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# Form 2 science

Chapter 2 (part 2)
Nutrition
2.2 Balanced diet

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Balanced diet
• A balances diet is a diet which consists of all
classes of food in a correct proportions.

## • A balances diet is important to maintain a

healthy body and to prevent various
deficiency diseases.

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The factors that determine a person’s balances
diet are:

1. Age
2. Body sizes
3. Gender / sex
4. Job
5. Climate
6. State of health

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a) A growing child need more protein

## b) A big sized person normally needs

more food than a small sizes person.

## c) Boys generally need more food than

girls because boys are more active
than girls.

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d) A person doing heavy work needs
to eat more than a person doing
light work.

## e) People living in cold countries

need more energy to keep them
warm.

## f) People with health problems

should be careful with their diets.

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Calories
The unit of energy in food can be measured
either in joules or calories.
1 calorie = 4.2 joules

In a complete combustion,
• 1 g of carbohydrate gives out 17 joules of
energy
• 1 g of protein gives out 17 joules of energy
• 1 g of fats gives out 39 joules of energy
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• The calorific value
of canned or
packaged foodstuff
are stated on their
labels.

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How to calculate the calorific value of food?
A student ate the following for lunch yesterday. Estimate the caloric
value of his meals by referring to the diagram below.

## The calorific values of food.

From food label:
Burger + Orange juice + French fries
Burger = 253 kcal = 253 + 157 + 224
Orange juice = 157 kcal = 634 kcal s
French fries = 224 kcal = 634 x 4.2
= 2662.80 kJ
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2.3 Human Digestive System

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Digestive System
• Digestion is the breaking
down of food into
simpler form so that they
can be absorbed into the
bloodstream.

## • Organs in the digestive

system are mouth,
stomach, pancreas, small
intestine and large
intestine.
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In the mouth
• In the mouth the salivary glands produce the
enzyme amylase.

## • Salivary amylase acts on starch and changes it

into maltose

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Oesophagus
• Digested food is shaped into a bolus by the
tongue and swallowed.

## • The bolus moves down the oesophagus is a

wave-like action called peristalsis .

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Stomach
The stomach secretes gastric juice which contain
hydrochloric acid and proteases.

## Functions of hydrochloric acid:

( a) Stops the action of amylase

## (b) Provides an acidic medium which is

suitable for the action of protease

## (c) Kills the germs and microorganisms in

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Stomach
• In the stomach, protease digests proteins into
peptones.
• Mucus protects the stomach walls from being
digested by protease.

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Duodenum
• Duodenum is the first part of the small
intestine.

pancreatic juice from pancreas.

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Duodenum – bile
• Bile emulsifier fats into oil droplets for lipase
to act upon.

## Chyme is partially digested food.

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Duodenum –pancreatic juice
• Pancreatic juice contains amylase, protease
and lipase.

## 1. Pancreatic amylase breaks down

starch into maltose.

## 2. Protease breaks down proteins

into polypeptides

## 3. Lipase catalyses the breakdown of

fats into fatty acid and glycerol.
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Lower part of small intestine- ileum
• The digestion of food is completed in the small
intestine.
• Lower part of small intestine secretes
intestinal juice which contains maltose,
protease and lipase.
(a) Maltase breaks down maltose into
glucose.
(b) Protease breaks down polypeptides into
amino acids.
(c) Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids
and glycerol.
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The end products of digestion

## Foods Enzymes involved End products

(a) Carbohydrates Amylase , maltase Glucose

## (c) Fats Lipase Glycerol and fatty

acids

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2.4 Absorption of Digested Food

## – Absorption of digested food takes place in the

small intestine
– The end products of digestion, vitamins and
minerals are absorbed by the villi into the
bloodstream.

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• The small intestine has several characteristics that
enable the effective absorption of end products of
digestion.

## I. It has a lot of villi on its surface.

This increases the surface area for
absorption.

## I. Each villus has a thin epithelial wall to

enable the diffusion of digested food.

## II. There is a rich network of blood

capillaries in each, villus.

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To show the absorption of glucose through a Visking tube.

## 1. At the beginning of experiment, the water in the beaker is

tested with iodine solution and Benedict‘s solution.
2. Both the glucose and starch are not present in the water.
3. After 30 minutes; the two tests above are repeated.
4. It is found that the water in the beaker be contains glucose.

Conclusion :
• This shows that glucose has
diffused through the wall of
Visking tube.
• The starch molecules are too
big and hence cannot diffuse
through the wall of Visking tube.
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2.5 Reabsorption of Water and
Defecation

## 1. The undigested food, minerals and excess water

pass into the large intestine.
2. The large intestine does not secrete any enzyme
and hence, no digestion occurs in the large
intestine.
3. The process of reabsorption takes place in the
large intestine. Water and minerals are
reabsorbed.

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4. After the water is reabsorbed, the
undigested food turns into faeces.
5. The faeces is stored in the rectum.
6. Defecation is the process in which faeces is
expelled from the body through the anus.
7. Insufficient fibre and water in our diet will
cause constipation.

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2.6 Practice the Habits of Healthy
eating

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1. It is important for us to eat nutritious food to keep
us healthy.
2. Unhealthy eating habits can cause diet- related
diseases such as diabetes, obesity, high blood
pressure and cancer.
3. We should always be sensitive towards the cultural
practices of other races.
4. We must not offend the religious beliefs of others.
We must always respect their religious beliefs.

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