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By, V.ANILA BHARGAVI ¾ B.Tech, Electronics and Communication Engg.., Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Ph no. 0866-2552502 N.CHANDANA ¾ B.Tech, Electronics and Communication Engg.., Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering. E-mail: email@example.com Ph no. 0866-2484142
Bluetooth wireless technology makes it possible to transmit signals over short distances between telephones. So wireless technologies are preferrable over cabled networks. Blue tooth 2. These cables when they grow into multitude are not only unsightly but also increasingly cumbersome to handle. but without network cabling. there has also been a growing need for cables of various kinds. . any technology that does this could be called wireless networking TYPES OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES: 1. Home RF 4. The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to communicate using standard network protocols. Strictly speaking.INTRODUCTION: As computerized implements have grown and become increasingly more common in our environment.11 wireless lan BLUETOOTH: Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range radio technology. computers and other devices and thereby simplify communication and synchronization between devices. 802. Infrared 3. to tie all these units together and ensure communication between them.
WHY THE NAME BLUETOOTH? The Bluetooth technology was named after tenth-century Danish King Harald Blåtand. SPECIFICATIONS: FEATURE Spectrum PERFORMANCE 2. and industries. Uses a protocol stack which is segmented into layers." King Harald was instrumental in uniting parts of Scandinavia. a 128-bit key. Communication . whose surname loosely translates to "blue tooth. so some of the people originally involved with the technology thought that it would be neat to name it after him because Bluetooth technology is intended to unite devices. for encryption. companies. the key size is configurable between 8 and 128 bits.4 GHz ISM band Connection type Transmission power Aggregate data rate Range Supported stations Data security Spread spectrum (frequency hopping) 1 mw 1 Mbps using frequency hopping Upto 30 feet Upto 8 devices per piconet For authentation.
a)A piconet between two devices. a combination of piconets with some devices common to the piconets A collection of slave devices operating together with one common master is called piconet. This scheme has three advantages: 1) It allows Bluetooth devices to use the entirety of the available ISM band. All devices of a piconet follow the frequency hopping sequence and timing the of master. Here the slaves can only have links to the master but there are no direct links between slaves. c)A scatternet. FREQUENCY HOPPING: Frequency hopping is literally jumping from frequency to frequency within the ISM band. After a Bluetooth device sends or receives a packet. while never transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a very short time This ensures that Bluetooth conforms to the ISM restrictions on transmission quantity .PICONETS AND SCATTERNETS: . it and the Bluetooth device or devices it is communicating with “hop” to another frequency before the next packet is sent. A larger coverage area or a greater number of network members may be realized by linking piconets into a scatternet. b)A piconet between many devices. where some devices are members of more than one piconet. The specification limits the number of slaves in a piconet to seven. When a device is present in more than one piconet it must time-share spending a few slots in one piconet and a few slots in the other.
the connected devices must agree upon the next frequency to use. This supports flexibility in implementation across different devices and platforms. A Bluetooth device operating in master mode can communicate with up to seven slave devices. 3) It provides a base level of security because it's very difficult for an eavesdropping device to predict which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use next. Any packet that doesn't arrive safely at its destination can be resent at the next frequency. To each of its slaves. it defines a master-slave relationship between Bluetooth devices. Because the master device and all its slaves use the same algorithm with the same initial input. The bluetooth specification specifies a rate of 1600 hops per second among 79 frequencies. First. the Bluetooth specification ensures interoperability of Bluetooth devices and encourages adoption of Bluetooth technology. it specifies an algorithm that uses device-specific information to calculate frequency-hop sequences. the connected devices always arrive together at the next frequency. 2) It ensures that any interference will be short-lived. The Bluetooth specification ensures this in two ways.per frequency. BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE: Bluetooth is both a hardware-based radio system and a software stack that specifies the linkages between layers. Second. The Bluetooth Protocol Stack: The heart of the Bluetooth specification is the Bluetooth protocol stack. the master Bluetooth device sends its own unique device address and the value of its internal clock. By providing well-defined layers of functionality. Of course. This information is used to calculate the frequency-hop sequence. .
