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Duration of Exam: 3Hours
1. Calibration of micrometer using slip gauge or height master. 2. Calibration of Vernier caliper using slip gauge or height master. 3. Calibration of height gauge using slip gauge or height master. 4. Calibration of straight edge by Wedge method. 5. Measurement of dovetail angle and checking the taper angle of taper plug. 6. Angle measurement using – Combination sets, Universal bevel protector, Optical bevel protector, Sine bar and Since Center. 7. Screw thread measurement using – Two wire method, three wire method, Pitch gauge and Profile projector. 8. Auto Collimator 9. Gear tooth measurement using – Gear tooth Vernier Caliper, Constant chord method 10. Calibration of Height gauge 11. Profile Projector andTool Maker Microscope 12. Study and measurement of surface finish by surface finish tester, 13. Roundness or Circularity testing.
Ravi.K, Dept. of I&P Engg., PESCE, Mandya, Karnataka
Metrology lab manual…. Expt. No – 01 CALIBRATION OF MICROMETER Theory:
Write brief theory about slip gauges; classification, specification, uses and care to be taken before and after using. A micrometer is used to measure the external diameter of small cylinders, sphere etc. It has a V – shaped structure to which a handle is attached. Two anvils are fixed to the inner surface of the block. The job to be measured is placed between the anvils and held in position by rotating the handle. The end of the screw forms one measuring tip and the other measuring tip is constituted by a stationary anvil in the base of the frame. The screw is threaded for certain distance and plain for the remaining distance. The screw’s plain portion is called ‘sleeve’ and its end is the measuring surface.
Procedure:1. Find out the least count of the given instrument. 2. Clean the micrometer stand so that there are no burrs on the anvils. Clean the measuring faces of micrometer with a cleaning cloth. 3. Fix the micrometer to the stand horizontally, to avoid manual errors during handling. 4. Check for zero errors of micrometer by closing the micrometer to ‘0’ and note down the zero error, if any (ex.: -0.01mm or + 0.01mm) 5. The selected (values) standard step gauges are taken and cleaned with a cloth and arranged in such a way that there would be no gap (wringing phenomenon) and placed between the anvils. 6. The readings shown by the micrometer are noted and compared with the actual reading of slip gauges. 7. Error and percentage error are calculated results and calculations are tabulated in the tabular column. 8. The experiment is repeated for different readings of slip gauges (minimum 10 readings). Note: Always complete the entire range of the instrument by selecting appropriate values unless specified
Ravi.K, Dept. of I&P Engg., PESCE, Mandya, Karnataka
Metrology lab manual….
Aim: To calibrate the given Micrometer using slip gauges.
Apparatus Used: Slip gauge set, Micrometer, Micrometer stand, cleaning cloth
Distance moved/rotation of thimble Total No. of divisions on thimble
∴LC = Zero Error =
Tabulation Sl.No Actual Reading Micrometer Reading Error Percentage Error
Specimen calculation: Actual reading of slip gauge (x) Micrometer reading Error = Micrometer reading - Actual reading Percentage error =
Error Actual reading
Ravi.K, Dept. of I&P Engg., PESCE, Mandya, Karnataka
All parts of the instrument are made of good quality steel. 10.D – 1 V..S. cleaning cloth Procedure:9. PESCE. Mandya. Check for zero errors of Vernier caliper by closing the micrometer to ‘0’ and note down the zero error. Find out the least count of the given instrument. The selected (values) standard step gauges are taken and cleaned with a cloth and arranged in such a way that there would be no gap (wringing phenomenon) and placed between the jaws.: -0. The experiment is repeated for different readings of slip gauges (minimum 10 readings). 13. Expt. Slip gauges. (consider the coinciding divisions of main and Vernier) _______mm ______mm Specimen Calculation: Error = Reading of caliper . No – 02 CALIBRATION OF VERNIER CALIPER 4 Aim: To calibrate the given Vernier calipers using given slip gauges. if any (ex. Apparatus: Vernier Caliper. Clean measuring faces of Vernier caliper with a cleaning cloth. Dept. The readings of Vernier are noted and compared with the actual reading of slip gauges.C. of I&P Engg. 15. It is commonly used in machine shop to measure the diameters of work piece. 14.02mm or + 0.K.S. Karnataka . Error and percentage error are calculated results and calculations are tabulated in the tabular column. Note: Always complete the entire range of the instrument by selecting appropriate values unless specified L. 11.Actual reading Ravi.Metrology lab manual….02mm) 12. = = Zero Error Tabulation Sl No Actual Reading Reading of Caliper Error Percentage Error = 1 M.D. Theory: Vernier calipers are used to measure the outside diameter as well as inside diameter of cylinders.
PESCE.. of I&P Engg. Dept. No Actual (m) Instrument reading in (mm) Error % Error M.S.R Given – Given cal given cal 1 Calculated from Vernier Ravi. Mandya. Karnataka . T.Metrology lab manual….D Given V.K.D.S. Percentage error = Error Actual reading 5 Sl.
