm in
in cancehtion in (32) however, for the convergenca: the Lamb effect). For qz> (2mj2it is mmplex, the
factor is aaltered by the substitution, imaginary part representing the Ioss in amplitude re-
A method of ma-king (32) convergent without spiling quired by the fact that the probicbility that no quanta
the gauge invariance has been found by Bethe and by are produe& by a potential able to produce p i r ~
Pauli. The convergence factor for light can be lmked ((@)b> 2m) decrea~eswith time. {To make the neces-
upan as the resuft of supwsition of the e@ects of sary analytk continuation, imagine m to have a smdl
quanta of mrious masses (same contributing nega- negative imaginary part, so that ( I - q 2 / h t ) f becomes
tiveiCy), Likewise if we take the factor G P - m 2 ) -i(qz/4m2- l)t as q2 g w from below to above 4ma,
= - hz(bzl-- nz'-XZ)-l sa that (p-ns2)-Vw-nt2) +
Then 8- lr/2+iu where sinhu= (@/4m2- l]$ and
- p - m 2 } - - L ---m2--X*)-+e are taking the dig=- - l/tanB- i tanhg= +i(@-4m2)1fqS)-b.)
enm of the resdt for electrons of mass ns and mass Closed loops containinga number of quanta or poten-
(Xz+m2n2)k.But we have taken this digerence for each tial interactions larger than two produce no troubte.
propagation betwecm internetions with photons. They Any Imp with an odd numkr of interactions gives zero
suggest instead that once created with a certain mass (1,reference 5))- Four or moP-e potential interactio~give
the ekectron should continue to propagate with this integals which are wavergent even without a con-
m a s through all t h potential illteractions until It vergence factor as is well Emown, The situation is
closes its loop. That is if the quantity f32), integrated analogous to that for self-csnergy. Once the simple
over some finite range of p, is ealied J,,(m22)and the problem of a single closed loop is solved there are
corresponding quantity over the =me rmge of p, but no further divergence diacutties for more complex
with m repbced by (m2+Xz)k is J,,(d+X2) we should proce~.~

In the usual form of quantum electrodynamics the

tongitudinal, and transverse waves are given wparate
the function G(X) satisfying m ( X ) d X = I ernd treatment. Afternately the condition (MJdx,)'lIr=O is
&*C(h)XzdX=O, Then in the expression for JNFP the carried along as a supykmenhry condition. In the
range of p inlegation can be extended to infinity as the prmnt form no such special camiderations are neces-
integral now converges, The result of the integration sary far we are dealing with the dueions of the equation
using this method is the interal on dX over G@) of -mA,=4dr with a current j, which is conserved
(see Appendix C) t3jJax, =0. That means at least a2(i),Q
,/a%#:,)=O and
in fact our so1utioq dso satisfies aAddz,--O,
To show that this is the case we mnsider the aampii-
tude for emiaion (real or virtual) of a photon and show
that the divergence of this amplitude vanishe. The
amplitude for emission for photons pohrized in the p
direction invojvm matrix elements of 7,. Therefore
what we have to show is that the corresponding matrix
with q2= b2 sina@. elements of q,y,=q vanish. For example, for it first
The gauge invariance is clear, since q,(q,q,- g*&,,) =O. order egect vve would require the mtrix element of q
Oprrtting (as it always wiU) on a potential of zero betwm twa slilltes $S and Pa=bl+~. But since
divergence the (g,q,- &,,@)a, is simply -$a,, the q=Ps-#f and (G&@*) =r n ( 9 ~ ~=1 (zi;e#z@l)
) the xnsztrix
B"1embertian of the ptentml, that is, the current pro- element vanish&, which groves the contention in this
ducing the potmtkl. The term $On(X2/nz2))(qsq. case. It dso vanishm in m r e camplex situsttions (men-
-g&,,)therefore gives a current proprtional to the ti&y &came of relatlan (34), below) (for example, try
current prduckg the potenthl. This would have the putting ez=qz in the rnatrk (15) for the Compton
=me effect as a chnge in charge, so that we would have EBect).
a Werence A(%) betwwn a2 and the e x p ~ m e n - To prove this in general, suppse a,, i= l to N are a
tally observe$ ckrge, &-t-A(l?z),analogourj to the dif- set af plane wave dtistwbing poentialis crrrrying mo-
ference between m and the o h w e d mass, This cbrge mentit q, (e.g., m m may be emisions or absoxptionsof
depnds Iogarithmically on the cut-off, d[e2)/d= the same or &Berent quanta) and cornider a matrix for
- (28/3?r) Itl(X/m). After thh renormaliation of clzarge the Lxansitbn from a state of momentum t;o $p such
Is made, no egfects will be e d t i v e to the cut+E, B There are i q s mmpletely withntut externa.1 interactions. Far
After this is done the finat term rem&ning in (331, exrtnrpk, a pair is am@ v~rtualtyalong with a, photon. Next they
contains the ~9134effectsz1 of polruization of the vacuum, annihslate, absorbin this pbton, Su& loops are disrqardsd on
the gmads that tghey do not intern! anything and are
A. Uehlin , Phya, Rev, 48, S5 (19351, R. &rbr, Phys. &meby completely unobmablc. Any rndirect eEi?cu &bey may
Rev. 48,4f) (1935f. b e via tha ezciusjm prin+te have a b d y k n hdudtd.

aw UN ffsptM-' (@1-%)-'4%w h ~ e p ~ = f i (and ~ t +in~the

~ XncirIentally, the virtual quanta interact through
product, terms with larger i are written to the left). terms like 7,. ..r,k2dbk. Real proceseces correspnd to
The most general matrix element is simply a 1inar poles in the fomulae for virtual procmstzs, The pole
combination of &m. Next consirier the matrix be- occurs when @ S O , but it look at first m though in the
tween states p. and #M+Q in a situation in which not sum on all four vaiues of p, of r,. -7, we would have
only are the a, acting but also another potentiai four Ends of polarization instad of two, Now it is c l a r
a expf-@-%)where a = q, This m;;iyact prwioustoalla,, that on& two p g ~ n d i d to r K are effective,
in which case it givm U H ~ @ , q- + nc)-8u,(Po+ g-m)-" The usual elimination of bngitudinal and m l a r vir-
which is equivaient to +a~n&,-E-q-m]-'ar since tual photons (fading to an instantilne;~~ Coulomb
+ (Be+ g- m)-Iq is. equivatent to Cpo+ q- m)+ potential] can of c o w be performed here too (although
X (P@-#- g-m) 8s a equivglent to m rrcting on the it is nat pzrticu:ularIyuseful), A typkat &rm in a virtual
initial state, Likewise if it acts after all the potentiab transition is 7,. y r P d * R where the
9 - represent
it give q ( p ~ - n t ) - % ~ ~ @ ~ - m ) - which
k, is equivalent some interve~irmgmatrices. Let us choose for tbe valuepr
to -aNn(p,-m)-%, since f t ~ - f - g - mgives zero on the of p, the time 1, the? ciiretion ol vector part K, of k,
final state. Or again it m y act between the pf&ntiaI and t m pqendicular directions 1, 2. We skI1 not
ak and a&* for each K. This give change the exprwion for these two 1, 2 for these are
reprewnted by transverse quanta. But we must find
Z: QN R[
(pl+q-nt>-fa,Cpk+~-m>-l - -
(76- * y t ) - ( y r r - * yx). Now k=kdrg-krE, where
k-t I-WI Xi"== (H;.K)l, and we have shorn a h m that k replacing
the 7 , givm ~ e r oIIence . ~ k t r K is equivalent to K 4 r t and
xq@r-mI-"ak If @$-m)-"a [yIrl.. (Yg* ' ((E(Z-ka"/ff2)(yt. - . r 3 ,

