I

ERNEST R.

,

iI

t++f... . ...

DO" 'l1il::'IRI" B': O' "O"'KS": O······N· ACK"T' N" 'S"T'R" rcnox

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PRA.cTlCAL Gll]DE 10 ETCH.[NIO AND 'OTHER INTAGUO PR[NTMAKINGI TECHN]QUESm M,an~y Bantster; (25165-~)

.~.LW5TRA'fr G .N.AllJRE:: How TO PAINT ,AND DRAW P.LAN1'~ AND ,ANIMALS" Dorothea Barlowe and Sy Barlowe .. (2'992'1 ~X)

'PAfNTINO GARDENS, Norman B,attersh~n. (Avallable In lJ.S~ and Canada

only) (284().·..8)

TI~E. ,ART AND CRAFT Of DRA\VJ!NO I ~~n.on Blake, (28594-4) .A'CR.YtJC . AtNTfNG.: A, CO.MPLET.E GU[I)E I Wend on Blake .. (291,S8:9i..J) ,AC.RYUC WATERCOLOR PAINr1N:Gm Wendoin Blake. (29912-0)

FrouR[ DRA\WN'G STEP ,IJY' ST,EP, Wendon Blake. (4-0200 .. ,2,) ,UNDBCA'p,E,RAwt · .. G STEP DY STEfl 'Wendon Blake ,. (40201,~1

On, PORrRArlS ST' BY' STEfl 'Wendon Blake. (4027'9\"7) WATERCOLOR LANDSCAPES STEP BV STEPi, 'W··ndon : ~.: ~ak. '~ I; 402~8·. wO)

TEXlfLJRE .ANU DiET All. IN W~ ,·"R'CI .toRI Richa_ri: Bolte n. (Avr'·I,abl_·, ~n [U.S. and Canada. ' .. nly:) (295;0:·,5)

·m[U.1IMAN'~S Llf.'E DIMWlN"Cilj (].", .,.1'. ..'" ISr' idgm fl. C2'··'710~)

CONSTRJUCTM ,ANATOMY;, [:,:_. ':11'1[· :B:r~d man. (.21 U)' ~5_) .ANIMAL Su:rCHING, AI .. :and ~ r Calder, ('C) 12~-5)

C: 'nINESE :PArNT1N'C TEe :INI~Q,'UiE5I! AUs on ,St:1 J W .,-':11 Came on, (4 07 0 8-X) ,CAI1,so,rfs GtIlIDJE ro lANCISCAPE PM I ~ .' G~ John IP, . :'.: r lson ,. (2 2· ~ 2; i.. ) 5, .PATI[!RN·,ESIO I Arch tb J , . C h rlst e. (212221-.1)

'T' I,IE Arm.5TIC ANATOMY rOF TREES, R: " V:I'ca)t C. II " (2: . _,75'"13-) PERSP':ECf,W! FOR AJrrIlS,TS. 'R.·: _.~ '~'i .·at .• ol r, (':2 87'-2'

ART S fJDENTS,!' MAT. :MV~ ='dm,Q1na J. F, rrls, (2:0?' .. ··~._ -1) ".1.95,

ABSTRAiC I DES[ N , .. D t;I:'IW T,O '''R -,~ IT. Amer i',., ,. (211-7'-2')

P';Ij; IlIi·'i"F1lr",j . i"':. M· .' JIi! ~~ ,'. I <J;!!' A." 'S" o· D"T~ . C'V·L . [l' 1·,1, . ill iii IF r11- r ( 'r' I J

. ~U!-'" II ,Q:"IIU __:'~:~, j L I~~~I I: , ":_:. I .. 1'~L~ I.· --.;. J. \~- ,: £-!Ii, . 'Q~W _ l l' l' I -::'!

(*',0-··.· ., Stout .. (21S,'917-O)

IGURE ,-" NTINOI ,IN OI~L1P Douela S .... G~·av:s. ['·2932' .~X)

lfF! ·'.IIMWfNQI IN CHARCo.AL Dou Ias 'R. ura'V'·~ (28268-61 .A'Bs,TRJ\CnON' Z. AT AN'jf) NAruR.E~ Na:t ·il, Cab" Hele, (274:B,,2 .. 9) Cll.l '\.rING WELJ)ED SCULPTURE, N', than Cabo , r ale, (2:,<1 3,5 .. 3) .-,

"11"'i'·U-R- 11'" 'O·!I!J "':Ulllfii,~'iJ"'i' Rili C h ard .'. -H-~"" n C' ~ ")1"" ~'~ If' (j _ ~.~~ . :'111",", ~"u,"~'. -, iQ; U. ·-1,. '. ~a . '0,; . ",£ ''il' ~~)I

1.-AvrfHO:RNE ON PNNTING. Charl IS W. Hawt rome, (20653-X)

'Tr:"'IE ,ART Of AAIMAL DIRAWU~NG: CO,NStRU(1'1[ON.1 ACTION ANALYSIS'i CAR~'CATUREi lG 'n

ultgren. (2742.)-8)

MODFJ.UN·O AND 5CUlf'nNG TU:IE HUMANI FI(jUR.~, Edouard - nt 'r~. (2500 '.~-7) ,MOD,EW ·~G ANn SCULP'11N,C; ANIMALSm, Ed,oiuard Lantert. (25tOO'7 -,5) 'TtIE·Ar.mER~S ,METH .. 05 AND ,~nRflAlli A. p~ L~.urh:!'. (2~8168-61) .9:

E'fCH]NG~ ENGRAVING AND !OTH' It ~NTAGUO PRirITMAKl. G TECHNlQUES Ru'l 11 Le al, (24,721-X)

THE ART OF ETCHI_G E. S~ Lumsd n, (201l4ge3)

'n"'" l~ Il~UI

PERSPECTIVE

M- AD·:;'E···· EI··AS"> .. Y···· ... t

...... _ ~... _ .. il \'- ' L '. '-~.

PEl R········ SIP"IE! C'··-'T·· ··'~·IV··················· E···

- ' ... _. ." ':,:_:' .. " . : .... : .. , _'. .... - - ,,'

MA"'" D":"""'E'" E""A"'" S:'~Y""""

- / ..... , ." ,- ... -. . ......•. , ....•. ,_ .

. ~·I'r'n' test R: ·N,···.···o' ·'lli'n,lg,,','

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DiOVER PUI'B,':LI'CATI·O·""N-e-,,: S:··', INC

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Mineola. N,:"'QW," York

" I,. . ',. [' "1 .. ~-i .:.: I.! . .!l.:.____.:.

Copyrish' [Cop)Tig:h.t 'e ] 93[9, 19icl'?' by' Ernc-Slt R. :N'orlih;g'

All rights reserved under P[aB Am,erl'can ,aR,d. 'n,ter,tuldollal Cupy-r:igh.t GODveD.'lion!i~

B"ibliag,rap,hi.c,al ,Note

This D cnr:e(f' ed:iitj,on. rlrst piublie1b,ed, in 1999, is an u'Da'brld_ged 'republica,. 'lion. ,of the 'wo,rk originJul,y pubJJisned, by Tbe MO,icmU1,a.D Go:mpa,llY11 -:., ew : ,oF,:k~ lO, 19139.,

L,ibraryof COngA'S',S CQ~aJo&iRB .. in.,Publication Data Norling, Ernest R,. [Ernest Ra~_,ph),1 hi' '1892,.

Perepective made ea:sy f Emest R. N orliag,

p~ em,

O~r:igig,Rl1y 'pu.b:ilShe.d:: :N eiW Yo'rk z M,acrniU aD;, 1939", SBN' 0,·,48"6 .. 4047:3·0 (phk.)

1., Perapeetlve. 2. Drawing-Technique., I. Title,.

N'C'''l'50.,N 7 11' [[999

7,'42~,c21

99-]03"10 ICIP

M,anufac,'tured in the U:uiit'eld States of A 1D:erie'ilJ

'Dover. Publicatio:D8~1 Ine., :31 :Eas.,t 2,'Rd Street, M'iD~ola'jl N.,Y: 11501

To,

Pro~4£'J"n~ B' ",e~'DJ'· amin H': 'arrison B~.· ·'ro"·wn'· t: .-.

I.L~. __ ',' '.~ __ ~. _ cu. .. aIGl ,

who hal· presenied a eomple» Uniaeree ·;n·' D'; ..np' , 'Ie· ,,. -""'I·PiD"II D

11f'.' d w· .. ·• ~ ... ". IC'f ,',tIrO

. '.

FO-' RE'WO- 'R .

_ : ... ,.... ..' I I ..... '. . ..:' J.' , ", .• .. '

Perspective is, easy;, y,et surprisingly few artists, are familiar' with, the. simple 'laws that make it so, It ,is .the purpose of this hook, to make these, laws clear,

One of the things that have simplified perspective Ior DS, is our w'ay of building things, 'We, 'live, in a world of

square comers; our streets buildings furniture" all are designed with a square. We find it convenient to he able to fit ,any of the corners of a table. into any of the corners of the room: hence we build that way'., This fact has made perspective drawing quite simple, 'Wh,en we

have learn e d t· dr '-. -,' - the humb ']e hri 'ck:' ,," h·- v' e 1 earned I

.'< I,'. , •......... ,;:, 0 .... _',-',aw., t,j' ,"1 ... 1.. ..•• · .. ',' r'· w,e I ,a. . .. '. '~." .. I. __ I

~ 'I ~

pracncai perspective ..

This hook explains perspective step hy step, de_pend .. ing on illustrations to c,arry the sequence, Some steps are repeated, hut deliberately so, to emph asize their im,·, portance, A great deal of S' ress is placed on "the eyelevel.' A, bird's-eye view and a worm's eye view' of the 'W'O' '. rld a r' e' qui ole" di -"'ff- ~e"'r'e''-'''n' t A,,'· S·]'IIX £''-0' 0" t m an' ]'''n' a crowd

'.,,:". " ',._. .' "1 . ·c IJ,;'.. -c'_'. ," . ". I. ill! " ' .' ._,_~i" _ ... 1.:. '. .'. ;·c' __ .. .. ... , . .: I, .1 ': .... ,'. ".

sees hats and hair, faces and shoulders. A four-foot child, beside him sees hands, :gluvles., purses, and coat .. , tails, They are both seeing the same people at the same

filII]

VIm,

time, How diJI'er'8nt are their two 1Iis,ual worlds I Our hei,ght above the ground .is 8'D important factor 'when we sketch the 'w'orld about us. 'The eye-level is really *h' 'jQ; ke 'y" to p' - a'li'!!'S' p" ective ~-WI':','~'Il,'g-'",

~.. ·v " .... ! " .•.• ' . ,,'IjJ'&" :~~ _ . .' ".' W-iS·· _" ',' .[.

, ' ,

The knowledge of perspective should be, 'used as, a,

guide tOI drawing and not as, a device to harden into still

L 'iI! - - h' t !Ii ht h 'b b t .. f":. ... 11 I 1

meenames W ',R' nngn :-'ave, neen a neau mu 008e'y

handled sketch, Wre., build a strong seal'olding 'forr the cons tru ction '0'£ our bridge ,; later we discard. the scafflolrd ing and keep only the graceful IlpaD •

. ' ..

VlD

T'ABc' ···LE: O·· r :··F .. _ C·O· •• ···.N· .... ·T .... ··E·-',N,',- T'·S-:···-'

_,_',:__" .._ ."_:." ...... _ •....• _-,. __ ' - '. " . I '_",

S .-

, 'TE:P O:N'E, ,i

...

't<

Th-·, -H"

, - _. Je'o,nzo:n

The 'Vanisbin,g Point Th,e Eye~Level

S'T'EP Two

'I,

Th 'E L- " d 'I' R' '1: ,. hi- '.

e . - .• ,ye .. - eveJl. ,ao __ , 'Is Helationsl .'.p

t -:- 'p - .... '-,.,'. ti . ", 'D' __ , -, ~,--,~-

0, erspec -_,ve, ' .. raWlng

,S--'T"E' ,'p,": T-'B'·"R·,q,~~~

... [ .. ,.1 ' _~~ Iii

P u iu

ara .' ,e, ,_·n,es

as W'e Seem Them Parall,el Lines R,e:lat.ed, to

0 .. - e Po '1.1I!"D't" p .: erspectiv e

D ... :·· .. ,·J .- .:._:): .... j •• '~ ·1··' .. ~·.~1!!~~· :)~ - ,'~:".~.

..

STEP ,FIO'UR ,t

The T'hree Sets

of Par,allels Loea tin 'g' ,- ,tJL@'P'O:I-I!ljn,,·-t·

_" ... :_;~. _, ._ ,_:0,,",, 1,._,," 1_,

an '-d-- th :" , e Eve-Level

. ,,_., ... '~'" . I'~ ~~ _.1;!i .

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:mJC

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Ii'~

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1,

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:11

21

!II

STE,:P' F'I,VE .. • ~

The Two Vanishing Points IThe "',Height'" 'Lines,

STI-E,'-,,'-P':' -S"-IX-'

_' I, .o_.'.. !Ii !iI!'

Placing the Two V',a.:nis:hi:ng Points 'The Error of

Close Spacing

,S,TE,'P S':EV'EN ;; ill ~ ,~

Showing ,H,ow the Vanishing Points Move in Relationship to' On,e. Another

i

10'

II!

'"

Building Perspective "}' 'B I' k

.: ,_ "'I '

wrth ' ,_'-I]C,-,-S

'I!

Iii!

iii

P- 1-- • F'~ d

, '-- aci n.g ,,' 1 gu.reS, anr

O'b'I! - iI '-D"'-' •

_ meets In. a '. 'rawln,g,~-

[~ .