5 = 0.01mm Least count of calibration tester = Dis tan ce moved on main scale No of divisions on micrometer dis rotations = 0. Karnataka .C Correct disc reading (Instrumental Reading)= Micrometer disc reading ± Instrumented error given in chart Error = Actual Reading – Instrumental Reading % Error = Sl.001mm 500 Actual Disc Reading = Dial Gauge Reading x L.K.. No Dial gauge Reading x LC mm Error x100 Actual reading Micrometer disc reading x LC (0. 4. 3. CALCULATIONS: Least count of Dial Gauge = 1 rotation(or ) No of divisions made on main scale No of divisions moved on dial scale = 1/100 = 0. Reading are tabulated in the tabular column 5. Mandya.Metrology lab manual…. The micrometer readings are noted and compared with actual results. The least count of the instrument is calculated 2. Procedure is repeated for different values gauges. 6 CALIBRATION OF CALIPERS Procedure: 1.001) mm Instrumental Error from chart Instrumental reading Error % Error Ravi. PESCE. Standard slip gauges of known values are taken cleaned properly and arranged in such a way that these should be no air gap between them. of I&P Engg. Dept.
Rotate the dial tester circular disc to touch the points of contact of dial indicators & lock the spindle. By mounting a dial Indicator on any suitable base and with various attachments it can be used on thousands of special gauges which manufacturers them selves design to meet the requirement of the job. micrometers and Vernier scales etc.C of the dial indicator is calculated 2. Dept. Now loosen the 3 screws under the disc of dial tester and make the disc reading zero and again tighter the screws. These are generally used as comparators is compare a part to a master setting. gap gauges.. PESCE.Dial indicators are instruments used for making and checking linear measurements. Mandya.K. 5. 7 Theory:. Fix the pointer to some specified reading and take the disc reading. Now make the reading of dial indicator zero.Metrology lab manual…. Ravi. 6.C of calibration tester is calculated. also used for actual measurements when dial indicator is used as an essential part in the mechanism of any set up for compassion measurement purposes it is referred to as dial gauge. Rotate the disc for 10mm displacement and take the disc reading. 4. A dial indicator by it self is not of much use unless it is properly mounted and set before using for inspection purpose. Karnataka . like plug gauges. Dial indicators are smaller indicating devices containing a graduated dial lever magnification system. These require less skill than other precision instruments for their usage. Procedure: 1. of I&P Engg. No: 03 CALIBRATION OF DIAL GAUGE AIM: . 3. Most of the dial indicators take the form of a circular or semicircular scale upon which a pointer fives a direct indication of the movements of a contact arm or a spindle small changes of dimensions of the component in contact with the spindle are made to assume large proportions to scale by employing some mechanical reading to be obtained. Apparatus: . Exp. Some indicators known as dial micrometers or dial thickness gauge are however. The L. 7.Calibration of dial gauge using dial indicator. dial calibration tester.Dial gauge. The instrument error is noted from the chart and total error is calculated. The L.
i. The straight edge is divided into convenient equal number parts (measuring accuracy increases with maximum number of parts). support blocks. Dept.. Steel straight edges are available up to 2 m length and may be rectangular in section with beveled edge. C. straight edges are of two grades. Theory Straight edges: These are used for checking the straightens and flatness of parts in conjunctions with the surface plates.e. Grade A for inspection and Grade B for workshop purposes. According to IS: 2220 – 1962. Tool – maker’s straight edge. or 0. PESCE. where is the length in meters. I straight edges.K. These are of rectangular cross section and the side faces of the straight edge are straight parallel and also square with the working surfaces. are made up to 3 m length and widely used for testing machine tool slide ways. 2/9 of total length of straight edge from each end. The straight edges are classified as follows: 1.Metrology lab manual…. Apparatus : Straight edge with blade width not less then 6mm. 8 Experiment No –4 CHECKING OF STRAIGHT EDGES BY WEDGE METHOD Aim: To check the straightness of the straight edge by wedge method.5541 span. the error in the straightness of the working faces over its whole length should not exceed (2 + 101) microns for Grade A and (5 + 101) microns for Grade B. Angle straight edge..5541 span). surface plate to accommodate the straight edge. 2. They are heavily ribbed and bow–shaped (camel back construction) to prevent distortion. spirit levels and the flatness of a surface background or by a light coat of prussian blue on the work surface. of I&P Engg. Mandya. The Ravi. Karnataka . Feet are placed at points of minimum deflection..e. These may be made of steel or cast iron. which contains the support points also. Wide – edge straight edge. 3. slip gauges. at a distance of 2/9 total length of straight edge from each end or 0. These are provided with feet for rest when they are idle to prevent distortion. Procedure: The distance of support points is calculated (i. When the straight edge is supported at minimum natural deflection points (Airy points) over the span. dial indicator.
. Mandya. Dept. straight edge and support blocks are cleaned. dial gauge is set below the straight edge so that the plunger is in its middle position and the readings were taken at each point. The difference between the nominal and measured difference in heights at various points is the error. Any convenient intended slope (by allowing. Karnataka . say 0. the value of slips may increase or decreased.05 mm difference in height for each point) is introduced at the support points using slip gauges. The straight edge is supported over the blocks at the calculated distance. If the surface is flat and the straight edge is having true edges.Metrology lab manual…. then the gap between the successive points will vary by the intended difference in height. Position Nominal Slips (mm) Actual Slips (mm) Error Error (µ) + Position (mm) Ravi. PESCE. 9 surface plate. Repeat this at each point (by increasing the height of gauges with respect to the slope set earlier) throughout the length of the straight edge. of I&P Engg. Slip gauge for the required dimension for the start point is set below the straight edge so that the gauge is inserted with free force.K. The measurements were made throughout the length of the straight edge. In another method. The difference between the nominal and measured difference in heights at various points is the error. If any difference is noted at any point.