78. The radio layer describes the physical characteristics a Bluetooth device’s receiver-transmitter component must have. Base band layer: The bluetooth devices use frequency hopping technique for communication. It provides two physical links. The frequency hops are fixed at (2400+n) MHz. This gives a single hop slot of 625 micro seconds.5 MHz in a vast majority of countries and this whole range is utilized for optimizing the spectral spreading. This is responsible for the modulation and demodulation of data into RF signals for transmission in the air. radio frequency tolerance. SCO Link (Synchronous.fig: Bluetooth protocol stack LOWER LAYERS: Radio layer: At the base of the Bluetooth protocol stack is the radio layer. Connected-Oriented): This link is used for isochronous and voice communication. This baseband layer is used to maintain synchronism between the communicating devices. A SCO link provides reserved bandwidth for communication . 2….. 1. This link operates in the unlicensed ISM band around 2. These include modulation characteristics. and sensitivity level. The band extends from 2400 MHz to 2483. 1. where n =0.4 GHz. The normal hop rate is 1600 hops per second.
The link controller portion of baseband layer is responsible for carrying out the link manager’s commands and establishing and maintaining the link stipulated by the link manager. Connection Less): ACO packets are used for data transmission. and checking link and encryption keys. and supports regular. 2. LMP messages have higher priority than user data. Link manager protocol (LMP): LMP is responsible for link set up and control between bluetooth devices. An ACL link exists between a master and a slave the moment a connection is established. exchanging. It is also used for security authentication and encryption.between master and slave. generation. to allow many different applications to use a single ACL link Repackaging the data packets it receives from the higher layers into the form expected by the lower layers . such as RFCOMM and SDP. LMP messages are filtered out and interpreted by the link manager on the receiver side. UPPER LAYERS: Logical link control and adaptation protocol layer (L2CAP): The L2CAP is primarily responsible for: Establishing connections across existing ACL links or requesting an ACL link if one does not already exist Multiplexing between different higher layer protocols.ACO Link (Asynchronous. periodic exchange of data with no retransmission of SCO packets even if the packets are corrupted. so they are never passed to higher layers.
This layer does not support the SCO links. A typical packet contains perhaps 1. These are the packets. Service discovery protocol (SDP): Using SDP. device information. It plays a central role in the communication between the upper and lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack. the intended receiver's IP address. RFCOMM connects to the lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack through the L2CAP layer. Each packet contains part of the body of the message.500 bytes. and the characteristics of the services can be queried. something that tells the network how many packets this e-mail message has been broken into and the number of this particular packet. Each packet carries the information that will help it get to its destination -. Bluetooth adopted OBEX from the IrDA.the sender's IP address. services. After that. OBEX (object exchange): This is a transfer protocol that defines data objects and a communication protocol two devices can use to easily exchange those objects. the user may select from any one of them. The message is split into parts of a certain size in bytes.000 or 1. a connection between two or more bluetooth devices can be established. the L2CAP layer is a required part of every Bluetooth system. The L2CAP employs the concept of channels to keep track of where data packets come from and where they should go. Radio frequency communication (RFCOMM): Above the L2CAP layer is the RFCOMM layer. The RFCOMM protocol emulates the serial cable line settings and status of an RS-232 serial port. CIRCUIT AND PACKET SWITCHING: The bluetooth protocol uses a combination of circuit and packet switching. Having located available services within the vicinity. .
CIRCUIT SWITCHING: In circuit switching only one path is set up for a purpose . which is typically asymmetrical and unpredictable. It uses one antenna that divides its time between transmitting and receiving signals. So we go for technologies that employ multiple access schemes like CDMA. The paths are always available. master and slave transmit alternatively the master starts its transmission in even numbered timeslots only and the slave start its transmission in odd numbered slots only. PACKET SWITCHING: In packet switching. The path remains in place until the purpose is served. Seperation between transmit and receive is achieved in the time domain. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) cannot be used as it does not satisfy the frequency spreading characteristics of the ISM spectrum. Packets may travel in different but at the destination they will be placed in the sequential order as transmitted.. data travel in the form of individually addressed packets over multiple shared paths on the way to its destination. There is no connection setup or teardown as in circuit switching. the path is free and this path can be used for other purpose. Other such schemes are FDMA and TDMA. In the time slots master and slave can transmit packets. TDD uses a single channel for both sending and receiving information with the transmission direction alternating between sending and receiving. TDD do not define a particular access technique that would allow multiple users to share the available bandwidth. 625 ms in length the time slots are numbered according to the bluetooth clock of the piconet master. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) requires . Circuit switching is effective for voice conversation. The channel is divided into time slots. In the TDD scheme. TIME DIVISION DUPLEXING (TDD): TDD was designed to carry digital data traffic. So. The path is torn down once the purpose is completed. Packet switching is efficient for data transmission .