ST'- "E-P' T" E:-:N- :,'

,~r, ", ~ ~ ~

Center of Interest Chanaina the 'View

IC'~ I~I

'.

Roofs in Perspective

STEP ,ELEVE'N' ..

1- nterio ~

I. "." ... _.:: ~i.:J!

P'I '" {-F ·

Placing 0:: I·urnltu:re

.'

39

4_7,

rr

,iii

67

79',"

- .. :.-'

89:'-'

,

97

,S'TEP TW'E:L VB ~

Finding the Center 'Dividing Spaces

into Halves Practical ,Appl1cations

,.

STEP TIHIRITE'EN " ..

Cylinders in Perspective Drawing Ellipses

S'TJE-:-:'P" F~ 0". ··U- :'R. ":",T~ -E"E.,N.'

_ • .• .. .. l ....!I!

II

.'

'131

Practical Uses of Cylinders in Dra 'W'· ·.·]I!'n·g.-

... . ..11.,1, .... , .

'D'·'· idi h' C:-",", 'J

" >lVl •. 1ng' t ne .. arcle

STEP' FrFTEEN HI'

Dividing a Surface

iII Persp ective Drawing a Checkerboard

,iI;

'.'

ill

STEP' :SIX'TEE,N ~

Shade and Sha dow

..

'.

iss

.' /'. .

ST-'E-P"" S-.E'·.V.·:E'-·.·N, T'i:'E.' ~'N,.'.'

,. .. , _ I . . :_ c:. :_',' .I:l;;m, .

R 8_- ·

,e: - ecnons

'!I'

.'

_. 6 - 1"-7

Unusual Perspective Up-and .. Down Points Examples

..

Xl

STE' "p' N··, 'I-N' 'ET"'EEN""

-, - -___;_;_. :_ ". ~ I .. · ••. _' . • ~.: : -I "._ IIJII

.'

,Ii

'p .. ',:.:-. ", ",;, , .. ,~··:-t,·,··, ':: ·D.·······".·'·· ah "~ll'

, erlspec IVe .~ own. .I.

Perspective 'U:'phill

T' &-1' Fah '.'. E'· '. 'L .... , 'II

ne i a ,8113: . ~,ye~:_::_eve,'

II'

Iii

19' 'I

! .. <

_' .. - .• =---:.._.

~,il

,XII

THE•··· V·········A··:·····N\<'IS,'··H: IN'" 'G~: p~~···O·,·~.··IINTe:,~.

. l' . ,. " .1 "'.::" ~.. .. .;' • ",... ,...:", -." ~,. ,

11_-

.

I

.

=

Jar

'.-..

e

I .....

-

P,E:RSPECTIVE,

The artist's business :is to be able to draw tao object 61'0 that it will look solid and not flat like th,€'- surface ofthe ,p'aper on w'hic.h it is drawn, In, so doing the artist employs a m e .. th od , I tha ,t we ea 11} P 'er' :~sp" e C' .tiv e

_ ""--J;;:;}' :'_ .', -- "'" _-, -, ,', " " .... J., 1,- , '::':---:-:"'-, 'c':'~

,A brick d.I',a'wn 'whh,ou.t tlu~~ 'use of perspeetive.

'Th ~ - ,j - - 1111- d 'I

' ,,~,19, ,IS C aue ._" ill, pan,.,

A~ 'h- 'fl'"'C:'k d' rawn w ~i Ill- th - ~ ~ £:' ~ ~ - -~,

,'- '" ", :' -'c,',", " -: ,,11' " " iiP~ U'Iil'iiP.: 0., - p': ,er-

I , "I I" • ,.;lil.. .~~~ ._~Q~"l ._. _. . ..

, 'I

'D'P'-D~I-':l- 'iii~ii"e l~ ", .~-iLi;~:.._:,,, . ..:_ .. ,!I

'TC'h~!1 -1'-1 d d ~ ·

.,',19 18 cal, e " ill ,,: ra:Wllng 10 per-

t~ speC·_lve~

Perspective is used 'not only to 'make the object ap," ''''.

, ,._ ' .. ' ,". ,'.',' ._-_.... - '_ . . _. • I'.' '. _.._',. .-. - . ,... . ...

h di ~, h 1 ~

pear to aave ': nnensions , ••• ut 2,,810 t[o cause It to appear

close ':-u'C'rp'-" or: 1~"C":-:- th 'e'- distance o:.-.'r- to C!CU-'--- gg est ,- fe ieling nf'

~l~ "'.. ..' . n . .1. '" ;;:I!,-,_l~,-,,,,,,~ [,., _. _.' - !~ g-:-,' a,: ,\#,.1.. v-

space

ii:I! ,_·.Ja~.··-II

"

3

,

.,.,_"

c

,pi;""

Let us follow' the railroad tracks out on the plain where there is level land in, all directions as far as we can see, All around us we can see the sky meeting the distant plain in a long even Iine, This is called the

hili

, OT,lzon.

Th ·d 1 '1 f- hi hori it' hi 'I! d

' e l __ .e.a e:xamp e 0.1 t eorlZO'D.lS s·e~en w:c·_en. "Vl.ew'e ..

across, a Iarge hody of' water where no distant shore is seen .. , At sea the horizon is one continuous line.

We." m "g'>-'Y'" eonsid er th Ie", horiz on as continuou 8·, This Iii: 8"-:'

". :____::____:.__: _._ . ~ _" , .. ~_ 1 .', .' _ .• ~:_. ,,:. .. :...._. . • _ • .- , •• , , . '_'. [.1 , __ :; _;' " " .'

true though. the vi.ew may be obstructed. by an [object: a hand, a building, Oil a mountain. The horizon is, still there though we go into the building and ,close the door, If obje . ct '8' beeam . e' tra n'~:-p-: aren t t h e ho ":[1'" zon co: uld all 'W" ays

_ .' ," "~ .:. .'. . ~,' :._" r 1_ ," ':' (- .. _. . ".: '. _. _ . I _ ' Ii:tI [ i _', I.'. .'.' I.. . .' .': ." . '._ , '. h"., f. . " ',_ [ _: ' .. __ .. ··i . ~ .~~: ... ..:

hie seen, This is Illnstrated on the opposite p·age,.,

"

"

,

T-HE!.-'· 'V"AN-' ,·,'i IS' --Hli'N", 'G' -- p"O"" "'.'IN"--T

I" ~ •.. -, .....•.. _.::: . - ,._, L. ':,", , _1.1 1 :.] ,_~ •• 1 '_ : ••. 1, ,

'Now we stand between the tV{O shiny rails and Iook along the track, These rails go, on and on across the level plain until they reach the horizon where they are Iost from sight in the distance ..

'W'le eall the place where they disappear the oanishi,n,g ,p,oi,n·t t,

- ' '

...... :_ ~ ~ !!!! I!II!l I!!! I. '!II !I!I.' I~ !I! I!I' '. '.' ~Ii' illiil .. _I r., ,!!!!!!I l!!ll .', ~ ,

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N- -O'W" look down at your feet T' :h,erc-'-\IICI'Y"OU see th e track I_

.... I .. ,.,c :.:.~." I.<IIJ .... '/.: ... ~.,' ... !!' 1,., .. :.' 'v. ~::' :..: ~,:.''\#-: I .. I ... : ~ : '.".

Ra,,-:!I:· .. ,·,,· .',' .'," - ',. 'd' ]""., k~ '6f:-:··:··t'" feet b' " ,;-" ',- d' Y'·::··'···' '-1 still si .'

··.~·Ise your eyes an. 00 " ... y.ee. ,eYOIB· .. " t ou S I ,see

, ~

the tr -.ck_, . .: ,'It'-·h' ,.' I, -h- :;-''C,'.' '.' ",.'." '., t 1 .. "'ll",,r·, ,. eli·' "·'-tI-,,:c d-I".,.:.-·.

ne trae .. a, . aougn you are no, 'OOlUOg. arec : y '~own

... -

upon 11,.

!!i!"

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~

/' ........ ::

,,,, .. ' :'

_', :'

_ !Ii-" _' _

... .,..,.;, I ....

.:

.

.

r

.............

Th en look straish t ahead Yo .. ou see the tra ck as it

I ~:Ji., , __ I", ~ !.:----.:: !I'-. II." r •• -=~···~· ·riiI, 1,,<::" .. ·_.ry ·' ~:..~:_ IIj,_Jk,·.·· ,:. >-:_" .1.

C,1·:_.·\..,s, to a':' heig ,'h'- "II' llev~ . e ,I·-Wl-··'·' ,;"'t'hi y~': '0= ur - .. ' eyes and disa p"p' iear "C 'iIl!'1

.,WlW 1Ii;' .. ·.I..'c, .. ,:','" '.: __ . 'G.'G;;:I".,·,··.I .. W!i:!I, .. "', '." .. IQ ,g,

th .. h : 1: i th e dist .. · .'.,' '., .', -T" -'h' I. I!!i, h-:- '. ,!I! , h ·t· .'. ::- . he C" ,.··]'I ...... .J

1_'. e nonzon In '- I,e W1Jjance... .' II IS "elg,._ can oe ea -QU.

the e1e~ltlVel .

. Here the horizon and the. eye-level become one and

th hin I'

e same ·t :- mg,

7

.

THE' -H' 0'::-: RIZ-:-·-O····N AN' D TH' '-:E "EYE'I LE'V"'EL-

_. 1 • • ,_,', '._ I. />11:.,: '-c~,.,,· " ~'. :,' ,... 'I, ' . , __ :.".' '. ,.:, ,

'"N':''' ' -: :,',~ ..:, ~ ':,. d'· , " .. "I' th-' . ',., .. , ,,·'k' '. ,'" d 1'·· ok .&hi ..... I' t :--y .. ir . '., '. ,

,.OW ,81· I. own on '. e I rae. ana . 00, "I,OU,:~ OU

'will find that your eye .. level has lowered. The distant

he . }''::-:I''j'' ' .. '" als .. ·· '. ' .. ~.; ;"'1/ ", 'j. ,',' .. =. Ii'... . d' , , meet this I' 'h· : , , .-:

onzon Be. ·,0 appears rower In orner ILO mee L, .·,·8 cnange

of eye .. Ievel,

8

-

,~

~,

r:

I

J

• ... 1

/'

.

,

iii

If we ascend in an airplane we shall find that the distant horizon rises, with, our 'h,ieig;h,t" It, iap:pears to rem a in at eye-level,

'T"hi ''',- '-""-'-1' I 't'· f··-- -'--',' the .' .... ; tlia ,''l.._··I'''-''·'' lik~" "- "1'- ",' " '-I'--:-:--'C"','

'-', IS- a,OCOUD:S tor ne pecu·· ar nasm .... uze appearance

""f"~ th " (,', th -' 'h- .. ··· ,.'. ;'-' ed .. - f-'·:,· ".'-, .c. . ','" ,'-,'. t" hei rht

0_'. _" e ear _I_ .. , W .','B:D. V1Bwe -', .-ro,m a, grea . ,eIK·-'.

W'~, ca·~:· n now und erstand 'w,'' .. -,hl,y,.·,: the d rawing o-···,fi th 4:

. _ ~ __ .... _ :.._:.. ..... ._._:. "." ., ... '_....:i!:I ". :_ .•.... I .: [~ ,"] I.··· . ·U .. ,,· ," ,"_," ... - .... L",,~

comer 0'£ a room looks different when sketched from a

I, t .' 'I -.. -. .... - d' . _! *11- - _. .....1._ - t .... L - d f' th 1

c__,OW 8-,00,-, as ,co,mpare: wnr one ,SK,e· enea rrom tne '_o,p

of a' - ste pla d 'd er

I ", ' ~l ' 1.:,':.: .. :' I

'-T-"'-h' -,- hei zht ,·· .. f·r the ,.' ,.,' .... -, 'b'- .. ·.'· '1"-'·" '_-','- --'--, u '~. ,- .- irta .. :-'- ':f-' -',

. 'C ,el,g", _- 0, " e eyes recomes avery Im,p'o ~. ant : ao ..

".,---,.--, ,'i, , f·":, , ·c'-. ·,'h' .. ,···",,·, 'd dr "'1'.' - 'Ii._

li!or 1.D .ree __ sn-_awlng.

9

REMEMBER

W:e: use perspective in ,dr,aw.ing a :bri,c·k. eo that :it appears DB a solid ,o:hj eet,

The; horizioll is, ·that distm,t line Wlie'fB the earth. ,and. the sky seem to meet,

The v,ani;shin,g po·int. is the. place on the b.'orizon "her'e: the 'r',ails of the tracks a"ppearr.' tomeet.

The horizon :js, the :he:i,ght 0,£ your eyes. no 'matter 'where you. are' above the ground.

'T06 eye-Jevel is the :heiJ'ht of your eyes 110 matte:r. whel'\e Y'OU, are,

PE,o.B,:LEU:S

:n,r,B,W ,8 ,bric'k, a hox, a book, Do 'You. know' just 'why you. d,f,'8.W it as you do?

If' y011 'are in level conn try' OF near t'll.e oc-ean look fo'l' the horieon, .Expcr.ittl'mt' by 'lOO:ltdDI from difr,cren't .heig-h.ts:, from the, ground,

f' - 'Ii"\ii"I;'m a win d AW' ,f::r, ..... 'm- ,II • .'[L B top of, ~ JL'u~ 'td'I'!I'Da- '~M' . "" ail- V 0"'1 .i:ii; a -- I - k iii'll

,I : .Ii,"U. ' . . , .., ,.' v" ,"v' [[I'v L!,~' '. " g.!LJI J!JL ,-' ,t±i 1I,;u,..:!I" i"'-' ~ ;ciV"l;;;or .,oo __ ~, IMp

d- ~ "

or own, to see ,It ~ ....