10 Experiment . Now using the equation given below. Slip gauge set. L. Vernier caliper / Micrometer.K. Surface plate. Dept.Metrology lab manual…. tan l −l θ = 1 2 2 2(h 1 − h 2 ) l1 Standard rollers h1 θ Plug gauge 2 l2 h2 Slip gauge Ravi.C of the instrument (Vernier caliper /Micrometer) : _____________________ Procedure : Clean the specimen surface with a clean cloth and place it on the surface plate. Calculate the angle to prove that the taper of the specimen is uniform and more accurate. Karnataka . Select 2 set slip gauges (each set of equal size) of different height and two equal size standard rollers. Keeping one of the first set readings as first reading.5 Measurement of External Taper Aim Apparatus : To measure the external taper angle of given specimen : Tapered specimen (preferably a plug gauge). Mandya. PESCE.. Repeat the above step at lower end (h 2 ) of the specimen with another set of slip gauge. calculate the taper angle of the specimen. which ranges between the first 2 sets. Position the slip gauges at each side of upper end (h 1 ) of specimen and place the rollers. Standard rollers of equal size. Note down the reading over the rollers. take the second reading with this set of slip gauges and rollers. Select another set of slip gauges. of I&P Engg.
Karnataka . The angle which the sloping face makes with an imaginary vertical centre plane is important in case of dovetail.K. l 1 and h. Then the pins are raised on two sets of equal slip gauge blocks. above and distance l 1 is measured across pins with a micrometer. Surface plate. of I&P Engg.. Ravi.Metrology lab manual…. PESCE. the angle A can be calculated. Rollers Slip gauges h A l1 B A C In dovetail. Let the height of the slip gauges be h.C of the instrument (Vernier caliper /Micrometer) : l2 Std. slip gauges and micrometers. the sloping sides act as guide and prevent the lifting of the female mating part during mating operation. L. This method is also suitable for measuring the angle of a taper plug gauge or any round or flat tapered work which can be placed on a surface. Mandya. Dept. BC Then tan A= = AC l 2 − l1 2 h Thus knowing l 2 . Standard rollers of equal size. First the two pins are placed touching both the sides of dovetail as shown in fig. Here care should be taken that the pins do not extend above the top surface of dovetail. Slip gauge set. Vernier caliper / Micrometer. Again distance l 2 across the pins is measured. For measuring this angle we require two pins of equal size. 11 Measurement of Dovetail Angle Aim : To Determine the Included Angle of an Internal Dovetail Apparatus : Tapered specimen (dovetailed).
Optical dividing head. Thus knowing θ. The size of sine – bar / center is defined by the center distance between two rollers (100. Repeat the step to obtain the required height. Vernier bevel protractor / Mechanical bevel protractor 2. Set a dial indicator at one end of the work and move to the other end and note the deviation.Instruments used for measuring angles. Sine Bar & Sine Centre (Measurement of Angle) Theory : Write theory about Sine bars and centres Introduction: . 4. Dept. 200. h can be found out H = SIN θ * L The measure unknown angle Place the sine bar on a surface plate. 6 Aim: To find out the unknown angle and set up the given angle Use of Slip Gauge. 12 EXPERIMENT NO.. 300mm). Angle Sine H L Where H = Height of the slip gauge to be used L = Length of the sine bar. Karnataka . To Measure The Known Angle.K. to provide precise measurement of angles. PESCE. Optical bevel protractor. of I&P Engg. Sine bars/Centres. then the height of the slip gauges by which it should be adjusted is equal to δh * L 1 Now place the slip gauge of ‘H’ under one side of the rollers. These are used either to measure the angles or for setting up any work to given angle very accurately.Metrology lab manual…. Slip gauges are so Ravi. If the deviation noted down by the dial indicator is the “δh” over the length of ‘l’ of the job. Again move dial indicator over the work and note the deviation. The work piece is placed on the sine bar and clamped. Mandya. 1. 3. SINE – BARS Sine bars used in conjunction with slip gauges.
standard wires. at the other end a fiducial indicator is fixed which is a spring loaded instrument with 1 zero setting facility. or pitch line. Best size wire: This wire has the dia. and standard gauge for the work piece. Two wire and three wire method.and interference on assembly. Pitch and angle errors cause progressive --.4 7. which makes contact with the flanks of the thread on effective dia. Take the readings for major diameter over the work piece.. 13 adjusted that dial indicator reads zero across the work surface. and the component will be weak in strength. standard prism. Using the equations find out the actual values of the workpiece. Ravi. minor diameter pitch and flank angle. In mass production system all these elements must be checked.…) so on.K.Metrology lab manual…. Procedure: 1. 2. Repeat the steps 1. H may include (h1 + h2+ …. Now remove the work piece and fix the Master cylinder between the centres._ or (h1 – h2 . Floating carriage thread measuring m/c (floating carriage diameter measuring machine) has a rigid base and two carriages which can float transversely and longitudinally on the to slide (transverse direction) at one end a micrometer with large drum is fixed and its reads 0. Errors on the between the flanks. Dept. Experiment No. PESCE.. Now insert the standard prism into the threads of workpiece and take the readings 5. 3. There are many methods for checking the elements of thread. Insert the standard measuring pins into the threads of workpiece and take the reading. Apparatus: Floating carriage thread measuring machine work piece.. 4.0002mm. of I&P Engg. Mandya. Theory: Errors of thread: The errors of thread covers following elements major dia. The micrometer method 2. Karnataka . 6. The best wire is always to be used for effective diameter and for this condition the wire touches the flank at mean diameter line within – 1/5 of flank length. Fix the workpiece/ between centres. Errors in major & minor diameter will cause interference with the making……. 7 MEASUREMENT OF SCREW THREAD USING TWO WIRES & MICROMETERS (FLOATING CARRIAGE THREAD MEASURING MACHINE) Aim: To find out the parameters of screw thread using two-wire method. 1. Now calculate the angle.
