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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

IV SEMESTER - ECE ‘B’


EC1256 – ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS – II AND SIMULATION LAB

Cycle – I

1. Current Series feedback amplifier: Frequency response, Input and output impedance
calculation
2. Voltage Shunt feedback amplifier: Frequency response, Input and output impedance
calculation
3. RC Phase shift oscillator
4. Hartley Oscillator
5. Colpitts Oscillator
6. CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR using PSPICE
7. Active filter: Butterworth II order LPF using PSPICE
8. Differential amplifier using PSPICE

Cycle – II
9. Frequency Response of Single Tuned Amplifier
10. Astable multivibrator
11. Monostable multivibrator
12. Bistable multivibrator
13. Wave Shaping Circuits (Integrator, Differentiator, Clippers and Clampers)
14. D/A converter using PSPICE
15. Astable multivibrator using PSPICE
16. Monostable multivibrator using PSPICE
Expt No: 1 CURRENT-SERIES FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

Aim:
To design and test the current-series feedback amplifier and to calculate the
following parameters with and without feedback.
1. Mid band gain.
2. Bandwidth and cut-off frequencies.
3. Input and output impedance.

Components & Equipment required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 Connecting wires Accordingly

Circuit diagram:

(i) Without feedback:


Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Cout
C
Cin
RL
B BC107
CRO
E
Vin=50mV
f=(1-3M)Hz R2 RE
CE

2
(ii) With feedback:
Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Cout
C
Cin
RL
B BC107 CRO
E
Vin=50mV
f=(1-3M)Hz R2 RE

0
Theory:

The current series feedback amplifier is characterized by having shunt sampling


and series mixing. In amplifiers, there is a sampling network, which samples the output
and gives to the feedback network. The feedback signal is mixed with input signal by
either shunt or series mixing technique. Due to shunt sampling the output resistance
increases by a factor of ‘D’ and the input resistance is also increased by the same factor
due to series mixing. This is basically transconductance amplifier. Its input is voltage
which is amplified as current.

Design:
(i) Without feedback:

VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; fL = 50Hz; S = 2; RL = 4.7KΩ ; hfe =


re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10
Applying KVL to output loop, we get
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

3
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC,
IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE = 2
RB =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
XCi = Zi / 10 = (hie || RB) / 10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = (RC || RL)/10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =
XCE = RE/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =

(ii) With feedback (Remove the Emitter Capacitor, CE):

Feedback factor, β = -RE =


Gm = -hfe / (hie + RE) =
Desensitivity factor, D = 1 + β Gm =
Transconductance with feedback, Gmf = Gm / D =
Input impedance with feedback, Zif = Zi D
Output impedance with feedback, Z0f = Z0 D

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.


2. Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 50Hz to 3MHz in
regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.
3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency
4. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.
5. Calculate the input and output impedance.
6. Remove Emitter Capacitance, and follow the same procedures (1 to 5).

4
Tabular column:

(i) Without feedback:


Vi =
Frequency Output Voltage Gain = 20 log(V0/Vi)
Sl. No Gain = V0/Vi
(Hz) (V0) (volts) (dB)

(ii) With feedback:


Vi =
Frequency Output Voltage Gain = 20 log(V0/Vi)
Sl. No Gain = V0/Vi
(Hz) (V0) (volts) (dB)

Model graph: (frequency response)

Gain in dB

Without feedback

With feedback

Frequency in Hz

Result:
Thus the current series feedback amplifier is designed and constructed and the
following parameters are calculated.

Theoretical Practical
With feedback Without feedback With feedback Without feedback
Input
impedance
Output
impedance
Gain
(midband)
Bandwidth

5
Expt. No. 2 VOLTAGE SHUNT FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER

Aim:
To design and test the voltage-shunt feedback amplifier and to calculate the
following parameters with and without feedback.
1. Mid band gain.
2. Bandwidth and cut-off frequencies.
3. Input and output impedance.

Components & Equipment required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

(i) Without Feedback:


Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Cout
C
Cin
B BC107
E CRO
Vin=50mV
f=(1-3M)Hz R2 RE
CE

6
(ii) With Feedback:

Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Rf Cf Cout

C
Cin
BC107
B CRO
E
Vin=50mV

f=(1-3M)Hz R2 RE
CE

Theory:

In voltage shunt feedback amplifier, the feedback signal voltage is given to


the base of the transistor in shunt through the base resistor RB. This shunt connection
tends to decrease the input resistance and the voltage feedback tends to decrease the
output resistance. In the circuit RB appears directly across the input base terminal and
output collector terminal. A part of output is feedback to input through R B and increase in
IC decreases IB. Thus negative feedback exists in the circuit. So this circuit is also called
voltage feedback bias circuit. This feedback amplifier is known an transresistance
amplifier. It amplifies the input current to required voltage levels. The feedback path
consists of a resistor and a capacitor.