10

T'HE···I Ey· .. ··E-··' .. L· 'EV' ". ··E···~L

'-"- . . . .. .1. . -. .! ..... ',' '1

AN""n" ITS R"E'LATiIO'~'N~!'SH' 'IP"

Ii'., ,'.~' ,c_,_,:!",' ,_ '.' ..::" _ .. I:

TO P'ER,SP:·ICTIVE: DRAWING

I

, ,

I

I

~ \3!' '

Y·-·-· . ',"'.' sean .. ·d sk .. - .. -,t,··-:hill,.,-- the ,·-·: .. terior "-'f'~ - .. ,.",,--- "'-',.',' .:.

ou are seared s ceten ng ,_, ,e m enor 0. yOUI' ro om 'II'

Someone makes a, mark around the 'wall the: same height

,'",'

f th 0',' T- -hi' .. k il'I

.•.. _. ", ," - .",' - . -',-"-] -'" -:--.- :--'-:---. ,-,"-' .•• {.. ..", -,' 'I ,'. '" .1- ," ". I. ,"_. :.'. ".: ~. . .... "'j

rrom .. ·i e , toor as, yo,ur eyes, ,I., .,8 mar __ ·c_ will appea.r as a

,Ii h ,-} .. , drawi 1';0, th '11 'J

straig ht me across 'Y,':'-OlJI" arawmg t 'IS rn e eye-reve ..

~ "~~I:....:.._. 1 ." . .' ._~_. " .'.~.' .. ....:.. _.: '," ...:._. _' .•... _......:[... "'_','=. '. ['. _ ,.' "_:.:. ',' '.,,:,.' , . _', __ ' ~"""":"

Notice ,.,-,' the d' _",··,~i'-, -,' the' rat the visible he :-"'- -, -',-'-- .. ' ","- -.

o nee In me .I,a'Wlng "a __ , e V'J:SW-e norizon seen

th h th ~ d · th h 'M! h t th I el " __ 'roug~T tie 'Wln ... :ow' :ms_"e Isamc,e]g', ,as: __ e Ie.ye~e'v:,' ,

mark on the wall,

"THE" ""~, E·',YE~'~"·- IllILE' <V:'E,"LI' I,S:', L',E,V,'·"E·',L W~::-, 'TIl' "I' 'TH' ,-, E-, Evu'"

,- ~ - .• L - I, • ~ • - . • I. .:..... • lJ -- ,'.._ _ ". ., __ _I £...Il:!I1

'The eye-level is level with, the eye,

You may smile at the: simplicity 'of the above definition re'l it is a surprising fac,t Iha,t it is, ignored, in praetiee even by' professional artists, Its importance, however, is immeasurable.

Let us! look into it.

On the preceding page is the drawing of the room corner, there are, the pictures on the wall, the chair, 'the lamp" the window, and the drapes.

Now let us consider the Iamp,

'W' , " _' ii' h dersid f' th I h d ·

we are seemg t •• te undersit e ot tne Iamp snace; ID

other words w'e are looking from below up into the

shade, Now let us' look at the base of the lamp; it rests on th,e floor and it is 'necessary to 1100k down upon it, The shade is ahove the height of our eyes, while the base ,isl bellow" Somewhere between is, the eye-level, a 'place th at is QX' act tly th ae sam ie h eig 'h' ,,,', from the 8'~ 0"0'- r as a r- .re our

• 1, , ~ IJ-·_.:...-" I .•... _. •. _) ':..' ·_--.2:______: _ ~',. ',' , - " .. :; .. 11 .• til; , "_" :' I _.- .

eyes,

W1e show' this eye-level by means of a straight line across the drawing,

l __ .,

We find that we have control over this eye .. Ievel Iine,

W'e can look under the table' and see the: underside.

W· e accomplish this h:-",y':' lio"w"','Q,rin::g"" our IA·y,,'e"·-le""v':-e',,]- W';'e"',"

' :'1·'1 ,.,.~_;~_:_ ,._:, _.' I ".' ~ ~~,..Ib .. -oJ .U: ~ "0' _,' _ •••• l. ,','

, _.: :...:... -

stand 0'0 tiptoe or step u,P on a ,biox. to see: over the

heads ,0,£ people in a crowd, Wle do this to raise the eye .. Ievel, N,ew' pictures are constantly being formed before our eyes by our various w'-""ays' ",' o-"f: raising and

{ . '.", ~. '0" " ,I , . . .. '.::. [ '._'" . " .. • ,",: . o· "';' . " . _ " . .:' " " , ~~:.: I, ,- .. • _: ,'.~. ""! "0 .', ~. __::__. '

. ~ - I 1 lowering the eye ... e;ve.lIl,~

It is, interesting to watch for the effects and changes in a landscape 'when 'viewed from an automobile driven over a. hilly road, Showmen have taken advantage of this, fact and 'have built the: Ferns Wh'eel, a mechanical means of swiftly raising and lowering the eye-level.

Th ~ k 'h foi helnato : if 'h

ne quics ,O:·'C ange 0.: picture ie ps to, mtens ..l 'y the ex-

perience,

W,e 'find that the objects we draw' are in. tw'o classes: the ones that are above and the ones that are below the line that indicates th.'e: eye .. level.

N OIW let U8 go into it further,

TH: E-:- H"~ ·IG,·:H' ... W··::·::·A····~···T-:-c··'E·-R .. ·· 'MARK' : .... :.,/ ..

. __ . [.. I .' '. _. .,. _.' . . '.' _ ....

Imagn .. ·· -': .. ·'-'e·1f:'·e··!11· g'-- a di ivin g" helmet and seated

ll·.lne YOurS'!l, w.ano: .. - .. ~.l'JL,::: . ·.:.lme .. ,...... . : ....... :'

.'''''' .- -.- .. -- . ski" '-. ~:. -". - .' k 't·· ··h . ·f··: th - :! -: t :-- - - Ii> .'." , A:- c-'c. -'e-

m your To-om, maxmg a ,8··6 .[C_1 0-:; e DI ,enOI..S you.

I!! h h flo fill:···· d ~ h "1· ii' - h

SIt f ere the room 15 .. - I_e' WIt, wate:r unb It Just reaches

th - . h ... ht ·f·· - - - .. 'N'! th ... iii ... - - ryt h- .'.. ,'. th

.ne eign 0, yOlur eyes, .fl·.,OW· -: .. en; everytmng In .. - e

r--· - . that 1!1!'S - d -. wate · "Below th - 'E' e Level "

nom .',11:,"_ under water lS, neiow tne .ye- .~'-:' .. ;

everything tha t 1·'S· not u n d er wat -'Ie"r- is u A hove the E''-''y-:e''''

-- '.Ii.. 1 U,L , ., "'-" _": I.. c..·,. . __ -." ... 'v':...::. . '. .,1, . 1i:;I![ .lUJ ':: '. .' _'.-' _'_,: ::.

- . -

Le ". ·'1' '" T- he ""U!, 'h =W--:·' ,. 'M·I .. '-. -k'"'' ...... - -d=- th - . II '.--~ del

, .. ': ;ve_CI' 1 . ' e- e ill.g.· -.': ater )., ar· ,arOUDI '. t: e WB_·-,S an-:

. -- -th' 1;0' .-- g -'1" . tho t 1· t t-· ouche Ii. th e ra - . - _.. "'Th -

ion eve-ry,1 . ,·n,'· e,1 se ,., .• a,'· " :., , .. ·.·S, In, ·!:I', .. ·,-, .. om 18 ,- I :e

E' -. L .. '. 'I'" ,., '. slf -N""': .. I.. '"'-- ha di ,. . ,Ii .-'_ -". '1 k_'

ye,.. eve rtselt, I, .'. ,0 matter In W, . .at direetion you rook

hi hi 'h k ., h

'. -,' ,.j"J - '. I" _':. .' ". '1' r . .: '. [.: 1 t" ',I .' ;'" -. '.', "( . '.- • I • ..' i. . .', -;-: I .:__ ", _ I '- L • I'" - ...

t. IS mg d , .. water mars appears to y,our eye as a straigl t

'] I I· '-h hi f h

. ' ... ,.' ". I - ", . - _., 1 •.•••... ~ • - ,.- ,"' J ".... ".. - ". • "I I '. -. . _ •.• "'1' :--

reve me across t e objects 10·, u e room,

W.hen yOIU, ar,e sketching outdoors this "water Ievel' explanation will still hold true, Fences, buildings, hay ... stacks, people, all have a. "High-Water Mark;' which is,

. h' ,. t' =}- - ' 1

the arbs's ,ey,e,·, ever.

If':: .. :. ,.. ' .. ean .. d on th c: . ~- .. -., '. d-" sk . ···,·t· h ,." , .. , .. , .. , 'if'',I~ '. '., '·1

, I you are, sea "c: on ie ground sxe cnmg, or ~J-, you

.. ':'", ' .- .... , ., .. , :"1' "f' .... '1 ... " "'H' . ~,,-:L~W··· T, "t ,- ; .. M"':' ~. -k-" " ... ]; .'. itio CC still

,are, on, a, root. tne ,1,grJl, a er _., .arx expianauon sru

b ld

' 0' .·:5 true.

17'

,

1M·' PIc.:'O··RI:'T···AN:·'-"'-C'··E-~ IQ······.-·IF·· 'T' H'E'" E"Y';;'E LE·'V····E:·'L

._:_:.:_ ., .... [' I.·.· r " 'OJ.~ ',. "': 'I.J.~ . __ ~_.', '" I ._":- _:__~~1" ,1_ .)-

Eye-le,vel above the. table top,

Sk tehed .- -h"'I" .' .' di- i.iI!, b-" ~d" -. th .. ·

, . etClle '. W, .11 e stan u n,g iB8.] ie ',- e

table,

, .

,E y,e, .. ],evul bclo,w 'the' ta.bI,le, top, Sketched while sitling on the , oo,r,Ol

It is easily seen that. 'yo!u would get two entirely difl'er~

':.- __ tvi ...... ·· .. "fr·.} .•. '. "-', tahl ,if: :' . '''',' .. _- ',C d-C"I",,, sk ·t·· 'h .' hil .. ta .. sd

en views 01 your.e ,- .1_. you mac e a s ,,' e en w e stan : ,-

.... h sid - .!'t-· .. ~f·· -t- _ .. the .. - - de--- -'1 - h d th

Ing .. iesme )' r, or 1: yo,n. sa, , 0'0 '.1 e rug anc sketc tee the

ahl f· -h' II! ~

same t . e rrom t iat poemon.

The . ··:c:h· .' :·'1·,-, i' '. t··: I .'C: 'f'" . "'," ,',- .. .- · .. ···~t·,··· '-.': dn " Iii 'II. "b·· .~ ,. ed .. .: .

_ e w ,,0 e slys .. em, 0 perspecuve nrawmg IS nasee OlD,

th e height of thi II,S eve-level: w·,1..~th· Dr' or not th e'" eves are :'

,. , ... - .- .'=-'-"" .... :,,_ u..:. ,-:. ,.,:,I.-./., .. ~·· ,- ,,0'\.;1.' "_. :1"",' '.' """" .. ' "J'f;;ii!" .~~. ' .... ;

above .'. : belc '" th - t1m·,IIC" ... - th t· .~ h· ""'( sk et hed ,~ ove or .: e ow ,,' .e ... I.ng, a L IS mng. 'e ce' '.

18

Tb h .. · 'Ii; _.L 'b "' 'h '11" d II

__ ,IJ3.0'f1Z0D. lS !mown ,I . .y a. str',mg t .• me across your- r8wm,l~

[ . . .... - . .,' - - '. - .. , '. . . - . -- 'h" ". - - '-T' hi .... 'to . c 'Ii'. -I

.. n a room you can create YOII.[, OWDc..OflZUD., ' .·U!!, lS an, eye",J..ey.e, ,

m,Ptr.k around. the wall,

We I!oo~k up to see things, above the: eye .. level an.d, down to see

t, ,., b 111 ' 'h- iI 'I

trnngs . _e:~o'w 'I i •• e eye"',llev,e. _ ..

~Th 1'1 '" IIIo.L h~ h . - k h hid'

LI.e eye- eve. IS memgr .. wateI 'mar," W·C'D the water lS eye ileep"

Th:is Iine is the brst thin.g we Iocate in m akin g' a. perspective draw~

II

!Lng ..

The visible outdoor horison is Dot to he confused with th.e Hari-

I L"' 'HL) ,I h ,1, '1 ., I II d' '. ..L 1

zonta .16 \ tt, I In meet amea perspective as, 18XP ames In. 'we' Iast

step 10'£ th.is hook,

PROBLEMS

D 'C' .. ,a.·L 'b1 "k1L d-' .. :L. h "' h f h

fa w a. IID.e on ·iUJ.e .1. ac I ··.coar. tne . ieig at 0 I your l!3:yes 'W' en yo'U

are s ending, This will. appear as a stralght Iiae, though. it m.IY be

~ th f~; lL.lL -h ... :L '1' "., d':: a . '11

iD .'. e comer o tne room. w nere tne .. me lS Ion. c_merent W'D,S,!!

Chan ge to 18 seated position and take notice of the I ina: in the

f h -D- . "'- ill '1 h 1'"' h

corner 0' the loom. . oes It sti .ll a.pp'ear as a str aigr t _In.1I! wi;' ere

it joins at the two walls? Stand OIQ a ehair al' d nob~ the l'es;uJt ..