However, so that on mulriptying by k2d*k=d4h(k,2-Ka)-1 the net

effect is -(7,...yr)d4R/flCIP., The m a n s just scalar
&r+ Q- m)-"q(gr- m>-L )-,- (pk+p-n)-E, wava, that is, potentials produced by charge density.
The fact that l / R 2 does not contain kr mans tkat R4
tro that the sum break into the diBermce of tvvo sums, can be integrated first, resulting in an insantanmus
the 5rst of which may be converted to the other by the interaction, and the d3W;/P is just tfie momenturn
replacement of k by K-l. There remain onIy the term8 representation of the Coulomb potential, l/r.
from the ends of the range of suxnmtion,
N-l N- l
+a# a @Cltl-m)-ba,-~N
&e+~-m)-'@a,.. The methods may be readily extended to partic1a of
spin zero satisfying the Klein Gordan equ~ltion?
These cancel the two terns originally d i ~ u s d that ~ \ t - m 2 @ = i a ( A M ~ ) / ~ % ~ i ~ , ~ r f . / i ) n , - A s A ($5)
the eatin: is zero. I-lence any w ~ v eemitted will care is rmuiret2 when on the c*rme
satisfy dAJazs= 0, Likewise iongitu&mal wave (that prticie, Define x=krrt+RyK,and consider ik.. +r)+(x- k).
is, wave for which A ,= aqildx, or a = q) annot be Exactly this term would arise if a system, acted on by potential X
matrix ele, taming momentum -k, is disturbed b an added powriat k of
have no dKt, for momentum + k (the r w e w d sign af rke momenta in the inter-
ments for em;i~ianand ~ h r p t i o nare si&lar. (we mediate factors in the seeond term X . . .k has no eRecr since we
have =id kittie more than that a potenthl A,= dv/azR wiU tater i n t ~ m t over e ail R), Wmce as shown a b v e the result is
ha no dect on a ~i~~~eiectron since a tIransformation sera, but i n c e (k.. -rf+(x. .k)=kig(rr-* .rd-lr""(rzs
we can still cancIude (rrr; . .?K)"R8K4(yr*. -yd.
$'=@q(-i@):ctr)tt removes it. It is easy to see ia The equations d i s c u d in this m t i ~ were
n deduce$ from the
cmrdinate repremtation integrations by pab.) formuia(ion of the Kfein CIordon quauon given in reference J,
Section 1 4 Tbe fvnrrian in this r f i o n has only one component
Thin has a uwful conwquence in that in and is not a spinor. An alternative format method of making the
computing probabilities for tmnsition for unplariad equatrions valid for spin zero and also for spin 1 is ( ~ a u m a ; b i ~ l
light one can quard over au four by UM? of the Kemmer-Duffin matirccs F,, m e i s f ~ m ~ cornmu-
diretions rather than just the two special polarization ~d&~+fl&,~,- arFflff+& u # @ ~ .
vecam, Thus SuPPSe the matrix elmeat far some ~f W, interpret o to mean a& m t h r t h u Lt,r , far any a,,afl
process for light polarimd in d i r ~ t i o ne, is e,&f,, E the of the equations in momentum~prrcewill wrnato &rmal17 identrcd
Xight wave vmtor we how from the argument fC" t k for the spin 1/2- with the exceprian of t h m tn which a
denominator &-nr)-l h& been rat;ionalizr?d to (n3-n)W-m')--"
above that g N ~ ~ For 0 * m ~ h r i ~ e&ht d BrOgresX since p no longer equal to a numhr, *-P. But p does equal
ing in the S directi~nwe would ordharity calculate (p-p)@ so that (P-n)-1 may now be interpret& F (mp+d
M,Z+M,S. But weaawejI sum M,2+M,2+lli( f ~t)a-P'#~(P.P-~I)-lmmt. m@ impgm that %wuom .lu c*
ordinate space will be valid of the function K $2 1) is sven ari
for p&, implies MP=@,~ i n f eqt= q, for flW2 quanta. (Z,t)== l;(iVz+m)-m-I(V$+ B2*)31+(2, 1) ;it6 v ~ L B ~ ~ / ~ s ~

This unpolar* y S; aU in vlrtue of the fact that the many fompnent wave
tight is a r e ~ t i v i s t i a ~ ~&S
invaknt EOncept, afld permiB some shPr&atiom in functio~ 1(" (5 components for spin O 10 for in I) mtisfies
(6V-n)+=?@ which ir lormaliy idmtikl to the %irac W u a l i w
computing cross e i o n s for such Eght. See W. Pauh, Rev. Mod. Fhya. 13, 203 f1W},
The important kernel is now I+@,1) defined in (1,Fq. m t s the msibility of the simultanwus emission and
(32)). For a free particle, the wave function $42) satisfies
absorption of the same virtual quantum. This integral
+DJI-m2$=O, At a pint, 2, inside a space tine region without the C(k2)diverge quadratically and would not
it is given by converge if CfE ) = - XZ/(k2- F), Since the interaction
occurs through the gradients of the ptential, we must
use a stronger convergence factor, for exam@€ C<kf?
-- X4(R?- X2)-*, or in general (27) with &XzC;(X)dX.= 0,
In this ase the slf-energy converges but depends
qmdratically on the cut-off X and is not necesmrily
(as is readily shown by the usual method of demon- small compared to m. The radiative corrections to
stratiqg Green" theorem) the inteeal being over an scattering after mass renormatization are insensitive to
entire &surface boundary of the region (with nomal the cut-od just as for the Birac equation.
vector M,). Only the positive frequency companents of IVhen there are several particles one can obtain Bose
JI contribute from the surface preceding the time corre- statistics by the rule that if two processes lead to the
sponding to 2, and only negative frequencies from the same state but with two e l ~ t r o n sexchanged, their
sudace future to 2. These can be interpreted as elmtrons ampritudres are to be added (rather than subtracted as
and positrons in direct analogy to the Uirac case. for Fermi statistics). Xn this case equivalence to the
The right-hand side of (35) a n be considered as a second quantization treatment of Pauli and Weisskopf
source ofnew waves and a series of t e r m written down should be demonstrabke in a way very much like that
to represent matrix elements for processes of increasing given in I (appendix) for B i r u electrons, The Base
order. There is only one new point here, the term in statistics mean that the sign of contributian of a closed
A&, by which two quanta can act at the same time. Imp to the vacuum polarination is the ogpofite of what
As an example, suppose three quanta or ptentials, it is far the Femi case (see I). Xt is ftta=ft,+g)
a, expf-iq,.~], It, exp(-iqb-~)~ and G, exp(-iqc.12) are
to act in that order on a particle of original momentum
pep SO that. fia--flo+qa and Pb=fiD+qb; the final mo-
mentum being P,--@b+qe. The matrix element is the
sum of three term w=p,p,) (illustrated in Fig, 7)


