Form 2 science

Chapter 2 (part 2) Nutrition

2.2 Balanced diet



Balanced diet
• A balances diet is a diet which consists of all classes of food in a correct proportions. • A balances diet is important to maintain a healthy body and to prevent various deficiency diseases.



The factors that determine a person’s balances diet are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Age Body sizes Gender / sex Job Climate State of health
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a) A growing child need more protein than adult. b) A big sized person normally needs more food than a small sizes person. c) Boys generally need more food than girls because boys are more active than girls.



d) A person doing heavy work needs to eat more than a person doing light work. e) People living in cold countries need more energy to keep them warm. f) People with health problems should be careful with their diets.
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Read the food label



The unit of energy in food can be measured either in joules or calories. 1 calorie = 4.2 joules In a complete combustion, • 1 g of carbohydrate gives out 17 joules of energy • 1 g of protein gives out 17 joules of energy • 1 g of fats gives out 39 joules of energy
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• The calorific value of canned or packaged foodstuff are stated on their labels.



How to calculate the calorific value of food?
A student ate the following for lunch yesterday. Estimate the caloric value of his meals by referring to the diagram below.

The calorific values of food. From food label: Burger = 253 kcal Orange juice = 157 kcal French fries = 224 kcal Burger + Orange juice + French fries = 253 + 157 + 224 = 634 kcal s = 634 x 4.2 = 2662.80 kJ



2.3 Human Digestive System



Digestive System
• Digestion is the breaking down of food into simpler form so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream. • Organs in the digestive system are mouth, stomach, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine.
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In the mouth
• In the mouth the salivary glands produce the enzyme amylase. • Salivary amylase acts on starch and changes it into maltose



• Digested food is shaped into a bolus by the tongue and swallowed. • The bolus moves down the oesophagus is a wave-like action called peristalsis .



The stomach secretes gastric juice which contain hydrochloric acid and proteases. Functions of hydrochloric acid: ( a) Stops the action of amylase (b) Provides an acidic medium which is suitable for the action of protease (c) Kills the germs and microorganisms in food yschow@smkbpj(a)


• In the stomach, protease digests proteins into peptones. • Mucus protects the stomach walls from being digested by protease.



• Duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. • It receive bile from the gall bladder and pancreatic juice from pancreas.



Duodenum – bile
• Bile emulsifier fats into oil droplets for lipase to act upon. • Bile also neutralise the acidic chyme.

Chyme is partially digested food.
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Duodenum –pancreatic juice
• Pancreatic juice contains amylase, protease and lipase.
1. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch into maltose. 2. Protease breaks down proteins into polypeptides 3. Lipase catalyses the breakdown of fats into fatty acid and glycerol.
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Lower part of small intestine- ileum
• The digestion of food is completed in the small intestine. • Lower part of small intestine secretes intestinal juice which contains maltose, protease and lipase.

(a) Maltase breaks down maltose into
glucose. (b) Protease breaks down polypeptides into amino acids. (c) Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
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The end products of digestion

Foods (a) Carbohydrates (b) Proteins (c) Fats

Enzymes involved Amylase , maltase Protease Lipase

End products Glucose Amino acids Glycerol and fatty acids



2.4 Absorption of Digested Food
– Absorption of digested food takes place in the small intestine – The end products of digestion, vitamins and minerals are absorbed by the villi into the bloodstream.



• The small intestine has several characteristics that enable the effective absorption of end products of digestion.
I. It has a lot of villi on its surface. This increases the surface area for absorption. Each villus has a thin epithelial wall to enable the diffusion of digested food. There is a rich network of blood capillaries in each, villus.





To show the absorption of glucose through a Visking tube.
1. At the beginning of experiment, the water in the beaker is tested with iodine solution and Benedict‘s solution. 2. Both the glucose and starch are not present in the water. 3. After 30 minutes; the two tests above are repeated. 4. It is found that the water in the beaker be contains glucose. Conclusion : • This shows that glucose has diffused through the wall of Visking tube. • The starch molecules are too big and hence cannot diffuse through the wall of Visking tube.
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2.5 Reabsorption of Water and Defecation
1. The undigested food, minerals and excess water pass into the large intestine. 2. The large intestine does not secrete any enzyme and hence, no digestion occurs in the large intestine. 3. The process of reabsorption takes place in the large intestine. Water and minerals are reabsorbed.



4. After the water is reabsorbed, the undigested food turns into faeces. 5. The faeces is stored in the rectum. 6. Defecation is the process in which faeces is expelled from the body through the anus. 7. Insufficient fibre and water in our diet will cause constipation.



2.6 Practice the Habits of Healthy eating



1. It is important for us to eat nutritious food to keep us healthy. 2. Unhealthy eating habits can cause diet- related diseases such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure and cancer. 3. We should always be sensitive towards the cultural practices of other races. 4. We must not offend the religious beliefs of others. We must always respect their religious beliefs.



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