R s = Reading over the standard. Dept.metric) p = Pitch of the thread d = Mean dia of the standard wires. Mandya. R w = Reading over the workpiece For Effective dia. PESCE. E = D± [(R s – P) ~ R w ] R s – Reading over the standard with standard wire R w – Reading over the standard work piece with stander wire P = Sin 60 * p – d (where sin60 is the angle of thread . 14 To find major Diameter F = D± (R s ~ R w ) D = Diameter of the standard. Karnataka .K.. of I&P Engg. For minor dia C = D ± [R s ~ R w ] R s = Reading over the standard with standard prism R w = Reading over the standard work piece with standard prism Ravi.Metrology lab manual….
The light beam thus. Set the compensator ring to 100. In the auto collimator model 6D. Cares to be taken while using auto collimator. of I&P Engg. Light rays from the light source will be reflected partially in the optical axis by the half – reflecting layer in the prism. By reading the value of ‘d’ with the scale provided on the article the tilt angle of the mirror can be determined. Tan 20 = 2.Metrology lab manual…. 3. Use of feeler gauge for straightness measurement. Different methods straightness measurement. Ravi. reflected back by the mirror surface will pass through the objective again and further through the half reflecting layer in the prism. 2 vertical and Horizontal scales are engraved at right angles on the reticule with one division of 1’ minute and the fractional value of 1’ can be read out down to 0. f. Apparatus Required: 1. Dept. What are straight edges and what for it is used? 5. Surface plate. ‘f’ is the focal length of the objective. 2. Karnataka .0 Where. Mandya. causing a displacement of ‘d’ to the image of the cross hair. Try square. Auto collimator. This interrelation can be expressed by the formula. PESCE. 15 EXPERIMENT NO – 8 USE OF AUTO COLLIMATOR TO CHECK FLATNESS & ALIGNMENT Aim: To determine parallelism. 4. PRINCIPLE OF MEASUREMENT: The optical arrangement adapted for auto collimator is as shown in the fig. 3. Highly polished mirror. Theory: 1. Applications of auto collimator.K. If the mirror tilted by a minute angle of ‘0’ from position A to B. the reflected beam. being inclined ‘20’. d = f. will re – enter the objective.. perpendicularity of given specimen using auto collimator. 4. forming an image S1 of the crtoss hair S on the reticule. passing through the objective the light rays become parallel and reach the mirror ‘M’ placed at a distance in front of the objective. Then. INITIAL SETUP: 1.5” by moving the retails precisely with the micrometer. 2.
with the help of the auto collimator scale and the micrometer scale and the micrometer. After the filed of view lock the all-locking knobs firmly.9 to 1.K. Join the ends points by a straight line and tilt this line such that it becomes parallel to the x – axis.B. Find the amount the linear variation corresponding to the angular values using the relation. in the order from the auto collimator. 16 2. Write the accumulated values in the next row and draw a graph with successive lengths on x = axis and the accumulated reading at different points on Y – axis.D………. L = Length of successive measuring points. at most care must be taken as there are chance of collimator tube hitting the surface plate and may cause damage. Using the fine adjustment knobs provided at the bottom of the collimator bracket.Metrology lab manual…. Position L Angle θ Difference from Last reading (θ n -θ 1 ) Linear displacement L*θ*0. 5. Set the successive measuring points at some interval and call such points as A. The height between peak points on positive and negative co – ordinates will indicate the error of straightness. Note: While swing the collimator tube.) Now Transfer the perpendicular heights from this line to get the total deviation present on the component.. 3. (As shown if fig. of I&P Engg. Mandya. 6. h = difference in height between two successive points. Dept. 4.C. 4. Get the cross wire in the field of view by swinging the collimator tube along vertical and horizontal axis.4 mts. Karnataka . Place the reflecting mirror on the work piece to be tested at a distance between 0. bring the cross – wires to align at the centre of the scale. 2. PESCE.000005 mm Cumulative error Ravi. Approximately align the collimator such that the green light is visible in the reflecting mirror when viewed from one side of the collimator tube. 5. Move the mirror across various distance and make auto collimations at respective points in the tabular column. This represents the differences in ‘0’ from thee zero position with plus or minus sign according to the moving direction of the cross – wire from thee zero position. h =L Sin0 Where. Set the reading of the micrometer to ‘zero’ 3. in the tabular column. 0 = Angle noted between two successive points Then tabulate the readings of h. Then the measurements are made as explained below. getting the cross – wires in READING AND CALCULATIONS: (For straightness Measurements) 1.