The first come when each potential acts through the

perturbation ia(A,d;)/dx,+.iA,dJ./azP. These gradient
aprators in momentum space mean respectively the
momentum after and before the potential A, operatm. the notation as in (33). The imaginary part for (@)t> 2%
The second term comes from b, and a, act-tng at the is again positive representing the loss in the probability
same instant and arixs from the A,A, term in (a), of finding the final state to be a vacuum, associated with
Together b, and a, carry momentum qb,+q,, m that the possibiiities of psrir production, Fermi statisties
after B-a operates the momentum is #g+q,+qb or p&. wautd give a gain In prob;rbility (and also a char@
The final term comes from c, and B., operating together renormalization of oppsite sign to that expect&),
in a similar manner. The term A d , thus permits a new
type of process in which two quanta can be emitted (or
absorbed, or one absorbed, one emitted) at the same
time. Illrere is no a-c term for the order a, b, G we have
assumed, In an actuaf problem there would be other
terms like (36) but with alterations in the order in
which the quanh a, b, e act. In these terms a-c would
As a further example the self-enerp of a particle of
momentum p, is
b. C.
FIG, 7, Klein-Gordom particle in three plenkialq Eq. (36).
The caupling to the etcsctromagnetic fteld 1s now, for exampke,
h - a + p..n and a new ps&bilityarige$, (b), af simult&aeausinter-
aclian with two quanta a+. Thr: prctpagatian factor is now
where the g,,= 4 comes from the A,A, tern and repre- (Pp- r ~ @ ) - ~far a particle af momentum p,.