Go outdoors and. locate your eye- eve] mark on. 'the various things you see around yon~ Im:agin.'e where the eye-level linle 'w'Ould cut ~1.t"iir-\n.Q'D' these di ·ff:- '~'e' ren ·t· tb' 1 'I~D" gs ~l"'f:: V'ou' W· e re ma'll ... .:::- g B ··.l·"'a't.Ul~I'nlrg

Q/V, . Ili,il'Qo!;I! '. 'IUQ'Y .' " .... . .. J . -. I,. :.. .:.c' '. ,/ '. '. ' .' ., , .- .' .A.U1e.. u. OI __ , T' I . '.it:)"

1.9

PARA.LLE.L LINES AS WE, S·,EE 'mEM:

,P'A,RAL~LEL, LINES RELA'TED TID

ONE .. 'POlNT 'P,E,RS,PE,CTIVE

I

..

f

(i),

PA' RA' L'--' '-LEL"" 'L'IN' ES" A'" 'S' WE'" . 'S-IEEI THE' - M-' -

;. ,.: .... .' -2',· .. , ..... ,1:,'._ ... :_ :-:.,i'c._~'.~. ",' . _:__:::_

: ' ,- .!'.--c " :\...- . tho .. , .. ,.- ,-. ,.~., ' I

,. G."mg wat . - I £I. rallS, are .p'Br,a ...

. . .-

'I , II· d-' , . - ot d '. them ':.L'i·'

I Ii, WJ .~,O we no' ' .. raw .em UJ.18

I ?

Instea.d of 'this 'w'o:y?

Th e ., two r'iI;J'I,I;]S': '0' f";' the track ,g""~ al ·w····':'a·Y·'Q th a sam e di '·8': ta 0-' ee

I, :" - ..... ,_ g 1':.-' ."_ .~. v. ._._.~ .. 1,. ••• rA-.l.V '_'_ '_,_ :;WI . '~-"-.' " _' '_, . __ ,_.l. _".' .~"

,. art ,a,p, '.

Wh.·.e:c·o· two or m ore lines always remain the same dis-

_ . • • I l _ _ . ,g _ _. _- .. _.. . .. ... _ .

tanee apart they are called parallel lines,

I· . '- .. -. ... : ~- _ dn -.~- .. d'i. --, ... '-all-'' drat

_D, a perspective .~ " 3Wlng we .. ' .. 0 D;Ot actus - .1 Y .... -~aw

the , .. '1iI!!!' _ .. ~ , '. ·'111 .. ~ 'lJTL~'C ,-c·"t?

ese nes par,aJle,l.. n' J1;;lY DO _: ~

Let us look straight downon a .person, standing on the track and see what is, happening,

When he looks d,Qwn at the track at his feet his eyes

tak ,Ii id .. d - b h "'l~

must e In a. wme area In ore erto see both rar 8,.,

2'3·~··

.' .

... ---_--1 ,

t-- ''II!!!!I! ~ --- """"--1.

H"·" :. tho Ii,. '··'·"'d· th i fl~'-- .'. at of 1..= __ , .. :. indicr t'-' ·d··: ·h· .. ······ the

.' .€1 sees ~ I . .lS, Wl ,._,._ n,' :rODI 01• lllIll~ as, In .. llea. ,e.- ·c 'y . _ .. e

heavy ,:. b .. ilackIine

I '. ~ _ .. . I..:K. ' . _ II!!!!I

As he raises hi s ,e'yes, and 'looks fifty feet in front of him. he sees the same width of tracks but witllin a much narrower area,

For this reason the track appears narrower as hie looks farther away,

The shaded portion. on the sketch shows this [area"

- - ------

T

!'. <"

II

'-

The portion he sees fif~1 "ty':" feat away 1"'8': s .• hown b"Y'" th e:'-

,~ I"':' _ ,I., u· '_' : I~ .',. _. . -:', :'.,~" .,:.'_ ".,_. _. .,' ,I"., .'",' . ',. '.1,; '.

, ..' -

h'}- . .-.IL 1"'

I SCK. nne,

24.

As he raises his eyes to the 'horizon the same width of track appears in 8,0 narrow a:n, area that it looks Iike 'DO width at all, This is the vanishing point,

Thus the nearer he looks, the wider' a,'p'pears the spread of the track, and the farther aw'ay he Iooks the narrower it ap'pears until it hecomes a point at his ey'e .. level,

This wide or narrow area is! perhaps better understood :if 'we think. of the person drawing these widths on a piece of gIs,sls 'h,e'.ld upright as shown on, ,p,ag1ei 2,8,.

The above sketch shows how the man, in order to see, farth ie""'r' alon 'g~-' the track m ust raise lris D!y'~S'

,,·'Ui. _: I ," .," .•... j. ,"[', .~. :" I . " ..... ~' :~ __ ,,--, rO L. " • '" :.,' ~' -, , '~~~".' I~ ", ~~ I~I .'. v.- ",.'

I I

.< ... :..... . .. ~ ... : .....

··.····_I ...... IIiiiIii·I ..... IIIIiiiiiiiii·~I_, !!!!IIIIII!!I~,IIiIiiiiI!!,_iiIiiiiiIIii~.··.:··

And, so the man sees the, track 'this 'way~,

I'D' : st .Oi[J,d" of ,li,.'L;iC! w, .,. 'a'v

, ., i.:!I' _ "",",~, .,' 1!I,;,Il,. UJ"",,!;!I ... . 'J '.

2-5··

. '

......

.PARALLE·L LINE,S AND OiN·-·~POIN1T PERSPECTI.'VE,

P ,-,,~ 'II" ,11 li~-~'" "'" t", '"" ' .'. '. . ',' -;---, ,', 'li~' " . ,,' th' t -'t'- ~. d·1 ,.;- t 'h'

ara· .e.c .. ' ,nes arewo 'o.r mor·e ,roes, ,a, , eX.llen 1 In . ,'e

d-.. · d ,_ h di

same irecnon ann remain t . e same (,' stance apart,

The two opposite sides of a table are parallel, the

b· ,..,. rds '" f' t h .. , H'·' . , th ", ',.' '"'1,_ , 'f' -' ':c tr ' 'k"

, ,oar "S 0,,_ ,I. e ' I ·o,or., .' "e ralm 0 a _r,ac, ,',i,

We know that the two parallelrails of the track. ap.p,ear· to, converge at a po,'~ nt in. the distance, N ow take .- oti . , ,- f ,th' 'f':'" ". -," ," d~li t ,1" ", anh ,ii.,.", th "t f" 'll'" ,'-. t h , nonce o' __ .'ce renees an,.,lelegrap ,., wires that ·o,o'w '~ Ie

k th aI hi 'iii

.trae 8, ,; ,_. I.ey~, __ .so converge at tm s same pomt,

26

A gronp 10£ parallel lines in, I, perspective drawing, :if extended, meet at the same, point,

There are two exceptions t.IO this rule. These e'x,e,e,plions are shown in, the drawing.

(1,) Wh,en we face the vanishing point o.f' a group of parallel Iines (as in, the picture) 'we have one-point perspective; in, this case: the left-and .. .right lines, like the ties of the track, are all parallel with the horizon". 'There, is no vanishing point,

(2) 'Up; and, down (perpendicular) lines" like the tele .. PT'a' P"" h poles and" Ienc e posts ar '--0; 3,.]- so d ..... aw n p'a' ralle '1 hut

:0-·<-1: -- " ,1 "'-: ' , 06;,!; -'Ici;1 d~~'~' • !~ ,- ..11."__ • ,,- ~,- __ L-,' .-',-

without a vanishing point, (Perp'enmcular- Iines are, explained Ion ,pa,ge 4,,51,)

The general rule for (1) and (2') is that parallel lines which are also 'parallel to the picture plane do not a,ppe,ar to ,converge at a point, The picture plane is explained on the next p,ag'e~

A d ]- f'- ]'-1 1 .. h I·' is a f f-'

.', '. • •.• , .- •• '. : r ' •.. ' •• :. . . . .~. I" '. . ,", -:,. . 1 .' I" . I. t: ,'_ , . - , . I; -, I I ;. '. '.: - .':' - .' I ~"" .' I . - " ",' '-,-: .... -; ,

,goo.... eatalD,p ,6 0 ' p,ara . e . upngl .. t nnes IS a ' . oreal 0--,

tall straight trees" The trees, farther back in, the forest

II' h --~, d --II· dOl; -

, '.. '". -: .',: '." 1 I ,-" . OJ...' .' I ." I'- .• II. --":"'I - _ .. ' : l' - .. ... ' - _, .:-_ •. - -. :. .. --:--_ • ",' ,,':-: .•.. - ~ _" .. I' ."', , ....

appear sma ier, t .... US suggestmg .. ,eptL Oil .. istanee.

T, -HE;' P·I-e'C •. -CIT"'·-'U' ·R·;E-· p .. :LA,:····N···· E,:'-

, - ',' .", " '.' - ." "" 1 _ ' '.- c. _. :___

POStTI1'ONli

l~(~~'~ '~-.. -

[j;"...._" I ~- - -

......

H ·'ld· . .' he c· .. t . - f:-" .. 1],. '.' .' h·· ' .. : " " .' . . -1' :' -- - "', .. c 'h·t b··· f'" '. ,' .. ,. O~,., a S lee. 0 100] npnane or ,g ass u,png - ae .OF'e

Y' h bi , b f"

,.l.":, 'I ( " .. :,'--: _-.:: . "',',,'1:' _':. ,,~. r'<' .:" . ( :. I" ..•• :. " ' •• -' .,' .. [.-.' ,-_: •. ' ",.,'

your eyes. ou can see tc e 0,- Ject or scene, ,e .ore YOll,

thn .. uah th , c. trs (' ""c-" ·· .. hl, set J·:f ... c .. -- ...... -- ,t, ( .... - r. thi ', ..... I"

t rong, , ie ransparent s lee. ,_ . you trace tms scen,e:

i' th h ill h' d _, ~

as y'OU s.ee it on .':. ie sneet y'-'OU WI ... nave a ,· •. lrawing 10

.. - . .'.. ~ ~ ~ . . .. . _' I" , . _. - . . - - . . . _': .

perspective 'T' 'he transparent sheet can be thou gh ... rt ,D, ·f',,'

.... ~ '_"',,' -,_. _ . I!! C·' __ ·.' I .. :' . : .. 1 .... ~- ,- .... -~" · ... !tll.c,.' .:__:.:..... > .. ~.,... . ... ,

as, at sheet of drawing' p'3!per or an artist's canvas, When

h'-I-I d 'iI! . thi is positior it -" - h C" a' Ie'd tho e pict - re -- J_" e

e,,_ I'n ~. , .. ::. ;',~. un <0 1 .. - mia,ye': ~" .... ::-'-: .1 ,"','.",. ':1£ ': P,f.llR'-, ..

W h ink f" ,. d iii' d "bil' iI!

,-:' .. - I' ;: ... .-. 'j-.' "C',' ..•. :: •. - .... ' •. ~: •• ;, •.•• '.- ,"'. :- ••. ': .... - .... :': .. : -'. -:- "1' -_'--, --- .-:-, ..

. e t .. r ,. , 0" perspecnve . r,awlogs ·as ,ma, ·.e, on t ... lS pIC

ture plane,

'T··h'···:,· . '"' _+, '. '].~ ·.".C· : .. , star d'·.- '-, .. ' izht (, : ',. .- diculs -:-):

'., ie pl.llc,~ure p ane stanes up,rlg..c.: •. perpeno cu 8.1" ..

hetw een the artist and the ohject 'he' is" drawing Also

, "'" ' ·C.:": .' -,1I..i. '. - .. '.-, , . .-.'. ", - .. ". '~ c..:,' .......•. , ", ',<iIi .' -~ , .. "

. .

th·-· '] 1110 '-I' d d'" I ( ... , " 'lI!'h

e picture pan,e IS P a,c,e~:·,.lr,ect,y' across ,at right

I - ,.)... Ii f' di I!! • hi h' h ,j"

ang es to) the I me or ' •. treenon in W· ten t ae artist 18

10' :'0: kll. :li~ "'0= g' Th e dia . a 'ram' . -. a t t '·h:-·e-:-· ri 'g' ·h" .. t ex p .. Iain - s'-· t hi iC

.... I, ... iii ,,--'.... ._.. .,t, ,:C._" :_. . ., I· .- ':~' . '.-' I' ~- .' IJ:.,·.·.;;:;II"

28:,'

. >:.

I '.

D·,· .. h III ] h

. rawmg In perspective on t_~.; e p1lc.ture, P ane can _ Ie

self .. explained by standing In front of a window and with,

hi 'lei il traci th ') th' tli

" .'.' ".' ( (. " '. . ' " .''' .. ' ":.'-~ ,'. "1"-'" ',",'" ::.',':-' ,'. '"

a C ma marxmg pene] , tracing on tne g. ass " e oU .. nes

- .

f- th h ildi b

" . ~ '. :-'. . . '", '.'" '.... ' .. " ! ,'.... I' ..... " ,'.' ~ i

0, u e r Ul " ~ngs as you see, tl, em.

A pape.r with a hole in it can be set at arm's Iength to help" fix the point of view Look throuzh this 'bole and

• ._:' • ':." I.. '. ! I' . ' ..• "',' .. :._ ~ _" ... '. - . . -'[C"-~ .. ' .. 1,_,.. _',. ",", . ~. 'j J',

k h 'if h ind h h f" 'S'''' 'il 'I

s etch as 1:', the Wln," ,ow' were the S.·. eet O'I~, p,aper. ':'lm,p ,y

tr .-:., :',' .. '., t' 'h, ,.'} ' .. the ln Ildi : .'" ·d· 1" 'd'" - "" ·'·C·',. ','.,' I" . -.