Ravi. Mandya. Dept.Metrology lab manual…. Karnataka . PESCE. of I&P Engg..K. 17 Mm Min&secs.
The movable anvil is spring loaded and or dial gauge is fixed against it. eccentricity error. periodic error.K. Spacing. Karnataka . one fixed and the other movable are mounted on it. Span Micrometer 3. Testing of Gear is determination of then various elements in which the errors are caused due to manufacturing erros. Composite error: This is the centre distance variation in one complete revolution of the gear under test. lead backlash. of I&P Engg. then the errors in tooth from pitch and concentricity will cause the variation of centre distance. Tooth to tooth error: Is is the centre distance variation as the gear is rotated through any increment of 360° n MEASUREMENT OF GEAR ELEMENTS Aim: To measure the different elements of given gear Apparatus: 1. run out or eccentricity. Dept. The rolling test can be done using the machine “Double flank gear Tester” (similar parkinson Gear tester) When two gears are engaged in a tight mesh (double flank). radial run out. Dial Gauge Ravi. tooth thickness. The errors are profile error. run out error. tooth alignment error. 1) Reproducing method and 2) Generating method. tooth thickness error. 18 Experiment No. cyclic error. The master gear is mounted on the spindle on fixed anvil and gear to be tested is mounted on the movable anvil. Mandya. pitch error. Double Flank Gear Tester 5.Metrology lab manual…. It consists of a base two anvils. PESCE. The inspection consists of carrying out the running test of gear with another gear which is more accurate and is known as master gear. Gear tooth Vernier caliper 2. Pitch. Profile. The gears rotated by hand and variations in dial gauge are observed.. Outside Micrometer 4. 9 TESTING OF GEARS Aim: To test the given Gear using Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper Theory: The sources of error are generally due to the methods of manufacturing.
Dept.K. The measuring principle is based upon the determination of the exact depth h from the crest of the tooth at which the chordal thickness should be measured.5° or 20°) Module m = (Do -= m (N + 2) 1. Errors of the involute profile of the tooth. Root circle dia Procedure: Observe and note the basic data Number of teeth. Variation of pressure angle from one tooth to another that is variation base circle dia. The G. Karnataka . Tooth thickness 4. N = Pressure Angle α = (usually 14.Metrology lab manual…. measurement of tooth thickness using gear tooth vernier caliper. Error of flanks in respect to gear axis 5. Some of the individual errors are: 1.V caliper measure chordal thickness. The variable slide is to set the depth ‘d’ and horizontal slide is used to obtain the thickness at that position. In gear it is necessary to realise the individual errors so that the gear production can be controlled and also for the inspection of high quality gears. of I&P Engg. 19 Theory: 1. Pitch error 6. Different type of error A gear is defined by the number and the form of its teeth. 3. PESCE. 2. the flank line and the tooth profile. The chordal addendum or depth (d) to be set on the vertical slide of the caliper is obtained using the equation d(Theoretical) = N m/2 || 1+2 /N-Cos (90/N)|| Ravi. Accumulative of a span gear Basic elements of a span gear 1. The flank lines are parallel to the gear axis. Pitch are tooth thickness error 4.. Different elements of gear 2. The tooth from is given by the geometry of the gear blank. Mandya. Circular pitch 3. Pressure angle 2. such as standard gears and gear cutting tools. Concentricity error 7. The flank line is the line of intersection of the tooth flank with a basic circle dia equal to the pitch circle diameter. Crest circle dia 5.T.
20 d chordal thickness. of I&P Engg. PESCE.φ . S = no. The simplest method of measuring the tooth thickness and its allowance is by using the tooth span micrometer. Measuring of tooth span using span micrometer. Therefore the tooth span ‘W’ consists of base pitches and the tooth thickness at the bas circle and can be calculated for span gear using the equation.II /2N+II S/N || Where φ is pressure angle. W (Theoretical) = Nm Sin (90/N) Where N = no. Karnataka .. Its consists of two flat parallel axis-. the distance between them (W) includes a no of teeth ‘N’ such that the measuring points lie on a line tangent to the base circle. Dept. Tooth span W = Nm Cos φ || tan φ . m = Module 2. Mandya. of tooth of gear. of teeth selected Ravi.K.Metrology lab manual….
