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Basic Electronics

Basic Electronics

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2. BASIC ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BASICS - It all starts with the electrons moving around atoms.

Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another. Electric charges do not exist without their associated electric and magnetic fields. This module will introduce you to many of the basic concepts involved with electricity and magnetism. MATTER - Matter is physically everything that exists that we can touch and feel. Matter consists of atoms. Now we will introduce you to the structure of atoms, talk about electrons and static charge, moving charges, voltage, resistance, and current. You will learn about the properties of magnets and how magnets are used to produce electric current and vice versa. All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture. Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among these three states of matter. In electronics the most important matter are conductive metals, non-conductive insulators, and ELECTRICAL CHARGE - Any object or particle is or can become electrically charged. Nobody completely understands what this charge consists of but we do know a lot about how it reacts and behaves. The smallest known charge of electricity is the charge associated with an electron. This charge has been called a "negative" charge. An atoms nucleus has a positive charge. These two un-like charges attract one another. Like charges oppose one another. If you had 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons in a box you would have what has been named; one coulomb of charge. An easier way of thinking about a large number like that is called "powers of ten" and it would look like this 6.25 x 10^18 electrons. It is simply a way to let you know to move the decimal point to the right 18 places. When electrical charges are at rest, meaning they are not moving, we call that static electricity. If charges are in motion we then have a flow of charge called electrical current. We have given the force that causes this current a name called electromotive force and it is measured by a unit called a volt (V). The unit of measurement of the current (I) or movement of the charge is called an ampere. The resistance, or opposition, to current flow is called an ohm (R).

Ohm spent many years of their lives studying electricity. While we can't see these fields. radios. We could have called them Dick. Mr. televisions. or yet know exactly what they consist of. The symbol used for a watt is "P" for power. and Ohm. You will learn more about power in watts in the ohms law section below. Knowing what moving charges are and how various electronic components affect the moving charges is the foundation of basic electronics. ELECTRICAL FIELDS.POWER .I*V If you don't have a clue as to what electrical current and voltage are . They were not alone however as many other scientist were studying and learning more about electricity as well. We will cover that shortly. View the videos and continue on down the page. Moving electric charges are the heart of basic electronics.What is a watt? A watt is the International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. P . Ampere. stereos. As you can see we have given names to these phenomenon to make it easier for us to study and use. computers. Mr. The design and construction of electric motors.read on. These are the basic building blocks of understanding "Basic Electronics". With every electric field there is a magnetic field. Watch the video. Power in watts is found by multiplying a circuits current (I) times its voltage (V). WATTS . 3.Explation of AC and DC currents. and Mr. Volt. Jane and Mary but instead we named them for the scientists that discovered or first studied them. Volt.Around a charge is an electric field. BASIC ELECTRONICS . Ampere. and many other electrical and electronic devices depend upon a knowledge of these basic principles of electricity. We can then use this knowledge to our benefit. we can measure them with instruments and tell a great deal about their behavior.

The components make up linear analog amplifiers. Components are interconnected to perform a specific task. or integrated circuits. inductors. 4. Continue your study by reading the numbered sections to follow. oscillations going. RESISTANCE - . television and video circuits and much more. Electronics puts a knowledge of electricity to useful work. They also can be configured to create digital logic circuits such as memories. Each circuit has a job. mp3 player. digital logic circuits. A circuit containing wire conductors. The input signal voltage is small and the output voltage is larger . or on your body. arithmetic units. capacitors. and filters as examples. car. capacitors. Basic electronics is all about electrical components and the circuits consisting of those components . So you will find basic electronics in every computer. An amplifier is simply a device or circuit that takes a small signal input and controls a larger current as it output. First learn about each individual component and how it works then learn about how to interconnect them to make useful end products. either physical wires or printed circuits. Sounds like a perpetual motion machine but it isn't as the amplifiers power supply is providing the additional energy that is lost in the circuit and keeps the circulation. Common components are resistors. radio. TV and may other appliances in your home. Electronics applies electrical current flow of electrical charges to circuits to accomplish specific tasks. Amplifiers can be constructed from glass "tubes" containing metal elements. The components are interconnect with conductors. inductors and amplifiers can be configured in many ways to build various electronic circuits like oscillators. and central processing units.amplified. oscillators. An oscillator by the way is just an amplifier with some of the output fed back into the input. and integrated circuits.e. or more commonly today with solid state diodes. gates. You will find each of these components described in detail in the following numbered sections. resistors. i. transistors. computer circuits. transistors.Now that you have a general background in electricity and moving charges you can move on to learning moe about basic electronics.