, ~ a,ee, ,on [" c' e g _ ass _' JeUl . ',' ,D,gs an,., .. ,an __ scape, las you, see

2-9.'~1

....

dra,'I'~dng .. · ...

_ . ,'1' _ .. _ >Ii

·S~ :-."-'-. : ", .: the .,.' il . d· .. - ." '. --.- -:I,.;.·h···· thi draw

i"-.Iu.ppose we remove . e WID owpane wn 118:' aw ..

in gc .. ; an d la:'y--:-·:: it 0'-' In:' th e table O-':n" the : tah ile it 1'0" ol ... S··· 'llik~ te a n"Y'

.. ~ .. ::._ .. _'..... ]_ ".'., .. ; ... ~. i\J.. _" ... , :__:'___:'." .' ... [ .' .. " ... :I~: , .. r .. _.' l._, "

. I· '."

.... ··th· I' -.' .. C· cti d'·I· . ,' .. -~ .. " d'· , '., . _'. .-. c· .. !I!::- ·.C· : ·f·: '.,-; ,[.-., --.

0_ . er p,ers,pee_lve '. rawln,g.o.nte. on. a. .pI.ere or .pa.pe["~

H·- .. !. It ' :'LI'·· tc . aak this dr . '";.. rith _. t fi . t

ow IS .1_, .posswe.~o mase tms •. rawmg 'W1Ilo" OU_,If-S·.

t .. '. .' ',..." '.. ~ t·· , . I'" . ... - ~ - -:h--· '1 t .... .:. . .' ··f· .' -:-]. . '? 'Th"1 -,.' f':" - ·]1 . . . Ii ... '-

raemg ],1_ OlD. ,an upng.:. plece 01, g ass ~ _ .. ,e , 0 ,owlng

.. t .. ·.. . "-']1 -" . J .. ~ ... h .... thi · . ..' b· d: ...

s"eps WI .1 lexp.laJln . '.' OW'_: '.8 can .. :e .. one,

a·EMIE.M:B'ER

The two raila of a track. are par allel ~ These two par aIle,1 Imee,

h -h ,. " d' ~ h- •

W,I '., en 8 .. own in a perspeetrce • ra.w j,ng, come toget .M' at 8. pomt,

W·:· ·'h,Bin two parall -11m"· 'Ii!iIIJjll m eet at - rein ·t-· all other ·J)·D· De. parallel t· -.

> ~ .,,;..~ ... ' '.'" o.,)e I . ..;,~ .. ~~ . ,a a.p. r - ..... iW.,:_~ " ,~~ .. ;:~ .. J!.o

a.1L __ 'IQ, ,tw:o" meet a' t ,IL:L,i:!ii j:jiCijii'ine· p''''O''': int

UItSlt~ r ' •• _." ._~:._._~~, -, " -W·~ ~~!U. ".' I" .lL.1l

,',

Yon lower your eyes to see your feel"

Y'Olll raise your eyes, to see objects on the' ground at is diB,tan.oo,~

·Thl • " ... ; ,i .. ,t.,I'II·-·_ .1'" c· '. t.-:· . ..l. 'I ". ,OJ -ht b -;I.., .' .' ... :\.., .. ~:.- t I ·d· ... :1,..'" blect

. __ .e plc~ure p.a.ne 51-anus 1ll.pr.lg .. , c·.e: .. w·een Ule. a .. u.5 ltD .. we 0 - J~.'

h '1' d 'ii,

ce 1S. .' ,['8W,lng"

P.RORLEMS

Dr.aw the top view 10£ a man sta;,ding' at the end o:f a 100n_g narrow table, Show the ,difF ereJ1ce in tb .. e area of his v.isioD when to-akin.g· a.t the wi,.dth of the far end .0.1' the \able· cOlmpa:r,ed. ,w.,ith that of the' neal" end,

Stand in. the center of ,8 slr'ajght level ·highway. :Dra'w it as you see it-dis8pp'e·arin.g .in. the distance, Add a sidewalk parallel to, it, Add two rOI'W',t~ of telephone p olea, a FlOW on each side, A.dd a fence

b "d-:-' ,L·L. ]L

elu·· e we W,8. ',ii..

Dr'Hw a railroiad on the prairie ,BKetched from the center of tile: ·b".alc'k. S.how a. ,'ig'b,w'8Y crossing it :in. the fore:groun.d",

30':'"

.

THE, THREE SETS OF PARA,LLELS,

'LO":'C""A"'T~ 'I-'-N"'G"'" T"B'E P:'O':'I'N"T'I

, ~-:'.' .".: _;._. 1,. ... ",_ ,", ",'. 1".:, I .' ' .• ,,' . ,_._ ~ ... I '~. _______.: . ~" -,_:-

A- ND',"'-": TH' '-;:;-EI- E-IYE-:-:-":-:;"'I·,L,,'EIVE,,"","'L,,,

, . ',_' -.' ,1..1... I ~... .. - '. _

THE THREE SET[S O'F ,PARALLELS,

I I ;

I '

, I

I I !

, 'I Ii'

H' h di h 'I' k

ere we: a,ve: an o,r,,' •• ,,:nary , _ _:,rlC,,", ..

It,-" has six sid e' ;'S', hut only three sides can he shown in

, [, " ,R;, "'.' , s, r- _ ," " '_'_ , , .c" -': ,," ;:_", ',' '''',' ,,' ," "", ' , , '

h d ~,

t. e r ,ra'wln,gji,

The lines off the drawing' indicate where two of these

'"d-- Ii ",

81,', es ] om I'

If all sides of the brick were shown, there would he twelve lines,

The four long lines which indicate the length 10.1' the

brick are parallel lines,

The four lines of' the width are parallel,

The four lines of height (or thickness) are parallel. Now let 'U,S turn the brick so that we are looking

straight along the 1 ength lines, The sketch 0'0 the next pi,Q,ge shows it in, this position,

We now have, the lend 'view of the brick,

Rem' nemh "e' r h 'IO::"W' .' a 'S" a eh ,c-. il d y:o:" U: p ... laced h'·"·r·~J.· ~1 ... _, end to'

",' _' ~ _ __:,_:. I,. l_' r. ". ",-: • I." ;. "", _. ." I':' l..:_~.... . ;.~ .. ,I .~', ~ .. " .. '

.. · .. rd tc ," ak .. - .- iilr . d:- , .. ek? ·T·· thi

en .. 0 m ,:~ e ,8. ra u: a, Ott. Ira,.. ry' lSi ..

You see that the facts discovered in reg·ard. to the railroad tra ck. on the pla in now hold tru e'-' f·"oT' brieks:

. .' .:.... . ... _ "~'" ' ,', 1_" .... ". , . __ .c·.· . . I .. _ • • 1 '.' .,''' .. ' . ~" .. _. ~,

.&'L( .', Ii" r- " . f- th .. '.- :. ·l-I,~ I .. ~" .'." <I! . h,,··:I!I·:: '" ",. 'iI .. t .' '. d· al"C" 1'-1

me , ··ne o. . :_c.e eye- :Bve " va.DISle rng p'Oln. '" anI.,... ,I .•

. Now let us remove al the bricks hut one,

Here it stands, The vanisbin"g point is go:ne from the

dr ii' oi' th li of th )'O1

,aWln,g, so .1.S ' :~ . .'e, .' . ne~:. : 1'_' .e eye·., eV8J.,.

3d" ~

'W'e can easily find the vanishing point and the eyelevel by extending the: Iines 'that 're,present two parallel edges of the brick,

The vanishing point is where they meet,

,A horizontalline drawn through this point, gives us our eye-level,

Thus 'we ean find the vanishing point and the eyeIevel ,by extending an:y M'O 'lines, that represent converging parallel lines in a perspective drawing.

FIN,DING, V:ANI SH lNG, PO'IN'TS, AN~D THE ,LINE OF VISION

It is an interesting experiment to take cuts, of photo, ..

... - -- - - h-- f - ~ d th 1- . i h - - ,! - h- - ~ - -

_'. I' . . -:' '. ," ..' I'" l. -_ .' - "'." ..' • -. ..··1 . - - . 1 ,.~ I ....,"., • .':. I • '1"' .' • - "'. '.- _ .", • I • ". • ," • ~: • .: • -' l: . .' . . -. i '. '" I '

gr,a,p,: S rrom magazmes an .. 1._ .en Iocate t ae vams . 109

.- - .. ~' - t· b -'. 't- - dina th . '1'"- ..... that . '.,. .,' 11···1 W' '-:'''-h- .. -,----.

,plOlns ,y ex enc mg '.' e nnes tna . are ,para.., ~'e'_Ci"_ - :,' . ere

.. h !Ii '-h ~ 'h t " ..

they cross rs the varus .·.In,g point,

A straight line through the two vanishing points thus

35

located shows on the photograph just how high the camera's eye was above the ground. This, is the. eye~ level.

A'n,y' photograph, of a building or a room, can be· used :fOI' this experiment. An eas'y' method is to paste the photograph, or clipping in the middle of a large piece of pape ,'r an d I th aen d raw th e: Ii ,i'D'liCI!!'S'" righ t over th te ph oto and r

." I" I ':. I • _ ~." :".1" .:_., ,._ "_ I, '_ ~ '_~,~., _, ;.,".",' -':.' _','~ -', I ,', _:./ ,'- _._ ",~"

paper,

°6"" I:J. .'.

R''Ii'('i· ... 'E-c :''iI_.rn E- 'Q , .~,lQ.' "_.Pl..UI .. IIL

A brick has six: aides, Three of these; (;;8]]. he' :Bh:o'Wfi in a pers,poo", 't~.v'e drawing, We, draw' a str sight '1 ine 'to show' 'where 11w'o sides J ~),m~ o p'p osite edges are psrallel lin.'eS'ii

A row 0;£ bricks placed. e'lld 'to end becomes a. r ailroad traek, All b:r.i,cka ,but, one can be removed, still 'we can find the eye .. Ievel and the v,ani,slting p omt,

D . '" box i Ii

",.-.-. . I···· " .. ". :. ,.' .... ," - '_I •... ',', .•• , -., 'j' "'1";"' ',,',: ".- ;"

:r,(lW M. ,empty elg,n,l ... ox In perspective.

Sh O''Li1' W"· hi """ LI 0' .. f t·'L g ,,:j,~.,J e '!Ii]. are P ;a,? iI;IIl I Iel. W' '. .;Lr~; ,"""L lin oi3I,iii:I' are P '!!!i r .. ;j!fjj Ilel ?

'_ " • ",'.' I UJ!Wl '.', , 111J~1~ ~JlLU "_.Q U" ~ : _.I~ [Uk:. ~:'_'I!!I .. fW&Wl ,".-.;r.~ g '!W' :- .. !lillj". lull.· .'IGi. ~

Drs w the' hox, end- view' in perspecti ve,

D .. 'IL b- 'd' ,"., ~

ra:w tne box, sic ,e·;v'lew In perspeetrve ~

. ,r-' ,r

Fmd the ··,',···-'1,··,····) and "-'-!"h:""',:,;, ' ...... ". it .. £." ····,·· .. ·b·· '·'f' .:1;.'1 ...... d . ' "'" "

~]]!: , ne eye-. eve. ane vamsnmg pemt 0" esc I, ,0 .jneee . rawm~g.I,~

37'-:'

,

I

J

.t I ~

S'T',EP FIVE

THE rwo VANIS'HIN'G POINTS

THE:- uHc":--cEr'I(G'--_---.-'_HT"" L- -I~ NE- >'j'-:-S~-',

.", .......",. . I r,' .. _.

';;'

t"'ft [~

-~

~

~""

,~

'~'

r

I".:l ""!;II

'T,HE TW'O V ANIS,HING ,POIN"TS

, I

Place, the' brick flat on the table so that three of its

sid 'b

smes can ne seen,

........__ .......... --,_

r I ' .

, I

Now we have three lines which can, he extended, thus Iocating the vanishing point and the ,e,ye .. level,

4'1

• . , I

. , [' I

. jl'l .. ,1

ill

tr e more,

Thi h ..i.:L .. hi '" - h h' 1'];8 cnanges tne vamsnmg pomt, but the eye- ever

j . "II' '-h

18- sti --. t -. eo' s:am;"-;I~'

. ' al_ _- ,___: :--. , __ .J c - -.,IV·it

- Y E - L..KV.',~

-

The ,-.'--.-,'.-"--J ,.-,'- t r'-" the brick themore the ranishins

Ie marie we lIrn. -,e .' n,t;A . - e more ·13 vaUlS-.ng

-'!!.-~ hanees hl=-' al -, . 1]-"-'-' the -, ,,·-c - ,.'. ')- -'---',1

pOI.n. CII. anges, ' rut a~way'S aiong t. re same eye~,. eve -ii'

42-

,

,

I

I ,

,Blut wait :!t

Here is another set of parallel lines representing the width of the b,rlck"

Let us exten .. d these and see what happens.

.it<

H Ii h b ,", k ~ h f' ith i '1: h If

, I, e:r'B .. eSt tne '- rIC' Just as be ore: Wi . __ ~ Its lengt .IDes

. d d ill 'hi .' d - h 1 I 'l~

extender to a varus. ung point am the eye-ieve nne

- .. "".:,;.-.,--,-,'- h-'-'I-~~' ntall r, thrr , -h this , __ ",""I t"·

pass,m,g - lorlZ0;n~a.' _.y 'c, ro'u.g~ ",:-' S p'Olnl ..•

'T--;h - rid 'h- I'·-- - -J- - --- .,-- ----. ,- ,- -!-_- ... -. ·h'·- hi liil_ " he

J ... _ e WI, t ", In.es ,a· :810 meet at ,a point w· Ie ' .. ~ mes OlD t ... e

4_3"

t ",'

' .. I

ve,ry same eye-level Iine as the point reached :b'y tile length line.

