SAFE

DESIGN OF SLABS, BEAMS AND FOUNDATIONIS REINFORCED AND POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Manual

ISO SAF120108M4
Berkeley, California, USA

Version 12.0.0
December 2008

Copyright
Copyright © Computers & Structures, Inc., 1978-2008 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® is a registered trademark of Computers & Structures, Inc. SAFE and TM Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers & Structures, Inc. Adobe and Acrobat are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorported. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The computer program SAFE and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers & Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers & Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers & Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com
TM TM

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

Contents

1 2

Introduction Design for ACI 318-08
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors Beam Design 2.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 2.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 2.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement Slab Design 2.6.1 Design for Flexure 2.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 2.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement

1-1

2-1 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-14 2-16 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-26

2.6

i

1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 4-6 4.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 4-1 4-4 4-5 4-5 Beam Design 4-6 4.4 4.5.1 3.2 Check for Punching Shear 3.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 3-6 3.1 Design for Flexure 3.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 4-14 4.2 4.3 4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-16 Slab Design 3.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 3-1 3-4 3-5 3-5 Beam Design 3-5 3.1 4.1 Design for Flexure 4.6.6.5.3-04 5.3 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-25 3.6.4 3.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-14 3.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 4.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 4-20 4-20 4-21 4-24 4.6 4 Design for BS 8110-97 4.1 Notations 5-1 ii .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3 Design for AS 3600-01 3.6.2 3.6 5 Design for CSA A23.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 4-16 Slab Design 4.

6.3 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strengths 7-1 7-3 7-4 iii .2 Check for Punching Shear 6.1 Design for Flexure 6.2 7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 5-25 5-25 5-26 5-29 5.28 6.5.6.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 6-16 6.1 Design for Flexure 5.6.6.1 6.5.6 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7.5.2 Check for Punching Shear 5.6.Contents 5.5 Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Strength Reduction Factors 5-4 5-5 5-5 Beam Design 5-6 5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 5-20 Slab Design 5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 6-8 6.4 5.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 6-23 6-23 6-25 6.2 5.5.3 6.4 6.6.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Limits on Material Strength Partial Safety Factors 6-1 6-4 6-7 6-7 Beam Design 6-8 6.3 5.6 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 6-19 Slab Design 6.1 7.2 6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 5-6 5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 5-14 5.

3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-25 7.6.5.4 9.2 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1 Effects of Torsion 8.5.4.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 9-6 9.6 8 Design for IS 456-2000 8.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 8.5.5 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 9.2 9.5.4.1 Design for Flexure 8.2 Check for Punching Shear 7.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 7-17 Slab Design 7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 7-5 7.5 Partial Safety Factors 7-4 Beam Design 7-5 7.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement Slab Design 8.4 Notations Design Load Combinations Partial Safety Factors Beam Design 8.1 9.5.3 9.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 9-13 iv .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement 8.1 Design for Flexure 7.4 7.5.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 8-1 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-8 8-15 8-19 8-19 8-20 8-22 8.5 Notations Design Load Combinations Strength Reduction Factors Limits on Material Strength 9-1 9-4 9-5 9-5 Beam Design 9-6 9.1 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 7-15 7.5.3 8.6.4.

5.1 Notations 10.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 9-20 9-21 9-22 9-24 10 Design for Singapore CP-65-99 10.5.3 Limits on Material Strengths 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 9-16 9.4 Partial Safety Factors 10.6.1 Design for Flexure 9.5 Beam Design 10.5.6 Slab Design 10.6.6 Slab Design 9.1 Design for Flexure 10.Contents 9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 10.2 Check for Punching Shear 10.6.6.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement 10.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 10.6.2 Check for Punching Shear 9.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement 10-1 10-4 10-4 10-5 10-5 10-6 10-15 10-18 10-21 10-21 10-23 10-26 References v .2 Design Load Combinations 10.

.

Only the aspects of design documented in this manual are automated by SAFE design capabilities. it integrates slab design moments across design strips and designs the required reinforcement. 1-1 . and torsion reinforcement. SAFE is a tool to help the user in this process. The actual design algorithms vary based on the specific design code chosen by the user. The user must check the results produced and address other aspects not covered by SAFE. Specifically. shear. This manual describes the algorithms used for the various codes. The design procedures are outlined in the chapter entitled "SAFE Design Features” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. It should be noted that the design of reinforced concrete slabs is a complex subject and the design codes cover many aspects of this process. it checks slab punching shear around column supports and concentrated loads.Chapter 1 Introduction SAFE automates several slab and mat design tasks. and it designs beam flexural.

.

1 Notations Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Acp Ag Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the section. 2. sq-in Gross area of concrete. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 2-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. a prefix “ACI” followed by the section number is used herein. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the ACI code in this chapter.Chapter 2 Design for ACI 318-08 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the American code ACI 318-08 [ACI 2008] is selected. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. sq-in Notations 2-1 . The code is based on inch-pound-second units.

sq-in Area of compression reinforcement. sq-in/in Area of shear reinforcement. in Depth to neutral axis. in Modulus of elasticity of concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code Al Ao Aoh As A's At /s Av Av /s a amax b bf bo bw b1 b2 c d d' Ec Es f' c f' s Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. in Width of section. psi Stress in the compression reinforcement. in Width of web (flanged section). in Effective width of flange (flanged section). in Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement. in Width of the punching shear critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. sq-in/in Depth of compression block. sq-in Area enclosed by the shear flow path. in Width of the punching shear critical section in the direction of bending. psi 2-2 Notations . psi Specified compressive strength of concrete. sq-in Area enclosed by the centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. sq-in Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length of member for torsion. sq-in Area of tension reinforcement. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Perimeter of the punching shear critical section. sq-in Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.

lb-in Shear force resisted by concrete. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. psi Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. psi Overall depth of a section. lb Punching shear scale factor based on column location Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching shear critical section Factor for obtaining depth of the concrete compression block Strain in the concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.Design for ACI 318-08 Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code fy fyt h hf Mu Nu Pu pcp ph s Tcr Tu Vc Vmax Vs Vu Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. (0. in Height of the flange.Chapter 2 . lb Outside perimeter of concrete cross section. in Factored moment at a section. lb-in Factored torsional moment at a section.003 in/in) Strain in the reinforcement αs βc β1 εc εc max εs Notations 2-3 . lb Factored shear force at a section. lb-in Factored axial load at a section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. lb Shear force resisted by transverse reinforcement. in Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. lb Factored axial load at a section. in Critical torsion capacity.

6 (0.2.0L ± 1.2.6L 1.2.1) are the same.2.1) (ACI 9. degrees 2.6W 0.6L + 0.min φ γf γv λ θ Minimum tensile strain allowed in the reinforcement at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0.2D + 1. the following load combinations may need to be considered (ACI 9.2D + 1.8W 1.2D + 1.2.6S ± 0.1) (ACI 9.0L ± 1.6.5S ± 1.9D ± 1.2D + 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.75 PL) 0.1) The IBC 2006 basic load combinations (Section 1605.6W 1.0L + 1. snow (S). wind (W). These 2-4 Design Load Combinations .0E (ACI 9. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0E 1.9D ± 1.0L + 0.2D + 1.3) (ACI 9.7.1) (ACI 13. For ACI 318-08.2D + 1.1): 1. live load (L).6W 1.5S 1.2.4D 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 2-1 List of Symbols Used in the ACI 318-08 Code εs.1) (ACI 9.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Shear strength reduction factor for lightweight concrete Angle of compression diagonals.6S 1.2D + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2D + 1.0E 1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S ± 1. pattern live load (PL). and earthquake (E) loads.

caution is advised. and torsion based on the beam moments.2). fy. The φ factors for flexure. shear. are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors.1) (ACI 9. is taken as 60 ksi (ACI 11. The upper limit of the reinforcement yield strength.1. is taken as 80 ksi (ACI 9.Design for ACI 318-08 also are the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the ACI 31808 code is used. fyt.Chapter 2 . The user should use other appropriate load combinations if roof live load is treated separately. or if other types of loads are present. φ.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten. Limits on Material Strength 2-5 .3. (ACI 9.2. 2.2. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. f' c . however. and other criteria described in this section. shear.1). should not be less than 2500 psi (ACI 5.3) 2. and torsion are as follows: φ = 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors.90 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.3. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied.5. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. torsion. shear forces.4) and the upper limit of the reinforcement shear strength. 2. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.

the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 2. shear.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 2. 2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. with the corresponding load factors. for a particular station. and torsion only. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure.5.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Compression reinforcement is added 2-6 Beam Design .1.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1.

where. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 2-1). The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. The design procedure used by SAFE. and torsion only.4) when the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0. the width.and T-beams).5.1) in the preceding and the following equations.2) Beam Design 2-7 . or the strength of the concrete. Mu (i. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. it is assumed that the net tensile strain in the reinforcement shall not be less than 0. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement. a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0.3.1.e. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin..2).4).Chapter 2 .003.2. fy . hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure.Design for ACI 318-08 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2) and the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.2. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Furthermore. cmax. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. which is equal to 0.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. even if the material property is defined using a higher value.1 f' c Ag) (ACI 10.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. is summarized in the text that follows. shear.90 (ACI 9.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.2.5). The maximum depth of the compression zone. Note that the flexural reinforcement strength. which by default is 0.3. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition. 2.3. designing top or bottom reinforcement).3.85 f 'c φ b (ACI 10. is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9.4): cmax = ε cmax d ε cmax + ε smin (ACI 10. as shown in Figure 2-1 (ACI 10.

7.85 (ACI 10.3. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 2-8 Beam Design . is given by: amax =β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.005 (ACI 10. amax.85 − 0.2.003 b A′ s Cs c 0.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3.1) β1 = 0.85 f ′ c d′ a = β 1c d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Figure 2-1 Rectangular Beam Design Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM where.2. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.3) (ACI 10.2.003 εsmin = 0.4). εcmax = 0.3) If a ≤ amax (ACI 10.

2.2.Chapter 2 .85 f 'c bamax (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ' s = Es ε c max ⎢ max ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ − The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ Beam Design 2-9 . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.85 f 'c )(d − d ')φ (ACI 10.2.2.1) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Mu − Muc − The required compression reinforcement is given by: A' s = M us . or at the top if Mu is negative. 10.3.7. where ( f 's − 0.Design for ACI 318-08 As = Mu a⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.2. 10.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = 0. If a > amax.

bf hf d′ c d ε = 0.85 f ′ c 0. the total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. and vice versa if Mu is negative.85 f ′ c A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 2-2 T-Beam Design 2 . and the total compression reinforcement is A's. a simplified stress block. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.2. i. as shown in Figure 2-2.e.10 Beam Design . and the flange is ignored. 2. If the moment is negative. the flange comes under tension.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M us f y (d − d ')φ Therefore. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 2-1 is assumed on the compression side. is assumed if the flange is under compression..003 0.5.1. if the moment is positive. In that case.

2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0.05⎜ ⎛ f 'c − 4000 ⎞ ⎟.. which is equal to 0.3) (ACI 10. Mu (i. i.2..85 f 'c φ b f (ACI 10.2.2.7.4): cmax = where.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2.003 εsmin = 0.2.3) Beam Design 2 .65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.1. The maximum depth of the compression zone. ⎝ 1000 ⎠ 0.e.Chapter 2 . amax.7. cmax.2.e.1) β1 = 0.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.85 − 0.90 (ACI 9.005 (ACI 10. designing top reinforcement).5.2. which by default is 0.1.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations. 2.2.3. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.3.3.11 . ε c max d ε c max + ε s min (ACI 10.85 (ACI 10.2) where.5.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2 Mu 0. no flanged beam data is used. is given by: amax = β1cmax where β1 is calculated as: (ACI 10.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10. is calculated based on the limitation that the tension reinforcement strain shall not be less than εsmin.2) εcmax = 0. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension-controlled section.

2 . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.90 by default. Cf is given by: C f = 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. amax ) Therefore. Cf. the balance of the moment.2) If a1 ≤ amax (ACI 10.85 f 'c φ bw (ACI 10. Mu . Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax.85 f 'c (b f − bw )min (h f . However. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.3. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ fy⎜d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.12 Beam Design . amax ) ⎞ ⎛ ⎟φ M uf = C f ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Again.7. the calculation for As has two parts. to be carried by the web is: Muw = Mu − Muf The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d. Therefore. As1 = given by: (ACI 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . If a > hf. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. as shown in Figure 2-2. Cw.5). The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.1) Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is min (h f .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a ≤ hf. the value for φ is 0.2.

2.85 f 'c )(d − d ') φ (ACI 10.4) ⎡c − d'⎤ f ′ = Es ε c max ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ cmax ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = Muc a ⎤ ⎡ f y ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f y (d − d ') φ Beam Design 2 .13 . 10.3.Chapter 2 .7.2.2.2. 10.Design for ACI 318-08 If a1 > amax.3.5) and is calculated as follows: − The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = 0.1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ Muc = C ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟φ ⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mus = Muw − Muc Therefore.85 f 'c bw amax (ACI 10.2. where ( f 's − 0. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A' s = M us . compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.

for a particular load combination.1) 4 As(required) 3 (ACI 10. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.5. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.4bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. 2. Vu.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. Determine the shear force. 2 .2. bw d ⎟ As .4bw d ⎧0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: ⎛ 3 f 'c ⎞ 200 bw d . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.min = max⎜ ⎜ fy ⎟ fy ⎝ ⎠ As ≥ (ACI 10. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3. Vc.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.1.4bd A′s ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.5.5.3) An upper limit of 0.4bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.14 Beam Design . that can be resisted by the concrete.

5φVc Av =0 s If 0.3. with the corresponding load combination factors.3). Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1. is 0. 2. 2.1) Beam Design 2 .1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.75 (ACI 9.6. is calculated as: Vc = 2 f 'c bw d (ACI 11. Vc. fyt.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows where.2) even if the material property is defined with a higher value.15 .5.2.2. Vc. is limited to 60 ksi (ACI 11.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = Vc + 8 f 'c bw d ( ) (ACI 11.5. If Vu ≤ 0.3.7.2. φ. and Vmax.Chapter 2 .5.5φVc < Vu ≤ φVmax (ACI 11.1.1.3.Design for ACI 318-08 2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.1) For light-weight concrete.1.5.2) The value of λ should be specified in the material property definition.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. 11. the strength reduction factor. the shear strength reduction factor λ is applied: Vc = 2λ f 'c bw d A limit is imposed on the value of (ACI 11.2) f 'c as f 'c ≤ 100 (ACI 11.1.5.9) Given Vu.2.

3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.6.9) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.7. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.5.3) If Vu > φVmax.6. 2.5hf.6.5. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Tu.6.2) ⎛ 0. ⎜ s f yt ⎝ 50bw ⎞ ⎟ f yt ⎟ ⎠ (ACI 11. 2. If the beam depth h is less than the minimum of 10in.3 is not enforced (ACI 11.5.1.1(c)).5. Determine special section properties.16 Beam Design .7. (ACI 11. See the subsequent section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.5.9) Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required.75λ f 'c Av ≥ max⎜ bw .7.7. the concrete section should be increased in size.5.5.5. the minimum shear reinforcement given by ACI 11. the equation given in ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av (Vu − φ Vc ) = s φ f yt d (ACI 11. 11. (ACI 11.5bw.5. 2 . a failure condition is declared. and 0.

However. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. This is equivalent to 1.6. and ph. These properties are described in the following (ACI 2. such as Aoh.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design.3.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange Beam Design 2 . If redistribution is desired. pcp. special section properties.17 . it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.5. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2). Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. 2.2. such as Acp.3. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tu.Design for ACI 318-08 Determine critical torsion capacity. and ph.1). Aoh. are calculated.2). In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.75 inches. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (ACI 11. Ao. Ao. 2.6.Chapter 2 . the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors (ACI 11.5.

3.3.1. With this assumption. 2.6. and c are shown in Figure 2-3.6. R11. 2.1.6. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 4hf or (h – hf) (ACI 13. 2.6.6. 2. h. R11.6.1.5.6. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0. 2.1) (ACI 11. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.1.2.3.1.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (ACI 11.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design area is inefficient. h.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.3.1.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (ACI 11.1) where.3. Tcr.1. 2.18 Beam Design .1(c)) 2 .4).1) (ACI 11.1.1) where the section dimensions bf. bw. 2.1.1.6. 2. the section dimensions b.6. With this assumption.1) (ACI 11. Similarly.6(b)) (ACI 11. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 2 ⎛ Acp ⎞ Nu ⎟ 1+ Tcr = φλ f 'c ⎜ ⎜p ⎟ 4 Ag f 'c ⎝ cp ⎠ (ACI 11.6. hf.1) (ACI 11.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.3.6.1) (ACI11. 2. 2. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 2-3. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation.6. 2.6. However.3.1) (ACI 11.6.6.3.6(b)) (ACI 11.

6).5.5. 2.6). At /s.75 by default (ACI 9.7. fy.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.3. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11. is limited to 60 ksi. In that case.6.6. Note that the longitudinal reinforcement strength.6) Al = Tu p h φ 2 Ao f y tan θ (ACI 11. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.3. θ is taken as 45 degrees.3) In the preceding expressions.6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.19 . longitudinal bars.6) where.5.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups.6.3. which is equal to 0.4) and the transverse reinforcement strength.3. 11.3) Al = 5λ f c′ Acp fy ⎛ A ⎞ ⎛ f yt ⎞ ⎟ − ⎜ t ⎟ ph ⎜ ⎝ s ⎠ ⎜ fy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (ACI 11. If Tu > Tcr the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. Tcr.6.6. and compression diagonals (ACI R11.3. fyt. even if the material property is defined with a higher value.6.2.Design for ACI 318-08 where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section.Chapter 2 . is limited to 80 ksi (ACI 9. Tcr.1). Nu is the factored axial force (compression positive).3).6.3. the minimum value of At /s is taken as: At 25 = bw s f yt and the minimum value of Al is taken as: (ACI 11. Beam Design 2 . is calculated as: At Tu tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (ACI 11. φ is the strength reduction factor for torsion. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength. However.

1) For rectangular sections. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.6.7 A 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ w ⎠ ⎝ oh 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤φ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ⎛ Vc ⎞ ⎜ + 8 f c′ ⎟ ⎜b d ⎟ ⎝ w ⎠ (ACI 11.6. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.5.75λ ⎬ s ⎠ f yt fy ⎪ ⎝ s ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (ACI 11. the concrete section should be increased in size. a failure message is declared. bw is replaced with b. ⎧ f c′ A ⎞ 50bw ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ Av bw .2) 2 .20 Beam Design . When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr). ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ max ⎨0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 2-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: ⎛ Vu ⎞ ⎛ Tu p h ⎜ ⎜ b d ⎟ + ⎜ 1.3. In that case.

Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal reinforcement requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Design for ACI 318-08 If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s.6. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Av /s does not need to satisfy the ACI Section 11. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 2. 2. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on strength considerations.5.3 independently. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. These locations correspond to the element boundaries.21 . and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (ACI 318-08) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Slab Design 2 . To learn more about the design strips. Av /s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.6. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments.Chapter 2 .

1(b)) (ACI 7. This is the method used when drop panels are included.12. at a given design section in a design strip.12.2.1(a)) (ACI 7. These two steps. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.12. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1.22 Slab Design . In some cases. 2. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1(c)) 0. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. Where openings occur.6. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.min = 0. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).6.min = (ACI 7. 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (ACI 7.min = 0. for each load combination. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported.6.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1. are repeated for every load combination. 2.2.0018 × 60000 bh for fy > 60 ksi fy 2 . given the bending moment.0018 bh for fy = 60 ksi As.0020 bh for fy = 40 ksi or 50 ksi As.2.12.1. In that case. described in the text that follows.2): As.

2.2.6. edge. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2).3). The column location (i. 2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.11.6.23 .e. interior.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (ACI 11.04 times the gross cross-sectional area..1. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 2-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 2 . corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.Design for ACI 318-08 In addition. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (ACI 11.11.1. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.Chapter 2 . Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2.2) γv = 1 − γf (ACI 13.1) For flat plates.4 γvy = same as for edge columns (ACI 421.2R-07 [ACI 2007] Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates. C-16) 2 .5.2 Eq.2 Eq.2.2 Eq.2 For corner columns.2 1 γvy = 0 when lx/ly ≤ 0.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γ f Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γ v Mu. C-15) (ACI 421.2 Eq. γ vx = γ vy = 1 + (2 3) l y l x 1 + (2 3) l x l y 1 1 (ACI 421.24 Slab Design . C-12) For edge columns.2 Eq. C-13) (ACI 421.3. γvx = same as for interior columns (ACI 421. γvx = 0. γv is determined from the following equations taken from ACI 421. γf = 1 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 (ACI 13. C-11) (ACI 421.6. For interior columns.5.2 Eq. C-14) γ vy = 1 − 1 + (2 3) l x l y − 0.3.

6.Chapter 2 . and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.Design for ACI 318-08 where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.4 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2) f 'c ≤ 100 2.2.1) where.3 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 4 ⎞ ⎪ φ ⎜ 2 + ⎟λ f ' c ⎜ βc ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ αsd ⎞ ⎪ ⎟λ f ' c ν c = min ⎨φ ⎜ 2 + ⎜ bo ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ φ 4λ f ' c ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (ACI 11. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the critical section. for edge columns.6. respectively. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is re- Slab Design 2 .2.11. The values lx and ly are the projections of the shearcritical section onto its principal axes. ⎧ 40 ⎪ α s = ⎨30 ⎪20 ⎩ for interior columns.25 .11. bo is the perimeter of the critical section.2. (ACI 11.2. and for corner columns. x and y. 2.1) A limit is imposed on the value of f 'c as: (ACI 11.1.

The design of punching shear reinforcement is described in the subsections that follow. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.0. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. 2.3).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 6 inches.11.75 (ACI 9. punching shear reinforcement is designed as described in the following section.3. 2. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is limited to: vc ≤ φ 2λ f 'c for shear links vc ≤ φ 3λ f ' c for shear studs (ACI 11. where.5. and Vmax. If this ratio exceeds 1. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.26 Slab Design .11.1) f ' c bod for shear studs Given Vu.3.2) (ACI 11.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 6 λ Vmax = 8 λ f ' c bod for shear links (ACI 11. Vc.6.1) 2.1) (ACI 11.3). The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.3.11.3. φ. is 0.6. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (ACI 11.2.3.5.11.11. 2 . the strength reduction factor.

4.7. 2. 11.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.4. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (ACI 11.3). i. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.11. Slab Design 2 ..2) If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax.1. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 2-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.e. (ACI 11.7.6. the concrete section should be increased in size. and corner column. Figure 2-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. edge.Chapter 2 .3.27 .11.Design for ACI 318-08 Av = (Vu − φVc ) φf ys ≥ 2 f c' for shear studs (ACI 11.2) Av f y bo s If Vu > φVmax. a failure condition is declared.3.

Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 3/8-. 1/2-. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in ACI 7. s.5. and interior columns respectively.11.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.2) ⎧0. and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5.11. for corner. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. Height. edge. When specifying shear studs.5d (ACI 11. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.2) (ACI 11.6. 5/8-.28 Slab Design . so.11. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. 6.5d. and 8. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and 3/4-inch diameters. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.50d for ⎩ g ≤ 2d vu ≤ 6φλ f ′ c vu > 6φλ f ′ c (ACI 11. Therefore.7 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance.3. The limits of so and the spacing.3) 2 . 2.5.75d for ⎪ s≤⎨ ⎪0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.

all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. a prefix “AS” followed by the section number is used herein. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the AS code in this chapter. mm Notations 3-1 . English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.Chapter 3 Design for AS 3600-01 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Australian code AS 3600-2001 [AS 2001] is selected. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion.1 Notations Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code Ag Al Gross area of concrete. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. 3. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 3-1.

mm Mean value of do.min Asv /s Asw/s At a ab amax b bef bw c d d' do dom D Ds Ec Es f 'c f 'cf Area of tension reinforcement. mm Overall depth of a section. mm /mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length consisting of closed 2 ties. mm Distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the outermost tension reinforcement. mm /mm Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at 2 the corners of a section. MPa Specified compressive strength of concrete. mm Concrete cover to compression reinforcement. averaged around the critical shear perimeter. mm Minimum area of shear reinforcement. mm Width of web (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code As Asc Ast As(required) Asv Asv. mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. MPa 2 3-2 Notations . mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. mm Width of member. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. MPa Characteristic flexural tensile strength of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Depth to neutral axis. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm Depth of compression block. mm Thickness of slab (flanged section). MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm 2 Area of required tension reinforcement.

mm Factored shear force at a section. N-mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber. N Shear strength provided by minimum shear reinforcement. to the effective depth. N-mm Factored axial load at section. N-mm Perimeter of the polygon defined by At . mm 3 Ratio of the depth to the neutral axis from the compression face. d Reduced ultimate strength in bending without axial force. N-mm Factored moment at section.f f 's Jt ku Mud M* N* s Tuc Tu.max Vu.003 mm/mm) Strain in reinforcement βh εc εc. Nmm Maximum permitted total factored torsion at a section.Chapter 3 .min Vuc Vus γ1 Concrete shear strength. N Spacing of shear reinforcement along the beam. MPa Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. (0. N Shear force resisted by concrete. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. N Shear force resisted by reinforcement. N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. MPa Torsional modulus. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. max εs Notations 3-3 . mm Torsional strength of section without torsional reinforcement.max Tus T* ut V* Vu.Design for AS 3600-01 Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code fcv fsy fsy. N-mm Torsion strength of section with torsion reinforcement.