A resistance that develops 0. represented by the letter "I" in formulas.e. or in a combination of series and parallel.24 calorie of heat when one ampere of current flows through it for one second has one ohm of resistance. then voltage is the potential difference or pressure of the charge. The unit of electrical current is the ampere. They can also be thin deposited layers of metallic material. This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a metallic conductor or electronic components such as resistors or transistors as an example. The wattage doubles as the current is now split between the two resistors. An image of a few resistor types is shown below. What is electrical voltage? Electrical voltage is represented by the letter "V" in formulas and it is the electrical pressure a moving charge is under.e. The practical unit of resistance is called the ohm.Resistance is the opposition to current flow in various degrees. If the two resistors were connected end-toend (i.RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITS . In this example the resistance would be 50 ohms. 1/4 watt. one that is not moving. named after a french mathematician. A resistor of one million ohm's is physically small but presents a high resistance to current flow. The relationship between current (I). and voltage (V) is represented by the formulas developed in Ohm's law. We will study that in section 5 below. What is electrical current? Electrical current. 100 ohm resistors across one another (i. in parallel) then the total resistance in ohms is one half of one of the resistors. The wattage in this series case stays the same. RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITSResistors can be connected in series (end to end). In the case of a static charge. The combination can now handle up to one half a watt safely. Andre Marie Ampere. 1/4 . A resistor on one ohm is physically very large but provides only a small resistance to current flow. Resistors are often made of thin layers of carbon or lengths of small copper wire. and it is the flow or rate of electric charge. The unit of resistance is often represented by the Greek letter omega. resistance (R). If you connect two. or in parallel (across one another). in series) the resistances add and in this case would be 200 ohms.

The wattage capability stays the same.. in other words if the resistors are all 1/4 watt the string is 1/4 watt. This information is handy to know as it is easy to calculate in your head and will allow you to devise additional resister values from a limited resistor bench stock. Resistance in series resistance simply adds: R = R1 + R2. meaning they are tied across one another) their combined resistance is less than any of the individual resistances.. The k represents three .. Resistor values are measured in ohms. For example a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 500 ohm resistor is the same as having a 600 ohm resistor.watt. When connected this way the resistance of one resistor adds to the next in line. R: 1 R 1 1 1 + + + . RESISTORS IN SERIES: Connecting resistors in a string one pigtail to another is called connecting them in series. RESISTORS IN PARALLEL: When resistors are connected in parallel (parallel. This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + . A thousand ohms is written as 1k to eliminate all the zeros. R1 R2 R3 = The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to use! Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the individual resistances. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of each resistance to give the reciprocal of the combined resistance. There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2: Combined resistance of R1 × R2 R= two resistors in parallel: R1 + R2 For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult equation must be used..

measure the voltage across the resistors with a voltmeter. current and voltage. This is why it is vital you understand the relationships between them. I = V ÷ R. 7=Purple. 2=Red. 0=Black.Resistors use color coded stripes to indicate their value in ohms. measure the current in the circuit by placing an ammeter in series with the resistors and the battery. Where V is the circuit voltage in volts. and P (power in watts) = I*V are the fundamental formulas of Ohm's law. 4=Yellow. With the resistor out of the circuit you can measure it's resistance directly with an ohm meter. If you know the voltages and current in the circuit you can use Ohms law to calculate the resistance. 1000 ohms = 1k ohm and 1000k ohms = 1M ohm. Since resistors are so small their value is marked by a color code.. Therefore. volts and amperes (usually .. I is the circuits amperage in amps. OHMS LAW Ohm's Law is extremely important in learning basic electronics. (The * means to multiply the two quantities together). 1=Brown. Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. 6=Blue. The multimeters today can measure ohms. 5=Green. What is Ohm's Law? Ohm's Law is a formula that describes the relationship between resistance. current and voltage in an electrical circuit.and algebraic rules tells us that I . The formula is R (resistance in ohms) = (equals) V (voltage in volts) divided by I (current in amperes). That is: R = V ÷ I . and R is the resistance in ohms. 8=Gray. R = V ÷ I. Almost every electrical and electronic circuit involves resistance. As an experiment you can set up a circuit by connecting resistors in series with a battery. 9=White.zeros. A million ohms is represented by 1M. RESISTOR COLOR CODES .V ÷ R and V = I*R. V = I*R. 3=Orange.

measured in miliamperes in practical circuits) all in one piece of test equipment. or special chemicals . Below is a graphic chart showing the various relationships between resistance. CAPACITORS A capacitor is a device that stores an electrical charge when a potential difference (voltage) exists between two conductors which are usually two plates separated by a dielectric material (an insulating material like air. paper. current. voltage. • 6. and power and shows how one unknown can be calculated if you know the other two.

Also read this tutorial on how to test capacitors. A capacitors value C (in Farads) is dependent upon the ratio of the charge Q (in Coulombs) divided by the V (in volts). AC coupling capacitors and as by-pass capacitors. Prefix Mili Micro Nano Pico Power of 10 10^-3 10^-6 10^-9 10^-12 Example . There are attachments for multimeters that allow measurement of capacitance directly. Measuring capacitance requires a capacitance meter.between two sheets of aluminum foil). For a list of capacitor terms defined: Click HERE. They are also used in conjunction with resistors and inductors to form tuned circuits and timing circuits. This is separate piece of test equipment. You may need to make conversions between the two equivalents. Often you will have to convert between Pico farads and micro farads.000000001 .001 . Common capacitors come in values of microfarads or Pico farads.000000000001 1 micro F 1 uuf .000001 . They are used as filters.01 uf = = = 1000000 uuf 1 pf 10000 pf . A chart is provided below to assist in the conversion. Capacitors block DC voltages and pass AC voltages. CAPACITOR Value Conversions: Some capacitors may be marked in micro farads and others of the same capacitance value marked in Pico farads. One Pico farad equals one micro-micro farad.

