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that purpose. Just input the required load profile, and the program selects the optimum battery configuration. Although this is quite simple, an engineer should be capable of performing a straightforward hand calculation — either to confirm the results of a software-generated solution or to serve as an accurate design for a simple battery system. Do you know how to perform these calculations by hand? If not, then read on. This article will help you understand the basic premise of sizing switchgear battery systems and provide an example calculation for clarification of the concept. IEEE Standard 485-1997, “Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications,” also provides detailed guidelines for battery sizing.

Number of cells

Battery banks for switchgear and control applications are made up of many cells. These cells are typically wired in series to achieve a desired voltage and may also be wired in parallel to achieve additional ampere capacity. Sizing of these battery banks, therefore, includes selecting the number and type of cells to be used. The terminal voltage per cell varies with the battery's chemical composition. The required number of series wired cells to achieve the more common DC control voltages for switchgear control is shown in Table 1. Selection of the type of cell is based on the required peak ampere output and total Ampere-hour (Ah) output capacity for the load and duration. Table 1

Load type

IEEE Standard 485-1997 classifies individual DC loads as continuous, non-continuous, and momentary. Typical continuous loads include lighting, continuously energized coils, and power to protective relay and communications systems. Non-continuous loads are less common and include critical ventilation system motors and valve actuators with operating times exceeding 1 minute. Momentary loads do not exceed 1 minute in duration and include inrush currents and circuit breaker operations. The duty cycle imposed on switchgear batteries usually consists of momentary high ampere loading during charging of the respective tripping or closing springs, in addition to the small continuous load of powering protective relays and lights. While both motors for charging the tripping or closing springs can be DC, the more common switchgear design uses an AC closing motor and a DC tripping motor. Such a design reduces the total DC load because tripping is of the utmost importance — particularly when a fault occurs. However, this only allows one full operational cycle following a power failure because there is no AC to charge the closing spring.

5A Step 2: Calculate the required Ampere-hour (Ah) rate. As can be seen in Table 5.85 = 141.2A. (The model designations are fictitious. load currents for all relays and other loads. Assign a required 1-minute rate equal to this peak rate divided by the ambient temperature derating factor. Back to basics So whether you're one of those people that refuses to trust a computer farther than you can throw it — or you simply feel more comfortable double checking calculations by hand — possessing the knowledge to size battery banks for .1 Ah ÷ 0.85 for the design margin.75 volts-per-cell for lead acid cells or 1.e.8 battery-aging factor. 180 Ah battery bank would be composed of 60 Model A cells. the data in Table 2 on page 43 is excerpted from a manufacturer's Web site. Divide this number by an ambient temperature factor of one for a 77°F room. in-rush current for all breaker charging motors.8 = 33. operate the given loads for 8 hours at 125VDC. Required 1-minute discharge rate = 96. Referring back to Table 2. down to 1.75V. However the Ampere-hour rate should also be checked.Sizing guidelines Since the momentary load on a switchgear battery bank is much higher than the continuous load. calculate the battery size for the 69kV substation loads listed in Table 4.8 battery-aging factor. and by 0. The battery cell type that meets the worst-case condition between the two should be selected. As can be seen in Table 4. the peak discharge rate is 96. and be housed in a climatecontrolled building. As an example. and ignore pilot lights). Table 4 Step 1: Calculate the required 1-minute discharge rate. and by a 0. The 125VDC. by a 0. more than sufficient for this particular load. Although momentary loads usually exist for much less than a minute — perhaps only a fraction of a second — it is common practice to use the full ampere value for an entire minute. and a design margin as listed in Table 3 on page 43. Divide by an ambient temperature factor of one for a 77°F room. the battery aging factor. as listed in Table 3. Required total Ah rate = 27. The battery type shall be lead acid. Table 3 To calculate the required Ampere-hour rate.14 volts-per-cell for nickel cadmium cells. the required 1minute (peak) ampere rate typically determines the battery cell type. Use the rates published at a final voltage of 1. These rates are tabulated in the manufacturer's standard literature at several final voltages. compute the average continuous load and divide by the ambient temperature-derating factor and battery-aging factor.9 Ah Table 5 Step 3: Select the appropriate cell from the manufacturer's literature. a Model A battery has a 1-minute discharge rate of 177A and an 8-hour Ah rate of 180 Ah. assume the peak rate to be equal to the sum of the loads (i.2 A ÷ 0.8 ÷ 0. This type of battery is.1 Ah. Use the manufacturer's data to select the battery cell type that meets both the ampere and Ampere-hour requirements.) Table 2 To calculate the required 1-minute ampere rate. therefore. the total Ampere-hour rate is 27. Sample calculation To use a hypothetical real-world example.