35D 1. 4. For AS 3600-01.5(0.2(f)) Note that the 0.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.9D ± 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas. 3-4 Design Load Combinations .0E (AS/NZS 1170.2.2. 4.4L ± 1. 4.4L + 1.2D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 3-1 List of Symbols Used in the AS 3600-2001 Code φ θt θv Strength reduction factor Angle of compression strut for torsion. 4.3.2D + 0. 4.2. pattern live load (PL).0-02. live load (L).0-02.0-02. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the AS 3600-2001 code is used. 4. and earthquake (E) loads.5L 1.0-02.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.0D ± 1.0-02.0W 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.0W 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170.75 PL) 1. degrees Angle of compression strut for shear. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). 4.2.4L ± 1.1): 1.0D + 0.2.2.0-02.2.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.2D ± 1. snow (S).0W 1.2D + 0. 4.0-02.0E 1.0-02. degrees 3. 4.2D + 1.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0-02.0S 0.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170. the following load combinations may need to be defined (AS 3. wind (W).2.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170. other appropriate load combinations should be used.

Table 6. φ. and torsion based on the beam moments.1.Chapter 3 .1. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure.1.1. 3.1. (AS 2. is defined as given in AS 2.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams.2.3(c)) 3.2.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c are 65 MPa and 20 MPa.1(b)).3(c).1.1. respectively. caution is advised.1. shear.1).Design for AS 3600-01 3.70 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.3: φ = 0.1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. f 'c ≤ 65 MPa f 'c ≥ 20 MPa (AS 6.2. Limits on Material Strength 3-5 . Table 2. for all framing type (AS 6. however.1) The upper limit of fsy is 500 MPa for all frames (AS 6. torsion. The code allows use of f' c and fsy beyond the given limits.1) (AS 6.1. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. 19. provided special care is taken regarding the detailing and ductility (AS 6.1).2.80 for flexure (tension controlled) φ = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factor. load combination factors. and other criteria described in the text that follows. shear forces. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.3(c)) (AS 2. 6.1.

1. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 3.5. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Beams are designed for major direction flexure. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.1. shear. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3.5. Compression reinforcement is added 3-6 Beam Design . the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. 3. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. and torsion only. for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.5.

1. (AS 8.2) Beam Design 3-7 .1.65 ≤ γ ≤ 0. fy . hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block.85 − 0.2. It is assumed * that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (Ascfsy > 0. and located at a distance γkud from the extreme compression fiber.Design for AS 3600-01 when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1a).1).Chapter 3 .4 The design procedure used by SAFE for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. shear. amax. is given by amax = γk u d where. the width.003.15N ) (AS 10.2). Note that the flexural reinforcement strength.1. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.2.007( f 'c −28)] 0.2.85f' c acts on an area bounded by: – The edges of the cross-sections. (AS 8. A uniform compressive stress of 0.2).2.and T-beams) is summarized in the following subsections.1. – A line parallel to the neutral axis at the strength limit under the loading concerned. and torsion only. The maximum strain in the extreme compression fiber is taken as 0. The following assumptions are used for the stress block used to compute the flexural bending capacity of rectangular sections (AS 8.3) γ = [0. even if the material property is defined using a higher value. as shown in Figure 3-1 (AS 8. or the strength of the concrete.7. is limited to 500MPa (AS 6.85 ku = 0. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.

which by default is 0.. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-1).2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3. the value of φ is taken as that for a tension controlled section (ku ≤ 0.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment. where.4).e. * a=d− d − 2 2M* 0.2) where. ε = 0. designing top or bottom reinforcement).5.1.2.85 f 'c φb (AS 8. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: Ast = M* a⎞ ⎛ φf sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ 3-8 Beam Design .3) in the preceding and following equations. M (i.003 b Cs c 0.85 f ′ c Acs d′ a = γ ku d d εs As (I) BEAM SECTION (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 3-1 Rectangular Beam Design If a ≤ amax.1.80 (AS 2.

2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required (AS 8.3) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: * C = 0.1.Design for AS 3600-01 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.e.2.2. where ( f 's − 0.003Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ c ⎦ The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢d − max ⎥φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: Beam Design 3-9 .85 f 'c )( d − d ′)φ (AS 8. the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: M us = M * − M uc The required compression reinforcement is given by: Asc = Mus . 6. If a > amax.Chapter 3 .85 f 'c bamax (AS 8.1. i.1.2.1.4.2) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ Therefore. ku > 0. or at the top * if M is negative..

and the flange is ignored. as shown in Figure 3-2. is assumed if the flange is under compression.1... 3.5.10 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As 2 = Mus fsy ( d − d ′ ) φ Therefore.e.e. a simplified stress block.1. In that case. i. if the moment is positive.2. the total tension reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. ε = 0.003 bf Ds * 0. the flange comes under tension.2.1. and vice versa if M is negative. no flanged beam data is used. a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-1 is assumed on the compression side (AS 8.3).85 f ′ c d′ Asc c d f′ s Cs a = γ ku d Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 3-2 T-Beam Design 3 . If the moment is negative. designing top reinforcement).e..2. the calculation of the reinforcement is exactly the same as above. M (i. 3.5. i.85 f ′ c 0.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2 Design of Flanged Beams In designing a flanged beam. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be * * placed at the top if M is positive.

Cf.11 .85 f 'c φb f where. amax. the calculation for Ast has two parts.85 f 'c (bef − bw )× min(Ds . amax ) ⎞ ⎛ M uf = φC f ⎜ d − ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. which is 0. ku = 0. in that case.3) If a ≤ Ds. the width of the beam is taken as bf. The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. amax ) Therefore. the value of φ is taken as that for ku ≤ 0.2.3) in the preceding and the following equations.Design for AS 3600-01 3.80 by default (AS 2.2) Cf f sy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is * min(Ds . If a > Ds. Cw. Cf is given by: C f = 0. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.1. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.1. as shown in Figure 3-2. the subsequent calculations for Ast are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.2. the depth of the compression block is given by: * a = d − d2 − 2M * 0.5. is given by: a max = γk u d where.Chapter 3 .4.1. However. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: Beam Design 3 .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.2. the balance of the moment. M to be carried by the web is: * Muw = M * − Muf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d. As1 = given by: (AS 8.4 (AS 8.

003Es ⎢ max s ⎥ ≤ fsy ⎣ cmax ⎦ 3 . where ′ − 0.1. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φ f sy ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ Ast = As1 + As 2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam.2.1. 6.2) ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = 0.1.85 f ′ )( d − d ′ ) φ (fs c (AS 8. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M uw . the compression reinforcement is computed as: Asc = Mus .85 f 'c bw amax (AS 8. If a1 > amax.2. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by: C w = 0.2) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎞ ⎛ M uc = C w ⎜ d − max ⎟φ 2 ⎠ ⎝ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: M us = M uw − M uc Therefore.85 f ′ φ bw c If a1 ≤ amax.12 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M uw 0.2.

Design for AS 3600-01 The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M uc a ⎤ ⎡ f sy ⎢ d − max ⎥ φ 2 ⎦ ⎣ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = M us f sy ( d − d ′ ) φ The total tensile reinforcement is Ast = As1 + As2 + As3.4.04bw d ⎧0.Chapter 3 .1. Ast is to be placed at the bottom and Asc is to be placed at the top. where d ⎠ fsy ⎝ 2 (AS 8.5.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.22 ⎜ ⎟ bd .04bd Asc ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. and the total compression reinforcement is Asc. 3.1.2) An upper limit of 0.04bd Ast ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.13 .1) f 'cf = 0.1.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam Beam Design 3 .6 f 'c (AS 6.min = 0.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following limit: ⎛ D⎞ f′ cf Ast .

Vuc.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.6 − β2 = 1. 13 (AS 8.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. for a particular load combination.1) β1 = 1. 3.1⎜1.5 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 0 for members subject to significant axial tension. or ⎛ ⎝ do ⎞ ⎟ ≥ 1.2.14 Beam Design . In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. or ⎟ ⎠ 3 .1 1000 ⎠ (AS 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.1 Determine Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.5.1) (AS 8. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.7.7.1) = 1− ⎜ ⎛ N* ⎜ 3.2. * 3. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. Vuc. Determine the shear force.5. with the corresponding load combination factors. V . that can be resisted by the concrete.7. is calculated as: ⎡A f' ⎤ Vuc = β1 β 2 β 3bw d o ⎢ st c ⎥ ⎣ bw d o ⎦ where.2. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.2.2. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.

3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to: Vu . f ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (AS 8. If V * ≤ φVuc / 2. Vuc.Design for AS 3600-01 = 1+ ⎜ β3 = 1 ⎛ N* ⎜ 14 A g ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ for members subject to significant axial compression. if D ≤ 750 mm otherwise Asv. Asv = 0. if D < bw /2 or 250 mm.min.2.max. the strength reduction factor.9) (AS 8. defined as: ( ) (AS 8.2. φ.6 by default (AS 2. is 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. and Vu.10) Asv. = s fsy. V * − φVuc Asv .min . Asv = 0 .6bv d o Vu .5).5(c)(i)).15 .2. s otherwise Asv. whichever is greater (AS 8.min shall be provided s If (φVuc / 2 ) < V * ≤ φVu.35 w ⎜ s f sy.2.2.8) Beam Design 3 . f do cot θ v and greater than Asv.max . If φVu.3).min shall be provided. ⎟ ⎠ 3.2. min = Vuc + 0. where.Chapter 3 .2.5. (AS 8.min < V * ≤ φVu.2 f 'c bd o * (AS 8.6) Given V . max = 0. min ⎛ b = ⎜ 0.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

θv = the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees when * * V =φVu.min to 45 degrees when V =φ Vu,max.
If V * > φVmax , a failure condition is declared.
*

(AS 8.2.6)

If V exceeds its maximum permitted value φVmax, the concrete section size should be increased (AS 8.2.6). Note that if torsion design is considered and torsion reinforcement is required, the calculated shear reinforcement is ignored. Closed stirrups are designed for combined shear and torsion according to AS 8.3.4(b). The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

3.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required.
*

3 - 16

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

3.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the design T* is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (AS 8.3.2). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

3.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as At, Jt, and ut are calculated. These properties are described in the following (AS 8.3). At ut Jt = = = Area of a polygon with vertices at the center of longitudinal bars at the corners of the cross-section Perimeter of the polygon defined by At Torsional modulus

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Asw/s and Al, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to 38-mm clear cover and a 12-mm-diameter stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tuc calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: At
ut

=
=

( b − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( b − 2c ) + 2 ( h − 2c ) ,

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6)

Beam Design

3 - 17

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Jt

=

0.4x y

2

(AS 8.3.3)

where, the section dimensions b, h and, c are as shown in Figure 3-3. Similarly, the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: At ut Jt = = =

( bw − 2c )( h − 2c ) ,
2 ( h − 2c ) + 2 ( bw − 2c ) ,
0.4Σx y
2

(AS 8.3.5) (AS 8.3.6) (AS 8.3.3)

where the section dimensions bw, h, and c for a flanged beam are as shown in Figure 3-3. The values x and y refer to the smaller and larger dimensions of a component rectangle, respectively.

c c

b − 2c 2c

c

bef Ds d c

h − 2c

h

h h

h − 2c

c
b

c bw − 2c bw bw
Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section

Figure 3-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design

3.5.3.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
The torsional strength of the section without torsion reinforcement, Tuc, is calculated as:

Tuc = 0.3 J t

f′ c

(AS 8.3.5)

3 - 18

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design for AS 3600-01

where Jt is the torsion modulus of the concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. Torsion reinforcement also can be ignored if any of the following is satisfied:

T * ≤ 0.25φTuc T* V* + ≤ 0.5 φTuc φVuc T* V* + ≤ 1 and D ≤ max(250mm, b/2) φTuc φVuc
* *

(AS 8.3.4(a)(i)) (AS 8.3.4(a)(ii))

(AS 8.3.4(a)(iii))

If the factored torsion T alone or in combination with V does not satisfy any of the three conditions in the preceding description, torsion reinforcement is needed. It is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (AS 8.3). If T > Tcr, the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, Asw /s, is calculated as:
*

Asw T * tan θ t = s φ 2 f sy. f At
where, the minimum value of Asw /s is taken as follows:

(AS 8.3.5(b))

Asw. min 0.35bw = s f sy. f

(AS 8.2.8)

The value θt is the angle between the axis of the concrete compression strut and the longitudinal axis of the member, which varies linearly from 30 degrees * * when T = φTuc to 45 degrees when T = φTu,max. The following equation shall also be satisfied for combined shear and torsion by adding additional shear stirrups.

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTus φVus

(AS 8.3.4(b))

Beam Design

3 - 19

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

where,

⎛A ⎞ Tus = f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟2 At cot θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Vus = (Asv f sy. f d o / s )cot θ v
The required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as:

(AS 8.3.5(b)) (AS 8.2.10(a))

⎛A ⎞ 0.5 f sy. f ⎜ sw ⎟ut cot 2 θ t ⎝ s ⎠ Al = f sy
* *

(AS 8.3.6(a))

An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation:

T* V* + ≤ 1.0 φTu . max φVu . max
where,

(AS 8.3.3)

Vu . max = 0.2 f 'c bw d o Tu . max = 0.2 f 'c J t

(AS 8.2.6) (AS 8.3.5(a))
* *

For rectangular sections, bw is replaced with b. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete section should be increased in size. When torsional reinforcement is required (T > Tcr), the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
*

A ⎞ 0.35b ⎛ Asv + 2 sw ⎟ ≥ ⎜ s ⎠ f sy. f ⎝ s

(AS 8.3.7, 8.2.8)

If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Asv/s and Asw/s, Asv/s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case, Asv/s does not need to satisfy AS Section 8.2.8 independently.

3 - 20

Beam Design

The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.Chapter 3 . 3. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.6. as described in the following sections. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 3. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries.Design for AS 3600-01 The maximum of all the calculated Al and Asw/s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries. Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (AS 36002001) for reinforced concrete.21 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. To learn more about the design strips.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Slab Design 3 .

0020 bh for slabs supported by beams/walls and slab footings (AS 9.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (AS 9. is obtained and reported.04 times the gross cross-sectional area. at a given design section in a design strip.22 Slab Design . along with the corresponding controlling load combination numbers. which are described in the following subsections. In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. given the bending moment. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). are repeated for every load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.1.0025 bh for flat slabs (AS 9.1(a)) As ≥ 0. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. for each load combination. 3. 3 .1(b)) In addition.1): As ≥ 0. 3. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. 3.1.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.1. This is the method used when drop panels are included.1. Where openings occur.6.6. In some cases.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design These two steps.

1).2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. interior.2. The column location (i.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of dom /2 from the face of the support (AS 9.Design for AS 3600-01 3.. Figure 3-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Edge Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 3-4 Punching Shear Perimeters Slab Design 3 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.3).Chapter 3 . 3.2.6.1. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.2. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e.1.6. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (AS 9.23 . edge.

2 Determine Concrete Capacity (i) * (i) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is zero.2.3(a)) where. is given as (AS 9.4(a)): Vu = Vuo / ⎡1. when shear link/stud is present (AS 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.3σ cp ) b.2. when no shear link/stud is present Vuo = ud om ( f cv + 0.2.3(a)): a.3(a)) Vuo = ud om 0. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE. Vu .3 Determine Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.6. βh is the ratio of the longest to the minimum dimensions of the critical section.2 f c' ud om where fcv is taken as the minimum of the following two limits: ⎧ 2 ⎞ ⎛ f′ c ⎪0.2.2.34 f ′ ( ) (AS 9.3σ cp ≤ 0.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 3.24 Slab Design .0 + uM v / 8V *adom ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) (AS 9. is given as (AS 9.6.2.17 ⎜ 1 + βh ⎟ fcv = min ⎨ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ c ⎩0.5 f c' + 0.3(b)) (AS 9. Vuo .2.4(a)) 3. * (ii) The ultimate shear strength of a slab where M v is not zero and no shear re- inforcement is provided. 3 .

the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. V * − φVu Asv = .Given V*. where. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.Chapter 3 .4.25 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.min = 3*Vu (AS 92. and Vu.4(a).6.10) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Slab Design 3 .1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. φ.max.7. is the strength reduction factor.Design for AS 3600-01 3.3. (d)) Where Vu is computed from AS 9.3 or 9. 3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.2. The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4.6. Vu.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The design guidelines for shear links or shear studs are not available in AS 3600-2001. 3.2.2. s f sy dom ( ) (AS 8. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12. SAFE uses the NZS 3101-06 guidelines to design shear studs or shear links.2.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 3 Vu.6.3.1). If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.

a failure condition is declared.3. the minimum number of 3 .7.26 Slab Design . * If V exceeds the maximum permitted value of φVmax. i. Therefore. the concrete section should be increased in size. edge. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 3-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4) If V > φVmax. 3.7.3) (NZS 12.6..SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Vs ≥ * 1 16 f 'c ud om (NZS 12. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3. and corner column.4). Figure 3-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4.e.4. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.

Design for AS 3600-01 lines of shear reinforcement is 4. g. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.4. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern. and 8.7. and interior columns respectively. s.Chapter 3 . so.4.7.4. 3. edge. Height.6.7.5d. The limits of so and the spacing.3.11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement.5d s ≤ 0. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4) Slab Design 3 .4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12. the distance.4) (NZS 12. for corner.4) (NZS 12. 6.27 .

.

The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm 2 Notations 4-1 . For referencing to the pertinent sections of the British code in this chapter. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. a prefix “BS” followed by the section number is used herein.1 Notations Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Ag Gross area of cross-section. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 4. reference is made to BS 8110-2:1985 [BSI 1985]. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 4-1. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 4 Design for BS 8110-97 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the British code BS 8110-1997 [BSI 1997] is selected. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. For simplicity. For light-weight concrete and torsion.

mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength at 28 days. mm 2 2 2 Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm /mm Depth of compression block. assumed as 200. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. mm Torsional constant. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code Al As A's Asv Asv.t Asv / sv a b Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. mm 4-2 Notations . mm 4 bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.

MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Torsional shear stress. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. MPa Neutral axis depth.Chapter 4 . mm 1 3 vc vmax vt x Notations 4-3 . N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Normalized design moment. mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. mm Design shear force at ultimate design load.156 by assuming that moment redistribution is limited to 10%. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.Design for BS 8110-97 Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code hf hmin hmax K K' Flange thickness. taken bd 2 f cu as 0. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section. [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section.

3) (BS 2. and considering that wind forces are reversible.4D ± 1.4W 1.0D ± 1.4.6(0.4D + 1.4.6L 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). mm Lever arm.4D + 1.2D + 1.2W (BS 2.2L ± 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.2D + 1.2D + 1.3) (BS 2.2W 1. 1.4.4D 1. pattern live load (PL). snow (S).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 4-1 List of Symbols Used in the BS 8110-1997 Code xbal z Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section.3). 0.3).0035 Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement β βb γf γm εc εs ε's 4.3) (BS 2.3) 4-4 Design Load Combinations .6L + 1. γf (BS 2.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. the following load combinations may need to be considered (BS 2.6S 1.2S ± 1.2W 1.4D + 1.1.4.2L + 1.75PL) 1. and wind (W) loads. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain. For BS 8110-1997.4.4. live load (L).2S ± 1.4W 1.

4. including pattern live load. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.2). is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.4. other appropriate load combinations should be used. this value should be overwritten as necessary. It is the user's responsibility to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. Changes to the partial safety factors are carried through the design equations where necessary. as taken from BS Table 2. Limits on Material Strength 4-5 .15 is for Grade 500 reinforcement. SAFE does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. Note that the automatic combination.25 These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code. typically affecting the material strength portions of the equations. 4. Note that for reinforcement.Chapter 4 . the default factor of 1. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table.15 1.50 1.Design for BS 8110-97 These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the BS 8110-1997 code is used. should not be less than 25 MPa (BS 3. fcu. γm.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength.1. If other grades are used.2 (BS 2.7.

5. for a particular station. and torsion based on the beam moments. shear. In such cases. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 4.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. load combination factors. the 4-6 Beam Design .1. with the corresponding load factors. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. torsion. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. and other criteria described below. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 4. shear. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear forces.5. and torsion only. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.

1.5.4).5. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. less than. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.Design for BS 8110-97 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 4-1 (BS 3.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam.156 2 (BS 3.4) Beam Design 4-7 ..1).4.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.4.1. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i. where K' = 0. or the strength of the concrete.9) (BS 3. the width.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. 4.4.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4. Furthermore.5. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. The reinforcement is determined based on M being greater than. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. In addition. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. Msingle.4). In such cases. The design procedure used by SAFE.Chapter 4 . See Figure 4-1.1fcu Ag) (BS 3. to safeguard against non-ductile failures (BS 3. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.4. or equal to Msingle.4.4.4. is first calculated for a section.e.2.4). and torsion only. 4. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. shear.4. βb ≥ 0. Msingle = K'fcu bd . x/d ≤ 0.

4.4. the area of tension reinforcement.87 f y z (BS 3.25 − ⎜ 0.4) K= M f cu bd 2 (BS 3.4) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: 4-8 Beam Design . If M > Msingle.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.95d z = d ⎜ 0. As. where 0.4.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.9 x d Ts As (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-1 Rectangular Beam Design If M ≤ Msingle.5 + 0.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.4.67 fcu γ m d′ a = 0.4.4. is then given by: As = M . or at the top if M is negative.0035 b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.

67 fcu ⎞ d − d' ⎜ f 's − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (BS 3.e.5.5 + 0.2.4. no flanged beam data is used.87 f y d − d ' ( ) . designing top reinforcement). Based on this assumption.4. Beam Design 4-9 .2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.4. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.. where (BS 3.1.5.5.777d z = d ⎜ 0. 2. i.1. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.1. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.87 f y if d d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (BS 3.1.4.4.5. and ' f ' s = 0.2. 4. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2 Design of Flanged Beams 4.3.e.2.4.4.4.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3. Fig 2.Design for BS 8110-97 A 's = M − Msingle ⎛ 0. M (i.87 f y z + M − Msingle 0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.3. the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.4..4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ = 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 4.5.2.Chapter 4 .2.4.25 − ⎜ 0.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.4) In designing for a factored negative moment. Fig 2. 2.1.

5 + 0.0035 0.67 fcu/gm 0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (BS 3.67 fcu/gm bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 4-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange. e = 0.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: z = d ⎨0.4.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.9 ⎭ (BS 3. See Figure 4-2.4) the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: x= 1 (d − z) 0.95d 0.4) and the depth of the compression block is given by: 4 .4. the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.4.10 Beam Design .4.4.4.45 (BS 3.