This must he as we see :it because, when we g'la'D,'oo at the three sides of' the brick a,s it lies there O'D the level surface, our eye-level remains unchanged whether our attention is fixed Din OID,e' gro,u,p of' parallels or lon, the other,

Tum the brick some more and we :find that ou:r first vanishing point moves, away from the brick along the

] 1 hil ' h ii' d ~ h h t 'k

eye- ever W uie t, 'e new pomt moves towarc the ,'.rICI r,

44

Wh:-,e', m the , P"···O·,,·'I'·'n,,·"'t'''' C··,Q;':ID·';· es directly above the bri rck 'w"'· re .

. , ',,,_ ,,' I, '.' :'." '_ " ,',,' ,",'_: .,"".': ,,' .: HJ,J."", ',' : ,.' :.'", , ,~ ':,'

';;i h "h- il d' k wi 'h f- dl

1 " ram ,a"V'6 t Ie rai roao track vnt, one set Of, recelng'

- -" ]'] 1- Ii"" -" 'T' 'h- - ' , '-h " ., ,!Ii -". - 1'-] - 'J ~, th ", h .. 'h" - -" '

.. ',' - ",' :' , ",', -",-',' i :": ",'. ," ::' , '."':,,' ',"" .""'1 ',. .... - '.::, '., I -'I 'I " '" " .. '

" arar ,e,· unes, -, .1 .. ;,6 ot ter set is parai e ' WIt. ,t e ,on

n TI h e ls tte r can al 120'. be c onsid ere d act! P ar allel W' ;1' 'h'

~:,: '.... . , '. ,:' ,,(1' ,. -:, ,:': r a !~, ,-~. ", ,:::,. ,. , . ','"J!, ,.::; ", '-~, __ ,'.' : u..'~: - "_,]11.-_.

the picture p .: ilane if we prefer that viewp .. ioint,

-I. -,,' ,_, I, - ,_ , . ' - " , , - _, - -, .-' " - "

. ' -

I

1

~'~nnmmmmrmmm- mn1'" mlllI'~-

I '~I ,,1,",',',,:""

,.. I·', I' ,

I ' I' , I , ,

,'1 I' "'I, "',I 'I

, 1 ' " '"I ' " 'I,

:' ',I,', ' I;

. . I I ~ i

I I '

• , I I'

i' I' i.

" ""lin"'W'~"""""'

I" , ,,', ' IU

,', I '[""':~"H',IJj' 'ta' i'UJ:' ~.......-

: "/,,,'.," ,,'

'N'! ow let' 'U~ oo nsi d er the "height" "'1'1·:'0" e S- This is e' 'a"s'y

,< , • , .. , , "'~ i:o:' :~_,,' '-, .. 'd Il~' ,<"I· ;, "_'t, , ' .. ,~ l~! ':" : < oil'

The third set of parallel lines or the ""height" lines may he drawn straight up and d,OWR with no vanishing point to consider,

'-T' hi i. h h "h ,j 'h '" Ii

"I "II,S IS, true because t __ e .. height" .. ,'.'nes cut a,cross, o'ur

picture and we always s'ee only' this small segment 0:£ them :no matter how far' they ma'y be extended u:p or down, Th,€} "height' lines, might he compared with the upright: mullions or bars .0,£ a window through which we Iook,

4,5

REM:EM:B'ER

All o:f a set of p'B'rallel lines In perspective meet at a POint", 'Th:is ,point :m,Qves along the: eye .. level lbJ,e 'when, the o:bjecit is

't,urnedl

Th,e other Bet o,r ,P arallel 1:ines meet, at Dll)otber point, Both, points are Oil the eye-level line,

Hei,ght Iines are uP"',SJ;O,.d .. dOWD, 'with. DO, 'v'an'ishiDI' p,o:in,tii'

D':'r'8W' ,D bonk '1i.v';na' O'D the table

.,". " :,,' ';." g ,·I ...... yl - JJJ:i-'A' 110 1,'.""' .- ... Y: ~Q._.I .. Vi

'Tu:rn the book 10' that i.t lies in a diff erent positIon and 'n!dra,w,~ N"otic-e h:ow' the ,tw'O "tanishing p oints rearrange 'themselves, eaeh

tim.'! the position of the h ook il changed,

Sted, ,8 ,br.i.ck on end ~nd sketch ,it :in, dlie, posit:i.ob~ Show the girectian of the "heigb.t~J' Iines, Do they meet Sit a ,p,oin,1t'1

46"

"

',:.:.,

:STEP' SI'X

'p'LAe' N'C" THE TWO'

I .. ','I '. " '1' 'I. v·.·: .

• , ..: ",1,," ',',', [I" _ I • .",

'-V'~AN' "IS'-'H' I'N'" G'" -PO':-' -'INT'] . s··-·

..... ::[ .. ~ _._[<._:~, I," .:______:: ..•... ' .. : J··· .. _ ,I >-': ,- .

T'H:~·'E·: E.RR·'~·'O···-·R- O·-:.'Fl·.'"

r. L ',"'.' ••• __:_.. .'

CL- - 10:-·'8:- . E'- S-:·,P, ··A·-····C,· ·:(-Ni'G/·--:·

I·· . = .. ,._. . .', .' _ . _ ... _.

·e····

. .

.> ," .

.. ----

A'V·:···: 0·.·.· I·D-:-IN<·G··~· 'W.A·-_-·· R- ··'P-'---'E-'D- ... '_' 'P.-'E·~··'R··- S-··-P····E.· C."'" T·IIV······,··Ei-·-

.' "', ..... ::......__,- _', .• ' • .... "_ '," ' . _,' I 1,." , ". , . ," '_'::__ • , . n "

Itis good drawing tOI place the vanishing points w,e'll

a- 'P-' art

.. ~ , -~

If the points are close together the drawing is not of ,R Isquare object; it :1.$ diamond shaped, This is called, "violent' '0' 'r--' "warne d" perspective

",c_'···,I~ - ' , - .• ·'IQ.'':,r'~~ __ ,,-,_,-- _-",!I, ."1;

I ;0; d '" ,~ I h · 1

It ,IS a, student's temptation to p"ace the points c ose

together, within, easy :ra'n,ge; thus the drawing has the 'wrong beginning and will always l.oo,k; wrong;;

Place the, points a long way' apart even if it: is an ,eff'o,rt

10'''''' do- 100-'

... r ,"_ lid! .. > i!i

S· "P""AC" lING' 0" 'F" '-V-·, "'AN"' "IcH'1 'liN····G POINTS'

~:" ,'"",_" _".1'" :,~ ,',~ _ .. d,_,jI' 1._,: ',' , ..•. ' ~ _,',11_

'Let, us snpp,ose an artist sits i.n front of a 'window and

,'. '- ... , .'- ,,,-·h· , ,'"' d'i ". "1,, . ," .. ,' .. t'l' . f ," h t " h ." '-"" ..

traces on tne WIn" •• ·ow Ig_cass a Pl.C nre 0 ' wna ever ne sees

outdoors.

"N··-:·'-'·"'·· '] -:'1-" "-':'. ':-.'" C"".,: '"~ ",-:,' •. "".: th . "I":~ 141:,", '."' "t:I,...,.L"I-··-:·· .. ",'., rt .',,' tho" -", '.": .. ' ueh

"ow ,e, us' Su,ppo,se _ "ere IS 3., ame OU_: 011 ne po.re ..

':If~'"' - - -" ,e-]d" '11" t, !Ii h" d f ab uld i

" w'e eou ,I.', .lOOK, strarg ;1t.'c"O'WD, .. rom:: __ :~o'v,e we 'W'O: .. ':C ..

" the '~.' rtist ( , , I ,'·h· ., , ~; .. the niet ",'., , , 'L., I·· ·f·-,·t).' +_,. '.'

Isee, '. e arnst : :as snown In, tne ,P,l.O ure o,n Ule ,Ie '" iU,a,c-

ing the table as, he sees it through the glass, He is

drawi !I' h hewi d 1

,.. .. .. "" . -, '.. I'. . ,F 1 .• ' ".... ,,- _ . _. _, ... •. '." .

I aWIng right on t '.' e wmc ow gass'l;

50':'

.~ I .. :_ ..

The vanishing points of his. drawing would. he A and "'~ These two pointe are found where the lines pass th .ough the glass when they are: extended from his, eye narallel to the- two sides of 'the table.

h

N·· .- ... h .. fa ." "-'.". -·h·· -- - ~ rts I" .

ote .. ow rar apart t ie pOlnl S . ie,

If- henoi _. I] d (..... .. th 10. h

c_c·_ t.· [e· points are 1010 C ose y' Sp'8,1Ce":c. ·· .. as ltD t e· r:l.g· . .1:-

hand picture) the table would have to he di amon d ...

h d b l-"}- 1 Ii h th l~ Irom th A'-

, '. . _ ,pe. - to . u e ,para.1 e- wrt _ t .e· ,1.IDes. .r,om t~: [e eye tn z

. 'd,1 B~:" 'T' "'h--,o;:-, ~. "'b-- .. '." .. ' ,,,"'~'." " .. ' ~: .. - '-. ': d' . :h· !I ect -}.-. ok ., '.' . t

. I. . .... ~ .' I· IS 1.S w.·- y ,a .square",·cornerle: 0.· jee[1 00:., S ou -

··f:'· -h""" " .. -·h··- '-. t"h'· :',' unts '. :-~c' too _ .. J---. : ... }--: .. : [.-,-- .. ··I,,:··dJ I··

I_, snape wnen .ne pom ts are _:00 C ose y spacen. m

o ther words the artist saye in his picture, "This object:

. -

10' -. - d "

I,' .' ". .',,'~' - I :'J' - :1 .~. - J :.; .~ • .' • ..:.'. '. '-.

.lSI not square,-cornere. ' ..

The drawings which resulted from these i¥-I'O condi .. tiona a- r~'e' sh own .. · 0.' n P·"llg·-e'·; ,4:·,'9···.· ..

_ ...,..;!!. ". . .," ' " u:.,-:-' ... _ ,

Au example of well-spaced vanish.in,g points

In fre[ehaD;d sketching it is 'not necessary to locate these points exactly, But rememher; keep them, far apart.

51,

EXA.':" 'M' "=-P-"'L~' ,eE-' Q''-''F' v 'A'N'I' 'S'H'''' "'I"N" G'c, "P' '0' IN' 'TS" T' ""0"'" 0'

,,' ,',' ,',.', !,' ',~ ,', ""'" 1,:_"" ' , , "~"" ': ~_ .~ ,- _: '",',_ ,,'/

,CLOiS:ELY S:P'A'C,ED': THE, W',RO,'NG WAY

r;, l!J,

D •

Sketch of' a room where vanishing 'points ,A and ,B are t.oo close together, N'otice the warped shape 'of the bed,

To correct this error 'move either vanishing point 11, or B o utward from, the, drawing and along the ley'e: .. Ievel

I~'

nne,

N 'l h h

,0": W':: I et UI SC' li;!!'e'.D W" t , , a:" t r ,8';:'''p'''p''t!ii;n'' i:t!

',' ,"', .... ' 1~.·.\...Ii . .,',', ' '. ,", I .... ,,\;I .: ·Q'I'

52""

- '-1

- . "MPLES OF VA'NISHING· POINTS W1DELY [SPACED: THE COR,RECT WAY

Sketch of same room with point .11 moved outward

.~. ,_

~. u ...

Room, with. point B' moved outward!!

53'"

! .. ' •. ']

The two drawings on the preceding :plage are examples showing the result of the vanishing points widely spaced,

The first dr,awiin.g shows point B' in the same position as in. the previous sketch, but point .A. has been moved to the left in order to widen the distance between .A and B~

This wide: spacing of 'points gives a natural appearanee to the furniture,

The second drawing shows the results when A remains unmoved and B is moved out to the right, When we do this, we create a wi.de space between A and B i' Here again the result is a natural appearance ofthe fumiture but a. ldiffe.r·ent appearing drawing,

Both drawings a're pleasing from the standpoint of perspective. The different results produced show 'how' this particular group of furniture a;'ppears from two

d- iliff'- t iti 'Ii th

1.1 eren posmons In _ ae room,

The first drawin .. g obviously was made when the artist -w··'a.s· in a position where he could get a side view 0'-£: the

. ',1.,_, ., . .:_ ~ i' .... ',.11. .Jl .. '.', ". t ..•• _~_: .' .. ' I.: . -'.: .... _ ..... : -l._.:_ iCl':: ... :- .• ::" .... 1 .:., }~.

bed, The second drawing shows his position changed 8,0 that his; 'view is more toward the foot of the bed,

If we .hold these drawings before a mirror we can. g,ee the grouping of furniture as it iB,pplears from a similar' positio n on the ·o:··'p· p .. osite sid e 0'-"£' the room

_. _.-.... .'. I· ~ . . . '. !i:I'A -. Q... . ' :.. . .... . ~ .' _ . . ,~,

We. have discovered that the spacing of vanishing pointe is most important, not on:ly in giving the drawing

54

, :~I ~.I, - ect appearance hut also to show different: vi~w·

. r~, _'I ' of whatever ·we are drawing,

If" may be in teresting .. to 1.1···_--"'··:-·O-II:;I;T that this h ··8>··8· been ,0· me

lL [' ". _- .',' .'~~' ~ ~. " " .. I ·.·~JU:_:,·_ . ~ ~-I, ._JI'I!!II'. . _. 1_' 0" ".". l =-.~ .. .II, .