In this setting.01 mm • Travel of micrometer head 20 mm • Pitch of micrometer head 0. • The sliding of the stack is effected by precision feed screw mechanism of a micrometer head. • In the staggered type of gauge block stack. Zero set the Height Master as mentioned below: a) Referring to Fig. Measuring is provided by regularly spaced. ADITYA MAKE Height Masters are available in two models. Using the reference blocks of 10 mm. Heavy duty Height Master HM1: Least count 0.K. Mandya. INSTALLATION & PERFORMANCE TEST Make the performance test of the Height Master placed on a surface plate as follows: 1.001 mm • Accuracy of micrometer head ± 0. b) Check to be sure that the Zero line of the thimble coincides with the datum line of the reference ring. It is an instrument comprising of a robust housing. alternate measuring faces. This is attached with a seal. PESCE. which carries a vertical movable column. Then. are hardened and stabilised to 60 +/ -2 HRC. • Top block is not a measuring face.0015 mm MEASURING ELEMENTS: These are gauge blocks stacked and fixed in a block holder in a staggered manner.001 mm • Minimum reading with counter 0. of I&P Engg. positioned by a micrometer screw.5 mm. are provided side by side on the same plane. rotate the reference ring with its clamp loosen to have the datum line aligned with the zero line. 2.003 mm • Parallelism over entire length of blocks 0. 21 Experiment No – 10 Calibration of Height gauge using Height Master Height Master General Description Height Master is termed as Height Micrometer.0.Metrology lab manual…. The bottom block gauge is of 9. level the upper face of the bottom block to the height of the reference block. If it is deviated. and the datum plane (Generally a Granite Plate). Dept. the bottom block must be elevated up to the height of the reference block by rotating the micrometer head clockwise. • Block Gauges are manufactured from High Carbon High Cromium (HCHC) Steel.5 mm • Height of measuring blocks 20 mm • Travel of reference line 360° • Minimum reading on housing scale 5 mm • Weight 26 Kg • Support pads Tungsten Carbide • Overall accuracy / performance test ± .. Karnataka . Ravi. one facing up and the other facing down. Wipe off anti – corrosive oil from the measuring faces of blocks and clean the surface plate. two measuring faces. lock the clamp to fix the reference rin.001mm Specifications (Functional Parameters) Heavy Duty HM1 • Measuring range 5 – 310mm • Least count 0. 4a & 4b and using lever type dial indicator. 5 mm step is provided in the Heavy Duty model to get measuring range of 5 – 310 mm and 5 – 310 mm for Light Duty Mode.
In Fig. If uneven gap or noise by contacting the two is observed while rotating the micrometer head. Riser blocks are available in two sizes.K.2 mm before shipment. For measuring height above 310 mm. Heavy Duty Model One division on thimble represents 0. For the Light Duty ref. the counter should read just 0. 150 mm & 300 mm to extend the range up to 610 mm maximum. Ravi.00 mm. touch will occur in setting the measuring faces at height of 30 mm. counted from nearest taller line on the left side of the datum line.001 mm = 0. 7. With the bottom block leveled to the height of the reference block.. Counter reads to 0. the measuring range of the Height Master. of I&P Engg. 70 mm and so on as shown in fig. 6 height measurement with the use of a Height Master is to transfer the height (H) of the workpiece by means of lever head or test indicator to the Height Master by setting its gauge block exact to the height (H).. If deviation is observed on the counter indication.e.002 = 0. make sure that there is no uneven gap between the thimble and the reference ring. i. • Around both the ends of stroke. 50 mm. If the datum line does not coincide with the line on thimble. the reading is 2 x 0. 8a / 8b represents 7. the line nearest to the datum line should be taken in counting. 5b Fig 5.001 mm. the reading is 4 x 0. 22 Fig Note: Make sure the zero point setting before using Height Master. 9a the datum line of the reference ring coincides with the fourth line of the thimble counted from the nearest taller line on the left side of the datum line. top and bottom. ‘A’ face in between 70 mm and 80 mm graduation is read as 70 mm in height and B – face as 50 mm b) Second Step: Reading on counter. As shown in Fig. care must be taken to rotate the micrometer head slowly. 4.004 mm. Reading is made in the unit of 10 mm on the reference scale.01 mm. Fig READING OF METRIC HEIGHT MASTER a) First Step: Reading on reference scale. elevate up the gauge block stack by 20 mm as shown in fig. In this case. PESCE. While rotating the micrometer head.004 mm.Metrology lab manual…. 9b datum line on the reference ring Coincides with the second line of the thimble. Refer to ADJUSTMENT.85 c) Third Step: Reading on micrometer head. In this case. Note: Never have the lower face of the bottom block touched on the surface plate. refer to ADJUSTMENT HEIGHT MEASUREMENT AND READING. 5a so in order to obtain such height. 3. Mandya. Rotate the micrometer head to make sure that the range of its stoke is 20mm. Karnataka . Fig. Fig. Dept. The gap between the two has been adjusted to about 0. In Fig.
Mandya. 23 Ravi..Metrology lab manual….K. PESCE. of I&P Engg. Karnataka . Dept.
Mandya. PROFILE PROJECTOR Write theory Light system In contour illumination the light passes through the object to produce dark image of the image contour. The screen also has graduated protractor rings for angular measurement through 360°. This is also very useful for comparison. 4. Measurements are taken with one edge of the object coinciding with the respective cross hairline and then the micrometer is rotated to bring the other edge of the object to coincide with the same cross hairline. (Eg: Circle. When point contact method is needed the axis (intersection point) of the co – ordinates is selected. Measurement using Data processor. 3. Karnataka . = Major diameter. 2 2 ( x12 + y12 ( x 2 + y 2 ) (x1 − x 2 ) + ( y1 − y 2 ) 2 2 R= [ ] 2( x1 y 2 − x 2 y1 ) Ravi. 2. PESCE.Metrology lab manual…. Thickness Diameter / radius Thread measurement Angle measurement = 2 point / line reference. Pitch and Angle. By this source we can easily measure the external dimension of the object.. Dept. = 3 point / point reference. radius of curvature. 24 Experiment – 11 USE OF TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE & PROFILE PROJECTOR Aim: To Measure the thickness. taper. Types of Measurements: 1. radius by 3 points method and Angles by 4 point method or when used with Data processor). The work will be held on micrometer stage and focused on the screen by means of vertical movement of stage until a sharp image of the object is obtained. thread element etc. = i) Using protractor ring ii) Using point measurement system. By rotating the protractor we can set the cross hairline parallel to the object side and get the differential readings. Here we can see the surface texture of the object.K. Minor diameter. In a surface illumination light reflects over the object and again reflect back to the screen. of I&P Engg. The screen has two cross hairlines marked on its centre which represents X and Y co – ordinates with respect to the movement of micrometer stage. 5.