Design
(i) Without Feedback:
VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; AV = 30; Rf = 2.5KΩ ; S = 2; hfe = ; β =1/ Rf = 0.0004
re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10 =

7
Applying KVL to output loop, we get VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC, IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE
RB =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
(ii) With feedback:

RO = RC || Rf =
Ri = (RB || hie ) Rf =
Rm = -(hfe (RB || Rf) (RC || Rf)) / ((RB || Rf) + hie) =
Desensitivity factor, D = 1 + β Rm
Rif = Ri / D =
Rof = Ro / D =
Rmf = Rm / D =
XCi = Rif /10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = Rof /10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =
RE’ = RE || ((RB + hie) / (1+hfe))
XCE = RE’/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =
XCf = Rf/10
Cf = 1 / (2π f XCf) =
Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.


2. Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 50Hz to 3MHz in
regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.
3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency

8
4. Calculate the bandwidth from the graph.
5. Calculate the input and output impedance.
6. Remove Emitter Capacitance, and follow the same procedures (1 to 5).

Tabular Column:

(i) Without Feedback:


Vi = 10 mV
Frequency V0 Gain = V0/Vi Gain (dB) = 20 log(V0/Vi)
(volts)

(ii) With Feedback:


Vi = 10 mV
Frequency V0 Gain = V0/Vi Gain (dB) = 20 log(V0/Vi)
(volts)

Model graph: (frequency response)

Gain in dB

Without feedback

With feedback

Frequency in Hz

Result:
Thus the current series feedback amplifier is designed and constructed and the
following parameters are calculated.
Theoretical Practical
With feedback Without feedback With feedback Without feedback
Input
impedance
Output
impedance
Gain
(midband)
Bandwidth

9
Expt. No. 3 RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR

Aim:
To design and construct a RC phase shift oscillator for the given frequency (f0).

Components & Equipment required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 Connecting wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:
Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Cout

C
Cin
B
BC107
E RL
CRO

R2 RE
CE

C C C
R R R

10
Theory:

In the RC phase shift oscillator, the required phase shift of 180˚ in the feedback
loop from the output to input is obtained by using R and C components, instead of tank
circuit. Here a common emitter amplifier is used in forward path followed by three
sections of RC phase network in the reverse path with the output of the last section being
returned to the input of the amplifier. The phase shift Ф is given by each RC section
Ф=tanˉ1 (1/ωrc). In practice R-value is adjusted such that Ф becomes 60˚. If the value
of R and C are chosen such that the given frequency for the phase shift of each RC
section is 60˚. Therefore at a specific frequency the total phase shift from base to
transistor’s around circuit and back to base is exactly 360˚ or 0˚. Thus the Barkhausen
criterion for oscillation is satisfied

Design:

VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; C = 0.01µ F; fo = ; S = 2; hfe =


re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10
Applying KVL to output loop, we get
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC,
IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE = 2
RB =
VB = VBE + VE =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
Gain formula is given by,
− h fe R Leff
AV = (Av = -29, design given)
h ie
Effective load resistance is given by, Rleff = Rc || RL
RL =

11
XCi = {[hie+(1+hfe)RE] || RB}/10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = Rleff /10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =
XCE = RE/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =

Feedback Network:

f0 = ; C = 0.01µ f;
1
fo =
2π 6RC
R=

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. Switch on the power supply and observe the output on the CRO (sine wave).
3. Note down the practical frequency and compare with its theoretical frequency.

Model Graph:

Vout (Voltage)

Time(ms)

Result:

Thus RC phase shift oscillator is designed and constructed and the output sine
wave frequency is calculated as

Theoretical Practical
Frequency
Expt. No.4 HARTELY OSCILLATOR

12
Aim:
To design and construct the given oscillator for the given frequency (fO).

Components & Equipment required:


Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 DIB
8 DCB
9 Connecting wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:
Vcc = +12V

R1 RC
Cout
C
Cin
B
BC107
CRO
E
RL

R2 RE
CE

C
L1 L2

Theory:

13
Hartley oscillator is a type of sine wave generator. The oscillator derives its
initial output from the noise signals present in the circuit. After considerable time, it
gains strength and thereby producing sustained oscillations. Hartley Oscillator have two
major parts namely – amplifier part and feedback part. The amplifier part has a typically
CE amplifier with voltage divider bias. In the feedback path, there is a LCL network.
The feedback network generally provides a fraction of output as feedback.