as they are in a transformer.20% A capacitor marked 103M is a . The wire coils are wound around iron cores.005 uf . ferrite cores. An initial test of the material can be made by checking the dc resistance between opposite faces/sides of a core. Low readings indicate a high permeability material. Those with permeabilities up to 850 are usually made from nickel-zinc material and have high volume resistivity ranging from 1x105 to 1x108. This is called mutual inductance. Iron powder cores are usually color coded and have very high volume resistivity.009 uf . When the magnetic field collapses it induces an electrical charge back into the wire.01 uf +. Two coils close to one another. The inductor stores electrical charge in magnetic fields.1 uf +.0001 uf .0005 uf .0009 uf = = = = = 5000 pf 9000 pf 100 pf 500 pf 900 pf A capacitor marked 104M is a . Higher permeability ferrites are usually made from manganese-zinc material and have volume resistivity ranging from 0. Inductors are associated with circuit capacitance and can form a tuned circuit and resonate at a particular frequency. If you can . INDUCTORS Inductors are usually made with coils of wire. literally transfer charge from one coil to the other.1x102 to 1x102. Inductor Calculator Testing Unknown Ferrite Cores Ferrites are roughly divided into two groups.001 uf +.20% 7. or other materials except in the case of an air core inductor where there is no core other than air.20% A capacitor marked 102M is a ..

Tuned circuits may be designed for a very a narrow band . The filtering action of a tuned circuit is often associated with amplifiers as is found in a radios intermediate frequency stage. 15 different ferrite toroids are included in this application.001 to 27 millihenries. inductance and resistance. Increase the power output in small steps (say 5 -10W per step) holding each setting for 30 seconds then checking the temperature of each transformer.C you can say that you have reached the power limit for that particular core. This arrangement provides a 1:1 equivalent so that the transmitter sees the correct load. File size: 64K . Some cores will get hot at very low power. RF power rating can be roughly checked by using two exactly similar cores each wound with the same primary and secondary turns (say 10 turns each on primary and secondary) and then connecting the cores back to back as shown. Set the transmitter to the desired frequency and reduce the rf power output to a minimum. Style: CONSOLE . for example.a combination of capacitance. Tuned circuits are found within electronic circuits where. If 10 turns does not give a measurable reading try 20 or 30 turns. wind 10 turns of wire on the core and measure the inductance.measure inductance at a low frequency (10-100kHz). Only one frequency is amplified due to the filtering action of the tuned circuit. but this does not matter for the test. which can be compared with the tables of known cores of the same physical dimensions and so come up with a reasonable match. You have to make a value judgment about the core physical size versus the power rating achieved. This program will calculate the winding data for an inductance range of 0. Losses are doubled by using two transformers. only one certain frequency is of interest. zipped 31K. When the final temperature of each transformer has reached about 40 deg. RESONANT CIRCUITS . The transformers should only get warm to touch but NEVER hot. You can then work back from the ferrite material formula and calculate the AL value. Ferrite (software program) is used to calculate the number of turns required on toroidal ferrite cores to achieve the desired millihenryvalue inductance.

These are usually binary numbers but could be based on a variety of mathematical bases. The binary numbers place values from right to left as shown in the table are. So. 14. two. A circuit is either on or off represented by the presence of a voltage or not or in some cases two different voltages. Tuned circuits are also found in oscillators. Here the tuned circuit allows oscillations only at the tuned circuits resonant frequency in a properly designed circuit. Here is a short table of some binary numbers and their decimal equivalents. capacitance and resistance. one. and eight.. BASIC DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Digital electronics is based on electronic switches. For example. Any number can be represented in a binary based system with a series of ones' and zero's (voltage on/off conditions). 1 1 1 1 = 15 binary binary 8+4+2+1 = 15 decimal decimal DECIMAL= 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 BINARY 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 1 0 0 1 = 9 binary 8+0+0+1 = 9 decimal DECIMAL = 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 0 1 1 = 11 8+0+2+1 = 11 BINARY 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 . Please look at some of the links below for more detailed study of resonant circuits. "Hexadecimal" or a base of 16.of frequencies or with a wide bandwidth. But the most common is binary. See the samples below then study the chart. four. Resonant circuits are a combination of inductance. A string of on or off conditions are made to represent numbers. binary 1111 is the same as adding 1+2+4+8 from right to left and that equals 15.

7 0111 15 1111 For an online course on digital electronics and how binary mathematics is used in LOGIC blocks visit this web site: These basic concepts are the building blocks for more sophisticated configurations of digital electronic integrated circuits. Today digital integrated circuits combine hundreds and thousands of switches per IC package. . It is not necessary to know exactly what the internal circuitry is but you must know the fundamentals to understand how to use the IC's together to build digital equipment. Our computer industry today depends upon many people knowing and using these same basic fundamentals.

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