4.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts. the width of the beam is taken as bf.4. 2 As = M + 0. However.5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.4.4) If a ≤ hf.4.4).15 b ⎟ d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.4) If Kw ≤ 0.Design for BS 8110-97 a = 0.1 f cu bd (0. as shown in Figure 4-2.4.45d − h f ) 0.5) β f = 0.45 fcu ( b f − bw ) h f ( d − 0.4.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0. In that case. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.9x (BS 3. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.45d then.87 f y z Beam Design 4 .4. Cw.5h f ) . If a > hf. where (BS 3. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.4. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. in that case.4. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.4. As = 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.Chapter 4 .11 .5h f ) Mf + Mw .87 f y (d − 0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.87 f y (d − 0. Cf.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (BS 3. where 0.4.4.156 (BS 3. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

4. 4 .25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table which is taken from BS Table 3.4.4.5.2.12 Beam Design .87 f f (0. 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (BS 3.67 f cu ⎞ ⎟(d − d ') f s' − γc ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.5.5 + 0.1.95d ⎜ 0. d is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.12.4) where.3.4.87 f y (d − 0.4.5.4. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 (BS 3.5h f Mf ) + M uw M w − M uw + 0. Fig 2.1.4.87 f y if d ’ d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (BS 3. 2.4.5.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 0. and ' f ' s = 0. The compression reinforcement is computed as: As' = ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ M w − M uw 0.4.1.87 f y (d − d ' ) 4.4).25 (BS 3.4.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.3. Fig 2.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ' > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (BS 3.777d ) 0.

or L-Beam Web in compression 100 As' bf hf As' bw h 0.or L-Beam with web in tension bw < 0.Chapter 4 .20 An upper limit of 0.25 (BS 3.4 bf ⎯ 100 0. if it is required.12. which is taken from BS Table 3.13 T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression 100 0.36 0.48 0.26 ⎯ 100 As bw h 0.24 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (BS 3.Design for BS 8110-97 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa fy = 500 MPa 0. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage 0.24 0.40 100 0.20 As' bh Web in tension T.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Definition of percentage 100 As bh As bw h As bw h As bw h T.5.1): Beam Design 4 . provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.3).13 .4 bf bw ≥ 0.6.32 0.12.18 100 0.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.04bw d ⎧0.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.5. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.63 fcu . the following steps are involved: Determine the shear stress.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.2) For light-weight concrete. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.5.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 4.8 fcu . at a particular station due to the beam major shear.4. 5 MPa) (BS 3.5.2.14 Beam Design .5. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. for a particular load combination. that can be resisted by the concrete. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0. Determine the shear stress. v. vc.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (BS 3.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4) 4 . 4. with the corresponding load combination factors.4.

Table 3.4.4.15 .4.12) 0.25 1 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3.8.8) (BS 3.4.3): Beam Design 4 .5.12) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purposes only) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement. Table 3. and vmax.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0. the following limitations also apply: 0. vc.5. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS Table 3.4.4.8) ⎛f ⎞ 3 k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ . is calculated as: v'c = vc + 0.4.4) (BS 3.5. Table 3.Chapter 4 .4.4.4.2.1) However.5.5. vc.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete. and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3.5.6 NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 (BS 3.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.4.4.5.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(BS 3.4.5.5. Table 3.5.2.Design for BS 8110-97 4.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5.4. 4. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.4.8) (BS 2.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (BS 3. BS 3.

Note that references in this section refer to BS 8110-2:1985. In the preceding expressions.4) < v ≤ vmax (BS 3.87 f yv If (v’c + 0.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.4.4.16 Beam Design . Determine the torsion reinforcement required. obtained from each load combination. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress. (BS 3.5.5.87 f yv If v > vmax. Table 3.4bw = sv 0. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.2) (BS 3.5. Determine special section properties. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If v ≤ (v’c + 0.4. 4 .5. Table 3.4. a limit is imposed on fyv as: fyv ≤ 500 MPa. vt.7) (BS 3.3.3.5. 4.4) Asv 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. a failure condition is declared. Determine critical torsion stress.7) Asv (v − v'c )bw = sv 0.

for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (BS 8110-2:85 2.13).4.4. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. with the corresponding load combination factors.1) For flanged sections.4.3.4.17 .2) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.4. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm.5.5) Beam Design 4 . specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases.4. In typical framed construction.5. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0. vt.Chapter 4 . further consideration should be given using the following sections (BS 8110-2:85 3.5 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (BS 8110-2:85 2.Design for BS 8110-97 4. vt.8 f cu . calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 8110-2:85 2. The torsional shear stress.

4.3.8 x1 y1 (0.5.0.6).87 f yv ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4.min. For lightweight concrete. vt. vt.067 fcu .4.4N/mm 2 x 0. vt is less than the threshold limit. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (BS 8110-2:85 2.4.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (BS 8110-2:85 2.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.t sv = T 0.5) 4.4N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2. In that case.t /sv.min the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. vt.7) In the preceding expressions.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . 4 .4. If vt > vt.min.18 Beam Design .2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. However.min. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.0.3. Asv.067 fcu .5.4. torsion can be safely ignored (BS 8110-2:85 2.8 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 5. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt.min is defined as: vt .6).min = min 0. is calculated as: Asv .min = min 0. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.

Chapter 4 .4) If the combination of shear stress.4. v and torsional shear stress. In that case.8 fcu . 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:85 5.Design for BS 8110-97 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 4-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. a failure message is declared. 5N/mm 2 ( ) (BS 8110-2:85 2.63 fcu .t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.5) For light-weight concrete. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Beam Design 4 . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.19 . the concrete section should be increased in size. vt exceeds this limit.

The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (BS 8110-97) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. 4. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. is obtained and reported. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 4. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 4 .6.1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 4. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. for each load combination.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.20 Slab Design .1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.

5. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).12. given the bending moment. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.7. Where openings occur. Only the code specific items are described in the following subsections.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.5d from the face of the support (BS 3.Design for BS 8110-97 4.6). 4. 4.1). For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. at a given design section in a design strip.4) and at a critical section at a distance of 1.6. This is the method used when drop panels are included. the critical area is taken as a Slab Design 4 .6.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.0013bh if f y = 250 MPa f y = 500 MPa (BS 3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (BS 3. BS Table 3.21 . the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.12.3.1.6.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (BS 3.7.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (BS 3.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.0024bh if As ≥ ⎨ ⎩0.12.6.3) In addition. 4.5.6. In some cases.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.Chapter 4 . In that case. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.7.

corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. 3.6.4.7.5d 1.4. 1.7.5.5d 1.5d Interior Column 1.7.8) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.7. Table 3. interior.5.8) 4 .2 Determine Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (BS 3.22 Slab Design . edge.2.4. The column location (i. Figure 4-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.1). and is conservatively taken as 1 (BS 3..5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.7.7.4.e.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 4-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 4.5d 1.6): 1 1 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (BS 3.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (BS 3.

4. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. Table 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 25 ⎠ γm = 1.4.4.6.6.23 . v. 3. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. where (BS 3.5.7.63 fcu .5. the nominal design shear stress.25 3 ⎛ 40 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 (BS 3. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .4) fcu ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement.8 f cu .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (BS 3.4) For light-weight concrete. Table 3.2.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced) (BS 3.7.7.4) (BS 3.4.Design for BS 8110-97 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .2.5.5.3) u is the perimeter of the critical section Slab Design 4 .5M ⎛ y 1. 4 MPa) (BS 8110-2:1985 5.2) However.6.8) (BS 3.8) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.5.3) 1.Chapter 4 .7.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes. 4.7.4. the following limitations also apply: 0.4.5 M x V =V⎜ f + + eff ⎜ Vx Vy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (BS 3.4.6. 5MPa) (BS 3.4) v ≤ min(0.

6. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (BS 3.2.7.7. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. 3.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (BS 3.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. 4. 4 .3. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.7.6.6.24 Slab Design . 4.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5). The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.7.25 ⎪1. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.

Chapter 4 - Design for BS 8110-97

4.6.3.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (BS 3.7.7.5)

Given v, vc, and vmax, the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (BS 3.7.7.5). If v ≤ 1.6vc

0.4ud Av ( v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If 1.6vc ≤ v < 2.0vc

(BS 3.7.7.5)

0.4ud Av 5 ( 0.7v - vc ) ud = ≥ , s 0.87 f yv 0.87 f yv
If v > vmax, a failure condition is declared.

(BS 3.7.7.5) (BS 3.7.7.5)

If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax, the concrete section should be increased in size.

4.6.3.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement
Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines, i.e., lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Figure 4-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior, edge, and corner column. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (BS 3.7.7.6). Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. Therefore, the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4, 6, and 8, for corner, edge, and interior columns respectively.

Slab Design

4 - 25

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown)

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2
gx x

Outermost peripheral line of studs
d 2

Free edge

Iy
gx

gy
s0 d 2

s0

Iy

s0

Iy

x

Critical section centroid
y Ix

Free edge

y
Ix

x
Critical section centroid

Free edge
Ix

Interior Column

Edge Column

Corner Column

Figure 4-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone

4.6.3.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter, Height, and Spacing
The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in BS 3.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 millimeter diameter. When specifying shear studs, the distance, so, between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d. The spacing between adjacent shear studs, g, at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.5d. The limits of so and the spacing, s, between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d s ≤ 0.75d g ≤ 1.5d (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6) (BS 3.7.7.6)

4 - 26

Slab Design

Chapter 5 Design for CSA A23.3-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Canadian code CSA A23.3-04 [CSA 04] is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 5-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Canadian code in this chapter, a prefix “CSA” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

5.1

Notations
Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Ac Act

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, sqmm Area of concrete on flexural tension side, sq-mm

Notations

5-1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

Al Ao Aoh As A's As(required) At / s Av Av / s a ab b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d dv d' hs Ec Es

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, sq-mm Area enclosed by centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement, sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement, sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement for torsion per unit length, sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement, sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block, mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition, mm Width of member, mm Effective width of flange (flanged section), mm Width of web (flanged section), mm Perimeter of the punching critical section, mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending, mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending, mm Depth to neutral axis, mm Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, mm Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, mm Effective shear depth, mm Distance from compression face to compression reinforcement, mm Thickness of slab (flanged section), mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa

5-2

Notations

Chapter 5 - Design for CSA A23.3-04

Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.3-04 Code

f 'c f 's fy fyt h Ig Mf Nf pc ph s sz Tf Vc Vr,max Vf Vs

Specified compressive strength of concrete, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section, mm Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement. Factored moment at section, N-mm Factored axial force at section, N Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, mm Perimeter of area Aoh, mm Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam, mm Crack spacing parameter Factored torsion at section, N-mm Shear resisted by concrete, N Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, N Factored shear force at a section, N Shear force at a section resisted by steel, N Ratio of average stress in rectangular stress block to the specified concrete strength Factor accounting for shear resistance of cracked concrete Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Strain in reinforcing steel Longitudinal strain at mid-depth of the section Strength reduction factor for concrete

α1 β β1 βc εc εs εx φc

Notations

5-3

degrees Shear strength factor 5.9D + 1. For CSA A23.2.5L 0.4W 1. live load (L). Table C. and earthquake (E) loads.1 Case 2) (CSA 13.9D + 1.5L ± 0.4W (CSA 8.5L 1.25D + 1.8. Table C.5L + 0.25D + 1.25D + 1.9D + 1.4.3) (CSA 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 5-1 List of Symbols Used in the CSA A23.4W 0.5S 0. pattern live load (PL).5L 0.25D + 1.9D + 1.2. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).3. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CSA 8.5S ± 0.5L + 0.25D + 1.75 PL) 1.5(0.1 Case 3) 5-4 Design Load Combinations .3-04 Code φs φm γf γv θ λ Strength reduction factor for steel Strength reduction factor for member Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear Angle of diagonal compressive stresses.3-04.3.3. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5S ± 0.9D + 1.2.1 Case 1) (CSA 8.5S + 0. Table C.4W 0.5S 1.5L ± 0.5S 0. wind (W).5S 1.25D + 1. snow (S).5S + 0.4D 1.1) 1.5L 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2.3.25D + 1.9D + 1. Table C.

φ. 20MPa ≤ f’c ≤ 80MPa The upper limit of fy is 500 MPa for all frames (CSA 8.4W 0.4W 0.1 Case 4) (CSA 8.4.3.5S ± 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3.0E 1.3a) Limits on Material Strength 5-5 .5L ± 1.0D + 0.4W 1.5L ± 1.0D ± 1. caution is advised.1. (CSA 8.4W 0. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4W 1. for all framing types (CSA 8.0E 1.4W 1.3-04 1.25S ± 1.9D + 0.1 Case 5) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CSA A23.1.25D + 0.9D ± 1.25D + 0. are material dependent and defined as: φc = 0.25D ± 1.2.4.Chapter 5 .6.65 for concrete φs = 0.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f'c are 80 MPa and 20 MPa.0E (CSA 8.1) 5. Table C.5.9D + 0.0D + 0.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. other appropriate load combinations should be used. 5.25S ± 1. (CSA 8.85 for reinforcement These values can be overwritten.1).1).5S ± 1. The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. respectively.6.2.Design for CSA A23. Table C.2) (CSA 8. however.3-04 code is used.0E 1.0D + 0.5L + 0.5L ± 1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits.

torsion.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. shear forces.1. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. for a particular station. shear. and torsion based on the beam moments.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 5.5. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 5. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. with the corresponding load factors. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Positive beam 5-6 Beam Design . shear.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. load combination factors. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. and torsion only.

Mf (i. The design procedure used by SAFE. Furthermore.e.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 5-1). designing top or bottom reinforcement).Chapter 5 . for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement.5. 5.Design for CSA A23. Negative beam moments produce top reinforcement. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force in a beam is negligible. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is less than or equal to that which can be carried at the balanced condition (CSA 10.1.. or the strength of the concrete.5. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.7).2. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.3-04 moments produce bottom reinforcement.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.4). In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. In such cases. 5. where. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 5-1 (CSA 10. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.1. a = d − d2 − 2M f α 1 f 'c φc b (CSA 10. and torsion only. shear.1.1) Beam Design 5-7 .1. the width. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition.

0015f'c ≥ 0.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: 5-8 Beam Design .85 – 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.97 – 0.1.5.4.0035 b Cs c α 1 f ′φc c Acs d′ a = β 1c d εs As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 5-1 Rectangular Beam Design where the value of φc is 0.7) (CSA 10.1.2) in the preceding and the following equations.67.5.0025f'c ≥ 0.7) If a ≤ ab (CSA 10. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.7) (CSA 10.1.65 (CSA 8. The parameters α1.2). β1 = 0.67 cb = (CSA 10. β1.

1.2). or at the top if Mf is negative.5. If a > ab (CSA 10.0035 Es ⎡ c − d ' ⎤ ≤ fy s (CSA 10.1.3-04 As = Mf φs f y ⎜ d − ⎟ ⎛ ⎝ a⎞ 2⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mf is positive. where f ′ = 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The factored compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bab (CSA 10.Chapter 5 . 10.2.Design for CSA A23.7) and the factored moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mf − Mfc The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s (φs f ′s − φcα1 f ′c )( d − d ′ ) ⎢ c ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ M fs .1.3) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 5-9 .

1. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top if Mf is positive.1.4.5.1) where. 5.2) in the preceding and the following equations.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mf > 0.1.2.1.2) 700 d 700 + f y The balanced depth of the compression block is given by: ab = β1cb (CSA 10. Mf (i. i. no flanged beam data is used.. The parameters α1.0015 f' c ≥ 0. 5. β1.5.e. and cb are calculated as: α1 = 0.e. As = As1 + As2.67 cb = (CSA 10..2.7) (CSA 10.1 Design of Flanged Beams Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.1.97 – 0. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.10.5. the total tension reinforcement. and vice versa if Mf is negative.10 Beam Design .1.7) (CSA 10.5.0025 f' c ≥ 0.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously. the value of φc is 0.2 5.7) 5 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: As 2 = M fs f y ( d − d ′ )φs Therefore.1.2.65 (CSA 8.85 – 0.2.67 β1 = 0.4. designing top reinforcement). the depth of the compression block is given by: a = d − d2 − 2M f α1 f ′ φc b f c (CSA 10.

Mf to be carried by the web is: Beam Design 5 . As1 = given by: C f φc f yφ s and the portion of Mf that is resisted by the flange is min (hs . ab ) ⎞ ⎛ M ff = C f ⎜ d − ⎟φc 2 ⎝ ⎠ Therefore. Cf. However. Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) min ( hs . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.0035 bf hs (CSA 10. If a > hs. ab ) c ε = 0.3-04 If a ≤ hs. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. Whether compression reinforcement is required depends on whether a > ab.Chapter 5 . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.7) α 1 f ′ φc c α 1 f ′φc c A′ s c d d′ f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 5-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Therefore.1.11 .Design for CSA A23. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. Cw as shown in Figure 5-2. calculation for As has two parts. the balance of the moment.

2). where 5 .5.2).1) If a1 ≤ ab (CSA 10.1.12 Beam Design .7) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: Mfc = C ⎜ d − ⎛ ⎝ ab ⎞ ⎟ 2⎠ and the moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Mfs = Mfw − Mfc Therefore. and As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s (φs f 'c − φcα1 f 'c ) ( d − d ' ) M fs .5. If a1 > ab (CSA 10. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: C = φcα1 f 'c bw ab (CSA 10. for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M fw α1 f 'c φc bw (CSA 10. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As 2 = M fw a ⎞ ⎛ φs f y ⎜ d − 1 ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mfw = Mf − Mff The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.

3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the two following limits: As ≥ 0.1) An upper limit of 0.5. 5.1.5. the minimum flexural tension reinforcement provided in a flanged beam with the flange under tension in an ordinary moment resisting frame is given by the limit: As ≥ 0. 10.2) As ≥ 4 As(required) 3 (CSA 10.1.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows: Beam Design 5 .13 . As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.3.Chapter 5 .2 f ′ c bw h fy (CSA 10.5.2.3) The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As 2 = M fc a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − b ⎟φ s 2⎠ ⎝ and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is: As 3 = f y ( d − d ′ ) φs M fs The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3.Design for CSA A23.004 (b − bw) hs (CSA 10.1.1.5.3-04 ⎡ c − d′ ⎤ f ′ = εcEs ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (CSA 10.3) In addition.1.

Vc.5.2). Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam. for a particular loading combination. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2. Determine the shear force.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧0.14 Beam Design .4) φc is the resistance factor for concrete.5. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. The following three subsections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 5.4. Vc.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0. the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force.5.65 (CSA 8.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. 5.04bw d ⎧0. that can be resisted by the concrete. 5 .04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam 5. Vf. is calculated as: Vc = φc λβ f ′ bw dv c (CSA 11.2. By default it is taken as 0. with the corresponding load combination factors.

2).6.6. It is determined according to CSA 11. If the overall beam depth.6.3.3.6. Its value is normally between 0. (CSA 8.5).3. The recommended value for λ is as follows (CSA 8.85. h. For normal density concrete. For concrete using lower density aggregate.6. if applicable.21 (CSA 11. ⎪0.3.6. When the conditions of the special value or simplified method do not apply.5): ⎧1. the specified concrete strength f' c does not exceed 60 MPa. it is the width of the web of the beam.2). ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ for normal density concrete.5) β is the factor for accounting for the shear resistance of cracked concrete (CSA 2.4. It is taken as the greater of 0.1 and 0. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of a flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm. for semi-low-density concrete in which all of the fine aggregate is natural sand.6.3): Beam Design 5 . and h is the overall depth of the cross-section in the direction of the shear force.3. and described further in the following sections. β is determined in accordance with the simplified method.72h. which is taken by the program as the default value. β is taken as 0. d v is the effective shear depth.6. the general method is used (CSA 11.Chapter 5 .3-04 λ is the strength reduction factor to account for low density concrete (CSA 2.4). The value of β is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11. bw is the effective web width. for semi-low-density concrete in which none of the fine aggregate is natural sand.3).Design for CSA A23.9d or 0.75. as follows (CSA 11.2). ⎪ ⎪ λ=⎨ ⎪0. the user can change the value of λ in the material property data. it is the width of the beam. For rectangular beams.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. its value is 1 (CSA 8.3. where d is the distance from the extreme compression fiber to the centroid of the tension reinforcement.15 . When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa.6. For flanged beams. and the tensile force is negligible.00.

⎪ ⎪ ⎩1000 + Sze When the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy is greater than 400 MPa.18 (CSA 11. β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + d v (CSA 11.6. In summary.c) In the preceding expression.6.3. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.3. However. for simplified cases. For a maximum size of coarse aggregate less than 20 mm. sze is conservatively taken as equal to dv. s ze = 35s z ≥ 0.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the section contains at least the minimum transverse reinforcement. and ag ≥ 20mm. β can be expressed as follows: ⎧ ⎪ if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3. β = 0.3a). the specified concrete strength f' c is greater than 60 MPa. shall be taken as the minimum of dv and the maximum distance between layers of distributed longitudinal reinforcement.3.18. sze.6.3(b)) where dv is the effective shear depth expressed in millimeters. ⎪1000 + dv ⎪ 230 . β is taken as: β= 230 1000 + s ze (CSA 11.3.3 c) where.6. β is determined based on the specified maximum nominal size of coarse aggregate.6. ⎪ 0. or 5 . ag.3(a)) When the section contains no transverse reinforcement.85s z 15 + a g (CSA 11. if no transverse reinforcement is provided.16 Beam Design . For a maximum size of coarse aggregate not less than 20 mm. the crack spacing parameter.18 (CSA 11. and ag < 20mm. β is taken as 0. ⎪ 230 ⎪ β =⎨ .

17 . Beam Design 5 . Otherwise it is determined as stated in the simplified method.6.4(a)) (CSA 11. if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided.3.6.4).6. β is determined in accordance with the general method as follows (CSA 11.6. ⎧300 ⎪ Sze = ⎨ 35 S ≥ 0. Nf is taken as positive for tension. and linearly interpolated between these values.3) As is taken as the total area of longitudinal reinforcement in the beam. The reinforcement should be developed to achieve full strength (CSA 11. The longitudinal strain. Mf is taken as a minimum of Vfdv.3(b)). ⎪15 + a z g ⎩ (CSA 11.6. the equivalent crack spacing parameter.3.3.6.4): β= 0.Design for CSA A23. εx at mid-depth of the cross-section is computed from the following equation: εx = M f d v + V f + 0.4) In the preceding expression. It is taken as the envelope of the reinforcement required for all design load combinations.4) In evaluating εx the following conditions apply: εx is positive for tensile action. The actual provided reinforcement might be slightly higher than this quantity.6. (CSA 11.1.Chapter 5 .6. Vf and Mf are taken as positive quantities.40 1300 • (1 + 1500ε x ) (1000 + S ze ) (CSA 11. sze is taken equal to 300 mm if minimum transverse reinforcement is provided (CSA 11. 11. is taken as zero for f ' c of 70 MPa.6.6.4) The value of ag in the preceding equations is taken as the maximum aggregate size for f ' c of 60 MPa. 11.3.3.5 N f 2(E s As ) (CSA 11.3.85Sz otherwise.3.3.3.3-04 tension is not negligible.4(a)) (CSA 2.3.3.

the program performs the second pass assuming that at least minimum shear reinforcement is provided. the shear strength of the section due to concrete. εx = M f d v + V f + 0.3.4(f)) In both the simplified and general methods.6.1) 5 . This condition is currently not checked by SAFE. In the first pass.6.max = 0. the program performs the design in two passes.25φc f 'c bw d Given Vf.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the value of εx is negative.4(d)).max.6. 5.3.3.2.3.18 Beam Design . it is recalculated with the following equation.5. When the program determines that shear reinforcement is required.5.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CSA 11. vc depends on whether the minimum transverse reinforcement is provided. the value of εx is doubled (CSA 11.5 N f 2(E s As + Ec Act ) (CSA 11. taken as half of the total area. εx is calculated based on Mf and Vf at a section at a distance dv from the face of the support (CSA 11.6. and Vr. Vc.3) The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vr . in which Act is the area of concrete in the flexural tensile side of the beam.3.3. To check this condition. An upper limit on εx is imposed as: ε x ≤ 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If V f ≤ Vc Av =0 s (CSA 11. it assumes that no transverse shear reinforcement is needed.003 (CSA 11.4(c)) If the axial tension is large enough to induce tensile stress in the section. For sections closer than dv from the face of the support.4(e)).

where θ is the angle of inclination of the diagonal compressive stresses with respect to the longitudinal axis of the member (CSA 2. Similar to the β factor.6.max . θ is taken as 42 degrees (CSA 11. The program uses the general method when conditions for the simplified method are not satisfied (CSA 11. the value of θ is preferably taken as the special value (CSA 11.06 bw s f yt (CSA 11.3.Chapter 5 .2) In the preceding equations.max Av (V f − Vc ) tan θ = s φs f yt d v If V f > Vr .25Tcr.8.6.1.3-04 If Vc < V f ≤ Vr .19 . a failure condition is declared. If the overall beam depth. (CSA 11. the term θ is used.2.1): (a) (b) (c) in regions of flexural members where the factored shear force Vf exceeds Vc in regions of beams with an overall depth greater than 750 mm in regions of beams where the factored torsion Tf exceeds 0. The θ value is normally between 22 and 44 degrees.8.3).4). or by calculation.6.3.3. Where the minimum shear reinforcement is required by CSA 11.6.3) A minimum area of shear reinforcement is provided in the following regions (CSA 11.3.3.2.Design for CSA A23.3. is less than 250 mm or if the depth of the flanged beam below the slab is not greater than one-half of the width of the web or 350 mm.3).6.2.5.3. the minimum area of shear reinforcement per unit spacing is taken as: f 'c Av ≥ 0.1) (CSA 11. Beam Design 5 .8. 11.2).3. which was described previously.2) or it is determined using the simplified method (CSA 11. whenever applicable.3. It is determined according to CSA 11. h.

