Sizing Battery Banks for Switch Gear and Control | Battery (Electricity) | Electric Current

# Sizing battery banks for switchgear and control applications is commonly performed using software designed specifically for

that purpose. Just input the required load profile, and the program selects the optimum battery configuration. Although this is quite simple, an engineer should be capable of performing a straightforward hand calculation — either to confirm the results of a software-generated solution or to serve as an accurate design for a simple battery system. Do you know how to perform these calculations by hand? If not, then read on. This article will help you understand the basic premise of sizing switchgear battery systems and provide an example calculation for clarification of the concept. IEEE Standard 485-1997, “Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications,” also provides detailed guidelines for battery sizing.

Number of cells
Battery banks for switchgear and control applications are made up of many cells. These cells are typically wired in series to achieve a desired voltage and may also be wired in parallel to achieve additional ampere capacity. Sizing of these battery banks, therefore, includes selecting the number and type of cells to be used. The terminal voltage per cell varies with the battery's chemical composition. The required number of series wired cells to achieve the more common DC control voltages for switchgear control is shown in Table 1. Selection of the type of cell is based on the required peak ampere output and total Ampere-hour (Ah) output capacity for the load and duration. Table 1

IEEE Standard 485-1997 classifies individual DC loads as continuous, non-continuous, and momentary. Typical continuous loads include lighting, continuously energized coils, and power to protective relay and communications systems. Non-continuous loads are less common and include critical ventilation system motors and valve actuators with operating times exceeding 1 minute. Momentary loads do not exceed 1 minute in duration and include inrush currents and circuit breaker operations. The duty cycle imposed on switchgear batteries usually consists of momentary high ampere loading during charging of the respective tripping or closing springs, in addition to the small continuous load of powering protective relays and lights. While both motors for charging the tripping or closing springs can be DC, the more common switchgear design uses an AC closing motor and a DC tripping motor. Such a design reduces the total DC load because tripping is of the utmost importance — particularly when a fault occurs. However, this only allows one full operational cycle following a power failure because there is no AC to charge the closing spring.

capacity of the battery cell (usually for a given discharge rate and end of cell voltage)  valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cell .) expected life of the battery usage of the batter (number of charge/discharge cycles) dimensions and weight of the battery construction materials connectors and terminals ambient environment and conditions maintenance requirements seismic characteristics  Ampere-hour and Watts/cell The Ah or Ampere-hour capacity is the current a battery can provide over a specified period of time.operation with the batteries and load connected in parallel  period . . etc.sealed lead-acid cell (with the exception of a valve that opens when the internal pressure exceeds the external pressure)  vented battery .prolonged charge. at a rate higher than the normal float voltage  full float operation .battery in which the products of electrolysis and evaporation are allowed to escape freely to the atmosphere   Battery Selection The selection of the physical battery (cells) is dependant on several factors:          type of battery (sealed. NiCad. lead acid. For example 100Ah @ C10 rate to end of discharge of 1.75 V per cell.equalizing charge .75 V/cell means the battery can provide 10 Amps for 10 hours to an end of discharge voltage of 1.time during which load is expected to be constant during sizing calculations  rated capacity . vented.