# AIRCOM Model Tuning Guidance Wednesday 13th September 2006 y p Raju.

Chukkana

Model Tuning
To learn how to tune the ASSET Propagation Models

• M d li Modeling

• Model Calibration Process • Model Calibration • Typical Results • Model Validation • Recommendations

Modelling !

What is Modeling?

• The Purpose of a Model • M d l C it i Model Criteria • Propagation Models

The Purpose of a Model
• Characterise the topology with network limits – identification of operating range for
each model.

• Minimise Standard Deviation Error. • P id zero mean error Provide • Determine model parameters in accordance to realistic propagation effects existing
within proposed regions. regions

• Make sure calibrated model corresponds well with the collected data – data is
essential.

The Purpose of a Model
▪ ▪ ▪

To predict the receiving signal strength from a Base Station (BTS) To help with the Radio Plan without the need for an individual CW measurement verification Most steps in the planning of a network are highly dependent on the accuracy of the model. e.g.

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

Coverage C Traffic Analysis Frequency Planning Parameter Analysis

▪ Have mean error of zero. .Model Criteria ▪ Accurate close to and far from the site (DISTANCE INDEPENDENT) (TERRAIN INDEPENDENT) ▪ Accurate in hilly as well as flat areas ▪ Accurate in Urban as well as in open areas (CLUTTER INDEPENDENT) ▪ Accurate for varying antenna heights (ANTENNA INDEPENDENT) (AREA INDEPENDENT) ▪ Applicable in different areas with similar characteristics ▪ Have an overall RMS error of between 6 and 8 dB.

• It requires some correction factors and d .Okumura-Hata Model • Okumura conducted propagation tests for landmobile radio service in Japan. • Curves were produced which allowed the estimation of field strength at different distances from the transmitter •H t Hata th then analysed Ok l d Okumura’s work ’ k presented it in a mathematical formula.

Okumura-Hata in Asset Asset uses slightly modified Okumura-Hata: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Ploss =K1 + K2*log(d) + K3*Hms + K4*log(Hms) + K5*log(Heff) + K6*log(Heff)*log(d) + K7*Ldiff + Lclutter d is distance in km between Tx antenna and mobile station Hms is mobile station height Heff is effective antenna height in metres Ldiff is a loss due to diffraction Lclutter is a clutter loss ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Asset has 4 algorithms for calculating effective antenna height g g g Absolute Average Relative Slope ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Asset has 4 algorithms for calculating diffraction Epstein Peterson Epstein-Peterson Bullington Deygout .

K7 >0 0 ▫ K3. K3 and K4 relate to the mobile height and how it affects the path loss. If sufficient data has been gathered then these can be calibrated (one at a time) by an iterative process of incremental changes and reanalysis until the standard deviation of the error is minimized. K5 and K6 are very important parameters since they relate to the effective base station antenna height.5m) these two terms in the equation become constants. They only require calibration if you employ a variable mobile height. K6 <0 Above step can be easily fulfil by determining the delta range under Auto tune window . 1. K7 (Diffraction Parameter) Diffraction effects occur only where there is no line of sight (LOS) from the site to the mobile. data All K parameters must keep the same polarity as in the original Okumura Hata model ▫ K1. These factors correspond to a constant offset ( p p p (in ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ dBm) and a multiplying factor for the log of the distance between the base station and mobile. The default Hata values are K5=-13.K parameters ▪ K1 and K2 Intercept and Slope.g. and how this affects the path loss. Since the MS height is normally fixed (e. in order to determine the K7 parameter the survey data needs to be filtered to exclude the LOS data. K2. K5.82 and K6=-6. Therefore. These values are difficult to calibrate without gathering data at a wide variety of base station heights.55.

.General Principles. takes the form of a “magic number” and is known as the intercept. Models are generally based on the principle that the level (measured in dB) falls in a linear fashion with distance from the transmitter This is transmitter. Receive Level e Slope Distance from Base Station . At some distance from the transmitter the level is set to a fixed value This value. “Local” offsets may be applied to the model at different points to reflect the effects of different clutter types at different points along the path or the effects of a diffracted path i. represented by a term in the model of Klog(d) where K is the slope. Intercept p Offsets Caused By Clutter etc.e. An offset may be applied for effective base station antenna height or mobile effective antenna height all along the path. shadowing by terrain or other g y obstructions.