it?. APPLECATXQR TO MESON T R B O m S factors, the resutts then are sensitive to the method used
The theories which have been cfeveioped to dmribe for convergence and the size of the cut*@ values of X,
mesons and the interaction of nucieons can be easily For IOW order prwesses p---"r,q is equivalent to the
expressd in the languag us& kre. Calculations, to pseuctosalar interaction ZMF-"& beaus9 i f taken be-
fowet order in the interactions can be made very emily tween free prticle wave functions of the nucleon of
for the various theories, but agreement with expri- momenta fit and &=fi~+q, we have
mental results is not obbined. Most likely alI of our
present formuIatio~lsare quantitatively unsatisfactory.
We shall content oumlva therefore with a brief sum-
mary of the methotis which can be used, since 7 5 anticommutes with p? and p3 ovrating on the
The nucleons are usualiy assum& to eiatisfy Dirac's state 2 equivalient to K as is fix on the state l, This
equation so that the factor for propagation of a nuclean shows that the inleractiotl is unusua!)iy are& in tire
of momentum j5 is where M is the mass of the non-relativistic limit (for example the expected value
nuciwn (which implies that nucleons can tie created in of 78 for a free nucleon is zero), but since ysZ==1 is not
pairs). The nucleon is then asumed to interact with small, peudoscalar theory gives a more important inter-
mesons, the various theories digering in the form as- action in second order than it does in first. Thus the
sumed for this interaction. pseudomlar coupling comtsnt should be chosen to fit
First, we consider the case of neutral mmns. The nuclear forces illcluding these imprtant second order
theo:ory closest to electrodynamics is the th-eory of vector prmesm.%The equivalence of psudoscaIar and psudo-
m w n s with vector coupling. Were the factor for emis- vector coupling rvhich holds for low order processes
sion or ahsolrfrtion of a mmon is gy, when this mefan is therefore does not hold when the pseudoseatar theory
""palarized" in the p, direction, The factor g, the is giving its most importa~tteffects. These theories will
"mesonic charge," replaces the electric charge e. The therefore give quite different rmults in the majority of
amplitude for propagation of a meson of momentum q prcrctical problems,
in intemedhte s t a t e is (q2- $]-"rather than q-* as it Xn alcuhting the mrrectia~lsto scattering of a nu-
is for light) where p is the mass of the meson. The n e c e cleon by a neutral vector rneson field (7,) due to the
sary intqrals are made finite by convergence factors effecls of virtual mmons, the situation is just as in
C ( ~ % - B $as) in eiectroctynamics, For scalar msons with eletrodynamics, in that the result: converges without
scalar coupling the only change is that one replaces the need for a cut-off and depends only on gradients of the
y, by 1 in emission and absorption. There is no loner meson potential. With scaIar (I) or pseudoscalar (7s)
a direction of polarization, p, to sum upon, f i r pseudo- neutral mmns the result. diverges loerithmically and
scalar mesom, pseudoscalar coupling repftrce 7, by so must be cut off. The part sensitive to the cut-off,
~ ~ = i y , yFar ~ ~emmple,
~ ~ ~ .the self-enerw mtrix of hovirever, is diret!y proportional to the mcmn poten-
a nucleon of momentum in this theory is tiai. It may thereby be rmoved by a renormalization
of mesonic char@ g, After this renormalization the re-
sults depend only on gradients of the meson potential
and. are essentiaiiy iindepndent of cut-08. This is in
addition to the mesonic chars rmorrnaIizatian coming
Other t y p s of maon theov result from the reptace- from the prdudion of virtual nuclwn pairs by a meson,
ment of y, by other expressions (for example by anaiogous to the vacuum wlarization in electro-
k ( ~ ~ ~ e - r p 7 ~ with
) a subwquent sum over all p and v dynamim. But here there is a lurtlrer difference from
for virtual m a n s ) . Scalar mesons with vector coupling electrodynamics for scalar or pseudmalar mewas in
result from the replacement of r, by y"where q is the that the polarizaf;ion also gives a term in the induced
final mornentum of the nucleon minus its initial mo- current proportional to the meson potential representing
mentum, that is, it is the momentum of the m w n if therefore an additional renormalization of the mass clf
absorbd, or the negative of the mornentum of a meson tlte mesoa wlxich usuatly de~xndsquadratimlly on the
emitted. As is well known, this theory with neutral cut-off.
msans gives zero for all procam, as is proved by our Next consihr charged mesons in the absnce of an
discussion on Iongitudinal wavm In efectrodynamics. electromagnetic field. One can introduce imtopic spin
Pseudoscalar mesons with peud+vector coupiing carre- opratrtrs in an obvious way, (SpecifimIly repface the
swn& to 7, king replaced by p-'~raq while vector neutral y ~ ,say, by r,yr and sum over i= X, 2 where
mesons with tensor coupling comapond ta using 7++ T - ~ r p i(r+- 7-) and T+ change neutron to
(2fi)-q(rr~-517u). These extra gradients invoive the proton (T+ on proton=O) and T- chngm proton to
danger of producing higher divergencies for real proc- neutron.) It is just as easy for practical problems simply
e e s . For example, y& gives a logarithmially divergent to keep track of whether the particle is a protan or a
interaction of neutron and electr~n?.~ Although t h w neutron on a &=gram drawn to help write down the
divergencies tan be held. by strong enough convergence
=H. AA,Wethe, Bull. Am. E"11)rs. Soc. 24, 3, 2
2 (Wahiqtan,
M.S b ~ &and W, HeitIer, Phya. Rev. 75, 1645 (1949). 1949).
matrix ekment, This exciuda certain procBses. For method of second quantization of meson fielids over the
example in the scattering of a negative meson from present formulation. There such errors of sign are obvi-
to qz by a neutron, the mesan 48 must be emittect first ous while here we seem to be able to write seemingly
(in arder of operators, not time) for the neutron cannot innocent expressions which can give absurd results.
absorb the negative meson ql until it beclomes a protan. Ptseudovectxlr mesans with pgudovector coupling corre-
That is,in comparison to the Klein Nishina formula (IS), spond to using YJ(Y,-~-~~,Q) far absorption and
only the analogue of s ~ o n dterm (see Rg. ii(b)) would for emission for bath charged and neutrnl mesons.
appear in the scattering of negative means by neu- In the presencce of an electromagnetic field, whenever
trons, and onIy the first term (Fig, 5(a)) in the neutron the nucleon it; a proton it interacts wi* the field in the
scattering of positive mmns, w;di~described far electrons. The meson interacts in the
The source of mesons of a $ven charge is not con- scalar or pseudoscalar c m as a particle obeying the
sented, for a neutron capable of emitting negative me- Klein-Sordon equation, It is important here to use the
sons may (on emitting one, wy) become a proton no method of calculation of Bethe and Pauli, that is, a
longer able to do so. The proof that a perturbatim q virtual meson is assumed to have the same 'Lmass'Vur-
gives zero, dirjcussed for longitudinal electromagnetic ing all its intemctions with the etectromagnetic field.
waves, fails. This has the consequencl?that vector me- The result far mass p and for (fi2+X") are subtract&
sons, if represented by the interaction v, would not and the difference intqrated over the function G(X)dX.
satisfy the condition that the divergence of the poteen- A separate convergence factor is not provided for each
tial is zero, The interaction is to be takenn as 7,- f-Zg,q meson propagation between etectromagnetic interac-
in emission and as =y, in abmqtion if the real ensrssxon tions, a&erwise gauge invariance is not insured, When
of m m n s with a non-z@rodivergence of potential is to the coupling involves a gradient, such as rsq where q is
be avoided. (The correstion term p-%q,g gives zero in the final minus the initial moanturn of the nucleon,
the neutral cm.) The asymmetfy in emission and ab- the vector potential A must be subtracted from the
w ~ t i o nb only apparent, as this is clearly the same momentum of the p t o n . That is, there is an additional
thing as subtracting from the original 7,. .y,, a term coupling f r b A (plus when going from proton to neu-
~ - ~ q.q,- That k, if the tern --plu2q,q is omitted the tron, minus for the reverse) reprwnting the new possi-
raulting theory dexribe a combination of mesans of bility of a simulti~neousemission (or a b m ~ t i o n )of
spin one and spin zero. The spin zero mesons, coupled meson and photon.
by vector coupling 4, are removed by subtracting the Emission of positive or absorption of negative virtual
term p-*q. . 4. memns are represented in the %me term, thesign of the
Tibe two extra gradients q. .q make the problem of charge being determined by temporal relations a for
diverging intepals still more serious (for example the electrons and positrons.
interaction ktween two protons correspnding to the Calculations are very easily caded out in this way
exchange of t w charged vector mesons depnds q u d - to lowest order in $ for the various theories for nucleon
ratically on the cut-off if catculateb in a straightforward interaction, smttering of mesons by nucleons, meson
way). One is tempted in this formulatkn to choose production by nuclear cotiisions and by gamma-rays,
simply 7,.. and accept the admixture of spin zero
e r ,
nuclear magnetic momnts, neutron ekctron xattering,
mesons, But it appears that this f a d s in the conven- etc., However, no good apeement with experiment re-
tional formalism to negative energia for the spin zero sults, when these are available, is obtained, Probably
component. This shows one of the advantages of the aU of the formulations are incorrect. An uncertainty
arises since the calculatians are only to fint order in g%,
The vector meson field pokntiats ortisfy and are not valid if g v / L is large.
The author is particularty indebted to Professor H,
where s the source for such m w u h is the matrix element of A. Betk for his expknation of a method of obtaining
betw&n states of neutron and protan, By taking the divergence finite and gauge invari~ntresults for the problem of
a/d+ of both sides, conclude that tttp,/ax, s.4ari-?as,fdz, so that
the giginat equation can be rewritten as vmuum polarization, He ia also gratttful far Professor
r j s ~ f i - c ; " ~ p -.P~fr,+ci-"a/a.r(ds~/ax~)~.
Bethe's criticisms of the m a n u z ~ p t and
, for innumer-
able discussions during the development of this work.
The right hand side gives in momentum representation 7,
-~**~,p,r, the left yieids the (@--&-g and finally the interaction He wishes to thank Profesmr J. Ashkin for his careful
s , ~an the hgran&n gives the 7, on absoiorption. reading of the manuscript.
~ find generaliy that arueIes of spin one
droceedlng in t h way
can be represented by a l o u r - v m ~ I
r (
, for a free particle
of momentum p satisfia q.rr-0). The promation of vixtuili
prticles of momentum q from state v to C is reprmated by In this appn&x a method will be iltustrated by which the
mllltiplicatian by the 4-4 mtrix (or tensclr) P,,=(b,,-#*q.&,)
X( m e 6rst+rder intmmtion (front the Proea equaann) simpkr integrals appearing in problems in electrodynamics can
w i t f i n rlectmmagnetie potendai o rrp(-ih.s) corresponds to he directly evaluated. The integmk arl%ng in more cornpiear
nuttiplieation by the matrix I f , , = ( q z - a + q ~ - a ) 8 ~ ~ - q ~ p ~ - p 1prm-
~~ lead to rather eamplicated functions, but the study of
w b e p; and qg=qt+k are the mommta before and after the the relatias of one intqrat to another and their exprminn in
with m&k -
interaction. Finally, two tentiak a, B m y act simulmmaaty, terms uZ simpler inlegrats m y be f d t i t a t d by the m e a d s
(a-bR,+bIraI. given here.
As a tpimi problem eonsider the integral (12) appearing in We Ben have to do inkmats of the farm
tb first order radiatianlem mttering problem:
Jfl; ka; bL7ld%(V-L)*(A"-2pl.k- At)-"
~ 8 - -k-m}-IrPk-"d4RC(kl),
j ~ ~ (k-m)-Ia&~ (la) X ( V - Z p z - R - A ~ ) - ~ , (98)