3) If the axial force is tensile. the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy > 400 MPa. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.6.3.6. Determine critical torsion capacity. and the specified concrete strength f'c does not exceed 60 MPa. θ = 29 + 7000ε x for Pf < 0 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.6. Determine special section properties. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11.3.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.3.4). f y ≤ 400 MPa. 5.20 Beam Design . 5 .5. and the specified concrete strength f' c > 60 MPa.3).6. The calculation procedure is described in preceding sections. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. θ = 35o for Pf ≤ 0 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the specified yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing fy does not exceed 400 MPa. Tf. f' c ≤ 60 MPa (CSA11. f y > 400 MPa.3. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. θ is determined using the general method as follows (CSA 11.4) where εx is the longitudinal strain at the mid-depth of the cross-section for the factored load. θ is taken to be 35 degree (CSA 11.

Ao. special section properties.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. These properties are described in the following (CSA 2. with the corresponding load combination factors.21 . the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. and ph are calculated. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3.9. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 5 .1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. Aoh. With this assumption.2. Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.5. If redistribution is desired. and ph. pc. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce Tf. the design Tf is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (CSA 11. 5. such as Aoh. Ao. However. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.5.3-04 5. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.Design for CSA A23.3. such as Ac. For torsion design of flanged beam sections.2).Chapter 5 . In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 millimeters.3). With this assumption. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However.

9.3) (CSA 11. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 5-3.3.2.10.3) (CSA 11.2. φc is the strength reduction factor for concrete.9.85 Aoh 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) (CSA 11.1) (CSA 11. and c are shown in Figure 5-3.9.3) (CSA 11.3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as follows: Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hs (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Ac Aoh Ao pc ph = = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 0.9.1) where Acp and pc are the area and perimeter of the concrete cross-section as described in the previous section. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: 0.10.3. bw.3.10.3.4).2.2. h. λ is a factor to account for low-density concrete. Tcr.3.22 Beam Design .1) (CSA 11.4) where.65. which is equal to 0.3) (CSA 11. h. 5.85 Aoh 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (CSA 11.4) where the section dimensions bf.10.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity.10.3.10.2. the section dimensions b.38λφc Tcr = 4 ⎛ A2 ⎞ f 'c ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ c⎠ (CSA 11. Similarly.1) (CSA 11. 5 .9.5. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 6hs or 1/12 the span length (CSA 10. and f' c is the specified concrete compressive strength.1) (CSA 11. hf.

it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CSA 11. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. At /s.Chapter 5 . if Tf exceeds the threshold limit.3-04 5.3).Design for CSA A23. is calculated as: At T f tan θ = s φ 2 Ao f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (CSA 11. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.9. Tcr.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tf is less than the threshold limit.2.3. However. In that case.23 .10. Tcr. c c b − 2c 2c c bef hss d c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 5-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If Tf > Tcr.3) Mf Al = dv + 0.5.1).45 phT f +⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ cot θ ⎟ ⎠ 2 φs f y Beam Design 5 .5Vs ) 2 ⎛ 0. torsion can be safely ignored (CSA 11.3.5 N f + (V f − 0.

The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.24 Beam Design . the value εx is calculated as: Mf εx = ⎛ 0. Av/s is increased to satisfy this condition. 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. θ is computed as previously described for shear.10. A ⎞ b ⎛ Av ⎜ + 2 t ⎟ ≥ 0. If the combination of Vf and Tf exceeds this limit.2. If the general method is being used. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tf > Tcr).2) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av /s and At /s. 5 .3.9) In the preceding expressions.06 f 'c w s ⎠ f yt ⎝ s (CSA 11. In that case.3. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.9 phT f dv + V f + ⎜ ⎜ 2A o ⎝ 2(E s As ) 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 (CSA 11.10.3.8.3.6. a failure message is declared. bw is replaced with b.25φc f 'c ⎟ oh ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ 2 2 (CSA 11.10.4) For rectangular sections. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups must satisfy the following limit.5) An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: ⎛ Vf ⎜ ⎜b d ⎝ w v ⎞ ⎛ T f ph ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1. the concrete section should be increased in size.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design (CSA 11.7 A 2 ⎟ ≤ 0.

304) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. Slab Design 5 . irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh.3-04 5. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. is obtained and reported.Design for CSA A23. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CSA A23. To learn more about the design strips. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. 5.25 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.Chapter 5 .6.

given the bending moment.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CSA 13. 5.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1.1. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 5.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). Where openings occur. at a given design section in a design strip. 5 .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip.8.002 bh (CSA 7.26 Slab Design . In some cases.10.6. 5.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.1) In addition.1): As ≥ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 5. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. for each load combination. In that case.6.6.

2.e.6.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf Mu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be γv Mu. d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 5-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 5.Chapter 5 . For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. where Slab Design 5 .3.27 . edge. interior.3-04 5.2)..1 and CSA 13.3).3.3. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CSA 13.Design for CSA A23.3.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (CSA 13.3.2.6.3. Figure 5-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. The column location (i. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.

3.1) where.3.3) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span. and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section.2) If the effective depth. the value of vc is reduced by a factor equal to 1300/(1000 + d) (CSA 13.4.5.3).6.4. and ⎪for corner columns.2) γv = 1− 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 . 5.10. 5 .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: ⎧ ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪φc ⎜ 1 + ⎟ 0.38λ f ′ ⎪ ⎩ (CSA 13. exceeds 300 mm. βc is the ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the critical section. ⎧for interior columns ⎪ α s = ⎨for edge colums.3.4.3.3. and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.1(b)) f 'c is limited to 8 MPa for the calculation of the concrete shear capacity (CSA 13. (CSA 13. d. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γf = 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) b1 b2 .2.28 Slab Design .4.19 λ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ ⎛ α d⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨φc ⎜ 0. and (CSA 13. ⎩ The value of (CSA 13.19 + s ⎟ λ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪ c ⎪φc 0.

3.Design for CSA A23. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows. 5. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported by SAFE.2.6.max = 0.1). where. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.Chapter 5 . and vf.2) Given vf. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements. vc.3-04 5.6.8. Slab Design 5 .3) 5..29 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6. φs.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section. is the strength reduction factor.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement f 'c The shear force is limited to a maximum of: v f .8. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as explained in the subsections that follow.3.75λφ c (CSA 13. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.max.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is taken as: vc = 0.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.3.2.28λφ c f 'c (CSA 13. 5. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CSA 13.

3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. a failure condition is declared.4d. Figure 5-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 5 . edge. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.6. i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Av = (v f − vc ) φ s f yv bo d (CSA 13. and corner column. 5.. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 5-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 0.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.3.3.e. Therefore.max.5) If vf > vf. and 8.2) If vf exceeds the maximum permitted value of vf. 6.30 Slab Design . (CSA 13.8. and interior columns respectively.max. the concrete section should be increased in size.8. for corner.

The limits of so and the spacing.56λφc f 'c v f > 0.3.6) Slab Design 5 .8. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CSA 7.3.Design for CSA A23.3-04 5. s.56λφc f 'c (CSA 13.6) (CSA 13.31 . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.75d ⎪ s ≤⎨ ⎪0.Chapter 5 .9 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.4 d ⎧ 0. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.8.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.50 d ⎩ v f ≤ 0.3. the distance. When specifying shear studs.4d.6. so. Height.

.

English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. 6. the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity. a prefix “EC2” followed by the section number is used herein.Chapter 6 Design for Eurocode 2-2004 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the European code.1 Notations Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 Ac Area of concrete section. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Eurocode in this chapter.” Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 6-1. Eurocode 2-2004 [EN 1992-1-1:2004] is selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. mm 2 Notations 6-1 . However. Reference is also made to Eurocode 0 [EN 1990] for the load combinations and is identified with the prefix “EC0.

MPa fcwk f's fyd fyk fywd fywk Characteristic compressive cylinder strength for shear design. MPa Design concrete compressive strength for shear design = αcc f cwk γc . MPa Mean value of concrete axial tensile strength. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 As A's Asl Asw Asw /sv At /s a b bf bw d d' Ec Es fcd fck fctm fcwd Area of tension reinforcement. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. MPa Design strength of shear reinforcement = fywk /γs. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. mm 2 Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm /mm Area of transverse reinforcement per unit length for torsion. mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. MPa Compressive stress in compression reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement Design concrete strength = αcc fck / γc . MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fyk /γs. mm 2 2 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa 6-2 Notations . mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of flange. MPa Characteristic compressive concrete cylinder strength at 28 days.

N-mm Torsional cracking moment. mm Coefficient accounting for long term effects on the concrete compressive strength Coefficient accounting for the state of stress in the compression chord Redistribution factor Concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression steel Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Factor defining the effective depth of the compression zone αcc αcw δ εc εs ε’s γc γs λ Notations 6-3 . N Shear force at ultimate design load. mm Lever arm. N-mm Design torsional resistance moment. N-mm Normalized design moment.max VEd x xlim z Overall depth of section. mm Torsion at ultimate design load. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section. mm Flange thickness. mm Design moment at a section. mm Limiting depth of neutral axis.Chapter 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 h hf MEd m mlim sv TEd TRdc TRd. M/bd ηfcd 2 Limiting normalized moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam Spacing of the shear reinforcement. mm Design shear resistance from concrete alone. N Design limiting shear resistance of a cross-section. N Depth of neutral axis.max u VRdc VRd.

10 or the less favorable of EC0 Eqs. j + γ P P + γ Q .1Qk .i i >1 (EC0 Eq.i i >1 (EC0 Eq. 6. 6.i i >1 (EC0 Eq.1 + ∑ γ Q .iψ 0. Eurocode 0-2002 allows load combinations to be defined based on EC0 Eq. j Gk . MPa Angle of the concrete compression strut Normalized tension reinforcement ratio Normalized compression reinforcement ratio Normalized limiting tension reinforcement ratio 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . j Gk .i Qk . j Gk .10b) Load combinations considering seismic loading are automatically generated based on EC0 Eq.i Qk .i Qk . 6. ∑γ j ≥1 G. 6. 6. j + γ P P + γ Q . if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.iψ 0. j + P + AEd + ∑ψ 2.1Qk .1ψ 0.10) ∑γ j ≥1 j ≥1 G. and earthquake (E) loads.1 + ∑ γ Q .1Qk . and considering 6-4 Design Load Combinations .iψ 0.12b) For this code.12b. 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 6-1 List of Symbols Used in the Eurocode 2-2004 ν η ρl σcp θ ω ω' ωlim Effectiveness factor for shear resistance without concrete crushing Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading and stress-block Tension reinforcement ratio Axial stress in the concrete. snow (S). ∑G j ≥1 k. live load (L).1 + ∑ γ Q . 6.10a) ∑ξ γ j G.10b.10a and 6.i Qk . wind (W). pattern live load (PL).i i >1 (EC0 Eq.

i ψ0. 6.sup D + γQ. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 PL ξ γGj.i ψ0.10) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.supD + γQ.i L D ± 1.i L + γQ.sup D + γQ.i W γGj.1 L γGj.1 PL γGj.i ψ0.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.sup D + γQ.1 S ± γQ.1 L ξ γGj.10) (EC0 Eq.1 L + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.75)γQ. 6.10b) (EC0 Eq.10) (EC0 Eq.1 W (EC0 Eq. the following load combinations need to be considered if equation 6. 6.10 is specified for generation of the load combinations (EC0 6. 6.1 S ± γQ.supD + (0.sup D + γQ.i ψ0.1 ψ0. 6.i S γGj.1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ.Chapter 6 .sup D ± γQ.10a) Design Load Combinations 6-5 .sup D + γQ.i S (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 L γGj.i W γGj.i L + ψ2.10) (EC0 Eq. 6.1 ψ0.i L D ± 1.10) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 PL γGj.3): γGj.i ψ0.0E D ± 1.supD + γQ.1 L + γQ.i S γGj.i S γGj.i ψ0. 6. γGj.i ψ0.4. 6.1 W + γQ.sup D ξ γGj.sup D γGj.i W + γQ.i L γGj.sup D γGj.1 W + γQ.sup D + γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq. 6.supD + (0. 6.10a and 6.75)γQ. 6.75)γQ. 6.10b.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.sup D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.supD + γQ.sup D ± γQ.i S ± γQ.i W γGj. 6.i L γGj.10a) (EC0 Eq.inf D ± γQ.0E + ψ2.10b) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ. the following load combinations from both equations are considered in the program.1 W γGj.0E + ψ2.supD + (0.12b) If the load combinations are specified to be generated from the max of EC0 Eqs.1 W γGj. 6.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.

i L D ± 1. 6.i L + ψ2.sup D ± γQ.sup D + γQ.1 L ± γQ.1 S ± γQ.1 S + γQ. 6.00 γQ.1 ψ0.i ψ0.1 S ± γQ.10b) (EC0 Eq.i ψ0.1 L + γQ.sup = 1.sup D + γQ.1 γQ.inf D ± γQ.1 L ± γQ.5 (snow load.1 L + γQ.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.i S D ± 1.i L γGj.i ψ0.sup D ± γQ.10a) (EC0 Eq.1 W + γQ.i S ξ γGj.i W ξ γGj.i ψ0.1 W + γQ.1) (EC0 Table A1.sup D + γQ.5 = 0.i ψ0.1 W ξ γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.i ξ = 1.1 W γGj.sup D + γQ.i S γGj. 6.sup D + γQ. 6. the variable values for the CEN Default version of the load combinations are defined in the list that follows.i L γGj. γGj.5 = 1.i ψ0.i ψ0.1 W + γQ. assumed not to be storage) = 0.sup D ± γQ.0E + ψ2.1) (EC0 Table A1.i ψ0.inf = 1.1 W γGj.i ψ0.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.sup D + γQ.i L γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.10b) (EC0 Eq.i S γGj.2(B)) (EC0 Table A1.1 S + γQ.i ψ0.i W γGj.i ψ0.i S (EC0 Eq.sup D ± γQ.i ψ0. 6.0E + ψ2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γGj.1 ψ0.1 ψ0.i ψ0.2(B)) 6-6 Design Load Combinations .35 γGj.85 (EC0 Table A1.10b) (EC0 Eq.1) (EC0 Table A1.inf D ± γQ. assumed H ≤ 1000 m) = 0.1 W + γQ.1 ψ0.sup D + γQ.i W ξ γGj.i ψ0.7 (live load.i W ξ γGj.12b) For both sets of load combinations.i L γGj.1 ψ0.0E D ± 1.6 (wind load) = 0.1 ψ0.inf D ± γQ.

αcc is taken as 1. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.0 by default and can be overwritten by the user (EC2 3.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. other appropriate load combinations should be used. It is the user's responsibility to ensure that the minimum strength is satisfied. respectively (EC2 3.6(1)). The lower and upper limits of the reinforcement yield strength.2. f cd = α cc f ck / γ c (EC2 3.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the Eurocode 2-2004 code is used. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.3 (live.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ψ2. 6. fck.4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and steel are obtained by dividing the characteristic strengths of the materials by the partial safety factors. γs and γc as shown here.2.i ψ2. should not be greater than 90 MPa (EC2 3. should be 400 and 600 MPa.2(2)). assumed H ≤ 1000 m) (EC0 Table A1. assumed office/residential space) = 0 (snow.Chapter 6 .i = 0. fyk.2(3)).2.6(1)) (EC2 3.7(2)) (EC2 3.1. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. Limits on Material Strength 6-7 .7(2)) f yd = f yk / γ s f ywd = f ywk / γ s αcc is the coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength.1) (EC0 Table A1.1.1. 6.

These values can be overwritten.5 These values are recommended by the code to give an acceptable level of safety for normal structures under regular design situations (EC2 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.2.4. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.4. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 6.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. caution is advised. shear.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. shear. torsion. the recommended values are less than the tabulated values.5. however. and torsion based on the beam moments. For accidental and earthquake situations. for a particular station.4). SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. Table 2. The user should consider those separately.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The partial safety factors for the materials and the design strengths of concrete and reinforcement are given in the text that follows (EC2 2. load combination factors.4(1). and torsion only. γs = 1.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear forces. the following steps are involved: 6-8 Beam Design . γc = 1.1N): Partial safety factor for reinforcement. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. 6.2.

7(3). with the corresponding load factors.1. In such cases.5.1.5) where x is the depth of the neutral axis. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1. Fig 3.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.Chapter 6 . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. Fig 3. The factor λ defining the effective height of the compression zone and the factor η defining the effective strength are given as: η = 1.5) (EC2 3. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 6-1 (EC2 3. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.7(3)) Beam Design 6-9 .2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. or the strength of the concrete. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations.1. the width.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3. 6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 6. In such cases. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.7(3).5.1. The area of the stress block and the depth of the compressive block are taken as: Fc = ηf cd ab a=λx (EC2 3.7(3)). the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.

it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value.5(4)) (EC2 5. 6 . as follows: δ − k1 ⎛x⎞ for fck ≤ 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim δ − k3 ⎛x⎞ for fck > 50 MPa ⎜ ⎟ = k4 ⎝ d ⎠ lim (EC2 5.1.7(3)) (EC2 3.7(3)) λ = 0.5(4)). is expressed as a function of the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before redistribution. ( x d )lim . to safeguard against non-ductile failures (EC2 5.8 for fck ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0.5(4)) (EC 5.25(0.5(4)) (EC 5.5(4)) For reinforcement with fyk ≤ 500 MPa.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design η = 1.1. the following values are used: k1 = 0. The limiting value of the ratio of the neutral axis depth at the ultimate limit state to the effective depth.54 (EC 5.8⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 400 ⎠ Furthermore.7(3)) (EC2 3. is summarized in the subsections that follow. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.10 Beam Design .and T-beams). When the applied moment exceeds the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.0 − ⎜ ⎛ f ck − 50 ⎞ ⎟ for 50 < fck ≤ 90 MPa ⎝ 200 ⎠ (EC2 3.1.5(4)) δ is assumed to be 1 The design procedure used by SAFE.6 + 0.0014/εcu2) k3 = 0.44 k2 = k4 = 1. δ.

Chapter 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd The normalized concrete moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. mlim. The normalized design moment. m.5. or equal to mlim. and the normalized section capacity as a singly reinforce beam.11 . The reinforcement area is determined based on whether m is greater than. mlim.1. m. is calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ Beam Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ε cu3 b f′ c η fcd As′ d′ Cs x a = λx d h As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6. the normalized moment. are obtained first.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. less than.2.

are given by: ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ′ ⎢ s ⎥ s ⎣ f ′ − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf bd ⎤ As = ω ⎢ cd ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where. is then given by: ⎛ ηf bd ⎞ As = ω ⎜ cd ⎟ ⎜ f ⎟ ⎝ yd ⎠ This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if MEd is positive. d' is the depth to the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. A's and As.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If m ≤ mlim. The area of compression and tension reinforcement. and is given by: 6 . a singly reinforced beam is designed. As. The normalized reinforcement ratio is calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m The area of tension reinforcement. ωlim. If m > mlim. or at the top if MEd is negative. both tension and compression reinforcement is designed as follows: The normalized steel ratios ω'.12 Beam Design . and ω are calculated as: ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ω' = m − mlim 1 − d′ d ⎛x⎞ = 1 − 1 − 2mlim ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω = ω lim + ω ' where. f' s is the stress in the compression reinforcement.

2.1. MEd (i. See Figure 6-2.8) 6. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. 3. 3.e.7(3)) The limiting values are calculated as: ⎛x⎞ ⎡ λ⎛x⎞ ⎤ mlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎣ 2 ⎝ d ⎠ lim ⎦ (EC2 5.7(3)) ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ amax = ωlimd ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim The values ω. 6. the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange.1. i.e. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.2 Design of Flanged Beams 6. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.5(4). If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.2.5.7(4).1.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.5.5. designing top reinforcement).13 .1. m. 3.Chapter 6 .2.1. If the stress block extends beyond the flange. The normalized design moment. no flanged beam data is used.1.2.1. Based on this assumption. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis. Initially.2.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. Fig 3. and a are calculated as: ω = 1 − 1 − 2m a = ωd Beam Design 6 . is calculated as: m= M bd 2ηf cd (EC2 6. additional calculation is required...

and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. considering a rectangular section of width bw to resist the moment. As2 is given as: As 2 = (b f − bw )h f ηf cd f yd and the corresponding resistive moment is given by hf ⎛ M 2 = As 2 f yd ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ The reinforcement required for balancing the compressive force from the web.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ecu3 h fcd h fcd bf hf d' As' x d fs' Cs a = lx Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 6-2 T-Beam Design If a ≤ hf. in that case. Compression reinforcement is required when m > mlim.14 Beam Design . The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. The reinforcement area required for balancing the flange compression. as shown in Figure 6-2. the calculation for As has two parts. the width of the beam is taken as bf. M1 = M − M2. is determined as follows: 6 . However. If a > hf. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.

15 . ω' = m1 − mlim 1 − d′ d ωlim = λ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛x⎞ ⎝ d ⎠ lim ω1 = ωlim + ω ′ ⎡ η fcd bd ⎤ A′ = ω ' ⎢ s ⎥ ⎣ f 's − η fcd ⎦ ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where.Chapter 6 . f' s is given by: ⎡ d′ ⎤ f ′ = Es ε c ⎢1 − s ⎥ ≤ f yd ⎣ xlim ⎦ (EC2 6.1. Fig 3. 3.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 m1 = M1 bw d 2ηf cd If m1 ≤ mlim. ω1 = 1 − 1 − 2m1 ⎡ηf b d ⎤ As1 = ω1 ⎢ cd w ⎥ ⎢ f yd ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m1 > mlim.7(4).2. Beam Design 6 .8) The total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2. and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

2): Determine the factored shear force.1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: f ctm = 0.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the following two limits: As .1) f ctm = 2.1(1)) As .2.1) The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.0013bd (EC2 9. Determine the shear force.16 Beam Design .1.1(3)).1.1. Table 3. VEd. 6.min = 0.5. Table 3.12. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. VRd.5.12 ln (1 + f cm 10) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa (EC2 3.12. the following steps are involved (EC2 6.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 3.1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6. 6 .c.12. Table 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required.2.min = 0. that can be resisted by the concrete. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1) (EC2 3.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. for a particular load combination.

Chapter 6 .c.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) ρ1 = tension reinforcement ratio = As1 = area of tension reinforcement As1 ≤ 0.2 f cd MPa The values of CRd.2.c = 0. and k1 are taken as: C Rd .2.17 . the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.2. 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .2.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ bw d ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6. VRd.c.2.2.15 Beam Design 6 .18 γ c ν min = 0.5.02 bw d (EC2 6.1 Determine Factored Shear Force In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. vmin.c = (vmin + k1σ cp )bw d where fck is in MPa (EC2 6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0. is calculated as: 13 VRd . with the corresponding load combination factors.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear force carried by the concrete.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The following three section describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.2(1)) (EC2 6. 6.2(1)) σcp = N Ed / Ac < 0.2.2(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.2.c = ⎡C Rd .2.5.

max.max = α cwbw zν 1 f cd .2. a failure condition is declared.2(6)) (EC2 6.3(2)) αcw is conservatively taken as 1 ν 1 = 0.18 Beam Design .2.2. VRd.3(1)) (EC2 6.2.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: VRd .3(3)) (EC2 6. where cot θ + tan θ (EC2 6.2.min s = 0.9d ⎛ ⎝ f ck ⎞ ⎟ 250 ⎠ θ is taken as 1 Given VEd. VRdc.08 f ck bw f yk (EC2 9.2.min s zf ywd cot θ s If VEd > VRd.3(3)) (EC2 6. 6 .max.6⎜1 − z = 0.min = sv s If VRdc < VEd ≤ VRd.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 6.5.3(3)) Asw. obtained from each load combination.2.3(3)) (EC2 6.2. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination.max A Asw VEd = ≥ sw. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows: If VEd ≤ VRdc.2(5)) The maximum of all of the calculated Asw /sv values. The minimum shear reinforcement is defined as: (EC2 6. Asw Asw.

the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce TEd. If redistribution is desired.3.5. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model. the design TEd is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (EC2 6. TEd. 6. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. However. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.3.19 . Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5. u.Chapter 6 . such as Ak. 6.1(2)).2).5.3. Beam Design 6 . In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. 6. special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine special section properties.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of beam torsion reinforcement.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. tef.3. These properties are described in the following (EC2 6. and zi are calculated. uk.

h.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design A Ak tef u uk zi = Area enclosed by the outside perimeter of the cross-section = Area enclosed by centerlines of the connecting walls.3. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. and uk.3. However.3. the flange is considered during calculation of torsion section properties.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.3. Similarly. the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bh (b − tef)(h − tef) 2b + 2h 2(b − tef) + 2(h − tef) (EC2 6.2(3)) where. With this assumption.20 Beam Design .2(1)) (EC2 6. where the centerline is located a distance of tef/2 from the outer surface = Effective wall thickness.2(1)) (EC2 6.3. A/u = Outer perimeter of the cross-section = Perimeter of the area Ak = Side length of wall i. defined as the distance between the intersection points of the wall centerlines In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.3.2(3)) 6 . With this assumption. This is equivalent to 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup.3. and c are shown in Figure 2-3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: A Ak u uk = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bf – tef)(h – tef) 2bf + 2h 2(h – tef) + 2(bf – tef) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6.2(1)) (EC2 6. For torsion design of flanged beam sections. the section dimensions b. such as Ak.2(1)) (EC2 6.