. ▪ Through Clutter Loss – takes into the account clutter profile along distance d from mobile station to base station.Asset improvements ▪ K1 near and k2 near are designed to overcome Okumura-Hata limitation for close distances. ▪ Advantages in improved accuracy/reduced standard deviation error and more realistic calculated predictions predictions.

Through clutter losses are linearly weighted.Through Clutter Model Definition Each clutter category is given Through Clutter Loss (dB/km) on the path between transmitter and receiver. The clutter nearest the mobile station has the highest effect. .

ASSET’s Propagation Models .

CW Measurements and Model Calibration Process Drive Route Definition CW Survey y Campaign Data Post Processing Data Data Validation Validation Propagation Model Requirements Identification Site Selection Calibration YES Report Pass Model? NO .

▪ Diffraction Loss.Tuning A Model. p ▪ Path Loss Intercept. ▪ Path Loss Slope. ▪ Eff ti G i Of M bil Antenna. ▪ Clutter Values. ▪ Effective Antenna Height. Effective Gain Mobile A t ▪ Path Clutter. .

it will come g . the RMS error must be calculated. to zero. To test the accuracy of the line that has been drawn it is necessary to calculate the error at every measurement point and hence a mean error. To test the slope.Path Loss Slope. If the mean error is calculated. If the line that had been drawn was the blue one instead of the red one there is obviously an error. It is possible to draw a straight line p g through this plot that will show the underlying slope of the level/distance characteristic. because there are both p positive and negative errors. In practice there would be over a thousand of these measurements. The diagram represents a number of signal level measurements taken at g various points within the coverage area of a cell. therefore. Measure Level (dBm) ed .

Measur red Leve (dBm) el . If this is done and the mean error. The diagram shows a red line with the correct offset and a blue line with an incorrect offset. This point is shown marked in green on the diagram diagram. The slope and intercept values have now been calculated and may be used in the propagation model.Path Loss Intercept. It is now possible to mark the plot at a fixed distance from the base station and to obtain a value in dBm for the intercept point. The slope of the line is now fixed. calculated it is possible to place the line so that there is close to zero mean error. between the line and the actual measurements is measurements. p It is possible to move the line up or down on the plot.

In this slide the samples have been color coded to indicate the type of clutter present at each sample site. the model must be run and its predictions compared with the real measurements. The calculation of mean errors in different types of clutter and the standard deviation of errors enables these values to be fine tuned.Clutter Values. This helps in deciding what sort of value to assign to each sort of clutter. There is also an overall clutter weighting to be assigned. The local variations in level may be due to clutter at the mobile location. . Measur red Leve (dBm) el ) Having assigned clutter values.

Diffraction Loss. ▪ Drawing a Path Profile identifies diffracted paths ▪ Diffraction problems are handled as single or multiple knife edges ▪ An overall weighting factor must be found .

The Effective earth radius is set in the propagation model parameters. Here is an illustrative diagram of the Relative Method: .Effective Antenna Height. Relative Method (Effective Height) The Relative method calculates the effective antenna height as follows: H eff = H b+H ob-H 0m (for H 0b > H 0m) H eff = H b (for H 0b < = H 0m) Where: H b : is the base station antenna height above ground H ob : is the ground height at the base station H 0m : is the ground height at the mobile Note: The algorithm already takes into account the affect of earth curvature.

. ▪ Clutter may be considered over a larger area than the point at which the mobile is located. located ▪ Clutter Height may be added to Terrain Height to calculate obstruction losses.Path Clutter Factors.

▫ Within geographic region of model Height sites Site Selection ▫ Spread of site heights representative of networkDistribution forheights within modelled region 6 ▫ Allow measurements in a c utte types o easu e e ts all clutter 5 ▫ Rooftop sites are preferred in a case test transmitter has to be 4 Fr requency mounted ▫ Ease of access 3 Frequency 2 ▫ No blocking objects in close vicinity 1 ▫ Nothing unusual.Site Selection ▫ M More or 8 sites per model. we are characterising the majority of the network not g g j y 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 More 0 the minority -1 Height of Site ▫ Add Panoramic photographs at every 45 degree interval . Less number of sites can be considered if it d l L b f it b id d modelled geographical area is fairly small.