. [ the problems in animated cartooning, where ,a back-

- ~. d chow- Interim in peri.'::!'p eetive and figure iii

roun _ [0[.]·,·0-8 an _I:. II. nor 10_ :.": ~[~'.eL!_~.··'ooc_ a .\:,='.6.. IS

-[--,"_"'vI-~,g across it. The customary 'h,a,ekgrouD1d, used in

.. , iimation is a single drarwing.What app,ear,s as a figure - ~ oving across this background is a series of drawings ., cc de on tra .. nsparent sheets placed over the background . ·d then photographed.

When the figure moves across the background, [and is :·~ollow·ed .by the camera, the background should change ;:10, perspective aSI the camera changes its viewpoint.

Fortunately for the animater the attention 0 _-' the audience is c ente red. upon. the: moving fi,gure and in. many cases the unchanging background loses importance, To overcome ·this problem, however, .new methO.~~SI are being devised in the animation studios,

R- !C"''lliICi· .. _....B ... E: '0 ~ L.lY..!I.EiI'~l . I .l,II

If' yo·u place vanishing poin.tB close togethe.r you are not d·raw.m,gl

..li ·b~ 0;

I. square-cornereu 0,·· J ect,

Y-- 0 f I" d .. ·'f· hOI.

QU. are sure 0.'. a PI, 6.8.sm.gl_:raWJDg 1, you sp,8ice: the ,pOInts,

wl,deJ.y.,

The v·anisb.ing' point lies at the p I ace where a line. passes t·hroagh he drawing'", This line. is orne that [extends! :fro.m. the artist'ls ey,e and ,is parallel. to, the line he is dra,w.in.,gi

55

Pao BLE'~ M'" ,~

tll-~:.: __ .. '. -Q

Dra W B, candy box with va'Di~!'hing pointe w,l.dely' SiP aced,

Place points close together and! redraw the :box.. Com,_pa:re th,e :lle!uiw!!

:Ex,per,iment by tr'I,cmg wi'tb at china marking pencil scllme.thiDI that you see through tb,e w,indOW'i

Whe'n this is done move farther ,alway from the 'win.dow and notice t:ba,t 'the: object, appears larger than your dr'8,wing",

V'se th'e diagram of' ':'be artist and, the wind,ow. Note the, change that would take plaee in the size ,of his drawing if you wer,,, to :m,Qve him closer or Iarther from .. the win.do"Wi 'WouJ,dl to .. e. poaitlon 0,£ V'8.D;ishing' POin't:i be changed?

56

S'HIOIWING :H'OW TiHE VA,NISIHIN'G 'PIOINTS MOVE IN RELATI10N'S,HIP TO ONE ANOTHER

£"\ 'Q

8'

~--~~<:-,--------------------------,~~'~'----------

,I

I

-" " 1'1 'I', II

I ' [ .!, I ' II

, I

I I ' I

I

I I I

, I I I

, I

I 'I, I' ,

I I,

II

I 1'1

I

~~ ~,~

~,"p"",

~ V'" '".,

,",,' :' -1' 01 ",," "I!!i' - ,

,~ 1"_: '

I ,

I "

I I

i '

, I,

.. (

Stand in, front of a cube (a, brick, OIl' a building) and

pO'l'"'n' ,- t a' rm '., ",iQi len go' th in the direc t'-"~ on p' ar '-,o.]'la[ '-W': 'ith 0' me QII'" 'de"

',",' _.' '_ el' ..'u. ,~), ,1&,., W ' :--_-, I.,,> ' ,'> u:. ' '\.,i,I,,'_'_:, _' ',' ;;;, '" ,,',

of ,t' he c .. , .. be, Le ,t-, UI Q 8': ssu tn 'e'" t,' h a,': ,t-' y~-O": D" a" re p'''' 0':' 11'"' n rting to "'1liii'

_I ! '"." ".: iu.D _'. ,'" I ~ .", .. ~ ••. 1 • .-:. .' .•••.• • ".- • I ,".-', ," .. " ....... .iL [ . ,"_

~ . I . . .

- zard the east N~,,~:,-""t1L,- the adioi -'~"-" side ofthe 'ubl-I- w,a:r "'.. - ',f! eas ,.\" 'ow Jl:le:ll, _' ,',e a _:. _:. J O:lmng 51 ' ,e 0 _' _,I. ,e C.I~_ - _ _:.e,

---, ' ' north " - -- d- 'p: I, ,'"' rt ,"' , th '* di " 't'"" , ' ""'t'hl, th , t'h'

runs, nortnwarn, romt m I nat mreenon WI ~_:._ ",~" e 0" ier

hand, You are now pointing at the NO vanishing points

- f'r the , uh -

0: _' ne C' :,:_e~,

'Your two arms form a ,s,q,'uare corner (rig'ht a'ngle) l!!

If.' .... :L Db ~, d h OJ hi 'I ill hi

L~ the cul e 1.8 turner the vamsi jog P01D,tS, will eli ange

their p-:--: ositions y····:'O··U". m ,'.' US:·t n ,O'W",· I' nr n ·Y'·;·O·-::·;Ul r body t '0', . m ie e ,t

."", . ..... '.:' [!:ii''''' .. .. I. .:.c. . ,. ' .. _'. _'._ .... .'. I_' .. "" :.. " ..... . . ....: '. ' '. : ;" . .

, ,,"

these new directions. Your arms still'. form ,8, squ,are'

[co[r:n'er ",

Wh,cn the position of the cube is changed the relationship [of the points 'must change. Let us see what this relationship ~;S[I'

TH'E RELA:TIO'NSH:IP OF T'H'E TWO POl", TS

P ,A

"," .

. :' ... ,.:.<;~ T' A C. M

First Position

T-- h 1. MId · h }' ~

, iere [are techmcal 'ways to.' etermme the relation-

[ship between the two vanishing points, but for freehand

d . '. r, "'., iti .. - .'. - -.- -,,--' . tc '. . mh ... - ... ]- - th-" ":." ··1· .' .

rawmg 1.: .IS necessary:' . '-0 reme •... oer on y.: . e simple ar-

. [ . ,

rangement: a straight 'line; a sheet [0:£ ·p'3.pe.r tacked at

h h eli' f hi II 1·'

the corner a s' ort distanee trom t IS nne.

Tn d'"' ._.1.. h hi 'iii h' - _',_ ne .'. iagram aoove S.1.0WS '1.'18 arrangement; the tack

- 'h Iacewh di d th -

• - '. -,',:---:- c .• ,,:- ," .~ ' •• ".-::' ':':--:-' ;', :'. 1·" .. " !" ," •.•.•• -', "I'~ "-, .'. " • ( ..:' ''''1' -_' '. t, .',' -I '," -,:-..: .. . .. " '" ,", :.

represents the .p .. ace w· ere you are, stan .... lng ann . .. e two

60

.

sides of the p,a.p'er show the directions Ol{ 'your outstretched arms. This is the same arrangement as the diagram. on page 59.,

Now revolv ,'.0 tho e! p·'a··p':···le',,·r'~' around the tacked corner 8' 0\

.. : .. 1..[ . .- ,. ,:' .'~ I: .,_, ~. c, , ..... [,::", ,. '.' .. ; .-c; . ..fL. .. u. ",.",. ,".::. ' . .-''

- .

that the distance from. the tack to the line is the same

alon.g the two edges of the paper (first position). Mark the 't\VOI points where the edges cross the 'line (1) and (2:) .

These wo points represent the relationship oif the two vanishing points when a person is looking [directly toward th e, corner o f !QI buildins or .a:D'y····· (l'q,:uar,1 re-c ornered

,-,., .... ' t. d _. ~ . I,. .," "-', .... . '_ .1:1:) .~ ._ '~ .. : ~ _ .. '.~r;.'_':' ' .• JL._l_" ._ .. ,.~",

, .

ohie et

, ,. ,. ,". ' ...

I .. d 'iii hi Ii: h >IIi h h

'".' '-1 ,., >. "'. , ... ,:' .' ., '~I""': ," -- ['. I,' • ' __ ' , : 'I" '.", - ... h ~ :1 ... " .•

n a .. perspective arawmg tms ne on w ]c_ the two

!I]IO; - h 1]

points re represents te eye- [eve, .

Abo" v 'e' Is th e .', c 0' ·'r·r· 'e"s'po~ nding p-- erspeetive dra win 'g' lion'

.... ,.<. ,. _., " .'; [,'" J..', , _.,:" I. ,.W.o,I::, [1.:7Ji..,i01I'." ":'-' . .1, ".'.'.~." "_'.> '., '

,···h·!II :'h" the obi c, t th . rt ;0;" d ';.,".', " h--· 'I'" it .. · " .. ' , ishi [',' ...... , .. ,'" rts

WI:]C., e cnject t ' a .rs urawn .as 1,,8 vamsnmg pomts

iii' th th 'I! th di

In '.' .... te same arrangement as tney are In the ",lagram~

equally distant from the center.

Notice that the lighted. and the shaded side of the

Db th !Ii.,

• • • I I -" :-,' . " . , I -. . - "t·· ",'j :. l~' . ." ." ,-

c e appear to e same In size .. ,

6,1

W h '}- h' h~" ,I, iii f th ~

e S,' ',a, now c. range t ae position 0 tne pomts: 'we'

sh "11" otic h .. -, . .' th ... '- .. ' .', ",:,'. -, ", '··n'··· f"" -,~ ".,'. ',e" ch oth ',' , ..... 'd':' . ,c': s_ !a,. no ace now .. " eymove apa"" rrom eac 0_ aer ann we

shall s ee h 0" "w··: th e 'p-'e"'r·' spectrve d' ra rwin g'''' ,0'£;' th e cuh -: e

,~,l .. , ..... ' __ .J""'.' _,'_'. , .... , .. _._,·- .. ·l-.&.~ ,.:___·,',·I,. ~ ._", ,_,,_. - - ':_.

" . - . ",'

, ,h- ,e', '''' to ' " c t, th ,. ". ' . .J:·ff:"·· --." ,t, ' ,', " , iti -'" ,""

CI: anges to meet '. ese w'._ erent pOSl .. ions,

--= ...

,R,evolve the paper from the first position on the p:r-e ..

di h d nosi h b

ce .ng ,pag'e to t re seeonu posmon as s~ 'own anove,

Point number one moves toward the center w:hich is directly above the tack,

Point number two 'moves aW'lay from this center at a, much faster rate.

The cube, is SlhO!WD drawn with .. ' the vanishin 'g" P'O""I!'iO't"'s'," I~:n-I

• ~ •• • ~ - -' • _....' .' l _ _ • ,I :._:" ._- •• " ,_" • '. ,- .g, .. I I,", .• ',_ ". ,[, b

, "

thi I~'·' hi

" S lie' ancnsmp,

62

:P,AiR,A:1l. L E:L "0

- - );

LINE

-T-h-"'dP'" ...

", ,,-'_I' d ,'osItIon

W'h';. en the 'pR''"p,e...::.r' is r e volved S:O'" tha t point numb "'e' r one

. ", ',", [" .... ; .. ~._ -' __ '"" ..", " _ ' ,'v.. l ,'. ' .. , I' •. '.:.....::: ,01 .. .' ••• -'.- :.. • • .......::........:.

h h · mb di · IT' hili

reae '~S" t~ e center, P"'- om t numner two ,C' sap' rpears ,'- '8

' ".1,', ' ,,: ,""" ! " ",', _ __ ."_: , ,',I.. '''',' , '",' I, ',,'; " . "', ',,' "" , ','" ,

;;, 'lik'" h dr' .. f'" h ilr d k h h

]' lCit .- ce t" ae nrawmg 0"" ":' t' ie 'f'8'·"J "o":a: ,.I trac w-"",:,l 'e,PA we ha "T,A,

.... ,,' '" ,-,_,>, ':,' I, '1',.1...:,_' , "~,, 1 " ' ,_:_, '," ,,",," " ,,:, ,,,' , "'",lIi,'~""" , ",,'TV

O'D" £.!&"P'O"i I'line t,· 'P:"182,'r' spec ctive

. '..:._~ '_:' _,' _ ,II . :''':''''''':''['' ...:. ..• _ . - _' "I

,", I' :_,

The Iine that determines! point number' two does not

cross the line which represents the eye-level, Hence, no point.