2.c is the torsional cracking moment.3.21 . hf.2(1)) 6.2(5)) with only minimum shear reinforcement required. the shear due to this torsion. as: Vt = 2(h − t ef ) TEd − Tcon 2 Ak (EC2 6. is first calculated. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.1.2(5)) where VRd.0 TRd .c is as defined in the previous section and TRd. Vt.3(3)) The required longitudinal reinforcement for torsion is defined as: Beam Design 6 .5.c (EC2 6. 6. calculated as: TRd . and compression diagonals. followed by the required stirrup area.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 where the section dimensions bf.3. If torsion reinforcement in the form of closed stirrups is required.5. torsion can be safely ignored (EC2 6.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the expression in the previous subsection is satisfied.Chapter 6 . it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. longitudinal bars.3. However.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The torsion in the section can be ignored with only minimum shear reinforcement (EC2 9.c VRd .3. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 6-3. if the equation is not satisfied.2.c = f ctd t ef 2 Ak f ctd = α ct f ctk 0.05 / γ c (EC2 6. In that case. bw.1) required if the following condition is satisfied: TEd V + Ed ≤ 1.3. h.2(1)) At Vt = s zf ywd cot θ (EC2 6.

2.0 VRd .2(4)) 6 .max (EC2 6. the design torsional resistance moment is defined as: TRd .3. When torsional reinforcement is required an upper limit on the combination of VEd and TEd that can be carried by the section without exceeding the capacity of the concrete struts also is checked using: TEd TRd . θ is taken as 45 degrees.2(4)) where TRd.2(3)) where θ is the angle of the compression struts. while the program assumes the conservative value of 45 degrees.max + VEd ≤ 1.max.8 and 45 degrees (EC2 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design c c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bef c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b c bw − 2c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 6-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design Asl = TEd u cot θ k f yd 2 Ak (EC2 6. as previously defined for beam shear.22 Beam Design .3. The code allows any value between 21. In the preceding expressions.3.3(2)).max = 2να cw f cd Ak t ef sin θ cosθ (EC2 6.

the concrete section should be increased in size. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. a failure message is declared. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.Chapter 6 . The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. 6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 6. To learn more about the design strips. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. Those locations correspond to the element boundaries.23 . The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. The maximum of all of the calculated Asl and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. In that case. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.6.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 If this equation is not satisfied. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (Eurocode 2-2004) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of those element boundaries. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. Slab Design 6 . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. for each load combination.6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. 6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.2. These two steps. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.min = 0. In some cases.26 f ctm bd f yk (EC2 9. given the bending moment. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.24 Slab Design .6. at a given design section in a design strip.min = 0. described in the subsections that follow.3.1(1)) As .1(1)) where fctm is the mean value of axial tensile strength of the concrete and is computed as: 6 . 6.6. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1.2.1 Determine Factored Moments for Strip For each element within the design strip. In that case.1. 6. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. Where openings occur.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (EC2 9.1.1. are repeated for every load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is obtained and reported.1): As .0013bd (EC2 9. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1.

1) (EC2 Table 3. The perimeter of the critical section should be constructed such that its length is minimized. 6.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (EC 9.0d from the face of the support (EC2 6..2(1)). interior.30 f ck (2 3) for fck ≤ 50 MPa (EC2 Table 3.e. An upper limit on the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. The column location (i.4.1) (EC2 Table 3.12 ln (1 + fcm 10 ) for fck > 50 MPa fcm = fck + 8 MPa The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for control of cracking should be investigated independently by the user.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked at the face of the column (EC2 6.4.6. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1(3)).1.1(4)) and at a critical section at a distance of 2. 6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. edge.Chapter 6 . Slab Design 6 .6.2.Design for Eurocode 2-2004 f ctm = 0.1) fctm = 2.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.2. Figure 6-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.25 .

4(1)) with a minimum of: VRd .4.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity is taken as: 13 VRd .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 2d 2d 2d Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column 2d 2d 2d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 6-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 6.4.4(1)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.6.c k (100 ρ1 fck ) + k1σ cp ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (EC2 6.26 Slab Design .4.0 with d in mm d (EC2 6.4(1)) 6 .2.c = (vmin + k1σ cp ) where fck is in MPa and (EC2 6.c = ⎡C Rd .

4(1)) where ρ1x and ρ1y are the reinforcement ratios in the x and y directions respectively. and σcp = (σcx + σcy)/2 (EC2 6.4. vEd.4(1)) u is the perimeter of the critical section d is the mean effective depth of the slab MEd is the design moment transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection VEd is the total punching shear force W accounts for the distribution of shear based on the control perimeter Slab Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 ρ1 = ρ 1x ρ1y ≤ 0.4.c = 0.4(1)) where σcx and σcy are the normal concrete stresses in the critical section in the x and y directions respectively. where VEdW1 ⎦ ⎣ (EC2 6.27 .Chapter 6 .4.2.4.18 γ c (EC2 6.4(1)) ν min = 0.4. the nominal design shear stress. conservatively taken as zeros.6.035k 3 2 f ck 1 2 k1 = 0.4(2)) k = 1+ 200 ≤ 2.4(1)) (EC2 6.4.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear.15 6. C Rd .4(1)) (EC2 6.0 d (EC2 6. conservatively taken as zeros.02 (EC2 6. is calculated as: v Ed = VEd ud ⎡ M Ed u1 ⎤ ⎢1 + k ⎥ .4.

(EC2 6.75v Rd .6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.max. Given vEd.max.6.3. 6.28 Slab Design . a failure condition is declared. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow. 6.5) If vEd exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.5 f ywd . The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. Asw (v Ed − 0.c ) = u1 sr 1. the concrete section should be increased in size.c. 6.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.4.ef If vEd > vRd.6.max calculated in the same manner as explained previously for beams.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.3. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. vRd. 6 . provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm.4. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. and vRd. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (EC2 6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear is limited to a maximum of VRd.5).

6.6. and corner column. Therefore.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. edge.3.6. and interior columns respectively.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (EC2 9.4. for corner. Height. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. i. and 8. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.Chapter 6 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 6-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d. edge.3. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.e. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. 6. The cover of anchors should Slab Design 6 .Design for Eurocode 2-2004 6.29 . and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Figure 6-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior..3(1)).

14-. g.4. and 20-millimeter diameter.5d (first perimeter) g ≤ 2d (additional perimeters) (EC2 9. between the peripheral lines are specified as: 0.4. s.1 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. 12-.4.3(1)) 6 . at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1.4.3(1)) (EC2 9. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-. When specifying shear studs.75d g ≤ 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design not be less than the minimum cover specified in EC2 4. 16-. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.3d. so.3(1)) (EC2 9.4.3d ≤ so ≤ 2d s ≤ 0.5d and should not exceed 2d at additional perimeters.30 Slab Design . The limits of so and the spacing. the distance.3(1)) (EC2 9.

Chapter 7 Design for Hong Kong CP-04

This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Hong Kong limit state code CP-04 [CP 04] which also incorporates Amendment 1 published in June 2007, is selected. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 7-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Hong Kong code in this chapter, a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted.

7.1

Notations
Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

Ag Al

Gross area of cross-section, mm

2 2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion, mm

Notations

7- 1

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

As A's Asv Asv,t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f' s fy fyv h hf hmin hmax K K' k1

Area of tension reinforcement, mm

2 2 2

Area of compression reinforcement, mm

Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis, mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion, mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length, mm /mm Depth of compression block, mm
2

2

Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone, mm Width or effective width of flange, mm Average web width of a flanged beam, mm Torsional constant, mm
4

Effective depth of tension reinforcement, mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement, mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete, MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 200,000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength, MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement, MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement, MPa Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending, mm Flange thickness, mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section, mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section, mm Normalized design moment, Mu/bd fcu Maximum
2

Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 f cu

Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression

7-2

Notations

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Table 7-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP-04 Code

k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z

Concrete shear strength factor, [ fcu 25] Design moment at a section, N-mm

1

3

Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam, N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam, mm Design torsion at ultimate design load, N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section, mm Design shear force at ultimate design load, N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section, MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity, MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress, MPa Torsional shear stress, MPa Neutral axis depth, mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section, mm Lever arm, mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement

β βb γf γm εc εs ε's

7.2

Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety, γf (CP 2.3.1.3). For CP-04, if a structure is subjected to dead load (D),

Design Load Combinations

7-3

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design live load (L), pattern live load (PL), and wind (W) loads, and considering that wind forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be considered. (CP 2.3.2.1, Table 2.1). 1.4D 1.4D + 1.6L 1.4D + 1.6(0.75PL) 1.0D ± 1.4W 1.4D ± 1.4W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.2W (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2) (CP 2.3.2)

These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP04 code is used. If roof live load is separately treated or other types of loads are present, other appropriate load combinations should be used. Note that the automatic combination, including pattern live load, is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design.

7.3

Limits on Material Strength
The concrete compressive strength, fcu, should not be less than 20 MPa (CP 3.1.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams. The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits. It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials.

7.4

Partial Safety Factors
The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor, γm. The values of γm used in the program are listed in the following table, as taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2.4.3.2):

7-4

Limits on Material Strength

Chapter 7 - Design for Hong Kong CP-04

Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.15 1.50 1.25

These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code, but can be overwritten.

7.5

Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure, shear, and torsion based on the beam moments, shear forces, torsion, load combination factors, and other criteria described in the sections that follow. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each stations along the length of the beam. Beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear, and torsion only. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement

7.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam, for a particular station, the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement

Beam Design

7-5

Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.5.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. 7. ⎧0. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. βb ≥ 0. In such cases. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.max = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0.4(a)).1. with the corresponding load factors.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0. or the strength of the concrete.e.9) (CP 6.5. where εc.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.1.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0.1..2.2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.1. the width. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.0035 − 0.4(b)) 7-6 Beam Design .1. In such cases.4(b)). The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.max is defined as: ε c . the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.0006 ( fcu − 60 ) ⎩ Furthermore.0035 1 2 if if fcu ≤ 60 MPa fcu > 60 MPa ⎪ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 7-1 (CP 6.2. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.

1) The design procedure used by SAFE.1. Msingle.120 for 45 < f cu ≤ 70N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.156 for f cu ≤ 45N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. is obtained from: As = M . 7. hence. See Figure 7-1 Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.2.1. is obtained first for a section. In addition. If M ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement. less than.5. The reinforcing is determined based on whether M is greater than.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6. shear.2. where 2 (CP 6. Msingle = K'fcu bd .1. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4(a)). for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4(c)) Beam Design 7-7 .1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams.87 f y z (CP 6.Chapter 7 .4(a).2.4(b)). and torsion only.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.2.4(c)) ⎧0. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0. where 0. As. Fig 6.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.1. or equal to Msingle.2.1.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 6.2. all beams are designed for major direction flexure.1.1fcuAg) (CP 6.094 for 70 < f cu ≤ 100N/mm and no moment redistribution.

4(c)) 7-8 Beam Design . compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A′ = s M − Msin gle ⎛ 0.4(c)) (CP 6. If M > Msingle.25 − ⎜ 0.67 fcu γ m d′ a d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 6.1.5 + 0. or at the top if M is negative.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.2.1.4(c)) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.95d z = d ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s f′ s x Cs 0.2.2.1.

3.1) ⎧ ⎫ K'⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf. 7.87 f y z + 0.e. M (i.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle (CP 6.5. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.1. Fig 6.2.e.5. Beam Design 7-9 . the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis..2.9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (CP 6. Based on this assumption.1.36 .1.1. Fig.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4(c). and ⎛ d′ ⎞ f ′ = Es ε c ⎜ 1 − ⎟ ≤ 0. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness. for x=⎨ ⎪ 0.5 + 0.5.2. for ⎪ ⎪d − z .2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. designing top reinforcement).Chapter 7 .4(c)) The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.2.9) ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.45 .2.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.1.2.1.1.87 f y .2 Design of Flanged Beams 7. no flanged beam data is used.6.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4(a).2. i. 3.95d 0.2.4(c)) 7..2. s x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment.

9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0. the normalized moment is given by: K= M .4(c)) (CP 6.1. However.2.1.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.2.2. 0.25 − ⎬ ≤ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. See Figure 7-2.5 + 0. for ⎪ 0. If M ≤ βffcubd and 2 7 .2. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 45 N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 (CP 6.1.4(c).1.95d. Fig 6. for ⎪ ⎪d − z x=⎨ . Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.36 . Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.1) If a ≤ hf.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.4(c)) Then the moment arm is computed as: ⎧ K ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ z = d ⎨0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 45 N/mm 2 45 < f cu ≤ 70 N/mm 2 70 < f cu ≤ 100 N/mm 2 (CP 6.10 Beam Design . in that case. f cu b f d 2 (CP 6.45 . the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. Fig 6. If a > hf .9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ the depth of the neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.1) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4(a). the width of the beam is taken as bf.

1 f cu bd (0. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: M f = 0.11 .4d then. ⎪0. x ≤ 0.30d for f ≤ 100 N / mm 2 . In that case.67 fcu/gm 0.45d for f cu ≤ 40 N / mm 2 .5h f ) .Chapter 7 . Cw.5d ⎪ h f < ⎨ 0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.4.4.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.9 x − h f ) 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. where (BS 3.87 f y (d − 0.5h f ) bf hf ec 0.225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.67 fcu/gm d' As' x d fs' Cs Cf Cw As bw (i) BEAM SECTION (ii) STRAIN DIAGRAM es Ts Tw Tf (iii) STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 7-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Beam Design 7 . and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.36d for f cu ≤ 70 N / mm 2 . as shown in Figure 7-2.33d cu ⎩ As = M + 0.15 b x ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3. x ≤ 0.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ 0.5) β f = 0. Cf.4.4. x ≤ 0.

4(c)).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The moment taken by the web is computed as: Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.1. where (CP 6. 7 .4(d)) ⎧0. As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.2.87 f y ( d − 0.12 Beam Design .32 ⎪ ⎪0.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) .225 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎝ ⎠ (CP 6.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.2.1.045 for ⎩ ⎧0.1. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.2. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 fcu ≤ 45N mm 2 45 < fcu ≤ 70 N mm 2 70 < fcu ≤ 100 N mm 2 β f = 0.100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4(d)) If Kw ≤ K (CP 6.

87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.1.13 .5 + 0.87 f y (d − 0.2.2. Fig 3. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. 3.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) s ⎜ f′ − γc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where. where 0.5h f ) Mf + Mw .25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: M uw = K ' f cu bw d 2 The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 As = 0.9) The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: As = 1 0.87 f y x⎠ ⎝ (CP 6.5 + 0.95d ⎜ 0. and ⎛ d '⎞ f 's = Esε c ⎜1 − ⎟ ≤ 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.4(c).6.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Beam Design 7 .Chapter 7 .95d ⎜ 0.

04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows (CP 9.4 bf bw ≥ 0.32 0.1.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.2.2. if it is required. which is taken from CP Table 9.1 (CP 9. Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T or L-Beam Web in compression Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0.5.20 0.1. which is taken from CP Table 9.14 Beam Design .36 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.18 As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: Definition of percentage Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.1.1).20 A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h An upper limit of 0.40 0.48 0.3): 7 .13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 7.1(CP 9.4 bf ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h 100 100 0.2.24 fy = 460 MPa 0.24 0.2.2.13 100 0.26 ⎯ 100 0.

that can be resisted by the concrete.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.2. with the corresponding load combination factors.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (CP 9. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .2.5.15 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧0.5(a)) 7.3) 7. 7 MPa) (CP 6.5.1.04bw d ⎧0.5. for a particular load combination.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. 7. the following steps are involved (CP 6.2. the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases. vc.1.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The shear stress carried by the concrete.2.5(a)) The maximum allowable shear stress. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.Chapter 7 .8 fcu . Determine the shear stress.5): Determine the shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1.2. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.1.2. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bd (CP 6.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0. at a particular station due to the beam major shear. v. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. vc.

3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.1. Table 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design v'c = vc + 0.5(c).2.1.5.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.2.2.3) (CP 6. Table 6.2.00 Vh ≤1 M (CP 6.1.3) 1 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 γ m = 1.2.1.6 N NVh ≤ vc 1 + Ac vc Ac M 1 1 4 (CP 6.3) ≥ 0. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 6.16 Beam Design . CP 6.5(k)) 7.2.1.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 6.1.1.2. Table 6. the following limitations also apply: 0.2.1. and vmax. vr.5(k)) 0.5(c).2. vc.67 1.2.25 However.5(c).5(g)) (CP 6.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v. as: 7 . Table 6.1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.2. bd 1 4 (CP 6.5(c).5(c).5(b)): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression. Table 6.

2.2.4 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ f cu ⎞ 3 vr = ⎨0.2.17 . 7. a failure condition is declared. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. Beam Design 7 . The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 ⎧ if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎪0.5(b)) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.2) ( ) If v ≤ v’c + vr minimum reinforcement is required: As vr b = . obtained from each load combination.2.5(b)) (CP 6.5(b).Chapter 7 . Table 6. sv 0.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. (CP 6.87 f yv If v > vmax.4 40 ⎩ (CP 6.5(b)) The maximum of all the calculated Asv/sv values.4 ⎜ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 40 ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎝ 2 3 ⎪ 80 f cu > 80 N mm2 if ⎪0.1.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr. (CP 6.1. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. Determine special section properties. vt.5.1. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.1.

5. for a rectangular section is computed as: vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP 6.18 Beam Design .3. 7. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation. In typical framed construction. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP 6. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases. vt. Table 6. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min(0.17 7 .3.3(b)) hmax hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.8 f cu . vt.3. The torsional shear stress.1).3.3.7 N / mm 2 ) × y1 550 (CP 6.4.1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP 6.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine critical torsion stress.3(a)) For flanged sections. with the corresponding load combination factors.

In that case. torsion can be safely ignored (CP 6. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. Asv.min.min.5.t /sv.min.5). vt.5. 7.min.067 fcu .3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.3. vt. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP 6. vt. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing. c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 7-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If vt > vt. Table 6.17) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength. is calculated as: Beam Design 7 .3.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .4.0. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.5).19 .Chapter 7 . vt is less than the threshold limit.3.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress. However.3.3.min = min 0.6 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.

An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0. and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.6) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv . a failure message is declared.8 fcu . 7. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.87 f yv ) (CP 6. and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP-04) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions.20 Slab Design .t sv = T 0.3. the concrete section should be increased in size. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link. In that case. To learn more about the design strips. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. 7 .7 N/mm 2 ( ) (CP 6.8 x1 y1 (0. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.6) In the preceding expressions.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Asv .4) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP 6.

the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.21 . is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).1.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. at a given design section in a design strip. given the bending moment. In that case.Chapter 7 .Design for Hong Kong CP-04 7. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 7 . 7. 7. Those moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. is obtained and reported. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. for each load combination. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.6.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis.6.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip.1. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. These two steps are described in the subsections that follow and are repeated for every load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6.

7.e.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 9. 7.3).5d from the face of the support (CP 6.7(d)). an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.5. 7 .2.0013bh ⎩ if if f y ≤ 250 MPa f y ≥ 460 MPa (CP 9. Figure 7-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1.1.1) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: ⎧0.2.22 Slab Design ..7). interior.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1. 7.3.6.1. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.1(a)) In addition. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 6. Where openings occur.1.6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (CP 9.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. The column location (i.1.6. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites. edge.5.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section.

5d 1.3) 1 ⎛f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 3 Slab Design 7 .2.5(c).5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 1.1.1.5d Interior Column 1.Chapter 7 .1.2.1. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 6.5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 7-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 7. Table 6.79k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 1 1 4 (CP 6.5.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1. 6. Table 6.5d 1.5(g).7(d).5d 1.7(d)) (CP 6.3) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.23 . Table 6.2.7(d).6.1.2 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 6.3): 0.5.

3.1.15 ≤ ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ d ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 100 As ≤ 3.3) ≥ 0. Table 6.3) Members without shear reinforcement Members with shear reinforcement (CP 6.5 + 1.5.1.5.24 Slab Design . x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending. bd 1 4 (CP 6. 6.2.6.5 x ⎬ . 7 . where (CP 6.2.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design γ m = 1.5(c).1.2) 0. Table 2.2.6(c)) u is the perimeter of the critical section.1.3) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) 7. which is taken as zero in the current implementation. v. 7 MPa) (CP 6.6(b).67 1. the nominal design shear stress.3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5(c).7) My ⎧ M ⎫ Veff = V ⎨ f + 1.8 f cu . the following limitations also apply: (CP 2. Vx V y⎭ ⎩ (CP 6.5. Table 6.00 As = area of tension reinforcement.7(b)) (CP Table 6.1.1. Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection.4.25 However. is calculated as: v= Veff ud .2.5. v ≤ min(0.

6.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check.5.7(e)). and f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as ⎧1.Chapter 7 .3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6(c)) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.25 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (CP 6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.25 .25 ⎪1. 7.1.5.6.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc (CP 6.1.6(b).00 ⎪ f = ⎨1.1. 6.7(e)) Slab Design 7 . 7.5.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 V is the total punching shear force. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 6. 7.3.1.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.6.

the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. and vmax.7(e)).87 f yv If 1. a failure condition is declared.87 f yv 0.1. and corner column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Given v.5. 0.87 f yv s If v > vmax.7(e)) (CP 6. Therefore. (CP 6.5.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. If v ≤ 1. for corner. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.7(f)).3. Figure 7-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior.7(e)) Av 5 ( 0. 6.5.1.1.6vc ≤ v < 2. edge.5. edge..1. ≥ s 0.6.87 f yv 0. the concrete section should be increased in size.e.26 Slab Design . 7 .7(e)) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.0vc (CP 6. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. i.1. 7.5. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.7v − vc ) ud 0. The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .4ud = ≥ . vc.6vc 0.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 6. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 6. and 8. and interior columns respectively.

1.5d.1.Chapter 7 .1. Height.27 .7(f)) (CP 6.5.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.5. 16-.5d. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 4. The limits of so and the spacing. 12-.3.6.2.75d g ≤ 1. 14-. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5. the distance.5d s ≤ 0. s.7(f)) (CP 6. g. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.5d (CP 6. so. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. and 20-millimeter diameter.Design for Hong Kong CP-04 Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 7-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone 7. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter.7(f)) Slab Design 7 . When specifying shear studs.

.

Chapter 8 Design for IS 456-2000 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Indian Code IS 456-2000 [IS 2000] is selected.1 Notations Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Ac Acv Ag Area of concrete. mm Notations 8-1 . a prefix “IS” followed by the section number is used herein. mm 2 2 2 Area of section for shear resistance. 8. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 8-1. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Indian code in this chapter. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. mm Gross cross-sectional area of a frame member. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For simplicity.

MPa Compressive stress in beam compression steel. mm Overall depth of a beam or slab. mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length. mm 2 2 Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending.000 MPa Design concrete strength = fck / γc. mm /mm Depth to the center of the compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. N-mm Ultimate factored design moment at a section. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. N-mm 8-2 Notations .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code As A's Asv Asv /sv a a1 a2 b bf bw d d' D Df Ec Es fcd fck fsc fyd fy fys k Msingle Mu Area of tension reinforcement. assumed as 200. MPa Enhancement factor of shear strength for depth of the beam Design moment resistance of a section as a singly reinforced section. mm Flange thickness in a flanged beam. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Characteristic compressive strength of concrete. MPa Design yield strength of reinforcement = fy / γs. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis. mm Effective depth of tension reinforcement. mm Effective depth of compression reinforcement.

mm Lever arm. N Equivalent factored shear force including torsion effects. N-mm Equivalent factored moment including moment and torsion effects (Me1 = Mu+Mt) at a section. N-mm Normalized design moment. N-mm Factored shear force at a section. mm Concrete strength reduction factor for sustained loading. M / bd αfck 2 Spacing of the shear reinforcement along the length of the beam.Chapter 8 .0035) α β βc γc γf γm γs δ εc.3 . N-mm Residual factored moment when Mt > Mu at a section applied in the opposite sense of Me1 at a section. and fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Partial safety factor for material strength Partial safety factor for reinforcement strength Enhancement factor of shear strength for compression Maximum concrete strain in the beam and slab (= 0. mm Maximum permitted depth of neutral axis. N Allowable shear stress in punching shear mode. as well as reinforcement over strength factor for computing capacity moment at a section Factor for the depth of compressive force resultant of the concrete stress block Ratio of the minimum to maximum dimensions of the punching critical section Partial safety factor for concrete strength Partial safety factor for load.max Notations 8.Design for IS 456-2000 Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code Mt Me1 Me2 m sv Tu Vu Ve vc xu xu. mm Factored torsional moment at a section. N Depth of neutral axis.max z Equivalent factored bending moment due to torsion at a section.