Okumura. situations ▫ Good balance between measurements taken in LOS and NLOS ▫ Do not plan a route across a big water surface. do not drive other lake side ▫ Data in regions of terrain slope variation ariation ▫ Avoid large blocking objects as high building or long roof ▫ Long enough to ensure sufficient data is captured ▫ Check map data validity . elevated roads. if site is on the one side of the lake. tunnels. cuttings etc ▫ Mix of radial and tangential roads ▫ Do not plan a map along the roads with ground height above the istance lutter oads Miscellaneous transmitter antenna.Hata model can’t model this.CW Drive Route Definition ▫ Must account for expected coverage propagation ▫ Must account for expected interference propagation ▫ Sufficient measurement in all local clutter types ( >1000 ) ▫ Avoid street canyons.

tunnels.CW Measurements Spectrum clearance p ▫ During CW survey allocated test frequency shouldn’t be use for other purposes ▫ 10-15KHz bandwidth monitoring ▫ Check restrictions on test frequency TX EIRP Equipment configuration E i t fi ti ▫ Raw/Averaged data ▫ Accurate Radiated Power setting. ▫ Distance/Time triggering Omni Antenna with Transmitter attached through feeder. Receive equipment attached to roof mounted . roads. EiRP should be greater than 40dBm ▫ Use Omni antenna with minimum vertical beamwidth of 12 degrees ▫ Directional antenna can be used but in postproccessing everything beyond 3dBm should be dismissed RF Signals Driving ▫ Do not drive out of RX noise floor ▫ Avoid street canyons tunnels elevated roads cuttings etc canyons. In Vehicle.

Lee Criteria Lee Criteria In d t li i t fast f di f L C it i – I order to eliminate f t fading from measurements. A local mean should be found for the chosen number of samples.8λ. t minimum 36 samples should be taken over 40λ.Sampling . 50 samples should be averaged and give the local mean mean. . Common practice is to take 50 samples which gives one sample every 0.

Fast fading is superimposed onto signal envelope (slow fading) which we try to model. Okumura-Hata is log normal distribution L L .Slow fading vs Fast fading ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fast fading is fading due to multipath effect. Fast fading is characterized by Rayleigh probability distribution therefore can’t be can t modelled by log normal distribution. Slow fading follows log normal distribution. Slow fading is fading due to terrain and clutter.

Sampling in time triggering is not a problem since Lee states just minimum number of samples. Di t ti i ll to il l Lee it i Time triggering is very difficult to follow Lee criterion due to change in p drive vehicle speed.Distance triggering vs time triggering Distance triggering allows us t easily apply L criterion. . Whenever possible choose distance triggering. Averaging over 40 λ i problem t i l A i is bl to implement i ti t in time t i triggering since i i there is not constant number of samples over 40 λ caused by speed variation.

in a case of modelling small geographical area with i f d lli ll hi l ith less sites. tuning can be performed with 10000 data per site. The more data the model is more realistic . statistically sufficient number of d t d l to b li ti t ti ti ll ffi i t b f data need to be collected.Total driving route per model In d f I order for model t be realistic. If this distance is not achievable due to limitation in drivable roads it is recommended to have more than 8 sites per model. As t t d b f A stated before. p Aircom practise is to have at least 30000 data.

Therefore in a Tx field usually is put: Tx – Ct +Atg –Arg+Crl where Tx-Tx power(dBm). measurements. ▫ It is common practice to include all gains and losses under Tx power value and leave other fields relevant to gain/losses in the header blank. Tx power. Atg-transmitting antenna gain (dBi) Arg-receiving antenna gain (dBi) Crl-cable loss between receiver and receiving antenna (dB) It is important to get the projection system correctly so collected samples are lined up with the vectors in map data If vectors are not aligned with measurements during post process this should data. Ct-cable loss between transmitter and antenna (dB).hd. latitude (decimal degrees) and received level (dBm) ▫ E Every d t fil must have h d fil with id ti l name b t with extension . be adjusted. coordinates. .dat ) contains longitude.Data Post processing Depends on customer requirements: ▫ Averaged Measurements – post processing involves simple conversion into Signia format supported by Enterprise ▫ Signia data file ( . data file th header file ith identical but ith t i hd ▫ Header file must have antenna type (identical name to one in Asset). Tx antenna height.

ilter out any invalid data that may cause anomalies n the calibration process Make sure that details relating to a site (EIRP (EIRP. surrounding lutter and terrain profile) to the Clutter and DTM ayer of the map data provided. ocation. se Asset utilities to get visual representation of the eceived signal vs distance.CW Data Validation Compare the site data (photographs. Antenna file) correspond to reports rom CW Survey. Height. Check the driven routes against vectors within the map data. .