Nominal Rates at 77°F (25°C) Final Volts Models Ampere-Hours (Ah) Amperes (A) 8-hr 4-hr 3-hr 1.2 8. Table 1.8 5kV switchgear indicating lights Ignore 0.016* 0.0* 32°F 0.0 12.0 5kV switchgear relays 8 0.0 8.5 0.8 Battery aging factor 0.67 0°F 0. Required Ampere-hour rate for a hypothetical 69kV substation load.0 0.0 0.5-hr 1-hr 30 min 15 min 1 min 1.016* 1.2A Table 5. Battery Type Control Voltage Ni-Cad Lead acid 48VDC 37 cells 24 cells 125VDC 92 cells 60 cells 250VDC 184 cells 120 cells Table 2. Hall is an electrical engineer based in the Las Vegas office of CH2M HILL.switchgear the old-fashioned way is a good skill for any engineer to master.rated capacity of the battery .85* *Per IEEE Std.6 5kV vacuum breakers 9 7. Design factors to be used when calculating Ampere-hour rates for Ni-Cad and lead-calcium batteries. Not only will you impress your peers.0 12.5 69kV substation relays 8 0. 125VDC Load Description Quantity Current (A) Hours (h) Subtotal (Ah) 69kV circuit switchers 2 15.0 Total 27.2 1.8* 0. String together 37 individual Ni-Cad batteries in series to achieve a control voltage of 48V.8 5kV vacuum breakers 9 7.0 63. Battery Type Derating Function Ni-Cad Lead-Calcium Ambient temperature 77°F 1.0 0.2 8.1 Ah *0.75V A 180 142 132 65 81 109 134 177 B 250 210 195 98 126 172 219 303 C 330 280 260 130 168 230 292 404 D 410 350 326 163 204 285 362 500 Table 3.7 0. Inc. 125VDC Load Description Quantity Current (A) Subtotal (A) 69kV circuit switchers 2 15.0 0.2 1.6 5kV switchgear indicating lights Ignore 0. but you'll also feel more confident about recommending a rock solid switchgear solution.016 hours = 1 minute Definitions battery duty cycle .0 Total 96.0 69kV substation relays 8 0.0 30.85* 0.the load (including duration) the battery is expected to supply cell size .0* 1.8* Design margin 0. Ampere-hour and ampere rates for four different battery models offered by one manufacturer. Peak discharge rate for a hypothetical 69kV substation load.0 5kV switchgear relays 8 0. 485 recommended practice Table 4.

capacity of the battery cell (usually for a given discharge rate and end of cell voltage) valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cell .) expected life of the battery usage of the batter (number of charge/discharge cycles) dimensions and weight of the battery construction materials connectors and terminals ambient environment and conditions maintenance requirements seismic characteristics [edit] Ampere-hour and Watts/cell The Ah or Ampere-hour capacity is the current a battery can provide over a specified period of time.operation with the batteries and load connected in parallel period . . etc.sealed lead-acid cell (with the exception of a valve that opens when the internal pressure exceeds the external pressure) vented battery .prolonged charge. at a rate higher than the normal float voltage full float operation .battery in which the products of electrolysis and evaporation are allowed to escape freely to the atmosphere [edit] Battery Selection The selection of the physical battery (cells) is dependant on several factors: type of battery (sealed. NiCad. lead acid. For example 100Ah @ C10 rate to end of discharge of 1.75 V per cell.equalizing charge .75 V/cell means the battery can provide 10 Amps for 10 hours to an end of discharge voltage of 1.time during which load is expected to be constant during sizing calculations rated capacity . vented.