the device will create an L2CAP channel to the access point. among other required initializations. an RFCOMM or other channel will be created over the L2CAP channel. L2CAP channel: With information obtained from SDP. This results in synchronization of the device with the access point. b. Paging: The device will invoke a base band procedure called paging. This may be directly used by the application or another protocol like RFCOMM may be run over it. what will it do? Inquiry: The device on reaching a new environment would automatically initiated an inquiry to find out what access points are within its range. (If not. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is the clear choice as it fulfils the spreading requirements and can work with uncoordinated systems.) This will result in the following events: a. an ACL link will be used. Link establishment: The LMP will now establish a link with the access point. This feature allows existing applications developed for serial ports to run without modification over Bluetooth platforms. RFCOMM channel: Depending on the need of the email application. All nearby access points respond with their addresses. As the application in this case is email. in terms of its clock offset and phase in the frequency hop. WORKING: To access an email over Bluetooth enabled device. it'll do so when the email application asks for a link.strict timing synchronization. which could be a laptop or a Personal Digital Assistant. in particular whether email access or access to the relevant host is possible from this access point or not. . Various setup steps will be carried out as described below. Service Discovery: The LMP will use the SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) to discover what services are available from the access point. The device picks one out the responding devices.
we can order and pay for goods. the presentation can be delivered to each attendee’s laptop by using bluetooth wireless technology. Bluetooth signals can penetrate through walls and briefcases. Presentation: For small groups. There is no per-minute usage charge if we communicate through mobile phones built in blue tooth wireless technology . our digital camera can send a photo straight to our printer. 3.Security: The procedures for security use four values: the device address(which is public). Synchronizing data: Blue tooth devices can send messages to devices that are powered of or in sleep mode. The bluetooth device will not interfere or cause harm to public or private telecommunication network equipment. So by accessing the internet anywhere via our mobile phone. low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their accessories.The reason is that for these conversations there is no involvement of tele-communication service provider. a private authentication key(128 bits). Printing: With bluetooth wireless technology. 4. 2. private encryption key(8-128 bits. This would permit meetings to be held in any room without requiring a projection screen. 4. 2. It requires low power. So it is a real time saver. Mobile e-commerce: Bluetooth wireless technology would enable us to connect a laptop to the internet via a cell phone. ADVANTAGES: 1. they cannot be obtained by inquiry. A cell phone which operates at 3W power can now be used with a header set which has a bluetooth chip. The security procedure requires a secret PIN to be known to the user (or stored by his application) for accessing a particular device. . which operates with 3Mw only. APPLICATIONS: 1. 3. configurable) and a random number. As the keys have to be secret.
Although the range is 30 feet. It is always ON. a user with a Bluetooth radio device manufactured by one company should be able to link to another device manufactured by another supplier. Bluetooth Demystified by Nathan Muller 2.com 3. and Bluetooth will in all probability be the dominating technique for wireless communication for handheld terminals. http:\www. DISADVANTAGES: 1. The security architecture of the Bluetooth specification only authenticates devices not users. This means that a trusted device that is stolen or borrowed can be used as if it were still in the possession of the rightful owner. There is no need to set up a bluetooth device. 6. it would (of course) be impossible for a corporate user to buy Bluetooth equipment that would work with other Bluetooth equipment.com . CONCLUSION: Wireless technology is very important. This area is perfectly suited for Bluetooth. Compliance between wireless devices is an essential tenet of the Bluetooth technology. http:\www. for the e-trading to take off. In theory. Without this level of connectivity. REFERENCES: 1.howstuffworks.bluetooth. this distance can be extended to around 300 feet using optional amplifiers. Data transfer rate is limited to 1Mbps only.5. 2. 3. There is a chance of interference of data with other signals using this ISM band.
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