where we shall take C(RI)to be lypicaliy -A2(8"-Xyi and where by (1; R,; kOkJ we m a n that in the place of this symbol
d" (2r)*dRldk&b&k4. we first rationJEze factors either ' 8 Or may s(;ind in diaTerenr In
@- k-.r)-i- U- k+Itl){(P-R}*-rn*]-l obtaining, compkicatcrd problems &ere may be more factors f V- 2p6.K-d,i-*
or other powers of these factors (the (&--L)-""may Fte considered
ss a special case of such a factor with #,=a, &,=L) and further
1- -k - t d ~ , k " d * k ~ ( @ l factors R e k,k,R,. in the numerator. The potes in all the factors
X((p8-A]*-m"-"@2-k)~-m33~1 (24 am d e degnite by the assumptian that L, and the 4%have
infinitesimal negative i r n a g i ~ r yparts.
m e matrix e ~ r d o may n be simpiifid, f t a P W r s to h to We shall do the integrals of sucmgve complexity by inducGen,
do so a j t e the integraeons are pertormed. Since. AB==ZA.B--BA W., start with hesimplest convergent one, and show
where A .B-A,B, is a, numhr mmmuting with all matricerr, Bnd,
if R is any e x p r e e n , snd A a vector, since r,A-. --Ar,,+2A,, . f ; l % ~ ( ~ - ~ ) - s(8iL)-1,
= (loaf
For this integral is J(2x)*dR&E(k4#- K - K-L)-a where the
Expmeons betwmn two -ymBs can be thereby redue& by induc- vector R, of magnitude K==(W;.K)b is RE, Rn, ka. The integral m
tion, Particularly useful are kc s h w s third order polea a t k4= +(P+rl)b and k.5 -(hq+Ljb,
fmwining, in accordance with our defmitions, that I, has B small
negative ima&nary part only the first i s below the real axis. %c
contour can be closed by an infinite semi-circle below tbto axis,
without change of the value of the integral since the ~ontribution
from the mi-circle vanish= in the b i t . Thus the contour can
be sbmnk about the pole R4- +(k-"+L)f and the resulting R+ inte-
where A, B, C are any three vector-matricm (i.e., linear com- gral is - 2 r i times the residueai this pole, Writing kc= (ICVLL))-f-e
binations of the four 7's). and emandin8 (kr*-lc'"-L)-~~-*(e+2(Iri."s+L]~)-~ in powm of
In order to crrllculate the integral in (2a) the inkgrat may be t, the residue, being the toeacitnt of the term cl, is seen to be
written as tbe sum of three t e r n (since k==k s r J , 6(2(E+L)4)-6 SO O U integd ~ is
- (3i/32s)jeer 4r@dK(RI+ I;)-M- (318i)(1/3L)
estahkishing (10a).
We akw have fkod"R(V-L)-a=O from the symmetry in the
k space. We write t h e results as
(8i ] (l; k,)dik(&-L)-ei. (l; O)&l;i, (Ifa)
-1: is far I; the (S; k,; k,k,) is rqtaced by 1, for JSby h,, and where in the hrackeu (f; k d and ( 1 ; 0) corresponding entries are
for 1 8 by k,k,. to be U&.
More complex p r m s w of the Ernt order involve mare facton Substituting R= @--P in (1Xa),md calling L-pa=d shows that
fike (@a- k)'- m Z , Fand a eorraponding increase in the number
of R's which m y appear in the numerator, as kOk,k,.-.. Higher
order prmmses involving two or more virtual quanta involve
simitar integrals but with factors possihiy involving k+# instead By digerentiating both sides of (f2a) with respat to A, or with
of just A, and the intqrsl eztending on k-gd4kC(Wk""d%'6flk"). r a p t to p* there follows directly
T h q can k sinlpliged by metb& s ~ i o g m t-o s t h o s U& on
th h s t order integralri, wi)j '(1,, k U, RQR. )d'b(R"-2p.k-A)-'
The factors @-k)*-m' may be writ& .- -U; p,; p,p,-j~,,w+a)>w+&)+. ff~a)
Further diBerentiations give dirertty succasive integrals in-
cluding more k factors in the numerator and higher powers of
whsxe h=&-Bf, dt=mI-P1: etc., and we can consider dmlinp (BP- 2p. k - d ) in the denominator.
with cases of greater generality in that the diEerent denomimtors The integrals so far only contain one factor in the denornilla.tor,
need not have B e %me value of the msss m. In our specific prob- To obtain results for two factors we make use of tbe identity
lem (64, pp.-& so that Al..-@, but we desire to work with greater
Now for the factor C(&}/@ we shall use -K(&- ha)-Wa.
'This am he written as ( s u ~ a r by
d some work of Sehwinger's involving Gaussian inte-
grals). This r q r e n t s the prduet of two recipro~llsas a para-
metric integral over one a& wilI therefore permit integrals with
two factors to be expressed in terms of one, For other powers of:
l"hufi we can q l a c e by (&-l;)* and ot the end inte- a, b, we make use of all of tbe identiem, such as
grate the result with respect to L from m0 to X% We can for
many p r ~ t i wpl u w s consider As very I s s e retative t~ m* or p.
When the ~ d d n a lintegral anverges even without the con-
vergence factor, it will be obvious since the & fntemtian wili then deducible from f14a) by successjve dilferentiahns with r a p t
wavergent to infutity, EX an infrered catastrophe exists in the to a or 6.
b & g d one can imply m m e quantei have a smaE mass X,ta To perfom an integral, such aa
and ertend tfie integral on L from X#-, to h', rather t h n frnm (8@J(1; ka)d%(kr-2pl.R-Af)*(iP1-2p~~h-A~-~, (l&)
zero ta h'.
write, using (IS*), ~4(i-z)dxln(x(l-z)*)= --(1/4) find
(kf-2@,. ~-A,]"(Y - 2 p z z ~ - d z ) - g = x2lcdx(k-)-2&*k-&~,
px=x#t't.f l-z)#~ and A,-xA~+(l -xj.Laz, (17s)
(note that d, is not equal ta m'-fir? so that the expraian (164 sv that substitution into (19) (after the U-k-m)-' in (19) is
is (81)&tM~$(l;k,)d*kR()rZ-Zp~*k-rl~)-~which may now be replac& hy (p- k+m)(Re- 2p.k)'") gives
evaluated by (IZa) and is
(1%- ~&/8rlrpt@+nrlt2In(hg/=a1+2)
-p(in(ht/='3 -#)l%
-.(@/8r)C8rn(tn(h2imZ)+1)-#(2 In(~~/nr")+5)7,
where#,, A, are given in f17a). The integral in (18a) is etementary,
being the integral of ratio of plymmials, the denominator of m.
using (4a:ita)tr, remove the 7,'s. ThisagrecPs with (201 of t
k text,
w n d degrw in x. The general expra&on aftbough rmdily ab- and gives the self-eneru (21) whea ft is r ~ l g by d m.
tained is a rather complicated camhination of rootsand lagarithms.
Other integrals can he obtained again by pramet& differentia-
tion, For exampie difierentlation of (L&), (18a) with respect to
ba or p*, gives The term (12) in the radiationlms mttering, after rationa2idng
the matrix denominators and using Pf =##-r)i" requira the
integrals (Ba), as we have dirscumd, This is an integrat with
three denaminatare which we do in tw stagea. First h e fwtars
(g-2pl.R) and ( l - 2 p ~ - k )are cornbind by a Wrameter y;
(@-2pr-kj.-"l-2ps* k]-'i~f6 & ( @ - 2 h * h ) T
again lading to elementary integrals.
As an erample, codder the case that the second factor is just
(@--L)* and in the first put #*=P, &#=it, Then f"l-rp,
&-rh+(f -x)L. There results
from (14a) where
vP1-1-(1 -rPz.
We therefore need the integrah

