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Basic Electronics

# Basic Electronics

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02/16/2013

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# 2. BASIC ELECTRICITY ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BASICS - It all starts with the electrons moving around atoms.

Electricity is the movement of electrical charge from one place to another. Electric charges do not exist without their associated electric and magnetic fields. This module will introduce you to many of the basic concepts involved with electricity and magnetism. MATTER - Matter is physically everything that exists that we can touch and feel. Matter consists of atoms. Now we will introduce you to the structure of atoms, talk about electrons and static charge, moving charges, voltage, resistance, and current. You will learn about the properties of magnets and how magnets are used to produce electric current and vice versa. All matter can be classified as being either a pure substance or a mixture. Matter can exist as either a solid, liquid, or a gas and can change among these three states of matter. In electronics the most important matter are conductive metals, non-conductive insulators, and ELECTRICAL CHARGE - Any object or particle is or can become electrically charged. Nobody completely understands what this charge consists of but we do know a lot about how it reacts and behaves. The smallest known charge of electricity is the charge associated with an electron. This charge has been called a "negative" charge. An atoms nucleus has a positive charge. These two un-like charges attract one another. Like charges oppose one another. If you had 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons in a box you would have what has been named; one coulomb of charge. An easier way of thinking about a large number like that is called "powers of ten" and it would look like this 6.25 x 10^18 electrons. It is simply a way to let you know to move the decimal point to the right 18 places. When electrical charges are at rest, meaning they are not moving, we call that static electricity. If charges are in motion we then have a flow of charge called electrical current. We have given the force that causes this current a name called electromotive force and it is measured by a unit called a volt (V). The unit of measurement of the current (I) or movement of the charge is called an ampere. The resistance, or opposition, to current flow is called an ohm (R).

Ohm spent many years of their lives studying electricity. While we can't see these fields. radios. We could have called them Dick. Mr. televisions. or yet know exactly what they consist of. The symbol used for a watt is "P" for power. and Ohm. You will learn more about power in watts in the ohms law section below. Knowing what moving charges are and how various electronic components affect the moving charges is the foundation of basic electronics. ELECTRICAL FIELDS.POWER .I*V If you don't have a clue as to what electrical current and voltage are . They were not alone however as many other scientist were studying and learning more about electricity as well. We will cover that shortly. View the videos and continue on down the page. Moving electric charges are the heart of basic electronics.What is a watt? A watt is the International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. P . Ampere. stereos. As you can see we have given names to these phenomenon to make it easier for us to study and use. computers. Mr. The design and construction of electric motors.read on. These are the basic building blocks of understanding "Basic Electronics". With every electric field there is a magnetic field. Watch the video. Power in watts is found by multiplying a circuits current (I) times its voltage (V). WATTS . 3.Explation of AC and DC currents. and Mr. Volt. Jane and Mary but instead we named them for the scientists that discovered or first studied them. Volt.Around a charge is an electric field. BASIC ELECTRONICS . Ampere. and many other electrical and electronic devices depend upon a knowledge of these basic principles of electricity. We can then use this knowledge to our benefit. we can measure them with instruments and tell a great deal about their behavior.

A resistance that develops 0. represented by the letter "I" in formulas.e. or in a combination of series and parallel.24 calorie of heat when one ampere of current flows through it for one second has one ohm of resistance. then voltage is the potential difference or pressure of the charge. The unit of electrical current is the ampere. They can also be thin deposited layers of metallic material. This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a metallic conductor or electronic components such as resistors or transistors as an example. The wattage doubles as the current is now split between the two resistors. An image of a few resistor types is shown below. What is electrical voltage? Electrical voltage is represented by the letter "V" in formulas and it is the electrical pressure a moving charge is under.e. The practical unit of resistance is called the ohm.Resistance is the opposition to current flow in various degrees. If the two resistors were connected end-toend (i.RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITS . In this example the resistance would be 50 ohms. 1/4 watt. one that is not moving. named after a french mathematician. A resistor of one million ohm's is physically small but presents a high resistance to current flow. The relationship between current (I). and voltage (V) is represented by the formulas developed in Ohm's law. We will study that in section 5 below. What is electrical current? Electrical current. 100 ohm resistors across one another (i. in parallel) then the total resistance in ohms is one half of one of the resistors. The wattage in this series case stays the same. RESISTORS AND RESISTOR CIRCUITSResistors can be connected in series (end to end). In the case of a static charge. The combination can now handle up to one half a watt safely. Andre Marie Ampere. 1/4 . A resistor on one ohm is physically very large but provides only a small resistance to current flow. Resistors are often made of thin layers of carbon or lengths of small copper wire. and it is the flow or rate of electric charge. The unit of resistance is often represented by the Greek letter omega. resistance (R). If you connect two. or in parallel (across one another). in series) the resistances add and in this case would be 200 ohms.