1) (IS 36.4.5L ± 1. MPa Maximum possible design shear stress permitted at a section.5W 0.4.5D + 1.0W 1.9D ± 1. MPa 8.4. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete.2.5.4.75 PL) 1.5D + 1.3) (IS 36. and earthquake (E) loads. Table 18): 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.5E 0.0E (IS 36. the following load combinations may need to be considered (IS 36.5E 1. live load (L).2L ± 1.5(0.5D ± 1. For IS 456-2000.5S 1. MPa Basic design shear stress resisted by concrete.5W 1.2D + 1.2L ± 1.5L 1.5D + 1.1) (IS 36.2W 1.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D).4.2D + 1. pattern live load (PL).9D ± 1. wind (W).5D + 1.5D 1.max τcd Strain in tension steel Strain in compression steel Average design shear stress resisted by concrete.1) 8-4 Design Load Combinations .5L ± 1.5D + 1. snow (S).5D ± 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 8-1 List of Symbols Used in the IS 456-2000 Code εs εs' τv τc τc.2E 1.1) (IS 31.

2L + 1. shear forces. load combination factors.1) These factors are already incorporated into the design equations and tables in the code.2W 1. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. caution is advised.2D + 1. other appropriate load combinations should be used. shear.15 Partial safety factor for concrete. torsion can be ignored for indeterminate structures where torsion develops primarily due to compatibility of Partial Safety Factors 8.2S ± 1.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the IS 456-2000 Code is used.4. 8. however. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. γm.Chapter 8 .2. γs = 1.5 (IS 36. and torsion based on the beam moments.2S ± 1. These values can be overwritten. 8. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure. 8. The values of γm used in the program are as follows: Partial safety factor for reinforcement.Design for IS 456-2000 1. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.1) (IS 36. 14.3 Partial Safety Factors The design strength for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.2E 1.4. and torsion only.1 Effects of Torsion IS 456.2D + 1.5S 1.5 .2.2E (IS 36.2L + 1. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present. beams must be designed for torsion.4.5D + 1.4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.5L + 1.2D + 1.2S ± 1. torsion.2W 1.1 states that wherever torsion is required to maintain equilibrium.2S ± 1. shear.4. γc = 1. However.2D + 1.

Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is less than concrete shear capacity. 8. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. Rather. The beam is checked for adequacy and then designed for the equivalent moment and shear.1. 8-6 Beam Design .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design deformations. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Determine design bending moments and shears Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement 8. If redistribution is desired.1. additional longitudinal reinforcement and shear links are computed as detailed in the subsections that follow. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. If the shear stress due to equivalent shear is more than the concrete shear capacity. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.1 Determine Design Bending Moments and Shears IS 456 uses a simplified approach and does not require the calculation of shear stresses produced by torsion separately. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. torsion and bending shear are combined as an equivalent shear Ve . However. In such cases.2 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Excluded In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.4. and bending moment and torsion are combined as an equivalent bending moment Me. the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces and reduce torsion. torsion is ignored completely and only required minimum shear links are computed.4. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases with the corresponding load factors. In such cases.

1.2) ⎛1+ D b ⎞ M t = Tu ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 1.Chapter 8 . The additional moment Me2 is computed as: Me2 = Mt − Mu (IS 41. The equivalent moment is calculated from the following equation: Me1 = Mu+Mt. If Mt exceeds Mu. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all the of the load combinations.7 . with the corresponding load factors. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors.4.7 ⎠ and D and b are the overall depth and width of the beam. this will result in additional longitudinal reinforcement on the compression face of the beam due to reversal of the moment sign.1. additional reinforcement will be computed for the moment Me2 applied in the opposite sense of Mu. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.2) (IS 41. Effectively.4. The equivalent moment at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. where (IS 41.Design for IS 456-2000 8. the factored moments and torsion for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments and torsion for different load cases.1) 8.4 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Excluded In the design of the beam shear reinforcement. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments.3 Determine Factored Moments when Torsion is Included In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams. In such cases.4. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. respectively.4.2. Beam Design 8. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.4.

4.1) (IS 38.1) 8-8 Beam Design .1 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process. a. or the strength of the concrete. The equivalent shear at a particular station is computed as described in the text that follows. 8.6⎜ u ⎟ ⎝b⎠ where b is width of beam web. the factored shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases.1) 8.5 Determine Factored Shears when Torsion is Included In the design of beam shear reinforcement.3. The area of the stress block. The beam is then designed for the equivalent shear at the station.4.4. the width.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. the equivalent shear Ve is calculated from the following equation: ⎛T ⎞ Ve = Vu + 1. When a torsional moment is to be included. (IS 41. with the corresponding load combination factors. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.1. c. are taken as c = α fck xu a = β xu (IS 38. The design procedure is based on the simplified parabolic stress block shown in Figure 8-1 (IS 38. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.2. and the depth of the center of the compressive force from the extreme compression fiber. The user has the option of avoiding compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.1).

to safeguard against non-ductile failures (IS 38.46 Beam Design 8. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth as shown in the following table.53 0. and α and β are taken as: α = 0.1). fy (MPa) 250 415 500 xu.1) (IS 38. The β factor considers the depth to the center of the compressive force.36 for the assumed parabolic stress block (IS 38.42 (IS 38.0035 b f′ s 0.Design for IS 456-2000 ε = 0.42 xu xu d Ts As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 8-1 Rectangular Beam Design where xu is the depth of the neutral axis.67 fcu γ m A′ s d′ Cs C 0. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed the code-specified limiting value. SAFE uses interpolation between these three values.1) where α is the reduction factor to account for sustained compression and the partial safety factor for concrete and is generally taken to be 0.9 .48 0.max /d 0.36 β = 0. Furthermore.1).Chapter 8 .

and torsion only.1) Calculate the depth of the neutral axis as: xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.max d xu.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity of the beam as a singly reinforced beam.2 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. The maximum fiber compression is taken as: εc. is given by 8 . Calculate the limiting depth of the neutral axis. xu .max.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ 0. shear.46 ⎩ if f y ≤ 250 MPa if 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS 38. The reinforcement area is determined based on whether Mu is greater than. and the moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. less than.10 Beam Design .53 − 0. are obtained first.max = 0. 8. xu.2.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0.max ⎛ ⎜1 − β d ⎝ ⎞ 2 ⎟ bd fck ⎠ (IS G-1.0035 (IS 38. the limiting depth of the neutral axis. Msingle.48 − 0.1) The design procedure used by SAFE. or equal to Msingle. hence all beams are designed for major direction flexure. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force can be neglected. Msingle = α xu. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.max d ⎧0.4. m.53 ⎪ ⎪0.1) if 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa if f y ≥ 500 MPa Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance as a singly reinforced beam. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.

11 .max E s ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎢ xu . or at the top if Mu is negative.Chapter 8 . − If Mu > Msingle.1) x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ . where ( fy / γ s ) z (IS G-1.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. d⎭ ⎩ (IS 38. the area of compression reinforcement.max ⎥ γ s ⎣ ⎦ The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = (IS G-1.2) ( fy M single γs )z + ( fy M u − M single γ s ) ( d − d ') . where (IS G-1. As. and vice versa if Mu is negative. and ⎡ d' ⎤ fy f sc = ε c . is obtained from As = Mu . A's.Design for IS 456-2000 m= Mu bd 2αf ck − If Mu ≤ Msingle the area of tension reinforcement.2) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. Beam Design 8. is given by: A′ = s Mu − Msingle ⎛ 0.1) This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive.1) As is to be placed at the bottom and A’s is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') ⎜ fsc − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (IS G-1.2) x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.

designing top reinforcement).2. See Figure 8-2. Mu (i.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.4. 8. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.4. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.. no flanged beam data is used. If the stress block extends beyond the flange depth.3..e. Figure 8-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis lies in the flange. On the basis of this assumption. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located within the flange..3 Design of Flanged Beams 8. the program calculates the depth of the neutral axis.12 Beam Design .3. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.4.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. the depth of the neutral axis is calculated as: 8 . the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account.2. i.e.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression.2.

and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. is given by m= Mu b f d 2α f ck If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ .65D f if D f > 0. If ⎜ ⎛ xu ⎞ ⎛ D f ⎞ ⎟ . in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.2 d ⎩ (IS G-2.15 xu + 0.1). the neutral axis lies below the flange and the calculation ⎟>⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ for As has two parts. Cw. However.2) − Calculate the moment taken by the web as Mw = Mu − Mf.2) γf =⎨ if D f ≤ 0.Design for IS 456-2000 xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β where the normalized design moment.45 f ck (b f − bw )γ f ⎜ d − ⎜ 2 ⎝ where γf is taken as: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (IS G-2.2 d ⎧Df ⎪ ⎪0. Cf.Chapter 8 . the neutral axis lies within the flange and the subsequent ⎟≤⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design (IS G-2. as shown in Figure 8-2.13 . Compression reinforcement is required when Mu > Msingle. − Calculate the limiting ultimate moment of resistance of the web for tension reinforcement as: Beam Design 8. − Calculate the ultimate resistance moment of the flange as: γf ⎛ M f = 0. m.

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Mw.max ⎡ x u.single.single.02 ⎪ 85 ⎪ ⎩0.67 fck ⎞ ( d − d ') s ⎜ f′ − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.14 Beam Design .53 − 0. the area of compression reinforcement. The area of reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.46 (IS 38.5 y f ) Mf + (f Mw y γs)z .1) xu . one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web.max d ⎧0.05 f y − 250 ⎪ 165 =⎨ f y − 415 ⎪0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam. is given by: A′ = s M w − M w.53 ⎪ ⎪0. where x ⎫ ⎧ z = d ⎨1 − β u ⎬ d⎭ ⎩ xu 1 − 1 − 4 β m = d 2β m= Mw bw d 2α fck If Mw > Mw.single = αfckbwd 2 x u.1) 415 < f y ≤ 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa If Mw ≤ Mw. A's. As = (f y γ s )(d − 0. and 8 .48 − 0.max ⎤ ⎢1 − β ⎥ where d ⎣ d ⎦ if if if if f y ≤ 250 MPa 250 < f y ≤ 415 MPa (IS G-1.single ⎛ 0.

1.4 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given as (IS 26.2) 8.5.2.1.5.1) (IS 26.max ⎬ d ⎭ ⎩ 8.5.3 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.1): Determine the design shear stress Determine the shear stress that can be resisted by the concrete Beam Design 8.1): As ≥ 0.04bw d ⎧0.2) is imposed upon request as follows: ⎧0.1) An upper limit of 0.15 .Chapter 8 .Design for IS 456-2000 ⎡ d ' ⎤ fy fsc = ε c. at a particular station.5γ f ) Mf + ( fy M w.1.single γ s ) ( d − d ′) where x ⎧ ⎫ z = d ⎨1 − β u.1.1.4.1.85 bd fy (IS 26. for a particular load combination.single γs )z + ( fy M w − M w.2) The required tension reinforcement is calculated as: As = ( fy γ s )( d − 0.max Es ⎢1 − ⎥≤ ⎣ xu.04bw d Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam (IS 26.1) and the compression reinforcement (IS 26.5.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement (IS 26.4. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.5.5. the following steps are involved (IS 40.max ⎦ γ s (IS G-1.

(IS 40.2.1 Design for Shear when Torsion is Excluded Determine the design nominal shear stress as follows.max (IS 40.3.1 M30 3.5 M20 2.2. where bd (IS 40.16 Beam Design . as: τcd = kδτc.2) 8 .3.max.0 τc.8 M25 3. τc. IS Table 20) Concrete Grade M15 2.1) β = angle between the top and bottom edges of the beam Mu is the moment at the section.max (MPa) (IS 40. Table 20) The maximum nominal shear stress.1) For non-prismatic sections (beams with varying depth) τv = Vu ± Mu tan β d . d.1. is computed using linear interpolation for concrete grades between those indicated in IS Table 20.3. Determine the design shear stress that can be carried by the concrete. τc.max (MPa) The maximum nominal shear stress.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance 8.max is given in IS Table 20 as follows: Maximum Shear Stress. τv ≤ τc. and the negative sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment increases in the same direction as the depth. For prismatic sections τv = Vu bd (IS 40.5 M35 3. and the positive sign is considered when the numerical value of the moment decreases in the same direction as the depth increases. τc.7 M40 4.4.

2.4 b ≥ sv 0.4.1.6) Asv (τ v − τ cd ) b ≥ sv 0.5. Table 19) fck ≤ 40 MPa (for calculation purpose only) Determine required shear reinforcement: If τv ≤ τcd + 0. 0.2. Table 19) (IS 40.1. Under Compression if Pu ≤ 0 .1. Under Tension (IS 40.2.2. 26.4 Asv 0.4 < τv ≤ τc.0 for beams and is computed as follows for other slabs: k=1 δ is the enhancement factor for compression and is given as: Pu ⎧ ≤ 1 .1) The preceding expression approximates IS Table 19.17 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (IS 40.64 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ bd ⎠ 1 3 ⎛ fck ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 25 ⎠ 1 4 (IS 40. taken as 1.2) τc is the basic design shear strength for concrete.1).Chapter 8 .1.87 f y If τcd + 0. The following limitations are enforced in the determination of the design shear strength as is done in the Table.4(a)) Beam Design 8.max (IS 40. It should be noted that the value of γc has already been incorporated in IS Table 19 (see note in IS 36. which is given by: ⎛ 100 As ⎞ τ c = 0.Design for IS 456-2000 where k is the enhancement factor for the depth of the section.2.1) (IS 40. and if Pu > 0 .2.5 ⎪1 + 3 Ag fck δ =⎨ ⎪1 ⎩ δ is always taken as 1.87 f y (IS 40.3.

3) τve ≤ τc.87 f y (IS 41.1) (IS 40. taken as the maximum of: Asv Tu Vu and = + sv b1d1 (0. Determine required shear reinforcement: If τve ≤ τcd Asv 0.4.18 Beam Design . (IS 40.6) If τve ≥τcd. 26. 8 .max The maximum nominal shear stress.3) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv /sv values.4.4 b ≥ sv 0.87 f y ) 2. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. provide 2-legged closed stirrups. obtained from each load combination.3.2.3.3) In calculating the shear reinforcement. a limit is imposed on the fy as: fy ≤ 415 MPa (IS 40.2 Design for Shear when Torsion is Included Determine the design nominal shear stress as: τve = Ve bd (IS 40. a failure condition is declared.1.4) 8. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations.5. τc. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.3) (IS 41.max is determined as defined in the last section.max.5d1 (0.4.87 f y (IS 41.87 f y ) Asv (τ ve − τ c )b = sv 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If τv > τc.2.

Design for IS 456-2000 8. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. To learn more about the design strips.5. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. 8. for each load combination. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. These two steps. described in the subsections that follow. 8. Slab Design 8. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. is obtained and reported. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the limit state of collapse (IS 456-2000) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.1.5 Slab Design Similar to conventional design.19 . Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. are repeated for every load combination. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip.5. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.Chapter 8 .

the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment.0015bD ⎪ As ≤ ⎨ ⎪0.5.5. given the bending moment.0012bD ⎩ if if f y < 415 MPa f y ≥ 415 MPa (IS 26. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.e. In some cases. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (IS 31.2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.1) In addition.6. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads..1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (IS 31.5.2): ⎧0.2. 8 .5.5. Only the code-specific items are described in the following sections.1.5. interior.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limits (IS 26. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.5.20 Slab Design .1). edge.6. Where openings occur.1. In that case.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (IS 26. Figure 2-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed). 8. at a given design section in a design strip. 8.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 8.1.1).2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. The column location (i.1).2. 8.

5.2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be αMu and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is taken to be (1 − α) Mu (IS 31.Chapter 8 . where: α= 1 1 + ( 2 3 ) a1 a2 (IS 31.3) and a1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and a2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span.2).21 .3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as: Slab Design 8. 8.2.2.3.5.2.6.Design for IS 456-2000 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column Figure 8-4 Punching Shear Perimeters L-Shape Column 8.

The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.5. but limited to: vc ≤ 1.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.25 f ck βc = ratio of the minimum to the maximum dimensions of the support section.3.3.6.3.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design vc = ks τc ks = 0.5τ c (IS 31.1) (IS 31.0 (IS 31. 8.5 + βc ≤ 1.22 Slab Design . The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity. 8.3.2.6.6.6.1) (IS 31. 8.3.6. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.1) τc = 0. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.5.5.5.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.5 τ c bod (IS 31.2) 8.2) 8 . The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: Vmax = 1.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined.3.3.

Chapter 8 . Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 8-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.2).3. and Vmax. a failure condition is declared. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (IS 31.2) If Vu > Vmax.87 f y (IS 31.2. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.3.6. Vc.23 . and corner column. 41.3.Design for IS 456-2000 Given Vu. edge. 8.3..5Vc ) 0.e.4. the concrete section should be increased in size. i.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5.3) (IS 31. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face. Av = (Vu − 0.6. Figure 8-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column. Slab Design 8.6.

5. and 8. 6.24 Slab Design . between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. When specifying shear studs.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. and interior columns respectively. Height. 5d s ≤ 0. s. for corner.5d. g. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. Therefore. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. edge. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.5d g ≤ 2d 8 . so. The limits of so and the spacing. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in IS 26.4 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance. 8.3.

9. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the New Zealand code in this chapter.1 Notations Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Aco Acv Area enclosed by perimeter of the section. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 9-1. a prefix “NZS” followed by the section number is used herein. For simplicity. sq-mm Notations 9-1 . sq-mm Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures.Chapter 9 Design for NZS 3101-06 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the New Zealand code NZS 3101-06 [NZS 06] is selected. The design is based on user-specified load combinations. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.

mm Maximum allowed depth of compression block. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.000 MPa 9-2 Notations . mm Depth of compression block at balanced condition. mm Width of member. assumed as 200. sq-mm Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to tension reinforcement. sq-mm Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to compression reinforcement. sq-mm Area of closed shear reinforcement per unit length for torsion. sq-mm Gross area enclosed by shear flow path. sq-mm/mm Depth of compression block. mm Width of the punching critical section perpendicular to the direction of bending. mm Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis at balanced condition. mm Perimeter of the punching critical section. sq-mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Effective width of flange (flanged section). mm Width of web (flanged section).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code Ag Al Ao As A's As(required) At /s Av Av /s a ab amax b bf bw b0 b1 b2 c cb d d' Ec Es Gross area of concrete. sqmm/mm Area of shear reinforcement. mm Width of the punching critical section in the direction of bending. sq-mm Area of compression reinforcement. sq-mm Area of shear reinforcement per unit length.

MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. MPa Design shear stress resisted by concrete. N-mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section.Design for NZS 3101-06 Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code f' c f' s fy fyt h hf ka kd M pc po s T tc to Vc V v * * * * Specified compressive strength of concrete. MPa Overall depth of sections. mm Factored design torsion at a section. mm Perimeter of area Ao. mm Factor accounting for influence of aggregate size on shear strength Factor accounting for influence of member depth on shear strength Factored design moment at a section. mm Shear force resisted by concrete. N Factored shear force at a section. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement. mm Thickness of slab or flange. MPa Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. MPa Shear stress due to torsion. N Average design shear stress at a section. MPa Punching shear factor accounting for column location Concrete strength factor to account for sustained loading and equivalent stress block Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete vc vmax vtn αs α1 β1 Notations 9-3 .Chapter 9 . mm Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path. mm Spacing of shear reinforcement along the length. N-mm Outside perimeter of concrete section. MPa Maximum design shear stress permitted at a section.

0W 1.0S 1.4L ± 1.4L + 1. 4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design Table 9-1 List of Symbols Used in the NZS 3101-06 Code βc εc εc. the following load combinations may need to be considered (AS/NZS 1170.2D + 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.75 PL) 1.2.2.2D ± 1.2(a)) (AS/NZS 1170. 4.2. 4.2. 4.35D 1. (0. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). wind (W).0.0D ± 1.0D + 0.2D + 0. and earthquake (E) loads.0.0. live load (L).0.2. 4.2.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.0W 1.2.0E 1.2(d)) (AS/NZS 1170.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcement Strength reduction factor for bending Strength reduction factor for shear and torsion Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure Fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear 9.2(e)) (AS/NZS 1170.0.0W 0. 4. 4.2(f)) (AS/NZS 1170.2.5(0.2.5L 1.0.9D ± 1. pattern live load (PL). For NZS 3101-06.2(b)) (AS/NZS 1170.2(g)) (AS/NZS 1170. snow (S).2): 1. 4.0.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.2(f)) 9-4 Design Load Combinations .0. 4. 4.2D + 1.2.2D + 0.0E (AS/NZS 1170. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.4L ± 1.0.max εs φb φs γf γv Ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimensions of the punching critical section Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in the extreme concrete fiber.0.

should not be greater than 500 MPa for shear or 800 MPa for confinement (NZS 5.2) (NZS 2. 9.3.2) Limits on Material Strength 9-5 .2. fyt.2. shear. and torsion are as follows: φb = 0. SAFE enforces the upper material strength limits for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.3). The user is responsible for ensuring that the minimum strength is satisfied. (NZS 2. 9. The code allows use of f' c and fy beyond the given limits. The input material strengths are taken as the upper limits if they are defined in the material properties as being greater than the limits. The lower characteristic yield strength of transverse (stirrup) reinforcement. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2.3.3 Limits on Material Strength The upper and lower limits of f' c shall be as follows: 25 ≤ f 'c ≤ 100 MPa (NZS 5. however.3. These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the NZS 3101-06 code is used.Chapter 9 . should be equal to or less than 500 MPa for all frames (NZS 5.1).2.3). caution is advised.85 for flexure φs = 0. If roof live load is treated separately or if other types of loads are present.4 factor on the live load in three of the combinations is not valid for live load representing storage areas.Design for NZS 3101-06 Note that the 0.75 for shear and torsion These values can be overwritten.4 Strength Reduction Factors The strength reduction factors. The φ factors for flexure.3.1) The lower characteristic yield strength of longitudinal reinforcement. φ are applied to the specified strength to obtain the design strength provided by a member. provided special study is conducted (NZS 5. fy.

5. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam.1. shear. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 9. shear forces. and torsion only.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 9. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases. the 9-6 Beam Design . and torsion based on the beam moments. SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and other criteria described in the subsections that follow.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. In such cases. shear. load combination factors.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam. torsion. for a particular station. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9. with the corresponding load factors. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. Beams are designed for major direction flexure.

shear. it is assumed that the compression carried by the concrete is 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam.2.3. designing top or bottom reinforcement). 9. The design procedure used by SAFE. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments. 9.85 (NZS 2.1.2. M (i..2.7). Furthermore. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 9-1). Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.2) in the preceding and following equations. or the strength of the concrete.1 Design of Rectangular Beams In designing for a factored negative or positive.5.2.4.2) where the default value of φb is 0.7): α1 = 0.3. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L. The beams are designed for major direction flexure. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the additional moment will be carried by compression reinforcement and additional tension reinforcement.8.Chapter 9 .85 for f ′ ≤ 55 MPa c Beam Design 9-7 . The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4.e.and T-beams) is summarized in the subsections that follow.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.5.1.4. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at the balanced condition. * a = d − d2 − 2 M* α1 f ′ c φb b (NZS 7. and torsion only. the width. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. The factor α1 is calculated as follows (NZS 7.75 times that which can be carried at the balanced condition (NZS 9. where. In such cases the beam may be designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 9-1 (NZS 7.1).