(8i)l(1; k,; k,k,)d4k(V-L)*(l-2k"k-A)*

whlch we witl then intelgrak with r m p t to y from O to 1. Next

we do the integrals (224 imm&tely from (2&) A=@:

Integrals with three facrors can be reduced ta those involving

tw by udng (I4a) again, They, therefore#l e d to integrab with
two Emrametem (e.g., sec. application to radiative corrartion to
scattering below). We naw turn to the integrals on L as rmuired in (h). The first
The methods of calculztion given in this paper are deceptively term, (l), in {l; k,; R,R,) gives no trauhle for brge L, but if L
simple when applied to the lower order p r m m . For p r o c e w is put q u a I to zero there results z*p;* which leads to a diverging
of tncrea&ngly higher orders the wmplexity and difficulty in- integral on z at, -0. This infra-rd catastrophe is anaiyed by
creases rapidly, and these methads m n become impractical in using h , d for the lmer limit of the k integral. For the last term
their present form. the u w r limit of L must be kept as X", Assuming X,,,"C(p#l<<X*
the r integrals which remain are trivial, lis in the sell-energy case.
One finds
The self-energy inlegrat f 19) is

W that it requires that we find fusing the principle uf (8n)) the

integral on L from 0 to XP of

since (P- k)t--mS= Rs- 2p.k, as p";.. me.This is af the form (164
with &$=l;, $#=Q, hsd?, PI=-$ so that (18a) gives, since
(X-X)~, Asm~Lp
The integrals on y give,

or prforming the integmt on I;, ss in (81,

M m t n g now that h+>m* we n w f e t (X-s)Lpnf rehtive to

xXs in the arwment of the l w t h m , which then h m e s
(h*/ma]($(t -X)*). Then sjnee ,&i& ln(x(1 --a$+ 1 arid

These i n t e ~ a i son y were performed as fotlovrs, Since &=#tf q where we assume X*>>& and have put some terms into the arbi-
where q is the momentum carried by the potential, it follows from trary eonsbnt C' which is indepndent of Xvhut in principfecould
p$--);2=mz that Q=-# so that sinct? @,=P~+g(l-y), depend on 92) and which drops out in the inkegrat on G(X)dh. We
pu~=~m2-g~yjf -y). The substitution 2y- l=ana/tan@ where B have set 4m' sin%.
is dehnetl hy 4mx sin2@=q" is useful forlr nawc*a/secV En a very similar way the integral with rtp" in the numerator can
and @,-Sdy = j n ~ gsin2B)-Va where n goes from e to 4-8, - be worked out. It is, of coum, n e c e m y ta dlEerentiak his m*
Thew rrtsultsare subtituted into the original swtexing formula also when calculating I' and I f i 3 h e r e mulls
(2a), giving (22). X t has been simpiified by frequent use of the
fact that p, oprating on the initial s a t e is m, and likewise #I
when it appears at the left is replacable by m. (Thus, to Smplify:
yltps~jb8~~- -~PIQ#O by with another unimprtant conshnt C'. The mmplek problem re-
= -2@2-qfa@3+ql = -2fm-g)a(m+g). quires the furlher integral,
A tern, like qaq= -q1u+2(a.q)q is equivalent to just -@a ince
-m-M has zero matrix element.) The renormalization
term requ~resthe correqonding integrab for the special case
The value of the integral (31.a) times d differs fram (33a), of
C, Vacuum Palmizat-ion cuum, because the resuits an the right are not actually the ink-
grals on the left, hut rather equal their actual value minus their
The expressions (32) and (32') for J,, in the vanrum polariza value for nzP- ?n2+P.
ikon lxrobicm require the caIculation of the integral, Combining tbesa quanti.ties, as required by (32), dropping the
J.,(iifl= - 5SSPEY.@- t4+n)rp@+1~+r~>~4~
constants 6, C" and evaluating the spur gives (33). The spun are
maluated in the usual way, noting that the spur of any odd
number of y matrices vanishes and Sp(AB)=S#(BA) for arbi-
X (Q- &@lz- m?*)-"@+ f 1 ~ 1 7 - " , (32)
trary A , B. The S#(I)=B anti we aim k v e
Itbere ue have repiaad P by B- tq to simplify the cakculation
mmewhat. We shall indicate the method of caieulstion by studying - -
the integral,
I ( 4= ~ P , P P S ~ C P -iq)2-ma)-h((P+ t~)"f&~l-~. -
- (~z.~a-mrmd(P~.Pe-~@O
The factors in the denminator, p-@,g-mP+jqs and fP+p.g +(Pt.#~-mlmd(@~.lba-ms~z~~ (S@
- - f itre combined as usual by f8a"l
~ t 1 ~ 4q2 for symmetry we where m,, m, are arbitrary four-vecbrs and constmts,
sul>strtute .v-- g(1-f-rl), (1-2)- 4 U 1)) and integrate s from I t is interesting that the terms of order X9nh* go out, so that
--l ta-f-l: the charge renormalization depnds onky fogaritbmically an ha.
~(~a') J-y : I P . P ~ ' P ~~p- 4- m".+i@l"d@iZ.
' C3Oa)
This is not true for Borne of the m w n Electrdynamics
h saviriowly unique in the miidnas of its divergeaa.
Btrt the integral on ) will not be found in our list for it is badly
divergent, However, as d i s c u d in Section 7, Eq. (32') we do not L), More C@mpi@8:
wish I($+) but rather J6"[l(m*f -l(mD+ h))s(h}dhh We can
calculate the difference I(="-I(mr+XP) by first cakulating the Matrix compla prohiems
derivative l'(m9+L) of I with respect to m%t &+L and later =hnus that ad for lhe
L from eero to dE~erenlialinlJ(%l, three iilweatjons; higher order carrections to the MQIHhr Katter-
respect ta N10 find,
I ~ c ~ papde@w-
~ ~ R ?.pg-+-~-t- ~:p~-~d~,
This still diverges, but we can cfigerentiste again to get
I " < ~ ~-
Bcp . p ~ " a ~ - @ p . gd-- ~+ip2)-"drr
--::fl-lgi ( t ~ l q ~ q ~ ~ it (cip, ,- ~ ~ f d n
(where D- $(g-f)@+~g+L),which now convergesand Itas been
(3 1 a)