P2 = P2 . R = Y1 – Y0) Y2 – Y0) 2 2 (X 2 1 2 + Y12 X 2 + Y22 ( X 1 − X 2 ) + (Y1 − Y2 ) 2( X 1Y2 − X 2Y1 ) )( )[ ] Ravi. 25 Radius measurement by 3 point method P2 = X2.Y2 P1 = X1. Dept.e.Y1 P0 = X0.. PESCE.Y0 P1 = P1 .Metrology lab manual…. of I&P Engg.P0 (i. X2 – X0. Mandya... X1 – X0.P0 (i.e.K. Karnataka .
When point contact method is needed the axis (intersection point) of the co – ordinates is selected. Pitch and Angle. 9. 26 TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE Write theory Light system In contour illumination the light passes through the object to produce dark image of the image contour. In a surface illumination light reflects over the object and again reflect back to the screen. (Eg: Circle. radius by 3 points method and Angles by 4 point method or when used with Data processor). = i) Using protractor ring ii) Using point measurement system. = 3 point / point reference. Measurement using Data processor.. The work will be held on micrometer stage and focused on the screen by means of vertical movement of stage until a sharp image of the object is obtained. Dept. PESCE. of I&P Engg. Measurements are taken with one edge of the object coinciding with the respective cross hairline and then the micrometer is rotated to bring the other edge of the object to coincide with the same cross hairline. 10. which can be rotated by a knob beneath the eyepiece housing for angular measurement through 360°. On the smaller eyepiece minute Vernier scale is marked with 1’ accuracy.K. Here we can see the surface texture of the object. This is also very useful for comparison. 7. Ravi. Minor diameter. Karnataka . Thickness Diameter / radius Thread measurement Angle measurement = 2 point / line reference. The protractor eyepiece has a graduated scale above the main eyepiece tube. The eyepiece has cross hairlines marked on its centre which represents X and Y co – ordinates with respect to the movement of micrometer stage. By this source we can easily measure the external dimension of the object. By rotating the protractor we can set the cross hairline a shore Fogbows I D parallel to the object side and get the differential readings. 8.Metrology lab manual…. = Major diameter. Types of Measurements: 6. Mandya.
This is the arithmetical average of the five single roughness of single measuring traverse length (T l ).Metrology lab manual….K. These signals are then amplified. (The perthometer divides total measuring length into 5 equal part for analysis)..Provides the readout of the computed surface roughness values (Ra. This is the arithmetical average value of the departure of the profile above and below the reference line within the measuring length. It consists the following parts: 1. Drive Unit : . surface in Working The styles is made to move across the surface of specimen and the Mechanical /Electrical transformer generates electrical signals of the effective surface. This effective surface always includes surface roughness and forms the basis for all further analysis.12 MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE FINISH PERTH-O-METER Aim: To measure the surface roughness of given object Apparatus: Perthometer. Mandya. It consists of Magnification selector switch. : : Average roughness : (R z ) Maximum : Roughness (R max) Arithmetical mean : deviation (R a ) Ravi. Rz.This is a sensing device (probe) which has skid and stylus (Stylus is a diamond pointer) 2. This is the actual length for which the results are computed and displayed on the indicator( i. This is the biggest of the single roughness depth of measuring length (M l ). of I&P Engg. object Perthometer is an Electronic-measuring Instrument for the surface roughness value of technical surfaces. 27 Experiment No. Parameters Total traverse length (T l ) Cut-off length (Pre–traverse length) (C l ) Measuring length (M l ) Effective surface (P) : : This the total distance that the styles can travel This is the first part of the traverse length which is disregarded for the measuring process.e M 1 = T 1 – C l ) This is a close representation of the real surface obtained by the styles during setup. Karnataka . Perthometer : . (It is also known as cut – wave length). Rmax). Roughness selector switch and instrument zero tuner. filtered and transmitted to the connected indicating / recording unit. Traverse length selector switch. surface plate. 3. PESCE. Pick Up : .Guides and moves the pickup during the traverse over the measuring required direction at constant speed. Dept.