A brief description of the method presented by the standard follow. Ah is used for sizing batteries based on constant current methods and watts/cell on constant power methods. C10 and C20. Typical rates used are C3. C5.Different battery manufacturers will use different Cxx rates depending on the market or application at which their batteries are targeted. [edit] IEEE 485 Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications This standard details methods for defining the dc loads and for sizing a lead-acid battery to supply those loads in full float operation. refer to the full standard. when comparing batteries from different manufacturers. For a full and accurate description.loads lasting for less than 1 minute Typical Loads Continuous Noncontinuous Emergency motors Momentary Switchgear operations Valve operations ( < 1 min) Isolating switch operations Field flashing of generators Motor starting currents Inrush currents Lighting Fire protection systems Continuous Motors Valve operations ( > 1 min) Converters Indicating Lights UPS Control Systems Note: commonly momentary loads are assumed to last for 1 minute during battery sizing calculations.loads continually present noncontinuous . C8. . Because of this it is important.loads lasting for a specific period momentary . [edit] Load Definition Loads are classified as: continuous .

Given the minimum cell voltage the minimum cell voltage is given by: .Typical Duty Cycle Considerations loads and times where known should be shown random loads should be shown at the most critical times [edit] Calculation of Battery Size Number of Cells and Cell Voltage The mumber of cells is estimated based on the maximum battery voltage and float charge voltage: The minimum battery voltage is the minimum system voltage (including voltage drops across cables). Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications . IEEE 485 Std.[edit] Duty Cycle Diagram The standard recommends a duty cycle be drawn showing the anticipated loads (in Amperes or power) for the required duration of battery backup time.

. Aging Factor Battery performance is relatively stable through out its life. Design Margin To cater for unexpected circumstances (increased loads.Temperature Correction At temperature decreases the capacity of a cell decreases (and vise verse as the temperature increases). dropping of rapidly towards the end. IEEE 485 Std. Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications . poor maintenance. To ensure the battery can meet the design requirements throughout its life the standard suggestions the initial capacity should be 125% of the design capacity.) it is common to allow a design margin of 10% to 15%. etc. recent discharge. Manufacturers quote cell capacity at a given temperature and appropriate correction factors should be used for other temperatures.Typical Duty Cycle Sizing Methodology The required capacity of the cell FS is given by: Where S can be any integer from 1 to N depending on the section being calculated and FS is expressed in watt-hours or ampere-hours depending on which Ct is used.

at 25 °C. aging and design margin) cell size S .The required uncorrected cell size F.the time in minutes from the beginning of period P through the end of Section S Ct . at the t minute discharge rate.is the period being analyzed AP .is the capacity required by each section [edit] Capacity rating factor There are two ways of expressing capacity: Term Rt The term Rt is the number of amperes each plate can supply for t minutes.is the section of duty cycle being studied (containing all previous sections) N .is the uncorrected (temperature. at 25 o C to a defined minimum cell voltage. to a definite minimum cell voltage FS . is then given by: where: F . giving: Term Kt The term Kt is the ration of ampere-hour capacity. . at 25 o C and to a defined minimum voltage which can be delivered for t minutes. at a standard time rate.the amperes required for period P t .is the number of periods in the duty cycle P .is the capacity rating factor (for a given cell type.

485 'IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications .giving: Rt is not equal to 1/Kt because each factor is expressed in different units. [edit] References IEEE Std.

- Practical Applications of Ieee Std 485-1997
- BATTERY CHARGER SIZING CALCULATION.pdf
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