evaluatlrd by (13a) with p-ifqq and A-&+l;.-fqz. How ta get

I%@ may intggrate I" with respect to L as an indefinite integral
and w may clmese any c m v e t f a ar&rwy cm&&. This is bemm
a constant C in I-wilI m a n a term -CXa in I(mq-I(m2+XI)
which vattisha since we will integrate the raults tima G(h]l?)dX
and &PdXPG(X)dA=O. This means that the lwrithm ~ M n ong
integnrting I, in (31aJ p r e n c s no probEem. We may take
~'(rn(+~f (%)-'E Ct~'g&~D-2+f 8.r bD3w-t-C&,
a aubsequmt integral on L and i i d y on pr-ts no new
problems, Thm rwults

FIG.8, The inkrxtlon betweem two electrons tn order

One adds the contrribution af every figure ~nvoivingtwo vrrtual
+&,,C(A2+ma)h(h~m-2-f-f~-CfX2J, f32a) quanb, Appndix D.
ing, to the Campton mttering, and the interaction oi a neutron means that one adds with equal weight the intepals corresponding
with an electromagnetic fieid, to each lopologidly dishnct figure.
For the Mllfer sattedng, consider two el~trons,one in state To this rame order there are a h Ihe p J b i E t i m of Fig, 8d
tgt of momentum p, and the other in state of momentum #S. which give
t i t e r they are found in states us, and uh P,.This may hppen
(first order in @/kG) because they exchange a quantum of momen-
tum ~ ~ P i - f l a ~ P r -inP B~ e manner of Q, (4) and Fig, l. The
matrix element for this prmess is proportional to (translating (4)
to Rlomentum space) This integal on k will be m n to be precisely the inteuai (12) for
(sr~~~af(@rv,.dq-'. i37af the radiative corr~tionsto mttering, which we have worked out.
The term may be combined with the renormalimtion terms result-
We shall diwuss corrections to @?a) to the next order in @/h. ing from the Blgerence of the eFtects of mass change and the terms,
(There is also the possibility that it is the electron at 2 which Rg.8f and &g, Figures ge, &h,and 8i are similarly awlyzed,
6naUy arrrva at 3, the electron a t 1 gdng to 4 through the ex- FiwUy the term Fig. 8c b ctearly retailed to our vacuum
change of quantum of momentum PI-Pn The ampfitude for t h ~ s poiarizalion problem, and when integated gives a term propor-
process, (ricr,~tf(irar,ua)Ipa-P*}-~,must be subtracted from tional to (@,yBsp)(~l~,~l)lr&+. Lf the charge is renormaliad the
(3Sa) in accordance with the exclusion principle. A imiiar situa- term lu(X/nt) in J,, in (33) is ontitttrd so t h e i s no remaining
tion exrsts to each order so &at we need consider in detail only dependence on the cut-08,
the corrections to (37a), ~er~erving to the last, the subtraction of ?he only new i n t e m b we requtre are the convergent i n t e ~ a l s
the same terms with 3,4 exchangd.) (38a) and (39a). They can be simplified by rationdizing the
One rmwn that (37%)is modified is that two quanta may be nominaha and combining them by (f4aI. For example (S&) m-
exchanged, in the manner of Fig. 8%.The total matrix element volves the factors (E- Z$t.k)-'(kf+ 2P~,k)-~k*(q'+ P- Zq.k)-'.
for all exchanges of this type is The first twa may be combined by {l4a) with a parameter z,and
the mond pair by an exprwsion obtain& by digerentiation (15a)
with resnect to b and callina the parameter y. There rcsults a
factor ( k - ~ ~ ~ k ) ~ ( kSO ~ that+ the
~ intqrais
q ~ ~nn~ ~ ~ ~
d?5-now involve two factors and can be performed by the meshads
as is clear from the dgure and the genera1 rule that electrons of given earlier in the appndix. The s u b q u e n t integrals on tbe
momm;nmnt contribute in antpEtude (,P--m)-"etw~en inter- parameters s and y are complicated and have not been worked out
acGons 7 , and that quanta, of momentum k mntribute @. In in detail.
intepating on d% and summing aver p and P. we add all alkrnrna- Working with charged memns there is often a considerable re-
liver, of the type of Fig. 8a. If the time of a b q l i o a , y,, of the duction of the numhr of terns, For example, tor the interaction
quantum k by elweon 2 is tater thaa the absorrpttion, rp, of g- k, betwmn protons retrulting from the exchange of two merians only
this comapnds to the v~rtualstate @S+& k i n g a psitron (m the term conesponding to Fig, 8b remains. Term 8a, for example,
that ( 3 W contejns over thirty terms Ctf the conventional methd is imposrrible, for if the lrrst protsn emits a p s i t ~ v em e n the
of andyL). second eannot abwrb it dircxtty for only neutrons can absorb
In integrating over all the= alkmatives vve have considered all pvsitive mesons.
w i b I e distortions of Fig, 8a which prewrve the order of events As a m n d milmple, mm'der the radialive correction to the
along the trajectories. We have not included the p d b i l i ~ e s Campton scattering. As seen from Q, (1.5) and Fig. S this s-catter-
carrapnding tn Fig, 8b, bowwer. Their mntribudon is ing is r e p r m t e d by two terms, so that we can cornider the car-
rectians to each one separakly. Figure D shows the types of terms
arising from corrections to the term of Fig. Sa, Calling k the
momentum of tbe virtual qumtum, Fig, 9a gives an integral
as is r-dily 9wiFted by Iaheling the dkgram. Tht? contfibutions of
all possibje ways that an event can =cur are to be added. This
convergent without cut-o8 and reducible by the methads outIine$
in tbb awendix.
The other terms are relaacivety easy to evaluate. Terms 6 a i d G
of Fig. 9 are &wIy relrrled Co radiative corrections (altfnough
s o m w h t more dtffiatt to evaluate, for one of the slaka is not
that of a free e l ~ l r o n(nl+q)~Zm~).
, Terms e, j are renormdiza-
tion terms, From term d must be subtracted explicidy the effect
of mass Am, as analymd in &S. (25) and (27) leading to (28)
with @'=fit+qt a=es &=ea. Terms p, h e v e zero since tbe
vacuum polarimtian has zero eetect an free fight quanta, gts=D,
qs*-=O. The total is insensitive ts the cut-08 X.
Tbe result shows an infra-red atastrophe, the largat part
of the egect. W h cut-vg at X=, the effect proportional to
h(m/h,,,) goes as
In(m/h,,.)(I -2@ ct&@l,
timct-s the uncolrected ampfitude, where @*-@~)g=h%n%. ?&is
is h e %me as for the radktive correction to wattering for a
deamtion P1-&. This is physically clear since t)re fong wave
quanta are not decked by byhart-lived intermediate states. The
infra-red eBects ansem from a final adjustment of the field from
the asymptotic coulomb fieid characteristic of the electron of
FIG.9. h d i a t ~ v emrrection to the Compton e t k r i n g term
(a) of Fig. 5. Appendix D. F, Bloch and A. Norrfsieck, Phys. Rev, 52, 54 (1937).
momentum fit before B e mllision to tbat characte~scicof rur
electron movinp in a new directian $2 after the cotlision.
The complete w r d o n for the coaection is a very compEa&
expr&on involving tramendental i n t v l s .
As a tinal e m p l e we consider the i n b a r i o n of a neutron with
an ekctromagnetic field in virtue of the fact that the neutron may
emit a virtual ~ g a t i v em m n , We cheose the emmple of p n d a -
wakr m m s with pseudovector aupting. The change in ampli-
tude due to an Jmtramagnetic field A=a exp(-@.S) determines
the kcactteflng of a neutron by such a held, h the limit of small p
it will vary aa qa-aq which reprmntci tlre int-eraaian of s par-
ng a magnetic moment, The irsl-order inkractian
between an elmtron and a neutron is given by th heme calculalion
by amidering the =change of a quantum between the eleetroron
and the nuclmn. In this cage U, is p times the matrix element of
v,, between the initial and Rnaf states of the electron, the states
diEe~agin momentum by q,
The interactiou m y m u r h u e the neutron of momentum
#X emits a w t i v e mema k o d n g s proton w&ch proton inter- Frc, 10. According to thn: meson tkory a neutron interacts with
a c t ~with the field rnd then rwbsorh the m w o (Fig.10a). The an electrornwetjc potential a by first emitting a virtual cchsgetl
matrix far tfiig p m - is ( P ~ ~ f # t + q ) , mem. Tbe figure rtlusmtes the case for a mudoscalar megon
with m u d o v ~ t o =upling.
r Appendix D.