Design:

VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; fo = ; S = 2; hfe =


re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10
Applying KVL to output loop, we get
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC, IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE = 2
RB =
VB = VBE + VE =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
Gain formula is given by,
− h fe R Leff
AV = (Av = -29, design given)
h ie
Effective load resistance is given by, Rleff = Rc || RL
RL =
XCi = {[hie+(1+hfe)RE] || RB}/10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = Rleff /10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =

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XCE = RE/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =

Feedback Network:

f0 = ; L1 = 1mH; L2 = 10mH
1 L1
A= β = −
L2
1
f=
2π ( L1 + L 2 ) C

C=

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. Switch on the power supply and observe the output on the CRO (sine wave).
3. Note down the practical frequency and compare with its theoretical frequency.

Model Graph:

Vout (Voltage)

Time(ms)

Result:
Thus Hartley oscillator is designed and constructed and the output sine wave
frequency is calculated as

Theoretical Practical
Frequency

Expt. No.5 COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

15
Aim: To design and construct the given oscillator at the given operating frequency.

Equipments required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 DIB
8 DCB
9 Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:
Vcc =
+12V

R1 RC
Cout

C
Cin
B
BC107
CRO
E
RL

R2 RE
CE

C1 C2

0
Theory:

16
A Colpitts oscillator is the electrical dual of a Hartley oscillator. In the Colpitts
circuit, two capacitors and one inductor determine the frequency of oscillation. The
oscillator derives its initial output from the noise signals present in the circuit. After
considerable time, it gains strength and thereby producing sustained oscillations. It has
two major parts namely – amplifier part and feedback part. The amplifier part has a
typically CE amplifier with voltage divider bias. In the feedback path, there is a CLC
network. The feedback network generally provides a fraction of output as feedback.

Design:

VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; fo = ; S = 2; hfe =


re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10
Applying KVL to output loop, we get
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC, IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE = 2
RB =
VB = VBE + VE =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
Gain formula is given by,
− h fe R Leff
AV = (Av = -29, design given)
h ie
Effective load resistance is given by, Rleff = Rc || RL
RL =
XCi = {[hie+(1+hfe)RE] || RB}/10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = Rleff /10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =

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XCE = RE/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =

Feedback Network:

f0 = ; C1 = ; C2 =

1 C2
A= β =
C1
1 C1 + C 2
f=
2π LC 1C 2

L=

Procedure:
1. Rig up the circuit as per the circuit diagrams (both oscillators).
2. Switches on the power supply and observe the output on the CRO (sine wave).
3. Note down the practical frequency and compare with its theoretical frequency.

Model Graph:

Vout (Voltage)

Time(ms)

Result:
Thus Colpitts oscillator is designed and constructed and the output sine wave
frequency is calculated as

Theoretical Practical
Frequency

Expt. No. 6 CMOS Inverter, NAND and NOR using PSPICE

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Aim:
To plot the transient characteristics of output voltage for the given CMOS inverter,
NAND and NOR from 0 to 80µ s in steps of 1µ s. To calculate the voltage gain,
input impedance and output impedance for the input voltage of 5V.

Parameter Table:
Parameters PMOS NMOS
L 1µ 1µ
W 20µ 5µ
VTO -2 2
KP 4.5E-4 2
CBD 5p 5p
CBS 2p 2p
RD 5 5
RS 2 2
RB 0 0
RG 0 0
RDS 1Meg 1Meg
CGSO 1p 1p
CGDO 1p 1p
CGBO 1p 1p

Circuit Diagram:

(i) Inverter:
VDD = +5V

3
S
G Q1

D
1
Vin 2 Vout
D
Q2 RL = 100K

G S

(ii) NAND

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VDD = +5V

S S
G G
Q2
Q1
D D

4 Vout

D
Q3
G
Vin1 1 S
RL = 100K
D
Q4
G
Vin2 3 S

(iii) NOR

VDD = +5V
3
Vin1 1 G S

Q1
D

2 G S
Vin2 Q2
D
4 Vout

D D
Q3 Q4
G G RL = 100K
S S

Theory:

20
(i) Inverter
CMOS is widely used in digital IC’s because of their high speed, low power
dissipation and it can be operated at high voltages resulting in improved noise immunity.
The inverter consists of two MOSFETs. The source of p-channel device is connected to
+VDD and that of n-channel device is connected to ground. The gates of two devices are
connected as common input.

(ii) NAND
It consists of two p-channel MOSFETs connected in parallel and two n-channel
MOSFETs connected in series. P-channel MOSFET is ON when gate is negative and N-
channel MOSFET is ON when gate is positive. Thus when both input is low and when
either of input is low, the output is high.