Unusually high signal level at far distance can be caused by reflection over big water surface. must be filtered out. Unusually weak signal level can be caused by driving behind blocking object.Data filtering Filter clutter types that have less than 500 bins Clutter offsets or them bins. With careful route planning filtering can be avoided. therefore these data . Having more than one file per site makes filtering during post processing much easier . Filter out any file which shows extreme in signal level. or driving along route which is higher than antenna. Okumura –Hata can’t model above situations. will be estimated later in the model tuning process.

Filtering example-Driving above Tx antenna .

Filtering example-Blocking object .

Displaying CW measurements in Asset ▫ Data Types-CW Measurements- g CW Signal ▫ To set up thresholds double click on CW Signal and specify thresholds under Categories tab inside CW Measurements ▫ The same goes for other options .

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they mast have extension .hd Remove button to remove particular file ▪ Hi hli ht Sit ID and click Highlight Site d li k .CW Window ▪ 3g/Asset-Tools-Model Tuning ▪ Cli k Add t add measurements Click to dd t file from its destination.

It is recommended d l i d d to use default model .Model setting ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Options ▪ S l t th resolution of mapping Select the l ti f i data ▪ Select the model as a start tuning t i model.

Filter seting ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Options- Filter ▪ Set up distance filtering ▪ Set up signal level filtering ▪ Filter out clutter types with insufficient data by highlighting them ▪ If you tune k7 click just NLOS ▪ Click antenna button if directional antennas were used .

Auto Tune ▪ Tools-Model Tuning-Auto Tune ▪ S t up deltas Set d lt ▪ Click fix box next to the k factor you don’t want to tune ▪ Click Auto Tune under Tools tab ▪ Wait for results ▪ You can apply new parameters by clicking apply new parameters ▪ Through clutter offsets and clutter offsets are under Clutter tab .

Default K parameters .

. ▫ ▫ -110dBm to -40dBm 125m to 10000 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Start with the default values for k parameters Do Auto Tune Try all combination of effective antenna height and diffraction y g algorithms and determine which one gives the lowest standard deviation Take note of second and third best . sites. antennas. model) in order to start tuning Load CW data Make appropriate filtering usually: filtering.Overview of Model Calibration ▪ ▪ ▪ There must be project set up (map data antennas sites propagation data.

▪ If standard deviation is still bad try with other distances until you find the best fit. distances above 700 di b 700m.k1. for example up to 700m.k2 near calibration ▪ If model is not good close to the site. parameters. . ▪ Tune model again with k5.k6 and k7 locked and filter out ▪ Result will be k1near and k2 near. auto tune the model from 700m to 10k Apply found k 10k.

▪ Clutter offsets must be realistic relative to each other. ▪ W t will h Water ill have th smallest offset while b ildi and forest the the ll t ff t hil building d f t th highest. ▪ Estimation is done relative to the clutter offsets with sufficient data.Clutter offset ▪ Some through clutter offsets and clutter offsets need to be estimated due to insufficient data data. .

Adjusting ME ▪ Mean error is usually altered after estimation of clutter offsets. ▪ ME can be easily bring back to 0 by changing k1 ▪ If mean error is ∆ change k1 to k1+ ∆ .

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following requirements should be fulfilled ▫ -1 < ME < 1 ▫ SD < 8 ▪ If ME or SD is outside the above specified values. ranges ▪ In the range of interest. . typically 1km to 4km.Model analyses ▪ Make statistical analyses for ME and SD for different distance ranges. t with i t id th b ifi d l try ith changing the dual slope distance or take the second best model from the initial tuning.

Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot Sites Details Over shoot signal from .

Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot Over shoot signal from DXB3208 and DXB3005 .

Dxb3217 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .

Dxb3218 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .

Dxb3005 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .

Dxb3208 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .

Dxb3209 Live sites signal Vs Predicted signal Comparison Plot .

Dubai Dense Urban Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .

Dubai Residential Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .

Abu Dhabi Dense Urban Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .

Abu Dhabi Residential Validation of Tuned Model-Site 8 .

Optimisation will always be required.Recommendations • Apply the model on Macro cell sites as opposed to Micro cell or Minicell • Update clutter classes regularly • A Generic Model could be applied • REMEMBER: Models are NOT perfect. .