2.7) (NZS 7.85 β1 = 0.2. the area of tension reinforcement is then give by: 9-8 Beam Design .1) If a ≤ amax (NZS 9. amax.85 − 0. c c The value β1 and cb are calculated as follows: 0.1).2. is given by: amax = 0. c (NZS 7.8.65 ≤ β1 ≤ 0.3.8) β1 = 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ε = 0.85 c cb = εc ε c + f y Es d The maximum allowed depth of the rectangular compression bloack.4.7) (NZS 7.003 b Cs c α1 f ′ c A′ s d′ a = β1c d As BEAM SECTION STRAIN DIAGRAM εs Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 9-1 Rectangular Beam Design α1 = 0.85 for f ′ ≤ 30.8.4.75 ≤ α1 ≤ 0.008( f ′ − 30).85 − 0.2.004( f ′ − 55) for f ′ ≥ 55MPa.7.4.75β1cb (NZS 7.4.3. 0. 9.

where ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' )φb (fs c ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. If a > amax (NZS 9. or at the top * if M is negative.4.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ (NZS 7.2.2.4. 7.1).2. compression reinforcement is required (NZS 7.7) and the moment resisted by concrete compression and tension reinforcement is: M c = C⎜d − * ⎛ ⎝ a max ⎞ ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ Therefore the moment required to be resisted by compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement is: Ms=M −Mc * * * The required compression reinforcement is given by: A′ = s M* s .Chapter 9 .4.4) The required tension reinforcement for balancing the compression in the concrete is: As1 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟ φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ Beam Design 9-9 .4.9) and is calculated as follows: The compressive force developed in the concrete alone is given by: C = α1 f ′ bamax c (NZS 7.2.2.3.8.Design for NZS 3101-06 As = M* a⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ * The reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive.

The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. * 9. i.4. and the total compression reinforcement is A's.2. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.e.4. 9.5.2.2) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block. If a > hf.10 Beam Design . M (i.2. designing top reinforcement). the depth of the compression block is given by: * a=d• d − 2 2M* α1 f c'φb b f (NZS 7.5.1. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design. amax. Cw. no flanged beam data is used. However.1) If a ≤ hf. A s is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed * * at the top if M is positive.. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf.1.e.8. and vice versa if M is negative.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is given by: M s* As2 = f y (d − d ') φb Therefore. the total tension reinforcement. 9 . as shown in Figure 9-2. As = As1 + As2.1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment. Cf..1.2.2.75β1cb (NZS 7.5.7. Compression reinforcement is required when a > amax.3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. is given by: amax = 0.2 Design of Flanged Beams 9. calculation for As has two parts.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If M > 0.2. 9.

M to be carried by the web is: * Mw=M −Mf * * * The web is a rectangular section with dimensions bw and d.11 .003 α1 f ′ c α1 f ′ c bf hf d′ c d A′ s f′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw (I) BEAM SECTION εs (II) STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw (III) STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 9-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Cf is given by: C f = α1 f ′ ( b f − bw ) h f c Therefore. the balance of the moment.2 ) Beam Design 9 .4.4.Chapter 9 .Design for NZS 3101-06 ε = 0. for which the depth of the compression block is recalculated as: a1 = d − d 2 − 2 M* w α1 f ′ φb bw c (NZS 7.7) * Cf fy and the portion of M that is resisted by the flange is d ⎞ ⎛ M * = C f ⎜ d − s ⎟φb f 2⎠ ⎝ Therefore. As1 = given by: (NZS 7.2.

4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design If a1 ≤ amax (NZS 9.2.1).3.1).8.4. where f ′ − α1 f ′ )( d − d' ) φb ( s c (NZS 7. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The compressive force in the web concrete alone is given by: Cw = α1 f ′ bw amax c (NZS 7.8.2. 7.2.3.12 Beam Design .4) ⎡ c − d' ⎤ f ′ = ε c. the area of tension reinforcement is then given by: As2 = * Mw .7) and the moment resisted by the concrete web and tension reinforcement is: a ⎛ * M c = Cw ⎜ d − max 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ φb ⎠ The moment resisted by compression and tension reinforcement is: Ms=Mw−Mc * * * Therefore.max Es ⎢ s ⎥ ≤ fy ⎣ c ⎦ The tension reinforcement for balancing compression in the web concrete is: As2 = M c* a ⎞ ⎛ f y ⎜ d − max ⎟φb 2 ⎠ ⎝ 9 .2.4. and a1 ⎞ ⎛ φb f y ⎜ d − ⎟ 2⎠ ⎝ As = As1 + As2 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom of the flanged beam. If a1 > amax (NZS 9. the compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M* s .

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

and the tension reinforcement for balancing the compression reinforcement is:

M s* As3 = f y (d − d ') φb
Total tension reinforcement is As = As1 + As2 + As3, and the total compression reinforcement is A's. As is to be placed at the bottom and A's is to be placed at the top.

9.5.1.3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the maximum of the two limits:

As ≥

f′ c bw d 4 fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

As ≥ 1.4

bw d fy

(NZS 9.3.8.2.1)

An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request as follows:

⎧0.04bd As ≤ ⎨ ⎩0.04bw d ⎧0.04bd A′ ≤ ⎨ s ⎩0.04bw d

Rectangular beam Flanged beam Rectangular beam Flanged beam

9.5.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam, for a particular load combination, at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the following steps are involved: Determine the factored shear force, V .
*

Beam Design

9 - 13

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

Determine the shear force, Vc, that can be resisted by the concrete. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps.

9.5.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
In the design of the beam shear reinforcement, the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding shear forces for different load cases, with the corresponding load combination factors.

9.5.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The shear force carried by the concrete, Vc, is calculated as: Vc = vc Acv The allowable shear stress capacity is given by: (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

νc = kd ka νb
The basic shear strength for rectangular section is computed as,

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

⎡ A ⎤ νb = ⎢0.07 + 10 s ⎥ bw d ⎦ ⎣
f ′ ≤ 50 MPa, and c
0.08 f ′ ≤ νb ≤ 0.2 f ′ c c

f ′ , where c

(NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

The factor ka allows for the influence of maximum aggregate size on shear strength. For concrete with a maximum aggregate size of 20 mm or more, ka shall be taken as 1.0. For concrete where the maximum aggregate size is 10 mm or less, the value of ka shall be taken as 0.85. Interpolation may be used between these limits. The program default for ka is 1.0.

9 - 14

Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

The factor kd allows for the influence of member depth on strength and it shall be calculated from the following conditions: For members with shear reinforcement equal to or greater than the nominal shear reinforcement given in NZS 9.3.9.4.15, kd = 1.0 For members with an effective depth equal to or smaller than 400 mm, kd = 1.0 (NZS 9.3.9.3.4) For members with an effective depth greater than 400,

kd = ( 400 / d )

0.25

where d is in mm (NZS 9.3.9.3.4)

9.5.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
The average shear stress is computed for rectangular and flanged sections as:
*

V ν = bw d
*

(NZS 7.5.1)

The average shear stress is limited to a maximum limit of, vmax = min {0.2 f ′ , 8 MPa} c The shear reinforcement is computed as follows: If ν ≤ φs (v c 2 ) or h ≤ max(300 mm, 0.5bw)
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

Av =0 s
If φs (v c 2 ) < ν ≤ φsνc,
*

(NZS 9.3.9.4.13)

Av 1 = s 16
*

f′ c

bw f yt

(NZS 7.5.10, 9.3.9.4.15) (NZS 9.3.9.4.2)

If φsνc < ν ≤ φsνmax,

Av v * − φ s vc = s φ s f yt d

(

)
Beam Design 9 - 15

SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design

If ν > νmax, a failure condition is declared.
*

(NZS 7.5.2, 9.3.9.3.3)

If the beam depth h is less than the maximum of 300 mm and 0.5bw, no shear reinforcement is required (AS 9.3.9.4.13). The maximum of all of the calculated Av/s values, obtained from each load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.

9.5.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the factored torsion, T . Determine special section properties. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Design Preferences.
*

9.5.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of beam torsion reinforcement, the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. In a statically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsion in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking, the
9 - 16 Beam Design

Chapter 9 - Design for NZS 3101-06

design T is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the code (NZS 7.6.1.3). However, the program does not automatically redistribute the internal forces * and reduce T . If redistribution is desired, the user should release the torsional degree of freedom (DOF) in the structural model.

*

9.5.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties, such as Aco, Ao, pc, po, tc, and to are calculated. These properties are described in the following (NZS 7.1). Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of area Ao Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the gross section Assumed wall thickness of an equivalent tube for the area enclosed by the shear flow path

=

In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as Ao, po, and to, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 50 mm. This is equivalent to a 38 mm clear cover and a 12 mm stirrup. For torsion design of flanged beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during Tcr calculation. With this assumption, the special properties for a rectangular beam section are given as: Aco Ao pc po = = = = bh (b − 2c)(h − 2c) 2b + 2h 2(b − 2c) + 2(h − 2c) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.1)

Beam Design

9 - 17

1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design tc to = = 0.1) where.1) where the section dimensions bf.1) (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. the section dimensions b. and c are shown in Figure 9-3. h.1) (NZS 7.7). bw. Note that the flange width on either side of the beam web is limited to the smaller of 3hf (NZS 7.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1.6. c b − 2c 2c c h fs d bf c c h − 2c h h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c c bw bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section Figure 9-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 9 .18 Beam Design . hf. Similarly.75 Aco/pc (NZS 7.1) (NZS 7. h.75 Ao/po 0. and c for a flanged beam are shown in Figure 9-3. the special section properties for a flanged beam section are given as: Aco = Ao pc po tc to = = = = = bwh + (bf – bw)hf (bw – 2c)(h – 2c) 2bf + 2h 2(h – 2c) + 2(bw – 2c) 0.75 Ao/po 0.

is calculated as: * * At vtn t o = s f yt and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: (NZS 7.3) where the torsional shear stress vtn is defined as: vtn = T* φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.6.1Aco t c f 'c (NZS 7.3) 9. T .4. Tcr.6.4. is less than the threshold limit. If T > Tcr and/or the torsion stress limit is not met.1).6. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5. Tcr.2) where Aco and tc are as described in the previous section.6) Beam Design 9 . and f'c is the specified concrete compressive strength.3.6.1).6.08 f 'c φ 2 Ao t o (NZS 7.19 . for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: Tcr = φ 0.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. defined as: T* ≤ 0.6. At /s.1. In that case. The stress due to torsion should also be limited in order to ignore torsion. the * program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required.3. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (NZS 7.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion. and meets the torsion stress limit.2) Al = vtn t o po fy (NZS 7.Chapter 9 .1.1. However.6.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion capacity. torsion can be safely ignored (NZS 7.5.4. if T exceeds the threshold limit.

The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. 7.6. where At/s can be from any closed stirrups for shear and Al can include flexure reinforcement.8.2) * * For rectangular sections.6. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.2.1.5 Ao t c = spo f y Ao (NZS 7.2 f 'c . The maximum of all of the calculated Al and At /s values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The minimum closed stirrups and longitudinal reinforcement shall be such that the following is satisfied.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. To learn more about the design strips. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (NZS 3101-06) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections. a failure message is declared.2) The term A t A l /p o shall not be taken greater than 7A t /s (NZS 7. bw is replaced with b. An upper limit of the combination of V and T that can be carried by the section is also checked using the equation: vn + vtn < min(0. the concrete section should be increased in size. provided it is fully developed. If the combination of V and T exceeds this limit. 9.3).8 MPa ) * * (NZS 7.20 Slab Design . The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.5. At Al 1. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. 9 . In that case.

Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. These two steps.Chapter 9 . described in the subsections that follow. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors. In some cases.1.1. The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the Slab Design 9 . These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads. The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. 9.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip. 9. given the bending moment. In that case. along with the corresponding controlling load combination. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip. for each load combination. are repeated for every load combination. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.6. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments.1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. at a given design section in a design strip.Design for NZS 3101-06 9.21 . is obtained and reported.6.6.

5. Any minimum requirements to satisfy crack limitations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.e.2.6.4. 9.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design design strip at the considered design section. 9 .2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual.6.0014bh ⎩ f y < 500 MPa f y ≥ 500 MPa (NZS 12. Only the code-specific items are described in the following. 8. The slab reinforcement requirements reported by the program do not consider crack control. the slab width is adjusted accordingly.7.6.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (NZS 12. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads. 2. Figure 9-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes. Where openings occur.6. 9. The column location (i. 8.5. 9. an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0..2.6.22 Slab Design .1(b)).1(b)).2.8. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.4 ): ⎧ 0 .7. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (NZS 12.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of d/2 from the face of the support (NZS 12. interior.8.1. edge.04 times the gross cross-sectional area.7 bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ f y ⎪0.1) In addition.

Chapter 9 .6.7.2 ) γv = 1 − (NZS 12.6.23 .2.2.Design for NZS 3101-06 d 2 d 2 d 2 Interior Column d 2 Edge Column Corner Column d 2 d 2 Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 9-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 9.1) where b1 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction of the span and b2 is the width of the critical section measured in the direction perpendicular to the span. where * γf = 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 + (2 3) b1 b2 1 1 (NZS 12.7.7.3 Determination of Concrete Capacity The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as the minimum of the following three limits: Slab Design 9 .2 Transfer of Unbalanced Moment The fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by flexure is taken to be γf M and the fraction of unbalanced moment transferred by eccentricity of shear is * taken to be γv M . 9.7.

and αs is a scale factor based on the location of the critical section. 9 .2) where. βc is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum dimension of the critical section (NZS 12.3. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.4.2.1.2. and not less than 16 times the shear reinforcement bar diameter (NZS 12.3. the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user. provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 150 mm.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design ⎧1 ⎛ 2 ⎞ c ⎪ ⎜1 + ⎟ f ′ βc ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 ⎛ α d ⎞ ⎪ vv = min ⎨ ⎜ 1 + s ⎟ f ′ c b0 ⎠ ⎪6 ⎝ ⎪1 f′ ⎪ c ⎪3 ⎩ (NZS 12. b0 is the perimeter of the critical section.7.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear studs as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.6.4 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.2(a)).1) 70 9.1).24 Slab Design .3.2) A limit is imposed on the value of f′ ≤ c f ′ as follows: c (NZS 5.6. The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE. 9. the shear stress is computed assuming linear variation along the perimeter of the critical section.7.7. 12.7. ⎧20 ⎪ α s = ⎨15 ⎪10 ⎩ for interior columns for edge columns for corner columns (NZS 12.

6.6. the concrete section should be increased in size.3.3.7.Design for NZS 3101-06 The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.7.3. 9. where.3.5) 9.3) (NZS 12. and vmax.7. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged.5 f ′ c (NZS 12.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement The shear force is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 0.7.4) Given vn. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the subsections that follow.2(a)) Minimum punching shear reinforcement should be provided such that: Vs ≥ 1 16 f 'c bo d (NZS 12. is the strength reduction factor.7. φ. Av = (vn − φvc ) b d φf yv o (NZS 12.4.4.Chapter 9 .3.25 . the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is determined as: vc = 1 6 f 'c (NZS 12.4) If vn > φvmax. a failure condition is declared. Slab Design 9 . If vn exceeds the maximum permitted value of φvmax. vc.

and corner column. edge. Therefore.4). and interior columns respectively. i.3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines. Figure 9-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. 9 . 6.e. for corner. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4.26 Slab Design . Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.4.. and 8. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 9.3. edge.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 2d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (NZS 12.6. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy s0 Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 9-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.

the angle between adjacent stud rails shall not exceed 60 degrees.5d. between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.4) Slab Design 9 .11 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. the distance.7.Chapter 9 .3.4) (NZS 12. so.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0.27 .7.7.4. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 2d and in the case of studs in a radial pattern.5d s ≤ 0. The limits of so and the spacing.4. s.Design for NZS 3101-06 9. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab. Height.6. The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in NZS 3. When specifying shear studs. The spacing between adjacent shear studs. g.4) (NZS 12.5d g ≤ 2d (NZS 12.4.

.

The design is based on user-specified load combinations.1 . The program also includes the recommendations of BC 2:2008 Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65 [BC 2008]. For referencing to the pertinent sections of the Singapore code in this chapter. Various notations used in this chapter are listed in Table 10-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. a prefix “CP” followed by the section number is used herein. The code is based on Newton-millimeter-second units. is selected. The program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy the requirements for the design of most building type structures. For simplicity.Chapter 10 Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This chapter describes in detail the various aspects of the concrete design procedure that is used by SAFE when the Singapore standard. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-millimeter-second units unless otherwise noted. Notations 10 . Structural Use of Concrete code CP 65-99 [CP 99].

mm Depth to center of compression reinforcement. mm Area of tension reinforcement. mm Width or effective width of the section in the compression zone. mm 2 2 Area of compression reinforcement. mm 2 2 Area of longitudinal reinforcement for torsion. mm Torsional constant. mm 10 . MPa Characteristic strength of reinforcement. mm Smaller dimension of a rectangular section.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. mm Flange thickness. mm 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. MPa (< 460 MPa) Overall depth of a section in the plane of bending. mm Total cross-sectional area of links at the neutral axis.000 MPa Punching shear factor considering column location Characteristic cube strength. MPa Stress in the compression reinforcement. mm Total cross-sectional area of closed links for torsion. assumed as 200. mm Average web width of a flanged beam. mm Width or effective width of flange. mm Modulus of elasticity of concrete.2 Notations . mm Larger dimension of a rectangular section. 2 mm /mm Depth of compression block. mm 4 Effective depth of tension reinforcement. MPa Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.1 Notations Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code Ag Al As A's Asv Asv. MPa Characteristic strength of shear reinforcement.t Asv / sv a b bf bw C d d' Ec Es f fcu f's fy fyv h hf hmin hmax Gross area of cross-section.

mm Lever arm. N-mm Perimeter of the punch critical section.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Table 10-1 List of Symbols Used in the CP 65-99 Code K K' k1 k2 M Msingle sv T u V v vc vmax vt x xbal z Normalized design moment. mm Design torsion at ultimate design load. mm Depth of neutral axis in a balanced section. MPa Design concrete shear stress capacity. MPa Neutral axis depth. N-mm Limiting moment capacity as singly reinforced beam. MPa Torsional shear stress.Chapter 10 . N-mm Spacing of the links along the length of the beam. mm Torsional stiffness constant Moment redistribution factor in a member Partial safety factor for load Partial safety factor for material strength Maximum concrete strain Strain in tension reinforcement Strain in compression reinforcement 3 β βb γf γm εc εs ε's Notations 10 . N Design shear stress at a beam cross-section or at a punching critical section.3 . mm Design shear force at ultimate design load. MPa Maximum permitted design factored shear stress. [ f cu 30] Design moment at a section. Mu/bd fcu Maximum 2 Mu for a singly reinforced concrete section bd 2 fcu 1 Shear strength enhancement factor for support compression Concrete shear strength factor.

fcu. is assumed and should be reviewed before using for design. the following load combinations may need to be considered (CP 2.3).4D + 1. 1.1.4D ± 1. The design load combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads by appropriate partial factors of safety.4 Design Load Combinations .4. 10.2). If a structures is subjected to dead load (D). The input material strengths are used for design even if they fall outside of the limits.4W 1.75PL) 1.6(0. Note that the automatic combination.0D ± 1. and wind (W) loads.3) (CP 2.3) These are also the default design load combinations in SAFE whenever the CP 65-99 code is used.7.3 Limits on Material Strength The concrete compressive strength. pattern live load (PL). It is the user's responsible to use the proper strength values while defining the materials. other appropriate load combinations should be used.2L ± 1.4D + 1. should not be less than 30 MPa (CP 3.6L 1.2D + 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. and considering that wind forces are reversible.2W (CP 2. live load (L).4. 10 .2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed.4. If roof live load is treated separately or other types of loads are present.4W 1.4.3) (CP 2.3). The program does not enforce this limit for flexure and shear design of beams and slabs or for torsion design of beams.1. including pattern live load. γf (CP 2.4D 1.4.

Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. but can be overwritten. Beams are designed for major direction flexure. The beam design procedure involves the following steps: Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement Partial Safety Factors 10 . SAFE calculates and reports the required areas of reinforcement for flexure. and torsion based on the beam moments.25 These factors are already incorporated in the design equations and tables in the code. and other criteria described below. torsion.1): Values of γm for the ultimate limit state Reinforcement Concrete in flexure and axial load Concrete shear strength without shear reinforcement 1.Chapter 10 .4 Partial Safety Factors The design strengths for concrete and reinforcement are obtained by dividing the characteristic strength of the material by a partial safety factor.4. shear.5 .15 1. γm.4. and torsion only.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 10. shear forces. The values of γm used in the program are listed below. which are taken from CP Table 2.2 (CP 2. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at each station along the length of the beam.50 1. load combination factors. 10.5 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. shear.

10.0035 − cu ⎪ ⎩ 50000 ⎧ ⎪ 0. where εc is defined as: εc = ⎨ ( f − 60) if 0. Calculation of bottom reinforcement is based on positive beam moments. the following steps are involved: Determine factored moments Determine required flexural reinforcement 10. Calculation of top reinforcement is based on negative beam moments.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. The beam is then designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moments obtained from all of the load combinations. The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth.4.4). for a particular station. In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment of a particular beam. the factored moments for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different load cases.5. the width.1. the beam is always designed as a rectangular or inverted flanged beam.0035 if f cu ≤ 60 MPa f cu > 60 MPa (CP 2.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.3. In such cases. or the strength of the concrete.6 Beam Design .4. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block shown in Figure 10-1 (CP 3. BC 2. the beam may be designed as a rectangular or flanged beam. with the corresponding load factors.5.1 Design Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural reinforcement is designed at each station along the beam.5. In such cases.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of concrete beams.5.2) 10 . Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement.

and torsion only. The reinforcement is determined based on whether M is greater than.2) The design procedure used by SAFE. the area of compression reinforcement is calculated assuming that the neutral axis depth remains at the maximum permitted value.4.5.4. is first calculated for a section.4.4. See Figure 10-1.4. the limiting moment capacity as a singly reinforced beam. The depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Furthermore.4.9) (CP 3.4. or equal to Msingle.4) Beam Design 10 .72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3.1 Design of Rectangular Beams For rectangular beams. shear. where 2 (CP 3.7 .1fcuAg) (CP 3.4). all of the beams are designed for major direction flexure. it is assumed that moment redistribution in the member does not exceed 10% (i.4.4).4. is summarized in the subsections that follow.4. for both rectangular and flanged sections (L.4. Calculate the ultimate limiting moment of resistance of the section as singly reinforced.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.e.2. 10.4.4 for d ⎪ ⎪0. hence.1). BC 2. ⎧0. Msingle = K'fcu bd .. βb ≥ 0. less than.5 for x ⎪ ⎪ ≤ ⎨0.Chapter 10 . In addition.4. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed (0.8x for ⎪ ⎪0.1. BC 2. The code also places a limitation on the neutral axis depth. Msingle.2) to safeguard against non-ductile failures (CP 3.4.33 for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105 N mm 2 (CP 3.and T-beams).

4.9 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ K= M f cu bd 2 (CP 3.67 fcu γ m d′ x a d As BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tcs STRESS DIAGRAM Figure 10-1 Rectangular Beam Design ⎧0.4.8 Beam Design .4.25 − ⎜ 0.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design εc b A′ s fs′ Cs 0.4) 10 .156 for f cu ≤ 60N/mm 2 ⎪ K ' = ⎨0. is then given by: As = M .4.4.5 + 0.120 for 60 < f cu ≤ 75N/mm 2 ⎪ 2 ⎩0.4) (CP 3.95d z = d ⎜ 0.094 for 75 < f cu ≤ 105N/mm and no moment redistribution.87 f y z (CP 3. If M ≤ Msingle. where 0.4. As. the area of tension reinforcement.4) ⎛ K ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.

Fig 2. 2.4) ⎛ K' ⎞ ⎟ ≤ 0.25 − ⎜ 0.4. no flanged beam data is used. compression reinforcement is required and calculated as follows: A' s = M − Msingle ⎛ 0.4) where d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face. the calculation of the reinforcement area is exactly the same as described previously.4.5.4. 2.4.4. i.3. M (i. and f ′ =0. or at the top if M is negative.4) In designing for a factored negative moment.4..5.87 fy if d ′ s d ≤ fy ⎤ 1⎡ ⎢1 − ⎥ 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3. Beam Design 10 .1 Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment (CP 3.67 fcu ⎞ ( d − d′) ⎜ f 's − γm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (CP 3.3.4.4.1.2) d 2 ⎢ d ⎥ ⎣ 800 ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The tension reinforcement required for balancing the compression in the concrete and the compression reinforcement is calculated as: As = Msingle 0.5 + 0.5.4. designing top reinforcement).87 f y z + 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.Chapter 10 .95d z = d ⎜ 0.1.1.e.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 This reinforcement is to be placed at the bottom if M is positive. where (CP 3.4.2.2) f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = E s ε c ⎡1 − 2d ′ ⎤ if d ′ > ⎢1 − y ⎥ (CP 3. If M > Msingle.2 Design of Flanged Beams 10.2.5..2.4.9 .e. Fig 2.87 f y ( d − d ′ ) M − Msingle .