(iii) NOR

It consists of two p-channel MOSFETs connected in series and two n-channel


MOSFETs connected in parallel. P-channel MOSFET is ON when gate is negative and
N-channel MOSFET is ON when gate is positive. Thus when both inputs are high and
when either of input is high, the output is low. When both the inputs are low, the output
is high.

Truth Table:

(i) Inverter
Input Output
0 1
1 0

(ii) NAND
V1 V2 Output
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

(iii) NOR

V1 V2 Output
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0

Model Graph:

21
(i) Inverter

Voltage

Input Waveform
5V

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Output Waveform
5V

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

(ii) NAND

Voltage

Input Waveform

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Output Waveform

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

(iii) NOR

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Voltage

Input Waveform

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Output Waveform

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 time (µ s)

time (µ s)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Output:
(i) Inverter
Gain = V(2)/Vin =
Input Resistance at Vin =
Output Resistance at V(2) =

(ii) NAND
Gain = V(4)/Vin1 = V(4)/Vin2 =
Input Resistance at Vin1 =
Input Resistance at Vin2 =
Output Resistance at V(4) =

(iii) NOR
Gain = V(4)/Vin1 = V(4)/Vin2 =
Input Resistance at Vin1 =
Input Resistance at Vin2 =
Output Resistance at V(4) =

Result:
Thus the transient characteristics of output voltage for the given CMOS inverter,
NAND and NOR is plotted and the voltage gain, input impedance and output impedance
are calculated.
Expt. No.7 SECOND ORDER BUTTERWORTH - LOW PASS FILTER

23
Aim:

To design and implement the second order butterworth Low pass filter using
PSPICE.

Circuit Diagram:

RIN 1K RF 586 ohm


2

0 V+

7
2 -
R1 R2 6 6 VOUT
5 3 3 +
1 LM741
1.59K 1.59K 4
RL
V-
VIN C2 0.1u 10K
C1 0.1u
1V

(100 - 10K)Hz

Theory:

A Low pass filter has a constant gain from 0 to fH. Hence the bandwidth of the
filter is fH. The range of frequency from 0 to fH is called pass band. The range of
frequencies beyond fH is completely attenuated and it is called as stop band.

Design:

fH = 1000HZ C1= C2 =0.1µ F RIN=1000Ω

fH = 1 / 2π RC

R = 1 / 2π CfH

R = R1 = R2 = 1592Ω
Gain = 1.586

24
1.586 = 1 + (RF / RIN)

RF = 586Ω

Model Graph:

Gain (dB)

3dB

Frequency (HZ)
fH

Result:

Thus Low pass filter is designed and implemented using PSPICE.

25
Expt. No.8 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

Aim:

To implement the differential amplifier using PSPICE.

Circuit Diagram:
RF 10K

V+

RIN 10K 7
VIN 1 2 2 - 6
1 LM741
6
3 + Vout
VIN
2 5 R2 10K 3 4

RCOMP V-
10K

Theory:

A differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two voltages V1 and V2.
The output of the differential amplifier is dependent on the difference between two
signals and the common mode signal since it finds the difference between two inputs it
can be used as a subtractor. The output of differential amplifier is

RF
VO = (V2 – V1)
R1

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Model Graph:

Voltage

V1
time

V2

time

V3

time

Calculation:

V1 = 5V V2 = 10V

RF 10K
VO = (V2 – V1) = (10 – 5)
R1 10K

VO = 5V

Output:

VO = 5V

Result:
Thus a differential amplifier is implemented using operational amplifier.

27
Expt. No.9 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF SINGLE TUNED AMPLIFIER

Aim:
To design and construct a single tuned amplifier and to plot the frequency
response.

Equipment Required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Power supply (0-30)V 1
2 Function generator (0-20M)Hz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistors
6 Capacitors
7 DIB
8 DCB
9 Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

VCC = +10V

R1 L
C
Cout

C
Cin
B
BC107
E RL
CRO
V=50mV R2
RE
f=(1-3M)Hz CE

28
Design:
VCC = 12V; IC = 1mA; fo = ; S = 2; hfe =
Q = 5; L = 1mH
re = 26mV / IC = 26Ω ;
hie = hfe re =
VCE= Vcc/2 (transistor Active) =
VE = IERE = Vcc/10
Applying KVL to output loop, we get
VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE
RC =
Since IB is very small when compare with IC, IC ≈ IE
R E = V E / IE =
S = 1+ RB / RE = 2
RB =
VB = VBE + VE =
VB = VCC R2 / (R1 + R2)
RB = R1 || R2
R1 = R2 =
RL =
XCi = {[hie+(1+hfe)RE] || RB}/10 =
Ci = 1 / (2π f XCi) =
Xco = (RC||RL) /10 =
Co = 1 / (2π f XCo) =
XCE = RE/10 =
CE = 1 / (2π f XCE) =