@1-R-dd)yoS-2By, since y, anticommutes wtth fit and k, The

aternatively it may be the m m n which interacts with the lieid, first term cancels the @~-k-m-%nd gives a term which just
We assume that it does this in the rtlennw of a d a r potential canceis (@%l. Xn a like m a n e r the lading faetor y6k in (4la) is
8a&fying the Kfein &rdon @. (351, (Fig. IOb) written as - 2 g ~ s - y p @ s - &-M],the secand term keading to n
simpler term con@ning no tpll-K-Mf-g factor and combining
with a slmilar one from (-1. One 9implifies the rnRs and
in (42a) in an analogow way. There finalty r a u l b terms like
(4laf, (42aI but with m d o e a h r coupling 2dfy6 instad of
where we have put I=- k11-Q.m e change in sign arises km= ysk, no terms like (43a) or (&a] and a remainder, r p m ~ n t i n g
the virtuel m w n i s nestive. Finally there are two terms wiging the differenu? in eBwts af w u d o v ~ t o and r pseudwalar coupling,
fmm the rdi part of the pudovector mapling (Figs. l&, 1Odf m e p s e u b l a r terms do not d ~ e n dseensitiveiy an the cut-all,
but the diaerence term dewnds on it w t & c a i i y . The differ-
ence term affects the detron-neutron inktaction but not the
=-tic moment of the neutPon.
Inteation of a protsn with an e ! ~ t m r n ~ e t jpknendal c can
be slmjtarfy amtymd, There is an d k t of virtual m w n s on the
e l e c t r a w e t i ~p r v r t i e s of the proton even in the c m that the
U&ng convergence factors in Ibe m n e t d m m d in the stsction m m n s are netltmi. It is a n d q o u ~to I-he d i a t i v e wrrstions to
on meaon theeries a& integral can be evaluated and the resuib the mtterlng of eIeetrons due to virtual photons. m e sum of the
mmhind. E z p a n a in powers of q the timt k r m gives the W- magnetic mamenb of nmtron and protan for charged m a n s is
netk momcmt of the neutron and is insensitive to the cut-o8t, the the m e as the proton m m n t dcuiatedl for the comaponding
next gives the Iseattering mplitude of slow electrons on neutrons, neutrd -R#. In fact it is mdily w n by camparing d i w r n s ,
and depends logaritbmially on the cut-off, that for arbitrary q, the sfattering matrix ta f i s l W& in Ilrc?
The qrEssions may be simplified and a m b i n d =mewhat &r@mgdk powliol far a proton m d i n g to neutral m a n
hiore integrstion, %is makes the intepals a little m i e r and also &wry is qual, if the m m n s were charged, to the sum of the
shows the nfation to the case of p s e u d m b r a q l i n g , For matrir for a neutron and the matrix for a proton. This is true, for
emmpie in (rila) the find yr& a n be written as ydk-#t-f-R.if any type or mixtures of mcson coupling, to all mdem in the
sin@ when operating on the initial neutron state. Thk Is coupling fnqlsting the masg diarence of ncutron and pmwn).