H h d I f th , ..... :'l., '. hi . , '. , -

rere we nave a:', rawmg 0 I' tne C,(lIJe ID t 18 reo anon .. ,

ship of points -T' h ruh e h ,- single side fa cin g us

,.,' I, ,:.' . :.' _'J,' 'I' i, ,~,e c, I' ~ "as a, <\ ,:' ., i~, ': raum ,:~

',' '·th' the tot .J~ ",'" ,. """'" '''', ,t ' .' '-', " .. .ecti '

WI,_:. ' .. e: op uc,aw,n 11] O'D,e""'pOlD, perspecnve,

Thi · h f [.. tha

.. I·- J !. "'~-., -"'. .. ,'_-j -',I '- •• r-" •.... ;- ..... r- r~.·-:-·· " ,:_ ..... '" "'" '.' ,. ,- '.' ,

,.8 18 t· ,6 arrangement a" perspective pomts tl , .. t

. " . ' .. ' ~ ,.' _-'~I"",! ' ... sk et "0" '.'f" ,,- ',',- ','."" , whil 'Ii ists .. idin ,"!" at

we use In maxmg a [s teten 0 I, a room w, ue S ,an, I. .. ,g a

th- e ce nter a:· n d dir eetly facinz a, wa II!'}

__ . ,_. ," J!' -l ..... ' ...•. :._~" 1_' Itl-; ',_ ":t:::) I, "!!II

N'ow revolve the pa',per still f,a- ther, Point num .. ber one p"a'sse,~:s~' the",' center and imm redia tely point num-

--.,' ...... '-' .. " __ '-',,' ,_" " ,'.' ..... '. .-.". . ... :~. -ill·[. ' ..... : ,'_ .... ' ..... ': ",' c. '-

ber two ,a.p.pea:rs again on the line but in the opposite direction from. its former positions,

The cube drawn, to this arrangement is like 'position

rob t t · t ~ di ' till

n.n. er '_"W'O excep.' OppOS1"e 1.0 : rrec 10n.,

Re:m.'ember ,in using this :method. that the diagram of the line' and sheet o.f p,aper is, not a perspective drawing hut merely a method of showing how the two vanishing

- h d i 1 ~ h h

points mayne move, In re ation to' eacn other-s-one

moves slow.!y;, and the other quickly ..

It shows also t.hat the tW'IQ points should 'he spaced.

Id II ill • d ·

'Wl : e y apart 1:0. a perspective .' rawmg,

&.AI ~

N,otlce· that 'we cannot have hoth points 0'0 the same side of the drawing" As soon. as 'w,e tum the cube in order to create that relationship we find that the point

h h id O' I..,

passes to t e ot .. er sic e. ...:. 'ne perspectrve point IS on

the left and the other on the right o,:f the center of in .. , terest, This reo ationship does not 'hold, of course in one .. point perspective".

WIlen you point in the same direction as "the line 'YOU are 8, teteh ... , ing, you are pointing toward the vanishing point: of that line.

The tw 0 vanish ing P ointa 1 ie o-n the eye-level line out in the dilI'\cction ,of the t·wo Iines forming :th.e square corner on which you stand ..

As the object is, turned this, corner l,evolves around tbe point. on which you, stand. 'y ou. can thus follow the chang'e in direction of th1e poin .. ts~,

The two vanishing points hold opposite sides, of the center of Interest, They cannot get together,

5 T EI P'I E-~ '-I c " H' T'

1 , _ - _. I ,

'BI"',Ui C-ILD· ··.I-IN··'I·C·,·-· P'E-;~R"S-:';P'E~~cr"'''_ ")I¥E"':",

'. '.' , . '. . ' . a, '-: , . .. '_., I. ' "" ,"

wrrn 'B-'-:··RICKS

'. '." ".,_', ",,'- '_ "

i(l' ' .

. ' ,

I " ...

. ' .. '

-

...

'. Iii

..

~ r~J

BUILDIN'G P'ERSP:ECTIVE,

Place a :brick. on, the table before. you, Sketch the

h · k ith ~ II I d d th ,~ · "hi

nncx Wlt~'1 ItS. p,ara_es extended to rneir vams""'og'

points,

Place ,3. second brick on the: first. This second brick

...ld I'll 1 1'"' hi .. h ii, 'n d- d

aces 'more p,mra rei nnes W'~, C:, In turn can oe exten ieo

tiO the two vanishing points of hrick number one.

A' d"- d bl .!, 'ks

r ,'~ more nncxs.

69

....

As they' approach the level of 'your eye. the top of' the u.pper' brick app'ears D arr ow' because the lines de.temli;D,~' :iog that. surface are coming' closer together.

Wb.en the pile reaches, your eye Ievel the top of the bri iI1c·[~k. can't be seen a t a I' b' eoa .. ru se the Iin es of the" two

• ..... . ce ... ' .... I.... i:!L_.,~. _. ,["., ,- .. , '" ' .... " ,~." , '.' _'--._.... .-" .. -' .. , ". I' . ".

-[ "~' "11 ,·ll·d· (. ',-,,'''1 'h" , ',"'. - - .. ' .. : t _'. eth , .

,para, 1-61 eg[es I .ave come-"oge..er..

N····· ... '";] ... , t'h'" L-:' --k," ·h .. lO'···h··, .- th ., .' ..... , .. '.' '. ' '1 ... -"'" ··Ie-

ow .Pl 6 :. ,e: .DrICS ,. 19 Je,r i . a,n. your eye .. , I eve ..

'7·'0'"

. - ....

.. ..,

m g. ' p-:'iOl~n t ii'

I," :. .

- b '

" .' -( .•. '. ," ': '-''-,--1'--: , : ' ',-',- .'. .,.":,' .. , ".. ,'"' '-< c· , ... , ..... ' .. ;IjI I., .. ,.,': I ... :: .". I

T . ,IS IS, true no matter ,h,IOW high we pile them,

i I

:::::-.

"" ' <,

Lay several more bricks on the table, end to end, or side against side,

The new lines formed by' the additional 'blricks all extend to the same vanishing points.

71,

Place more bricks o n t'o"p of the ones Y'O" U alread "y hC'1 iave

, I _' ' ..•.•...•. : •. 1: ,.' .:, .. ', ''' __ '' . __ " . :'''':'c~' '.", .. : ',' ~l,~di'". 0'_, ",:_,,:' <. ,:', ;c,,"~"~

72

-L..t_ · 1

~.

s.,

.~;._.___,

'1 . ,', 1"

1 1 '

I .

1 I

W· .. h f-' h- ildi dr ..

, .' .. ,.- '... - '. ' " . I' . I' -, . , ,. I '~""'" '.. : -, " I ':"'.' • . - . , '. ,'. .." '.C·.· '.,. . -. ' . '. . ..

. ", .. ,' e n,QW " ·H,ve Ell, groll,p 01_ .. , ,-·.W: .' .. n'Igs... a,w,n ]ln, pe.rs,pec-

ti v e

.... "., .

7·3····

- ._,".'

A C":IT"Y" I--N':-' PER'SP"E"'C'T' ['V"E':"

, .. , __::.." . , . ., .' .-.,:I_~ .. : .. '. ., j"

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Brick a or block s sr e arra n g"·e: d end to. en d and side

. ,', .'·L·ji:J! _,': .', ..... "- .. ,'., "" ~~.- ',' ",':', '" h _..:.' ",', . ~ ,I~. I •.•. __ .......: r:.&,." ....

c .-, ·i . ,- .- .. ide N··I .. · .. rd d '." .. ', ··'h··· ". . buil din: ... 'h"·· .

against S,l .e,., . ow ,R ,:~.. more at t: e top, .:~ ·.ng t~· e

"1 · hei h

pnes to various ,·.eig •. ts,

74

A city can thus he: drawn, hy the use of two per,s:p'ec:·, tive points on a lin 'e',c' 0'" "fl: vision

-a, ._ ~I ..... : [' I _-':", .:. ," I 1Jl.......:.........: ..... ", e- ... 0., .. : _ ... ~

Wh.en, you sketch at city' from the window o:f 8, high office building" keep in mind that the buildings you see: are no' thing mor D. th an b ricks piled 'u'p In the m an me 'r

,.,'., ~ _' ",', ,.":1,,.... 1":,,, I ," I ," ~ ,'! ,'. ' ".. ! ,. . ',' "" '. ,; '," ,,',

just explained ...

C-~H'-'AN"', ":,"G,-I,N'j'G,' 'T"H'-'E-',' EI",Y\-?E ... L--:'E-I-·V-~'~E'L

" -. . .. _ , '_. .' -' "_ - - _' -

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We now wish. to draw the same gro'nping as we: should S,Be it from the street Ievel,

First, decide how high a, person's eye-level 'wo'u!d 'be ,if he were standing 'beside one of' the buildings,

I . '1 "

The height of his eyes w'o'u'ld, be about, wh,ere the mark

is 01:0 the, door,

75

· ' I

,

'N" ' d 11' b ildi 'I '"' - h 1 I

.• ow we .re raw t .. e i 'U,}.Il' lngs'l iowermg t ie eye- eve).

810 that it p,as·s,es 'throll,gh the mark on the door, The

· 1 ' .~ ,. th '11'" '"' ,'h·' I

va nis nn 'g P·O-]'ID·ts' remain on [ re me 10" t err same re 'a'

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tive position as hefore, The upright lines of the build ... ings are in the, same position, Only the horizontal lines change for this change of eye-level,

DiJferent views of the buildings may he. drawn In this manner ,by raising or' lowering the ,ey,e .. "level.

716'::

- ., ..

A- 111 111 1 I!" ~ d ., ..

,I para 1l€:,. , InM m a p erspeetrve ' r,;:I'W'lD,g' meet ,art one P omt re-

"'BJ ... (ne!~H'; of ho'w marry lines there are or how' Edffh they'" 'may' be from

~." - ._:. ',_ " .• " _._ " :':: ," "_ __.;' _" ]."_ _, .•..• I _~",." ...... .o", .. _. j, .;~"" - __ "'[:,' .,}J. [',: 1 •. 1.: . ,', ...... _.J

the grou.nd ~

A'II' ho .:i'_, " . tal ''11';;'1' -,,-,,", ,,,,,'t·· th .. ·· ",'" '·1 .,_11 11~ ,',:-h· ,-- 'th .. ··-·,',-'

",' '. 0 E'lZ'O,n, lEI· llmes ,me,r.ge m 0., _re eyei!i,eveJl Jl:tnB w. ,en _ " e,y

reach - ,II,.'L e e ve -Ievel

I~ ' .. ' Ul':"'"J:' I \..I, ~I".,

P 111 11 'I" h b 1 ",_,L '1 -1 '"1 d h b

. ~-'aI'a.J.e1. ' mes tt at ,;)re ,_e"JD'Ww!C eye- eve I tr 't up'war. .; w-en, a_ ave,

the, eye .. Ieve] they tilt downward toward the vanishmg point,

A ':-b ' ~ld'" - -. ',' L. - . , ~d ,-' . d .-, - -,,," - .l~ . "f-: 'h- '; -l .. _,

mn I ung can De consmerec ,~iILS a staex 0. ,·rl,eM,~

Whiolever can dr,al'w bricks can draw a, city"

Place bo oks in a st.ale'k: on your d,,-esk, so th a t the top' edge of the top boo:k reaches your eye .. Ievel, Make a sketch.

N ow' star! a up' and sketch the same group ..

:Pla,c.e dl.e hooks ion somethieg that is a.hoVle the ey-e .. Ievel and 'Ii- t·· ·"h , .. L _.-

8,K,e c, ., LJlU~m ~

C' tbl th d ,.

.ompare tne n ree .1 rawrags,

M,ak,e a. drawing of some building dlat you can see -from your

ililim:',.,!Io-· ·W.'" DI[-,gIW" ~t-' ,~a' if ~~, were 'L.I'-I~C· k 'Il!

'''' .. " LQj. '_."..!I' __ "' ,!Qi..'. .I '~bI, JII.~" ~ ,G D·, .. '~Ii'

N d- 'h 'I f b ,,', _jI ~ '" 1L'

, OW' raw a, WI - 08 g:r-oup 01',_ ,_'_Uliuj,J.DgS, in this manner,

77

PLACING ,FIGU,RES ANDI O,B:],EICTS

:IN A :DRA W,ING

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We have a drawing' of a building' and we wish to sketch people in, various places on the street so that they' will he in. correct proportion 'with the hluilding'~

The places, where we wish to sketch these people are marked with X~

In order to place figures on. the street we: must first know how hi:----.'"'g·-.ch- a pers o n we-: :-o":u1-~-'i:d----'" h--'e-'- eomp are d with the

••••• [ •••••• t ' _.' J ••.• ,' •• ,' •••••••••• [ • ',' ._. ,_. ,'.:._."~- " ':._ •• ',' • ~,~,!. '. .'. _" _,' l

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height of the building"

W,e know that the average person wou d reach ,R oer-

81

,~ h Ii' "h h d ak k h-

"., .... " ;'- " c'''I-'': ", ' ,'- -, ,;'-,' - ,-"',' :,. __ - , " 'j' ',-' -, ',' , , .'. ,-- - , 'I ',,', ""1 '- ~ .. , .. ,.-,- .-' ",-.

tam height on, t e noorway, 8:0' we make a mars ,at, u 'at

,·1 ." .

,p.~a,c,e:~

A 'I~' Ii, -h h hi k - h I hi

1: ,'-,'_ ~"", ':', "1", -~I i' It .';]' '-. "I' -::. :. . ,', ',,:' ::. . ..... ,~.-::, --=, 1':.'· '-',': .. '-T'--I"'-

nne paSls,l,ng througt tIS man to t ie varus .ItD,g

poin .. t of that wall would ziv 'Q the heizht O'f' ~I] pel~o'n-~:

r _I t u ',I", ,I',: ,u_, . ·",.r :e-'~'I .' .: "0' ___:,.- ,a,:, I ersons

standing close to the: wall of the building,

~I

~ "-;.;.-- -

ll,NE

- I'N--'-!E

:~A'-' 's!,:, L I" B-:·I - - --' -.'Gil

, -,

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-- - -

I

HE~G[H'T LI,N,~,,~ ............. +---_'" OF FIG.U':R,E,S

-m:,'-U' 1,1 ,L,'D I N OF w

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A, ,pe:rson at the corner of the building would 'be: the

hill h f h I~' here i h h

eight 0,;" the nne 'W', ere, ]t toucnes t re corner,

'From this height at the corner extend a line :in the

'h di ,.. to th ,,. hli ~ f th 'h '11

ott er ,1 .. recnon to t te vams '['lng' point or tl.·· .. te other wa . ~

82·····

1_ ... _>"

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