Q = RL / ω L

RL =

1
f0 =
2π LC

C=

29
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set Vi = 50 mV (say), using the signal generator.
3. Keeping the input voltage constant, vary the frequency from 0Hz to3MHz in
regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.
4. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency

Tabular Column:

Vi = 50 mV
Frequency V0 (volts) Gain (dB) = 20 log(V0/Vi)

Model Graph: (Frequency Response)

GAIN
(dB)

|A|
(dB)

fc FREQUENCY

Result:
Thus single tuned amplifier is designed and constructed for the given
operating frequency and the frequency response is plotted.

30
Expt. No.10 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

Aim:

To design and construct an astable multivibrator using transistor and to plot the
output waveform.

Components / Equipments Required:

Range /
Sl. No. Item name Quantity
Specification
1 Transistor BC107 2
4.9KΩ ,
2 Resistors 2 each
1.6MΩ
3 Capacitors 0.45nF 2
4 CRO (0-20M)Hz 1
5 Power Supply (0-30)V 1
6 Connecting Wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:
Vcc = +12V

RC R R RC
5.9KΩ 1.5M Ω 1.5MΩ 5.9K Ω

C
Vo1 C
0.48nF Vo2
0.48nF
C
B C
BC107
BC107
B
E
E

31
Theory:

Astable multivibrator is also known as free running multivibrator. It is


rectangular wave shaping circuit having non-stable states. This circuit does not need an
external trigger to change state. It consists of two similar NPN transistors. They are
capacitor coupled. It has 2 quasi-stable states. It switches between the two states without
any applications of input trigger pulses. Thus it produces a square wave output without
any input trigger. The time period of the output square wave is given by, T = 1.38RC.

Design Procedure:

VCC = 10V; IC = 2mA; VCE (sat) = 0.2V; f = 1KHz; hfe =

VCC - VCE (sat) 12 – 0.2


RC = = = 5.9KΩ
IC 0.002

R ≤ hfe RC = 315 * 5.9 * 103 = 1.85MΩ

R = 1.5MΩ

T = 1.38RC

C = T / (1.38R) = (1 * 10-3) / (1.38 * 1.5 * 106)= 0.48nF

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Note down the output TON, TOFF and output voltage from CRO.
4. Plot the output waveform in the graph.

Tabular Column:

Amplitude TON TOFF Frequency


(in volts) (ms) (ms) (in Hz)
Vo1
Vo2

32
Model Graph:

Vo1 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vo2 (Volts)

Time (ms)

RESULT:

Thus the astable multivibrator is designed and constructed using transistor and its
output waveform is plotted.

33
Expt. No.11 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

Aim:
To design and construct monostable multivibrator using transistor and to plot the
output waveform.

Components / Equipments Required:

Sl. No. Item name Range / Specification Quantity


1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistors 4.9KΩ , 1.6MΩ 2 each
3 Capacitors 0.45nF 2
4 CRO (0-20M)Hz 1
5 Power Supply (0-30)V 1
6 Connecting Wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:
VCC = +12V

RC
5.9K
RC R
5.9K 1.13MΩ 10K R1

Vo1 C
D1
C1

1N4007 1.28nF Vo2


25nF
C
C
B
B BC107
BC107
E
E R2
100K

VBB = -2V

Theory:

34
Monostable multivibrator has two states which are (i) quasi-stable state and (ii)
stable state. When a trigger input is given to the monostable multivibrator, it switches
between two states. It has resistor coupling with one transistor. The other transistor has
capacitive coupling. The capacitor is used to increase the speed of switching. The
resistor R2 is used to provide negative voltage to the base so that Q1 is OFF and Q2 is
ON. Thus an output square wave is obtained from monostable multivibrator.

Design Procedure:

VCC = 12V; VBB = -2V; IC = 2mA; VCE (sat) = 0.2V; f = 1KHz; hfe =

VCC - VCE (sat) 12 – 0.2


RC = = = 5.9KΩ
IC 0.002

IB2(min) = IC2 / hfe =


Select IB2 > IB2(min)
IB2 =

VCC – VBE (sat)


R= =
I B2

T = 0.69RC
C = T / 0.69R =

-VBBR1 VCE (sat) R2


VB1 = +
R 1 + R2 R1 + R 2

VBBR1 VCE (sat) R2


= (since, V B1 is very less)
R 1 + R2 R1 + R 2

VBBR1 = VCE (sat) R2


R2 =10R1 (since, VBB = 2V and VCE (sat) = 0.2V)
Let R1 = 10KΩ , then R2 = 100KΩ
Choose C1 = 25pF.