R z and R max by selecting the surface value selector knob. Indicator should give reading as per value on calibration master. Position stylus immediately behind the measuring groove. with the help of a screwdriver. using height adjustment on drive unit. range to required magnification on R a side. Dept.. Magnification switch in position P = 10 / um ( for pickups with range 250µm P = 1µm as per the manufacturer’s specification). 28 Calibration: Position pick–up on the calibration master and align the stylus such that it is parallel with the face of calibration master. Select the traverse length. Push the press button to start measurement Note down the readings of R a . Now set the surface value selector to R a . i. of I&P Engg. Repeat the measurements for different traverse lengths. Magnification Traverse No. set the meter to ‘0’. Set the Surface value selector in position P. the indicator in the monitor moves to the centre of the white area) Using zero adjustment knob. Magnification switch in position P = 10 /um (for pickups with range 250µm P = 1µm as per the manufacturer’s specification). note down the cut-off length. Position the stylus over the object and align the stylus such that it is parallel with the face of the object. Push calibration master towards drive unit until stylus has reached centre of measuring groove. Set the Surface value selector in position P.. Pull calibration master back to original position and ensure that indicator return to zero. Mandya. length (µ) (T l )mm Cut-off Measuring length length M l = (T l – C l ) (C l )mm mm Surface roughness Ra Rz R max (µ) (µ) (µ) Ravi. Sl.e. with the help of height adjustment knob (this can be monitored through the monitor which indicates the position of the stylus on the measuring surface. If not adjust the meter to required value with instrument zero.K. PESCE. Procedure Place the object on the surface plate. when the stylus is set parallel to the measuring face. Karnataka .Metrology lab manual….
Since roundness is normally measured by rotation either the part itself can be rotated against a fixed measuring device. or the measuring device can be rotated around the stationery part.. Generally a part is said to be round in a specific cross section if there exists within that section of a point (centre) from which all other on the periphery are equidistance. so the weight of the part is not a limitation on measuring capacity many large parts (cylinder blocks) of Ravi. There are many method of testing roundness of a part. Karnataka . in one (Rotation pick up) type the part is stationery and pick up revolves about is and in other type (Turntable type) the work piece rotates. or to deflection of the work piece as the tool is brought to bear on it. Dept. Any measuring device must have an indicator from which the measurements can be read. The following are the essential features.K. which need to be incorporated in a roundness-measuring instrument. a non-mechanical gauge is employed. Type of measuring devices. Vee block method three-point method. PESCE. Drawn or extruded parts takes their shapes from the dies. and roundness checks on the parts cannot only any imperfections which cause scoring along the surface. A round bar or ring type part held in a chuck for grinding or turning is compressed at the points of contact giving rise to stresses in the material. of I&P Engg. The worktable not being part of the measuring system. 3.Metrology lab manual…. As such a graph is provided result to get more information about the roundness this datum is the axis of rotation of the spindle. The cross section is therefore a perfect circle. A worn tool or one not set correctly could produce chatter marks. In bench type measurements a simple dial indicator is adequate but in an instrument capable of very accurate rotation. This can be in the form of an electrical transdrecer (pick – up) Indicator. constant load of pickup High accuracy is therefore can be obtained. giving rise to lobes. So finding a centre of the part is an important part of roundness testing. can be or substantial construction. But to specify out of roundness of an irregular profile it is possible if we can find a centre from which to make the measurements. When it is removed from the chuck the stress in the material will be released. 1. Stylus method turn table or pick up rotation method. The out of roundness is specified as the difference in distance of points on the periphery from the centre. The axis of rotation must be independent of the part being measured because when the part itself is used as one of the bearing surfaces for rotation. 2. Bench centre method. the irregularities on that surface cause the whole part to move up an down make simple & accurate measurements of roundness impossible. Roundness measuring in instruments are of two basics types. Rotating pick up type In this type the spindle has only to carry the light. Mandya. 29 Experiment No-13 Measurement of Roundness using V-Block Method Out of roundness of mechanical parts could be due to poor bearings in the lathe grinding wheel spindle. Shafts which are ground between centers or deflection of the shaft. Roundness tester sometimes have a meter but is gives a fluctuating reading an used for setting up only.
of I&P Engg. It also limits the off set of the part that can be accommodated.Metrology lab manual…. 30 asymmetrical shape.K. Dept. A V-block is placed on the surface plate and the specimen is placed upon it. The number of lobes can be varied from two to hundreds about the circumference of the cross section. A draw a circle of dia nearly 4 times the max reading of the dial indicator. with the centre of the bore or surface to be measured off set from the centre of gravity long shafts and crankshaft can also be accommodated. The dial indicator is set just above the specimen so that it touches the work piece at the axis of the specimen. A dial indicator with a stand is rest against the surface of the job. For plotting the polar graph. such as concentricity and alignment. Specimen is then rotated and dial reading are taken at each marking. draw another circle nearly half of the max value of outer circle. Turntable type Since the pick up is not associated with the spindle this type of instrument is more easily adapted for roundness measurements. the stress on the metal gets relived. The specimen in fist cleaned and marked 12 points @ 30° each on the face of the specimen. a suitable scale is chosen depending upon the maximum value of the dial indicator. Inside this circle. Even when the part is turned or ground to perfect round on the machining.. Two. V–Block Method This method is simplest and useful in determining the circularity errors and number of lobes. It is more easy in positioning the pick up to reach into slots or to underside of shoulders without having to use long or cranked stylus arms. Now the values are plotted in radial (clockwise) direction taking the smaller circle as the reference circle in order that both the positive & negative readings are plotted Ravi. When a rounded port held in chuck is compressed at the point of contact. Mandya. seven and nine lobes are common result of machining processes. PESCE. Now divide this circle into 12 points to indicate the actual shape of the work piece. course the lobes. this limits the weight of parts that can be measured. three. The weight of the turntable and the part being tested has to be supported by the spindle bearing. Karnataka . after it is removed from the chuck. five.
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