The wattage capability stays the same.. in other words if the resistors are all 1/4 watt the string is 1/4 watt. This information is handy to know as it is easy to calculate in your head and will allow you to devise additional resister values from a limited resistor bench stock. Resistance in series resistance simply adds: R = R1 + R2. meaning they are tied across one another) their combined resistance is less than any of the individual resistances.. The k represents three .. Resistor values are measured in ohms. For example a 100 ohm resistor in series with a 500 ohm resistor is the same as having a 600 ohm resistor.watt. When connected this way the resistance of one resistor adds to the next in line. R: 1 R 1 1 1 + + + . RESISTORS IN SERIES: Connecting resistors in a string one pigtail to another is called connecting them in series. RESISTORS IN PARALLEL: When resistors are connected in parallel (parallel. This can be extended for more resistors: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 + . A thousand ohms is written as 1k to eliminate all the zeros. R1 R2 R3 = The simpler equation for two resistors in parallel is much easier to use! Note that the combined resistance in parallel will always be less than any of the individual resistances. This adds up the reciprocal ("one over") of each resistance to give the reciprocal of the combined resistance. There is a special equation for the combined resistance of two resistors R1 and R2: Combined resistance of R1 × R2 R= two resistors in parallel: R1 + R2 For more than two resistors connected in parallel a more difficult equation must be used..

measure the voltage across the resistors with a voltmeter. current and voltage. This is why it is vital you understand the relationships between them. I = V ÷ R. 7=Purple. 2=Red. 0=Black.Resistors use color coded stripes to indicate their value in ohms. measure the current in the circuit by placing an ammeter in series with the resistors and the battery. Where V is the circuit voltage in volts. and P (power in watts) = I*V are the fundamental formulas of Ohm's law. 4=Yellow. With the resistor out of the circuit you can measure it's resistance directly with an ohm meter. If you know the voltages and current in the circuit you can use Ohms law to calculate the resistance. 1000 ohms = 1k ohm and 1000k ohms = 1M ohm. Since resistors are so small their value is marked by a color code.. Therefore. volts and amperes (usually .. I is the circuits amperage in amps. OHMS LAW Ohm's Law is extremely important in learning basic electronics. (The * means to multiply the two quantities together). 1=Brown. Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5. 6=Blue. The multimeters today can measure ohms. 5=Green. What is Ohm's Law? Ohm's Law is a formula that describes the relationship between resistance. current and voltage in an electrical circuit.and algebraic rules tells us that I . The formula is R (resistance in ohms) = (equals) V (voltage in volts) divided by I (current in amperes). That is: R = V ÷ I . and R is the resistance in ohms. 8=Gray. R = V ÷ I. Almost every electrical and electronic circuit involves resistance. As an experiment you can set up a circuit by connecting resistors in series with a battery. 9=White.zeros. A million ohms is represented by 1M. RESISTOR COLOR CODES .V ÷ R and V = I*R. V = I*R. 3=Orange.

measured in miliamperes in practical circuits) all in one piece of test equipment. or special chemicals . Below is a graphic chart showing the various relationships between resistance. CAPACITORS A capacitor is a device that stores an electrical charge when a potential difference (voltage) exists between two conductors which are usually two plates separated by a dielectric material (an insulating material like air. paper. current. voltage. • 6. and power and shows how one unknown can be calculated if you know the other two.