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Observe the output at collector terminals.

35
4. Trigger Monostable with pulse and note down the output TON, TOFF and voltage
from CRO.
5. Plot the waveform in the graph.

Tabular Column:

Width Input Output


(ms) TON TOFF Voltage TON TOFF Voltage
(ms) (ms) (Volts) (ms) (ms) (Volts)

Model Graph:

Vo1 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vo2 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Result:

Thus the monostable multivibrator is designed and constructed using transistor


and its output waveform is plotted.

Expt. No.12 BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

36
Aim:

To design a bistable multivibrator and to plot its output waveform.

Components / Equipments Required:

Sl. No. Item name Range / Specification Quantity


1 Transistor BC107 2
2 Resistors 4.9KΩ , 1.6MΩ 2 each
3 Capacitors 0.45nF 2
4 CRO (0-20M)Hz 1
5 Power Supply (0-30)V 1
6 Connecting Wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:

VCC = +10V

RC RC
Pulse Trigger
5.9KΩ (VT < VCC) 5.9KΩ

D1 1N4007 1N4007 D2

C 50pF C 50pF

R1 10KΩ R1 10KΩ
Vo1 Vo2

C
C B
B BC107
BC107
E
E
R2 R2

1.8MΩ 1.8MΩ

VBB=-2V

Theory:

37
The bistable multivibrator has two stable states. The multivibrator can exist
indefinitely in either of the twostable states. It requires an external trigger pulse to
change from one stable state to another. The circuit remains in one stable state until an
external trigger pulse is applied. The bistable multivibrator is used for the performance
of many digital operations such as counting and storing of binary information. The
multivibrator also finds an applications in generation and pulse type waveform.

Design:

VCC =12V; VBB = -12V; IC = 2mA; VCE (sat) = 0.2V; VBE (sat) = 0.7V

VCC - VCE (sat) 12 – 0.2


RC = = = 5.9KΩ
IC 0.002

R2 ≤ hfe RC = 315 * 5.9 * 103 = 1.85MΩ

R2 = 1.8MΩ

Let R1 = 10KΩ , C1 = C2 = 50pF

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


2. Set the input trigger using trigger pulse generator.
3. Note the output waveform from CRO and plot the graph.

Tabular Column:

Input Width Input Output


Voltage (ms) TON TOFF Voltage TON TOFF Voltage
(Volts) (ms) (ms) (Volts) (ms) (ms) (Volts)

Model Graph:

38
Vo1 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vo2 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Result:

Thus bistable multivibrator has been constructed and its output waveforms are
studied.

Expt. No. 13 WAVE SHAPING CIRCUITS


(Differentiator, Integrator, Clipper and Clamper)

39
Aim:
To design and implement different wave shaping circuits (Differentiator,
Integrator, Clipper and Clamper).

Components / Equipments Required:

Range /
Sl. No. Components / Equipment Quantity
Specifications
1 Function / Pulse generator (0 – 3M)Hz 1
2 CRO (0-20M)Hz 1
3 Resistor 1KΩ / 100KΩ 1
4 Capacitor 0.1µ F 1
5 Connecting wires Accordingly

Circuit Diagram:

(i) Differentiator:
C

0.1uF
Vin=5V R
f= 1KHz 1KΩ /
CRO
100KΩ

0
(ii) Integrator:
R 1KΩ / 100KΩ

Vin=5V
f= 1KHz C
0.1uF CRO

(iii) Clipper:

(a) Series Positive Clipper:

40
D

1N4007 CRO
Vin=5V R
f=1KHz 10KΩ

0
(b) Shunt Positive Clipper:
R 10KΩ

D
Vin=5V
f=1KHz
1N4007 CRO

0
(c) Series Negative Clipper:
D

1N4007 CRO
Vin=5V R
f=1KHz 10KΩ

0
(d) Shunt Negative Clipper:
R 10KΩ

D CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz
1N4007

0
(e) Positive Biased Series Positive Clipper:

41
D

1N4007
R
10KΩ
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(f) Positive Biased Shunt Positive Clipper:

R 10K

1N4007 D
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(g) Positive Biased Series Negative Clipper:
D

1N4007
R
10KΩ
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(h) Positive Biased Shunt Negative Clipper:

42
R 10K

1N4007 D
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(i) Negative Biased Series Positive Clipper:
D

1N4007
R
10K CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB
2V

0
(j) Negative Biased Shunt Positive Clipper:

R 10K

D
1N4007
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(k) Negative Biased Series Negative Clipper:

43
D

1N4007
R
10K CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz
VB
2V

0
(l) Negative Biased Shunt Negative Clipper:
R 10K

D
1N4007
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB

2V

0
(m) Combinational Clipper
R 10K

D D
1N4007 1N4007
CRO
Vin=5V
f=1KHz VB
VB
2V
2V

(iv) Clamper:

44
(a) Positive Clamper:
C

0.1uF

R CRO
Vin=5V D
1N4007 10K
f=1KHz

0
(b) Negative Clamper:
C

0.1uF

D R CRO
Vin=5V
1N4007 10K
f=1KHz

Theory:

(i) Differentiator:

The high pass RC network acts as a differentiator whose output voltage depends
upon the differential of input voltage. Its output voltage of the differentiator can be
expressed as,

d
Vout = Vin
dt

(ii) Integrator:

45
The low pass RC network acts as an integrator whose output voltage depends
upon the integration of input voltage. Its output voltage of the integrator can be
expressed as,

Vout = Vin dt

(iii) Clipper:

This circuit is basically a rectifier circuit, which clips the input waveform
according to the required specification. The diode acts as a clipper. There are several
clippers like positive clipper, negative clipper, etc. Depending upon the connection of
diode it can be classified as series and shunt.

(iv) Clamper:

The clamper circuit is a type of wave shaping circuit in which the DC level of the
input signal is altered. The DC voltage is varied accordingly and it is classified as
positive clamper or negative clamper accordingly.

Design:

(i) Differentiator:

f = 1KHz
τ = RC = 1ms
If C = 0.1µ F
Then R = 10KΩ
For T << τ , Choose R = 1KΩ and
For T >> τ , Choose R = 100KΩ

(ii) Integrator:

f = 1KHz
τ = RC = 1ms
If C = 0.1µ F
Then R = 10KΩ
For T << τ , Choose R = 1KΩ and
For T >> τ , Choose R = 100KΩ

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.


2. Set Vin = 5V and f = 1KHz.
3. Observe the Output waveform and plot the graph.
Model Graph:

46
(i) Differentiator

Vin (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vout (Volts)

Time (ms)

Time (ms)

(ii) Integrator

Vin (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vout (Volts)

Time (ms)

Time (ms)

(iii) Clipper:

47
Vin (Volts)

Time (ms)

Vout (Volts)
Series Positive Clipper

Time (ms)

Shunt Positive Clipper

Time (ms)

Series Negative Clipper

Time (ms)

Shunt Negative Clipper

Time (ms)

Positive Biased Series Positive Clipper

2V
Time (ms)

Positive Biased Shunt Positive Clipper

48
2V
Time (ms)

Positive Biased Series Negative Clipper

2V
Time (ms)

Positive Biased Shunt Negative Clipper

2V
Time (ms)

Negative Biased Series Positive Clipper

Time (ms)
-2V

Negative Biased Shunt Positive Clipper

Time (ms)
-2V

Negative Biased Series Negative Clipper

Time (ms)
-2V

49
Negative Biased Shunt Negative Clipper

Time (ms)
-2V

Combinational Clipper

2V

Time (ms)
-2V

(iv) Clamper:

Positive Clamper:

Time (ms)

Negative Clamper:
Time (ms)

Result:

Thus different wave shaping circuits are studied and their output waveforms are
plotted.

EXPT NO.14 DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER


(R – 2R LADDER TYPE)

Aim:

50
To construct a 8 – bit digital to analog converter using R – 2R ladder type.

Circuit Diagram:
20K

V+

10K 10K 10K 7


4 -
1 2 3 6 VOUT
LM741
5 +
20K
20K 20K 20K 8

V-
0
0

0 0 0

9 -10V

Theory:

A DAC accepts an n – bit input word b1, b2, ……, bn in binary and produces an
analog signal that is proportional to the input. In this type of DAC, reference voltage is
applied to one switch and the other switches are grounded. It is easier to build and
number of bits can be expanded by adding more R – 2R sections. The circuit slow down
due to stray capacitance.

Observation:

Output Voltage
d1 (MSB) d2 d3 (LSB)
VO (Volts)
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1.25
0 1 0 2.5
0 1 1 3.75
1 0 0 5
1 0 1 6.25
1 1 0 7.5
1 1 1 8.75
Calculation:

Output Voltage, VO = VR (d12-1 + d22-2 + d32-3 )


For 100, VO = 5V

51
Output:

VO = 5V

Model Graph:

Voltage

5V

time

Result:
Thus R – 2R ladder type digital to analog converter is implemented.

EXPT NO.15 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

Aim:

52
To plot the transient response of voltages at collector terminals of the two
transistors Q1 and Q2. Initial node voltages at collector and base are zero.

Circuit Diagram:
VCC = +10V
5

R2 R1 R3 R4
4.9K 850K 850K 4.9K

C1 C2
2 4
3 1
Vo1 Vo2
0.9nF 0.9nF
C
C
B Q2
Q1 B BC107
BC107
E
E

Theory:

It has two quasi stable states. The transition between the two states occurs
automatically due to charging and discharging of the capacitors and not due to any
external trigger. Thus none of the transistor is allowed to remain in ON or OFF state.

Design:

VCC = 10V; IC = 2mA; VCE = 0.2V; C = 0.9nF

VCC – VCE (sat) 10 – 0.2


RC = = = 4.9KΩ
IC 0.002

R ≤ hfe RC = 850KΩ
T = 1.38 R C
T = 1ms
C = T / (1.38R) = 0.9nF

53
Model Graph:

Voltage

V01

Time (ms)
0 0.5 1 1.5

V02

Time (ms)
0 0.5 1 1.5

Result:

Thus astable multivibrator is designed and transient response is plotted.

EXPT NO. 16 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

54
Aim:
To plot the transient response of voltages at collector terminals of Q1 and Q2.
Initial voltages of base and collector of Q1 transistor is zero.

Circuit Diagram:

VCC = +12V

R4
5.9K
R2 R3
5.9K 452K 10K R5

Vo1 C1
D1
7 2 C2
3
1 4
1N4007 3.2nF Vo2
25nF
C
C B Q2
Q1 B BC107
BC107
E
E R1
100K

6
VBB = -2V

Theory:

Monostable multivibrator has two states which are (i) quasi-stable state and (ii)
stable state. When a trigger input is given to the monostable multivibrator, it switches
between two states. It has resistor coupling with one transistor. The other transistor has
capacitive coupling. The capacitor is used to increase the speed of switching. The
resistor R2 is used to provide negative voltage to the base so that Q1 is OFF and Q2 is
ON. Thus an output square wave is obtained from monostable multivibrator.

Model Graph:

Vo1 (Volts)

55
Time (ms)

Vo2 (Volts)

Time (ms)

Result:

Thus monostable multivibrator is designed and transient response is plotted.

13. WEIN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR


AIM: To study and calculate frequency of. Wein Bridge Oscillator.

56
APPARATUS:
Transistor (BC 107) 2 No
Resistors 10K Ω 4 No
1 KΩ 3 No
2.2 K Ω 2 No
33 K Ω
6.8 K Ω
Capacitors 10 µF 2 No
100 µF
0.01 µF 2 No
RPS (0 – 30 V)
Potentiometer
Bread Boar
CRO
Connecting wires

57
CIRCUITDIAGRAM:

THEORY:
The wein bridge oscillator is a standard circuit for generating low
frequencies in the range of 10 Hz to about 1MHz.The method used for getting
+ve feedback in wein bridge oscillator is to use two stages of an RC-coupled
amplifier. Since one stage of the RC-coupled amplifier introduces a phase shift
of 180 deg, two stages will introduces a phase shift of 360 deg. At the
frequency of oscillations f the +ve feedback network shown in fig makes the
input & output in the phase. The frequency of oscillations is given as
f =1/2π√R1C1R2C2
In addition to the positive feedback

58
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. Feed the output of the oscillator to a C.R.O by making adjustments in the
Potentiometer connected in the +ve feedback loop, try to obtain a stable
sine Wave.
3. Measure the time period of the waveform obtained on CRO. & calculate the
Frequency of oscillations.
4. Repeat the procedure for different values of capacitance.

OBSERVATION:
Given R=10kΩ, C=0.01μF
fT = 1/ 2π RC
1
fP = =
T
Amplitude,V0 =
MODEL WAVE FORM:

RESULT:
The frequency of the wein bridge oscillator is calculated and is verified

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Give the formula for frequency of oscillations?


2. What is the condition for wien bridge oscillator to generate oscillations?
3. What is the total phase shift provided by the oscillator?
4. What is the function of lead-lag network in Wein bridge oscillator?

59
5. which type of feedback is used in Wein bridge oscillator
6. What is gain of Wein bridge oscillator?
7. what are the application of Wein bridge oscillator
8. What is the condition for oscillations?
9. What is the difference between damped oscillations undamped
Oscillations?
Wein bridge oscillator is either LC or RC oscillator.

60