4.4) Then the moment arm is computed as: 10 . the contribution of the web to the flexural strength of the beam is taken into account. the program analyzes the section by considering alternative locations of the neutral axis.10 Beam Design . the program calculates the exact depth of the neutral axis.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10. If the stress block extends beyond the flange width.2 Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment With the flange in compression. the normalized moment is given by: K= M f cu b f d 2 (CP 3. See Figure 10-2. On the basis of this assumption.2.2.67 fcu γ m 0.4. the section is designed as a rectangular beam of width bf.1. εc 0. Initially the neutral axis is assumed to be located in the flange.5. If the stress block does not extend beyond the flange thickness.67 fcu γ m bf hf d′ x d f′ s A′ s Cs Cf Cw As bw BEAM SECTION εs STRAIN DIAGRAM Ts Tw STRESS DIAGRAM Tf Figure 10-2 Design of a T-Beam Section Assuming the neutral axis to lie in the flange.

for ⎪ ⎪d − z .4. Fig 2.Chapter 10 . for x=⎨ ⎪ 0. in this case the width of the beam is taken as bf. where (BS 3.45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ bw ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ 2d ⎟ + 0.72x for ⎩ f cu ≤ 60 N/mm 2 60 < f cu ≤ 75 N/mm 2 75 < f cu ≤ 105 N/mm 2 (CP 3. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web.4. If a > hf .4.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 z = d ⎨0.2. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the rectangular beam design.45d − h f ) 0.9x for ⎪ ⎪ a = ⎨0.40 ⎪d − z ⎪ 0.4. as shown in Figure 10-2.4.15 b d ⎝ b ⎠⎝ ⎠ (BS 3.5) β f = 0. Cf.2.4. In that case.3) and the depth of the compression block is given by: ⎧0.4. BC 2. 2 As = M + 0.4. Compression reinforcement is required when K > K'.8x for ⎪ ⎪0. However. the ultimate resistance moment of the flange is given by: Beam Design 10 .45 .4.36 .87 f y (d − 0. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange. BC 2.1 f cu bd (0.4.5h f ) . Fig 2. Cw.45d then.11 .4. If M ≤ βffcubd and hf ≤ 0.9 ⎭ (CP 3. for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75 N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (CP 3.4) the depth of neutral axis is computed as: ⎧d − z ⎪ 0.5) Otherwise the calculation for As has two parts.5 + 0.25 − ⎧ ⎩ K ⎫ ⎬ ≤ 0.95d 0.4.3) If a ≤ hf.

2) ⎧0.2) fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2. BC 2.32 ⎪ ⎪0.5h f ) ) . As = M + k1 f cu bw d ( k2 d − h f 0.4.2) 10 .100 for ⎪ ⎪ k1 = ⎨0.4) SAFE also checks the following special case: M ≤ β f f cu bd 2 A 's = 0.4.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design M f = 0.12 Beam Design .5) Mw = M −M f and the normalized moment resisted by the web is given by: Kw = Mw f cu bw d 2 (CP 3.054 for ⎩ ⎧0.45 ⎪ ⎪ k2 = ⎨0.4.072 for ⎪ ⎪0.45 f cu (b f − bw )h f (d − 0.6 d for ⎪ ⎪0.5.5h f ) The moment taken by the web is computed as: (CP 3.24 ⎩ for for for fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2. where (CP 3.4.4.2) The amended equation is only applicable when: ⎧0.87 f y ( d − 0.30 d for ⎩ fcu ≤ 60 N mm 2 60 < fcu ≤ 75N mm 2 75 < fcu ≤ 105N mm 2 (BC 2.4.45d for ⎪ ⎪ h f = ⎨0.

45 h f ⎛ bw ⎞⎛ h f ⎞ K ' bw ⎟+ ⎜1 − ⎟⎜1 − d ⎝ b ⎠⎜ 2d ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ (CP 3.4).4.Chapter 10 .87 f y z ⎛ K ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0. where 0.3.25 − w ⎟ ≤ 0.87 f y if d ′ ≤ ⎢1 − y ⎥ d 2 ⎣ 800 ⎦ (CP 3.2) ⎡ 2d ' ⎤ d ′ > 1 ⎡1 − f y ⎤ (CP 3.4.5h f ) Mf + Mw .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 β f = 0.13 .4. BC 2.4.2) f ' s = E s ε c ⎢1 − ⎥ if d 2 ⎢ 800 ⎥ d ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ The area of tension reinforcement is obtained from equilibrium as: Beam Design 10 .4.156 (CP 3. Fig 2.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ If Kw > K' (CP 3.4.4.2) If Kw ≤ 0.4). and f ⎤ 1⎡ f ' s = 0.4. one to balance compression in the flange and one to balance compression in the web. d' is the depth of the compression reinforcement from the concrete compression face.4. 2.4) The compression reinforcement is required to resist a moment of magnitude Mw − Muw.95d ⎜ 0.5.4.4.4.4.3.5 + 0. compression reinforcement is required and is calculated as follows: The ultimate moment of resistance of the web only is given by: Muw = K' fcu bw d 2 (CP 3. The reinforcement is calculated as the sum of two parts.5. As = 0. 2.67 fcu ⎞ s ⎜ f′ − ⎟ ( d − d' ) γm ⎠ ⎝ where.4. Fig 2. The compression reinforcement is computed as: A′ = s M w − Muw ⎛ 0.87 f y (d − 0. the beam is designed as a singly reinforced concrete beam.5.

5.32 0.12.12.14 Beam Design .3) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design As = 1 0.5h f ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ K′ ⎞ z = d ⎜ 0.1.27 (CP 3. if it is required.4 bf ⎯ ⎯ As bh As 100 bw h As bw h As bw h As bw h 0.48 0.5.95d ⎜ 0. provided in a rectangular or flanged beam is given by the following table.25 − ⎟ ≤ 0.4 bf bw ≥ 0. which is taken from CP Table 3.5.13 100 0. 10 .3 Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required in a beam section is given by the following table.5 + 0.13 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ T or L-Beam with web in tension T-Beam with web in compression L-Beam with web in compression bw < 0.26 100 0.9 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 10.36 0.87 f y ⎡ Mf M M − M uw ⎤ + uw + w ⎢ ⎥ z d −d ' ⎥ ⎢ d − 0.20 The minimum flexural compression reinforcement.18 100 0.27 (CP 3.3). which is taken from CP Table 3.24 0.24 fy = 460 MPa 0. Definition of percentage 100 Minimum percentage fy = 250 MPa 0.

The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with these steps. 10. the minimum percentage shown in CP Table 3. An upper limit of 0. for a particular load combination.1).Chapter 10 . that can be resisted by the concrete.2.27 shall be f multiplied by a factor of ⎛ cu ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ 40 ⎟ ⎠ 2/3 (CP 3.20 0.5.or L-Beam Web in compression A′ s bh A′ s 100 bf hf 100 100 A′ s bw h For fcu > 40 MPa.15 .Design for Singapore CP 65-99 Definition of percentage Minimum percentage 0. 10.5. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam.4.12. vc.3.5. the following steps are involved (CP 3. Determine the shear reinforcement required to carry the balance.40 0.04 times the gross cross-sectional area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed upon request (CP 3. at a particular station due to the beam major shear.1 Determine Shear Stress In the design of the beam shear reinforcement.12. Determine the shear stress.5): Determine the shear stress. BC 2.20 Section Rectangular Situation ⎯ Web in tension T.2). the shear forces for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corre- Beam Design 10 . v.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each load combination at each station along the length of the beam.6.

5.8 fcu .9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.9) 10 .15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd (CP 3. 7 MPa).25 1 1 3 However.5.63 fcu .4) 10.5.5.2) For light-weight concrete.5.6 (CP 3.4.2) The maximum allowable shear stress. vmax is defined as: vmax = min (0.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity NVh N ≤ vc 1 + Ac M Ac vc 1 1 4 The shear stress carried by the concrete. vc. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.4. Table 3.4.5. Table 3. with the corresponding load combination factors.5.12) 0.4.4.4.8) (CP 3. The shear stress is then calculated as: v= V bw d (CP 3. (CP 3. vmax is defined as: vmax = min(0.1) ⎛ f ⎞3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design sponding shear forces for different load cases.4.4.4. the following limitations also apply: 0.2.4. 4 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.5.4) (CP 2.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ (CP 3. 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.16 Beam Design . is calculated as: v ' c = v c + 0 .4.

Table 3.4. CP 3.4 ⎪ 2 3 vr = ⎨ ⎛ f 0.5.5.5.17 .4.2. Table 3.5. Table 3.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.8) Asv (v − v'c )b = sv 0.Chapter 10 . and vmax.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3. Table 3.3. vr.5.4.4. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP Table 3.3): Calculate the design average shear stress that can be carried by minimum shear reinforcement.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given v.5.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 1 ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 ≥ 0. Table 3.8.12) Vh ≤1 M As is the area of tension reinforcement 10. sv 0. as: • if f cu ≤ 40 N mm2 ⎧0.8) (CP 3. a limit is imposed on the fyv as Beam Design 10 .87 f yv If v > vmax.3.87 f yv If v > v’c + vr.4.5.8) f cu ≤ 80 N If v ≤ v’c + vr.4. a failure condition is declared. (CP 3.4.3.2) In the preceding expressions. (CP 3.4.4 ⎜ cu ⎞ if 40 < f cu ≤ 80 N mm2 ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎝ 40 ⎠ (CP 3.3. mm 2 (for calculation purpose only) (CP 3.4.4.5. Table 3.8) As vr b = . v’c.5.9) (CP 3.4.5.

1 Determine Torsional Shear Stress In the design of beam torsion reinforcement. obtained from each load combination. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. further consideration should be given using the following sections (CP Part 2 3.5. Note that references in this section refer to CP 65:Part 2. vt.15). vt. In typical framed construction.5. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated load combination. the torsions for each load combination at a particular beam station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsions for different load cases with the corresponding load combination factors. If the design relies on the torsional resistance of a beam. Determine the torsion reinforcement required. The following steps are involved in designing the longitudinal and shear reinforcement for a particular station due to the beam torsion: Determine the torsional shear stress.4.3. for a rectangular section is computed as: 10 .SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design fyv ≤ 460 MPa (CP 3.18 Beam Design . 10. The beam shear reinforcement requirements considered by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. The torsional shear stress.5.4. specific consideration of torsion is not usually required where torsional cracking is adequately controlled by shear reinforcement. Determine critical torsion stress.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at each station along the length of the beam.1) The maximum of all of the calculated Asv/sv values.5. Determine special section properties. 10.

vt. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored is calculated as: vt .8 f cu .4.4.6 N / mm 2 ( ( ) ) (CP Part 2 2. exceeds the following limit for sections with the larger center to center dimension of the closed link less than 550 mm. calculated as: 3 ⎛ hmin hmax Tseg = T ⎜ ⎜ ∑ h3 h min max ⎝ ( ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (CP Part 2 2. vt.2 Determine Critical Torsion Stress The critical torsion stress.4.5) 10.1) For flanged sections.min is defined as: vt .min = min 0.min. but considering a torsional moment attributed to that segment.19 .4.0. For lightweight concrete.7 N / mm 2 × ( ) y1 550 (CP Part 2 2.8 (CP Part 2 5.3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 vt = h 2 min 2T (hmax − hmin / 3) (CP Part 2 2.2) hmzx hmin = = Larger dimension of a rectangular section Smaller dimension of a rectangular section If the computed torsional shear stress.5.Chapter 10 .6) where fcu is the specified concrete compressive strength.6 N / mm 2 x 0. a failure condition is generated if the torsional shear stress does not satisfy: vt ≤ min 0.min = min 0.0. vt. the section is considered as a series of rectangular segments and the torsional shear stress is computed for each rectangular component using the preceding equation.067 f cu .4.067 f cu .5) Beam Design 10 .4.

6).20 Beam Design . is less than the threshold limit. is calculated as: Asv . Asv.4.4.4. the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.5) If the combination of v and vt exceeds this limit. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations.7 N / mm 2 ( ) (CP Part 2 2.7) and the required longitudinal reinforcement is calculated as: Al = Asv .87 f yv ) (CP Part 2 2. Any minimum stirrup requirements or longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.5.t /sv values obtained from each load combination is reported along with the controlling combination.4. 10 .3. The maximum of all of the calculated Al and Asv.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 10.t f yv ( x1 + y1 ) sv f y (CP Part 2 2. vt.6).min. the program reports that no torsion reinforcement is required. vt. In that case. it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups and longitudinal bars (CP Part 2 2. However. a failure message is declared. In that case. if vt exceeds the threshold limit.8 x1 y1 (0.min. torsion can be safely ignored (CP Part 2 2. the concrete section should be increased in size. If vt > vt. vt. x1 is the smaller center to center dimension of the closed link and y1 is the larger center to center dimension of the closed link.t sv = T 0. An upper limit of the combination of v and vt that can be carried by the section also is checked using the equation: v + vt ≤ min 0.4.7) In the preceding expressions.t /sv.8 f cu .min.3 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsional shear stress.

These moments will always be in static equilibrium with the applied loads.1 Design for Flexure SAFE designs the slab on a strip-by-strip basis. the SAFE slab design procedure involves defining sets of strips in two mutually perpendicular directions. refer to the section entitled "Design Strips" in the Key Features and Terminology manual.Chapter 10 . To learn more about the design strips. The locations of the strips are usually governed by the locations of the slab supports. which are obtained by multiplying the slab element stiffness matrices by the element nodal displacement vectors.6 Slab Design Similar to conventional design. The moments used for the design of the slab elements are the nodal reactive moments. 10. Slab Design 10 .6.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 c c b − 2c c ds bf c h − 2c h h h − 2c c b bw − 2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 10-3 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design 10. irrespective of the refinement of the finite element mesh. The moments for a particular strip are recovered from the analysis and a flexural design is carried out based on the ultimate strength design method (CP 65-99) for reinforced concrete as described in the following sections.21 .

The reinforcement obtained for each of the tributary widths is summed to obtain the total reinforcement for the full width of the design strip at the considered design section.25) with interpolation for reinforcement of intermediate strength: 10 .1 Determine Factored Moments for the Strip For each element within the design strip.1. These locations correspond to the element boundaries. These two steps described below are repeated for every load combination.22 Slab Design .2 Design Flexural Reinforcement for the Strip The reinforcement computation for each slab design strip. is identical to the design of rectangular beam sections described earlier (or to the flanged beam if the slab is ribbed).SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The design of the slab reinforcement for a particular strip is carried out at specific locations along the length of the strip. for each load combination.3 Minimum and Maximum Slab Reinforcement The minimum flexural tension reinforcement required for each direction of a slab is given by the following limit (CP 3. given the bending moment.3. Controlling reinforcement is computed on either side of these element boundaries. CP Table 3. is obtained and reported.6. The maximum reinforcement calculated for the top and bottom of the slab within each design strip.6. The nodal moments are then added to get the strip moments. Design flexural reinforcement for the strip.6.1. 10. the program automatically designs the tributary width associated with each of the slab properties separately using its tributary bending moment. In some cases. at a given design section in a design strip.5. Where openings occur. there may be two or more slab properties across the width of the design strip.12. In that case. the slab width is adjusted accordingly. 10. along with the corresponding controlling load combination.1. the program calculates the nodal reactive moments. The slab flexural design procedure for each load combination involves the following: Determine factored moments for each slab strip. 10.

7..7.2 Check for Punching Shear The algorithm for checking punching shear is detailed in the section entitled “Slab Punching Shear Check” in the Key Features and Terminology manual. Figure 10-4 shows the auto punching perimeters considered by SAFE for the various column shapes.0013bh ⎩ 2 if f y = 250 MPa if f y = 460 MPa (CP 3.6.23 . an upper limit on both the tension reinforcement and compression reinforcement has been imposed to be 0.6.7.4.7. corner) and the punching perimeter may be overwritten using the Punching Check Overwrites.2. Only the code-specific items are described in the following subsections.1).1).Design for Singapore CP 65-99 ⎧0.12.6).5. The column location (i. the critical area is taken as a rectangular area with the sides parallel to the sides of the columns or the point loads (CP 3.6.1 Critical Section for Punching Shear The punching shear is checked on a critical section at a distance of 1. edge.04 times the gross cross-sectional area (CP 3.5d from the face of the support (CP 3. the above minimum reinforcement shall be multiplied by 2/3 (fcu/40) . 10. 3. For rectangular columns and concentrated loads.7. interior.12. Slab Design 10 .Chapter 10 .7.e. 10.0024bh ⎪ As ≥ ⎨ ⎪0. In addition.3) For fcu > 40 N/mm .

6): 0.9) k1 is the enhancement factor for support compression.5d Edge Column Corner Column 1.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design 1.5d 1.7.5d Interior Column 1. Table 3.5. the following limitations also apply: 10 .2 Determination of Concrete Capacity 1 1 The concrete punching shear factored strength is taken as (CP 3. 3.7.25 3 ⎛ 80 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 30 ⎠ 1 3 (CP 3.6.2) However.5d 1.4.5d 1.4. Table 3. and is conservatively taken as 1 (CP 3.5.8) 1 ⎛ f ⎞ k2 = ⎜ cu ⎟ 1 ≤ k2 ≤ ⎝ 30 ⎠ γm = 1.4.9) (CP 3.84k1k 2 ⎛ 100 As ⎞ 3 ⎛ 400 ⎞ vc = ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ γ m ⎝ bd ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ 4 (CP 3.7.4.2.4.4.7.5.24 Slab Design .5d Circular Column T-Shape Column L-Shape Column Figure 10-4 Punching Shear Perimeters 10.5.4.

4.5.4.4.2.63 v ≤ min (0.Chapter 10 . Table 3.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 0.9) (CP 3. 4 MPa) f cu .3 Determination of Capacity Ratio Given the punching shear force and the fractions of moments transferred by eccentricity of shear about the two axes.7.4.8 fcu .5. Table 3.6.3) x and y are the length of the side of the critical section parallel to the axis of bending Mx and My are the design moments transmitted from the slab to the column at the connection V is the total punching shear force Slab Design 10 . Table 3.4. 3.3) 1 .2. is calculated as: v= Veff ud . v.2.5.25 .4.9) fcu ≤ 80 MPa (for calculation purpose only) As = area of tension reinforcement. (CP 3.5. Table 3.9) ⎛ 400 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ d ⎠ ≥ 0.7.4.67 (unreinforced) or ≥ 1 (reinforced)(CP 3.7. 7 MPa) (CP Part 2 5.9) For light-weight concrete. which is taken as zero in the current implementation.5 M y 1 .5 M x ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ Veff = V ⎜ f + + ⎜ Vx Vy ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ u is the perimeter of the critical section. where (CP 3. 10.4) (CP 3.6.7.15 ≤ 100 As ≤3 bd 1 4 (CP 3. vmax is defined as: v ≤ min(0. the nominal design shear stress.6.

provided that the effective depth of the slab is greater than or equal to 200 mm (CP 3.25 ⎩ for interior columns.2 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement (CP 3.5) The shear stress is limited to a maximum of: vmax = 2vc Given v.5).7.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design f is a factor to consider the eccentricity of punching shear force and is taken as: ⎧1.2.3.7.5). the punching shear reinforcement is not designed and the slab thickness should be increased by the user.7.7.7. 10 .7. The design of punching shear reinforcement is carried out as described in the following subsections.26 Slab Design . and vmax. If the slab thickness does not meet these requirements.6. and for corner columns.00 ⎪ f = ⎨1. 10.3 Design Punching Shear Reinforcement The use of shear links as shear reinforcement in slabs is permitted.3. The algorithm for designing the required punching shear reinforcement is used when the punching shear capacity ratio exceeds unity.6. The Critical Section for Punching Shear and Transfer of Unbalanced Moment as described in the earlier sections remain unchanged. the required shear reinforcement is calculated as follows (CP 3.7.6.25 ⎪1. 10.3) The ratio of the maximum shear stress and the concrete punching shear stress capacity is reported as the punching shear capacity ratio by SAFE.7. (CP 3.1 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The concrete punching shear stress capacity of a section with punching shear reinforcement is as previously determined for the punching check. 10. for edge columns. 3.6. vc.6.

and corner column. (CP 3.7v − vc ) ud = .6.e.87 f yv If 1.0vc.7.. 10.7. a failure condition is declared.Chapter 10 .4ud Av 5 ( 0.4ud Av ( v − vc ) ud = .3 Determine Reinforcement Arrangement Punching shear reinforcement in the vicinity of rectangular columns should be arranged on peripheral lines.5) (CP 3.7. i. ≥ s 0. the concrete section should be increased in size.27 . Figure 10-5 shows a typical arrangement of shear reinforcement in the vicinity of a rectangular interior. ≥ s 0. lines running parallel to and at constant distances from the sides of the column.5) 0. 0.Design for Singapore CP 65-99 If v ≤ 1.87 f yv 0. Typical Studrail (only first and last studs shown) Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 gx x s0 Outermost peripheral line of studs d 2 Free edge Iy gx gy s0 d 2 s0 Iy Iy x Critical section centroid y Ix Free edge y Ix x Critical section centroid Free edge Ix Interior Column Edge Column Corner Column Figure 10-5 Typical arrangement of shear studs and critical sections outside shear-reinforced zone Slab Design 10 .87 f yv If v > vmax. edge.3. (CP 3.6vc ≤ v < 2.6vc.7.87 f yv 0.7.7.5) If v exceeds the maximum permitted value of vmax.

7. 12-. Punching shear reinforcement is most effective near column corners where there are concentrations of shear stress.3 plus half of the diameter of the flexural reinforcement. s. 10. The limits of so and the spacing.7.7. and Spacing The punching shear reinforcement is most effective when the anchorage is close to the top and bottom surfaces of the slab.7. The spacing between adjacent shear reinforcement in the first line (perimeter) of shear reinforcement shall not exceed 1. Height.6.28 Slab Design .3.6) (CP 3.75d g ≤ 1. and 20-millimeter diameter. g. Therefore. and 8. between the peripheral lines are specified as: so ≤ 0. The spacing between adjacent shear studs.7. and interior columns respectively. the distance.5d s ≤ 0. 16-. the minimum number of lines of shear reinforcement is 4. 6.4 Determine Reinforcement Diameter. Punching shear reinforcement in the form of shear studs is generally available in 10-.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design The distance between the column face and the first line of shear reinforcement shall not exceed d/2.7.7. edge. at the first peripheral line of studs shall not exceed 1. 14-.5d. so.6) 10 . The cover of anchors should not be less than the minimum cover specified in CP 3. for corner.6) (CP 3.6). between the column face and the first peripheral line of shear studs should not be smaller than 0.5d measured in a direction parallel to the column face (CP 3.5d.7.5d (CP 3. When specifying shear studs.

Australia. 2008. UK. AS. American Concrete Institute. Code of Practice for Design and Construction. American Concrete Institute. BSI. Farmington Hills. 2. BS 8110-1:1997 Incorporating Amendments Nos. Singapore. Seismic Design of Punching Shear Reinforcement in Flat Plates (ACI 421. and 3. London.1 and Amendment No. British Standards Institution. 1997.O. Australian Standard for Concrete Structure (AS 3600-2001) incorporating Amendment No. Design Guide of High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP65. February 2008. 38800 Country Club Drive. P. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary (ACI 318R-08).References ACI. ACI. GPO Box 5420. 2. Building and Construction Authority. BC. Michigan.2R-07). TM R-1 . 2008. 2005. 1. Farmington Hills. BC 2:2008. Part 1. Michigan. 2001. Box 9094. Standards Australia International Ltd. Sydney. 2007. Structural Use of Concrete. NSW 2001.

UK. 1. 2004. Part 1 – Design of Concrete Structures. incorporating Amendments Nos. Canada. Hong Kong.SAFE Reinforced Concrete Design BSI. Code of Practice for Plan and Reinforced Concrete. BS 8110-2:1985 Reprinted. 2006. March 2000. Brussels. Wellington. R-2 . Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2004. 2004. Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures. CP. CP 65:Part 1:1999. New Delhi 110002. 2. Rexdale. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. British Standards Institution. Mongkok. HK CP. Bureau of Indian Standards. Twentieth Reprint. Concrete Structures Standard. Part 1-1. Brussels. IS. EN 1990:2002. European Committee for Standardization. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design (includes Amendment A1:2005). Third Edition. NZS. Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Design of Concrete Structures.3-04. Part 2. 2000. Kowloon. Singapore. 12/F-18/F Pioneer Centre. Structural Use of Concrete. New Zealand. 2005. 750 Nathan Road. Canadian Standards Association. 2004. Private Bag 2439. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board. 1. Ontario. Belgium. Standards New Zealand. A23. and 3. CSA. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. European Committee for Standardization. India. 1999. Buildings Department. Manak Bhavan. 1985. September 2000. London. EN 1992-1-1. Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete Part 1: Design and Construction Incorporating Erratum No. Belgium.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful