M,QII I{PBoo~ tw:: tI\':II.:i..labLe Ott !opecia.l qUlUllilY discounts for balk pLlte1:u15c~ for mtC!5 prnmor.

ions. ~1l11l!, flJfid,~rais.iJJ.&.Of' cd:i.ic:.l1tiCn.il USe. Specicd tJools. ot book eacerpu, can Iilio be creJ.kiJ t{Jfll:S:,pc!::i(it:~.tIj.

r"Ql' I;Ic(.g;U.5:. write: S~i,n.l Mwkc:lS. '['he. BerXlC)' Publisl:t.i:ng Group. 375 HOO.!i(jo'1:I SrrC('!::C. Nt:w York. NewYi,Jfk 100]4.

Cover photo: Bill Keller

The Pcr.J,guin Pulniilm. jnc. Wor[d: WI~ WeD site address is. bnpJIwww_pe"guinpLi[Oi!Ull.Cgm

1l1''''''''' "'" publishO<! by ~ Buklcy I'ubll,lliDg Gro.~ A di~;!iiQn of PtPgU!1l Putnnm fnc,

375 (1"<1>0" Street, Now Yorl<. New Yo,t 10014 €I 1986 Price S<orn Sloan. tne.

Printed jll 'U,S.A, 10 19 28

NanCE: The lJlff.lrmailon if.l.},i,!; book is true 41'i_;j C(l-mplt--le 10 she best of aut kncwledgc. All rceom'I"J1.C~u:l:.Q.tku).s (II'! parts end procedures ~I"I: made wlthout itn)' g:uarantl'!e$ OrL LM pan or me: ilUIh.or cr fLl b-lisher. Because the qunllty of pans. proc~W"C:i nnd mclbods H beyond our ccmral, [lJ.u]ltlt ilt!d pub] isht:_~ disc!, • hn wllllllJill)' Incurred in cenncctlan with the use Q[ thls in!on'itl!lti.;m.

Thanks to the many automorive el."trkaLliUPplicrs and companies who provided photographs, drnwinu:; nod !echllicaI1ntbrmulion~ on their produC1-S~Especially helpful were Bob $chl<Ul.!l'" of Import Parts lntcrnatinnai, Dale Penn of DuJc'~ Historic Vehicle Rep:ur, Charley V. Ewk: 01 Callfornia Temti oat Products ODd j"hu Cevan 0 f LpogJci-e Aulomoti ve Raci ng:


Spednllh<Ul1:!; to our iCchnitui consUltant Frank P~rk:err-or prnyiding inv~lualil" il1fut"ll1liti!lr< alil:l at!IlJ,.'1t4t1 wlrihg ~~ CW'lI. ana for i1l>\(j"wing tile i'il,,-nu,<lli pi tm tlccur-llCy ani! COi'iljllcl<!lC#.


1 Introduction •. " 4

2 Electrical Theory 6

3 Charging System 14

4 Electrical Paths 22

5 Electrical Controls 28

6 Displays 38

7 Electrical Loads 49

8 Supplies 60

9 Locatlng & Installing Componenls 70

10 Designing & Drawing Circuit Dia.grams 81

II Making a Harness 100

12 Installing a Harness 110

13 Rewiring an Electrlca1 System 123

14 Converting From 6 to 12 Volts 128

15 Trailer Wiring 134

16 Wiring a Race Car 139

Metric ConversJon Chart 151

Glossary , 154

Index 157

U rheberrcc htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a

Iw:t:tlO1' JIJn tIOornIt t..glrwllng witl'ng lob Qf"I Ran FoturHr"I' II'b'M1: rod.Foum .... kI:Ii prorlUlO:rw1 taC:...cat ,.tltiCt:tor anc:I IM.I'tnOI" oi liP' ... rei F-'W:IrlarJon HItIdbGGt. 'WIM'tlwr ~.' .... wiring ..

I'Kt ~. ~U c.t, or otM' YeiI'kIc:'5e from IKl'IUlh, rewiring '. collec:1:or car, or lust wlrlr-..; In II :r.w acctS&Orle. on, 1I:nlI, family ar. 'Inll book IIIOWI you. hOw.

Wba< i.thi, boo~ 011."""\1 wetr, I .. 's SillY you're ,plartrUng to assembta 11 kit 'i:0II! fllso C",jl]t~d Cf)"rpQl1f"fll t.IU" OJ" replictiF. Y (J\.i, select me k., t of your dreams. Then YOLI picl;; lip a "dcncr" car to provide !ne running gear, vou lay OUI, ytiUI' 100150 ::).nd rOIJ rid up the other paraphernal La ncecsSRry 10 tum th~l plle I.) f fiberglass and h:ardware i"lO a real. drtvenbte c-at.

.If you're only 'Vaguely famili~t 'i,j,.·ith. engine rebuilding, brake rclm.ildin,g, tran:smission rebui Ming. <U'id suspensicn asse nlbly and al ig""",nl. you'll prob,bl y visit i1 bookstore for the upprupri ate manuals - ma.)'~ even one or 1'WO of H.PDooks' aumuxHive guides, So far, 00 ~ood ,I r YOLt don 'I, koow how to de SomeIhing, YOl1look it ep and there's (he 1"1"0- ~IJ;'~ in. blQ,Ck :!I_tid whi te.

Wotkprogp;:s5e:5. fiii;Cly -u-rRil you rcallrc your dream car! a near! y done! but meee's one c.rillcal lhi!"J,g, miss-Itig. Un!;1 jesuhis mineee. yce'vcccmpjetcfy overlooked Ibo electrical s-ysu:m! With no rue jn the wire. il'I,e~·s no heat ifl1.he slreel_

Panic! You contact the kit manulauurer for help _ whh a :!iiinnng feel lng, you beat them tel l you lhat if !hC'), k.n~,w how to inslall ane lcctricel system, tiler would have included the Informmiqn in Iheir assembly manual,

You flnd jhat your' tocat kh-car club isn't n,uc-h help eilhet". The.ir advi,"-e~ the universal :5O]ullotl.~i.s tOirHy~dg lOt wiring hn:rnt:s:; from a donor caruod hope for th~ best. This. ls h_a:rclly worthy or [ftc, CrafLS'iJiittLShip you. PUl ifno lht s:howqualuy paint aoo 'upholstery, Ih.e zccmy wheels and tires I and me super-frick engino work, All this good Sl"If. supported by all electrical system tlmt looks llke an exptoslcn in ill wire faclcry7 No way!

Do I n.ecd 10 ltl I' you ~;:!l hdp is ,U hand? In f 1lC1, ill you.r hand right now?

.. But," you may pretest, "I don' l kMW lhe firsl thirtg atxuu eleclri-ci\y. hi f~l. I'm aJ'mosl, -afmid 10 change a J ighl bulb for fear of g~ttil1g shocked!"

Th~j Doai has been pmpill'Cd speciflcally for yo".1L .'pl"'", all yO" need lO

know 10 wire your car [rom scratch. You'll learn how 10 seject nnd install electrical components. design clrcuhs, consrruct ,;;.od tnsran wiring hamessea, and I.est I.l:u!: syrtems,

To en oble yO" 10 o<co.mplish these tasks. lb is book also caplalna cti!ctncal U.eQr)', wi nn,g d i.i],gfilm~ and Ie$! P"O'" cedures. Il .. lso [oe] uees :a: COJ.tlprehcnsjvc USt of suppliers for JUSt, ,3.bout evcryililng you'D need for dolng the job.

Wh(il If yo ... are,.'1 .;viring;ij; car from scr;.q,tc:h? Maybe you're ,rtSwnng an antiqus or collector C:iU. Or, perhaps you wnm to !'l=p.l(iL':~ 01' t"ep:,i.ir .. li~,~d wirif,l_g harness Or specific oompt,Jncrus in )'U\it old family car. trso. you'U flnda special c h.aple~ On rewiti ilS that ieUs you bow to restore the ckctricel system to like-new condition. TIl,is book also includes several eh:apiers pertal nin_g to setecred "'c.hicJe$~wjrins, OJ, race ear, trailer wir~ ing. and converting. a VW 6-voh system to a 12-volt svuern.

One fIna.l ROIt: Because tbis book

Urr~b rrechtll 11 g sr,hfHll "~\ r rial

Altel'nator .. sou.roi of eUJT1Ift1 for III ~ trkaI eomponen'Cl wt'In. CI"!JI~ 1 .. rutmk'lg-, It 0II1So redlerge-. tie:""" Wf'!k:IJ llllh othI!r e~e.! ~rQI!I II'! III eer, Thiil 9C-.m1p JOb QOuld be UIIIB(!: u pgwtIr aour&4II b bLrmpw full Qf drhoing '*np. mm IheM lilt ""tit. Photo by TQrn MOnroe.

sranecl Oul as, a how-to gulde for wi rine kit cars, you,'1l find a number of refercnces to YW Beetle iUld Ford Pinto cumpOncIlLs-simptyoce.a.use!heY·'1"e rwc of the most ccrnrncn dOI"iQ'r eats used cs l.hc basis for ku-car ccestrucdon. BU't IhLS in no way Jimi rs the application cluic procejures ~ 0 ju,sl these IwO car 1 mes, Norsbould 'i~ be take<.n. as an tooorsemt[),t of lOO original ems or llle kits. based an Lhell'l_ SQ, i f you' ~ p!(U'lflj fig to bu ild ~ late-model sl.ock C3r. Cbcveue-beseu MG replica. Baja bug, Corvair-po\llered Femu':i Iook-altkc, [':D1-motor'Stt'et:t rod, or what-have-you. don't worry. Elcctricar theory and wlnng pnnclpres .apply equall)' well 1,0 you.r cbosen pn.ljeC'L



Someone onec Sitid a car needs only two tblnp to run-fuel and cl~ctricily. WIo':!,lI. OK, 'Ll'ut:e 1hing;.':. ir)'oo count air. But the poinl is .. his: .A till" depends '11,0 o[1.ly these rhree thing.s for basic opc:ra· tlon.

"How ~.;Jq th n l be?" you o;s~ ~ "Today' 50 Ciani are so comptiencd." Well, compare nn old CiU wlrh u :rnQdem one. I r y-ou Joo~ beyond the obvioes. wtl~1 do 'yOQ find 1 The b:tI_sil;~,:u,n; the SII.TnC_. Nowadays, it's only tbc application that· oS mme corn-

I....-m.,. Itf'd' ~I molo .... ,nil .... lWQ m.IUi" 'typtn 01' ~nc.I Io.lItI, klI.!Pd' r;N'I .;:ar .. H~M drfYl"g :f.i:linp;l!lllllu;! ~ 1..1_. IOII;Jf ju.IctI,.o t:r.attfiy IiIIld "~nr (-&OUreM) .00 Wlnil ~P*th.) mu~ .... ~ accorcIingty.;PhQto by nm ~.

plil:!:Ltctl. T,i5ke cl~uithy.

The esscnr inl electrical components in uld em, and new ones: art- Pr.:J.CllCllllj' !he si1IIlC'-ignilion, snifter, generator, batrery 0\.00 lights. But today's cars. also come equipped with cjectric wipers. electric gauges, electric windows -e-evcn elettric 'mirrors. Mos.t or 1003)'·:5 'f:,X,U,iS wc: ju.st lh;:u,_.......,;e:.;.It'"~. nut atl ~t'tese eom;ponenL~ have one thing in common. Th~y aU need cleclric:l ty 1.0 OpefU\t.

SD. before genlng in!o Il,e :;peeifl-Cs of electrical theory and haw to wire your car, lei's take a Drid overview of the car's el~cll"icaJ sjstcm, All I.he Lornponems menlior.Je·d here are discussed in dc:ui I in !heir rcspccrtve chapters.

The electrical system can be di 'Vi~w into three major ]J.iitIs: e]ci;lrical sources, e]e<:lriC'"..:.1 '(H;jd5~u.<o;C:;rs of clcctrieily-' and. ejeetrical parhs_

E:1.et:Uirai seurees consist of me bal· ~e1)'. whil;h stores electricity for slanj_n,g the en.gine, and the grf!t'rt::J"l()T or a/ftrnttWI". which provides ele-cu1cUy when, the engine is running. Except in CIlSCS or extreme overload. 11 ceeecuy oojl.u;ted, t::hargiQg s:yslcm will' pl:\lrIJ LJ.« enough power 1,0 operate all. tht tltt:l_rlcal de .... ices in the car. with enough extra to 'r~cniU'&e the battery.

Bleetelcsl I..... lnel,do oll <he do-

WJtts ... 1nI pathI. Um arry c:urnm to tram 1OUfC. to loadS. In ., car, thty"'re tM.InolIO, 'kilo _ '" ladl_ , ... 1I"g . Ttli. fK:t.ory Mm •• UAI sp!IIIOl.:r rnOIdtK1 connIIC:'tortI, 10 mlch wlrn. 1:0 C:Cllmj:llO'M'fl" e-re oth., ...,.".. .. ,. Phcio by Jm B.,.-.tL

vices OIl the car lh.al require eleetriclry (or ope:raJ.!on. Some uampJes are the ~;g.i1itton system, wl.nd.sh.L'Cld-wLptt motor, heater-blower mDIOI", hom. radio or tape deck ~ and J IShls. By [he w:ay, don't !,I ndc~slimatc tbe etlXtnc.u loads craned by righu. tr's common for Co ear to bave Hwre 1'iithlS tl1an all tt1e olher 'loads combi"«I-20 10 30 I iSh" ca" be found in a modem car. And. in -!;orne race-car DWliC".iUjOM, such as mlly C31':s, off-eoad race". and IMSA oro and GTP em. jhe e le!:;ul~llu;ad from dri .... i [1,.,g ] tghlS, caD be' ,quadruple II.h::d, of conv(:ntioJliill li,~!. in,gs),sl.ems.

EI«!rical ""U •• include wires. of ecorse, B u.t a ear's :Sltel llody ao.d fr.rrnt:: arc abo pmbs. They're used as then,'14-m path. or gl'O~fid" between low and Lhe battery. And 'ilie: various 5w~tCht-s in the system I:an be included in Ihe path caregory. Swhcbes ,are tocaled i_I"! lhc e tectri-C"il;1 path ro act I!S U sort of g;ate-, pemnulng elecutchy to pass or to bold 'i t bad .• as required .•

Togcihcr. these lhrtt pans form clec .. utcel cil'Ctlj/£, which enable electricity to perform useful work. Wi!h Ih:is brief overvlew l.ii n·lind. I,urn tile page and begin YOUJ :study of e !edriCill. .[rn;:ory.

6 Urr~b rrechtll I, g sr,hfHll "~\ r rial

WIMn tt.1ih poIM (++, 01" - -) at two magMa.,. clOM to IIIId\ othet, ......, r1iipIII. Tt!tI unn. "*«+ Incl-I' ... roct....,.....,. Thls_IS.,._ """'_DII_ oIoeIrlolly_

h"·s remotely posslblc for you to suet't::50~fu.'ll)' wire a car wilbout i!t.I)! ideu whiiltSOCV~T about ekctreal theory. BUI do·J'l'·' If)l U.

Why'! h wouJd be si mila.. to takin,g a trip without a road !nilp. You may have an idea Qf wnere )'00 w.anl, 10 go, bul 00 cjeer-cut idea of how m ;b"ti, lhe[t, Or" pt,:.r,ttap:5i more important, you don't know \Io'ha.I'~ irwoh'ed in mating Iht trip. So, r ~uungJy slJg~sl jQlJ rake the time- to learn. basic elecmcel lilCQry bcfote you uoy to wire ~'QlIr car.


nased on man)' oeeve rsation."I, I've had with pcopr-i: over liic ),C".:u-s, l'vc come to the "",,,1"',;0", lh.t. of all the elomo,nl' thiilt gointo a C·3t, electricky is, by a wide margin, the most misunderstood. Arw.I f)l.)(ju'5t by the layman, eilhtJ. EI~_ticity j,s a hang-up for 'technicians and engleeers, a. s v,.'1::11.

1"V"e .11~ cone I uded lhal .a great deal of lhis; m.is;undc:(j;fanding ucms from !he facr thai ekctricity is invisible and formIC'~'>, so its nature can be perceh'od .).nly


indirectly. Another reascn f.Ot' the mj~undcnita:ndil'lg is. dut elecuichy i~ not "ne. "'ughl wellln ",,,.y schoots, posslblY because the InstnKlQr'S don 'I, fully ul".lderstand itt either.

10 tbe following "'cti"". I poruuy cjccuicuy as a pheI10111CJ]oo~ which it ce.nainly is-c-that can he reckoned with and worked wub.

So. what 1[;: ele<:trkity2 What is this Joree (bat 'por):' tho ,,,,,,,kplu!!s """ lighloiii the li,ghl~? 1$ it ;s.ome kind of magic !:hal only an engineer cr scienusr Call understand? No~

webser's New C-olle;gL3.1t DleuQniu'')' puts :it like this: "Elecutchy is, iii. tun~ du:me-nt31 entity cf nature coeslstlng or positi v c and ncgatill't kiads, .. u.:suwly utihz..ed in the form 'Of electrical 'Cur, rene."

Mysterious, maybe but not magic, L.ct':s Uy to Improve on webster:

• EI«1ridly ha.~ pilsrtive and fl¢g~U v e cllarge<.

• 11 is. an invisible force.

• II can be controlled.

• h ".on do work,

• II can flow in a ('UrTCrJ.1 from place to pl.«.

• II can flewonly ina compleredicircuit.

• II can be "stored" in ill banery. Posi~ ve & N~IP·.-III grade-school scerce. )'00 probably learned thaI' mag~ nets ,ate:' eiC(:tric:a1 in f.laiure, wtlh a norll! poJ.~ and a ,~oulhpole. On ~ome magnets, nlJr,b is marked + (posirh'e)and,~lJlh is I'nBtked - (ner:.':Hive), Put rwo magnets close to each otber and you'll 50:. thai like pole> (+ + or - - ) revel each other =-nd un1ik~ poles t+ -) attract each other.

"this :sepilration into pcsitl ves 800 neg::'lti\'~ i~ calletlpol.aril.~" II ls the nr5t important oobn about clccrrichy. wbj,cb will become cjearer later. For now,ju5l remember pesi ii ve, hl:gali ve, ~Jld H'Ie anraction between mem.

The In''blblt .'0f'Cf'- You can't see electricity because it opcrtUcs nl an atomk level. All maucr i~ composed of ,UOrUS. They're so tiny it would take mltlions of them ro iI,."qu,;.I! the widlh of t.he period al rhc coo of this sentence. AtcllJ.'S (Ire: <.xi!llf)QS(!d of even :limau'e:r par-

U rheberrec htlich gesc h utztes Mater;"



Princlp" O'P iIII.ctrica1 fl[Jw dllipil'l1d8 en f.ct tI'IMI alOI'I\I 01 t.CItne I'I\tIw ... I'UIY4lIIloout-t hOld eIec1:~ in tt.ir iD bR., WIWn 100M1y

MId o~ II. tLWC:toa 'rom Ila [JUi8t ClrtMt,. 'It il ftM Ie "1'10,." I.Q anottNIr iI'tOI"I'I. DraWling COl.irttq 01 Chry COrp..

ticjes-c-prorons, neurrcns and electrons among them. Tbc particles we' ro eoncemcd with are the deoroas.

Ele(:troos rrave 1 i fI ein;l,Ilw- peths around ibeir 310m's nucleus. like planets around Ihe sun. In some material scopper wire for innance-cthc outermost declIOI1S aren't held too s.twngly_ They're free !O bop f'"J,!ld-ornly from one atom to another. Eacb time an extra electrnn hops into an alQl"!1. ir pops another Of\t: loose. Be<:3_\lSC: (he ecilvlty cf these free electrons is random, mere's 'nothing directio.nnJ about their moveroems,

There W1:- two de-ices in a car's electriCiiJ system that are sources or excess free electrons: beuery and get1t"mlOr. AI one terminal there's an excess of free electrons, und [It the ether ICrTJ1.inaJ there's not enough.

If you atlacll a copper wire between the two terminals of :;), bancry Or gcncrmor. free electrons begln to push into rbc copper wire. The i.imdr.1I1l 1"t\1.1'1rernem of the copper's f ree electrons begins 100 take on apattcm. Wilhpns1-u.r~ ( v oltilSc) behind end a void ilh~ad. the electrons rno v e in a more-or-tess orderly faSQion in one dtrection. This directional' Ilow or ekeeons in she wire is. called c lcctrical C"~rr~"'. vohuge i~ discussed Iercr. CO,OdU"OTS. ResI.<1"rS & [ nsu I>.IOrSAs. mentioned earner. tile OLJ termost electrons in coppe_t morns are herd re lutively loosely. Silver is another 1ll<l:loU

wilh loose] y he Id erecteons. MatenaL.;;; such :p,5- these arc called conductors because they Freel)' conduct or carr)' elcc- 11'O'n racverrenr.

Other meials ccndecr e:leculcily. bu~ not as. 'WC1l. ln these metals, when a free el ectron hilS an atom, scrne 'Of il,s energy g.~-LS absorbed. So when the nc::u electron i:!'j Ireed, n doese't have as mucih energy as !hc first one did. This slowing of ctectrcn movement is called r~.JiJr8.n~, and mau!ri:als in wl"iic'tL il occurs arec-alled resistors. They conduct clcetrichy, bu t tend to resist its movcmeat. Examples of rcsi stance lTl<Clals are nickc 1. iiVtl and nlchrumc.

Ma!enals whose OlJ termon electrons are fimdy held il1'e called In.t"oI4lauII r s. B~ cuuse there arcn't uny. or not muny. free electrons avajtabfe, in.s.u1ill0l'S can'! conduel cleeuon now~oote the difference between a resistor and an insulator. Insuletees irn:'lude air, rubber, gtess, wood, bakeli tc, conon. and of course, the plastic lnsu laucn en i:: lectrical wire.

So. me:t:lls are capable of ~LI.C"I_L~g e lee tricil}'. uhbcugh some ucl as rcsistors. Non-rrcrals generally act as in, sulamrs.


Like nuny Ihi rigS ln nature. there's 0:1 Jaw govern Lng lhe basic properties or etectrichy. It's called Ohm·s fan', nnmcd for ilS origjnatcr, GOOJgc S. Ohm, a Gee-


lhEI're· are lwo S¢hoOIs of tho~ght on which drrectlon. elec:trons flow~" a cr""jl_ Tradition.1 lheory COIIIend. tIl.1 currenl low lS ''''''' pos;t/Vtl f + I to negative (-). That 19, excess Iree OICdrons flow from a ba_norylg IPDsil.iV9 h:uminal~ through the clrcuil, and !back 10 fhe: bal18ry'S i"I!GgB.M le~mi!"lal. fo-Iowever, through scienlffic- Et)I;,peri~ ment, 111;' idea ".." la!gely teen 1'0" p(a<:ed by lI1e modem!heory IIlat ejeoIrons actually flow from negativB to positive.

P'octicaIly speakl"!!. _ 1'<1" wire a eat Ii' r"~ dQflsn'l maUer iM1ich ltIoory f<IIl accept, But 10 avoid conly"'n. tI'4 book assumes Ih., "",,,,ttl lIow i. ~om po&ibVe to negMVe', Inara 1M directloo favored by traddrn. so it rs 1110 dirol:1jon 1-.>110<1 'by .11. standard ""'o...,.,.lo-wi""!! dl'lll' ..... , In mv opinion. iI'" also 11>. dl<ecliotl ."iest 10 e<plaln """ "rlClerntood. A<id tM ,10" lenl here Is to expl.ajfl:hOw to wi~e a car, oot hOw 10 pass a. graduru& eass tn ptl)"Sicsl

man ~ientisl_

B~fOJ1: J !i;"Cl to the fcrmul II ~ bcres :I simple ilJ'Lalo,gy W tleJ.P you unde-r.;;tand it.

Gel a piece of nexi ble tubing ai\d , bunch of TOO!rbles Ill .. 1 will ~ornforta'bll' p'" through tho tublng, Begin by filling Ihe tube with marble! _ The il'iarbles

U rheberrec htl ich Qesc h utztes ~, "IeriB






R&liJt:ttora CQlrTUiI in .!I $I'zM Uld 'h .... _ SI'I'dIII fubtiLlplt'!Jlped tHIn .,. uf'terI uMd 'I" 1I'kIetrofI1r: dreults" .1,1(:11 n ~ ... l.¥glf' one .hown 'I • varl.b .. mlSlot'. cal ..... mlWO.ltf!. 0,.. UN 01 .. J~!ltlt 110 jn. headlamp IIwlu.n to control g.1IIUgI!I IUurn.ln.Uon. Dr.wIng _.-y 01 Cl>ryllor Corp.

In nUl llI:t.aihpollI. the' plilsti'c lubit t&pfQl!i:l;lfltl',il S' eondu ct ;gr. and the rnatbl'e$ '!is. fn(lvlflg etee:!;r'(KlS" or euoeot. Thum'b Iii!l::Iplylng force 110 pu$ll m!lrblA!:J represents vc1r~" SI',;IIJee'.1Jrlllill1he lube re,preserlts ,..8hUNJCi!P,_

Wl'Mln _ great many eIKtronl bIg'ln moVing rram atorn to atom .-: In. tame llrT'lll_. 'M ........ n 1:1 tIKUOn now, wnlcn we can .~ty,

represent lhe movable electrons mentloeed in Ihe first section. One irultble equals J coulomb. Now pLLsh OJ'lC new marble j nrc the I u be. Y QU can readily see thil .he ne'rlo' marble will push on the one next to lr, IU'Id so on I until the last 1ni11'br~ in Ihe tube POP'S out. 1 f this took O:tlI: second. vou have a flow riJlc of I ampere. Or I roulomb P{,1' second.

Wluu made t~ m:l:l'ble move'] Your thumb. h waS .he force, or pressure I making, the flow happen. The press.u!:'e exerted by your thumb represents vatsage!'.

Suppose, while you're pw .. hin.g one marble per second into the. tube, a friend grabs the rube i111.d. pinches it in a liWe. Now, you find :LI 's oot a~ cas)' to push jhc mareres. The pinched-'in secuon of Ihe tube rcpresems resistance, The :amount of squeeze Lsohms. Jfyour friend phcbcs t'lilfd~~', j'0ll ha .... e to J)lJSh on the m(ltb les h!irder 10 m!;1irHain the ~i;line flow rate.

Ohm's law is 1m electrical law lying year thumb, !he marbles and your friend's squeeze IQgelh¢r. h w'O~ks; li1«:

Ih LS: rhllmb - tnorble.s X pf~c:h. Or. WJ',:r :;;;; amfure.:.f X ohms. In mathematics, ttl!:




FI_ .. of .""""0" Ilgh' bulb prvvId .. """'''''Iod ...... _",~"''''.Ug''' tHlr.il'tl ~ tn .. curnr'll fIt)w It. g ..... _10 ....... _.

customary way 1.0 show .his equation ls:

E = lXR

E = voll.< (p, ess u,..,)

I = ."'pons ("""",,I IIow) R - "hms(~ ce )

Denr worry too much about understandin.g Onm's law just )'~,t. It is given here only 1.0 imroduce Y'ou to ltle ibree lmpcnam mcasareme nta in decui(ily: v ctre. nurperes and ohms. Later. after I've diSC\lJ!sr:d lhc work. ele<:lridl), does and something about circu.il lheary,

Wherl a wlTo 1C000d'uc:U eurrem It i;l!l ,!WI'" """"*' .,., • mog....., 110'<1, .. ~_ .... by .(I ,1It.r1" Clf I;ClI"I~ntrI" ring .. .ur~ ~!l!llllN'W'l're. Ttlj!llllUI~""~1:: pnocJpIe ., ~"'- !Io .... "" c:o\oIi1e:sy 01' Ctlry.sier Corp.

l'Jl come back to Ohm's law and ils applicanons.


r n II car, etecjricity performs work if! oee of two Wo!\yS;~ It creates h4Jl or it creates magn~/lml. All e'ec" 'cal components work on one or these IWe} pri nclples. fle.t:lr{mic (:OlTlpQDeI'l1:5: like !1!diOS .:md some votLa,CC rt!giLlTiltOIS work on 'Other pnnctpres. But you don It have to deal with their inner ","Orking.s directly when you wire a cart :!OCI' rnese principles; art! not 1;O\ .. t'TOO in this, bock. J ust 'one WQrd of ad "ice wbel'\ dealirL_,g with electronic components; Mate Sure they I re hooked up coreectty!

Heat is c::r~(jud by feli5IalZC[!. Think of it this way~ W~TI electrical curnn t mov~ ih;n)'l.l:gh !he WIres :iiJnd othe;r 000- ChJCIOIS, they cjtber permlt co:sy p;iSSage or they U")' to restrict current now. Resmcrt n.g now isn'l e-xaclty fricclLon, but YW ciIDlhinkoril thiit way" wbcn tbe electricity rubs its way :through n resistanc:C!~ the "Iriction' makes heat. Ifs simtlar to sliding down ~ rope. YOL1r han_lis gel, hot trom Ihe f rictlcn.

One: I;lf' tho maln :l)L,UornOti'IfC USoC:5 of electrical resiS!ilooe ts light bu]b.~. Th~ bulb filam~!L[S g,et:5o hot they emit Ijgtu .. It's I~ke when you uSC 0:1 coal hauger to. roast hoi dogs over iI campfire. Aller a while+ Ihe eoar-ha ... g~ wlre hQ,tdiug the ho, dog go ts bor 0.00 begin' togi ve off ligtll.

Other automotive upplicanons of electrical re:s;l.suu\ce are Ihe cUlls ioside sendLng l.1.njls of scree instrumem-panel

WIwrI w:rront-elrry~ wiN II wrappecj InlO • con, ~Mlk: t)eld 'I'. canc:.nUI,tect enough to 00 wol'lC, .l.Icn as In .,motor, 1i0~ or to-lay. Uk. a tlrnple b:ar m.agMl, c:ol:! e;ruMlinH CI' fOtoII, ilnc:l1Ui1. polarity (Nonn allCl Sou .... politi)' D~n!lll eour1es~ 01 cnrpIM Co'll.

g,al!ges, Ihe rear-window defogger. the ctgarenc lighter and the clicker mccrr.. arusm in turn- :i~Gnal n.Qshers.

Othl::r aUu,lmOlive components woven electricity into magnetism. When cum nt flQ"ls through .. wire~ fheJe's a small magnetic Ileld around it. It'slil~ too smatl to notice ... BUl i r you wind a 101 of "Wilt into a coil, the IJ""l.a.li:Qc,tir;; fi.eld IS concentrated enough to do work .

Elei:tOc nlOI_ot'S w.ork by ma.,g;f\Cl:i~'m.

Basically,. a magneuc field is generated by COl ts irt tl\e- motor ,woich ~I on an nrmnrum that drives me motor shiirt. 'The p,rinciples of elecirtc -rumor operaiion are co .... ercd in detail on page.!! .56·5&. Electric motQrs used il'l eMS inc.lude lhe 'wiper motor, washer-pomp motor. sucter motor, etecme f.ol pemp, h .. ,.,·(", motor. and snorers for pOWCT wi ndows and seats.

Electric ~1.S .0150 play.il rote in me operation of relays. Here, magnetic forte is used 10 open and dose electrical clreuus. A good example is the ",I.y lhot operates some car boms. There's also a powerfu I relay ,in lhe SUli'tlrlg motor, These relays consist of n roil of wire wound artlund.:l, core. For-more on rcl_ays and how 'h,y W(lrk. so. p'g< 33.


Up to tnis point, j''O'il' ve re:!.d ebout how i;:l.-cr:trieily flows when .... o.lt~gc, providcs the pressure to 'mov-e electrons lllrougJl a conducwr. This section. describes the actual, pmhs electrons take. Tbcsc ~ celled drc~il.!. and they have cenai n. :specjJtC charnL':k:ri51i~ you need

For .. IChr;:uU, 10 be eCirnpllB1e-, It~, 1_0 id'llit ar ...... ! thNe eI~I.; oil !IOLI1'"QI:I (If "W(ln...,~11!11 (baltery or goMl'8tor} e'oad (la1'l"lP" I"I'IOtot or other c:u"..m~ .. l.ng ~) .00 • pain (Wh'H, ~n ot' p'in1", el:rcutt.) ..

I"" II ..,.. ~iI""'. curnutt "1iI1II to tloW lhrough ofr8eI1 I;:(IIIlpc)lMill'lt In 'hit ... III. h "01- lOW'll t'tMI.JKtriCilI pqrEh. NOI1JIiitotQ !:hI1 eurtIf'I't c:.annat flow 1hrougn. IlIf'np ~:te .wilC:lll. open ..

to know abm.n \I.'ben )'01,Ji"re. wiring a CW'. Simpl. Clrwlt -S'orI "'i lh • bcncry. Hook a wire to the positive terminal. Hook ~"Other wire U) ltle ne,~ilti'l;'~ terminal. Now .,taCh the freeetlds of tho WLre8 to the terminals of it lamp. The lamp light s. l<:t', sec "'hot you· ve dono. You've provided a peth from the battery posiuve lenni""l. to Ibe lamp. lIlrougl! lb. lamp filament. a.nd back. to lhe ba:t1ery negative: terminal. Thi:li is a complele,clTcuu.

TIl. simples: kin.d of ci",uillnclud es a b"'ler}' (electrical source) , • load "'~ some "h','ir.t (electric-al palh). Jn the exarrtpl~. the l.runp is Ihe load because it! s who! is using. tip the batter)' 's cui"tC.nt 10 do work. 'In this case. the work is 1.0 p~vide I ighi ..

The slngje most important ch~Clem;,"" tic of a simple circuit ,oran), circuit. ls


U rhcbcrrec h II ich gOS" h (liz tes k I ~\cri a

__ ....... "'_lOdroull,cur__ '0 __ through owllch ond._ Iomps. SwlICh _lamps .... In _ willi OKII _. K one _ b_ both lamps


thaI il rmet st.nrt ;at the battery po~iti"'i: terminal and end " the banery ""gall'" terminal. WIthout this set of coatecnons. C11l1'tnt .....-on·' now'.

IJ you wan' tc rum olf the lamp. you must break the circuit, Yau ooilid cli$.~ connect ilJ1'jofth.e four~ionstQOO this, Di~ns a wi re '0 rom off. lamp iea't much uouble in a table-top e:tperi~l'!tt but irwould be intolerable in 8, Cit. So )'"00 ean see lhai the simplest circuit is also an impractical circuit, CI ... ly, )'<'.I need "'''"' ",It of comrol to Cum tht: l.III1lponand off. This brings upa second tind of -C:1n::uil-1he :suits ctrCVj',.

Selia CirtWl-ln>leod of disconnect· ing' one oftbe wires to turn off Ihe lamp, simp,ly (:\1.1 !.he, wire bet'Wee,n the ballery positi v e terminal and the Jamp. Tltis c:er~ .. inly breaks the flow of cunem. Then install a swheh between the: IWO (Ul-e:f'Wis.. Wilh 1M swikh j,n place. you c'an mau am bnak lhe circuil: GIl)' time )'00 'Want by operating !Ilo ,witch.

Now, electricity must now roN through tM switch, then the lamp. on its. way from t,he batt~ry positive termlnal to the battery eeganve terminal. El.ectricity must pais throug,h a series or ecrupoeenu, one a.I ,it lime_ That" s why this is called 11 series drcuis.

SUP:P05e. Y'0tI Wl1!,t yourcin:uit to have tWO lam~ operated by otIt: swilch_ How could you wire Ihe second one i.n?


,." • pan/MI dtcW, current hII •• oholal; :I't con now 'hrough ooch lamp _ ..... ,. " _bulb -. _10"",_00.

You could CU"t the win: agnin, and iltuJcb the new cut ends (0. the 5CCOnd lamp. Now. current nO\\"S thrausp the switcb, Illrougll lhe original lImp, _gil "'" =000 lamp and ...,1 to the b.llezy. Noti" ogoin 1ba1 current must pass Ilrrough one compeeem ro g~' (0 the neJU cee.

Tbc ad-wanlage of thi_5 kind ofcirtuii is olrlo1.ou:s. Y 00 don't need any c:tlra wire 10 add th~ secoed lamp. h ur, there t:s; a big di,ad.onttgc, If ooe of lhe boll>< bum, out! the fillIIl1Cnl!-m;idc actually bums m half, breai<illlllhe clreuit. Cum:01 can', now when lhe c.ircuit is broken. so the Olb:er Jamp goes 001.. too, You may rememher th.e cld-f .. hio ... d Qui."" ... tree light> thaI worked th;. w,y. Y <>II ""'Wllly had, 10 test each bulb ><Jlortlleiy to ,find the bad one,

Tbcre "s .lllXltt.er d.i;ud"lIli1~ to the series circuit, 100. 11 hoppen, 'when you put It. high.resistmce component leseries with a low-resisiaOce one. Cu.rrent now _gI> the combiDedoomponc:n .. llUIy not be ~umdent 10 permit the lowrtsisianc:e componem to ~. Al!ld, the crder in which they're wired d<>esn'1 matter. High'I<';'tance co_".., .. ,implyoh<J" cenent 0.111, Later. when r gel back to- the applie,atiOflj. of Ohm':sraw, lhe reesons 10< th;, should become clear.

p"raI~[ Cluull- The",', """",or way to 'wire ,g ::second lamp into )'OtJ,l circuit.

In 0 _"""'_clrwII, ""'""' __ _gh _ Iomp _,,,,,,, 1M "". 10 nowlhrough_h ,,,_10Il0l10_

lamp. Ono. ro_ ......

u-.ty. TbI.ro "'_"Iho_'_",

monc_~""''" _


Thi.s time" you 'wOO'~ di"lurl) the original wiring lit aU, Instead, add two mort wire:9 am lhe second lamp, Now. current flewing from the battery goes through the sw itch to the fin>! lamp-OIKl to the "",<>lid lamp-al, tbe .. me time. Cunen' can now through both m""", nts a , !Ilo """'. nme andblct 10 the botlezy. Tbere are· two paraJJ~1 paths far cerrent 10 f.llow,

In r4 paralltl dh;ui;, one bulb keeps working even if the othet bulb bums out. 'The pnnl.lel circuit req,UIres e.nra wlre, lbough,

_ or ParalItl?-How do you <Ie-ride when to use a series circuit md when to use a paro!l.1 one'! YOIl""'" my"",", self one qUCSIIoo.; "Do I want eacb component 1.0 ,get 'cur:rent Independe:nt1y~ or do I wantlhe current 10 now _gil. one befcre i, ge ts to the othcr?" The anoly>i. may surprise )'<'.I.

Think about this ror a minulC:: \Vh,ill good ~d •• witch do ."""""ted iD parallel to !he Jamp in your cirt:uh? N'0Qe_ Bau.ery ~n1 woul.dbe a't'ailablc 01 the ,witch and lamp all tit. time ..... _ny tiD.lC the battery i~ cOnnected to tbe ctrC"it, the lamp wiU Ugb', "'i>!dJ,." of switch poshion. The 'swilrn 'woukkl'l ccatroltbe tamp at all. For this reason, be sure the switch is alwa_y8 wired in series with the load it is iUppOsed to control.

AI. rnetllioocd ... li." one of lhc disad v anta,ges or pun.ing loads in series is

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri"

Ground &tull or' ground ball 1:$ uaed' tD pig-. .... 1icSo c:4mmon gr'Ol.irl4l'ng point tor two 0( IRON oCom.pol'Mlnls" lien.. tlillunps mouJ1tlodi 01'1 fibe'rglul car boGy .re .JI Ql'oundKi lei at. IMtallfillT1tl 11 thlsone poI"'-

that l f cne ]oild burns. OUI,-Opel];S the cirt:uit-lhe others quit wOTkLn,g~ 100_ SQ, m:.;:d:e sere the toads are in parallel m each other, ln marry C~S~, )'OU 'II ba ve a. combiaation l~rlt$-pa~Uf!J dl'{;uir. Tn.tu ls, rile loods.art:: pcrullcl to COKh other, but the loads together 8..I'C in series whh the switch conrrQlll,,& them. A car's heed[amp circui L is il good exam ple. Both the right and left lamp are "roe"".o by ,he same switch, BUl if one lamp bums out. the other one wi II Slay on,

II·s :also pos.:S-i Die ro control one load from several pjaces. For tl::un,ple" you use a door-ecuiated switch al each CiU' door to control a sin,sle dome lamp. Here, the switches are. wtred in. pa:.raUello eacn alher. b1J.~ j 11 series ""1 th IiJno!oaO. Each swi tch permits current to now through thol • mp. r<S.r<lI.., of the ,..,.,.tio'J'\ of the oihcr swtreh or s'Wi tcbes. Sin.g'le.- Wjre Circuits- Up to new. I've described several simple circuiu. lnvolvlng .a bane!)" switch. load and some wtee. I" e v ery case, a. second wire carried the current from the load back to me battery. Now for the ~h(i("k~pu.n inrenoed. Clrc:U-LIS In cars aren't wired IhLS way" Mosl use only one wire 1.0 Ci!lTry' current from the battery to 1M !O:l4. "But.";' 1'00 might say, "the circuit needs Ulll second wire 10 ,gel the curn,nt bac,1t 10 Ihe baue.r)'.·· Wrong_ R U Mii'l.g :a second wire from eaeb load b:Jc,~ tl:) lhe bimcry would to.ke IJ: lot of wi~, so me C""df":s


ShDii ,CirciJii m;:CL,frlli Wh~n current ~ ~Ir.d11 to grlbundt byFNIulng kNid. ShoI1l1 aN cauH(! wtI4In blfiII· eopper (:cndudot ilCej_cI.l'd.IIl~ cClnttc:t:l aaJtc:enl eondlJCtol' or grouncl .. mlltll pan ~ car. Anultl'ng iI'I'Ign c-Unftlt f,.ow' D:LJ".ms up wl ..... ,polS:lbI~ c:.IIuS:l:ng aMloul' .iII1:lrIcal "re,

sheet-metal body and chassis ere used :IS • c""".,,,,, return path (g,rnu",,) from .tIe lo~d beck to me battery.

One balH~1")' Ie:rmi niJl- norroall y l~ negati v t~l.s att-achcd d:irttlly 1:0 some metal part of the cer-s-jhe engsre, chassls or metal body _ W"hCfl e.L1Cjfle, t:bas;sis and mesal body ere ,oot connected directly, you' H find targe 8ro~lId straps joining tbese components to form onl: large, comlauocs ground. Bech load 'is ccacected 10 tneeD,ginc, chassis orbody, Usually the load component's enli.re case cr bod)' forms the ground termlnal ,

Because modem cars ha ve the 'ocga-r I'j ve berrery cable ,;ut,ai:hed ro 'the c-h:ass.is, Ihese systems art called lIeg,uive~grou"d systems. Some earlier American cars and manj' imports have it pOJilr1lt~grmmd .~"."'. This is es peciallY ImI'M.n, !O remember because you can't Install cornponems wuh 8. neg£lli vt-~U,tl.d crientaIiOD into a vehicle with a pesltlvc-groued system.

Be tore going On, make Sure you undcrsla!Ld how Ihe slagle-wire cjrcuh worb. Remember-one whe supplies CuiTC:rill ro the load. white Il:w.: car' s .m~ stmcture OCL5 as Ute secoed wlre to compjete the current p.(ith (TOm the laad back to the 001t1:1)'. 11+5 easy 10 overlook the meratbody and ch:):ssi:s as ool'Kluctors be" .... ,lIey doo', I.oo.k Iii«: wi,"", Short ClrnriU- U..likc the other CiI' i:uits al_~~dy r'i'\eiUtOPe4.,!he ,sMr-1 ci.r-c;.y.jl

is not oec you'll rind i.ntentiorutlly engi n.eered into a car, I ns read. the short ceeu [I 'is; Bl"I. ilC(:idenlai naw thi!l_t wcrb its wily Into an electrical system.

The fo! towi~g sectlee on the appllcatiuns ef Ohm· slaw, e:c.plaifls thei:;leC'u:l~ cal theory behind .a short. For now, I",', look '" Ill< """,h""io.! .ns peers.

QmS"id~ this example: The wire: her tween the batl,ery positi v e terminal and a load is aoc:ldentaHy grounded, :10.:3, car, rhis c-.ould tit: caused by il pinched or chefcd wire" When i3 win: 's in1iu.ltniOfl, is cut. .be exposed wp~r ecnduetnr mily touch it grounded rtJ.eial part or the ctU'_ Current goes directly 1.0 ground, byp:.as,," Ing the load enl'trety_

So, wha\ happem:? The wire Il'lay get hot~m a ybe even ilta:r1 ID smoke. Wilh7 OUt :;l, lond in the: circui !.,lhe current meets" Ilrtle or no resistance, so it 111«:5 thrcegh tk-t: ..... vire fast etIQugh to oCmJU:: heal. Soon. lhe ,nsculation ,tanS 10 burn arwJ the ...... ire melts. This. is. oee reason wh,), aU el~lriGal -cir(uit5 jn .Ii CiU' ~ prol~led with j14U5' or circuil breaJ:er;.r,

Circll_U Pro1edioR~A fuse' is ceslgned 50 LI is the wcekest link in iI,(-hcuiL Nor~ mal cllmml flow doesn't bother thi:. fuse .1..,,,.., .1 .11, Bu" if now (""'pe .. ge) becomes too great. the rust: elemcnr gelS hot find meUs,_ The circuit bt:c.omes. open and cerrenr flow stops. Fuses melt, or blOK) , at Ii! cutren t now greater than t~ normal •• pected now .• bu, lower iii," .1Ie flow neces:smy 10 mell the wire!._

This i:g why it's, irnpornun to use correcuy ratec fuses. If YOLl illstall one. that' 5 rated 100 low, ;0 noenaljoed m a y blow it. o U! r if' the ( ... se. 'S f'}trd too hi Sh. Ll "laY oot bkrw as 11 should duriJ],~ u short. Thi:i could eaus-e !he wi reJ to ~CQm" the w'taktSI 1ir.I:, burning tbem up.

Keep in mifJd ihat [J blown fuse is a :zympl'O'/fI of iii circuit problem. Fuses rareI)' cause, problems themselves,

Fuses are roted by lh:e ma;c im\lm OlIIroern,go they 'rul carry before blowinll. S-o,1Ue fu.se:~ have Ij,e L'\umbe_r !S,if;.i):rn.:pe:d on the fuse l>OOy, Othe" are oo!or-cootd acconHns to iilIDperes. Typlcal fuse mtin.g,s rOt amoinOtjve use lnejude 5, 8 and 16 amp, Remembering what Wa.:!j, said carrier aboer ampere.:;. being a flow rate', you'll see Ihal16 iI,mp is twtce the no .. or 8 """p.

Fu~ :!L~n~t Ih,e only cin::ull-pro&


U rl ~bmreo h II Ie h les" 11 [, Ides M il'~ri~

In good cRull dHIgn, MCh. CRutt II pr0-

tected by • fuM. fUM: lzlId '10 IMft .. II

_ ......... """''''"'' R_ ..

-_IIUrInII··_ ......

........ "*'_ .. _-., .....


1<Clion device. used. Th= are also mechanical ci.rcl4i'1 br~ahr5 and fll5rlil~ links. Tbese do >bout the same thing ea a fuse-lheY open. Ihc cirouil. if currenl flow is dangerously 0100<0 to damaging the wirin.g, Tbese ""vi", ..... diso .. sed in detail on POi<" 3,,"37.

HoI ctn:wll-So far ..... ra1 .kind< of cimtilO ha ve been de<cribed-oeri .. 0 • ra.tib, parallel oireuus, m::I the singlewire .ircuil In whkh lIIe ..... mCutl itrUcI~ I.Cis U II ground.

Sut there', .. od, er wa y to categ<>ri ze cimri u, A cin:ujt lho. i s .,.,..,...ted to the. hatu:ry .p0:5itive (S + ') tmninal i • ..;d to have • ',<,Irag' p<lI.",kll. This meaN ""', if you. want to """""'" • load to ,he cir· cult, eleclricil), is. av.ulable to make the 100<1 function. The common. or non" 1CChnicaJ. name for 3 circuit such u this i. hoI. Some people lIso .011 Ihcm In'. MoilS. whi,ch is wh)l • circuit witb no vollll3t poo:otill i! oft'" called dauJ.

There lire ihree vui.ations or hot cjrcuilO normally wed in • cu. The ron, """" di=tly at the battery po:5itive termiw_ Because, thi~ cirellil is ilIw_),:!! hQI. W,called a bamry cim4ilorB + df'Cllu. You must be eJtb'a c:uefill arouoo a 8 + cin:ui, because il alway. hos vol"ge potential.

Typiw B + oi",uilS an: !he emerien· r:y flasher, bam (on""", 04fS), dome lamps and cillltOtte li&hl<!'. AU !hese lnoel. mu.t be operable ..... when tho (,rubon swlrch is IUI'ned off. The B +


11 .. Z = &CHili

1_~_._1IIot_2 _ AppIJIng Ohm'. In! (E ~ I X .R), )'011 nnd tn.t ,.. ..... In ck'a.llt 1111 ohm ••

eircurl at", pmvide. current. 10 Ihe ignition switch for f\nthu dillribution.

The,~ kind of hot circuit starts or the ignition switch. Soo._ thi s. kind uf oircuit ii bot only when the ignitlon &witch is on, it js called an IGN +- c:irnil or jw.t an IaN ril"Cuil_ You may abo see Ibis: referred 10 as an ignirJon/ud circuit, Mo .. ele<1rlcaUy operated lo>do ~ !beir current by way of an IGN feed. &amplc:s .... lIIe ignition coil Otld !he in'lIUIJIent


The lhild kind of boI timtil OWlS at. •

switch and goes to {bo load. llxsc circui .. are hQ( only when !he switebls turned on. We ,"",ally ,d., 10 them by the name of the load: MOOlamp cin:ui.'~ n.m·lignal dullir. bcu::i-up-i4mp dft:MU and SO on.


Ohm', lawbu",..,y practical "!'PI",,,, ti"", in .n pbll<CO of .ulOmOli>'e wiring-cin::u:il desisn. compoeent sel<>:tJon Otld troubJesbonli_ng- because it allow> } ..... to de""""", !he, third nri· .'b'I~ in I. circuit if tbe other two .flm known. Ohm~:5i raw in formula form i!5l: E 1>'01"'8') ~. I (runp<n.) X R /m/s,rmct}, Oependi!og on which , w " vor· iabl.. ItO known. and which \1IIial>le you""" looking for, the fo.rmull OIl! also be wlilte<l: R~E+I. or I ~ £+K

Tho foll<>WiD8 examples ,bow bow Ohm", law i, used to detetminc thcoe var1ablc:s in both a 'ttl .. circr./I Otld •

p"rtJ/I~1 ",,,,,,i'. In. actual pta<tioo, you can use one Of mtJI"e or Ike foU()wi~g lest instrurntnts 10 mkemeasu:rerncnh. and make !he calcelatloea, If yoo know how 10 we a ."OIlIfteIlJ'", tJmm~/u lnd ohmmm,r'. yoo cm set up iii.m:ple e.~-perimtnUi to verify !he fo/lowing .,amples. Series Clrmlt-From the d=ription of tLrt:uiU't)'ou should alread)l' know yog reed a batt"Y •• load and •• me win: to make· a ~ln;uit. This exam.p'le lUie$ Icon-ventl ... ll2c""lt ... boll<ry and • typical patl:ing·lampbulb thol draws 2 amp, wired in '~rie:!i_ -

By subsiitutin:c. the known values ,into !he fQrmula. R~E"'I .. yoo get: E 02 vohsr+ I (,2 amp) ~ R (6aiJmcr), So, yoo rind thai tho bulb has 6 ohm, of resistaecc, Tbi.> could be verified by using on """",,=, aft" di"''''''''''''ing the bol· '''Y,

NDWt suppose )~oukn.ow the voltage i.:s ,12 IIOIIS and tho ""i","",o or. lighl OOlb is 0.3 ohm. Whol ampt"F will now in th;'dn:uill U,jogthefonnula,/- E" R, you 8'<; £ (12 \'OiIS) .. R (0.5 oIims) - I (24 amp),

YOu ~n <bJUCl an inle~sting, f~ from !he", !W<J exampl es. Tho hlgh current user in tho socoo.d .WlIple~the one dun flow! '24 amp- has a IIlUCh 10lVee n::si5l4JICc Ih4:n Ihe low cull"tifU usa Jn (he r~ example. Th!:s is because ~i!t__ (ohms) i. il!>'ersely pmportio"llt. ampcnllse~ lIS sated in Ohm's. Iaw,

Now, let",..., who! happon, in. short caeu ii, using Ohm' ~ law .. Here, the re,i,tan« of !he _-the ""","",,,aI oOOn-i"p.I oooul .... gHgibie. a..:.u .. no win: ha:ii ~utcly zero fe~istnnoc. !iUppose the resistance in Ihe 5_boned win:: .. 0.001 ohm, VQI~g. remains Ol 12 volts. Wb.at am~ wilt flow in thi! oOOncireull? 1':(12 vol"),,. (OJ)()/ <>hlI!) - I 1/2,000 amp), Wi,h 12,000 amp !"aCU\g tbrough me wire in an instillU" it's no wonder the- wire will IlleR_

Before leaving series c:Ucuilj • let' i see whar happe11s when ~.~ 'mOf'C than one te.!ia.aoce in a cireuit.

Kreping !he 12-volt IwtIOIy Otld_m par!:ing·lamp bulb (rom the fIrS! example, leI', odd • sooood lamp with I. a ohm.s resistance.

In a .scric:s eirc:u_it; the, I.Otll circuil re".Itan<:C is tire tOlll of all the .. p ..... misunc:e:s added togc:lha. ln, !his ex-

U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ateri a

ample, total resistance ls: 6 +- J 8 = 14 all""" Aw]ying Ohm',law. we nn~; E (12,.,/").,, R(24oirJm) ~ I(O.5~mp),

From the earl ler d,j_'>(,US5 ion of series circuits, you know that when a hj,shresistance component and ;p jowreslstaece.ccmpooem are wired in series. the current now may not be enough to opero(e the tow-resistance compo:l1CI1I. This cJUllllpk shews why. At ) 2 VQIIS, a current flow of only 0 . .5 amp is not enough '0 I ighu. 6-ohm lamp ,hal need, '2 :unp to operate. At best, eerrenr llows thl"OO,gh !he lew-resistance component as "'""gh il we "'n'l !be"" Tho re mal' be 5.uffieieu now to operate the high,R::liiLstancc component. In lhi$ case ~ one lomp \\'QUId light ond the OCho::t would simply ecr as it wlre. Front slde-rn.vk~J lamps (hi,gh reSis.1aru;:~) lhat blink 0pposite to the- froot tum signal_s (lower TCSistance) use this principle.

VoltIgo Orop--lel', 'olo a brief look .at .Ii, phenomenon known as a votMgt drop. Thi. i.ti>etenn "<tdfortl>oponion of "'ailoblo vol. that'. used up-by any particular -esisrance jJ1 a ci1\';uit. [ will us 0 a 2-<>hm .n~ "'ohm lamp for the .r:.xarnplc and 'Will discuss each lamp separa "'Iy.

FIrst. <.I<"lote .y,,,,m amperage, E (12 vollS) .,. R (2 + 4 E 6 0/""') ~ 1(2 amp)" This means that everywhere in the circuit, you ~U find ~ now of 2 amp. Now, dclc:nni~ 't'ol~ drop ac:row. ~ z-ohm lamp fir.!' Applying Oh",., I.,., you got; I (2 ~"lP) X R (2 ohms) ~ £ (4 "0/").

You con see ' ihal 4 volts ... "used up" "' !be 2-<lhm lamp. This " .. lied the wlAg< d,~p a<1'<I<\O the re!,c,tan«:, If Y'''' pui, 1hc l.eiids of iii voltmeter on, either side of the lamp, j. will read 4 vein.

Do the, :5ame. (nlculiition fot lhc 4-ohm lamp and you gel n vol. drop 01 8 volts. Add 'he ",J"'g< drop' of both I.,.,,,,, 4 + 8 ~ 12 .011S, Under Ohm", law e if ygU add ell 'VOltq.c: drops in a !Cri~!o cncuh, they will total the a't'iII.ila'bl~ volWl<. whicb ts \>.oue,y vohage, or '",Uret "01"11',

Voltmgt: drop C-Dn happen in 0. circun with jus. one apparent load, .such in a headlamp.ln a-circuj"t wlthjust one headI"",p. !be heaIlr.mp I. 'he only obv""" place for 011 volmge drop. But, what if .p Lenr.lfJl;)l coneecdon Joo:s;ens 0,' ~s eorrod~? What if a wire getS cui pan_laJ I),

through. thus adding. volraS. drop?

Anyone o( those <om <ffOClilO:ly redeee me; size oflhe! path me- current mu~ flow [h""'8h. I' ","nd< 1lI« • "';'''noo, deesn't it?TIuu';!I-exactly what il is. And itts ill series with the ,~adIMlfl. You dee't need Ohm.' slaw Jor !his.. You already know wha! happens when there are tWI) resistances ion series. Amper.l,gt goes down. Each comporent-s-in thls case" the heaI.llamp-gets less 'tollage to work with. The headlamp dims, due to it voltage d_1'Op :somewhere else in the cir~ ecit.

The applications "f Ohm'! law fer a series circuit can be summed up ill three statements. fin;t, cUlTenl (amperesj ts !be .. me II'IroI[gh , ec h re ",I",""" voltage: drop RCI'O:!ii!o 8 re~islaoc~ depends: Of'! the amount Qf resisunce. Finally, tr.e, 'urn of voltege drops, in i1 circuit eqcel the source lo'oha.,ge.

P.raUei Qrclll'-F",. psr.illel ctrcuit you need a banery. some wire. ,u'ld at 10"" 'WI> 100<1>, ooch receiving full vonage independent or the other.

In !!o" WImple, the two lamps ore, .. led at 6 ohms =I 3 ohms, Bat"'l)' >oll>g. i. ,till 12 vel ts _ A quick gIJul<;e 01 !be circui' rc.....t., why thc.--o are 12 volts available In each Iamp-c-eurreot doesn't have 10 pass lh_I'QU,gh anything. bul wL~ to 80110 ea<h lamp,

Applying O!itn" I.,.. for the 6-<>hm lamp. E (12)<>/,,) .;. R (6 oh",,) - 1(2 _)-

Applying Ohm', I.w '0 the 3,ohm 1."'1"£(12 ''''/IS) '" R(J_) -1(4 _),

Total current in the sys.tem ls: 2 amp + 4 amp ~ 6 amp, Now iha' you 1<00", system current i.!i 6lrnp and battery witage i, 12 volts, you can apply Ohm ·,I.w igain, 10 find lOla) sYHem rt~is:ta.nce; E (/2 milS) _,_ I (6 amp) ~ 20"""_

'The ~OtIciuslo,n here is that .a 6--ohm lamp ond. J-<>hm lamp in p!ItilJlcl offer 0 combined rt:siSIilrK:e as though there were a sing.le z-ohm lamp.

There's anOd'ICT forroule for fiSUriDg !he equlvalem reli~!a.tj('e of anynuruber of resi5tErn.ces in parallel, If,s a Ilrtle mind.boggl;ngloloobu, =II apologize for il.

TCiI ~G"l't8ntf\ow In pf!!I'1I.efC:ltCU~ 'n.oIvlog khm 10"", ODd 3-0"'" ,_ ..,p, Ohm' ........ _.. __ .. !oIJ"._, __ af_ .......

on<! IOJ'PlY OhM' ..... opn 10 -.nino t_ ............ _. Slrrprlslngly, IOtaI

f"6tItb!nee (2 Ohm .. ) .. lower thin .lthl:r one ""~,--


R .::::;; equivalent ~lSlilnC'C r ~ = flrst reststance

rOil "" 5er;::Q,nd ~c.e

rl ,.. Ihird rcsiMInCC, ami 50 on,

I'H solve just one example to show you how irs done, And ['U keep it simple: r, i:": 1 ohm

r;z - 2 Ohms

J;:! :o:;!: 3 aIvns

, ,

A~' '1 1 ~ s '3 T+12-+'3 -+6+~

A=~, ~I±' = 0.55 ohm

A:5. you catJ see, tbc corebincd rcsistence (about 112 ohm) i. I~ th.1n any of .he individual resistanee$. Thi:o! i~ alw'Y' I"'" of porallel reslstances.


This chapter covered the \>.0,,,. of a",,,,,,,b;le electrical ,htory. In later chapte"" some of the", ptinciples are applied eo how components work. circuit design and res p~. )IQU <an per· form on your wiring, insliil.latiOil. Terms i1IKI principles explained in this chapter are not reddine:d ,!ater ~ so be sure -you undcrsWld wbal';I here before moving 00,


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes Iv! ateri a

ThJa I,. a 2,,8 litre, 64T Chl;lV)' V6 :a.alup for III C~SS 7 ol1-rold rac:lng &-10 plckLIp truck. VOIl c:;m'1 mia nCJtiI:ing I«ge IO-amp .lltatM,tCII, I.IMd 10 poww tt.nl'th:rowwe rwqulrtd tor night r.cing. Photo by Tom Montoe!.

The power source for 1111 L:J ectrically operated devices on a car is referred to as the ch"rs/ng system. This sy.stcm consists of the bml~ry. g~fI~rQlor (alterna· torJ lind ~'OIu~Sr: lr:gulu/or, Unless specified. I'H use the term generator for gencnuor and .IIJLtma!I)L

During normal operation of 3 car. lOOSt, if nol all. electrical neod~ are supplIed by Ihe genUQ1(~" or al,erna1ar. The one mnjor exception is during engine start-up, when 'lh~ bo-tle-f)' supptles .oIJ Ihe C"UTIcnt 1'0 uun the starter motor and operate. the ignil:ton syssem. Also, there are nrres wbjle driving when the bantry supplements generator output to handle exeesslve loads. An exueme example is when the engine: of a standard Car i1i idling in traffic, with lgnlrion, healer blower, lights, wiper motor. I"CII("window defogger and stereo a1t demandens ,Iectriclly "' Ihe .. roe lim e.

It·s cb .... j,OL~S. then. that the OOllel)' plays an important role in the car's electricel systc:m.



,,', telpful to thi nk of the: bat re ry .. a place 1.0 store eleclridty. It a<:lUally stores c_hemic.als, nol clectrichy. but Lhe former idea is 100 well established to shake ofT, For Ihis reason. banenes are 0(1(:'0 called JU'Jrag' baneries or storage cetts.

However. baneries depend on a chemic{j/ r~{lflh:NJ [n produce electricity I lIS described below. This principle was discovered by Alessandro Volta in ihe lute. 1700:s, The term \'0/1 is derived from his name.

ln Volta's battery. Iwodi-ufmilar mrU· als arc suspended in a salt or add solu. .. uon, called t/~c{rolyf~. The. etecnolyte solurtcn reacts with oee of the metals more than the ciher One. The more-active metal jeses ejectrcns and becomes posi. 'i~re'lydrQJ'gtd, The, less-active metal eoljecu elecITO'n..'I! and bc:-t:OIJlCS negari ... eJy chllrged. The amo ... nr or poshi ve or l'Iegillive charge is caJJed p<llefllJ.aI. The di fret .. eoee in potential between the: unlike

charges creates 8 pR::si!io'un:. ttuu cul.lSC:50 currem [0 flow wbenever a path Is pro-vided, such as ar. ele<::l_riculload wired to the pcsht ve and negative terminals of the beuery.


There's one importanl realure or il car battery thiii distingui.shes it from .. common dl')'-CCU banery, auch IJj these used In na..<ihfights: A ear lmnerj can be dist'h:o:rg,Od .. nd recharged many times. SIJlmL1rd dry-c U baneries can't be recharged because the chemical marenals an: depl.",d in 1.11<: Pf1J<"'S of making c:lectric:-ity.

The diSiOha.r,ge process works like: this; Let's begin with a fully eh::itged auton'lOtive battery. True to Vol til' s pri.rlciple. if ccrnains two u.n1 ike melals, in this case Il"£r.d and 'rod pero,Ti(il!. These are suspe.]].dI:~ in unelectralytesolutlea ofwerer and sulfuric ac·id, \Vhen oil load is ronnected 10 the bauery terminals, a d'lem_~~ cal reaction inside the battery causes C\.I:rr

fl............ ...•..... ..... n. CHARGINGSYSTEM

~ RESlSlA!ltl. WlR!


. .,,,"' ~n






o..1ng .-mal ~ CI1O<ging oya .1 of_.

..... ..,,1 .- •. _ or -"', cantrollod by vottogo Ngfoi ... or. &houlG gen.ttIIIt. enougn IJOttagto 'IG opeNt. 9r. IOacft,

.. _ .. !. . DrawIng __ 01 Arnot!<on

MelLon CGIp.

rent 1() flow. dlscharg Log the battery. ", .. otuall)', bo,h met.l, will bccoec J~.f1.d '!jjlrht]l~ • nnd the electrolyte plain water. A. t this poi'''. nO more elecuicay can be m ade, so cum III rlcw stops. The bouer}' j~ now ful Iy di.s~hJl;_r:gI,.'1i.

The dWl'gi.n,g pr:oC't"s:J reverses these oondi~i'-.)I)s. R!,Jr1Jlinl! ,jln ele·,cu";),caJ current through the: bancry causcs IOC metals 10 become dissimilar' again. and changes the elecwIYI,(: bold. \(I ;5,ulfunc ;oejd. wben jhe ch itrgiu& process is complete. me bauery is again capable of prov!ding clC<:lticity. ln practice. however, a car battery never ~'OitX~S; fully d i~h:arged under nOrTfla! operating conditions. h roses pan or 'its. charge when called 1Jf1O!L to stan the (OI.r Or operate electrical devices. This loss Is replaced by (he ~f'.Ier· alClt when the engine is nl!Uling.

Wi th proper care. a car hanery ~n urdc:rgo ccnnncces discharge-charge cycles over m..orny yc:a:rs belOIt: W"CIrring out. See pa.gc.18 for a dlscussien on how a genc:rmOf W(IJIri:.S, ro r«harge a baU,erj', IV ARNI NG: During Ih. <harglng process, all baUeries 8mtt:a'~ seme hydrogen ga.IIj;-nen the l"sealed"" Iype<, Tilt gas I, highly nam_bl e. If Jgnlted by a stray spark or open flame, II ooutd .. plode, <.w.lng personal ID· J nry -or damage I u the car.

Co,_ ""' ._ or _ .... 'old _ .... During dJoohUVO _I, _"....-. __ IIstIMy, both ......

tI"oI:tt .. -'owty corrvtrt to IWd .1.i1pN'tto. cr..ralng ~ an. procet.I_ ~ coLir1Qr or Cf'LryaIM Corp •


An auromoti 'lie battery consists of several indiv idual: comperurcnts. called fdh. There are three cells ill a 6-, .. uh car bauery ~ six cells in a 12· voll. "at beuery, Each cell crevices sli£btly more than-"2 vchs. regardless of size.

'Each ceu conralns the two dissimilar "", .. I, """"ion«leorlier-Iead and leO<i pcro~idc, These melItis arc formed into Ilar, p(lrous.,pitUIt'J: lbat.itMrl vertically in ,lie cell, The number or plate" am the surface area or each, determine a barltty':S .c-.o.pllcit), to geeerateefectricnl current, which is rated in amp Iwun" page 17. More pi.t es, larger pi".', or 1x>1h. wilt provide IOOI'F.: capacity. Butt remcm~r tnat each cell deli"'~, only 2 volts, regerdkss of size,

Each cell StlU1:::;;, with a Mgari!'€ "ime. followed by :LI.lu);sUi~t' p'tjl~. followed by another ncgmi'lo'e plate, and so OOt ft .. t~Uy c-nd_ing ~'ith a, negarive pJ~ur:. This means each cell has One mort: ne~l!ui ve plate than it does pcslnve plates.

AI tI'K:: tap of the bancry. ull negative. pi a.tcs. are "·c.lded to a cmnmon plat~ j,r_ap: all positi ..... e plales, 4U"t welded 10 anmher plate snap. Perforated SilfKl· rotors prevent the plates fi'\'lfl1 il)UC;ni!'lg each o-ther ~ but allow c lecuolyte to paslI caslty between lhem.IIKIi".iduai ,reUs arc

s.epar-altd by a -s.ulid panitioo_ At !l'Ie lop of I"" battery. 'he pi"'. ""P" are joined in series lrom ODe ct:ll. to the next. At the bottom. lhe ptau:s sit On rim. Ihat p..ro'rlide space below tf.e pla!es for sediment 10 colicci without shorting the plates. At each eod of the battery. the: final plete auap i~ fi~ into a posl that pnlirode:s

Voftll's ;If',,".,1e battery cons ..... of "'0 dI'.:rJIno.r rMlalat, caOed ~ ... u,~ pondod ,. 1""" ... __ )'10." vottogo

_t_ wt ... _10

~c. lIII!'lOIrt1:Ol1I ... I'pl1l'1"



U rheberrec htl lch gesc h "Illes !vi aleri"


EleeU'odes in CIt I:Ia1te(y l1li1111 :rormecI. Iltto pl,llU :II.tI,lHnad In liuIl.nIonCi'w.toranCl .... t1'i.irlc:eckI.etf.lOI:II~ NeptI'vItItiG iPOlitlvo pl'At' .. are lllitetniteclin OIC!tI Ottt. Drawl",; ClounHY or C!'J)''''' Coop.


• ~Slt l.ImCE-Il"Pl

»> .. ~".. GRID ~STl •.. "

'"' ... ~ -::'


Bl.ttef)' PI'.BiIU are 1onnec1. into a grid pllt1ern t13 Plo~ldC'I'TtI)jlmum .~p.o;sl.it'CI, to tI'MI elreeb"oiyle, D~jng c-ourtel)' 01' Chey'lor COI':P.


,.lI.tl.,ll'es of :r~lre, IOw-mllntlnll1C411 bltttry Includll1HYy-d'u'tli PUlh!11, poi)'prDP)liene pIa1le· c:onialner, Nbl:)er sepIIrllats WId; aepillltIrtot prol.oelOf'$ molded Inlo plastle 10". Onl' sl»wn hen hal c.pt tD chedc ilIee1roly10 IIIYII ancllldd w.l« It. neodId. O1lMr typn .1'8' - .... td for !I.",·,"

through the IO,p or side of ahc case ~ formjnll. ()OS"ilive an-d tlega~jve 'ermhwts.

On fJOSHYP;: banerics, tlu:: termi nal p:1s1S are tapered. wrth .he po:~ iti v e fIOSl being lar_gt:r ~ha.J] the n.cgtllj'lic.-l UI6 in. anu ,:5/E in, ,respectively. The: size dl f(erc:n,ee makes ii I,'i!s!t likel)' ror)'Qu 10 nuuch Ih~ cables 1.0 the wrong costs. T~,~ percd posts require a clamp-on cable rerm.inal. Gccd-quamy ceere ctcmps ate 5:i".oo accordingly; cheap cl a flips ere nO[:

Side tmnN~ on fow-mallttenat'lc:ci tMittllry MSLllr8 tnlt omltted by bauefV ·1So ~PlO1 corrode W1tr'LInll", BecauN Ilil CI~ tt.n:.rin ernw I(IfM hyd.togHL g" ,l::Iurlng n-o"",._t OlHrllio". pin:nrldlllo OOQQ vltt'I_'tlI .. 'tlon_

Many baLlc,ry IJlwn.i[acnJ.n:r:50 I1I'C offerLng bar tcrtes whh the termlnajs ~. [he ;side cr rhe case, rather Ibnn on [Op'. Side rermlnals are LrI[\=,ffil.llly threaded to accept a mill in,g 'c':il:DII! whh a btl lh-! n belt.

f!:egard[es;~ of 'tt!rminaJ I;"O~:W'\lC"' tfll'i. l~mlj_f1D.1 plliarit]' 1$ always ldc n dflcd, cjther on the termlnnl or the bauery case. Positive tsrminnls are i dcntified wi th P, 'POS. +, or red paint. Negative lemlill~l;5i ere N. NEG. -. or pairll or some color

other than red-c-ohen blad ..

Some batteries have l'eliun'flb'(} .c":tTp.~ to permi I perioctc chec kIng of cJ CL Lrolytc level. Dlsu fled water is u.su::liI)1 recommended for iOppil1g off low cells. N~w!'r fj{Mt"~'rm'J!rt!.

M ,my new batteries are "sealed for' I if c.·' Thl;: cbcm i I;"!'I COll1jJ'05 i rion in5.Ldl: the banery is soch 1.hiD1 vel)' Ilule hydrogen gas is glve n orr ut normal !:harging vel rages, so little or the c tc:C"[ro 11l(,1 is


U rheber reo h III h g sc h utztes Maieri a

<:<I .•• ureed ""," !he lifo of tho bouerr. Sealal banenes art: preferred becease lhey .Iiminat. the need for periodic maintenance. 1bc types with side: terminal:!Ji are dc:.;iil_;.DCd so the terminels anU baltery cables arc locat~tl, below the battery's vent hole. re<luoi~g terminol.o",""," ,jon.

Od cdl bancrlcs .B.~ speciall)' CO~~ structed to wilhstand se v ere shock. and are good for such 01'1'1 icanons as off-road racing, The plates on con \"CflLia.,aJ baneries CM .short OUi when subjected to excess! ve \'Ibration or snock.


Two differonl.,y,(e"tS h. ve been '-""'<I to. ,me battery slrt:nglh. or OUIPU! abHity. The present system was developed during the 1910._

In t~ earlier system. dcvelo~d by lhc S«iel)l of A utomotj ve Engineers (SAE). il battery was, nt.ted ill ampw,hour!.

Amp-he .... ere Ik""""""d Il, follow" Wilh li>e bol!el)' om''''''t te",perot"~ ., SOP' (27C), dc:k!nninc- the maximum contimrous OlffipereS the I::iatlcr)' rnn deliver for 20 hows. witb each imhvidual cell maintaining 31 r~iiiS.t 1.7.5 "r/Qll~. E:tiilmple: .$ ("(#Illflu(tu50mpuesX20lrows ;;:;; 100 ""'P./tou".

.n.c ""'P·hou, t .. ing i •• 1_ .. 10101)'· oriemed standard th:11~S useful ooly in cumpanng one buttery t11 aJ'Iot~er. The rating doeSi'i't ttallsl.ule directly 10' My useful. real-world appllcatlon.

ln the reel world. ibe scerwio may go some!hing like this: You're dri v ing :0' night, """')- mil es from home, on<I suddenly the cbar,gc indicator tells you the g,el')C:ratOf jusi died. Win the !,iNlssis-ted ooutl)' be able to power the ignitioo sys.· rem and lights long enOllg,h to ~l )'QoU hume.l The prese nt "'ting 'Y'l<:m. 0tIl1ed rest'fl.'e'ocapacit}' bant'ry rasing, could lell you.

R...,....e-Capscl1y Ratlpg-8y der.njtiori, fbc reserve-cepacuy rating is lhe: number of minutes a rullyehaigro 12/· wit bat(el)' 01 ~QF can be di",h._rged ., .a conSlant 25 amp 10 lIUlintain at 1I"i15:1: 1.75 vehs PO' «II-I 0_5 votrs fm Ihe blllety. A 7!5-I.ninutt balit!TY wooJd hl.:n 75 minutes under these eonditlons. a llOminute botl<:". I! 0 mimnes. on<I so on.

ObYioo~I)I~ the higher' Iht: rating numbe., lhe In"ger lhe bollet)' will deli.or

edequarc currcer if !he- generator fails,

To answer the question .about Ihat hypothetical dark night. )"0" n .. , add"P the .mporoge rcqeiremcms of hoodlam~,. t.uilhun~,aJld t~Ditiull :system. Diykie: this number into 25 and multiply tlul answer by [M: re!ief\le~Cap:lCil)' rating of lhc bencry. 'This gi-wcs the, oI!I~tuu.l number or minutes tho battery will liiLSl UOOer su(:h ccndl nons.


Ignition + two headlamps + two wlamps • total a.mper8S. 0"

2 ........ 12X4.Samp) + (2 X o.aamp) - 12.2 amp.

25 Slar>dard","" ~ 12. cars amp

• D 2 amp (approx.)

2 X 75 "'nutes (msorvo-cap;ldty ""ing) = 1SO min .• 2--1)2 N-s.

CoId.Crank RaUng - A nether wa y of mting il battery is to dcl.cnnio.~ its ability to operat-e; the ,sta,rter IHotOf' under exuerre ly cold CondLI i~)n5. This IS caned the ("(.I/J·N.(11Ik m/hlg. When. temperamre drops, !.he cliemi'-"w reacucn taking place i!"lside the battery ,slows down. Using lhe S.AE ".ndald 1..""", ar ure of 8OF ..• battery will put out 100% of its rated po"-'l:'r, At 32F (OC) 'he ava il.blo power drops '0 about 65%, at OF (·180 it·s down to only 40%.

A bol!et)'"' <old<oW ""ing 'po<if"" jhe minimum arnpc:rcs a full)' charged

IIJdromolot """ .. 1 .. woIghled _~ whicfl aIls • ...- or"_ Io-.otyl ...... pie. depending on opOdIIc ~"'. -.g on "oa1ls IUIll'lIt poln1 where ,1'1 prCJtrude. from iq"id.

l2r'i,lolt battery can del iver for 30 seconds at OF without falling below i.2 bot"l)' vous. Typio.1 "'l~-<:rank rating,! are m amp. )85 amp and 410 amp. It', not uncom_moJ'I! for .p starter mQtor-de~nding on engine siae-c-eo draw ai, Itii15l JOO








, ..... Of YOLUIII

= =


GRAVITY ~ 1.135


GRAVITY ~ 1.110


U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

URlP during (old weather. So, you can see how i mportaru cold-crank ratings can be .. particularly to NMI>em <Ii""" es, Spednc Gravlly - Aoolber b.u,'l' characteristic related to temperature LS the .~/)ecffi(" gr(HlflY of the electmly!e~ made Up' of water omd sulfuriC' acid. As. a battery discharges, tha electrolyte sclu- 1:100 c-onulif'Js less I!Icid and r.nore water; rhus Lts specific gra vhy (weight) ,.trang'"

Because acid is heu vier lhan water. you can determine the approximate Slal_e of tbc benery's OM'll. by ooo:nparl"S tb< weight of irs e_leclrolyle to the weighl of pore water. of its specific gN\I.i.tl', A ball~ry Ir}'drom~te'r is used to make this comparison.

Draw iID electrolyte sample ii"J1O Ihe hydrometer and read the. apeciflc gravity M the """'ing ><01 e. Mosl hy<icometo", are caljbrared for !he slaooan!. temperalore oUDE Add 0.004 to the hydrometer reading for e v ery 10 degrees abave SOF: subtract 0.004 for each lOocgr«s below lI(lF.

M 0" good hydrometers have both a n~!ing gcalc und lhennom~tet in the same housing, and a conversion table pnated 'On 1~ barrel. A fu II)' charged b"lery will read I. 260; • fully dis" charged one will be in the 1 .11 o~ 1.12,0 r3lJgc;;.

aau~zy [~. in,g. otner man n~adil'lg. too speclflc gra .... j tl' requIres ex-pe:nos.L'r;-e test equ lpment, but iil local bartery-servlee facil it)' can perform tIli:se tests ~f il~ded.

rnsiead or being roo concerned with rb.ttber teSI ing of failed batteries. coaslder eliminntjng jhc things thiin cause bnrteries to filii. You canecmrttee tothc bi:lHezy·s long, sl1CteSsfll] li.r~ by watching, ou t for these problems.

• Defects i 1"1. the gener.uing system.

• O- ... erlcads (u:Si:L'L,j1; a tee-small billtety).

• Din and, cctrosion on banery Or cable termlnars.

• Damage to teed plmes (rom operating in u constunlly undercharged -I;olld,Lti.on.

• Phy,:;;ical damage to the case.

• Undo,-hood h ea 1 (placom.nl near exhaust sys.tem).


SeJec~ing a SliLtable, bal.1ery for your project car is much mOn:: Ihan j u 5.1 g,ening th~' righl prict:. Oncc you undersumd (he


Ihoory behind bailer')' ratings, you need 10 know how 1,0 U'ai.'LS1illc that iheory iillO a huying decis:_ion. The following guideli~$ wiU he·,! p:

Crnn.bng capfJcil}' is. the single: 'most important foclm. The rule Qf !hum b ts 10 buy a banery wilh aI, kasr l amp of coldcrank rntlItg for each cubic loch ofenglne displecemem. 11113: lruns.hu.e~ to a minimum or 6 iilJDp per O. I liter. oons-idering !here are approximately 6'1 C'll,b.ie ioohes per liter. For example. a 1.6·lhl>f stock VW ."gin.~ulre, • b:"tery rated .196 cotd-crank amp. Because most replacement batteries are !iiold fo'~ engines with l_ar-gcr dlsplaccroems, you may have trcublc fmdlng a banerv rated this low. In olhf:r words. you probably won' I have to worry about 'any banery, whatever the price, being inudequete fer it stock VW e;ngine. fo,r l-arget engines. use Ibe above rule.

There's also a rule of Inumb fQ,r'detcrmlning reserve capacity. Unless you frequemly [ravel in remote areas, choose a balt-ery whose reserve capacity perm ~IS )'00 10 drive the car with a rilll-ed, a gene_r~ etcr for .. 1 eas 1 I 110.,.

Then Ihcn::'s the matter of warranty .

Because the price of a battery is I'Otlghly proponlonat 10 its WO",,"IY coverage, h's evident that )'Oll g,ct b::.sk.ally what you pay for! Zit least with major brands. Be aware that warranues are proreted again.H ti.me .i n service, That ls, :iii :5-year battery that's been used, for 2 yean may be """,,"ted tor 215 of the Ii" price. no, the full listprice. A. described below, Ill!$. can vary.

Also eoncemlng lisl prices. you may find new batteries. sold at discounts con,i<w.bly bel"" "full .I;.IS." This <0""'ttIDCS rt:Sllh.s in tbe: unusual cooscqLMmce of your worn-out baiter)' hn v i ng a prartIt~d \"4#~~~based on full ,IIS'~lh;P;I'S close to tbc di.JCGtmled price for iii new battery. In such caseS-and they're common-c. the W'arT'aI'I-tl( tS-'n.·! worth much.


Jf the b,tiltery is 'the- heart of your car's clectrical sys:tc m ,11u: generator is sreond in importance. ACI,ually T both i_nt-eracl so closely ,bal i,', .1"""1 Impossible 10 sep;rrate their fllIlCtl Dns cn!irely. This .sec.




•I~~:~EY. --. S ~

~ --=== .

_. -- - ,

~ ~--


_Ing wj,. "",.ugh _Ie !1oId Induca voltage Inlo wilt. 11 wire I. rrlOftd one ""Ihen ltIo OItIer •• tterNtl'nsi cui'Jen1 n- •. ., wi ... Dmofog '''"'''''Y .. cnr,Corp.

tiot.l ex.plalru. bow lil-e geoeratcr provides current for tbecar's elecuical system and now it ecu to recharge rhe battery.

A5 menucned iIII the bauery section. al' electrical needs are: usually -supplied by !he g,C"f.Iera.tot while Ihe .ens-lile: is runnlng, An excepdcn 'NOU td be when the C1.lrtt,[u dtma.nd of lhc, CM'S ekcrrical system exceeds g.c:ncr-,uor curput. When tbis nappe_rlS •• he baiter; -supplemenu. genernor ou'put. Atso, thebauery provido_5 ,tIJ.1 eurtcnt needed 1:0 st:;!l"t tOO CIllIbur is t crank:tn,g the cngme iIJld ,!ijupply· ing power to Ihe j.g,n.!liQr) system,

To understand cutren t genc:rallon, you need to know abo.n art electricef phelIOiliCfmn bneny dts;cus.scd in the tbeory sct::tioo,-11loglrf"lj.slJ'l.

A m(l8I"Je! has a tt,(lr-Ih and W~fh pole.

These create an invisible nwgnelir: fieJd around Ihe magnet. Hyou place the north pole of one mag oe I ...... Itle south pole of ;mother, Ihe magnetic field e:'.' taw:ls ,(rom -one magnet to the other through the intervcning spece. Or uir gnp.

If you hold iii pkceor wire betW'CCD me two 'poles at a 1'l,~nl angje to the milgflel1c field, and move Ule wire liP and down t voltage will be induo::d into tbc wire. Th is phenomenon ls called mtJ81l~llC /n· doaion, Tbe direcuon the currem now.s depends on the direction or the magnetic field .u;nd Ihc direction the· wire is. mo v - lng. Current flows oee way when you move It.e wire up and lhe, other way when you move il "o.wn. Ipc:iden.~all)'. }'OO could hold the wire still and mo~c thl:.

U rhebe""" h II ich ges" hOllies 1.-1 ~teri"



01_ -(,DC) __ I ... lo __ 11ocI In "..~. OutpuI_IImIbod .. kIw 0IIII'" _ ..... no< OII!~ to< Ng~ __ doomond. 01 modom cor-._og CO<IMoy 01 ChtyOlOr CO<p.

SImple ........... con.1obo 01 """ loop to_1I1rougII mognallc _ ... -... ...

IK1 _1n1O w,,". _ .. 01 DC genitalOr' ..... IrIrve number 01 IOOptI ""-"<1_1..,...- lranc-. Dfow. log _ 01 ChovtoIot 1I0I0. Dlvloon.

miigm:ts instead -c-rhc rcsah would be Ihe same.

'To make .a useful generamr. !hls Induccd ""lb~o must be hame •• ed. That is. ~dr(lni("o:f .(tjti'S"y-moving the \I.o'irc~.fiyst be COii-vcrtr::d into to dectriad 4!,"e'r,gY~fhe inducerl vchage.

ln !..he moving-witt ell.:unplt. repeat .. ed.ly moving II wire up IlIId down in a magnetlc fleld causes current to now one WI)' I then. the other. Because the direcnons al~mate.lhi:s. ts tno'\ltn 1U a#erruu-

ing C1UTTtnJ (AC), In :tI car. the current always flows in cee direction; from Ihe ~t1t,1'Y to lhe load. This is knr,)\Vd as dirm crurelU (IX:). But. dependlng 1,1n lhe year 'Of m.lnufactl.k_re~ your car will h.ay'eeither a DC gef1e,.alo" or.4C genuator (tdUrJ1QIOT). "The next two. s;ections cesenbe each in delOit


Y au -!lhould knew allhe OU~[ [h3J. ~ DC gtill:.f.ator is :001 used in modem eiITS,. Although il is fees C<Jmple, than the AC generator. us output is 'inadequate, for the high current demand of ""'" modem dct1r1tat !5oy5tCm5. particularly a.t low engioe speeds ..

However, the DC generator was used 0f1, aU csrs untll Chrysler laeodcced the AC' geoerator in 1960. So, if yeu're restotinG an older car, you ml.ls.l: dc:aJ with a DC generator. So wi_II kit-car builders using. VW older tlIanl 91l_

In an -3ulOOlObHI! generator, it would DOl be pracrlcal ro re Iy on pemIIIIlOnt mqo«. IQ PfOvide the O«<'""'Y Il1IIg. nolle Hold ,They aren 'tvery suong and they teQ<l'p w .. ken with "",. So, Ike DC

gener,lOr has a se , of electromagneUi caned field roib. These c"",iSl of numerous win:: windill.gs 011 iron~polc ,./wt" energi,.ed by the, car's 01«1ric,,1 sysu:rn. The batfery pro'vide:s the Initial current to CncrgllC the field! then the genetator l:Ukes over and "feeds" itself When ope ... ing .peed ts high """ugh,

In lhe moving-wlre example. a single: wire was moved mrough a magnetic Cteld to produce cunoni. BUI tn a geocr.:uorr a sin&~ w lre wouJdn 't generate enough current lobe useful. So •• ge ..... lo<l:Ia.'. Inse number of hid ividual wire- loop! wrapped 1lt'OUM. 2 lami.t'tP~ iron cere called an O1'mallU'~. which i~ turned by a bel! driven by (he engi",,_ The two .od. of eoch wt re loop are ",,, .. "bed to copper cmnmul'tuor bars. 'The ban are iln'3:nged In a circle III one end ofthc: -ilrTnQilltt shaft such !hat the bara for each loop are posttloned directly opposite each other. OJ 180' apan_ Tbe commutator bars ore iIIsulated from each oiher and from the armature Wft w.ith pieces of Rltcl.

Two carbon-based hrusllt!s, moun'led 1 SO" apart in the generator f..."." rub ag,run:501 tbe (:r;;mmuUlbX bttr$_ Thi$ eonfiguration allows the pair of brusha to (:1,,'If\t-act me, commutator biUll for' ~ wire loop ., a limo, And because Ihe """"'U'" is turning rapidly t the brushes contact seccessive commutator p.i.. ",pidl y. Eacb wire loop passes its :S.ntiJ1J ;,-rntq:t chargo inw a brush_ Because the re ore '" many loops r voltllge f}owi from me ~ene ra tor in a practically oon.lanl stream.

Generator OOtplil is routed direcuy into the t"at'S t:1,ecQ"ie.J :5yl5.tc:m. [f 1he~':!1 a heavy load: allhc moment, current nOW& !hrough the load_ I f (he I,,,d i. lighl, current flows into the: battery poslrive terminal end throll_gh its pl.olf:!!.! ~C"..harg~ ing the bartery.

But what if 1ht:~~:5 u I~' load and the ba"el'j is [uny' chorged? Wba, happens 10 all that current the gr:nerator IS prndl,:lC:~ inS?

Ir ~ excess CI.UTe.nt were not controlled, !he genr:rau)f' would c:ontinue 10 ""sit iI Ihrough Ih< battery, ", u "ing the elecjrolyte to overheat. E);cc;si",c - ~~ ,in& would lake place imido the balter)', bot'ling Ihc el~lrOlyt~ oUI of it., lh~ nnning it. Ob v lously, there is ;. means Df cont:ro!ling ~1CC-S:l generalor output-


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h utztes /vi ateri a

l1eCl"Iai'llCa:l,"'1lIH""'I'1;IgUI~.",'IoI:MCI witI'J. ,DC gene!:IIl_Q .... altel with l&illll:'1V allJomatore:. OM :e.hD'Wtl, at righl hi adjualabl(l, tl'lil (Ir'WI11 !l;lliIliJd and must be r'I!IpEaced I' It gm out ,Id Qlibr,.I;iOQ.

Ih LS is I!'ie nmcnon of the l1Jt:Cha~lcd.' voIrGgf' r't'8u'mor"

M""b.nicaJ V oIl .. g. ReguJ., •• -A> noled curlier. Ihe fi~_!d coj[s of Ihe gei'll~r~ etor become magnets on'ly when current flows 11'Iro'l,Ign Inem. Whi31 lf you could 111m off the current to the coib when the b;l1rery i.s, r 1,111"1 char£,e<j? And what ir you coul,d turn I"'leld il;UIR,[]it b:)~'k 'Oil wh~ s.yucm vnlulge sums 10 drop? Th.in's exacrty what the 1tJe-f"/J(lnimJ volJag.e regrJ.lalOT docs. ]-i,crt'~ TIQw:

Current fer the gcncnnor's Ilcld coits Qll!SI pass q 1''U'oug'' il 'SoCI of mo"able'polnr_~ iillbe volmge regul;;U:o:r. Wh.i!fI the poirus are ejoscd, or touching, currem flows. If s.yuem volt.uge gets roo Itigh~b,Q.u,ery is fuily <:lJm]«I-a sped'lly o.,il>r .. «1 eJcClroi'tla,gOe,L in the voltage regu taror becomes !iiU'o.ng, enou gh to, pull the points open. stiunieg off current to the mils. So, lhe fleld loses 'I~ 11ld.ll;pe:tism amJ Ihe generator stops gencml tDS' A.s soon as sy:!ii!eJn '\"Olmge, drops below ibe callbrelioo IXJ i nt U [ lh.~ t:1~er_fOmi!gne~ I Lhe polms snap shvt uguln. encr,!;iti.tLg the rreJd once mere. Tll.L~ regulation process hopJ>On., <"IlSI'"OJ, .,' ,,,. orup 10 ZOO times per second. h effectively limits the generator's Output to pre' .... ide only w!.MU·S ~doo 10 poWl1:r the electrical luarls and rn:iint~in (! rut! ~u-ei)' ~harge.

Strictly spc:.aJ::jng .. :;t volla.!;c l1;lg~lnr(Jr ccmsist.s only 'Or Ih_c: ,cleotwm.a,gnct and

"*C:h.n.'1CII1 "Wolt.-.a nrgu._I~lh)j" QDQho~ CQr~ rent o.utpUi cr ~tor tOOug'll,~ of' rhQVf1tJo1_i111 pDl:ntlll 1IIlId: I;:IIIIH:N'1I't" (:OU", C!,!rrent rlaw •• 'l'MIn ,poInb:l ... loue:h.lng. On tJI""" ..tlQWp ..... , pcNntlllll'O erJJIJ-Jlablo. For bft.! per1'onnlnOl, Mop point. clllll1. Pholo .by -=-Cln St:uion.I.

poim act j ust disl:'u,ssc"t These. are mouJUei:I in a meret hOtl-sj~g. whic:!, also ccmains :a -c:um.'!'rr' .egulm.or. The entire uni! is. commonly referred 10 as the voha,g-c re~u.la~m.

The Ct!rTel'U regulator cernes lnto pi'!!, when there LIre many toad .. s work.Lng and high ge:neralQ!, OI,Up'U [ is needed. Ln thi! CIII.'!O, the "ol(Qgo C1:gUlill,QJ' ~t~y.5 gLl! or action ~ petmhd.og maxi.mum ge neraior ampUl. But :under these cjrcurnstances. it's possible for the gr:II.'C'tOlQJ :to work SO hard tltnt it burns itself out. E:U:CS5 curreru now is the -culprit. To guard against jhis, the cuncru rcgul;uOT~3 second calibrnt~:d eloclrornagnct and poin. set tn jhc .... ol rage- regulncr housing - temperari I:,' cuts off field current if generator O~IPlll Cjjmm jl(fl.1.l Is: too high.

M est mechanical vollage regulal0T8 use~ til reeera years ~ riot adjuMilble, so ibere's nodli~~ )"Qu can do if the 'C'aI Lorati on or cee of Ihe internal components geL'i.' oul of speciffcuilon. E-lllie_1" ~l~ arc oojl.lsl:nb.le, so coneuh the cppropriute ~hDp mnnuel to seC' if yours ls. AC'g,e::ncr;amrs (aJtema!0T:5) use ~/eclronJc: ~'olllJg~ regula/ors, discussed below.


In. 1 tte e;LrlyI960s. the demands Of! a car's clC(:lrica~ ~y.stem had ba:ome SO gICIIl !hal the DC gCJJ.'t'!rtllOI col.lld 1l0l t'j;i!,_nclle Ihem. So. tl'Ie aJit!tna"l(}1' was d~

'!,Ie.loped. I L is much more ~mC1enl than Ihe DC gem::ri3tor . i.nd is able: to provide a gre-ar deal or current. even i31 engine i~ dl.l~g speed.

Li ke a DC generator, en alternator rell es On the ,n;:lall \1: rnovcmcm ,Q f a wire 1,00p and '.u ma,gnel to create current. Sut lhem am some major differences.

1.1'1 .iln ill rernmor. the mG8'lct rotares. while tne: wtre lWjJ,rr; ere S[:'!IliOi1~ry. To prnvidcefooncity to male. ~ magnet wort. U:i'L lih.emawf U~:!Ii carbon brushes, Optral.ing against COlilirn.lrn.is shp rf~8S:they're nol segmented like:: OJ com;rn-ur;lwr. This me .. "s Il'Ie mag,Tle! gels a constant supply or battery voltage, no matter wh.at position iI's rot.il(ed 1.0. The wire loops. are arranged in the generator hous Lng so the rOl::ning ma.gLlCtL.c field CUIS rhrough ~01Ch loop in tum.

But, because the rnt.ali n,g lTLa,gn~t has north 1UJ.d south poles I'ike :;U"]y otber iTUI,gner. each wire loop gets. e ehotof'vnonh" ful [o'IN'eLJ by a. ;shot 'Of "SQLJUf' nn each reV{]llutL{~n, Remember tha~ the flow direcrion of induced current depends on the direction of 1M: [pave1i.e: filttd or movemcnr. So. each loop gets cUlTCrU induced i'n. one directi on. ll"l.-en '~he flItter. producing allern.a!ing current, BUI auto elec .. lIic·,p,1 systt:,ms opeJij;re 0." DC, jilll AC.

Tbe breui.lhrough dnlit m~e atreroetors practical for use In DC c!t<:trical systems is 011. electronic de-vice cajled [1 diode, I t permits il;UITCtU 10 flow in one di reetlon only. 'In an altemaior. ill tematlo.g curreru passc.5-I.hrQ\.lgh a $-e' of diodes ehar ChiUlgC ii, into a series of one-way ClU're1U pulses separated by intervals of no current fl ow. Because these. pulses ,llapJ>O n so rapi ~Iy. I~O output 'PI"''""' !O be a ccastan t stream of DC current,

In ec ,,,,,,., VoI~ R<"glllo,or-Al. though lnc al te:m~lo:r origiflldly w-~ teamed wi th iii. rnechanleal "Yol!ag-e regurator. engineers soon found a way 1,0 tr .. ..1Jl.Si_s.tori%tl ~g~ lntor functions. This: led to the development cl the DlI~ t!.1~Llronjr: m'lag~ ri!gu,lmor. 'In tlme. 1 [S s.ljI'~ W!,U reduced 1,0 1 he po!nl ihm :tI could 'be- installed inside the alternator housing. Ii h3l no roovi.n-g parts and ls not serviceeblc or adjusn:t.l:de in any Will}'. Jfthi: vol(~ I!ge regulator becomes: derecth'e, you reoplac~ it. Hcl"\l .. <e .... cr. its e:1c(lronicCOlJiponcn.t5 lIfO oC.ltII'l:mcly .n::lj~b]c. 50 replacemenr i;Sl1·r ,often needed.

-~ .~


i r Il\Vr




UOdetrI AC 9'~tH" (""'""'kit) 1;(ii'131.ot .. ul :Ii rotIIUng m'gi'u!i (fliJld eo(l) .lind a .. tI_tI",1'I1:I'Y C:l)il ("~I)r). Sru~., c:.IIlTY curnml into fillid C::Dil vt. .t:lp ring •• Dnwing caul'tdy IJ' CI\J:yI"r Cotp.

I ...

Atrowlw.d jn diodoIJymbol pol1"ltlll" tliroc· tlon of r;u......,t flow. It ~1'¥\Ot now In opr ~dir'l;lc;:t1On;, ,od!odeilr:Qu.Ot'Ie-way ~I1Cf;1I vatv ... tran.lfonnlng' AC eurren1lO DCGUrrent.


Decl!.l;!S.e ~ genersmr is operated Dy an engine-on v en bell. if uses .:J; sig.n.i I1Cni'ii amcum cf hersepowcr. And we higbcr the Ow tPUI' r.Jling or the generator. loo. more' horsepower 'it uses. I Q a race car or dune bu,ggy. hu rsepower loss is a serious OOI:tS,ider.Ldon. Howcvc.r. mos. ccmpcti[ton vehicles have ~Iatj vcly low currem dema1ld.~-'-igoiti,o:n and fuel pump. mostly -,so .hey can gel by wi ttl a lowPUtpUI gCllcmtOt _ On the O\hl;:f band, en off-road vehicle with a bu mper full or dri vin.g. lamps will require il hlgh-on tpUI ge.n-er.amr. rhus hoesepower (]l'WS. 'be $!)C-.,. rificcd.

So. how do yeo know now big is big

Ourlng oIIiCh mraludon of flelel coU, :I1a'tor gilt., .. "'ll'Iot" 1;1' $Qutti r.MgrwliC fitl!:l IlrlCl OM !Dr ,Nortn mqnt1:lc fltIId:. TtlI .......... ot tltkl. from, 'moving po ...... wtry alWrT\I1or CNI •• ~1Tl!JI!1'tQ (:utNnl. Drawing 1!CIUr1ny of Chryiller Corp.


- - -

M'os1 modlm 8:1tem.totS cont:al'n, tJu4n·h'l ~octronlc; TfOnl,Q@I l"I!1iIublt.or'. EnHhIo d«vi~ h. mo~ lnto hoalproor, WNihltfPfoot c.nmlc Uld j. I'Mft ,U:l'YicNbl!ll .:n:.pt by ~lCtinIInt. u.c.u.. Of t:t..tr ,.:tt1Vinll tellitlll.ity, thl, I. no1 otten l1Iqulnlld.

e.noogh? II all ooils down 1,0 :g.enl:nnor m,"PU1, rated in amperes, The araperage output must be OJ I£tJ# equal 10 [he [owl ecrrent draw of ill r the ~le(:lric;ij,lloods in Ihe system. Otherwise. the ban.cry must supply <""'"' 10 keep every,hing running. There slloLild also bee .. Ol,lgh excess Owpullornp !.ht': b.o,ttcry charged. Here are some £,1J kl~1 lees:

RestoraUons~C::;o with the fae-mi)'. originill part. ff au [heTJtieilY is irnpcnaet. J ust be sure g(:nc:mtor output ,LS up 10 spcciflcerlon. As extra Insurance. have the old one rebDil! and leste:d by' a genel'ntcr sbop.

Race Clillrs~ DUDt: Buggie.! & Ki1 Cera-e-Go oIll I[!~£~ Of.it site larger .. ben

Ihe ml'-limrJn~ ne:cded 1,.0 power till loads in lhc: system. Ad.d up the currt',I"I' draw CJf each ~Je!::'!ri!::;[I1 devlce you plan [0 use, inc-Iudlo£, the ignition roil.

E,'ef')'uy Vehl<! es ~lf}'<>"· re iusl 'doing, a palr of drivin~ li,gb ts. a stereo, or Si!l1 ilar accessory rc your street car, the factOf)'-oflginlill g,cncrutor should be :ld_eqlJ:ate. Sm if you' re into eon~petil'l;g with the light output of the sun when driving at nlghr, yOU! driving lamps may overtax lhe standard generator. so il·~ best to go One ,I", larger. Mo.ny ""10 m.onufoclUren. provide i3 nigher&()Ulput gentrtLtor on !heir ("!Irs equ ippcd wi Ih :il.ir iondiIJonlllg:. ~f1d one. or these factory generarors mJly be suhable \0 lund le [he ~~ii.SOficS Y"Q·rc ipStatli:ng_

U you're buying a U:5l:d (If rebuilt generator. or sn!\o'ilgi n,g a on-e. from a parts tar, how do }'OO' ceermloc i [S OLHpu1': first; physical size lsn' t mu!::h' of a clue, 'You must took foran iden .. iflcaaon code 01"1 me generator. Ir ma,>, be III. rotor. a part iI:I_'U,mber or me :;!Ictua.! ampere ru. ing. Compare Ihe: cod!:: to tbe mmuJllctun:t's specifications in ll'l.e IIwrop:niiitc shop m;;llual or dca.ler parts bock.

~1 Urrob~or .htlich ~"schiiiZI s ~Iawi"

Wires ere 1M: most obvious eteetrical paths in an automotive electrical s.y&tem because they carry current to the various :electrkal components. The ·tnlema..l cuc:'U:luy of some modern el.ec-.uica.l cornpcrents uses pri"nlfd ~·I'Cu.iu instead of wires, SO they ere ilOO~e.r type ·of etee~cal path, To complete; lhe eircuj~ between an electrical source {bau:ery} and lhe load (eleclrical rompone.nl} :ill renrrn path. called a S"OfLnd" must be provided. As pre;,riou.sTy described. the c:n,gin.c bl,oc:k. merat body and chassis: ael, as 'he ground bet<VC<J1 the load and banery negaiive terminnl.


Wires can be corepuredto water pipes. blood """"I. or highw,y', They provide a path fur e lec-triC:!IIJ tymnl ~o now. The metal wtre ltscl r is cal ted a c.ollduc:tor because it conducts ~ or carries. the currei'lli .• The eeedoere- i$ !:o'Veted wuh ll!lsulaficM' to- keep the current in ils correct patb-F~ver!l- short clrcuhs.

1Z.VoII WIRE GAGE fOR CIRCUIT IN FEE'T 1)plcol ElI<:h1ool ApptOX.
SYllem CJrQJtoo ..... P,
Card ... Aio~ 'i-~
..... P Watts _3' 5' 'r 10' IS' :10' 2S' 00' """""~"""'P'\(2) ~ ..
, 1'2 :10 00 ,00 20 ~Q 20 :!1l :10 ll<,""""'ps.(2) '-"""
c;ga..,. ug,.., I(H~
1,li 1& 10 !'<l i!O :10 "" 20 20 :!1l "" ClOt!< o,J
24 to "" 20 '" zo :!1l zo 211 210 0iIme~ 1
............. o.._ z
" ,B "" zo '" ." '!O '" :10 ... :10 ~1!)I!,ow El'9'
<8 JIl '" 211 20 20 '" ~ '" 18 BIIomI
s 6Q "" 2Il 20 20 ." 20 I'li IS t8 _,""",,(2)(f<Ish '3-11;
S 7. !iO '" !10 20 >0 "" 18 I. 1'" tIaaletl'OeI'rGSle:r IHO
84 !iO "" 20 20 20 ta '" '" ,. Iiom!! 121 00
(QrObon 1.54
" .. 10 '" 20 20 '" IB ,. '" I. !Nt1"LmDn1·P.mel 0.'7 .. ,
1O 1:10 80 :10 20 20 ,I la 16 ,e 1. ~
'nstnrntn!.p""", ""'- 1.5-3
" 1112 90 20 lID 20 ,8 1& '8 '14 14 LI<enso !.amp O,li
I. ' .. ,OIl 00 20 20 '8 15 ,6 I< " =g~ 1.5
15 180 1:10 20 20 20 18 '. " '2 I~ _5<!o! 2F;.,5Q
IS ~1. "0 :10 20 I. 1fi " ,. ,~ 12 -- 2O'~S
20 .. 0 rso 20 20· ts ra " to 1~ io _"""" .. L.otnpo, '1'.3
Sla.",s.p_ ,1).,2
:12 264 180 zo ,. ,. ,. ,2 12 10 '0 TaHla"'ps(2) 5
NOte: L~I"I;1tIS ,I" re~ ftl~ll:iI:iUIt ~P'lGItl ar wlr'1:'in dra.tll. ioM'tg gl"Dl.lMl n!lwm. ~
lViO-wl~ dfWil5. be .5;Uf8 !O ~\.IrI:Ic ~I renglh 011 bJm ..w~ 11"1 dirwlL Whe}e ,2:Q_ ,~e~!I
115ted jll d}an. 18 Q!lgfl ka '~1'T'IOI1dOd ICH' l"Mdwlk.IIi fil.ranglh. G~o reconuT'lood:.atiOn!
:9I1'Q p;gr typica.! ifJe~ 'r/WI1:el'01I, based' orr;ll maximum VClIIIgIi clftII:! of "1ot.. A, ~.ne(a) rule 10 klilaw I, ID u~ •• wire size tha't giv~~ j] vo'II"ge drapol' 0.5 VOl, ... 1 .... 8010 .. tho Iongtto of ltoe $" ppl)llB" loloadl, He','s ..., ••. ~"' Suppa;<> )'OIJ're wiri"lllwu ~11.· h)g lamps, each iltawiThfl Ion watt>; lind tho suppiy lead need.; 10' be 1 BI~ long. Shoulil you use 14 g"lle wire?

F",m O!vT>'s JaW IE - I, )( 11), ~OIJ need to il<n<Wi ttlo CiJ'rent df ... 01 bol~ lamps (n, and the , •• ISlBnce.cI18 r""l 01 wire (BI ., 1lfdef 10 cabJlale ,toe ""Ilage <Imp •• rOSS the wi,. (,c~

II derlvallm 01 Ohm's ,I.w-P (!>Ow' er I" wattS) - f X E-.IIo ... )'OIJ III cal(:ul..ate tn. 'CUrTenl draw m ollhel twtJl 1 DO-W'a,n tamps;

P (2(KI waltS) .. E 03.5 '151om 'lOllS) 1 ~I5 amp).


No.~ [,om 'Ihe wire siz.QI\M al rigl)l, you fil\!l the reoisW>ce 0118 feet of 14-sagG wi,. I. 0.0028 ohms ,111" fool.

O.OOIlll,){ 18 ~ 0.05 oIIm.

With IIIlslnlormallDn, )'O'J MW I\a .... l.a the varla.bles or ,Ol1m's Law tC . .5cFva Itl" problem:

E ~ I(I5omPI,X'A'IO.05(Jllm) = 0.75 VQlL

A:om' INs, ~OIJi ~"d Ihall oI-gagBM,. e""""'" t+ru """,,,,,,,,,ndod 1'<11'_ d"", imll of 0'.5 \'011. SO, you, 11010 12i1<lQ. wit". ,..,Icl1 _ • villi'l!JO d"", of 0.0018 <>tvnolfl:

E = I (1 s ampl){ A (0.OCI18 X 18~.) ~ Q.4,g 1/01115.

W,IRE, SI::Z!:,S

s.t~ OhM.!

AWG pilr

1_1 H'OO_

Q.5 0.6

I.' 2.0

". 5.0

e.o 1~.O 1.9,0 3.2:0 40,0 Sil.O &2.(1,

2D 11J1,Q

'a U

1& +.1-

14 2,9

iz 1,8

'0 1.1

B 0,7

6 O,A

4 0.3

,2 02-

, O.~~

13 O.n

00 0_0iI


U rheber reo h III h g sc h utztes ~'a!eri a

Wir1llolMCIl'nilloilQ fiillCli"IC:..BJ 8ptema shOu1cl WI~ el)luh,lWJnl .,. ~Itd wnh pIu1lc: 11'II4.I1.tfotl tOprtl'lenL IoI»r1 clraJllJ; .hen.del win

............. _ mul..." n'"<1"'",, -'Y .....", • 9'OIIod. C!roon"ll 00"_ 01 Chrysl« Co","

... ", goo<! """""'IvHy. E_ .. Io!t .hollYl II'KIMc:lual tttIInda HvrI mag up can· Cluctor. idlntJc;aJ pIe(:e"_ rig'" .... ' nor bien, 1I"IN'I'¥1I~.

DI~ MI4iIl:ll4,b:littlry (:Iible (rom T~~ C.ibl4i :PtlXltacta j'nc.. fulUNIo btailOecl-mItaJ .Ilay th ... dlng 0'tM' CCII"I... Uo"oi .... 0<10 'lnsuloU .. lor _~_,

pro_.nd Oluoy _.,_. And no. h. d:oe.n"l, bft.1 '~ eoul"lety 01 T8Y1or cable P:roI::hJ,c:LliI:nc::.


F~ Mrtnfil"""l!tI!I~ oft'"" l,lW"riped wInr~ .,.._~_ Add!~. nidu.c.r lei. wtritilo .... ror In,~; prtW!cIe'a .... '1!Idd1l1orLl!l:l "'colOt"" fo;r (M, IiBrneH ~ tu uee, TI'JICIQ.r.r h,,1p ~ ~~ tP"ilC;:!ll tut~ .lfIrigprQbl~ Phoio ,by Jim hPTO'lt.

w;[~ comes in many slzes and types, Sorno wire mtlDu.fl,lCune:rs (;011 un rbeir products wir.e: oibers pref er lhc term roblt!. By my dcl1.nilion. the mai.n dl ITerence i)erween ~ wlre ilnd OJ. ra'ble js,sr.tEmal la. the cffecti vc diwn.etcr of jhc ClJD,~ dLl~tor. Beceuse n e.able mmt carry a gn::a! deal ,of amperage to operate !.he. smrtcr mcror, or u gr~u deal of voltl,ge to operate the: sparkplugs, it is relatively I;(!,_rg~ in di.IUl'Ie[er _

Wi res, oo ,tie <llh<r haod, ",uOl <any retatl .... e'ly J.4i:5S amperage, SQ lhey bevc nOlic:eabl'i smaller diameters than , •• bl es. Througjenn 'his boo~. ,~. I."" cable Is used to ldcn ti ry tbe main COO'~ ducrers used tn • he sianing and secondary- ignitjun circuits ,and .3l the battery. A] I other conductors in the: sys.tem are c·aHed wr,.e:f_

S~,- The conductor diameter or :0 wilt'! or c::!.ble is 'L':'ar:efU!ly tnun:h~ [0 Ihc amperngc !he wire 1], expected 10 I:WT}'" It L~ measured In one or two Will'S.

Gage is; th= standard S AE desig:rL3lLOn for win:: S.iiti5,; uSliruly ref~rred to II! A WG (A"",ri<~n Wtre Gogo). Gog<> on: 001 measutcn1tnlS of BClual d.imen:!lliQflS, bill are, .o:rbi trary numbers IJ:i.aI ind.ica.te ~lGli~ difJI1U!l~r~. And, m!;ljlt.~ dl. men~JonaJ mcMurcm.c:nlS. the lnrg:el' the gage number; the smaU~r the wire. G:ag,e:s used ln :a:urot(lQrl ve wirill,g range: rmin 10 (huges' wire diameter) to 20 (smellest wire dj""",,,,,) , Cobl .. ""'gc frt>mOO(l~') 10 6 (.moll""). Tbe sl .. distinetio.n between wires and cables gelS blurn::d ill abom glllge 8, Gage sizes an! in Increments or 2. as .shown iJ'lllhe chart 0"

page 23. .

Urr~lmtrGoilll, II g sr,ht'HLI 5 ~l r rial

Th-c second wILy wire stze is spec:iHed is by rile a.rot'd of lM wire' s conductor cross-secnon, e~ r-'I'e~d in square mil limcters (m.m~).

The .""", on P'lIO 13 OtImpore, S AE. wire sages whh ccrmspondlng metric sizes. The chan-also snows the !'elation.'ihip between ~'ec'rical r:esislarru .find wire size. expressed in ohms pe.r lOOQ feel. Th.c larger the wire sue. lhc 11;:55 Ute re;sistilrlCCi!he lc:5.s reslsumce. the greater lhe rI\lI,J;,imU!1l P'Ossible cu~nt now.

The, wl re-se.lcc:tion. c;:han on page 2J shews the rccommcndc:d wire gages 1:0 use foe elrcults of voriou.s ampcmges. The. iil.mperage. draw of typical .autOmOiI'l,le, circuil8 are also shown. Usc the chm to belp 'you :sc:leel the (QJi'ect-.sag,e wire for the various cjrcuhs in your car's electdcal system.

Conducto!r Ma1en.als- The CO-OO'L.lClo:r rniltcn ill used 1.0. car wiring i:s g.e~rn:ny copper. ahoough some copper-clad ulurninum cable is aV3ib.ble. CoPi?I!f is used for 1 ts thitabillly ,ilhd low electrical resist ~ ance.

COfult!C"!on; come in ~ta! SUWi:d conflgurnticas for .... ari.OU5LLSc:.5. Because of its relatively l.i.lrg~ eross-sectton. S':tf~ 8't .,l"(:and wjr~ is !C:il:.Q desirable wt.ere ne;(ing is likel Y lO occur. so u ls rarely. if ever. used ror .oul,Qmol tve wiring. -

Mul UplwU:-and wlO!,wi ~t1 lis tOH'gc number of relatively small tedlviduel "rand" is I es , li~'ly ro ("",,"re from repeaed n~xing. Gc.~rany. for a~y given o'l,le:rall wire gage i {tte greeter Ib,t number or strands ~ the: morn flex ible the wlre. r-or e.x.ilfl'lp!e, IS-gage wire can contain seven slraoos ur '2&gi:lge wlre, 19 strands (I r ~O~gilge wire or 41 SU"'lQds of J4~g,U# wire, For best flexibility, select wire ecntainlng the maximum lI'1um~r or strand':!'; for its gage.

Rope-.stranded balu:ry C!l!ble is of(·eti specified whl;..):"C extreme f]cJi.ihili ty is needed to facilitate rour tn.g.

.1I.raldocl g'.un.<! strapo, • form of cable. used to be commonly used as: battcry _gruoQd eilbles_ Smaller vl:rSio:f15. are somcrhnes used: to ground th~ engine 10 the' chassis. 0:, sheer-metal body (0 ihe chassis, if rubber mounts between tn~ ~ss.cmbtic:.s :rcs.trkt ckctrical ,contirmlty" l.Dsu.lBHon - R~·l.laniles;s or size. all wires and c3bres have nee lhif.lg j n (OmmOf.J.- tbey need an i nsuletl .... e covering to keep the electrons in their C01Tf:Cl paths. Y r'JU·S ego, WL~ ced ecele insuletlon was made of braided cl oab ~ tOOiiiY'S cars. 'Usc; wires 'Uo'llh a morntfurabte PVC plastic insu [alien. Several '»Cc:i.h~ "0""" corry 01<>10-;","1 .. 0<1 wire for anlique or collector c:al'!li_ See: .he

suppller's I lst on page. 152,153. Wherlitt cloib or p.lastic. auremotivewire lesuterion haS. SE:vCT.il1 .lmportilH characteristics,

In.suI8'iJon. color is the first cnarecreeisuc. Bach Wire of a facilOry-made. whins harness. bas its own unique color. Tht!o was done so each circuit could be i.denlified as the car was being buill. and later for dlagnoslng e problem. Think of wire colors. as street names.

Somctlmes, a factory-made bamcss Ims mo~· wires in it Ihan there IlI'1': slngte wire CO.tofSB\'ailable_ In ih is case. the designer specif cs u second 0010', callO<l .u !m.ccr. which is. B ccntrastiag stripe running. Ihc length of the: WITc:. Fer inst3f"1C".e. by add i ng a white tracer to a I"NI wire, you ha vc dislingui:shed the wire from" plain red cne. T~.~f'S are Illw;Oj'!ii chosen to oonU'aS! with the base (;>Qior of Ihc insulator. and. may come in a number of corers. d'l(ru~h purpleili'ld orott~ rrsc~'I"S ~ rarely seen.

In d~ignin.g circuit diagrams aed bt!i.lding ha.messe.s fO.r your project( cur. )'00: hav-e' complete control over jhe 000;« of wire 001"",. And, beceuse you 're ,going to take extra C3fC in constructing your herness, ",'ire by wire. ~'1;;IU prohably won't have much need for treeer wire. This is jllM as well. because [racer wire is not n:8dilyii ..... ailablc in tbe aftermarket. anyWily.

If rQU mQ:S1 QSC lrncC'.r wire end )'OU can't find any, you can make }'"OLLr own by using a waterpeocf mart.i.rUl: per! to draw ;p cnntmsneg stripe ali;H"I,j2; the 1 engih of lhe wilt.

Another way to make .0 tracer. though less '.!cs:lrahle. is 1.0 rnark the lermiL\3..l ends of Ill e wires. with iI d-ab of paint. There are severer di$;.1d\l~tnges to dtls method. Flrst, the paint may chip eff. Sec;orJd, tbere ~s no 'MllY 1.0 dlsting.uish the tracer w Ire ~O~ at the i:: nd, Third, i rthc:: wire turns OUt to be too long, aDd you cut il. sh011, the tracer may coo lip 00 the S""'1l" floor.

Finally. l:abel:!! c.an be pu !'Chased :at many electrical-supply outlets, for the sole pu:rpose of marking wire ends for iden!ir~eatjo.n pu~s" S~iC page 142.

OIU: II"IDfC: thing IIb(,Hil calor. O[], American-built CilI"S. bJo.d, wfr.B"1' are ,I"",,, '!""f' used 0.0 tl\o ground (-) sl de of :Di circuit. HQYIo!Cv~r. :i n the

26 Urrdmrraoilill II g sr,hiH"t 5 ~\ r rial

,""USiIJ]d);, of r,OIOr}' harnesses moO., there are 'probahly some 'CACCptiOll:S to this rule, Genna.l'" cars use hrown-the C'illor of .ea:n:1l (grotlnd)- to indicate ground.

R~J a.twa),s rneans hot (+ ) ahhr;mgb OI.ner-col'or.;: are also used for 1'1..01 wtres in a harness. lmagir.e: the confusion if I::Vcry feed \lo'i:re in~he hrimcss was the !ii~ color!

The reo- for-posldve ccn venncn also llppl itS to the b:!U~.;ry posMi ve cable and bou(!r),.ruo wires to me: generator, fuse )I>J1,,1 ond ignilion ,witch_ In "",<1 C"", these: an: Inc wircslhal are aI ways hoI. even wh<n, tne igniti,," switc h is off. A;g:nin, you may find excepelora.

Anotber i.mpci:rtilli~ characlerislic of a Wt~':s insulallon is. its dUl"Qi1-iJily. If 1'"0.\1 were buying wire by the truckload like nn auto Iactcry does. you. could order wire wil1'l i esu ratloa rc fit your' sped nC~:LliDns.. B .... ~! of us buy wire by tile. spool ill local UU!o.:suW1y stores. To be sure you're ce.tling wire with msulntion best suited for ,mos, common vehicle applicadens. Sltck with name brands. 'Patk.om:I:

Electric. a d Ivi.sl.on of General M.Qtors~ [5; perhaps the most wi.dc:Jy kno~'l1: wire m.n"f..""re" An.ottlo, bnmd w;<1ely ilvaHabl.c in parts stores. is distributed by rr a T.

Depending 01'1 a.ppl icatioe. the ltmm perU/r1U rodng of wire Lns.ulatiOfl C!II_" be lmponam. Will::' fer common a.ppl.ll:auans nilS insulation rated at 85C ( 18.5F).

This rating 1.5 adequate for most common lp,pli.ciltioos, However, 'if you're bulld~ ing iI race: 'car, use Wlre 'wllh an. Insuletlon "'ting of nt 1 .. <1 I05C (22! F). For ""' re on h~sh-lCmperatu.rr; wire insulation for I'iiCC Cars, siepilge 140.

Wh;ue'l;'et brand you buy. doo·t s~j n~p on quulity to 5a'YC a. fc.w do.lIlil'i. In the hmg run, it's Inlse ~CDnomf ifrn.c Insulatlon mel.s from LLtKk:t-hOO<l hem or dissolves in grease ii.nd causes iii short tirmil _ B'LlmOO wires or iil car fire is; a hig.1l price toll pay for b;u-pin-~mcr u IIUUCri-

sts. .


Wifes and cables araa't the ·only condLIC''''' foond in. vehicle', wiring system, On newer cars, some rae.myinstaUedC:O.mporlents contain printed eircuits (Pe:s) 'that coru.h.ici cd«:tricil.y jL15.t like wjres do. You'll find printed t:T~l!i[s mos. OAt~ in OIiginal--e-quipmeJU insrrumen: C.tUSIC·rS. because tile), provide il sevillg.!i in labor ecsr for the Iacrory.

There was ill! tune r,;J,Ih~n each instrument ill'l.(I light bun) is] !he Instrument cluster was wired s.tpar.nely. This. ineidenlall'l. is tile way yoo' H wire tndi"idu.J o,.dd,oo .lnstrumcnlS in you, prqjec:r car.

Nowaday.ll, elf .nla.n.u:factU.l'Cn Q.!C '''''''lng for way! (0 reduce Mnd I.bor ilm! its :rdoted COSlS, to keep ear prices under control. TIle one-piece printed ctreuit does this r.d.cely. A"d its ~arlj' errer-

proof d .. isn ~r< .. i<h higher q"olily In rnass-produeed ears,

A primed circuit consists of metal fcl I C:UrTtrn palhs adhered to li fJc"i.bl~pl~s.tie becking (pC board). linch lamp socket at\d inM.ru metll coanector plu~.s i:o\otl"ie eim it .... tho approprii.lle pl ace. A cavity is provided for pluMjn~ in too wiringharne.ss con.r.e·cmr_ As lang illS Ute bmnt:5s ls correeuy made, cireuil centlnuhy i~ vinually -!lSSllred·.

Cbances are , you wan "1 run into a printed ctrcu i'! in '~gtoring j) collectible cr urul,quc: cur, or .if you're iilSlallitl,S Ind.ivid.ual rn.'U11ImenIS, as. mendoaed earIier, Bu.. if you're. install in.S nn entire /ot:1ory-mmJ.t i.t.l,fIF,l:,im'r/U d"I.'~r in your projec, car, ,n.n: are se veral )"'1»rw;, ihings to consider when dealing with pri nted circuits_

Firat, !he hamcss j"OLL rr.wkc for your car must be l~n.ical to de one used .j n lhe C;l;I" the ctt.lster W.il$ ori.gin!llly designed lor. The best lhinS to do bere i:li to cut the primed-ctrcuh connector from the ham es s in a j.nked car, I".'i"& 0110"1 1 foot of wire extending from each cavity. The", wbcn YO" build yO"' own h ........ connect the wiring din::cll), to the cut..ofT wires. following ,he faclOry'sorienlOllon dtegram for each circuit. If thls isn't entire.l)' cle:llt, il wlll be whlC:L'iI ::'.00 n::iI\d Ih.c cnapt.ers Q1l clreul r design ~fld: hamcs3i oonsu'uction.

Treat a. print~d.eirt:\l.ll g.ently. lt's mc~ ged eoough tc wilhs.tarJd yenrs of serviee mside ill car·So iJ]:.nrume:o.t panel, but it won'! hold lip to m:mhalKll in.,g. Once a foi I: circuit is :scraped off or broken. the..rc's nc practical way toll repair it. So, take c.nm when removing Of inslaJILng lhe namess C",onnec:lot-be firm .and deliberate! bUI don't use a twiSlin,g moriOl'l. WbeQ iostall ing lilrtrp soekeis, be Sure lbt: foil i5 not dam.a.gcd by rile socket lab~_

To i Iluslrate thls point. I recenll.Y bad to replace lne pri;n\ed ei~ul t In one or the f~rnily '1:;jUS. ~tnstrumellr·du.ster iUulnLnation and .rac.t'fCImeief :sudcJenly and sir.nuh.aneou,sly quit wo:tking. The. p'roblemn..lmed Gullo be: a cill:uit~ground (oil.hm was damnged 'wl\c:n the Qg" \lo'2..5l buil ,. I, ,hold up f"r se ,=-I y<m>, bur eventually ei!be:r road vibrntion or nor~ mal ex.pan:sion iil"d ~nlJ'~Clion enused h to fracture. Problems HLe (his I:'an be: p:nrt.ictllarly frus.trn.ting to trace because

F'K'lOry InIttUinWL"c:lulten ItI'ttn U •• ptIn1.1od! C1tc1i1tty. fiCIlI pat:ha .... acIMnc:1110 I'iI'xItIM pU:I'tJe; c:I.fI"Iet. Eaeh Metrial oompcMn'l jn cluller hal II terminal' Ihat t:on'fI:e1.I. !he 'lPP'"Oprll" falllO CiornpMlO Iho r.:lrcuh.

Urrdm,moi,ill 11 g sr,hiH,,1 5 ~\ r riol

Tn~lfL)i'T1oe.n'to.pdtlil!!l h;i!;m~.1!l5 Is &dlli'le-c;l~ 1'01) prlnti!!~ 'eirt:l.llt wHh!li!! 111,1511-111. 1I;.(lflnecl;!;lr _ SIi;les; 'f1I COIlhtllC1gr t:anle!::1 f(lU" on lllrin~ cir,cuil_ H )'QI.I pbln to U.II' lUI OEN prirrtttd c:lrt:uillh yotJr c;arl cl.rl !!.~'Ch-er:l wlr., st 1118;11 1 foot trtJIm terrrdp.I, it poulhle. to .lJ!11Ow I1l'enty ot w3~I!!iI rl)O.rrl_

Prin!ed c:1fC"uJtI don'l' "'11"101111 eJtCi~:I c.urreRl now 10:0 'We1l.ln fact, Ute)' tenet to acllllll.'lIl.lMl. OamaglllJ:ti:filhll '~lItrrOW:ll] III, liII]t~ ,fl6::!IY to loe·tUe- bUllmpo:"IDi:o to 'repllr. FII.lIlJro ®e to fraetu.ro I., .'on c:itettlt I .. ml.fOh more Cil.ffleult to 10000tll, .1\CIi G.q1Jal]y Im,ponlblG to rupalr,

-'Qhough easy 10 O'Yerlook. ground c:1.rc:u.ltI aNi ~~IUI!Y p.ltt oM I1!1I4II~bicfll paUt. IIg .. t eompontf'lU an 1el.f..g1'Oundecl, 1hrougl1 'thaIr rnCiurtCl1"I9 :K:r1'Wlo to m .. tli :boc:fy,1P'amti Dr .ng:ll"lll (lef't). St.1Ch eomponlll'la won ... Eln:JUI"IId' lJygugl'! rtberg'aa bod'ybec:lu .. 1'1 KIa .. an Inl!lU!.IIlOI". You'll ,FlNd 10 run I.pirtle !iII"a;UnCl, wire IS II"ICWn It ,rlghl.

the brenk W.[l5 hidden 0 nder lh.e edge or one of the lanlp seekers.

grouod diteeHy Illrough one of these. si rn ply by being """ed fnpleee. This type. of clccirical path Is sorrethnes called a jeif~8rmlltd. m.elnin,c. [he. compoecnr dO('sn'l oceo '" sepsnne (noatmg.) grcued wire.

In modern. l.i ~h!w.cight cars wilJ1.

I1:IJ merou s plastic body compcnems, :as well iJ:'o in fibcrgT!lSs.·bodi~ cars, nonconductive body parts won' t cll1"tY currem. so sepamre ,g_1'01Jnd wire,s are needed for sel f- grounded components attached

!II} these. The ground wires arc utu.chcdto the metal chassis ai1 .a con ... tnic=ol polm. One n, g,-muDd wires for several compcnents eOOflt<:l to n sJn_gle gf(Jund rermiMI or stud.

Irihe comp<:lDL!"n.[ you're ins;t!!.lIing was designed rohave a :setf-grou:nd, you mlUL provide a means of illt~ching. tho grcued wire to the componenL Often a rih8 terminQ/ .. page: 63, corn be used un tbe com,POrM:nl'S, f.OOUnll.r1g stud.


A.lmost every cjrcun hilS one current path rll:uCs ~a.$y to overlook. even Ihough lt's ;jJu; biggest. !~ is !he car's ~nfjrl! struc,. •• re--cnilssis, (:T1gllle an.(! meta! body_ Togethe.r. tt1.ey form. a c,f,mJ111(Nr rel~'" p~lh or ground" They 're all g:roumlet! til .. he banery's negattve ier& fL'llinal. Many eleetri~1 C"OTTJpOnCIli.S

27 Urrcbmr 011111 11 g schutzt "~\ !~ria

Togo ....... ""'_y ... 11 ......... n!y..- _ in IKe <oro 01 011 __ Tbaoo boIng _1Iod on CM"'I So10 oH-rood ''"mv pIe"'p!rUck oro nalloncy, bullhey' .. b~''''',

... _ .... _ ............ y I. _"_ rodng cond""""'. PnOID OY'Torn __

The dri ... er's lnreracdon wtm mos. meLhn:nk,a] systems in .., cer is tltroogh SOme 5QI1liJf ooru,.otd~lic.e. Amlu:suii1.lly, the device ~:ing cO,l"Ltrolled :perform~ r'be same way each time (he. COfItrol j S opcrated, The 's.teering wheel LS one r::i~ nrnple. Although the end effect i~ to cause lilt, from wheels of the cat to change thetr angle to some degree or other, !h~ dri ver' ~ if.lput is. :iIIJwa~ the smme- n~ turns the ste~ring wl)eell a llnle or a lot. IUJIi!I lhe fmt.ll wheels respend acccrdlngjy.

I n an auromod ve electrical system, co!'urol devir:es can be placed In three ma:ingroups~.r~'1d'C'~,f. solenoids and nJayt, and rh,t{),SlGl.!_

Switches arc used to tum circuiU! on or off. Mos. swnches are intended to be operated do,"",l y m:I """,<iOl).ly by Ill<: vehicle's occupants-the hcadhuop or radio swi tch, for tesunce. OH1-ef5i are: QPtrilled by lILt'! C!ClC'UpaJlu. only as the eensequr;eC'e of pcrfonning. some other aclioo . Door-jamb dome-lamp switches "'" good ~ .. mpl es , The switches on: 01'""

~r.ued j n,direcl1,y by QperI,lng and cJosing a car door.

Still ether switches are operated by WiTd;'~'HJJ in, a c:at lind to;;:Iy or mb,:Y nol come under t.u.rnan lnflucnct. For example ~ the park switch inside a windshield-wiper ,mow:, is openUtd bjlll cam i!lsidcrhe molorhtlusing.

Solenoids and reloy. """",,,,icolly ectl .... ate electrical devices or secondary c:ir'C'UiU, eilher as :0 resun of some ~O:!!O taken by the dri ver or by ehan.girJ& 'CQLldjticns ill l~ car. Far lnstaece. !he solenoid for lhe staner motor is nctlvated wheo the ignil:ion switch is lUrllCd 00 to start the COU'.

IU!~I:.!)I control jhe !U'OOL.lnl or reS istance in a cifC'uit, lhereby to,urotl Ing the amount of'current fed to an ejecmcal component. The, dim""" """trol for lesuument-parel lIlumlnaLinn is an example.

Tbe Ij'pr! of ~1er:trii:1lll i:"O'rltrol' operated directly by the dri v 'er islllmcs! always a swhch Of rheostat, oIthOIlgh thepart of !he control oclually being ope ra t'd may

lake the form of a knob, lever I hilr.ui~· or push batten.

Of Len , lhe driver operates lhc: r;;:onu-ol of a mechanicn.l or ~J~rnci!l :!i)'SI:em be- 0 aase ho's sensed tho need to do so [rom somc(tiin.s he's observed. n.e ,lIttion could be 'in 'response 1.0 something di""uy oI>sc""d in !he en vim""",n, ~ suchas opeIilling the hom to warn it ebild daning into the tOad. Or, II ,coutd be a rcsull of observing a condition by rneIUIS or • diSplay. For ''''''''ple. you d,"m !he beadlemps for an appf()B(:hlng cat IJo,. cause you. notice Ihe beedlamp highbeam iOOiel)lOt is illomtn:rued_ jseeause d.i.5p!ays aft; designed to con. v ~ infcllIliilf" tlon, their d.e:s,i,cn and loeetion ~ a1so tnnueeced by human racters. Di,plays ""', discussed on paS"" 3g~.

In tbc following ~iS<U.l,i"" M controis. a dlstincucn :is made between origJIl.t11 eqrlJpm~m mmllif(J{:I,h1'e.r (OEM) ccntrcls tnat ere inst:illed 1"1'1 ;:i ~.;).I lM: factory. and afi,,,,,,,,kel control. !hot YOIl can buy ,U .ilulQ- parts stQtt:s or through mail-order parts <.,aleg"

I'll ,~,t ~'1l!nll; c:.arlT.lak_~1II ,h[lva ,~,un 1!.I!illn!;l ro",kfl'I swih:he:!llrkn r;mi;l!i ehcwn at left. 'these awit,c'he:ll provldB .. pD!iljJive teet wt'llltn apereted, lite easy I~ l!Ulidily by tDl.K:h. and :1(lcli: g{]-tJd. m.El~ <ill rlghl 1:11 ~t con'lTOl fQt dlllllh ~hIII rlIUrn:l'netLon.

Oiill!: 'liwltt:ooa ere ottllfl drNic:uh '!I;JI 1iIIr:lllpt 1(l'B ,1'H;II'Qb:.' enr, For ItXillmpl.Q, ndlil heatilf eo ntf,gJ ill: I:Ju:IU into:il pllil.lilk: be~allh.a;1 wDukl bit MrC! 10 f&'loealtll W'UhClul Ii lnl Cit rewo:rk.

Good e¥;IlI'I"I,p-l'o of "OW OEM!;I;wille'~:J t;,IIn ,btIJ 1n1~r;Qt~_ !;:a-r:h CQntrQI Is ei!!slly k:fenlilieCiI by loue:h.. '~i,dlamp ;JMI-.:h I" GI)n1I$'I'lj1;Hi1l!!1 pu;.o...pl,lt:l Iype, "tliJeo ~hed 11)11 Il!I.mp P1leh E:, openlll.ed 'by l!, rot..!tlng lImm.b 'W:I (\efl). Smalll!llder !lwh:c:h klrelKtrlCi mWTonll (rii!lhQ MIIlII!CtI rt~"t .lr:IIIlJr .. ft, d-:pe9dtng on wtllr;:tI 'Q)' It i:&: 1'rI:OV'IiI'd_ Mounb;Kf dl1'lllClly atx;.-ve ft, ~W~ .tlck" I, IJ~ to' cont,:-ol: mlr~, mDverM!nl,

OEM: OOPltOlS ate OI,l'mOSI alway-~ de .. sigued for specific jobs; and ri r into speclally designed mounts and ooze ls. BI:~ cause of lhtlr single-purpose desig,:n. Ihey don't lend, ttemscl ... es to kH cars and custom applications as casl ly aa the aftermarket controls do.


tn its simplest form. ill swi rch is nomtng but M on/ofr device capable of cjosIng and op.t::pl:ng a .circuit. OS ..... .i Ll::he:s. come

W!nd"hl~w1per ~wh", lDI'JiI.nted on 1I'f1e1'. I~ oolumn or Ilte-rno1:k1l OM car would btl

.. I bu1 impo: lbiklllJ ~ tol~5ono.tn.r

!han !lingl WI'II(It'II ~ClU o~oun181" such •

~"IQn, yot.I'll I'!iIoY", 10 .u.e )I"O\oIr j"9..-..u:1I:y to aL'Ulpr '~rmar1l;lM (:(HI1tOI._

in a wide vartery or ccengurm inns. Some are seemingly complex in operancn 'bt"u their basic function is to tum equiprrcm on and off.

MOS! swirc:h.es are. fl(tnn4l_U-, open. mennlng when they' re maxed. the dr~ cult is open, OJ' di:scor'lJ"t«-t-td__ In fact, some switches an::: spring-leaded to return auromatlcau y 10 the OF.F pos men when yel" TtmO .... e yo u ..- finger from theswitch. These are called 1'I'WI.t:It'11Mry·on or jm",Ii.tlt/flry-~~OitlaCl swi tches. MOSt

110 .. OEM _mp .... toO- _" DuUt-:ln c::irc::IJ!'tl::lrfNker 10r tMllldLamp e~ft. P.n 1II"Id' .. U .... P~ ... ."oug'" CQtltrollMl by NrnI aw:tllCi\, u!IUII11y rWy on .tepiI!Ir,JIB fu ....

mOIl'le:ruary-on switches are operated by j} push 't~lJit{Jtl.

Some switches are made with buia-ln clrculr prolt(;tlon tl'\ l.he rOlTn ,of a. circuil breaker or fuse. AtlcrrnarL,ct swl tehes are more lik'ety than OEM swi teees to have this kind .of prcecction, bceause the aftet~ market switCh is cnen used 10 control an accessory cjreu il .added 10 Ehe ear by the owner.

The bu tlt-'in fuse or breaker docs Ilway wil1l the need to fifld a vacant slot in the


U rl eborrec h II lc h .iesc h [, tztes M il'~ri~




1 1


Swilctl s:~bot! portray .swllC:t.lund[Qn _!II_raph~Clilir. From left 10 r!gllt. SJng~. :!I:i"'IP~'llroM' (SPST) s1IIIII1Gh Is used, to eonlrOl I sln,gle p.:!rc:.uH. Slhg~ 6o~lfIro ... (SPDTJ III_WItch C3n BOItK:I. bIrt:WeBn bii!J dlH~rent ~rt:l,.IlI~ al'){l will: CI'pef.llte only ltIe O:M uJedild. ~. :I1n9t.-.tnmw (DPSf) SMte:h cati Cpt'd'tt two ttlti .... , iNplJ1rt. &In::uila with D~ ~t:roI, B001I1 t:heults al'tl, either ~ or Off at 1M NlnI1lmo. DcubI~ i1ou""ll"roM' IlJP01'}.nffl.C:n c:.In MJ8cI MhtM'h Mur dltr.tml i:1h::uiQ, lwg,,' Iii dmtl_·1t II, ollOnlllJlj two OPST l'l!ltitchn In _ 111'\Qi1. hcull.1ng.

rar's; fuse panel. Howe v er, if the switch you're uSil1g nl.!S PO built-in eirtu:il proI,eel ion ami there' s 00 place in the ruse ~n,el.o add ~llQilher. use ail ,rn-lIm; [use. This is simpl)' a ruse mod fuse holder wired lmo Inc circuit between the to;id and jhe powltr SOUI1:C.

OEM switches urually don't have built-in C:!rL!ui( prmecurm ~~.$U5(: mast originnl circuits route :through the car's ruse panel. Ore Double except ion. p;U'~ [icLtI:ilr!y i I'll A me:rican-bui l~ cars, is the head lamp switch - lesrcad of using a fuse in the fuse :panel.1hc switch contains a setr-res~tlin_g clrcun breaker. CLrtUil breakers are covered il] deplh On pagl:S 35·)6.

~wjl'h l)p .. ~ S,,; "he, C",' be <"<ell'>rized by their ~''_'crrirollu1U.'jtolr. or how .he swhcn oc.umlly works. whhln encf cutegory, yO\.! may lind seve-at dlllerent kinds or 1'I~-j"r"C"h a,m_'~·r:o.r.r, described larer.

Single-.polt-, slngl~~lll_row is the sim· ples: kind of swhch,. with only rwo positions-ON nod 0 FF. It' s often referred to irt parts catalogs by 1M lnhlals SPST, Contrary tv OJ. popular mlsconceplion. the poltt does ]]01 refer to the n!:I,U.iHot. bill 1 fle n~o~blt- element il"!:Ij;id~ the switch 1Ml makes nnd b.t"'I::ak-~ the circuu. In mast swill: nes. you L':1l.11·! even see the pole 'uoles.s you re move the housing.

Push-euucn-cpe-aed S I;IoST switches rum ih~ c ircui t o~ when pushed. and Qrr w!JC:n releesed. This is the mOS. common Iorm (I l momemarv-on sw ~t(: h. which ts

• he kind or switch you'd use on yauJ house for •. be doorbell; RiJ.CI:~C"ar starter


buttons are another example. Also, a swl tc h that neil "!ttes il wl n.ds..lttf; Iclwasher pump is of this type. Am)lllc:r rype of push-burton swhcn turns the circult 0]] wi th (00 flrst push and off with a second push. Ycu'It m::c-..a:siolui.!ly fLild ruUliry SPST SW i tcbes upereted by u knob. bu. llic:}, 're IK)I COmmOIL in cars.

Re"gan:U~!i:!ii of th~ !ype of 1::00 trol, the S PST switch has one cheracteristlc tl"li11 dis!i.ngu.ishcs il from all other S'witL':-fles. Because ithmSionly one polellnd onlytwo posi !lQilS -ON and OFF - il can control only om: circuit. The S PST switch hiLS t wo terminals, one eooneoed .00 the 00"tery <lIrld one to the lead.

SLngJ,e-pole, douhle-thruw is the next mo.st...(;Clm"lj~.(i~ed switch. Irs abbrevla1r;d name Is SPDT. This swhcn aiso has only one mnvahle elelfle"l.tt inside, but u bas !l.nrer:- termlnals outside. One terminal connects to the bnuery. The other two connect to I wo separate circ1J ttS or loads. TIl ls means cue ioad Of the other can be connected to U~ battery, dr;pcmling. on the position of the switch actuator. SOnle SPDT swi !C'-he:i have uaee actueior positio,D..S-ON. 'OFF. ON'. This L~ called 8 (\"nJ't'r~offswi!C"h.lt controls one load in each of,ru, ON pos;I;O"'. Olld breaks both cli"t.'Ui.s when the actuate- i~ in between. Some SPDT :swil:chl:=S arr; jhc momen"'ry-<l"'YI'O·

Donble-pcje, s-"ingh:-t:hrow sw i tchcs .ore pext in CO'-Ilplui L y. 11Ir; ebbreviution LS D.PST, Thls swltcb bas only two posl tlons -ON lind OFF _ But unl ike [he' S ~lST swhcb, it bas. '1"10'0 inJ~p~rrd~n' polel, each connected to hs. own rjrcuh.

There are fbur terminals, two for each pole. The D PST is ~;j)lly two .s PST switches ion. :til ccmmcn hcustng, wuh iii co rumen con Lral a cruator. It is used 1.0 operate tWO separate loads simuheneousl y.

Do" Me-pole, doubl ... lh 'ow swuches are .. he most cumplea of the curnmun e f'ten'll:lU'k~t switches. 0 EM switches. on the olJi;.erh..!illd. CUll bi::eon"le £1.1 mOSI grotesquelyccmplex In function. bunhar is anomer rneuer. The DrST swhch has:

IWi) Inde;peQtlenL pOI es. euch witn tWQ ON poahlons. Acru .. lly. il'S simply two separate SPDT s;wi tebes in one housing, e I ectricall y i tliJept;fliJem 0 F each oiher, openned boy one ccmrcl actuator. The DPDT swhch ha.~ six term lnals. three fQl' euch pole. DPDT s"Vi tchcs come In two d~:slg;I'l.~~ON. OFF. I ON nnd also MOM~NTARY ON. 0 FF. MOME NTARY ON.

AI[ uie switch types mentioned ;B bove - no mailer how cnmpl ex -c-seeve on Iy 10 10m cireuhs on. or c IT. Another type: of switch, called iI j"i1tgfe·po!'e. mulrfplt'Elhrow .rw.rrdt. allows you 10 select v;.triQUS seuiugs on muhiple-speed devices. such as a beater flirt. The s-witch L'i. wired 10 a sene." of resistors tn,H control the current bemg fc~ to the de vice. T'ypic:al settings are; OFf. LOW. MED. HIGH.

Sw.lrfh At1:lndon-Allhougb switches C'an be cntcgodzed by electrical fu I'lCI.iQn. they arc usually td~'ntjFied by ac.-tu(IJ(j1" type. The acruaror is fhe pan you touch .0 O~rflllC the ~t;; ... [ !1;:1l, such as a knob, toggle or push button.

U rheberrec htl ich gesc h utztes M aterla

T~ .lWlrl:ch ...... rNd.l1y IIWIIltatH In aftermIrbL andCGIIM wllh II wfdt, 'dI1ity ot .... _ (oonlrOl_l. Whon-" Ing • 101J911i 1JWftetI, be !lUre It iha ClOl"l'-.c1 a:mblI'.-f.lQP.II 01 poIeI lind throw. for elrwlb 11 wl11 bill upet'B1log.

Tog'" .wl,cl! es "ov" a tapered ben<lIe. u".olly <>pCrowl by nipping it with your Flf\g,m_ SOiflt: :rrlOrlu Iacrurers ca.!,1 this ;l l1a1 S'K'ifch because Ihe: actuator resembles a baseball bet i n shape _ The uperatlon of'n loggte swil,ch S:oo'uld offer elaYlic n::islinlc~i' tluu ls, eeslstance that builru:!lhen decreases IU 1M: oonu!;(:t pc;!!i Ijo"n is appro:iched.

Rocket switc:b~ ffi"I! a more SI)'lized version ofthe toggle switch. The !11I;::,tl,l:1\OT TQt:ks like a plaY,sround teeter-toner. You openlie lhi:: rocker by pushil'!g one end or the other' w~lh YOU' fingertip. Lik !he toggle, switch. Ih£ operaucn of these switches :should off-er ela:sUc res istaaee.

Pu,sb-bu.1l011 swltchts are !udf-e.l& planatory. A bUU,M" often round, pro~ from tho switch hody. It's opersied bydep<essiJl, Ihe bolt"" with y,,"t flngertlp. Push buuon,s shoutd have a eoncevc surface for best finj:!:f:f contact. OWOFF typo, should ofT ernn aa dlble, fee-Loble c.lie.):; a:Slbt: b\l.\tOf.l i:5. pushed. Resl.t""," ,hoIJld b. i:ld with 1"""''';"8 pressure, and suddenly release as Ih.e i!ilwi~h operates.

Roi.at1' ... Ikha have a knob thaI i, designed 10 be: turned. On some switches, tDe knob bas. !II pcd:nu:t 1,0 ItKIical.e :swit.c:b posiucn. Rotary switches are not often 1J5ed In automobile systems, except jm8i\ily to con tfIJl • ~ .. rer fan. R,"ory $wi'[(:hes; ere far more -comnum In ckctronlc devices suck iU radios. h is desirable that a rowy switch offer l disc,emable detent iilt each selectee posHiQ,n~ with renstaace diXTeiI.:!iiing as the dc:teI'J\ Is approached. Min.imu.rn di$.iai\CC between

_ owItch I. O<I".ny • _ ..... Uch wi.." '. un'l'quti IICttl'atot. TbIy. kaar .mo.n!I "finl: .. IWd· Ihan I. row 01 togglil IWf't.chM, U!<:tug~ mo<o dttllo,,~ 10 inolA/I. Thoy ..... nedl:K;:ll the Ilk"l~ ct .. c:t1JI1lng Iwttch .It .ou _don1olly b<tmp In .. 1<

PUih-bu'tlOfi switehH In GIn ...... WUilI, tho .............,.<ypo. El!ompIn "",t,,<10 hom button. _b ___

~ ', buikIn on aIdef c.ua .fid ..,... ..

~ R Swttx:h ~ ~ i, O"lfOFf'

type. PIt"" n cece "'" 011, """"_10< OFF.

RliCII aw' ligi'UliOfl 'lfIirItdI tf!ih.!p !nc!UdM ~o ONtOFF ,.'II"ItdI wMIllodlcator' lamp! .. nd ~ pu:lh-buti:oo IIt.rI ..wtt.m. ,A~ 0"' proWcted by Nbbet""boot:l" te :reduoI dirt lind I2UI:t j'nl'illttlkll\. ~ ¥lew IJ'Iotrt ~ .00 wirll'l8 dttlllI' .. "..,.ired ,lind premounted robru ..... ..c1'l1'Ol'M'PI~ Ill" Mtup I, .v.i .... h1'Jlft ~ AutotI"ICItIv'I' Racing proGuc:1l1..pnOlot D!f Jim &ltmI:.

detents should be 1/4 inch.

The followi"g c~", """'P""" It>< cesirabinl:Y of variOu.s. switch ectuatora against operating ehatactc:ri.s.tie'S.


One ·of the technical terms Jor a rbeo!iilat is a l'{j"ritJble renssor, This term Is appropri.iue be(;~usc: 1t iodic.illC5 bow the rheostat works, Rheostats are also referred to as txne"llom~1t':s.

A piece of resisuiilCe wire,Llsu.idly in ceil form ~ Is connected ut one end. 10 a b:tlW"y food. Tho olher eed of 11\0 res lst-

nnce 'I"V'j.n: jsn'r attached to anything.. The wire going from the rheostat IQ the ,I~d is .jJl\ilt:1'led to a movable elemenr c._ned ::II w;p~r. The wiper is arranged 50 it rum BgailU:1 the length of Lhc ~15tJlrJ.C'l: wire. when the wiper is close to the ooncryreed end of the J'CsiSllirW:e wire. the rteo,"I .d<lslitlle extra res lsrance 10 t.be tirtu:it. ru you slide the wiper to [hoe: far end of the resisueee wire, cuoeor flow~ jhrougb 1 . .fJcrt-asingly more: resistance to ge1. to tilt: wiper. reduclng current flow to the 1000.

With '" Itt<: design "'"8< of th,< rbeo-


U rheberrcc h III h g sc h utztes ~'a!eri a

COIl of _.1'''108 "" .. In h.""...."p .... 1<11 I ... ~t URId to C:ot'I~ Inten:I1Iy Of PUD' 1l1umNtion. a.c:.1"l1O fNll.~ """'" hNt:I up during OJ*:Ilion. 11 .. In........ In .,. .. tproot' c.nmk:: t'I«lslng.

s.~t. yO\.! can dial ill. co resistance UIJ to h.i,gn -eslsumce. or any amOUr'll i ~ be[weer]. This gives yeu precise ooQ11'01 ever ,the !Un(JuI'U o.f' cuncru being fed to the load. The most common usc for .0 rhCO$tal i!"J ;a Cat i.s tile cHmmer for lhe i.n.strunlenl-panel ll h,nninati,ofL lamps. In mast OeM tleildlllmp switches, lh.e: dimmer meosta is opera~ by !wl.stin,g Ihc headlnmp knob.

R.~O!iI:aIS designed fOTilutQlll(M;ive appllcatkms are ~ua.lly not ,t:'llpabI~ of carrying high current without burning 00.1, Citc:uits wl rn high ccrtents in oeed of variable resi~t;rn,"C are \l$u:ally ccmmlled by n single-pole, ml1lliple~lh:n)w .slide switch The .sc:ICClOI for III t:hrec~spccd bemer-brower motor fits. Illis tat~g,o:ry_ The selector ~ilc-h ~gl!.lJates motor speed by se1ecLin.g various resistors in se ri., with ee moto r, 10 I.tIe LOW posilion. Ihc: full set of resi.stors Is seleCted. ~h h.i,gh~r speed bypa.s~ or.e more resisror, ui1til~ In lhe- HIGH position. aU resistors are bypa:s.std ~ providing fulJ c~nt 10 ~he moto". The resiston are .. pable of oarrying high """""I "ithou, burning oul. They do gel hOI. tho"Sh, '" they're usually 1000000d iJlI.tIe blower ilirsU'eam.


SELECflNG CONTROLS Regardl~ of' me; nature of' ihe control dc; .... ice. yOIl mU:5:l ~,u;id~ several obje('~ tives when sele~ting one,

SwftcheI. ,rnourtMCI' on ,bICOIOe Of OBI air' c:ondlllonl1 gr'll". RMostst "'''(Ib!i "*Id to ClonlrOl A/C, IMtmQIItIt !f'ob!I nu~ dlol); """""' ... ""' ... o.tng_, mWIIp .. ti'w'ow .wttcn 11:1 control 'Iu1, SpMdL P'tKrIg bY Jim Stl'r*tt,

Plm, I.tIe central should be ropabl, of p~iformlng us jUflclion tjJe.clh'tly when il is operated as It is designed 10_ Second, it should be ,6uitQbl~ for US~ in tenns of feel end 'the !imito:IiQIlS of Ihe human hand. Tbese two objectives an: uS'u;ally met by a single deslgn. If LI' I'iIS YQLlr hued, it pto'bi:1bJy will function lhe wo.y l! WD5 intended.

For mas..'i-producliol'l C'.lU1. Ibe de,signa mtl!.! lIlk-c tnto eecoum lhe enIire

rang. of probabl, <i:riv,," , from the !kmaUes.t to the largest-c-or in some cases? for a ccmprcmtse between these e-JC, remes. Wb.o )'\>u'''' ... lcelloS !be conuuts and their locations for your 'pltlj~I car. you're dr;aliug with your OWl] physical t:harac!eris!lcs. and pO!:~ibly mese of. r.w of your fBm[ly .mombers. So yOUt choices I:aII be more selective.

YJhcn 5f:lecrin.II I1cOJ'ltrol form partieular electrical component, il must be: eleeuically compatible with u.e, devi~ it' ~ going 10 operate, Beyond ihal, Ihere are several omer facl.Ol1 to consider .lislcd in <he cha!! below.

lmbe chan, diSCTt~e means being able to select and hold a speclfic selling. FOI example, [),!!im'p!~ON.IOFF switch is o.pabl. 01 .. Iooling anrl oolding two speelflc senings. QIU:"'llimlfl·.tandCQi1~ rinlwuJ' mean .t:~ing ilhIt: to elect n variobi. "!liog. An. "''''''pl. is !be, rh.""w (hit'! eonirot:51 lhe btigfunes..<;. Qf insnumcnl~panel llluminntian, Anothe:r e.xaJ'!"lpte is the muhlple-ihrow :swi tch Ui::u: selecu V.rarlOU;9 bearer-fen sptah ..

Anolher coeslderaricn in seleeueg ii cOl1trQl is ~ W!I)' yoc're able I.Q ,idenliIy it. Por instance. in Ill. cha!! below, ,bop< end texture is listed as an idcGtifltr. 1hIs means you can iden!ify 8 specifIC CQ~U'nl by' fee.lIlI& itSi s;hape and teemre. But. a.!.


Good tot' ,lOW :likJ'T'lln:a15on. UI"NI8d by ,nl.JTjl::l« of t9:M:tUJ'n """..,..,.. __ . H,m 10 ""'lId. """ _ 0fL

Gooo lot "'" ,,,,,,,'''_ Umll..,trv..,..,.. F"OI:Iulrtl'fftelrtt::I-


Go:xI' vDu~t iI:i~fIon. but must be v1ewed !1if8Clly: reQUlres.:rn~.

Gooo ....... "',",~Iion'~ 10fll0. """ ,"" ~owed tfiir'8Clly_ hfliCjl.ilMi IILlmmlJOfI.

Gooo boeouu _ can "''''''I)< be 0]>0'>.100' on" "'" __ • Must be ""'" bel"", l<lerllif'"IIlOn" oo"BIn.


"""" I>moo Too;IO 1IW1ld1

RoIi!IY seeeser Koob


........ aIIoo AdIvolJof',<l5<:<e .. _"II [)I5efe'le~ning:

CII~e, quanI:iUUi",,,'. ~"'~~ ~Jc:on_1jntJ(ll,.lJjl~1'I(I

U.r~lmlrGolllll 11 g sehniLl 5 ~\ r rial

1. tooft tilla GM l.'taI1tt sol.l:'k)lC! apatIlO YOu oQoukl .... tIM mov.lblo c:otO c;lu.r1y. Ccro f:I IttleMd to lork:ed r.v.r 10 move drlw g .. r wtMtn a'tl ...... I .. ..., .....

you CmI sec in Ihe Characteristics cotcmn of the chnrt, h's hard to discern shape or texture if yoo',re weanns gloves.

When desigoing the hauumenr panel on your car. make sure ihn type or s.wi tch acruaon you cnoese ureeompaijble wsh theh 'location. on the panel, For cxarnpte, tf a head lamp swhcn SJ'Id wind.;:;hi~Id'~ wiper switch have !he s:arne shape and operate the-same way, they shoul d not be posltloned next IIJ each (Hiler. Otberwise, you mlgh. n,l:rtl. off' the headlamps instead of turning on the wipers.

A nnQ:l (;OQ~idct:t"iQr) is the waythc switch moeeu 10 the instrument panel. Make suee HIe mounting meUlod LS compaubte wi(n paneJ Ihk'kilCSS;;rn.d with the ekerance ii!.Y".uloble behind Ihe panel for inetallatlon.

So before you buy yoor awlrebes. refer to pages 76-77 to mate sure the swtrctes are suitable' Inr their positions unci can 'bei.n.S-bHc.d without difficulty,


Two d~finition.s w-c in order because many people Incorrectly us~ th~ term solen'aid Inle_rcbnllgeab~y wi ib die term n,lay, Aoom all they have if! common is that tJc.1i rely on .:Ill c.ll:ctrurnagnctic coil for operation.

A. roJ'thoJt1 i.s an e:l eetromechenical de-

NfwW CII" rely en !'CIa-fl. ,uet! N ..". one, to OfMl'lIbI OOII'!PutJ,r-c:ontrolkld emlulOr1 ~, C~r:r'ipUb!Ir'lII~t~1try ~ ~rrvnt ~a'J. ~"5c:h II'! tum openrtes hlgtH:;l,I~n1 d~Q.

TyplelJ Ford ........ _d. II!!ho<.ogh ~ 11m .. • reilly 'I:n, tM blttery-t.o-sUrtor C:lbM, I:t c:ornaln ... , moVilbio r:ont, 110 'II cor;. I'ICtty c:allecl .. soI.1'IoO'Ict

v i ee consisti ng of e eleeu'om:JgnC::1iC" coil surrounding u movable metal core or pJunget. When !he C{)i l is energiled •• he rhilgnr:lie field pu.lls the cere unl II it's centered in the coil. Usually, jhere' S :0 return :spn n..g to PUlllh~ core b.aok to the II,UICCi1leml pmi. ion when 'the coil is shu t off. The mo v nbre core CiU'1 be connected

to varices mechanisms that move eech time Ihe magnci lc roil ts energjzed.

A te/~y ,is an eleclro:mechan leal device consisting or iln c.h:crrrnnagne'tic col I, a flxed core and .0 movllDle t1rffltJlUrl!. The 4m'J:I!.ture. il1traei_ed by rna,gnc:lisfrl in. Ibe cere, moves wbene .... er Ihe. coil is energiw:l.


llR_IVINli-UIlP :SWIl"Q1 •

""~IRg ~p c:lreultl oftCIf'I UN III Y, ~ IherO mil .trya to hoOk '~~

cN"c:I.:rJtry" thl" hook\.I., :P01'iI'I'l1ll. drMng 1 1' to opI.,.taI;lflEy hl:~lh 1n1I MtI· O!1. In

*Om4I ..... t..;, thl. I .. rwoqulrwd by I.w. V~ I:ould 'I"fl'rw • fog r..m;, IIImlr-ty, 'ltIIing ... low-btlam II:lrl::ult Dr parltlng .. mp ct.r1::uit to ~ rwlay. An~. 011 th.,* 1Iiy*ttnI:18 mal yoo cBnnI)t aa;:Ideill;i!i'II, IQw higho<:u~ II'CcetsQry .. mp tuinitd tin,

33 Urrcbmr 011111 11 g schutzt "~\ !~rla

ii="uiiliBi ccrne tn r'lilli'ly I'll" an!:! ratings, Amp rallr\Q:iiI 01' g~~!:Is.IJ]e ru;GiElS atilt oll,en ,8- laU,(I to f;lhY:5iICIfi.'l'i!ilUi-1..I\!I, ~ill"!Iii&r tne fUM tl1& 1'iig'l\!r 1M ,raUI\g-IIiQugr. ~h!l I:!I 1'1101 III I\llIt~l:n-CILf,III.'II ""lit. A]~ClYI ClIlK;1ij 'rtittn9 'lIIlAm;pcCl on ttiM.

The di_Slinguishl.n.g feature, tbeu. is l.he cere. In 0). solenoid'. "he -C01'C moves [0 do the work. 1.[1 :I relay, IbC! core remains .~ti)lj ilnary and lIte armature moves, SoI.oold '" Ilcl.J' Appllcollon'- The mechanical aspects of solenoids >md rel!iys 10000gely de[~rmine how they're used, Solenoids art: mosl often Jcundtn stener syseems. On. GM s:t!l.tte~. for traumcc. rherets a large solenoid on top of (he St::;.ttej motor. h mOv~S the stencr-drive mechanism lnrc engagement when; Iht: ssaner i;!ii, iil,Clll.ared.

[n Ford 'S1:n1e .. :S),SIt=m$. !he SOloc!101d is mcuracdtc the inner fcndcrorfircwall.Jt serves as. an electrical ~wi~ch between the b:ane.:y ~nd the SUi1er j'no!:m. Wheti t~ igni tlon ts urmed 100 lhe START peshlcn. a small current energizes tne solenoid (Oi I, Th is r'ul]s I_he movable: core. which if] [urn I),perales the he.wy.-duly switch corurcu lng starter- mceor cunenr,

111, bQ~h :;narcc,f;5)'Sl,tm examples. ,i,\ solenoid is used because the appl leetion calls rQr a large iJ,mO\lfil of recrlon and a l.orse .amOUfll or rcrcc. Solerloids ~re t.:(cellcm rOT this purp<tSC".

R.e:lil_Y:S. en lile other hand, are usually usetl l n more precise appUeini ens. TIre mCHion Q r ltw: movable illltHII ure c-an be mode to operate de tic-ale devices • such a set or electrical comecrs. R~ lays are often used III oonu'O~ secOQ,dDry 'Cil eetriea 1 circu i rs .

AlJtDlmw iii ];iI'flil~ ~'8I!i!Q;r\ u!illlI'd tn DIiIW ~t1lI. FIJ$IEt er.emi!ni Iii .r.atlEIY ~$Ible, lhlQUijJl'I tI'BlnSf!.trel'l'1 ~!a.s:tf.G: bOdy. Two Il'i_eta) bladH. Ip'I'I..IQ hU_tI fniI.t!::hlilg :5oclU!l.s [ji. IUM! panl!t:l.

For ll'L.stSlm:e, yeu're inslalling it highp<lwe:r driving, lamp, and you wam it to ecme on with 1M hcudlnmp bigh beams only. I) ul, you feel the head!ennp ci rcuu in your car won.' t carrv much men: Mkli~ lionilt .IU''I:pe!'9ge. n.e answer is a ra lay. Wire LI so [he coil: is energized by ~nr.:: car's hlgh-bcarn circuli. The ceil won't dr'aw much cun--ent .. 'ID In.e amperage of the: be-.adbmp cim;lit isf'l·l increased much. Run a fc:ed wire from the oolter), 1.0 one of \he lie l!ll~'S ,Ilffitamre tcrmlnal s. then wlre till; d.riving-l3.mp ·SW~tC,h. and lamp to the other armature terminal. To protect this circuit, wtre in a fusible link or in-tine Jose. The rtlli}' iJ1.aL\U(IiC!uret provides Lhc. ,I:~oc;~:up tcstrcctlons. If you lase them. refe r 10 the section on le5~i ng, p.::.gc 127, !O det~rtr-.i.,~ continuily througl> u «illy,

Here's how your I.1eW cifC"llil will work.; I r you tum on [he dri vi ng-lamp switch, fJolning happens .. Why? With Ute h[ll,h bcmm off. die relay roil. LS n:1!l~td. so the armature pa. s aes no current and the d:riving 1'~m'p.!itJ)j's:off. am when tbe fliRt! beams arc tamed co, the relay coil i.s cncrg;lzcd! allowi.n.g the armature to conduel bi1H~ry vojtage -dife1:.ly to the drtvillS ItLinp. Th~ lamp I'ighl.S wil,h-ou.t drawins excess current from [he headlamp circuit. All added beneflr or jhis setup is ~ha\ most stares requi re the driving lamp [0 [urn nIT when the hcadlamps are

Gennilil CI!~ u._a C1I!I .... Ioc-bDdy til .. l. Ex· IXlMl:i fLJ!UII ~8nt jill; r~_-..J jnlClthll!}.. IQW grocV4!!l go !)r;Mh. PoJolKJ metlil ~ Q(I C!lI!Ch ~d mll'k!!:!li contact .'lttl 'i.J!lIII!IIp.aIH't.

dimmed. 111e rulay i nsures thnt ),00' II never Iorget.


If YOlL could be sure ~vcry cim.Lit iU10 ~[ec~ric:ml ccmpcnem ift you~ ear would work WI thoot problems {Of the life: or ihc Cur, :you wculdn't need c ircu i t-pnxcct ion devices. 'But rou can't be sure, so drcuil~ need SOm~ !}'pe of ~h;,viec to p:it! v en t ibem from u ... -edoadlng. wblcb can damage both win n.g atld ele(:u~iC<J;1 com ponenta. 'The three baslc cireun.protectlon de., v ices used [[I cars are thc:/ust!.1hc circuit b,'et]ku and Illcfi.,'fjbJ~ Jhtk. Fuses-These: are ahe most OOHllOOil term of c! reuh protection in au tomortvc electrical syS:tC!ms. You can p:lt'tially decuce Ibeir funcrlon from [he defmition of ~he wordJUst~W mel! or become: liqu,h.l Ircm the iJlpp1i,c.Hion of near. Excessive :unpe:rage in a eeeulr em Cii.L1J.Sc a conductor 1,0 gCI hot. Ev-en wlre c;p:n even~URn)' gt't hot enough (a me: 11, (JoiIirtlcularly when 0 shan clreulr occurs.

l'p desi.G--flh,g:! ~jn::ui~ .• j'ou must select wire that wil I swcly carry Ihe expected (normalJ amperage ptus a safety mnrgjn. 1 f 'Lhis mi.'lfg i n is exceeded, H~ wi re wi II n v erhcar ~rtcl evenrunlly melt or tgnlre surrounding items-e- Ih::J.t t:50. unless yOd lnstell utc correctly rntcd ruse In the c.trou:ll. i 0 se ties wilh the load. \Vhen

U rhcberrec htl ich ges c h lilltes !vi a erla

""1"'''Igo i, •• eeeded, the fuse melts before the "lifo or ele<:mclIJ dc v ice is dameged.

Fuse:s eome iii variou:s.oonrigunu:io.ns (.hapes) and in various ""'ng'. Th. shape of • fuse h.., lit~. '" do whh it> effectiveness. R.ther. luse sbapes are de,ermined by ,he ""","foo,.=,. noera,lng of ;iii fuse is Ihc mexlmum number of OlmpetleS I! will noW' without rnelrin,g I' In !he. U",le<l S .. , es , !h,,,, on: two style. of fuses ln widespread use.

The g,IO$s-ropsu1tt ,fose hasti:tis!ed~ l"'3<ly unchanged, lor cececes. Geaerally, you'll find a metal cop on each eed of • sbon gI .. , capsule, or rebe. A ruip of special metal joins the two ra,p$ and is "i,;blo throogll Ih< 81..,. The m<tid strip LS the actual fuse malerial- it is the part that m,lI. 'Whe" CUrKnt II.".. exceeds Ih< luse rating. The gl3:iS protects !he !iO'ln!etime$«] ira~ metal slrip from mecheaical dl1n8l;!:,c and insulates it from .Q_ccidenud sheet ctreuhs, whi.l~provi(l.iP,C ready visual aecess whe" you need to lnspect for • bumed"'"1 (lIlo wn ) fuse.

Drawbacks of Ih< gl&Sll.cap.ulo fu .. i"cludo,

• Fcse leng!h is ofum related to ilS '""l>"rage rating. Thi. "",lUIS ·you moy 00.- be able tc usc .. diffenmt IImpcrage rating when you add or remove 0 load [rom an e:.tiS:!ing circuit.

• A special tool is. needed to remove 81.., f"'" from tho fuse I"'n,l without "",oki~ them.

• Ifs ~ibte fQ:rt~, mc:.tal SlNP to blow inside the metal cap" where i~ condition is not readily visible.

• Fuse ratings are embos..sed in lhc mel,1 e!"li'l cap or elchcd On the: g!assCII,p5ule. In either case, it's often djffleulr tnread the nmrkil"l& 'WithOilt ~mo'l,ritlg the ruse.

The« d""d va ntages an: partially offset by :s~verat i!dvanu.,ges:

• Bccau.sc the)' 'YC been in uSC for ill; lon,g time. g..lilSJ-dLp:slite ruses ~ ine.J::pc:nsi\'~ on<! readl lY Ivail,ble.

" The lusc's ·condi""n I. """,Ily-bul not atways -s-obvloas when visum.Il), in.pected.

" Aflenn""., fuse blocks .,. readily available for custom appli~iltion.s. So are in-I;"". ru~ holders.

1'1:!t: AUIOJwt' was rU1il used in wtnO CiM ~ars 'in the mh;l- ~?Os and is now u5ed en oil ""'" GM prod""" .. 11.', l1odiog its

way into new vcl1il:,le:s from omcJ manur.actun:rs.1iS well. These ruses nreregdlIy identifi,d by 'hoir sbepc.

The rectangular fuse body i. transparent plastlc with reo metal, blade !ennjnaJ:i pro,,,,dinB from the back. The top 01 tho fuse i, molded to provide "" .OSY finger grip. TWQ recesses in the top provide n convenient I.c:5t paint, eree with Ibe ri.l~ i .... ned. U.I:". 'ho gl as , fuse, ,he .A"I.e>fuse CiUI be visually inspected by viewing the fuse o.I""",ot lhrouglt tho fu", body.

Some ad""lruage.s 10 consider;

• Eas)' to in:ua1l and, remove wltbout '001 s.

• Easy to visunlly Inspect. Test potnlS are also b'u.ih in.

• FllSemam~rage rallin.g:§: are tKJldl), printed 0" 1M end, Md c-an be e-uily ~.

• Can be curied or :Sto_~' ...... iU'OUI, fear of breakage.

These a(I,vanlag.es are paI1iaJ t,Y Q,rr5et b)' several disad vantages:

• M." he pulled from !hoi",. panel for visual Inspection.

• COS~. eeC"au~ these fuses are reJ.al_l veI'y new to jhe marker, their prices are ool )'<·1 ,,,mpedlivo. with glass roses,

• A v,w,labili ty is lmpro v i:ng, !tnt! glass fu ... .,. """" widely ••• tt.b.i e,

• Raru:i~ a special fuse block, just becoming o.';.lobl. ;n Ill. of",,,,,,,,,, ... Th. best $O'Un:c is stlll R $al~ yard.

German Cal'S use :a 'l;'ariation Qf the glas.· ..... "I". fuse. It. h ... body of solid ceramic. with the fuse; cle:menl filled into a groove on !he QUt..sid_e. The ele:iner.Jt is fonnod .. boll! <"d. i"1O <""""shaped melal c-aps that fit Into spring ellps in the fu se bled. Althoog!> tho f use e l.monli. rea.dHy vislble, it's ,,-u.Inet3blc 10 damage. And, Ih< end ""I" are prone 1.0 o,;idation. which can seriously hamper C-umm_t flow. 1neidentally. jhe ceramietype fuse ls col.", coded for easy reading 01 ""p<nlge rating. Yclkswagens 'ypi. callyuse g -a mp(white)."d U'-.omp (red) fuses.

elmo!! Brea ...... -A circ"il b"""cr i, .fI rrore-sopblsticated prctecdcn device than iii fuse. h uses a Uu~rrnally sens.W ve el_emenllh.u .JfJ#p5: opel] wben overheated by cxce:n:ivc i!.:mpermge. But after B d:to:rt cooting~wl'l period. the circuit b.ceaker resets itself~some. types. muSt be reset manuiilJy,-and b.eg;tru, pass.in,~ current


PI~"<i""'_(Jd)"'"",,_ ............... (nghl). __ CO" .. - ......

",Huted to, .tIk+-roIoc! Iuoo, provIdo<I yOU ....... 1anc:I oon~ f:tplfl!,..,a: In ~1:d.IMJ~ly~ oneorll'l'''bt"MIC~ "'lnllli~mOb'~rcultlf\3td""'tu-t

rIIlc)QQh "ICeN ~ on i1-vp tG ~

'CQ~ fitM. OONOT ,~

taItrocI 1'119"* tl\:l!n U. fuMj tllJWt'Vt:t'.

again. There is nOlhing 10 replace. So, ir cost is nQ obje-el. c:Q"sider using eircuit br"t=a};:ers. to prot~CI the wi:nog: in your Cat. J found a I,LSling in the JC Wbltncy C'4U!.r log for ciJTIlil breakers nLn,ging. from .5 to 50 amperes, but ., • price comparable to about I 0 glass-eapsale fuses.

If excellence i. YO"' Slyl., use Ih<m.

In addition to lhc:ir QlJrZlbHit)' and ",""bilily, tho i mpre,.i ve "high-tech" appe:a:nnn:' of iii row of circuit bn:mrs may ntlIi:,. thorn worth tho •• Ira 00$1. ln the chapter 011 race-car WLring. [ cJiphun ~w and why rac~ar builders use circuit breakers instead or fuses.

Circuit I>",ako ... of Ih< type just dls(u:ss,.ei! are housed j_n So_mall metal oCM.! """"' !h. ,ite of your .firs, !humb jO,",. There are two threaded terminal studs! lnsu tared {rom eDch oth,er. The :filMS. are used to enech thE. circuit breaker 10 the wiri~g. using 'ring rel;'1l"linals. Don·J :!I&t lheu .sruds for mounting th~ circu.il brrokt"rl A drcuil bre-.o1:;e.r designed fur pancl"nlolultinil!: has 3. Ilange rorthiU put~ Pose. ]f'!here~s·:oo flang,e,1hc wiring, wlll suppon: [!. Personally. I Ihink tl'te unrttOllnlw ,kind appc-,ar somewMI crude. Also, ,you must ilisrnll them so !:heir termil]als OO'I\'t ac:ciden!all)l eontaet meW pan. !h., oo"l~ gmuod Ih< circun """'lng a short.

A seeonc 'Y]>O of oi","i. breexer i. !he r'I.I3Co.Clip type:. delLc_ned tp sniilp in[() a standil!;!'d glas.s.-capsIJJe fuse bloc'!.: .. The diiJ l:rpc bas the rc:set adviJllw8,e of !he

35 rrob ,,<-cl,ili 10 ~~.oh"tzle' ~\~', ,j"

"",, type ..,d cam es a ,imilar price 109, B in don 't ,gc:l carried away with a wholesal, chonge r rom g)a<K.P'" I. ruses to c'tiP'"type circuit breakers until you' ve tried tt.ern_ Make :sure lhere/:s enough room for them 'to fit side-by-aide tP )'0\3f partlcu lnr f'I..LSe block.

'There' 5; it third type. of circuit brenker IJSl:d On m!if.l)" cars. These art: built into Ibe components they protCCI. For insurce, most beadjamp switches used in domestic cars contain :;) drall! breaker fer the headlamp circuit on.!y _ Other -componc:'nts controlled by the headlamp switch 'rely on fuses in' tbele separate clrcuits, True: to form. this built-in cirtuit breaker resets itself il.rt~r ,cooling down. Headlamps that slowl.y nash on and off tencete a shon In the circuit. and I.hal the circuit btt'.aker is dOioS iTS job.

Some: clecrrical-ecccssory motors 11150 have built-i_n. circuit breakers, but thelr purpose i~ Iwofotd. Fin;;I .. lhey pl'Ol~l!he circuit from normal electrical tll.'e:rIoads.. But -they also brenk the circuit if the motor Oio'trb!:4lS dangerously. For instance. jhls could occur ira wlndshield"'iper blode f!'Ole· 10 ,lie Gl ass.

Bullr.m cjrcuf breekera usually g.o lhrou,gn l.lre: WLlhout need of Btte,ntion. But when you' rc Irying, 10 diagnose a perplexing operating problem, be aware !hal the ro:Lrt:I.l,Li may ifl"lude ere of these breakers.

An "''1I''_'''''U AI.t..c Clr<gll Breakers-There's some controversy among electrical experts whether fuses or (irc:ui t brea:k-ers are better. Those (l1\'or~ ing fuses mention several drawbacks or circuit breake:rs._ One is the higher COSi. A more i.mportiltLt one, though. ts the automatic-reset fUI'lCIlQr! on ma:ny circuit breakers, which .ppe ars a , flrsl 10 be • Strong pcslti ve feauee.

Opponents of (ircu.it breaker.;; rightfu]~ Iy point 001 Ih:n after "" eutomaric-reset ctecult breakercools. it permit.'H~ummllO now a,8<!'~n. If lhe cause of tbe overload i!'i: "ill there-s-and it prob.bly will ",,-,he circuit breaker again heats up and breaks Ihe circuit. TIlLS. Q/I'-off:..mI-DjJ eyc.1e repeats unlil tne: problem ls corrected. UnfM,\ttI3",ly. during ,he"" Ii"",. current flows unimpeded. trlh~ circuit breaker's In p poil'll is too hig.h~ the on periods nlli)i' be lotIg enough ((I i)Verh~-11 the winng. juu as tbCM.!gh lhere wert nO oChtuit ptO~

tectioe. OppoorK':nts of clrcu it brea.kers aons;ider Ibis II majorsarclY h:azanI. They may be right,

The use .of cjeculr brefikers I", place of fuses ~·all . s for SOIDC common sense. If you notice an on-off cycle OOCi.I1Ting, lmme(liarely snut down Ibt aff~1cdC'ht:'ull. iben find imd correct the problem before usin£, the circuit agaln.

The idea !hal ci~uU breakers pose 011 major sa f .. y hazard can be countered by IIOling thai almos' all OEM headlomp eircuit~ ~ protected by .IlD auto-reset circuit breaket in the headl.amp switch. n.o theory hero Is Ibat it's better (0 have flid,erin.gheadl""ps t~.n 10 suddenly hove none.

Th en, ihere ore ,peei.1 oon.id ...... ion', For instance, rbe winng and circuit breaker protecting ;0 race-car fuel ptlmp ,hO<l,ld be ",;:e<r' '0 obey will handle

more current man Ilv: pump r The resson is :!iii mplc:; II's better to flnlsh :3 rna: .and pos.'iibly win Iho'u.sands or ~.otlars.lh:an to SIlVI: :jJ $:50 electric fuel pump.

It all boils down to' chotec. J f you lnink you're likel.y to ignore the tllu:nnitl.enl warnings of .auto-~t cirt:Uil breakers, use fuses and c:a;rry :sutl'icienl S~$. Or i in. :SCm!:. circuus, fOU fill)' be able to use the 1)'pC or circuit breaker lhal resets manually by means. of a toggle :swit'Cb_ These arc the: 1)'pC used on race em, an.d are .readily available_ 0_" the other' nand, if' you' vc gained a:tOu,gh experience 10 wire a car from scratch j yotl-can probably deal '\\11th .auto-reset circ:u.il breakers and beneflr from !he ua lqee proleii;:l'ion they offer.

FoWble Unks-I f you're build.ing an electrical sysrem from seraten, you may rot even be OI.WW"I: offu:sible links. But. if


Ruses used In German caw, as typ1- lied by "'" WI, ara pro,,"cto co~oslon. Norm.Iy, eleelri<.' conlaC! tsrnace berween"", coni",,1 Ill'" end caps andl Ihe roundi holes In Ihe :fuse~'Mrder dlpo. 'Becau", !he oonIad area is SO .small, It takes oroy a UtHe COtrg~ori bIJildup here II> QOI'I1PIOIOIy open a ciraJit Buildup may cccur over It ip8.riod 01 time, gradually Impc<fing, run.,,! llow ""til h finally slops. The symptom is !he same as 'lVi.th a blown fus.e.

You """ remedy the ool'l(lIliO" try re"-'nQ Ihe fuso aiX! oleaning [t with a suitable abrasive CIoIh OJ electtic.aJccreect spray cleanfH~

'Here', 8 lip ""'I lOIS yw know In adv80ce tha1 a:no.ion Ibl.rlldup has " .. ".d. SO you can I .... 'preventive eolion b.(ore • full (ailure happene,

Soider a genera[-ptJrp056 "!1h/~ emd/ing _ ,(LW) across e.oh lu"" hokjer_ That way. when, COfros[on buildup slorlS 10 r"';sI ""~I _ II>ro<rg!I lhe fuse-l>oide< dips. pan 0( the 0,,,,,,,11 SI1I.WllO~bypa.... tI>e (u""-ltIrnugllthO LEO, c.u,ing H \I) IlghL As ccrroson go .. WOIS8, u-e L:ED 9ioWS brIgfoIer .. more c"",,'" passes Ihrougll~. 'n"ase 01 a DIOwl1 fuse. tI>o LED would glOw at ("u br~loante, Thls me.a.ns'yoo CQl,IId! a'iso use this melhod 19 indieale blown tus.es in a eonYitI1fion~r rYse panel, as well. f1: a'lso gIVes your car a 1:ngh.tactt .. look.

FO' co~.C!I""C!IonI"g, thO L:EO req\Jlres a resfs!ot Wired' 111 series. A 1: ,OfJO-Ohm. 1,4-watt resistor is used with a 12~volt system. Per S-voII s.ys~ terns, u;sG a 680--otlm tesis.tor,

Bog!' b\I nobng Iho, posi~ons 01 ai, the fuS65, then remove tlram. Sofde.r a res;lstor '0 one clip at 'Elliilch h.t.se pcsb 'lkm. Tumootho igoioon'koy"e:s.W'OII as any o'lner 'switches, tha11'ecd tho ruses. Tempo<arily l>olclll!e """ [.,ad, 01 "" !.:ED agamllhe fi .. 1 r.oi~c .,,1<1 11>0 oorresi>Onding, f_ spring: "'q>, II II'Ie UED doesn't Ughl1 reverse tho leads. Wh:e.rnlhB LED-lights, c.areflilky soldor il In piece. Be-wte ell surlK(!!i are'clGan ond 'bright, Use only rosJn-cote_ specifiri<1 lor _nic ""11<. AVoId proior1Qed or exceeslve heEl;t.l' preter EI smiiil pin-tip electric; so]der[rtg iron tor this, not I!I SQI~er1n9 g,lIfl.

WIlen oil' LEOs are 11'1"0110<1, re,pl."" the fuses in lheir -respective spots_ Be sure 10 obser...e lhe ampele raUngs. I EaOl> LED ShOIJId gO o~ •• you Insl.U

ItS corresponding fuse ...... eu can now dme In conrosoca. iknowing mat the !.:E0s are always on 'guam. r •• lly 10 I., )'Ou know bel... COITOS"", buildup causes lroubfe.

The Le:D 'idea is 1101 umlted to lndicatlng fuse corrosion 0" VWs.. It can be uoed OIl any oar 10 !ell 'fOIl .' • gl.""" when a I~s. or ';gh' ,b"~ 0' b<Jm«I """,,

U rheberr"" hllich gesc h (lttles ~ I ateri 01

iFu'llblo Hnir I. usltCl:.o p_rtlt.ee't 't:i!'(:ui1lhii!!t ClI!fTk!:!L ba'~ ,t;:Ufn;lnt to CI!'~I' Itlec'tric:al 5)11Uem lh.rough, igillthon, swll_1;h or fu:&& il·a~I .. If:I. U.1o[]Y !.d',enUfiecI by piUlk' tq ltIal readiJ "'l,J:;.[bia {lnlt·' On 1'.ii,-C1.O-Jy c:IIS, ltIe'~'n=otten wired belwee_" hstie-Il' t"trnln;jl: ,ijl' "tclttlli!J ,,(ll$f'IoOld and ma'ln; bufkhe.ad e(l"I'lee:lor. ;[11$ "I:'town ~~_ (n ~Fcrd ecle~O. _ on _ 33, I uoocI.'~ .. 11.""n!< to.".,..... 1(J....gqe WI,. "-dIl"lg tM ~ ~'tiiItn, ..,.1<: ..... C01't1ICt, .• _. ~1"IItd 11'1 -.:rt '~Iow. PhOto by Jim ,s-nett,

you're servicin:!!: or nlooLl'ying an, OEM harness, ,~"Qu may encounter one of these mysterious de·vj-ce.;s_ [ call them mysl-er.ious because lew people: know they esjst, and fewer understand them.

Like M. Y oltJe:r ruse .• he f[ls:ible lin.k is designed for circuit protection. Bur in [his case ~ the cjrculr being protec._ed is the ear's eutlre c-leclnc:a.1 system, cr moSt of it. The rusLble link is usualJy iesratled in Ihe circui [ between Lhe bertery and igJl_itlon switch, or between the battery ,nO fuse p,nel. or both. Consequonlly. all tl:te' el~rid.ty used by .:hi: car, except !_Q operate the ~ta:rter f.J\Qtor. must now ,h1!l1Jgh ,h. fusible Hok(.).

A fusible link is slmply a I'el'!gth of wire si~ ewe gilge-..s ~:ii.lIc-r Ihfln '[he: wire it's enacbed to, so i! becomes the wcal::estlin.~ ln me cifCUiL R-~,~_mbet. win:: gases.ore only tl''"e'11 "~mbet'$r sothe fcslble lfnk is Jaw digil.J smaller. Thls ml!arl;S.l!Li)l iii 11Lgil_g,e wlee would be protecred whh a I~g~gc fusible llnk. Arn~.fr marker -fusl Dh~ linkS are orten p~cl:.age-d with the notice: "Th L~ [il'lk protects !l 12- ga,g,e cirellit .•• O~ wt'itU:.e\,Cl' is :a;ppropriu!e.

What disringulshes the rus'lblc link from, onlin.ary eJectrkiJJ. wire is ..nat its LnslJl:atio:his cum-reslsam.

Ira fusible link is overlood~d. th~ eond.uctor materl.ill me,] IS. j'iJ:5l iI.S a fuse would. Bu r, because the rusi DII:: Ito" is usually hidden somewhere inside thewiring hnm~~$ ~ i ts jM;,:d~l:ilJl] must poor .... ide heal pnxeetlon for ~ ,~urTOtmdillg

Fu:tJI:II .. I~ InllOlciln peckagn 1l1i;. tk+.,.l;(In"!p .. bI ....... ~ ury tlnl~ •• Ra1lng Is prIn1l'd an PKka:gf. F\r,!bl4llinkil,,, aoIG' In 1:ItJ1~ .1 :IQmII Iarg« 1I'lOfH" but yOl,l'U hive to !provi(le nttl~. for tl'Hlm,

wires, YO'LL can ,recogniu: a faH~ fusible Ii n.k by its ,ilJlpe..a:r.t:rtee- Ahhousn It WOr!. 't melt. the insuleuon ,looks diffelt':tll~ charred, bllstered Or discclored-c-tn tile area where 1l1e: link melted,

To re pl~ c u fusible liok, find tho crimp uunchlng 1t to hs wire. Orten, oee e;nd is a, ring lemlinlll :and lnt orner is crimped to. the wire. Seldom do you find a lmk spliced into the middle of il1lotncr wire. Cut thl:. crimp US needed ruld install :it replacement Hnk-c-eech application bas. its O~1i pan number. 11:Ltn make Sure you :n_M and fix jhe cause or the, fellure before poweri ng up the system, Otherwise. you may be making a career or repht<:i-ng fusible li!ll(~!

Docs your project car's It lectrical systern need Jl rus~b]e link? Hnnl to say, IJ JOu wire )'OUf car rollowiJig!he ad"ke in 'hi' book. you .... HI. probably use mote fuses in your car's electrical system t,h:nn you'd lind in iI Iuctory-buih car" 50 overloaded cjrcu il8 ~bo-u_ldn tt be a pr-oblem, I r thts ts the ease. the only ;-K!vllfltiigc of h:lv;ng ::\ f-u:si bit link, wou td be to prceece the main feed wire to ~ ignition switch and fuse p-3.nc] a.gainst a massive overload" such as a shon •. ro-gruend ln !he feed wire. However. fusible links am so tI;lw:liJy ,(I v llU=l,blr: LInd so inexpensive that I think. Ihey ere wonh jhc C:UI1l effort 10 install. Y 01l can buy lenglhs of fusible link i:il any good ~:UtO-5Uppl.y store, often with il ring tcrrninnl and crimp connecter

• ilea<Iy 'Uoctled.


Do ",01 skimp on elrcult prot.et;:(loli, In ether words, don', try '0 ge' by wiltl only 11 few fuses or circuit breakers, Sure, )'OU can use a high-rated fuse to operate three or four clrcelts ~U at once, But it's fJlJ' bel.tel" to glve ench major circuit its own rorrectl y C"'.llcd fuse QI breut'er_

Ltkewlse, never under any circumstances design .a ci reuu wJrholll dl1Y prosection. lr a shon or cvedoad '!)IXurS. Ibe Wt:Bkes.t link is ,going to bum t even if lf" s in !he hamcss you 50 lc ... itiogly assembled.

Design, your CifC"uil-proU!CI.Lon sysu!m so it can be >e:asi_ly ilddc:d tc later. The way Ii' do 1l'1.~ is to provide a fuse, btock wilh several extra so.cktl.S. This, is filt benet lhan lhe makesh i rt melhod of usl ng addon Juse tops. which are gOO<! (or lillie other than overloading ~isting circuits.

I r you have repeated problems witn fiJses b.l.owtn~ III the clTC'lJi~, don"l ,iubi,~ trari.ly Install a higher-rated fuse-e-and ~on't bypass Iho ruse entirelY. eitberl Remember. fuses don't blow whhout a te9snn. And lf l.h~ blow repeatedly. ih(:: rr~p !$ serious ~"'OUflh '0 wnrram (;1;'!I_rc:~ ful dlugnos is. The S3rnC holds true with cil'C1.lilb~t:rs_

Q, the other hand, a Ollt·ti;me blown fuse can he the sesun of' soff,letl)i ng obscure, like a oof'oo"" or Illw:g;nally rated f usc, Or some -5-011 -of traaslcnr conotnon in the circuit. Ifcrepl;a.c:jng the fuse CIJItS 1hc: problem ;rnd itdoe.s.:t:Io"1 recur, don't get upset looking for, problem you'll probably never f DO .

37 Urrd'l]IrGd,lI, 11 g sr,hiH"t 5 ~\" rial

Practically :5peilldng. t!le lnstrurreet panel displays your i:"..ilI"·S 'r;jl.al signs cvcry time ),00, glance at a g~1Jgc:- Of lndleator lamp. How you use ,your \'eniele lar,g.c:Jy determines ttl!:: amount of infonaenon ),OU need: IlIld in wbnt form 1'OU need il.

For an embarrass! ngl)' l,o:r.g tlme, domestic auto tnnnuf .. cturera were convi!"Jccd lhl,ll none of lheir customers waned ,[0 know any more 1118" "how last" .na "how much gas." E'et)'lhlng else w;LS moni tcred by irKIiC3_toI lamps ~ >pIly dubbed idiOJ lighrs_ Driving emhusiasts Mel only 1 ...... 0 chokes-> buy an import Or add 8,if.uges to their Americill"l car. SO""'w bere n 1011£ ,hew,y, De""il got the me~SiIBe. Nowadays. you can find full instNmenllljon as ~'leIndard or o'~ tlonal equipment en nearly 'every CaT line.

[f you 're oddi"& gaII.go> Or <>Ih<:r <!i .. plays to an eXis.tillg. car, or oo.ilding a car rrom se-arch. lhe al1ermarket Qffers a wid!:: variety of choi.ce'S, in slyle as 'lCWclJ as in price and IeliabiHly. There's a LiSl of major suppliers en palles 1~2"153_

Thi9i chapter descri res the 'V;ariQLLS 's:ysA Ic:rm a:nd components you 'I] be dealiIl:g Wilh when outFitting yom car_I t also lreluoes tpoug,h lbeory :and tehued infcrmauoe [0 hefp you. make weninIon:ned choices"

Soo!ne spee'latt)" !lu"pp.]lers offe, pirewlled gau;-es moun-led OJ1 nal ;rtLseru I'or eal"t moundng 1-0 cllffl'fen11)111net 1I11-U6t!;Ol"UII. Ttlls rl,~t{"r""t--rod'!IIIIIU~OlHiltJl=I .. :aI~aD6blefrom:Lo~ ._ulemollYo Flac:I._g 'F'rottlJt:~. t.l~ prtlwrrcd $Iewut Wal'J'ler gay~s ",ou~ted In 14be1e¢. __ ponol_Ir,-J .. _


Ao.)'lhlnc 'Ibm conveys infonnillion (an ee c-au:gClri~ed as a display. However, i", C,iV'S, e-Iet:lric:al 51's-tem. me three types mo:5l uflcn used ale .,'Onr.ril"lg' cruJ imJj~lor' lampJ'. gauge~ and bra::.ers. DisplnycS depend on eausing,p 'stimulus. either [0 lhe dri ver'~!ii sense olsight (lamp'S orn:I gausc,) or .. nse of h.aring [bun" ers) _ The effeeuveeess of (he de v lee depcnds on its: ab] lity to 'Inn"llde tete .. ~ driverts consciousness IUId rn:atc an l-mpressiOfi. Then. j r he understands lhc!

meaning of lhe impression. the dri v er e-iifl lake I.bc nl:eoCss:i.I)' nelion_

R~gnrdlc::5s, of Ihc: nall.ut! of !he diJipIIl)' device. you mesr consider several physi"al 'charaeierisli:cs bf the display when .9(!1e<:ling cne. A;s l.lSed in the: following IcU, the: ICnIl di$c:.ri,"i~l_jOll s:imp,ly .neans noticing ,something and deciding how [mpostant II is, Ifl lhe case of di$play~, lhete are several kinch; or disC'dmmation )'01.1 need 1.0 rons:idl!:-1' wnen de.signing the 'insirurnent panel o.f your projecl c-ar.

Vis:wJ d.iscT,lminaUooof Ii display de ..

pendS OIl its: shape, size! color or tndt ... <'lO:"n<cdle, po.ilion.

A good, example of indicator po!1tlon is the hall&! on I c:I~.\_ You soon ,Jearn to lell lime b~ lhe, posiuon of !he hands, even if ibere are nb Ilum.bcn on the chx;k face. The same is lruc: in 4 tat', insuurntntation. For instaree. On an ellpte"""" gause ~ou """,ia" needle po,ilion with tho put of the diallhat' s regarded ",..r e.

Color diKrimirunkm i:5 cnen 1S5OC1· 810d with "''''''ing and indicator lamps. ,II is also ~iatcd with !he needle ptnilion on !Orne ga.up:,.. ''That u,some gaugcs I .. ive 0010< bands printed on the, ",ale, so a qulck Slo""o ,hnw. you if Ihe DCC<l1e i, in the red, green, crwhatever, Thi.J wayt you can t.1I .IIIIU. will>oullooking lllbe numbers on me· scafe.

Rod traditionally "P'"""''' dong er , SO ","",ilIg lamps, ,",,11 '" Ihosc used to indicate: high temperature or low oil r:ns.' 'U'", _ oft.n red, Cooversely. indkltor I"",,,,, thaI merely convey infunnatk>n !Ilf: u&n~ly $Om.e colorother1han:red. for il:ld4nr;;c~ blue i.3 f~u.ently used (or headl"",p high beams. g=n !br lUnI,iS' nah:.

Alldltory dlsc:rlmllllUOII, of """"", mates to hnring_ 10 a car. a buucr is e,!her buuilIl: 01 it isn't. BUI )OU can discriminate between di:ITel\mlCes in the 00='. f.-.-qwnry (high Of low pitch) """ its ;""115;1}' (loud or .oft), aldioogh the .. sound qu.H!ie. oren'l often Imp"" lanl .in Ii car's information ,!.yst~ms:.

The benerilS or audirory \'UJ'1Il' vj,n,lfJI displtJy. "'" portrayed in the chm below:

Rtl.II .. dberll3IInatloa me .... <omparing tw'!) or mort .stimu.li 10 each ocher.

In II C3I t there' 5 not much need for this. unless you happen 00 have, l<mperal\m: gauCes rcr both en,cine coclem and engtne oiL Here. , wi5e· driver will mak,e frequent comparisons, because a ludd'en rae in coolant temperature with lillie or "" immedi8lc change in 011 l<mpe.-.wte l~ a 'good early wamin8 of coofant loss. for mort information on i.nt.eJp:retin,g gaugo re >dill&', see page. 4648.

AbooIulO dIKrlmIllaUo.R mean> l1li:. ing & rud.ing without comparing tl 10 _tiler Nading. This lcind <>! di.<rimin:l· lion :!ituu:l! on it!. O'Wll merits. A :limplirlCd exampte i. III<: G~N light used 10 irldiC-lle genenu,Of output on a car withoul .""I_or omm<lir, Ir'helight i. off, you can ,presume evcrythillg is OK~if it', OIl, something" wrong, Irs citller ODe or the (Jlher~ so Ihcrc.'~ no ccmparisen needed.

Typeo of DIopla}S- Tho iafcemarioa gi.m by • dlsplaycan II<: used 00 further desenbe it.

Sblk .u.pa.,. are thooe that new" <bOIl!". In a cor, the only ... tic di>p"'~' in the .Iectri<:01 'Y"'''' "'" Ihc identify' ins !abob you ""IY cheese to plaee no .. 00 various <ontrol" lamp< 0< gauges.

D)'rwnl<: displays, ontbe <>!her hand, sre Ih< ones thai d<> change con.lanlly, Thoy are used 10 depi<1 ronditions of • variable. For iru.WlCe. the fuel-lcvel gaugo O<lnSWl~y-SOIIIetimes dis, gustingly quicidy-tnQv., fro., FUll 00 E!.IPTY IS ~ou drive, 00 di.pl.y the re I., uve coedhton of Ih< (""llev.L Similarly. the voIlmeter needle is ","!!andy III<JV. ing~ Usually in small increments, lUi i.he car'! electrical a-y,stm. Ct}fJeS with changing load ..... l.o, • laOho.metef or speedoneter changes wish engine or ~bide



'spee~. ",.pectively.

. Allhough warning and indi<aIOfI.mrs don' I ... uall~ trove, you _OIl !hink of them ~ dynamic. because, they do have two modes-ON .nd OfF.

QIwoligU ... dhpIay. are dynomic displll)':!11 thlt present the: wllue of ,Ii vari.ble, For example, the f ue I.-1eve1 gause just mentioned tells the quantity of fuel in. 11> e tan k, .i.ther in galion. 01 in degrees of Min ess.

Siala. dhpla}S presem Ihc coodilion of. system. The hlgh-beam indicator and turn"osi8na:1 indicator iU"C d.ispl:u.y,s. of this type. So is the rear-window defogger ON lamp, """ "'".,," of lbe: 'im~le ON/OfF Iype,

WlInllnadlsplay .... u"'<l to .Jett the driver or a ~U!l or UDs.IItL!f.ilC1ol')' """dilion, The GEN lamp. 1."..",,1· PI'"'''''' tarnp and hlgh-remperarure lamp fall in !!Ii. category, So do bezzers.

R.p.--tal ..... 1 displays ore: found on some newer foctoo:y·buill can, but are still uncommon in pmjecl can, Honda au tomobi!es pt<Ibab)y .... 00 be credited with inlttldUCltOn of die liule pictogram showing !he top view of jhe car with riny 'oolor bars to indicate doon or hatch :ajar_ In my ... lmancn. Ihesc displ.y. have ]jute more tbiU1 OQ'Ij-elty ... aJue. The wne can be .. Id of !he lightod·bor graph s, r::.-Llnt':ntl)' in ~ 'in :5OmC! instrument I"""'l •• 10 .-.pre$Cnl engine rpm, road speed .ndolbc:rvilo1 information u"""ly jXlm.yod ""' re <1e",l~ by oo>n.Yenllon.l gauges."


Pest, lake time to con:\l.ider e:loct:i,y whal information. you need the i.nstrU~ matt panel to provide, rnd, hew :you WilrU il 10 be: presented, Otbc:lWi se , you ltlIIy end "p~1h an ;nstrumenl panel full of expensive overkill. "How come?" yell migb!."l<, .. Aren 'I ~.uge. regarded as an aUlo,molivc ,good rhlng?N' "[be answer is yes and 00.

How much doe. your dti.ins,51yle cemMd lhIIr )'00 know .about your car' s vual s.,sn!ii! How much do you already know. or are 'willing, KJ learn, about intorpming gauge reodinp?

tr~ou' re Mill not sure of Ihe answersto these quc::nions idter reading, this section .• you lD1Iy be bener off sticking with in~ <Ii"tor lamp' and opending lhe extra


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M aleri a

~ dtfveq 'USAJ.l!Itl'), 1Cl11ipen:H' Wllh IpMdo 11'1 [!111M Qf "'rge, ll.et:uf8'fe lac:h with 'I"V I1m~ IW, Show" .... 1. "'" RPIIIJmIUng Pro TIfCiI rrnm "'al~ry Ignhlon. It .!IO hal .nifl. pdll'rl Il'Idlclrtl;li' "'mp ..... by ~Etllt bonom rlgnt. PMto by Jlmlllincltt.

mor\'ey on other accessenes.

On the ether hand. if you. know cnough ,,"OOl" wh.al nlilkes n C!!Ir tick. I.OCo:rrecUy i[U~rel g.illige readings, you probably do want to knew what your oil pressure is iL~ idle. You' IT POl i to right :;l,WOl,.Y i.f {I readin.g isn't Q u ~te normal. You "ll watch to see if it wasjus"t -!I temporary nuenmnon. A .. d j'0'i.l know crenjjs arc lrnpcrtan L Gradually dropping oil pre""'" moy Indicate il need to mid oil I a rail lng pump. or SCIITLe mher ron.dil tOO Ih.al ·could get much WOrSl: before an Lm.lic~ • or lamp ",~ould rUliltlj' come 01"1.

'lliI:: needs of u race driver arc differeru. too. FQ·r· tnnanee. lap hmes are j mpcnant LO It""Jd;: racing, while speed ln miles-per-boer isn't. So.race C'~ usualI), don' I have speedomcrers, bUI. ~thcy do ha ... e :ta large. accerare tachometer pcslIi oeed 'so maximum rpm is straight up·. The lai:h "'Lily III so have :D; I'i"~ Umi/r!r rbut pn::-vtfJUi the driver Immovcr-rcvvmg Ibc,

engine. -

!be rote d_rive-.r is ~J so ccncerned tibo'ut oil pressure and temperature. coolant temperature nnc) fLi~] pressuee. lf nt's rncin.,g a vw-based ..... ehiele, he'll wum an oversized c;.hilt£e lnd lcarcr because lhe cccling fan i;s. driven by the generator bell.

So. what's best for YQu'? Only you eM answerlhal, Forli·.c.lh:t: optimum s}"!'il.cm for I:J S.UT.Xt C',.-IIr COllillil1S"; tachometer! :§!~d(J,~Jilnd ooc:rnel:er'lii;5scmbly wilh trip odon:1e!,~r. coo]<lnHeillfxtanuc


Fllllet! dft'tllirS a!!iO tl@IiJ@oo;d" an rafg.~ r.n(n~IDr Ilmp:l 11'181 quiCkly !IiI.-.b iit.ttHl.tltljt. Thl!!l:!e Pto-ut ... trom AIiiD JlhlMi.I:d.::;slB ·50w oil InCl. futiI P"':U:III'''t h ..... they·'nII iTlDunhtd on tach ·fat bott ,.,lllbllfty, ~D ttlurt.O:Sy 0:1' AulOMlII1".

gauge. ott ... pressure g3uge ..... oltmeter. ,pnl:mcl.e'r ruel gauge r vacuum g.ilLlge- ~rtd II clock-c-nine ,&!luges in all. I'd also IiV'H!,t indicatur lamps ror low oil p:!'CS:sure, chatgi:ng sYSI:em:. high beam &nd tum .s.ignills, I'",.~ nC:VCI seen a factorybuilt ear wah exactly this cvmbinatiQr!. ;SO when I t!es.lgned ltR: InSlturnC!olpiinet for my Bemardl cempoecra car. 1'00 can be sere my wtees were all met ~

Inr..liLtilOf~ lump sysu;::tm win be !;Q'I,I'~ ered flrsr, followed by !l: dlscusslon or jbc various lnsteument systems. e,;,pJaining Whll,1 each g~u,ge LS for ,g,oo how it op· eratcs.


Rog.Wlm of ",l\i.1\ operaung system i5 monitored by iII] Indicator lamp. jhc 13·f'n.P can tell you only tWO tllinllS- )'t! Or PlQ·, Yes, ttle coolarH ioS teo hot. No. the oil pr~uIc ls not 100 law. No. the gcnerator is nor supplying enough CUrT'~l"lL The: coo],lUu- •. eITipcrj!l,u.r~ and oil--p:rtSs:u re lamps. are operated by o.DioIT switches. IndiCII.lor~Lamp Swi1.che.s .......... Indicilt-Of lamps con .... ey their lnfcnnatlon by li£}1\lng when .s.Q:rnt:l.hing is wrung in the system being monilored, Because this requires nothing mare than roimple current Ilcw .. un indicator lump can be (tJlllroUed by DIl S PSf swireh. Indicluor switches are usually 1:03.1100 by lhe name or 11'Ie ~I.em [hey [fJonimr.: oil-p:rc.S51lte s;wiu:h. eCIli;:!lllPI-\t=mpcrQ.tl.,!.!1= swh(:h~ nnd so 011.

when you look ill an indjciltO.~.I:l;mp switch. you' II sec thnr il has only one 1;ttn1!qaJ. This ls because the switch is wired in series with the lamp and forms the ground eod of the: 't'irt'u it. The circuit is completed to ground through lilt body OrUK: switch. Baue.ry voltage is 2rvail;ablc at Ihe lamp; cerren: flows only when ih.e swlrch closes. to provide il com;p[clt path to ground. You' I t ,oppm:i:i.te tht:. logic of Ulls when you win: your c .. r and rent ize 1 ~ would lake twice ns· much wire ircurrent went fi~ to the switch ~ then to the lamp. end flnaU)'" ~Q grOl.li'ld_

Tempcrnmre sw-ih::blE!s rely on 11 temperature-sensitive bim.tltJJlk clem~nl cperatl n.g a set or conUlC:1 polius., The switc-h is an SPST type, normally open_ Wi th increased temperature. the bi"'~.t.u.lljc elemeiu chmnges. shape. ell! using the points to close &1 the coUhrori{.tIJ ltmpe-ri1.lj.~.

The clement ts conmhed in !he ~wjrch body and enends tQt(tl he coclam ID ro.ke , oi'«I readtng, By """,rully choosing Ihc abape, C'omJN1S1 tlon and rendcn of ree birnel..llll[c element. thcdcsigncrcaa roJi· br-.llJe the 5o ..... j tch, or determine its critical s.~ tch-potm temperature.

The remperaruee ~wJtc:h resembles a shon belt .1.1] that it has athrcnded portion and :i hc_;t;.ag,onal bead, The s.ens.ing ~remen L L~ housed [n -lin extens ton beyond thelh:re-".tde~ pari. AI: the bead, you'Il find the single terminill l.ital muchts iO the' ground SLdc or "the ramp.

A meriean r.nafj.U f;LJ;(:Illl"ers use n :S1.9nd~ .1<1 -ea 1'0' pipe ,1\",," (NPlF) fOT ternperature switches. The taper ensures a pres..wrn.tjgllf scar withOUl :r:i.ccd for seali ng co mpound. which would hamper CLIr~ rent flow to ground.

Some Eurcpean ,lOW n'ilil,U.l facturcrs .1ISO IIlS~· Lite N.PTF s,),slem •. a] though the meuic system i5 most common on .~Pulnr Imports. Th.i.s lsn' I a :p:~1ble:rn w i th war:nJllg-lampswitchl::S, 1OOugb. because. you 'Il likely stick wilh Ih~ facmry swil(;h alJYway, SOUle specia.l ronsLdermjons for gau g'ii: sem.li.J],g unLI;5 are discussed later,

Pressure swUcbcs are used for oilpressure indicator lamps, In this app! leeLion, the .... WiLCh is a normally cl.osed Iype-u n [-e:s.'i: S"uffiden t pre:s:surt:: is i.lprli:t=~. Ihe ;swhch ~lJli]in~ closed (Oil). pru .... idin:g :0 SfO"u,nd path for the wmm5n_g llimp. In oth~r words. oil p.rtSS1J:re kee~

Wl't!!ln 11a_1a QtI~.Iti$tn.t:rn@lrU plfluJ01'my 6M~ en.V)! va 'powered tlot rO:d ~u :Seri':eh-buFn by floil ,F~rml~r '!!i!l,llh;(tr I'JI liF's IM'eli:!:

f\!I!UlI' oo~ (:At', I maMI' room 'I0f .11 F&DrlUilIDn ;H:lnl:tt:K:look~. l'"s!NmtmUIIlJon i.s ;~Id o-u\ jU:IIt llk.e on,. race cln. AU,h~b UiI.\Jges

I"a~tlei'll 'lllfiin~= oEne g.iJgH, ~ IBIn~ :!iptMICI C:OIj1j::ilifi\f!It~' lC:rcs.!!I dllll'L'l::Io.IlI'd. IC:OeIq:lU ~:I """oW' "="ClugIl1hllt e~el'll fllrU'e5\

wwnIfIg ..... p .. and .~ .1'iHihM. On Q,llLIgi, I. wUnln teI)I' -v"w,

thl rn-_d! oIwlIytf'1lng peifQi'm1li .fuaI tl'l .. waf "d,hClpw.d,

I_he switch open (o:ffi unul [h~ prt:SSLire drops below a ceiucal level. clmjn,& ~!,

The pressure s;wllch threads ifl~Q a hQle lntcrscctlng an oH galley in ihc engine. A small hole in the switch 'body permits. pn:ss.uri2:cd oi.t to enter the switch. where [I acts 011 :I 1tr;.xH)Ic. dfnphmgm. Dlapht'::lltm '!'nO'I,le;mejll opera1e.,.. ,p sel 0 r eontact pelnts ihat open or close the warningt~p circuit. dependl n g on dj.D:phr~.gm po:SlljO,i1.

The oil-pressure. ~ witch ~s -calibrated to. open the contact points above a speciflc oil ~'Sl!.lrc. Because oil pressure is largcl y proportional !O cnglne ~pccd, an idling ,e,ngi!\e will have rJomuHy low PfCSSure, CXrtpl when used i I], race cars. The switch is -cnlihriuc'd not to open ill jdle pressure, which woutd cause undue concern (or the driver. Rut Ihis C'~I.eti!j;d:c is Ihe:: !TIfijol'shOI'l_ooml.i'L:gor the oil-pressure-lamp system. Tbc diffcreece between '/IorffwJ/y Jen) hHt!' pr:t!!.~/jJ'~ Wldd,mgt:rmu/y low opermhrg pressure is. narrow.

As a resun Qr lllls narrow ~in, InaJ]_Y engines have been i1J Lried because a warning, 100000p didn't come on until \00 tere. I speak from :fI. painful firsl-tumd experience from my tccnoLlge veers. All alr-eoeled VW englne sump holds tess than 3 q""" o.f 0.111.0 begi n wi th. My VW engine developed , gasket leak <hat drained all the oil in jess l.han 200 miles of driving" The ell-pressure lamp came

on JUSt in I_LJIlt" [0 announce :J. com:pl'-ek:ly r:riedcn£ine~

Challl e- lndioo.l<>. Lamps-.o[ ,0. three primary indica.or lamps, liIis is the onl y one that operates wilh<t\l.t a ~e-p:a:rat~ swireh. When you first stan your cat, the g~ nerator needs. an ~':I:1~mal ~ppl)' or current to get ilStlf Slartr::d-ihis is call~d t"_l(-irtllioi1_ Current. provided by the bmtel)' throu gh the ignition SWI!cb. flows through tbe cbarg:c:-im.!jcator lamp on its way IQ eecne the field wrndtngs in ,[he generator. N;;u,u~lJ.y. with current flnwlng. to. lamp li~hts_ A, seen as I~O generator begins ge1l¢.rulng WJTeiU on its own, the \'0] t~ge 're:g,uJaIOJ allows some ofjhls currentback to self-feed 1M gl1:ner~ alor to keep it cxci ted. When tbis happens. the Indicator lamp goes OUt because 1100"" has B + 'On both sides:,iIl~ cuITCnl can no longer now through il.

There's usuall)!' a resistor of about 15 ohms: in pamllel with the lamp, n carries a large pcreenlage of Ihe 'CU.rrcnl neces:sary to excite die generator, allowing the. [ilJii'P to Cilff'j' .0 mllch 's.matle,!' lead. So. if the: lamp Iilamern burns Ou.I., the 1 :5-oht.JJ resistor j,s still, in. the cjrcun to i:a.rry C1Jfo· rc.,r re me generator.

C .uddin.,. Jor Sd,cti"g Indi.<aIOt II< WarninG Lamps-Si~, brightness, and tlte f!C'tiod or time a"..ailab!-e· for obscrvaucn are all impartu.nt 'OOl1r ,sJderatiotls when cnoosing looit".lnOf or waming lamps. Lamp colors !hut it.o&

l'OCiIlIlJln q1' 0IJ-1Ui!:II',iiUHI' W~II'Jl~ !ltm~ $.wUCh, .... o!!!ne!ll, !'rgm ehgltiEl til t.r..g:ltll!I.,l]qt I, s:l'wl!IY'l!Iln Itfi, QII '!IIIII.'II!!y:On tnl~ ';Z~ IU!!!! :F"crd, i&i\glti~ u~~ liI;'t Ifu; mar, ;1'iI'lgh en IIi.6 ,l\eIiiI,d~ Swildl IIIJui:ill rell4Jngllili 111-' rrnm 'on Jli'Imp QI pOl:IIll:lki, to If'ldlca.tr;.li'lat tnot .. '. Ilcf. _ preuuro ,_hau, _ 'p1om.

quickly aUn,il;\ .til t-eJlt-ion ure, in o:rd~r: rUt. gree:nt yeHow and white,

10 addillon 1,0 lamp color! backg,_TOUnd color ned the amount of ambient light aJsoaffecl visibllhy. O!:r v lously, e v en a red lamp is no. going 10 stand out w~ll a,giliru;:t it red htSUllfncnl panel on it brighl. sunn)' day, So consider these pcims: For bts~ ",lsi bil ilY, ebocse a lamp color that contrasts with its b~cQ;i'Ound, I f th~ lamp has good con~! whh the background • .nd ambitnl liabt ts very bright. too wamlng-lamp rotor Ls. less jmpcrtunt thillt.l iu relaliv-c b,rf.gJlln~u. When contrast between !amp :liJd back ....


U rhcberrec hthch ges c h lilltes Iv! a erla

CNrgiMnClIc.aICf hunp (I:-IIIH) iIlumtnahl'. dimly' .:1 1M !::l'Ial9l' ..... drop. krwIIrd DIi'Oj gt .... brlghU, _n gItIOJtiof 0U!P<t! 'to "1'0. My IC:Jr' .!tC l\U 'M'01tMettt and amrn.1.,., 101'''' rlO'I ,,,rh;HI. ~ 11'ldl~ _",....",.,._tr,r_ ... 'l'iheelriiTl_

EDrnp," of IJI't.lIog IIIIUgH. ,Although oil prea:, ....... g,iup :provIdn ,I psi lei" thl'l g:WM u..-tul mfonn.uon, Ill, -~ •• 1 00IIi:Irn ot t.eht ~r thlIi1 bel""" In II motel prCII'nlMlit ,pot. 1)itIg ~."..


~'"' i, nOi .triJ<\g, follow !lie color 0,",,' ius.! limd lot be" dc<ooilibilily.


U .Iike on indi"",", lamp with ito r<>l rIO rn,"''''s', • sooS.,.II, YO" h<1W ","ch. 0.""",11 y. the inform'tion is displayed by iii. mo~'.ab/~ ,.e~dle pointing 1.0 II t:a.U~ b.raJ.ed scale. 'Ifils type is often called an "",,/og 8<1"8< boo .... I.tIe needle l'O.i. don and numben en the gauge. cone'1'0'"' to diroeUy m,,,,,,,able quantities, That i.s" so rriiUly degrees of needle 1'IlOVtmen! represent so many pounds PCi' square i:I'\Cb. re v ohrtlons per minute, degrees or tempcrenrre, and '5Q on.

A secend type of &OIlge b .. =~y become fas:hicnable. lr's called a dlgilal~ re.ado{ll ~,auge because h preseets infortn:nion dil'C{:Lty in numbers. Digiud gsuges are used almos.t e)!.dU:5iively- in high-priced facl""Y cars, although some are becoming available in the, afterrnari;c<,

Yo", may find dif,jllll gauges roo", dif· ft<"lt IQ. read thOll the analog 'YI"" With on analog ga"S., you soon beceme so fSJ'!"llli.lt_r with the no:rm.8l needle position th" you can ",ad the gaug,· without ac!Uo,l.iy looking 31 !he numbers. I'm ]>rOO1 of mi., !hi"" aeom \be designer dlX'.ks you' ve seen U:i::Pl don; t have numbers on Ihe Ieee, yet you can tell time: on thr:m. even eJ; a glance. by the position of the hood s. With the analog ~.uge, you (an. frequenll,Y HId 'inslantancous.ly chp!ck your ear's 'c-ondjljon.

This is not so ea5y with digihll readcots. B~!iustlrney ~.a:n present only one nu.mber I!t a rime. you must consciously read ,and im'~rprellhe nnmters ~ Lime youconsult them. These S:wSOS don't :show an cveeetl s.cille thnr youcnn mldily compare the isolaled rcodiog5 ag.inst, This can dl .. en yotU eyc=s and a.uenl:ion [rom !he. rood for on urlComfonably 10".S time:. Ucsideos" whPt good dcee lt rcLi,Uy do to know that your coolant !emperatutc is toXdell)' I B l F? Or that your 011 pressure is f!XQC'11y 5& p$i'! Also. smdles in the field cf ~rgonomiC".}j have proven \.bat analog goUS" are eas ierto"'adl~ ... digillil gauges. [f you gel the idoa thaI. I. really don 'llikc dig;itlll readouts far normal use, yeu're dghtl

On Ibe other hand, they're ,£~I for dlagncstlc tquiprnc:iJt, such as monilOl"-

in,g and recording tesr values, An ex""'pie """Id be I.tIerrnocouplo-g,uge readouts when you're rnonHon_ng oxbau;" gas lornp<I1l!Ur<',

Types 01' Gauges-SoUl OEM and a.nenniiiik.:ct ga\J,gc:s fall into one: of two maJor categori~~~c-haiUc-uJ or ~~ec~ 11''j~1. Because lhi5 is II book III.bmJl efecIrk;,! .ySle"", m",h&nk~1 g"'SOS are only briefly described bert. M.,., g,uge manuf~turel"8 offer bolh types- you eon "".txt the.", I",. ad~itiona/ inl.""", tion OIJ: mC'lr mecbenical gauges.

M~ gou~ for temperature and pressure l'eqllirc ptumbing in !he form of tubing to transmlt in(-orrnoIi-on d"".Uy 1.0 Ibe g.uge" For i!l.!~, mechanical temperature gauges udjize a sealed bulb and tube (""";lIary IUbo) somewhat liu a medical thermometer. Th'" gauge needle is moved by lhe expanding fluid inside the rube. The tube rnU$! vot be :s.natply be.-.l o!lIl~ tnU:!iil be guarded against, breakage. In, my oplnton, these -rtquirtme:tU5 seriously limt! insr.atlation ceevenlenee.

Preseure-cperated med1onioal souS" require that th~~suriud, liquid ecuielIy be piped inl" the back of lbe gauge, Leakage is always a concern. In fact, /fle~hlillicaJ fl1-t.l-pr~J$ur~ ga~gtJ f.II'IutI mv~'- be mowu.r:d insJtk rh~ pd.Sstng~r compt:JrrmenJ because of'thc ptlll:t'l'tial, fIrc: nuard. Because these glluge.s are u~1Jillly mountl:d lu the engine oornpanment, ~ir practical use is usually llmled til our-of-ear 'readi!"lg,:s. They're sometimes used on race CiiUS, mounted Olnside ll\e, pi!:SSen;ger compartment wilhin !he drivct's view. Mechanical Qil-pre-$SlJ.te goug.. ""' oocepu,bl.. though Wlcommon, in p:assenger--car testmrrenr ponds.

Mcehanic:al gauges. do have an,e dbtiOCl .ad v anta_ge eve-: comparable eiecmc gauges. The mechanism of the g:lug,e is not limited to tnc' 91r needle mov~ment of tiootrica/ g,.g es, In focI .a 21fJ' ,wing i;g common on mechanical gauges. Oreater needle rnD'IIl:JIIent 1I3Jlslatr:;Sd~lly to lIJI.Jrt, ao:urate 1llte-rp:reuuion of readlngs. AI",. the needle ",",I IIlDVC 1"""""0 gO! fro_m the sare :w-r.u:: to the unsafe w:ne .. which means I.ItaiI your eye will rnmt rerutily rnte..h an incorrectly positioned needle. This is th.e mair. reason raee-car dri'llenl prefer eechanlcal gauges.

Some sauges are ~vail.illble in mec.hanieaI Iorm only. Th.cse include 1o'aaJum go"c" and lUJ!»boool S.Ui<'- MO$I 5)lOtdo""' ters ore mechani .. l, .llhough SOItW: of l!\em haw: been cleclriritld sue. cessfully . You need to consider thi.! if )'ou!re building an inu:ru:rnenlpaneI from <CfIIlCh, S<lmc """,ufaonmr. h ••• 3 relelive,!)' limited icletlion of speedoeeeers and other mechanical gnug:~1 SQ malch· jng 011 yO\U" g,uge. roc >(yle m.y tal:e SO~ extra ~ffon.

Eleclrical pug", .,.,;l !heir' oen<1in8 unil> ,m: designed to convert • ph)"icOi condilioninloan .Ieclrioobi&nallbal<an be uansmiltell 0= an <mIi""')' el«UicoJ wire, !hen convert !be e,1ectric.1 .ignal into a meaningful visual display.

A big itdVlll,t.1_g~ often cited in fa:\'orof electric gauges is lItol rorre.jXltIIlinS mechenkel pug,es. require: hydraulic plumbing. capilllll')' tubes, mcchani<;.1 drive .. 1> ies, er olber dlfficuIHO--""'''' and :spacHOIlSl.uninS uansmissicn de· vices.

Electrical goug .. ope ... te by se "eral pincipk:<. bul, the two !OO>I popolor by for ... !he W".""Glir prindpl, and the, el«t,oma~M/rc p,rincip/~, also caljed the baitJncing t'"Oil OJ' ar.,'-(.'V(? principlc: ..

The:rmonttk l!:iii.u,Sc!S am round, only in f;U::lOfy in!;tatlatioru._ ] have not djs~ <Overed e .. mpl es of thi> type: in the ~, eaeepr as OEM "",I""" menlS. The bal~einG-wil g,auge is the ooIykiod <old for .ftertIl:llU, in, sLallalions iUKI hi used cxtens .. h·~ly iD fac:· '01}' io,Wlotiolu ....... 11, 1bennostI1k Gaoaes- Thonno,rari<; gauges woTI: on a bim.W prindp~_ A strip of two disoimilar mclw bonded together is anchored at 'One end iUld .is. anaohe<l b~ Iinbg.l0. """,alile pointer at the ceber.Becausc the two metals expond end COf!!!'>Ct or di_ff"""" ...... the bimelalilc "rip will bend when heal ;. applied. causing a co"",,,,,,,dinS moverrw:mt or the pointer.

Tho bear needed to operale the pctmer " pnwidal by • ,mall be,'ing ooil wnopped...,.,nd the '"-molal he "rip. CUr· rent Ilow lhnxlgh ,he h .. ,lng ceil i, "'g' ulated by a _";..,1. ""i,ranee in ,be S<l>ding unit ... di~ lal.,. So. as C\II'ietlt now varies. the he.aLing coil clwJge. temperahlre. beruhng .... bimoW_!_ic ornp. whi.h """'"' !he potn • te r.

By .,,!tbra'i.glbe _anab' ....... gouge designer can make the pointer po$itiOQ oorre.pooo <lirecUy 10 ,"_"or pb)"kal comhtlon is c:aLls.ins, iii ,n:;iistance change in the sendet. One:side t:ffed.ufthc ~ link between the bimetallic strip .00 the pointer 1'90 that when !he engine i~ shut Qff~ ,hopointer .wi.S' '0 ,ho 1_ "",ition ,.., soon u the· bimetallic strip ceele, and .... l" tbere.

Beeause healing-(;oil output m a tbeneosteuc ga.uge i"§, related dirmly to ".luge •• poIctl1iai protll.m could de_e!· op. !fth.sauge opeiared OIl 12 v.ll>. and s-ys.:rem vol~ were low, il would give an in~ readin,e: .. To counteract ~hi:!, Iber!nosraric gouges"", designed rc ope" IIlte .1 a voUag,e lower (him 12. "'olI5~ about 7 Of .8 volu.

A ~ltmall (.'t»t~I(UU volUl&t rtgliWor (CVR) n:dtlCCO "b.",vc< ,be .~ .. ..., ...011· age is ill.llhc moment 10 11 constant gauge \,Olti_ge. TlDs ensures ,reJ.alive, acalllllC), un .... system vol tage ;, d3n8""",.ly low ro begin with. In tha.t cue! you bave problem. 10 deal with OIlIer Ihon ""orry· ing aboutga\Jge W:iJracy~

Cos, and mmpll<:llion, o[ tile CVR and its rcqW!.ite nKlio--llOi!.e~5II~ion fII te r ore two rea >OIIS .r te rmarI;<, l'-""8< manufacturers and man)' auto man--ufOCl""", ""ve gone enti",ly to the billancins:-coil.gau:gc system. BaJIlI!dng-Coil G..,ges- The maln advantage or balancing-(.'Oil giiugeS, is they operate 3('.:CUT;II1.e1)' on 'Vi .. ha:t~"t'e:rbat-

"1)1 voltage happen. '0 be, "11iloul need of e CVR.

1nsM::le I. balancin.g...coil gauge, there a:re tWO electromagnetic coils wound around ... plastic core &1 right angles to each other, The poinlct" shaft mns betW«n ihe rwc coil S .lind ha."!o,a, mefal armatun:: on which both cojls corn act. 'When the s;y11ei'O 1$ s,bul QffT 1hefe·s n.othillg to Bet on the pointer, 50 i1 ~urne!o • r-andom po:.tirJml until the sy!.ll:m is tumed back on, Thi s. of """ rse, di01ingoi.hes tile ba.lllnCing~coi1 gauge from a th.ellIlOSwic' one.

The C'INQ roils arc whcd in series, 50 """""' Hews n", lhr<>uSh one roil. then tbe _ coil. and finally 10 ground, Tho

(W(I coils are connected to k::rmiMls on tt.< gong« ca se, which .... """"<:<I B. I or + for tile feed side and G or - for ,be ground_ Chcd !he gallS" ;",Iruotion sbecl for .""'" markings. A third wi re from the sendin.t: unill3"p, into the circuit bel"' een tile two ooil • ..,d connects to a third ..".,; eal, usuall~ marked S for


The send'ing unil csed wilh b;3.lancing~

00;18&U8e, muM be, oapable of offering. vnriabl. resimocc in rU=t proportion to changes in tho .ystem being mon;lored. Let' ,5 use the fuel· jevel S3U_ge ;8 an ~I.. ""'pie of how • !}'pical boJanci~g·ooil ga"S. woo...,

For thi' dioeu"ion. tile gauge ooit clo.al to tho battery frnl will be <ailed the E roil (for <"'ply). and tbe one 01""",






U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M aleri a

ThEIl CVRfI .uppon .. bt ~ c!Utl.,. .... ~y.nClj.~topl1ntM~~it by:lRllps.. Wh&n ~ tJcJ_ln m ... c:ar, I dlKtrdea: 'lhla who.. .uem"~ lind itlst.UNI VDO -g&UtII. InSIMCI.

to gro""" tho .F cait (for flilJ). When current is; applied to the colts. the Ecoil cremes :u m~gDelic field that tries to al.tract the pointer armature rc it. Butthe f eou .ill SO creates a Held thai ceunteraets the E Hold. Current now through tho E field rt:malns ecnsteat .. while lhc :sUt:nglh .or the: F field is governed by the: Yrulablc re~jm.~nc:e of tn~ :sender.

wbcn tho fuel IonI; i, rull ODd sender n=.,iSlilnc;-e is hlgn. (:U1Tt:.,1 tends to flow through Lhe F cen, ,trengthening it, field. so Ihe pointer ind.ir;:;';ile:s FULL. Wben fuel level goes down.so does: sender ,t'(lSiSUUlCt _ Now. (tim, .. flows where resistance ~s low~r-\nmugh the sende:r~and current now Lhrough the F coil drops" This weakens the F field, and the pcinrer armature 1 Iii altrac!edl_OWlJ'd EMPn'. Pressure arr.d temperature

giiU.lgcs work similArly. -

TadJometf'_n-O!"le e..h.o:rncle:risrir:: oom.moo to all tle<:u1C-a1 la-ebOtilCl.efS Is. al '''''U.gh Ihey may fIOI be enached dlrecti y to it. the.y·re eperaed by a ~'i gnat from tbc ignLilQn cou. This si~1 is then precessed electronically into needle mO''!'emenl represemauve of ensi;oe rpm.

There are several lniJl;SS to consider when $t:'[edifl,S a I!iil:hom~ter. Fir.sl. you must match Ihe tachometer to the. number ofcyltr\dt:rs tnthe englne. Some la-c:hs are cksi.sned for a sped ne number o[ Cylit\7 ders. Multi-use tachs .. re des..igned with :0 ""loclioo of ,erminol, thl" O!J1Te5PO.n<I '" Ihe ."umbe, of cyl i"d ers, or , lIoy dial en the back tn;a,t sen-a the same purpose.


hf"r,dtIr kif oU·p...-u ... glUp t, phytltc.ll, IalvIr ItIan templi'8.h.lniI .. l1dIr btelUMI h. eonf.6Jn •• :Pf"IIIU ....... :rull'lg {li.(IIphr"Uin_


IIaIondtl9-<Oll_","_ by OEM and .. fttll'mlrhI gI:IIgII mlJlufacttJr-onr. Two .,...gOltio 00110 .... (y. oquaI ~ Ihrougn III... Ono coli "' con01ontly g __ :_I'gI"""_~vot\. abjt. rn:IllanI::e of ..... r, DIIftfwnc;oi In megMlJe; ReId CiaItM nMd'" t13 JDOlj'o.

You JuSI J:1.cok up tb!: feed wire 10 the. IIPPropriat~ l:emtlnill,QI'" move the dial to me: desired pashlon.

Second. be sure !h, web ~"" boy i. eomparjble with the v 0] rage oryourcar'~ e tectriC:ill' system.

Third. etcctricel tachometers don't require a sending unit. As :mentiorr.ed earI let, lhey are wired dlru,1ly lnto the tgnllion circuit. US:UiI] ty on me battery nega~ u ve { ~ ) s.ide of I,hc ceil. With Ihe of-tkl" point-type ignition syslem:5i. this is 11 :s:traichtrQ_rward L':Ql'I;tlc:cticm. However, follow !he wiring insuucuoas Ih~t come with the tachometer.

On elecuunic-lgnitien 5y5term,. con,ull lbe OEM .<hO~ mo"",-1 for r .. tory lgnitions or !he ins-cructiQns: lhol come


~~""hM_<:lIlIli .~ ..-our;d bIiMtrI_l'Uc .-m. .J,in'I ill "'_,._ .. ~CU ..... _W.,..gl\_ ..... eQntrvhd by ~ .. ~ In _. VlO')"ing 0.'-11 ... _ .....

_..... .. _ """. B_.,.. .,.. jJnd 111",," ~Iccotdtng;l'y.



U ",'M- .. CDIL.


TO 1aT_ ",.wi, ~1II1ZVUlIIIUf!II.. ... ._, ----..

Ploy,... _ 1yp",", lOG_ ........ "'" 'W'Ii''l'd1g.wttery r'III9I!UVllloldti ufcoJJ. ~ .... IiI~~ 1IO"~C"".U"",~nwri..... :!!!nd t.~ mlnvt~urw"11 InttnJ~ Dr.twi~ oroou!"la,y f;If AutQ ' ........

willi the aflt:nnrulct ignition. Also, d_Ls· cuss compaliDil.ily whh ~ ilUto-p:ii1tS dealer or Lite tach manu(ilCturer_ I,ns.ti!lla~ lion directiuns vW)' lOO' much to USt all v ariables here.

Finally, some blgnly~~iaHled alter~et !:l.Chomcl.ers. COm!: with ~ built-in r.tV Umjl_~,.1hrn shuts orr:thc. ignition coil for a o.riorpeMod if. pre-selecred rpm ts exceeded. This. prole<:tion de v ice is w-onh'Whilt: for met; dnveta weese driving conditions may make them more prone ~-o' arcide.DI'l1 over-revvi n,S. I r )'om " ree , drl.inS in, I"~ es Ihi' Kind or ... , L· social behavior, I.br: rev limber may be j1lSl righl for you. lOO'! Sped.1 winne co:n..'Lideratiol'\S for rev-Ii mi.ler llJenon"IC-I.cr:; are stJppllcd by Ihr:= manufacturer.

Sending Unit.§.- VOIl!~ 'lie aJ~dy seen how ejectrical gauges interpret toc. varlable resistance ill a Sf Ild lng urtt ~ 10 dis;pl:.ty tbe car's physical cond ldons, Dpcrating pn ncl ".I es of :se.nding I.mib arc discussed here.

Blectric gauges QPemle on varying reSi~H3.n~ ~n L~ sender circuit. Send ing units convert 11 physical coedluce-cpressure, temper;;H u ee Of nllid leveJ:,mo a :specific elecln(::3l res.i fi.t:lflii:O lh~l, is interpreted by the £'a'U,~ head. A..s with ledlcntor I al'l'l::p.s.. batrery vol~.e i.s .L!p- 1'1 ied ,fj-r5.1. to tbe i nsuumcm, .. hen flows Ihroo,g.h a single wire to ground through dIe sending unit.

Temperature sending units rely 011 an elecukal dement that varies its: IC::;;iatance in pmpon ion 110 lemper.al:U re, Most e ~J;riCiiJ conductors display an Increase in resistance as lemPeralIl!e rises. However. Ihere·:!!, one unique famllv of 'C:O,OOIJI:IOt:!i that behaves just the Ofl"" pcsltc. They' fC cal red rh~rmi.tloi".1.. ,and .heir resistance decreases .as temperature rises. Tbcrmluon arc made [rom the 0)\ides of eeban. copper. i ron (if nic_k_el. The ad v.ml~gc ofusi ng <I, thermistor LIS a sendlng unh is that it i:i fi sol idm_'n~k: devieeno fl)Ovtng pans to go oot olorder=-aad call brill ton is bul I t in when tile theimistor is. compounded.

Hew 's how die thermistor f unctions as iL scndl ng un II: When temperature r:i.s~. Ihenni~tor resrsrance drops. This a] rows more current ttl flow through the thcrmistor and jhe gi1uget mo~ng the gauge needle upward 0[1. the: It:mpoei1Ltull:. scale.

Other u~mperol1lrc sending units rely on a specialized rheostat inside the sender l10U:S'i n,g- A hi mct.illl lc strip or ceil changes . shape whh ... wietrons in ternperature. M cchanical linkage converts bil.netal mo-cmeu i,U:o rhe.o5tut-wiper movement, which 'provides variable reslstance. Because they 're more prone ihen ~he:nniglo:rs to l(l:5~' cul Lbl11tioo Oi" otherwise mal function. the rheosun s:ending una has (~HL'm lure disfavor. You're 'likely to see. one only on an older car, They're c~ily dlstingulshed [rom the rherrnislor type because 'Or ~i r Jarge slzc.

A coolant-temperature sendi_o& LlRil usually threads into a hot-water passl:!:gt ion rbe;¢fl,gIM. Mosl ortOCs"Cscn.ding units rome !n a variety of standn.rd 11l~ad


"rhtI 1:1'M!Ii"miltQ.M~pt' c;CiIOlInl·temjptlralUNI IIOnISet eontllnl •• n.lmg- ~tfit htidln pi.", by oloelrl<llly oor>ducUog "",log. Chlnguln 1empen.tvre c:h:attge eondue:lIw'7 lIy 01 Hmllllg ~'t.

_ oImJlOri\Y _ "". ""'-

IMnd .... ~DiI-prUS rw :Mn4 ... b«ow ....

lOr d_ I. I "Iporl, _

tIYOUgI"I:Un .... allat:MCl1Q .1IOI:t.

t'Iiti'8'. hl;lw I 'In:i~1ed C!l-pP"eUl.n gaug4I 8I'Id *lmlpgl.IQP !n hi)' CIII .OI"UlJ T-fltUng II tl'n'Uded Into DI:l gat~ to :11,nnndl!l two openingli-ol'Mll lor 1II •. ch ~u;h,.,.. Stle4UM gac.Jg4II "~r iii IhII henier Dr thII tw(l~ 'I W-Sp.eddllid it YiIrfi~'_IJy to minrrnm. vlbr'JHen.

slaes. Mel rtc adaptors an! ave i ti:!lble for mOSI.

SpcLi~l threaded adaptors may atso Ibc needed 1.0 inM~U tc:mptr.:tturc. senders 10 mon 1tor the temperature C! r transrnlsslca ll'iJid or ~J:.e lubricant. For tr.tn..!imisS"H1" f1 wid, iJISI~n the SC:O;SQ-T in the fly i,d.(ooler return line. if possible. Refer [D the CLlf'S shop manual 'to pt1S;,tiively idemiry Il)c rerum hoe,

In too' CLISe of oll-ternpcrature scn.d.ins units. )"Oi.i cart tnsmu the SCIlSOt iLl a Q~.W~ Iy drilled "ole in the blod or oil pan below crankcase-oil level. Or ~ you can usc. 011 spccicl :51:11 •• ic::·r .. S :. rtpI3C'tmcn'l for the crigl nul oi 1·1'3.['1; drnin plug. ln dry. sum po S:YSle,l'.5. it shoL!ld go in the bc:mom


OtJ:.preuun .. !KIM work .. Un • rIItos1m. Wlpor._ by _ .. dllph ..... :llidel KI'OU coli' ofr .... tlnciiI:I Wi' .... 11;0"", pll<1ns <I","IL ~ 01 ,100 w!por on ,001' d01«ml:nllhowmuch or twlw ittiII ... I.t~ .no. Ml"Khr 1DffotI.

of the ojl-r"eSenoir lank_ In any case, be sure :(tlc: location doesn't l.l1terfe.~ with inLemill n10vi n,g parts. cbs:tfUet 1'.1I)trn~ oil fl ow OI change road clearance.

Pressu re se odlng "nil. arephyslcar I y la;rger in slze than. tl'lermj:S',Q:r lempe1aUJfC u.nits because !he)' ml.1:S1 enclose .:I, dial'" phragm. linkn~ and n rheostat. Llke the p,res~Ll~-i nd teaior lamp :swi_1:ch d_LscU$s.W eartler, Ihe send] Ii..S unlt Jor the ellpresS:UliI: galJ,g~ threads into om, epproprimit: hole in the (lj ~ Soil ley_

J n Ihe sendi.ng unit., oil. p.res,s.\Jte acts on a flexibre dlnpbragm, moving il :i n pro-. pcnicn rc changes ,in pressure, A system of :1 e v er~ attaches [he diaphragm to tlu: mOV3bl~ wiper -of a calibrated rheosla!.

45 Urr~b rrechtll II g sr,hiHll "~\ ~ri"1

~II_. pcMl'!i;h'!g ~D y.lill .... blll,I'B:ILi ... ~,~llnlldltull-lIWe] 'Mrr dier. W'tIIt.I'IIU'!'I" i,Jn~,"'ln 1'I.IIti""'k,.,!JlGd!;fkMrtWillfIiOa"tQfl,ltlpQt fu4J1, ·~.m 0' flQI'!l ".'1ItS ftilttanc:e ot NAdIr.

MosI, g!l.'!.i!l.o 'l"I'Ianl.i'tlllttw'ortii clfar 6oVE!rll! full DI"lC:15 ,131 gauge:. In .... ro! otylH. VDO VIII_ ....... mlghl be..- _"" !Of ont~\18 01' dluf.c: I'IJ!IIiean.. Pl»1o QCllIoIrhUV Of VOO Inllilrnrrn. .. 1::1 In.c:.

~!'l oil .f':re$Sure l50 low ::i.n.d the dja~ phregm is rtlat.l vely relaxed, restseaace is low. As pruSUI~ increases. so does resistance.

If space permits, it" oS posslbk to usc a T~l"il1ing In ihe ~~gj"e. wilh botn a pressure :S¢.oding ·U:llil ::tIlrJ ol l-pressure lamp switcH ihreaded into h.Iusedjust such an i_nsto:]!il\i~ on m)' cur ISO r t!Qu.td have both an cil-prcsswc ,gauge, and ellpres.sure wamleg lamp. Various (llhe,. Ih.read :ld;ar-!ots an:: available, i.nduii!l.L[lg metric sizes ..

Futl·le'f"1:l sendio,cuni1:!i. go ins.ide. the ru~ I, tank. Uftoi::fl aneched to the fuel plckup lube_ The _'>ending urtil L~ a Iype or mCQiiU:U. A fl O.:;il is i!u~h-cd to ~, movable ann. The mo .... able arm mo'VC.S a wiper along a coil or resi:slillnc:e "fire. The n{HiI pcslttun. go,omc-d by f"ol 1"",,1, doermines how much resistance wlra the rU~I-Ciluge- current must pass thtu-Ugh. VaryiIl,g reststance m the drew il is interpeeted by '00 fuel gaug'.

Gulde!I" .. for Sole<tlng Gaugcs- For be:sl dclet:UibililY ~ 1J.5(l [J gauge whh I): moving needle and a fixed s.c~ le, called fIJI a1lli{og g(lIIg-fi. This !yp¢ eapi !a.lizcs Oil the idea me ntioned earlier IlIboUl bccomlng Inrrnlinr with needle poslncn. Studies have shown that yol,l can feat! Ihis lYpe of ~,;'J;IJS-C Jester than any ether types, even though it mlY 001 look quite as "1'1 I gh~ tech" as ~hc. digjl>\] cr lighted-bar guugcs.

When SoL::Jecling i1 gauge, be sure lhe scale (numbers) rovers only .. he raTlge of .... IfiJUC"_S, )'O\lc-.xpeCI 100 eeceumer. As un example, the car's. voltmeter should read from 0 10. abou~ 16 volts. Don'l boIhe.i' wi tit 00" "'"' fe,d, rncch h igoo' .bccsusc


14.7 ... ous is ~ the maximum you should expect to sec in a normally cperaring gener;:ui.ns system, Cnoese iln oilpressure g"'g< ,It'l read!; 'Iigotly htgher than the maximum celibnncd ]JIC5'S'Llft'! (I f your CIII"" oiJ"p"",prel lef .. fve. S,lo<ling a gauge with a highltr~rts.d:iril_g scereJs ~impJ y wllulng 'pan or lhe gauge. More imp(HtanL.iy. it ~den9C$1hc: ~:ll'm.l'te concerned wi rh Into iii too-small .space, so readings are tess precise. Th~ lachor.ne!e:r is one example where milD)' people tend to go overboard. Let's race lr. will your engine reaHy reach 9',,(XX) rpm 'IN"LthOUI IWTI.LD,K tt irnojunkYim..! matcn;il1 Yoc're fur better off gertlng a uch that reads; j ust ,lightly above youT r:n..@;_iileS re-d nee. An~h.Lng higher simply wastes gauge space iIDd doesn't impress too many ""01>1,.


Stewart-warner Instrument Divislcn pub! isned Ml excellent beeebure under !his lille several jears ago. I ~ tells: how 10 use the various g.mg,e;s ill )'oor car [0 ;[LruaJ p-e engine performance. They kindly gru:Jtcd me- permission 1,0 s,b.u_re ..... ith you; some cf Ih:t ideas pn::sc:fltcd in lt.

EJ!iderrcy is the k,ey word whe,n you t:llk ubcus engme perl'orttliIncc:. Wh:e .. her )lour inf.e:~st is fuel econClmy, dean nlr or qlJ.oitcI-mil'C limes. YO'LL:r boesl cbeece 'Of ccblcvlng your goal is .... ·tlh, an dfldc:nl engine_ And maLnlaining ihat efficiency dcllU!.J1ds. ,.uJhCItnce to " set of open1t'ipg standards.

AI'! engl-ne CIlq ~ finely andco.~ctlj' assembled and ,,<lj",,«1 in 'g""lg<. Dul

00 the mad it' 5 in u connenr process. of ~t.[~riorn. ing 00 [ or specifIcation" So, j'oo ~need ;0, way 10 ,monitor the evereh.imgi:n:g COt.Jdi IjoM ... way 10 discover :DonI! tnle:rp:ret trends. nnd a WLiy to cmch problems whjle they 're 'Iill nllI.O'g, .. ble. The gauges 0'11 your instrument panel offer I.hIs '~if!ld or inforroal:iQn_. if YOIJ know bow to u.sc them.

.s!.ewi)l\-WiJ!T1er·sti:r.5tsu~c.sJ:ion makes exceljenr sense: "H yourea:r eafile with Inadequnc lnstrumen union. install the !;;;t!_uges wl'i.ilt: your ear is running right. ""'When thc.CO:r is new or freshly r~bu[ll woujd be the best time: 1'0 do this., Th is W3j'. you ']1 be able to' learn what rcadillg;s to CJi.pi:(:1 when coRiljtions are nomtal for jour 'particular car.

Tbeir second suggesrlcn ls 10 wri te down Ibe norm: .. reed iTlg.s; under I) va,rlely of conditions for reference later. US 'the cer ages and loses il.:s i-nitial edge. They suggest mki.ng separate readings whh O\J1.S~de remperansres of 20F ( - 5C, and 70F (lie) . .ob,;"",ly, whore yOil live, will have some bcming 00 the tempererures )'OQ choose _ The idea 'is; 10 be able to recegnlze what readings ::rrc ncrrnal fOt the temperatures you win cncouraer while drivirtg_

Record gauge reooing~ wiilt Iho engine idling t at ci ty speed. ill, hi,g.hwity speed and while pUllins .:J to:ld or ,c'limbil'l,g a ~rn.dc:.or urKlcr rna:-¢"4r conditions. For ammeter and 'rtQUmL':~~r. note readings WI!h i_gpit,on :fiwilch OFf. ON (not NfI"'Osl, and START «rnrudog), Also take ~;Q!J.if!gs whh ~ngine idLing and at the mad speeds n'l¢I'"IILiQn.ed ebcve. Addi~ tlnnnl ry ~ note the ammeter reading far

Urr~b rrechtll 11 g ,r,hiHZ! "~\ r rial

ecch accessory used scparutcly.

Tho rDllowing h ... formation ow i u help you Interpret your gauge re.adii"l~. h also explains what 10 do with tile interp'n!I',Hirm.:s _

Tac:iJome1,er- Tho tach re:a.d~, llX: ensine revoletlcns per minute (rpm): Use it ro set [die correctly _ Dependi n.g Oii your vehlcle. lhis hcfps e void seell lng, excessive wear on aurcmanc-transmtssion -Llutche~ il:I'1d eecessree fuel eonsurnption. U S-C the ueh to j edge when to shin for cpnmum econom_y or perfonnnnce and ro ;!i,\'oid h,l,G~.i.flg Ihe engine.

The rachorueter can ntso be' used 10 otb~:d:; fO!" dULcll' Or U·;:i,IL5.mI:505..LOn slippage. In a sped lie gear. rcml speed verSl-!S rpm ~f.M.lJd alw!!ys be direcUy propOr11M3J wi ~h a m;;l,rtu: .. J transmission. A h~nvily loaded atilOmil1tc transmission rnay e:\hib.il nomual I,Orq ue-con verter stippagc. This is a sign to carefully monllor all tempernmre Indicators for euri y signs of cverbeuting.

Otl-Pressuee Gauge- tnd.icatoi!:'ii oj I pressure j n ~ur.ds per square i-rich (psi}:

Th~IC is nn one oil p~su;~ lhat's right for all 'e:n.ginc8 Ll.I'I.d ccnditicns. I!ngi.ne-oil PIIIllP:S, are mecltanie,IlJ I y dri ven, lJ:5-uall,y by tile cams'han Of disulDutof. or, In :a. dry-sump system. n toothed belt off rhn crank. This means pu,mp 'speed nnd re~ulling oil P'~utc ure somewhat di r rcctly related to engjne rpm, whhin Ihe maximum HmjLS ,of Ihe pressure-relief valve. When an engine is. new and everyIh i 0'17i is QP!r.u.if.ig correcuy, oll pressure: will be very low i11 tdle-c- say 2Q ~;and wiJ.l Increase as: englee speed goes ... p, ro ;J. rcgu latt=d IT!~ LIllUJB- 50LIy 60 psi fora typical sneer engine . .80 p..'Illi~ not uncommon on a race-car ~Jlsj ne.

WhCQ the ,cilgli"!c is cold, ,1!::(]J'CC1to sec higher oil-pressure reuding:s because the o! I 1.10 Ihi-c:ke:r _ As temperature ii ses, ojJ pressure shoo I,d nabi liu: at the normal readings.

Low p.rc.£"iUte while dri ving i nciiC'a!e'..!i U probleul rel,nw !Q lJUJdl:tlw'te lubdeation. SUS~1: tow (] lllevel, lncorrecr 01 I vlscosi ry. overheated engine. eJo£ged 01 I III!et. ci I loami n,g, or failure of cnglne bearings.

Oil- Temperneare Gallge~ Ifldjeales clt remperanrre in de8ree~ P.:;illft"oheil (F) or Cclsl l.I.S (C): Oil temperature is an indiC'ali on of" n,gioolnad beca.u!i~ ,ii l-eo lne$

.RADIATOR BDILlNG .POINTS (Maximum Temperatures)

"'''" <OIl"



~ 'Wi!i.I&I, 50% g1yw~ 100%.""'"

into direct contact with [he e:.n.gine' SIl_lOY'· ing p"",. I, .,so.o....m boo, Ihro>Jgh Ill. 111«1:: .and beads from engine cootara. E.xJ1C1=l nigher temperatures when yom engine L:'i. :H nr near wide-open tornille fur n :susluinc:~J period.

Osher causes ~f hlgher-than-norme l 011 [e-mpeJol,[l,Ite i"LIL.tde low cil le ... -el, incorrect timmg, incorrect spark-plug heat range. and cool i n.g -sysJ.em, probl.e.rM, Coolant-Tomper.tar. G •• g.-Iod.i.cates cootant temperature ln degrees; F,h","",,; i (F) Or Ccl&iu, (C). Coolant tcmpcrnlufC and oil temperature don' t indicate the same lhing..1i because they're sense-d di ffercruly. As. tremloncd. oil wmpcrntlIN: is deri 'I.I-cd mote from fl:KJVlng engine pans. Coola_nl ~ernper.Hure is rel:;H,ed mort U) the e.ffiCCI1I uf oombu:!,7 lion, Also, coolant is separated from the direct source of combustion ben by lhe !hickness 0 r the "",1",,\" P""'80 walls.

Older etl,gJ~s were designed' 10 operare in the 140-I60F (60- nq ""go. cotllL'Qllcd 1:1)' .LIn appropriate ~nci1:l105.un. MtXk:m prod ucrlon engines IOLUi nely run clo~~ 10 200F {9AC)" because of em!:§:-

Tach rQda revorutlCl!'l" per mll"lulO I'rpm), SIJD Su..,- T8f;:h II" rnodtl CP7901, 'I'\N. ~iIIS.tabki, "ri!'d 1I1"lIIJ· ta Il"ldle;!l1i' optJ'murn snlftpOltit-fll.P11Clg (:QLfI14i!IIV ot PefUroo P,raciuC1:11nc.

slon concerns. This would be dMgl::rou.sIy 'close 'EO the boiling POlIU (J f water-s- 212F (IOOC)-",oep' for two things Pre-ssure radimcr Cilp$:IIIM nnlifreeze ellow higher bolUng pcirus.

YOIJ can see in lhc accompanying chan:

Ihat in U\f! newer cars Illill usc a ,. S-psi tap ~t.ld te(-omrnem:kd ;5(I{SO coolant mixlure, tbe- coolan! temperature has :0 comfo".bl. s.r .. y ""I'l!lo.

Ellginc::s oftea exblblt a phenomenon called (jfti!l"tJaU. Thi:!li i)L.C1:1f"S whetJ 1M engine ,is unned off il1ld coolant circulation SlOpS. In 10C'.d iud areas. non-ci_l'tuJat;ng· coolant J'i\3j' absorb so much heat from tbe sUlTOunding pi1.SSIlges ll'Litl j! tempcmrily n;scs al)ovt. the nor-ruul maxilflum \-em;pentlJre. YOU! 1J1a-y fiOilh:"C lnis ifldi-c:ated ontbc temperarure gauge :iJ you uen ~ ignition key back on oJt~r lnc. ~:I"l~ loe :5;!op$. A Ctttbo.LI is tim ccesidercd abnormal as long. as the radiator eap maintains system pressure :Jnd doe!!: :00t permit steam QJ coolant to escape.

If an engfne Jeg.ullU'ly o'l,le!."l'Leat.s or loses coolant, you m..ay be able (0 use the coetanr-remperature sause 10: dtsgncse jhe cause. Ir, {orins~i"Ice'. boiHn,g DO:uJ1; :!l a temperature lower than shown in the i1cccmpanyin,g: chan, lh.eelJ'Lylene glycol concentration m:ay be IPQ tow_Or, yout ~:r'ISint rn3y :b.::i.".!:- ,3, pressure leak In the coolant system or head gasket.

When p.uU.iDg ,IJ trailer or ottier heavy 100<1 whh lID auromatlc-rransmuslcnequipped vehicle, you em expect highe r!han-'nonn:1.l; eoolan! l.empenuutt:s, TIIi_~ heppens because the uausmlsslon-o i I -1:00 lee. localed j n the radi .. aror bf.I_k. transmits excess! ve hem i ntc the COO:(:;Ui\.

when you cold -smrt an -cn,ginc., pay eucnuon to the tampernture-gaage reading. It snOiJld begi n risif'lg afler a fel"l,,' mi n utes ~nd should oonlio.ut In ri SoC until il reaches the normally lru1ic-..aItd reildL!l,g. rr ris~ 100 ql.Lkld,Y. j'0t! "lTWY have f! low

47 Urr~b rreoiltll 11 g sr,hiHzI "~\ r rial

coolant level, failed water :pump Of blown he"" gas.".

C',yJlndrr-He,ad T emperature G;tU,ge -lndiC'll.te'S c-ylinder-he.sd lemper.ltup,: in degrees foh«.mci, (F) 0' Cd,;u, (C):

Because .oir-eooled engines r,ely on, air illste~d of water ror cooltn..S, it's hOt practical to measure operating temperature dir«:IJy from, Ibe .000]"'11 (aLr) , Instead, 11 special ~au,ge is used to indicate ,~ remperature of Ihe cyl i tldei head. Temperature Lrlng,es. encountered by !he gauge sensor nre much different than those in i.!. water-cooled engine. Ranges between IOOF and 600F (4OC and 320<:) are no' _"",,"on. with ~-400f (120- 200<:) regarded as normal,

A temperature above the accepeeble maximum may indicate tow oil level! cool.ing-systetp problems • incorrect tim~ng or an excessive load 00 the. engin.e_ Anuntrer~lndie;;lIles rbc rlcw tate of current into or oot of the battery: The ammeter is cnjlbreted in iUTl.pe~~ for both charge (+ ) """ discharge ( -) rates , in riI!lge.5- or 20. 30 or 'more .amperes. n.e larger the t'ill1g.e" !he less preC"Lsel), )'00' J I be able to read the ammeter scaje.

In an ..,..,1 ",.Iy ideal ol.,uio.l 'Y'" tern. the runme!t[ would read 0, ilJakiilting lhol generator output is exactly equal to electrical demunds ill the momcm. A high (+ 1 reading indio .. es that. a' u,., moment, the generator is providing exrea CUITCJ'It 10 recharge Iht buttery. This is no.nna.I hnmedlatel y after engfne startLI~_

If an o,,·crchat,gc condition persists, there are two possible causes. The 001-

Ttl! .. q1ln~ ""1P'I...w~ gHip 11"1- - ......... _ .. In doCIF""'nMft. OIMrtIll'MlicIM IItI'IPli"8IUN In Colo..... Phalo __,. 01 1'00 I .. a1NPMnt1II'KJ.

tl:ry lIUly no longer 00 capable of taking oil full charge, evee though the generolor' is trying 1,0 provide it. Qt. 'lhC' voltage regulatnr m.ay be out of callbrarlc». Tesling will be needed to pinpoint the probjem .. A moderate. continuous charge (+) reedin,g lndic-alcs a tnc'k;,(e cn;ar_ge from Ihe generator to main ullin ba.uery concuion. This ls oonnal and is not C111Jse for alarm.

A I"", (-) ""ding ,,,,,i •• ies 11,,". at the moment, electrical demands <Ire more than <on be me' by t~. g eeera 'Of ."'" oil. b.:utel)' is discharging 10 make up ilic: diITi:J'ePCe_ IX generators used in older cars will display thts rolidil,ion a.t Ldle, which is not desirn'ble. but normal. lneidentall y, dl,.l_ri:n;G. engir'le-s~'=t operation, current used to run the starter motor does; not now through the ammeter and, ecnscquemly. Isn't regjstcrcd by it. Currenl used to operate the .surtc:r relay and l,gni.tion system hi, lndlcncd.

If. low ( - ) reeding persists ., normal ~!I.g:ine speeds! suspect i.no.dequille g~r~ atcr OI.UpUt, Possible causes incjude .a loose drive bell. incorrect calibration .of Ihe voU.ase regulator. at.I unlJersiu: gencrater, or fai!c:d ccmponcnu ~n Ihc gencra.tQ,r or regulator.

Other causes of a OOnSt311 t d.LSC"hatge cou.kJ te a short ctrcuh or an abnornlilJly high current draw in one oOt mort: accessories. Selectively swi tl:hing accessories on and otT may he] p locate the f,ull.

VoJtmell~r-1nrl.icnte.s system 'Voltage:

When th,=,.ef.lg'LhC, is not running. the voltmeter J.ndic.les bantry voltage, wbich should be 12 -13 volts .n a 12· 'VOll s)'slem or 6~6.5 VQUS for a e-vert system. When the: engLIIC is running, the .... olrmeter 'lndiC'~ICs tOlalsrs~m vol tage, whiC'h is the- combined '!"Qltagc: or I:tle generator and battery _ Gene.rilly! total ,y>leIIl valtage ,bould be 13.3 - I 5,2 .... 0115.

A hi,gb 'I,Iolt!1l,ge reading mil)' indicate incorrect calibration of the \foltagc regu]alor _ I f '~"Qu dOfl't C02'Te1:l thj_~ condluon. you can ,e-):pect shoneheJ bantry lif,. caused by ""eme.liIIg Olld pass il>ly bciling,_ exeessi ve voltage also shortens the life of lamp fiJ""",n".

A low vt)h~g:e reading may ledicare incorrect regulator catlbrarlon, loose be;Us, u defective ge~ernl.Ol' or excessive olc<.~ncol <lcmand>, A ,"mpotUl')' low

readiflS ~ as low aa 10 volts - is normal dunn.g e·:ngine (:rankiog" especi:lllly during ccld weetber.

Because the ammele.r and the voltlneter' give inst.anraneolU ilifonnnion, you 'J I need to inlcrprct a number or lndividual 'readings over a s.pan of ti~ 1,0 determine- meaningful trends.

Neither meter -~s "superior" to the other ~ although there are some who will argue in fil\'Oi 0 F one or Ihe other _ I r pressed for il choice, J' 11 admit fa'l/orillg. the "·oltmet~r'. for 1M simple reason th.u lit generator warning lamp tells me all I need 10 know about ch3l',ge/diS(:harg~_ The v 0.1 trneer :b .... ves more inCalli..nsfu], information eboct battery condition, I la".lled both me .. rs ill my car. F'ucI-Leve.I Gliiuge-Il]dical~ retatl v e fuel level in ,!Ie fu.1 'ank: Mo'" flleH eve , g.oug,es arc cali brared, not in gallons, but in retanve amoun.ts or lank fullness_ When you become familiar with ),OOI car, you; It be able tc assign approximate gallon amoents to needle position.

Some fuel-level gRUges are equipped with epecjal features that deserve mention. On vehicles with mulripl.e fuel l,cln.u. you mi1Y Ftnd a separate gaug~ for each wnk, or a seleceor swilCh that 0perates a fuel-flow scleroid valve and fuel gm..lgt: fer !he 1111.,1: $t:lc~t~d_

.s<>meOEM 8Jt~S" ioolwl< ./ow-/u<lI~~I W'!1rnjng lamp that operates ejectronically [rom ,ho OOn"oo,;'=1. f.el· level II"", in the tank.

EIOCIrl. Speodo'"."r-I."~.i<:.t es road speed in mil es per bour """ dlslon« traveled in miles: Mmt speedometers are m~:chmkally ope.rated by a drive cabte, SO the electric -type: is somewher of all oddity _ A sensor dri 'I/~!l by jbe IrilQ$m~ sicn sends implJl~ I!O:rteSpondlng to road speed. On early VWs, jhls sensor is driven by on. of 'he [mn' w.t1ed., The electric-speedometer bead trtits].illc:S the. impulses into road speed, which is i_n~ diea.tcd :by Ihc ncaU~. Simultaneously, the ()dQill~r~l" translates jhe tmpulses 'into distonot tn_dod. On e e lectric speedomcter, offered by Clussic' InstrurnenlS, reanees on odometer thnr can be customcalibn:ucd 10 the gear miios ~nd lite site of any specific car, This is an atlt.acti'Yc rearure to those who oons.tantly experimeol with gcar l1i1ios and Ltl't:$ ill sureh of better performance.

U rhebe'","c htl ich gesc h (llztes ~ I ateri"'

Ul;Ji'I1a,~ t"8."II!I'tIn~ !Q~'. Hq_!!!Id~PIII tu'leI' tlI"hl'rrtg' I''''N O:l"l! 'tl'tl.- Cla:u 7 ~:)(4 ol1~roaCi raOlng we'li; II!ro finVi' tNds ltI.a.1 I:II'II!W hlg" cur:rcl"lil. ICI' "'0)' dlllt;1II1'W1 Ipcclill c-CirrlkJo_tllll.ion wli:1!Jl'I .. 1oeI"Ig wl .. , ."""~ _ ...... boI1«y ..-.I .""""'0., """'" by rom MonI'OO.

Eleeeicel 1000.5. are [he devices lllal perform btneIi.d iii work in iiII car's electri ca 1 system. They're called tooas be. ~BU$t. lhtj' DC' lIS burdens IQ the biJUI:3)" and generator. drawing carrent as they do tbelr WQ~k. A:!I mentioned in cn~p.'ler 2. loiUl, rely en """ 01 tWO pnnclplesio <Ill their work: resismnce ormagntltrm. TIle applicati,O'J'\ of U\ese ~uindp].es is explained in l.he following text, This is fcllowed by :l detailed ~l: pla:n.alion of she I[h~ ~ie k.i.,ds of IOllds, found in un alJl.OmOli~ electrical system-lamps"

Lgni.tiOf.l :S.j'~ltiWI and JMtOrS. -


In M r:leclric:aI c:~n::uil with iJO tC5iMonce, ""'potage ",,",Id be ,nc<tdibly hi:gh. The escessl v e curreot now woutd create neal, whj-c:h would q~i"'ld)' ;meJ! the oond"OIor. On the ceber hand. if re,gl5.tancc- is toe high, HIlle Or no current em flnw. R.esiSlance l-oad.1j strike :a medium bttw.c:cn thc;eCJ:mme:s, hurnesslng h~1U to do useful work.

Resista",e loads are designed 10 do one or two thi.ngs ~ generate -"rol or create lighl. to Il:ummoli ve appl k::ltio;o.;!,. tWO common heaJ.gt'lr~rali."8 loads arc Ill", rear-window defroster and clgnrene Li2h!.r. Some old cars, like Ihe 19~1 MG .. TD 1 once owned. had a hearing strip ItlJU ::UlnChcd !O the win~$hield with suction cups I 10 defrost l~ glass. It didn·t work 'Well,t

In n heat-generating Iw.rj, (he ohm value of the resistance 15 carefully .. 1.,10<1 sccurrem "owing Ih""'gh it creeres the dcsin:-d amount of heal. In otter words, C"urunt now ~C'tuany c~ .. etes the heal, but reshtance cOl"lll'Qls the CLmounl.

Tbe fCSLSt3Jloc(: material. o.rtoen celled the el~m.e"fU. mUSI be 'thin ner [han: the ("I~!:ri~:l~ wire. serving i i so the element gcts hot but the wire doesn't. In this. reo specs. the element is similar "0 lhe elemenl ,~n 3 fuse, wil.h ene. l'\Q!able excepnon. The bC:IlL9@ t:IE:mCIL't .is m:l!.dc! or Il ntIllen,p1 ttlru. allows it 1.0 I)eoo,me hOI

wi thoot 'rtle'lli ng. A lIoy! of lfli'lgMttr or nlcllro-me are ccauncnly used for heaaln,g elements.

Because tll:~l-.&reJl~t'1irn,s l-oruls draw high C"UfTC.1l ts. the f LJSts and wirins used wl~h them must be cilrerull'l selected. Also, keep in mind lhill !"esi:Sl.anc:el o3ds can quickly drain Ii battery if generator outpi.l\ is itl~deq uaie.

LiS"!-g .... "'!i~2 loads (I."'ps) are ,tie mos. CommOtL e Iectrical loads in a vehlclc. There may be a do.tcn 'or more on the olJl:5id'e and two to three dozen more. lnside. Uie hear- ~refJet'3tlng resistance loads, lamps have an e!emci:u I called a fli(1m.t!IU. that is much thinner than the wire Sl:rvED~ it. Wlien !:-Ltrren,t now," ibrough tho filament. iI gets SO h()It Ehat II produces ",isible light. Because lamps are SO mnrcraus a.nd"SO hnportanl' i_n lhe elecIIicni system. Ihcy IIrt:: di.SClJS5cd in Oclai] here


Lamps consis: of rbrec. b;),:Sjr com-

49 Urrdmrraoilill 11 g sr,hi'llLl 5 ~\ ~rial

1.00.glO-""" IIgIII "".,_,

fI'.1'rIIItrtI$ ..., IlYlpendOd MIl' ten_11M" 81'" __ "'" ...... um nglll.d~ oIG<t.ld",.- _«>_ptalnJ •• """, t:aue lin u....1MiI~ bulbs.

Ultand: .:.met:lllnpa'" ~.,...._ Rig"' '""'P," ' ......... 01....., by "'u~1'>g IntorulilOCkM,. COnlaeb .. ~otwilt'8 thIIt ,prottu6l di.-.ctIJ lbt'oLl'gh 91 .....

:PO,!:lenu:~ the- ,ftlfOlle,,-.', whiC';~ glows to make Hght; tbe In<lb or' ""elopt, ,.hote the nlame:nt is Jociilt-ed: Bnd lhe Ixue. which oonlains lhe electrical contacts.

Lamp oonfigunujo,ns W'"C as varied as the: speciatlzed uses It.ey are desigeed (or. Some! lih headlamps, have a builtin reflector to conccntnJ.te the light beam; otho" don 'r, Some 1;0"", ...... l base; others rely On "'" shape of the gill" bulb for mountin.g _ Some lamps. such as head ... lwnl"..,d IIliIl.ml".I;o';. two m= ts, while olhe.., ha~ only eee. On sOnlC lwnps. ee liI.men, prouudes through ,he btlTh to fo:m oonn~IOI' lermirml!i. Other Jamps either use the metal 'base as .a 11.1:[mimlt or have spade tennina!s embedded into- Ihe glass b'u,lb.

As memioecd, the filame.ru is the pan that actual Iy prod"cos ,~. l;gM .. I, worl<.s 00 the same currcnlrnawlres!ua.r.tC'= princlple 3S the: heal-general] ng loads disLt.tSsed earlier. The fllalllCnt is sealed leside an o~)'g,c:n-[ra: ermospbere. This permits: a grear deal of C'l..U'TefJ_t to no~'lhrou:gh (be nlamre.nl relati,ve to its siz.c:wire diameter-s-so -[I becomes noi ",",ugh to produoov;,ibl< liS""~

Tbe flteroem ltsu.:ally consists or an "xtremely fine strand of I"n~ te n wire wrapped into a tlght coil to provide a grc:lIoter amou:n.t orli,ghl~rrtillin:G surface. The coil ;s ,upponed by he."or wire. inside: the bclb. wbcre u's relati vely safe from <lamaS. by 'mpa<t.

Tungaen has severul cberacterisucs thai make il c!esirabl e as a m.ment-;t gives off intense lishl when heated" and h's rairiy rugged. BUI., it ijlso has deawbach. In , eonV(:ntiomil tii.ltol1J.oti\,'c: lamp. the light i, produces is "01 "",'Iy white. A_IlhOllg_n an untrained eye may net see it, 1unS,Slen Ii.shl is yellow. AI50~ tun,g,Slen tends to slowly evaponne when heated. 'The resulting tungsten vepcr fo-ro'ls a film -on ,~ inside surface of the bulb, SJlirlually reducing liSh' output, Eventually. l~ f !at'J}el'1l becomes Ih~n cn~ugh .0 bum Out or brea.k from road 'hod. 'Then the bulb must be replaced.

The 'bulb is m_:ldeof hc;Dl-re$isUtnt glass. During Ih.c manufacturing process, air i& pumped out of !he bulb aod is replaced by ,kID Inert S;tS, commonl), U.f801l". Without oxygen ~ the F!lame.n1 ~i1SIE for an c::rc ttemcly long !ime wiIhDt.:H bnmil"lg. out. In the presence of oxygen, the fil:ImCllt lasl$ only a fruction, OiB second' bCClllISC il burns up. If you' Vi: ever l)XidentaJt,Y brok-erl a lamp bu;lb while it is Oil. you' ve seen this happen.

The btut". or mount" of a lamp is IIJ] important oonsidero..tion 'W~!"l rJ~jg"ing ymn ejecukal S}r:\.u:m. It t:5:n'l thai one lind of base i, nee •• sarily tener than aaetber, but because each type of base: can accept a specific ki_M of lamp socket.

Depending Of! Ir-e 'ntJmber or beams . .[I ~iidlimp bas 1\1;'{) or ibree spade termHt.tJif extending direcHy through jhe

._l1Jgllill-li~nl'U!lItlPIf.P b:t;lJb -rn.u:l! '1::1-0 jnurllKI hila;! iiI!! ,lJO!:k.n IItH.h _'og pin. In _ .......... ilion

IWI_ oIlgIItilr to_Iro~. """'" by Jim Barre ...


SIrIII~ornont_mp IlOO two _ 1fnnlnlla-DIW'IO conduci. CIIITIftl, OM 11K ground. Torminolo ""'_ .~ """ -.n_'_po __

lad for .. ufthi ....... ftL L..np can UN ,[n.. """",,,,1_~ .. _I1ofo. or 1IlfIg1. IT!uldM eOi'uitCtot wt1h two IIOGI(~ .... _by Jim 80 ......

Doub....., __ "",!>-both I\I1lh""" lOw ~ !P'J CIftI ~P-u ... 1htlll tfr.. miI~,Of'IIIIt'nt~~.Q'Id'.,...for'

-- ... --......-proof .. '~.u ... DnIII,......",......",..'h ..

_.,. car, _.,., __ '001"""001

fIfrWe eonntC:101't 11ki1 tho ... ~ h;W .lnlill....,...,,1In1 limp at :Ii4tIt. PnoIto I:rJ JIIn 110 ......

Urrd'l]irGolllll 11 g sr,hi'llLl 5 ~\ r ri"1

gl .. sa bujb, Low. and high . beam tamps each req [lire, :l speci FIL::! eonnectnr. Om: !e:rrni.Mi LS for ground. The others coodlilct co rrem to We nla.rne;o ~ or fl tarnems used for high or low beam.

Turn-algnnl In:mps und !;i[ill:turt:ps ysu.mJly have a rnota] ba}·ooer base with small pins used to anach .he base to the socket. On ~~PgJC'-riL~mctU bulbs, tile pins arc equidistant fronl the: end or lM base. Or! multi-fllamem bulbs. the pins are tccaed 3t two diff&rCPI cjsrances SCI Ihey C-.IU' be in..~d huo '[he SOCktl only CDC WoiIiY, If a bayonet lamp won't cas il)' .wist lore place, I"tmtl'rle it :10d ,rotia re it l8rf to aJ ign, the pi IU the opposite W.jll' , Don'. force It.

In OEM eppficatlcns. bulbs used for lnstrumem-panel lhumlnaricn h a ve no sepanue base. lnstead, the Sl~ is shaped to :snap i me rhe grippers or the SQt:k~·t.. Fi'l:atne:n1 wires extend Lhrougb fhc glass HJld an: trapped between the glass and the socket gripper:!i (comccrs). Don'. [WLS.t lhis. kind afbulb because till: ttI.eUl.l grippers aro delicate.

H.log.R Lamps-s- The ldealheadjernp produces briJljani while I igJu. II doesn't lese inlensil), because of tUllg:Sl£n depcshs. And. it rarely bums 0\11 b-el(:~use of a weakeoed tungsten fj [3ID1:nl. The OO[],r ventional sealed- beam headlnmp fillls short in all these 1H"C35. Enter the iraloRell I,tJJ'~p_

TIle ha[ogenl;ruup is also referred !oas a quarl=~ioJjrlf.' lamp, or qWlrt:.Jwlo81111

lamp'. In any case. [he quonz.:pa11 of the nOLlIlCn:fe:J"'S, to the -composilion of dle blllb_ Q-l1.orlZ: is used' because i~ penens higher openitiTlg. temperatures than common gla.!'i!i;. QuW"1:Z~lSO provides hi,gII ()IJtical clurity and low expansion, The halogen or iod.i ee pan: or the name refers ro the kind of g,m; it]sl~ the bulb. H :Jlo£Cn 'is iI ramlly of gaseous clements, incilidi n;g nuorire. chjorine and. of course. 'i odinc.

H.alogen gasses are used Ii'! tle"C"tri,(.,l lamps because or t.he: phenomenon known as the ljnJ.ag~·fi t;yc;:l~ _ J Q ~hh f:yC le, uM_gslen vapor gJ veil cIT by Ihe glowing tungsten flterrem t~ redeposned back On!O u].e marne.lit. extending its life significantly. This al50 prnclh::ilUy-eliminares bulb bfilc"k.enin,G'_

ln tbc ba.tog~n ;j]I.TTlOS:phc.r~. thl=' tungSU~ n fi lameru CaD c.an:y :II higher current for a gi ... en fllemem size, which produces mare I ighl. The I i,g~u .$ aL50 nonet aod whil.er.F'hOlOgrapheJ'S refer 'to this cbaractcriuic or light ms color temperautre.

To Ui'lderstilnd how i'\oUerllghl, is, also whiter, you musl unders!and a scientific a.rt.illogy culled the btad'~bc>dy iY;dill1w_ llIL-iigino a block or lliIIlcnallhal· s absn- 1 U LoI!Jy black when it" s. cold _ 'tfen lrnagi ne ,1\0, the 010< k can be healed by • m<!OOd thnt won't consume the: 'material.. 'I'W) matter how boll! g,et5. With JUSl a little: hen! applied I !hc IJloc"k wUllilke 011 a dull; 'red C-O!OI". With more' heat, i~ goes Lhrough

stages of cherry red. orange t yellow and fi.rutlly ""ihite. TIlIC :!iiun is.:a pri mo example of an: objcc[[hillt I s ,glowing with such l.n~et.J.siry lhal its i:lgh! O\JlPUI, is ,neady white,

In .(i hmlog~n lrllll.p. ~ umgsten fiJ.(Iment glows much brighter and boner than j t eourd in it cce .... en!iol'l.ill bulb. so :I.hc hghr uutput is noticcebly whiter. If you park two can side-by-side ,~llligb.t, you'll sec !he difference in the color (If too light between. the one w[th CO"~ ventiu.I'Hu Illr'nps ;u'ld lhe 0tI.(I whh halog-cn lampe, Alloo"Sh hnlcgen lamps draw sUghUy more C'lltTe'l:I~ Ihan oon'l,"C.f.I.lional lamps, )'00 don't have to C:hiUl£,'e wiring or fuses [0 S'Ilbs.1il'!l!~ h(doge ... lumps for con .... etLliolliill ones.

Heedlamps contal oing twq 11.[arncl'lts carry the number 2 fonned in to Ih:: :gl.ass of the front 10"< ot !he 'op edge. There .... ibtee lenni.niilil cn jhe b.ack~,Of"l:C. for the common ground, one for the low-~!n filament. and one f-orthe, blgn-lx-ailJ filament ..

Defore 1940. when "modern" headlaJfi'p reCI .. datio.n:; beg3il, mos,\ cars had bu rb-'nd.·n:noclDT h ea dlamps. In this deelgn, Ihe bo<Iy of the lamp COf,Il:.jtttd a polished re.fl.cCi:or and provision for in~Iililing i!I separate bulb. Tbts was repl.,oed bYlbo .",Ied ""'m lump. I, has. sealed-gjass body conlmjning eonservlceeble fllumen ts and reflector. 11K: noo·sealed type was: not optically ir!feri-or to !..he "betrer" sealed-beam lnmp, ~::u:(:.pt

In Iyplical ~I ir\.~I .. tton ~f '~Pi C~l'Omed hQdI~p l:IUeace1 1:1 dUl!lll~ to IO:OOiQldlle til slandan:li I'wO-bfiiirn hBadlilill1l=! bUll:I.

CQ.d. nymb>er mcldiG Into gTasfii lit I.IPpiit IlidO.' 01 naa.Clfamp (."Milla, IndFI;::ilte:;: number or IU.rnemJ.. 'l!iJ'IiI"~i!m-onl~' ;1'a:I'I'I,~ 'Will ".IIWI!' :II one: hlgl'Mow bam lun,pi. wiLl. na", ... twa.


U rhcberrec hthch ges c h [,lltes !vi a erla

HudlBmp:II BhIo IIl.IIIndllrdlzed Into rour ver.iona. !.,;IIrYll' ~ul.r ~ t:h(I 'l"f9I!I CR!:iW Wnp. tlPIII ~.. [ow and tligh bl!Ilm$ In (lne bulb. Sinall i'BCI .. n:gul.,. "lid :IImtI!' ~rr:u!lr I.ImpII twtvo e:I'ther bw' and I"I.lgll ,Or lui.! high belims.. 'Thew Ire used In 4-llmp .)OS'temIi.

• .h:il h requited lite Owi1et W ~odic.illly C'..occ'k for and remove • urnish IhlU incvitabl Y bull t up on the reflector,

In 19:5-;)., ~ modest eandt epower incease was permiur;:d_ FiQ~.Ilj'. in: ]9;)7. the frr:s. Si,srrLfi.c.anl beedtamp ch:3rJgc OCr curred. Th:u was the j'earttJe four- lamp. Of qlW.d-I{Jlnp. system was irmoduced, L·nitiillly ooly on sclC("I'cd Iu"u:r}i CJIS. It SOOIl spread throughout the htdu!.u'),. In lhis ~~ten,., one lamp ot1.c;;;J:Ch -'i ide of tnc car eorll.ai.rno both low and blgh bea_fn.:5, while lhe other palr contalns onl'l the h[gh I)c:ii,rll. A llhougn lnis system :~ tmiued OplLI1.1tU:l1 use of h.igh beams. it did SO al the runner penalty of the low oesms. l n thoe quad system, the lamps have 11 emalter diameter than those in the two-lamp system.

Lamps containlng bUlh fllaments uSC theslHr~ number z dcsignnucn and three .. tertninal (Of) nectoes :!:S the older cnea. The high-beam-only lamp contains one f tamcm. so il carries the !"lumber 1 O'illbe from lens, iit.U.l It has ,a, twc-tcrmi nul con:~ nectcr _ OM terminal is for ,s;round ;rnd the O1.t.cr for tlJi1'e:rH r~d. The tJighbeam-only lamp is iUUmtniilted: wben .he lowtnigh lamp is switched "tIJ :high beam.

By the Jtd.d~'70s.. stll.l anoll"ler 'Variation of I ,ml" appeared. Rectangular quad llln1p!! becarne ava.ilable. the reason bei.ng to accommodate a lower hoodli.oe. Thcl'l, in ] S.I"18. ilJ;lo'Lher system was inrroduccd. This time u was :DI tc>eUID!:':Ulllf :sing!e-lfuYlp system.

~Qi1 to 'UMI, I'U"'~ Thl" eJotIo--marU:r liMp Ii'" • ptlil'llbolie ... IIeetGr ....... mo:I. Iia-marbrl doi'I.'t, PhotQ 'try JIll'! BetI'"Ot1.

Oi'\e thi"lj to note aboLil all four sy!ii~ !.ems mentioned is IIwl lhc ,ITlil.l;.imu m rand't'po .... -er (Ilgt.r.! outpen permitted is Ihe same. Th.i.s- is based 00 laws es!:lblished i!'l 1940. wnen sealed-;be(lm lamps instlUed on new I:Ur5 became ]1;7 Q"ired by low _ SeaI.d·be;J", ""d candlepower regu.lations 'yary frem SUlite ro state. ICs 1.Jp ,,(10 you to d>el.ermjn'C and comply with Ihe laws of your state. Lam.p R,t:fl.H:t.(iir.5~M i:!f.lj' of [I~ 8mBU h:uT\po.S- used til :II; car requite ,.0 reflecter. These include hntrumem-pancl lamps. oPpd s!de-ll'I~rte~ lo..rnps_ But lan~;p:s "",Tilil higher OIJ.ptil usually ba v C a rdlcctor to ccnceeuate the I igh! output (or better effk:i~;n;r;y .

Hcadlumps art. the om y OJlC5U:r.al ha v e the reneelor bui I[ Into ~ bulb. Orhee lamps usc: a n::tleC:10t in Ihre lampassemb Iy body. These include tnillarnps ilml dri;ving lamps ~ both (if wh iet! have :;) replaceeblc bulb 'inserted into a weaiherseated h(l'L,Uii n,S with! al"L j n tegral reneeror.

The purpose of 3DY re fleeter is to caplute atl [he l,i~Ju rays 1.hill radiate in random dir'CClions foom tht gJ:ow,ing rnamem and dlrect ibem lmo a singh::. OOncentrated beam. In precision optleal sy!ii~ lems Su.ctJ as h~adlarnps end dnvi!'llg lamps, tbe reflector is psrabolle incrossseeuoe with .:he (ibm,en. pas LtlOrr.ed at jhc focal poim of the pllmbo1 iii ,The parabolic ,~flCLtQr is me most efficient shape for mexlmum :ligh.\ ou rput. In larn·ps wbe.re precjse opilcs Ilre:n' t cril i-

Thl. ODi tog !elm., !1J,rT'IOfO~1Iillve1;!:lan (unctlona'!., Allhoug" mourned elo,.,. to ro.d llet:ord~n.g. to good pl'Kt~ ... , ClQIpI.lt 1. watlk. And I clisc:oqred 1hat l.r.npI 00 both .~ wert! poorI'!; &lmecl when ear wu deUverod,

cal ~ Itre reflector geeeran y takes a more :Il,m;cne-ci shape to disu-fbolJltc li!;bt over u greater area. A car-s dome lamp 8IKI courtesy lamps are examples.

Lmnp Appll(adQins~lh~ preceding sections described several kinds of lamps in o.rd~r tn explctn various ch:aracl.en:SLk~ or lamps in general. This sec •. Lon disC:L1".!i:!ii~S the various ~dnds ofJamps according Lo ,oppUmtian. This. will help you s~Jed she speelftc kinds of lamps required For yo'ur p.n1jec. car.

Of all the Illm,ps on .he cuts ioCk: o r a car, lu:ad'Gm.ps ooniri burc the most to safe dti,'r,I'ing :j1L nigllt. Their .ask 1:50 to illuminate • be roadway ad!:qu.alcly for good vlslon. hut wir.noDI bllJ].din,g oncoming drivers. Per .. hi:s reusoc. headlamps have (WQ lllumlnadon levels. or ~s. The 'ow be-ill» is 'Sit.i~fa<"'01'Y for luw-spee:d. umund-town driving. wacn followi.ng :lnOlhcr C"J:i!-. :iijid rOT [cmpcrary 1I:;C on jhe highway when meeu fil1 an oncoming car. TIle: high 'N-Ulil is ,~1J Liable for al I nigh!dri v iJ]g eondl~i(lilS where there are no onccmlng cars and nOCDJ5i imrucdinely in from of you.

Because it's nOil op.lcally poss~blr:: 10 place both tile low- and high-beam :fl13,~ me rrts «t the exact focal point in a bulb, lamp deslgners compromise. Tbc high OO<i m ,j 50 Il,e erilLcal one. :w • i'\.e low-been filament is, the one that' s displacoo_ A dlmJrlt!, $wfr.rh i:!'j wired to permit the illum i n~lh:m of on ty OrM:! filarrl.l:::~[j,[ .III ,f:! time.

OrMdg lam"" and fog lampe are used by the discemlng dri .... er (0 supptement .:he OEM; headlamps. Few new car ill [ruel mcdejs cceie equipped whh dri .... ing ]_.(I!f1ps-e .... en as fin optiona1'tbfJiJgh soroe n ... !!tI_'lJfac:'-u~n orrer fog lamps on selected car models, I suspect Illat they're used more as :a. sly ling, or imag,c gimmick than fOI any pract~,~] use. The fOog lamps tha1 came with my personal car an:: woefully iJl3deq:u.ale. Howe\'e.i' ~ the nftermarket offers 11 wide range of driving lamps end feg lamps for lne serious driver.

In street driving, (hiving lamps a.:n: irnended to iSL.ippJe"'leOl the hf'.ilrllnrnps under tWO epecjfie ccnd inons. The mos: obvio-us one is higl1.;Specd tin ving at ~iglU on Ute open road wilh minimal oncoming traffic, wbcre \lle, I ~ghts w(m'! bl i 00 .oncoming drivers.

The second 'use is 10 SlJppleo"lellt tne tU:iIldlarnp:5 'When the low beams don"l provide enough light. but the hjgh beams prn,..idc too much. Dri v ing lamps for Ih.i.s apptication must be cil_rdolly ;aimed 10 avoid hhnding oncoming tin vcrs.

On vii\g lamps for orr-eoed vehlcles ate another runner, as described 0:[1: page I~. and In abo .... e photo.

Fog lamps; serve IWO purposes.. The obvious OI1C is to illumiflatt":·lhe mad under foggy c:()ildhiQl1s. whe D the use or """".,uio,,,,1 he3lll.mflS ,",,"Id creaie a d.a.zzling effect, In this appl tcatlon, lhe fog lomps are wiredto 01>'''''. in OOl" !he pafktn,g~I8.rnp· and law-beam modes.

The :!!e(;o.,d use is 10 illumi.n.ale 'he ed.ge.s of \he w!!d. 'C .... en when ;[he:re's; no fo~. In this application. rog lamps cm be used wirh both low and high beams. Cneol< local oo:iioal'lO",

When you wire fo,g lamps and driving Inmps imo l..he: fi.endla.mp circuit. use relays to control them. ReI~}'s a:n:: more e.xpensive,,8l"Id more complic,ued .0 wire. bUI 1geY reduce me incidence of blown fuses and elimlnmc the possibi Lity cfh.ilvi:ng the "WI"QfI,G. lamp on at the wrong Lime. This advice ts based en personal experience-c. I was once smppe<i by a polite bm firm officer w~ took a dim view of bc:iJ]g aceldentally blinded 'by my dri ving lamps! The approprlare diagram for WLri":!1 these lamps 1:..'0 on pil.se 3,3_

OH-roai:l meers 'rely on 'hi.gh-o\.l.~p:ut ih1"En,gr IIiInd fD8! Ilimps ro irJuinr.JiJIlD lUll i'IIul::h iII.iIo 1110 t'dlfr..[11 a!&o Ip05liiiblB. 58tup &.hown hliilfit js bIlSil",- fWQlhlilad latnp:& ,linG, twc drMng [:iilli1.:pol. M.ln~ ,Oft-t"Oad Ufupt. hIM mort lamps tr.Ian tl'\.lS-mountN I:n, IQtCa.t.Ions to mlllJmlHl oanr • dUriI'\9111!:ing-wn'fch ilk .. l~ wouJcI: be lIleg1110r ItrMt u:H. LtnS COWl .... ptOlKt lIilTlpll whet! net In UH-IMy're also good Mtvtnlllng1'or I.".p InIInl.lfKlUretl, Pho'to by' Ron SeNlonl.


Ma.gtletj,( toads rely on lOt elecukal pri nl:l pi e lhal a magnel ic field is generareo :aJQund afl,_)I ele:(;irj,c3.i conductor. If you wind the conducting wire into a coil I l~ magnetic n~lcl ~omes. coneenU·91.ed, And ir you put a metal Core Lns:[dc the rod, the magnetic field ts even further concentrated and cen accomplish wOfi;:_ You may remember that !his is also the basic prtncfpte boehifid relays and sotenolds. discussed c-arii.cr,

In all cars, ,tWQ lrnporranr kinds of toacs depend on :iL eor.Jcenltutr:U magnetic rtf: ld. These are' the 'gnU/art s ... 'f!$lt"m and the. ~'et:Frl~ momr.

Ignition S)'Stem~ The I}'PC of lgnitlon S}'SI.C:m. you'll use tn your 'proj~cl ear depends on. two bas lc rncicrs. One 1:5 she ~ype gf eqnipmcru the rilC"tery provided. The other is, jhc selection or replaccmem equipment i,!'I'.ilil.able iII Lbc afienn.a.rkcl. Because or the ignition system's unique role as an engine component, this seeuon CO"o't:::J":S on I y the btisil;; operaiiug principles as 'they relate 10 !he car's electncal :SYjtem. 1f yo~ WaJ'it aspecblty syscu::m, 'you'll' need to consult a local speed sbcp for details. Also. pick 111' a copy of "IPBooks~ High-Performance Jgnluon Handbook,

An ignlticm system irans forma low \'-oltag~' from the oottery 10 ~ high v cltI!~C ,n-Cl:d:cd to jump iii. sPillkplug P,P in the

sparkptugs. Thel11gh voltage I:s.rQlIted~ di.s/dbult!d-Io Ihe .ilppropri,~1.C sparkplug al the exacl momem lt's needed in lhe comeesticn cycle.

TIle rote at which sparks ere ~l iv~md by tho ignhioo ,yOle., depmjs 0.0 how fast the engine is runnlJ]g ami how many cylinders 1M cngi.nc bas. Spar!£: rate can be con .. pured by using !..he following jormu,Ii1: R~llflio," per minurl! (rpm} + 2 X IUHn'>er of c)-'f/mit.ts -= .J()(jf"t:s per min~1~" ~p'le: For Q 4-cylilUJer f!,ngin.e f1utfling al j .000' rpm. W~ g~l: 5,000 7- 2 X 4 = ,/O"aoo 5juJrks ptt mjlrUlt,

It' So evtdem .hat an j,gnil:Lcn sysesn produces sparks m nn enormQusly bS1: rare. To ulldc::r.stwld how 12 vults becomes 25,000 volts, IIIld does", 10.000 rtmes a minme, I'e(s e:r;;a.mine hol,!,' Gilt sperk ls gencrned.

Cou TIleory - An ignition coil works Qn two basic ~nr;:iplcs. The first is I.lx ma,g.nel·ic--rkeld pril'lciple jusl discussed. The second Is: the ilfilll.("lhm principle. As described on p.a.g-c 18, moving iii. conductor Ihrough a magnetic field leduces current tOIO lhe ci)T.iducl(JIf. However, both ~~nClmcna- magnetism and i ndU1:tlon -e-cccur laslde the ig,lliti.on coil without need for aDy moving p.u1!~

"The jgTI~I;On coil ecnsists or !I pr,f.mary coil and ~ ~n"cmdfJtl' coil ShlJlt!ng ofr cumn1 flow in lilt'! primary (lew vol!ugt:) coil causes j ts ma.gne*:: field to calJ4,pU,


U rhcberrec hthch ges c h lilltes !vi a erla

IgnlUcm eoll.1lI IIKo 1Id, 0 ... h.~ 'been UHd on ~ far dKoIId.,.. ~r ~!I:= loy ... ~ irH;:Drpo .... ' COII,or.;nr.....-rt; 1IhIpR. bQt bIII.ak: funclk;In I ....... ~""'~tD ~te II nlg .... "'_ilf_-

The mQ!jon or Ih_e rcltupsing field past the secondary (hillh-,oltog<:) «IiI causes currem to be induced tDIO it.

Anolher electrical pl'teno:rnc:.(],oiJi,

c;Uod i!1~CII'it.·td IraltsjormaJion. abo takes place in il coil "The primary coil t.(iS only a few hu ndrcd uims of wire, while the secondary coil bas se ""C'raJ thousand. EI~ctr.i(:al transformation detemlncs thaI the ratio of Miginal CUFr~1r1 to induc:-w cu.r1"l'JU i~ the same as the ratlo of prirnary~C()i] turns to secoecary-ccll turns. So. the ignition coil ilC:tuaUy multiplies baul:!\ty \/Oltilgt: of al)cul 12. volts to 25.0ro volts or more eecb tieie the primary cot I is energized end then turned off. The resulting v'olla,g.e, is rooted throu gn [he distributor to the approprlutc sparkptug, where ,L' ,Lgnitts the air/r ~l mburre in the: ccerbusilon chamber. CurI"C'Jl't 1.5 reduced in rbe same pr-oponlon ..

The coil's prtmruy winding has D posi.i v e (+) lerrniM.l an-d a ,~galive (-) terminal. '1J)e positiverermjn~l is; supplied' from the ignilioD switch; the ncgative It:rn'! i nltl' is ccnneocd to th~ disuibotor points, where the: pri mary circui t is. opened and closed. The secondary col I wi !\ding is :ilttilrhed to the center tower of the co H. which leads to Ihe cenl,cr rcwer of .he iJ ~lriburor cap. A rolOl" driven by the dismburor shan transfers -currenl to tho ,ppropr;oto '1l"'I<.pl"S wire by bridging. the ~i1p between the cap' S. center lO'IiIo'er afld Ihe to;'!"-er correspondi n.,g to the cyhnder to be fired. The current races down the s:piIfkp!uS wire ',0 the ~,~






, .... ._.uo 111d.

WI1en cUrrer'lL IIowfJ IhrDtiIilI1 plim:tItY wll'KiIng oIlgo"1on 0011 • mag....., floIol .... __ D<wwI"IJ """"**Y .r cnry,lor Carp.

plug, where a .'t-park OCCUri thou ign:lle:s the .ir/fuel mi.ll!Ce ii'I the <yl inder_ Points & C",,_ Ignltloo- The ""in" ere , set of electncal "'0""''' lhal open and ctose lhc primary circuiL. The poln.ts are positioned between the cell and ground. A small, cain with nne lobe ~;rcy!inder operates the points: in c:oordirnll~j:on ~ lib c:nhel" er.lg~ne: func~jor\s· at one·half engine speed. The amount of Lime the poinu remain closed :~Si called d~.u~.d i! rt:ad Indeg~ ofct.Li.I",ks,hBlfl rot",!on. nolo"ge. tbe dwell. ,0. more time there is for jhe primary field to build up.


Conden.Mt con.lm of lWo ... of fQil 1AvQ) .... COI"II'IIrIICtecI to ICIUfCII ot IjICI!tagiIiI &pIk'et. !If.I4 11'1 .. otMr to ground. Not Ihowii .,. In~Otl .tMJtwMn thI !elves. Cgn· dBn:An. Ill'll ~ t~tty !nLQ .. -evtlnd ... far carnpllClMU. lkItll RIM ~ •• ground COI"lnIC:'tIior'k.


.... gn.ti!;: r1eI:d coI ... p .... :DId !JId~. high _ Imo aocondoty wI.,Uog ,,"'" poimal'Y ~H: i. openlt4. A!.a natt Um: aomI "0ita,0I 5I1in1;1UC:N InlO prtrnaq, !:Jill! i1 ,it at no VJlPII In ctNt.Ing :lMf1C. Dnwln,; CGUr.... "'Ch"'*""C ..... ,



PRlMMl ..-- WlM~IIi,D

l1'IlII dthtIn.g &notId wMit' .. ,inakII'''; ~ ignition .oit. Primary _"II _tno_

..... y loW wlndlngo, will .. ooeonduy ... COdlJd.rabtJI moM.

l!gi'lhiDn eol I il:ui'n'O s;rnal rt11lrml:n_:a[!i a~cI OftIiIIilrO- 00I1I .. Sinalllefmlnlil atlilit (BAT-or +)~ I_Q Ignlt:l:On'VcUtlg.lOUree: .. ", mhilllll .,.. rigM (OIST Of -} c:onnec:tl !to eN .. b1tKttQlr poIn'IS .. i1G:01r hal. tKb.1t get, ,"'_ n.11:rom thl'. termln .. 'I. u welL '1.:Ifg" ~ port -t:!onnKti to dl:s1rtl:M,Jtl)l'" ~

DkI!IIIrwn .now .. how YOIIagI .. ~~11ed te coli Input I"!lilroundtd wlNin dlltrtbulor ;poIntl do ... _ .... poin" open. Il0l. In ..,n coIlap .... V""- .plio. II •• Iulpalocl ~ CCItICIenMl".

Al the iusumt before tbe points open, current is mcll1g thro\lgh Ih_e primary roil in sear(b 'Of grouad. when I_be cireu:il opens, inducnon starts, aa jusl outlined. Mosl of the current is indt.J.Ced inm the secondarycoil. but about 2';0 vol.. ls Induced lnrc lhe primary roil, :and has """,he",,,, So. Its mostlikely path would be to jump the gap between Ole now s.eP;!~ rating poi"". ill lI>erol.of IO.OOOjump< per minulc, it ""wh.! IJ 't tik'e tong for the points to bum 1J,P_ So, thiecontierr.s.er pro. vices an ullematl:, path for Ibc primary induced voltage.

I ns"ide the 'C"Of'\densct are I'llWI) SoelS of foil I ea vcs separated from each ctber by an lnsularor. One s.el or tea ,.res is connceu:d to the condenser lead, aoo the caber 10 ground lh"",gh !he condeasers metnl case. AI. lhe lnstam ~ points open., the condenser "'IQOks""" llte u ground to ·!he rushing ekceons. 0 y the lime they pack Jntc the condenser, they "reatlze'' the condenser lsn'r real Iy a ground .. so tb~y rush back into the. PJi~ mill)' ~i! where ilic:)' contribute to the induced voltag,e in the seeondary co; I, HIed_ronic Ig:nUkln- At tne expense of oversimplltlcanon, I lb.ink of the d~c· 'raniC-1Sllilirm moou'e as. nOI.hins more than a subst i tule for ig.111 non poInts, HId a rQl'Hieflsr:·r. An elc(lron.ic~ignl don sys,.· rem still requires a coil, though Iht eoil's shape 'mily vary somewhat from those used in Con venuenal i,g:nill0n s:yM~ms..

Essentially, lhe: mod uje conrai ns a IfilriSiistor Ihal cperu a.n.d closes the coil's

primary circuit j u'St like points, The- module depends on a .s"i,gnai rrom the dis"",bu'O' ro iodie, ie _., "'""", sbo.ld OCCur, Early units. ucrualjy used points for thls. However, the points had an, exl:ended Ii fe because lhey wc-nm 't carrying bee v )' primary voftage.

Modern electronic ignitions rely on a pickup sensor that reacts to teeth on It lrigS'" wheel. "no lOOth per oyliAd,er. The presence of lI>e pe ss lug looth dls-

mrbs an ejecrncal field In the '0,""". indicaling the need for iii .s;pa:rk to occur. So"", .nomari<elunit' use 01 ighl "'",00 ned u pIl"'oOIectric cell wi lh • ,hune! wheel 10 chep up the hghl, beum, OB.h lighl segmenr corresponding to one cylinder~s igni !ion._ The 1'OOS"t accur-.,!ote 19nitian-Diggering mec:nanlsms use eilhc.r system! but are moeared itt the Ci'1lJthha.ft d-ltmpet'_ Almos! withOUl excepuon, such sysu:::ms arc: restricted In race-ear use.

With the advent of on-board compoters. ejecrmmc-jgnl tion: ceneor h~.s moved .i iUO Ihe space age. H owever. such rompm.e:r systems am avallabte on.ty as faclQ:ry equipment on new cars, and are riot yet a v ailable in Ihe ~fle"na!'ket.. Atso, because or Ihc:ir cC),mpltl nanue. they are not recommended for do-ityourself ele-,cttictd systems. I suggest usi!'lg..j] poinlS~a[)tj-col1od.enSL::r igl'lJtiQn or an !!neml.uk~t electronic ignili'on. Resistor- & BJPass Cin:ui.t - £kspi_tc the buffering action of me condenser, ignilioll points may wear cur prematurely if they can)' J 2 vons mulinel y _ The- ll fe of a coil 1,5 also determined by the. amount of current flowing through It,

Mat'ljl OEM ign LtiQ!"I S'ys~ems on A meri.can ears ~nc ru:de .11 Stri~~ resissor


In ..... 1" .1et:t~G4gllttJon di .. Ulbutof, polm .. hlvo ·beon Jeplleed by eMdr-onk: eom-pGrwnla. Rutin IftO'VMr.IoWd ~ ....... an.poIII p.c: • ...c. ~ e ....... algnaa. dllected by pickup coil "In d.-tannI'MI wN!n to ''1'''*'' j9J'1itign -c:gil" 1;]rwI1~ -t:Gl,lrt ... y 01 a-ratol _ OMs"".

S5 Urheberrcchtlich gCSOhUtllcs kl~teria

Cart wilt.!, pcinHW'PI' Ignition often rilly on I '!'tili.t.tor LC pJOlong point lite,. :hn.eI:y YCil':tl!lllO (from r1ghl 'h.!JirKI flitl'1!!1 I .. cl1l by .ppro.xlm"eI~ ano nalt'. B)'pUI: wire lrom 'ttHI, :Ittner :.oIII1II;lId ill ..t1:achIIid ta the di.blb:u!or "kM1 of reaI.lOr (ltft) to provide full VOf't:agtI durl'n" IMgErlIcrank.ing.

tt'lal reduces carreru now [0, the roil by u'pprn~j.rnalcJ.y half. ''J'ht ft::5.LsrOr 'Ifill)' be bu,ilt irue IDc coil, mounlcd 10 Ihe firewall. or built 11'1',(1 the ha.:m_es:s inltl_e form of a cal i braied-reslstancc wire.

Dunng engine start-up. a f1,l_lI-Sl~_n.gth spark is deslmbte. So. u bypaSll"ircuil is lnclu.ded lJ1 I,l'l.e st::l_n:er c:ift'\.ljl 10 provide fu:1l halu::I')' currem HJ the col I only wru te .. he staner molar is ,oper:ning.

In 'l.hi: -ctil be: lore eleetrenie 19nition, starter solenoids hill) an ex tta terml nal labeled t for :i,~nition or R fer resistance byp.as:!.:_ The lermino.l was wired directly to the coil's +- Ll:rmin:.t1 1,(10 byp.PS5 tbt: bu.ill-in resistance while the solenoid was cnersiz.e:d. A~ soon as. nan - up 'W';J;S. 0001- pleted; the solenoid di:~llCrg.ized and tbc byP3>S was turned off.

A Il.M.l ".,tord on lgnhlon syarems:

Electronlc ucnomeers rei y on Ihe colt's on-off CUn'e,IU for' an operarlng sign:ll:_ The sender wire LS uauully connected to Ihe coil's, ne-g;a!'ior/c terminal. For rnote on electronic ,!achm1)ei:ers: .. see ttag-e 44_ I!l«trie M'otOr.ii- Because electric motors; ere SO conll'l1Q!lplac~, many pe:o~ pic gi vc: l il tic Ihou£.hl to the Ject that their operation seems 100 defy s.imple iogic. 1_11 (act. ilC,coro.ing t-o the Delco Rerny Di ..... iSLOP or G M. ;Pil ~I~ctrlc. motor is an edumud 's;-~n dr-curl. An(t ufJ.Lik'e a gasoI lee eJ'lgl ne, an electric motor develops


maximum torque when .sMilffi. The teeWIlS for lhc:«: $¢erni.ngty i.mpos.s.l DIe: Iacts should become: ckar as you rc;)t! the r~ln(}wjng djsctl:Ssion -on the operating pnactples of 'L.tK: electric m_ulo.r. M"I~Prlnclpl",,- An """"""",<iinS of the electric motor begins wi [il .he fact .hata CUlTefi\-curryiog e_l'ectric81 condue-LOr has a magneti C Field around it. Place this COndIlC • .or between the poles of a, borsesboe mAgnet and, there'll be Iwe; Dlaghl:lLC- fic:.lds.- one. From lh", conductor ilT.I_d, one (rom the. magnel.

In ,ilnj' magnet. i:n.cludi ng ,p c:ondlictor.

Ibe fines of'megcctic force RlO .... e from the north (po:;:il i ve or +) '~II! to 1b~SQtI,Lh (ne-g,mi'Ve OJ -) pole. "The lines of rcree in !:he; wire conductor obey tha righl.lumd r-1I/~ oj m.ag~~Jism. The rule worki. like ih!s: Ir you gr31ip the CClf1duCEOf in your righ,\ hand w1[b YQ\J_f Ibumb poiTHh1;G ill Ihe dlrccticn of current now. Ihe dirccbon of )'001 fingers wi II Indicate the directiOf! of ~he magne~le field.

Let'S suppose a bcrseshoc tnagTlCl, is posfuonedso the north pole ls at the bottom. mean ~Ilg Hit: mfi_gri:el.ic Ii nes mOVe upward ,"word ,he scuih pole. The field iJ'l lh.e conductor is :l'l'k}ying elocJc.wise. On !held, side or me ccnducmr, both Q1:i_gnelt{: fields "Jove the same w~)I. so they l"Ciiifar:c~ each olher. Oil, the right s fde-. they' re Izying ttl- move in cppcsne

'Th~5 re '\iitIe~ ,olt:l~.r end Q! :r",:!!Il:s.tDr i:r~PI!l:U wlr& 1.1 1I'1;I:Ic:heti. Ourlng' ~1l9"lno crJlllltlll'!jl, fun battery 'Voltage II .v .. II"b'lio ,t "l" t.r~ mlnal~ 11! vour eIIr .,.. 11'1, !gnltlon r.ti.totj liM 'lialUl solenoid wIt"- by:p&u 1tnnin3JliHnllc.lll solenolClII .Ie ngd'e Irirh(Jut "J~ IAirmhw.

directions so they sctnewbm C'aJUY/-eac:h ether. With::!. SU"r,iilg. reinfQ"i'C.Cd' rie:ld 011 one side and a weakened one on the other. the OOllr.JUC1 or is !Of'"C'ed 10 H~ righl_ This is the baslc magnet i,e pri1J.dpJt used to turn an cleetrie motor.

Now, lmaglne the w lrc conductor bent in!,Q a l.QQP ;i"L!"id :po:si noned between the: t'I,I;:IJ, poles of an el(:(lro~gnet. Further iJ'rtQ,gine IhnI each end or lhe loop ternneares in a setnicireular CQfPt.m·uJ:alOr~ A pal r of brusnes rid Lng ,jj~ains.t tlle. commutator are connected to a banery. Currein nows through ihe elcctromagnerie coils. ibrough one brosh and comm U LatOI. !broo,gh the I'DOp, of wire, through Ihe second brush and ecmmutator nnd beck to the 'billtt:ry.

Several magnets IU'C iftSl;;lL)rl y Cre;g,Ie:d by the nowing I:::UITe.IU. The. eleetrcmegf1Ct f[}rfr'IS ~he IWOo poles; corresponding to these of the aorseshoc magner. A:nd u field is creaed around eech leg (If tbc wire loop.

The inl'era.ctlofi of rile rn.a,gi'ler!o;; flelds produces 01 rotational fc::I£C,JC in tbe Iocr. \Vheil tbe loop hilS mJlde In revchnlcn, each conan u uuor is in. contact with the op'po_s"ile brus:h (rom: Ltle srurtl ng position. A new field is crt;!)red in the loop and {he cycle rt:peilU_ The rawlins loop Is cal led Lhe afl'PlutUl":t: of Lhe mm.or _ lllw,gin_e multlpl ~ wire loops. each connected W a pair


,."... dl'1e¥ring' Ihow ope,...ion of oleettlci: mob)r d.uring on. ,,'fONti0f1. Not. prwrntnen1 rnagnebI .. It:ft !lind flgt\t Cum:nl .,.,.,. fTor!1 brl4h A.lhroulIJll eommuta1or 4. ttvooUtl IM'lnafure eoll, throu:g", com-RI u ~OJ 8 to bruth D_ Annt:ture bec:omn 1M Mctram.unet. 1niU""" IWInaturwI poIn. .,. ~'-d by' tit. poIU of ,pei""rI\I ...... magMt. IItIrung dOClcwiH f01M1On..

of commuteror segments .. and )"01.1:'11 have en idea what a n:1lI electric motor is I!k~·_

Here's .a polnt yO\) may have missed.

A motor holi5: a loop of wire rot:!U~g in :a megneuc ficld,~,tbc C~iilC'1 ccndhlons nece:s~ to m.a.ke.a geeerator! So. (oo.kI li be ('X)Ss,ible ror !he I"!l:Olor to' 11")' to gene-rale current at the same rime it's running'? Y OIl bel it Is.

The CUrrtTI t generated within III. runn tn,g motor is -calle\! t·(nimttrdt't~/roml)ljw fore< (CEMFl. The "r<:ngth of tho CEME' is directly proportional to motor speed _ As the motor runs fasl,er. ffiQR:

C.EMF is generated. causing leas banery cUI"I"e,n, (Q now. Although CF~MF nt:ly approach battery vohegc, it nc v er equals it_ Otl~-fW lse the rooter wCluld e\'c:;t'ltuaUy stop. In fact. ~t\c top speed of a motor is limited bv tho CEM F. So. an electric motor is· sclr~llmiting. at top' speed. CEMF i:s, aho the reason en cI«tfK: motor' sets like an educated short cjrcuu. Before curre~U flows in ,:1 m.0{Q1 ~ ~n.e intemal resistance 1113'· be as low as 11] 00 ohm--dd'initely a short dtc1J,(! 10 ground! Out asSO{Ji'I.aScui"t¢t1t flows. anti the motor starts to rum, CEMF automaLicaJI)' t'C!:=ld,.BlL"-.S- current now. so th~ expected sheet ein::uit never occurs.

n.c mmf.n.g force of dk: wire loop,

WMtI armatu ... , hal rotMI4' 1 •• bruMirN A and,8 .. now contac1lng commutator ... rMnla 8 md A, ,10 cutI'W'IIf: trtrougb .-rnA- 11,1 ... ~ """"'Ing armaturt- poIlIrity.

Unltke poIoo ropoI ..... _

When arm.lhl,. I\U tutnecI 90', No,rtn poll 01 AnnltlJrels at:trKt8d toward South poll! It right. South pol_ oJ .rmatul"tll. et:trac::tecI toword _ polo 0I.1otI. __ ""'"


=:Jc? )C [1

When ....... 1,11"8 ha .. routed 2'1r, ~Ike pOtn be;ln re iIItrK1, Ind rotation ICOnU.nue ...

............. ,__ modo • c:<><npIN :leO'" ffto .... ron and .. .bade .... It ltan.d. Agoin. polorlty _. ""."polK", ..... cyclo _, OtowI_ .,.,..,...., <If

Chtyoiot Corp.


S.impolUIICI cnwin!lll of ......tu hoWi how ..n Wi,. !l3:Op II ~ ttl .. I*r at COM-

mu1I,lOr blra. Commutator:ban ~ by • .,. or~. At ~ ... 1uma.

r:ommuutor bats.,.. e:onUnUl.!Jy I"I'IOV'fnog pat bnat rnaJdngMCh loop Inla a rnanw.-

tory .. ootromog .....


U rheberrec htl lch gesc h utztes Iv! ateri a


_ "_""""'. '*"'I _ """ '"-""11'" _"!!Old ""''"" '"lIldo, .... .-,. _to""," on ',,"",,"g, __ ,"..-.1 lMHI~nll._. B~"" .riI' ~~ h~ tIn.l*1'I noIdIrt: In *fIdhOutl ..... " .... Ing! ctltI"_' of AJNrIc:III" Menon Corp.

called 1000q~'e. i~ difCclly prcportlcnal to current now. thill's wily a motor puts out its muimu.m mrque wbt.a its. speed is IO'!WeSt. when CEM"F is lowes. An eketric motor operatlng against a load that drags down its operating, speed CilUS~ lite motor to overheat. The heat is caused by high <"!Teol now at werk. Tne <"!TeO' ls reli!tivel), unteslsted because !II: law rnotcr speees t tere "s Ii ILIe CEMF gene," ated.

Perhaps now you can ,5« why an electric 01010' can be ""lIed.o "educated short circuit." To summarize. when CUrrent is. first ,i1pplied to the motor ~ it can flow almost eDtireJy unimpeded .. Torque. which is proporHonal. 10 current flow, 'is; abo high, As motor speed increases-s-it does .50 n\P:Ldly~CEMF increases. autornaucelly limiting CLlrfttU to a. sde rate.

MDtoi'" Com,ponen.U-Most of the COJDr pooenu b'~ v e I!Lr.e;Q(iy been described 1.0 the: discussion On how a niOII:Or W'od:s~ a1lbough in basic form. Tbese .00 Ihc ff:mainin,g ones are described in detaH here.

TIle molo,. Mit-ling is II bee v y iron [r:ame. lO wh.kh the fitld-ceil cous, c.Jlodpoi"Iwe",. "'" auaehed. Thefi,ld c";u "'" _ppod 0101100 Ihc pol. ,1>00< and ere iI'JSUUIt.ed by a coating on !he wire. The wire loops ikscribt:d earlier iIIJ'e <OIl ta ined in the aml<lIW" •• kind cf ule. shaft ihal roUI.tP::S wah ln the- motOr housmg. Each loop renninRtes ln ill! pair of commldalo7 j:ismcoltlj- Tbese ,lTJetitl s.eg'~ ments are imiiU]al.ed from eii!lcb ottK:r .and from the armature sha.ft, Thin sheeu of mica iUC often used as the iO!NIa.ti_f.lg material.

The artnotu'" i' ,upp<ll1od by /nQrl"8J

or bushingl .assembled into the motor housing. Finally, a pair of' insulated bn.she,. held in '<!Sul.led pocJ<.e .. within lhc· housing, Bn:, p.nil:ionc:d 10 .n,II' a,gillMt the eemeunaror ban. Tt'rm,r.P1tJ1s are wired to c:any current 10 the {i,eld coils and brushes,

Elrctrk·Moto, T¥pes-Lnrge. powerful electric rrorors, such as :£l3J1.lng motors ~ use elecrromagaenc rll;~ld coils. Smaller motorS., such as 'those used for wiruhhii::lrl Wtp:r:ll. power windows and the like, may use it permanent m.a_gr.elin p,t!lCe of Ille netd coils. The perm.anent,~ magnet motor is less expenaire to build. and is mQ:rIe lhllr.l ad~qUJlfe in.low-demnnd oppli<ati"" s,

Power outpu.t i.s, a J imil.aIl.On or tne permanent ... magnet motor. Size..for~size. its outpUt is IlOl :u gtelll :(IS that of .~ field-coil niotor, In OEM applications,

U rhcbcrrec h II ich gOS" h u Illes ~ I etcrla

IElKtl'lc moton. COrM In.u .:lIes, :lnlpM Ind I!ppilcatlCln .. , In theM, .. :ampllM,lM meter hi IIha C}1lndrlCal :lhlpe. From,"1t to rlgrd: lIN: ~n-tlnk iMcIric: fLiaI pump .. r'K1 nH .. ! .hKl.bWdwuller' pump anc:I.lKtrlc ~ K'tlJllOl'. Conugl," :p:lr1 on door-lOc:lI: IChli10f I .. tI"II1I lode Clrin ,racI. Moton 11'11' ~I'-rnlgne'l 1ypeI. Door 1:«'11; ac'_uiltorr. trHrtJbki.

permanem-megner molars gener:iUy operate through a tcrcuc-mu ltjp.tyif.lg g,w train. You'll often Dnd Ihe hi,gha~ powered Field-coi I !~mLors alt;;,clied to a: g,en t ra in as we LI" Thl:'!: may be: mete for slowing down the action than for torque; mIJltipl i eruion, LholigtL

If you decide LO lnstalla custom mutert;r.ed fe-mUTe' 11 your car. be aware or Ihe ou rplil lirni1::lI:[Clltii of the ~l'tJ:liinefll~I, motor, Boner safe than SOrt)'.

The available speeds or n .. dli~spt't'd mt)lnrs may be. provided b:,' one or three common m!:'1,hods: U':si:rIQT$" s/JJmJ t; .... indi1.g.~ or m.u.'lfp/~ brushes,

A Iy])Lcal rt.siSI'(1I'Cf:-(,'()liUvJ1e(1 .,1Q1,Or is .he hearer blower. The ccnuol swlrch selects from a vmiet), or resistors 111m permit diffcrcrn amounts of cerrem ,to now, Remember Ibe speed and power of a motor are governed by ihe SI:renSlh of

the firrnnuue magnetic field, C"t1:uted by currant flow _ Reducing current flow weakens lhe field. slowing the motor.

Motors whh a .'iirum coil have two windings ln the field ooil- .be usual' one .DQd .u rn uch smaller OJiC! lh.ttad.ed [I'noughoot. With UK: main coil enerE;i:z_oo. the motor n.IIlS fast. With the snum .Dlso cne:rglud, lhe main field is wcakt:::rlCd. slowing the motor. This type or circuit allows two speeds, and 15 used in man)' OM wiper mceors.

The ~ or Ol pcrmanem-rnagact motor can be COIUroUed by a set of m~lli· pit: br-lI~he,s. As rnenli,oilcO ean ier. tllr; eumrrm1l l,'!.)C;t1ioo, fur brushes is 18Cf orrposne each ather, I r you cQu!d hold' one brush sr9.tiO!"lnry and somehow mrcte tnc other one. in jhc direction cpposlu; 10- armnurc totatloe. tllc effect would be :\oil'Ie:~hjng m::e adV3ACin,g the igi"lirj~),j'\ 1)1'






Thkrd 'bn.r .• h ClIft lM .dad hi pe_rmanlln1~ ~1I...t motor to mU4I' it o~.t two IP"dL W't!eiJ !1)Wo<.~ !lfJ4 .cammon bl\i!ihM fit' 180"" IrP'1I1 are ull!d" ,~CH' ttlq" It II10w speed. Whei"!hlQlJ:..fpMiICI Dn;,I";&I1 I_M ccrnmon bnlM "rfI, liNd, mclOr I1.Inl!l hi.&t8r. 11 hlg;n-lpMd bh.ilh: could bll'JIiOVIIId. '*tIhM' dodnlll .... moto!" 'I'tOUtd ..,.ntua.I~ bfgln M "ClW "own ant.1 &top,

an engjne. The rooter woutd run fsstcrup UJ :0 point." If yoo IOr::].[~ ,the' brush tee fUr t tbc meier wi ll alow down lind flnall), s!o.p.

1(,:; Dot practical to make a n'lOtor' with u movaere brush~,[)l .. hougb it's. been Irit'd~ bUI i tis pr.uctiii:m 10 add OJ. !hird brush in an advanced position. ,By ~!ecting this bn,Jsh w Hh the con [rei, swhch • you can mil..k:e ltx: motor run faster. This i;s a: ool111nO.n method of achieving two speeds whh 8 permanent-magnet ,mnlor_

59 Urr~b rrechtll 11 g sr,hiHll "~\ ~ria\

I :bougM tnJs .... or tMmlN!tiI ~ "~R!I RlPPU .. frOm ,ORl, l'ndu .. triK. n COI"It&Ined .. 1I1h. Id.,.,. o'~n.t" ~to .. h1 my 1;Ii',lIIttlovgh,l.-..::I to buy UlnqulnLlIIn OI':IOIM. AJI U'Ii

__ "" !hey _ • WI .. "~po< "' • d_ prioI, .Io<>g _U .. 10_


Th j;s, chapter covers :(tK minor componems !hat don 'I (it well in [1.1 the. categories dise:ussed in p,C'evio'u.s chapters, Many .art. items you' il be using by the dozen. af1yw-ay.


To be: ob",lu",ly lrulhr"I, you don' I need 11 ruse panel: in a car's electrical system. I.,s;t~d .• you ,can US~ !U'I in-I,ine fuse holder In cech circuit. However, u.sing, ~hese holders instead ora fuse p~nel is impractical-assemblY Is. diffit::u.lt ;rnd, they are no! always convenient when II. ruse needs to be replaced, Fuse pnn~ls. make wittiig, ancl ruse replacement much easier.

There's;D 'Wide varielY of fuse panels to choose from, dC:,po!mdin,g, on the ·'donor" car YOLL'!Ie laid n,g ),01..11 ~te.cln(".al ecrnpcnene rrem. and whether you waer I,Q usc glas'S-cap5ulc fuses, Autofu:se-type

fuses or ceramic fuses, Small p.3ncrr;. fOr ail rbree i:lJ'"C iI\';iI;ilable ill I . .he iift.ennarket. Or. }''OU can remove iii, $Crv.iec.~!.epatJtl [rom. a donor c3I and adept it to your car,

On page 36. an atgumem is presented boom for a!"ld :ugo.lnst the use of drcUll breakers overs-us, fuse'S _ If )"'01.1 decide to uSC fuses, you"lI need an app:ropri.rnc fiJSC

panel. ~

s.Ie«tng an A.n.,,,,,,,",.t Fuse Pancl- Thee I3R only a few thl!l,gs. to (:OfIsjder when choosi!"lg an art~~et panel, First. of course, is the type ,01 fuses you' U be U~i:iiS. Then, you must make sure the penct will fit into the ~aa: ,v.il.ble. M.ny .nermarl;el m .. " ufacture.tS make ruse panels ef v irryiiig lengths, so' you !nay need to buy a varlet)' of sizes to eccommcdare the space and ruse requirements 'Of your cer.

Mi1r1Y iI Ftermarket ruse paMl.s, also include-or rut: Il: pan of-another kind

of compo .. nt called • ,,,,,,1 •• 1 block. This. compcaenr is used to ceaaece mojm wiring hamesses. Termi"'" block. are ""UlIlly """Ie 01 on in,"I.,ing ~1>c:rboartl with the ejecutcal cond uc(O:r.s. ri v eted in place.

Fr.mkly,. 1 hOVCJl't scea too miUlY

C''''' ra ,-P"''''''. or"""arl<.C' ruse panel. th.al' ba v e impressed me much .. 'I ,sugge:u Ihal If you've chosen ruses o~r circuit bre.oJ:,,,,. go 1M .... of lh, way .nd odapl a used. ractory-tyP'C ruse panel. as de<cribe:d below,

A .... ptlng. Used r ........... e1-lf you remove and udapt a fuse pane,] from iU'l ex.isri:ng car or truck, there are IJ few Iblngsm oonsidcr:

Flrsl, if you're; building a kit car, the rnDrtufactuter IIUI)' make specjfic recommendatlees. Check 10 dc:tc;nnine why In. particular panel is reqiured. It may be that you' U be: loltins 1"8< enocgh per-

tions of the harness from lhc donor car and ll'le lusc p;I;ne.j' is un integrel pan of LI ..

1 r the declslon ls up to you, be sure the 1',".1 will 00"<>111""",01' tho Sly 1< and number or (1I!cS you went, ma1;:ii1J:l, alIOW,::UlCC for atIding cin:uits ~l a later dale. You may need to. refer to chapters 10 nnd II to determj-ne lhis"

Next. be aure jhc panel you've chosen will ~ I 11, e a 11""'I,d place .;n ,he car. Measure if you 're not SUI~.

Fln:lU)I. -check iobe sure, the ".ehil:!1;:

W1,i!S.I1·! Invul ved In :II fire end that it didn' L su ITer massl v e eteceical damage. Charred wiii",g is a denetre sign 1.h_;;'1 you're JookiJl,£ in the "WrOng carl Then disconnect ~ battery, i.r!.he oorx;t car h:a.1i one. Remove the screws orboltq. hold ing the ril..."C panel in place ,the:~ pun .11$ u'u .. ch of IJi.c eJe_lMin,s ba:mcss loose from the under-dash area :is )'OU can. Fl naHy, Cut Wires free. from the harness. l1:ilvin,g.n least I root of wire atlDchcd to e3,C"h C".;l .... l t)' i a Ihe Icse panel. The 'W""iR: ends will be spliced [0 the :new ha.m_ess when yo"!'! inS-lall iI, so teave as roUe-a wire tength aa possible.


Defore disClli:!iing Ee:m~ inal bjocks, I o:tpla.io ""mn. bu!.khcad 0IJld harness Ii:QEl~ rectors am. used ror in factoryi n- 5IalJ~I_i-ons, This may help you; sa: why they're not needed in your project CIlI'.

When i3: -cur goes down the assembly , lee, wiring is lesralled in sections called bamesses, There's iii harness for ~he mstnrmem pnncJ1 cae for the front !.ishrlng I one or more for Ihe engine. one fOJ reer w.i.riitg. and p.i:rhaps sc"Ycral more for opelonar equipment.

8l<:h berne .. is de,;gJl.:d to go in to the car at specific pobrts or assembl "I, usualIy hero re uph.ol<ie!)'. ""'h-pand cover 8M otber interfering PiU'(S are Installed. This 1m:EiJ'lS tlmr ind_ividunl hlUT.l:es.ses c\'e.ntunlly rnusl be CO['U,cete<i to e;r,ch otber LO- fOfl.n 'Lhe oompl(;(eti electrical system, Various tt~s connectors make 1.his tI n:-Iwi ... '-cly simple, hard-tomes:s"up job. At too: potnt where the har... ses F"''' 'hrouSh the n re wall. or bull<head. Ihe -cu..u.sioi:Lc: harness ,plug_s into the in.side hemess by meiilJliSO of a huge bulk· lit:tid ~onneclCr- itltJ,y have up to 40 or 50 -ca'lol'ilic:5.

Terminal blocks a_re,'I"t used often in

'f0l.l r:ouhl UN ., ruM :1'KJI4et ~ft tr.~, fCI( Clnry eft;u"11 Tn, 'your eir~ Jeep CorporaUon UMd .. dolu",OhaIIII<d _'hl.klng Ia 11;1 prn:,,1 )I'OU' fuM' IrUo ont' ponI'I.

s.n.Il -ru.. blodI:. tor gI~~u'" tu ... c:DIIIII' 1n"W'Bliotl. ~ IIIfid 1l\!I!p",(:Ilin be ~bllJdll"lto'l..!uger pcllne(s.. p~ btJIm B .........

OM, 'UMIoIlp-d'OW'n fuM pwwIlnr.nos(, of 11:1 c.rtI. l'JIe:Ie .. ." ~venlerl.! lei HfYA and IlmpljPpulh up _loeI< ...... )'<MJ,· .. _o.

"'~i'Mt fU:s.O PliMtiI eeee TI"I "",,.1 COrrfigll~ Thi.I)i'Je ac:cornod:atei ~ Autofulo. !i.-1fInII1 unha eIIn bI _ .. _ I bought mlno by moll

~ from RlDn Frw'IIC!:i Wi,. W'orks.

n' fOU pian to NI\tIgtI ~ pMWIl ft1)nt II donor c.. IM'M .. mUd'lo.1N ~ .. F>O_o":'l 1001 II p..-y • __ 10

minlrnurn. WireI on thJ. OM ..... c:Lll.1hatter _ "'"' bill ooulel 110 modo .. worIL

ProducUan ColI'" rHy on • bUIII:hHIl con~I)r 10 lI'rtiiGfi harnoi...,. oullJ'61 or bod~ in ~ 1!JIlde_ 8eRUM mll'ly wHi ani' C:ftIWIMd I~ .. , .. Irty .~I apKoII, ......... lOIMtIiDid cal... '"twlogh -MrI1Iit(" COIl(I.,;. ........

61 Ur owo"eohlli h qescluitzt "~l~.mi"

F'"" PI"" .itId mil" wlr1JiS1 MmISI- t'rOm my PhilO dooot eat. P,III"IOI' 'I'TIOUn'tl ,.u .. d.,. ..... ",~, ... _.(IoI'O_!h--" bulkhad .fKt ptug' Into bold!: ,of ~.

fat:to.ry wir.i ng jobs. Auto r:nanU.r.aCtLlrtrS rely more on specialized hlJlkheaO connectOI"5l end hnmess COIlJ1CCtors as these de:5.(:ribed _ Slich eo~neclO:N. are customdeslgaed for a spcci lie car and arc effective in 'reducing incorrect wire. con[)CC:tiOru.OD an assembly line. But tbey're 001 easll y edapsed 1'0::1 project ear, hOf SIl:,hey __

Tho .... y you wlrc YO'" project OI.t ",ill De, enhtdy dirr~renL You cnn Install the wires, ilLt 'Your cO!Lvc:nienc:e, nnt".tr lhan II the demand of an i:nrCeSSlnll,. movin:!!l assembly line. You can take the time 10 install the: wires Om:' at .ii time, Or you c:at.I construct partial hamesses sl mllar [0 {he ones used, ill rhe f-ilcmry. 10 be installed and ,,,,,",,,,,lJy hoo""o "og<!her. Chapter ] I describes two hamess-eonstrecuon meL!'Iods. Fo~' new. ret"! assume lhal you ha .... e decIdc:d to make tw.c or three harnesses -one for the car's pMSen~r companment, M""her 00" lor under !he hood. and perhaps a lhird oae (.or tilt L"$tru~n_t PQne: I. How do you ccnnecr the- VoulOU5 bamc:ssc:5? You US!: terminal blocks.

A 'enni",1 bloc. is ","'lIy • plastic or resin ci3Sting, wtth twO rows of screw nead~ soowil'l,E. Each screw is separated from it; ru:igN><>,,, in !he rew by ,moll partjuons. BUl. eecn screw in one row Is .l.ot~colly ",""""ed by • hid~.n bo, bar 10 the screw dil«t:l)' opposite it In me oth.er row.

Suppose y01Jt u.ndCr-bood harness contains: eight wires. lhal must connet:l to a m:m:btn,j; sel of elgnl 'Wim$ in the unrlc:r~

T,lrm!rt.a1 bl~ c:~nn~~ grlllj' hamel!l~ to!i!rbr olhll(. Eact'i scn'W In len '~Iljm.hls '1!Iedn,. ooly ~_ 10 adjI<Hl_", tiel'" "'* UITIn. ,A bmllt TlWtII.IlM MdI,paJ, 01 Mlltth-

Inv from ,pol .. on _ ......

dash harness. This is a sfmplii'iect exampl,e ~ because there are uSU:illIy far mo~ than ,e:igbt wires in 1111 under-hood herness _ When, you install the' under-dash hA mess , y",,·11 run 'he, eiW1' wire. through • hoi. in "'" fiI<w,lIlU1d attach each to a screw in one, row on tJ],e·lerm.ino:l block. To <_pl"c, It>o job. ",Ia<h the eight uader-hood wires to l~ Sll;:1'eW.!i in tfic: olhcr row , mnking ~ure, thll:t each p.!UJ:' or wires i:5!ituw::hed to ITLQlC~ screws. Ring ItrmlnaJ,-5 are commonly u:5ied 10 CO"""" wi.. "od, '0 ,.,.., lnol· block screws.

What )'OU' V(! JUSt done i.5 eOiineel tWO harnesses together widlOU! using wider or solderless hun connectors. EJ.o;tb solder and 50Iderlw CQnnr;C10~ H!O"~/d wore, but they'~, lnecnvenlent to disconnect re odll~ for J.l<, service or diagnosi, work. ln addntcn. rermlaal bloc:~ nwu:. il .en!5.y to ch:nnge wires; around if you make e niistuke or II you WM_t 10 ~d anQlher bl'3.J1Ch 10 a particular circuit. As wIth, fuse panels, it's a good iden to choose a terminal block with a few CJ.1rii !'=fTni_naI:s for PQSSi_bl~ fll,turc. circuits.


G.:nerolly. Ih... ore two kinds of f1mhc:runits~lhoK for twn l"j-gooiJ und ,h."., for hU,.rdj1lUh"" Although obey ilIt! similar in appeannc:e~onen dirTering only in color-Ind they beve icknti,01 lennin.'" turn-,igrud n .. heesaad hatml f .. bers ore ,,",.011)1 no, Inl.en;:hange;a'ble_ An exceptlon IS when trailer lamps are L\dded to .be cirouit. as

StiI rt.lng !il1 :bi;J1il;lm, flr!jl t wlF'"I.&: copne<:led to tnII OIMI iClil'.ctIy ~u". SQ III ...,;:ond wire. Thln:llen. iItI'I'B 1tOrVWtd!l 1.0 thbd IlnCI -tIeI"'_ "hh;hponn .. _ 01 two dftk:el from on. 'liClhagl1IiCKifCt'.

described on !he loci rig page.

Tarn Flasbers- These unil.s art: what make Ill< 1",",.0Ild ...... lum "g .. ls ond dashboard Indlearors flash on 1UId. olf. All fIClOiY ears buj n aner 1'!I6"1ats.o ha ve slde-marker lamps. In most of 11l~" the ("",'mm"", 01"" fiadl.

The tum IlMhcr has a set or movable eOf'ltac1: points nnd a'n.eatlf.igtClil operau:d by C.'Ilrtt:llt flowlng lfuuugh the unit. During tum-signal, operauon, current flows thruegh Ih< PO'"". '"'" ,Il<: hearer, the luJt]~signid ;9witt:1:J and finally jhc lamps. Front and rear rum lumps selected by l.he turn-signallever tum on. When, the beeter 'Warms up. it lemporari ~y opens lh.e pcbus, and lhc tlJrn~si~Jlal :Lamps. go off. As soon as Ihe: heater cools. the points do se lind .he cycle "1"''-'_

If one exterior rum-sjgaal lamp is burned out, Ihere'"S not enough current now in the circuli ro mli.kc ItJ,C heater work, ,50 Ihc rtJ:Daining lamp sbnply comes Of' and srays oe. So. do the tumit,gnat ifidic-alAm en lhe dasbboard. This ls 8. safety factor mlended to alert you lhal Ulc tum~sign;a.IIMlp is burned OOL C(im~ paR; IhtS 1.0 Ihc operatlun of ltlc. hazard flasher. below,

Huard Hashor- The ""'""" fillS",r i, lraeeded to operate all four rurn-aignal lamp' ,; mu' l~u'I~. Because th' flasher is an cmcrg,c:ncy devke, H's de,-ignNi to operate even ir a turn-signal lilUdp is burned: QUi. In (acl, i.1 wijl operate wilh only one orlht four lamps funcileein,g.

The hai.3rd Jlesher :it.lso depends en ii1


j'aoll:l anlt havo Id:'1nllc:l.~ lMm[MI,. aut !hoy oro not Intondod to bo l_ngocI 'l.rHeuyou'l.ll"ldentand .... ,~ 0XI>iaI<1ed In .. " bolow.

set of n1:O'Vah le (Xi lets end ,he:ltinS elemem. but the confl~lJriitiofl is .cmlrely differenl trcm the mrrr-slgnat na~h.er. I" , he ,tlttanl n as her. Iht I"'i." oro normally open, so WOOl] )'ou first [Urn on jhe flasher, current nOW5 IhmlJ,gh the beeter on<J lam",. Because Qf the high '01 t.ge drop across th.e: beater, the lamps de not tight. As the 'De;O!e:r' wnrms .[1 closes lhe points, which sbun • .Ii_I! eurreru direc:ll), \0 the lamps. lighting them. Wi.hnoC:U.itt:Iit nawiI'l:g through. the beater, it cools and reopens mot: points. "Di(:fI th~ q.!:"k: repeats.

In' e rchangfng Turn na.b... " H.lOrli !'1.' ..... ~O«li"otlly. )·ou don't. Allbough t:tJc terminals are ldcnlkW:. ~ both units will lIUlk:e the. turn signals ni'l5h. you shocrdn "t use a h.il:uu-d nasheri n a. ,tllm-sigl'\l)] d-n:ui~. II defeaLS rbc wc:tl'-dcsign in.eru oJ warning you of ill! bumed-our lamp.

There is OrK: exception. though. when you're pulling a eaner. the added load-of nailer lamps on !he lum-signal circuil is best handled by a hazard-flasher unit. They u:rc aJ so sold OIl. the tnarkcl, as haJ-vy~d~/)' j1oshc,-s. which is anotb,er I'liUT~ for the same device. Ius! be sure [0 rei.nstilll the regular tum-:!Iiignal nasher .tdtcr ),oo,'w done pulling 'Ihc trailer.


Solde.rlw conneetcrs iH"C used to make permanent [unettons. They fat! i~!o three ge1'l.ernJ c,cue_goncs: sQld~r.I~u 1',:1'minl;J~. 50Mt!riesJ butt iotnrs and ~oIder~ Iess ctosea-ma connectors. wtuim these



1P~ ~r

-= ":" "":' =-

TutJtot..1,gRal ~,h.,."..l:,. d'l:lslglllD'd to operate ill P"""'trmEneid ,!'JI,Jl'flber" of '.m .... CurTen1 nOwt 1n1'Oli(ih, "mp' .rw:I ha_teI' ,..1;111 .. ame tllnI. ~ ............. p'tmd" 00 ~ CfNlO<I by .. ~.

c •. legori e s. yoo ·UIl"dbolh in,"lmed loci nonrin.suliu.ed connectors. Connectors discussed he" ,ore gtneral perpose • as compared whh tile special i:z.ed conne!:torsu.~ in ractoljl harnesses.

AU solderlcss connectors have one imponan! feature in common. 'fh.ty can be permanently attached 10 '" wire- wi.hoot use of solde,. And. !.hey are neitbcr removable nor reusable. The easiest way to remove a sclderless connectcr from .a wire is to eut the wire as eiose as possible to thc ccnnecror.

There 's one additional, and LJ.!1iq:uc. kind of soh.lerless ccnncncr dt::srnbed at the: end or this secuon. h '5 a removebre snl1p ttpUt't (j'jItrri!tcfO't" i:n.ended to join a wire to 000 dull' s already in use. These litt' Of 1M used ',0 add lrailtr wirin.g to a ear's ekcutcel system.

So.lder]ess Termllllilll.5- ThI;}"5e are used ot '[he ends or Wires Ihal .an: auached to I:ODl_POlIC'JJts or other wires. Insulated and nQn-in.:sUr~led types:are av~jlable\. ,Iruulalion is citht:r fulJ-roU~r (entire eermlnal) or crlmp-areo (barrel rmly).

SohJc:rI~s tefTJ:1il].Qls fall i[1,tl!:! I~ ge"eral"~legon.,. dep.t"fi~g on lhe shape or the terminar's "DL15:in~s eac. "

RJog t~nnJD:lillb are' used (Q .;.llU!Ch a wire to ;J threaded :s1\Jd on Il component . Common uppl lcatlom tnc,lL1d~ t~1'I'niT.ialblock screws ilr.Id surds on Ford-type staner solenoids. They are abo used with screws or bolts to unnch ground wires to n car's metal body Or (bassis.

An advanla.ge of the ri n_g terminal is:

I.tuu II csnnot disconnect ilself from the

... ~ IIa$her 110 r\Ot d"P"ndl!inl on n\.lJrtbiN' of I.",.,. in .. hcuit Cumin. flmn 'D I.mpllt tr.Ii 1:0 tlAt .... , In rum.

SCIl:w Or stud" even If.he fas!,ene:r loesens s:.tigM), - me screw or nut must be n::moved. In some instances. ~hi:s,roljl'" bea solig__ht disadvitn.age. if you need ,to disconnccr :3 ..eRn'nlll.

Due to the nauire of !heir installation ptoeedure, ring terminals do not come wilh full insulating (""01 [!iI'S. Once lastalled~ Ln.e rillS pornon of the. rermi.1'till cannot come into contact wi .. hLUlylhing but the. the stud or screw II· s, attached 'to. The}' are, ho'rwev-er .avaiJ:;;.ble wi Ih if1,sulated crimps.

Sp.dfl rermlDJIls .o:rc also used on th~adcd s!ud!!i Of screws. Tile ild v .m._a,[!:o a sp-ade tennlnal has over a rin.g tenni nal is th., it is forked SO it "'"' be "moved by loosening the f~~nerenOtlgh to free the tegs ofjhe lerminal. Howe' ... 'cr. ~hls could .i:lIS!:l 00 a dised vantage because 11i!: wire may dtseoenecr if ttle. fastener becomes 100000e.

Spade teemlnats are also lnualted in such a Wtj' lhal Ihey COiiMOI be proviiJed whh insulating cellars, .bUI arc a va llablc whh 0'1' w ithaut crtmp insujetcrs.

D~onDrct tr-nni:n:ii:b come [!l both male and f cmal e versions. Depending an apptlcatton. jhe f-emale Iype ma1' or may no, need 0 foil in,ulating oon"" Both ki~ ,[lJ"C also nvallablc wltb no insulalion ~_1Hj with crimp insul.u.tion "'''Iy.

The /em(Jle di!tYJiJn't~1 retmjlltli 1;5 acl,ually it type ofsocket. and it's usually On Ihefeet! $iJ_~ ofn i)onnecl.LQfl. orten, Ilx: female terminal ls in.:sul.ll!ro by a belli-in collar. This prarecu the term lnal from s;t"l;on'j n.g if it comes: in comccr wi th iii,

63 rheb rt echlli 10 ~~.oh"tzle' ~\~., ,i"

'Neatnl!!fti e~n.inlS.~~ leoitilll'\lil$ (I.r-..1iI n·IUd -lind labe-l·~ !1J 1Ii'I!Ii[f:rI~ ~.rrnr" ·wtJ.eh ~i:lU'I'"4!I. workf:ri.g ~nd~r pl'~,...r". Tht.5 ,Il.:slilartmt!!nl CBIlIII' wHh III run mei! lid blDi!I!I.

,SI'nZIUllt.rtr.itNIII j.;,jl I'~ In.u:pen:''!'ter:M~ 'I)J qulCk repetrs •. P11ol.o· by Ron Se!5-$l(ln$.

UM ring tePTnIPllJ. to 1II'ttac'" ."lm 1(1 com- 1)OfIeilt" Wl1l1 lh~ "IUd· or IBICr~ letmll'\lhl. FtI.,g 1em.NI e1 ~ I.IJ l'IOI'I'" In..ulilted for liM ·1IIIfI!;h ,hri",lI; WllI!p_ 0n!I •. t !:Iotkwn I .. 1""U~,(f. and I, IJl.lltabI:tI when Y"$ll"Ig. "'" .... ~.nnlnal. I,. ~~1IjIII qu.lt8l'11_

Spode lem'llnela: Ot1o at lOp has een...... _ ,,,",g~,"1og1lOd lotI< 10 K ..... 1>0 01'_ .odor. 0I1gh11y _noc!",_-H can .I:J,O II~P outllhn1-tjp tHm:lnal at :bot. 10m 'I lOIs likely 10 de tnr.-YOLI an blJY 1heH ·",..ben't:,. or •• 1. dlcl. btnt:I ti(:i:l 0' ~Ol'lventlona.l termlNil Min nMidl:e-rio:M pllett:.

grounded component or j"Jletal pan.

Female dtsccrmect terminals arc most onee useu to ill.liiC'h m wire; to Ihe buiH~ifli ruak: bJade on :iii load ccmjoeenr. A g.ood exeraple is the hc:~dl~mp, The bilex side of the lamp has protrud i·ns mille blades 1 wl'1:ile lhe wi.-es 11\:(11 connect 1.0 the. headlamp un:: Itned wilh femule d lsccenecr lerminals.

The fflf)le disconnect urmj1J{l} is lnIc.ml~d to plug lrao a marching rem.al~ disC:O.M:cCt termin.a.l. It's u.su:a.lly used 0f.L me witt being fed; that is. lt's oot often found on ttJf:.J~:d f'ide. b«~tJsc: il cUQld "",;do.,oJl.y shon If ittouched ""Y'hlIi,g grounded_ Ma!e Slolderle.s.s tennillals


~l.le en'CI·IHnale·dllcotlned.·U=rm.11161;J plug logetQer·. One-. ISl.tlOwn ;l'Iero hllto Insu!.4!tedI ba rmll CI n~y: otMr·".lHilllll:fO rully inl.ull1ted. Wi'llII'n u:s.lf1g .d'r;a:connKI tl!lmll'n;1lii, n'\IIl(.O ..vre I"IIY haVill sam& ~1i11idi8 wldtl'l..

USUQlly do I\-Qi have bUilt-in. j'n . .sUliU.i,o.g collars, but they are available with or whhout crimp j nsulmiun.

Sold er ","", Bull ConnO<Co."'- These arc :u:sed 10 jcln two wira end-to-end, or busted .. Hence, '[h~ name. The bull ronneeror ~s tubular in; shepc. with u hill insulator covering. it. The wires to be jCl i I'led ate if'lsened inlo opposil.e ends of the bun and are crimped in plac~. "It's also posslb.le io use a bun connector to join two wires to cne. again depending on lllL:. s:I;le or the connector open i ng. However, :;'i closed~c:[Id connecter LS preferred for [c ining three or more wires. C,_·["" COIIIItC1O"'- These are

wnen eon.nec~I'i!ll r:t'IiIllII and tern.le IIf"mlnafl, a. sure 1hey~re puahodl.n the wlY


r.h;lped ·sol1lelh.illg lik·e an. Qld-fOI:ShiQ.ned derby b~L The: I:TQWll of the. hilt LS l.iI1ge enough to. eccommcdarc :\!ie-vern,]' w lees .LIt once. wni le the brim or Ilh!:: ha·1 i.s. Iotr"g.c eoou,sb to fu e .... er lIit: whe 's insI.daljon, el1S.U:rins iln insulated connection. Olhe, th·!W Iheir abil iIi' to ili:"Com:tnodal-C!.:tII larger nembcr of wires. closed-end coenecrera may be. feg;t'rded as iru:ertltflngeable witn butt connectors. Like other sclderjcss connectors. cjosed-end coeneoora are lo.staJ,red' by cri mping,

SD.p~1iiji puce Conneclm's- ThiSi LSo a ti"L1~ilble conncerer used W joiq .Wi) wi.res wiiliololj need of cvning ~ splicing. ltis eQmmo!"!l), used to tap in.o ·existing wir-


Bun: connector II,:UHCI 'tO.fain wlJa erKS-lo-end'. :Hen, jt hu been c:i1mpM. ML'tO GM WI'-: othtr wire Ii I'UCty t13 be InHnKl~Nate ItIottlrnoun1 0' .x:poHd eonduetot.

Forne.le dJsconlHlC:1 ttnn~Mta a,. 0fI8n uNd 10 atl!K'" wi,... to c:ompcnl1'ltt.lt componen1 wrmlnal'iI In wld .. ty Mpal'ltod, no Inaulatlon II nM4O(I. Hut H aNI. II .. .III c:rowd&dj I.l" Irtlulillted tMtnE.rr.al.. rDr MSded proledJon agalnat 1!I1'IOi1 C:ltc.ulb!ll.

ing, sucn as W'l'ten YO'u add a trul let CQfJnectcr 10 :0 car, Sec p a ge I j:),

The suup-aptice connector opens on 11 hinge. when tl'S open. yUtl'U see a groove to a.xc:nnrrmdilU! th.e insulated Onb-rlli;:d wire (3_nd !3 nother deed-end groove to accommodate tht: wire you're uodlng _ T g cornplelt: rje ccnneetion, ttold lnc tW'O wires in place .md C lose the lid. The n use a pnlr of ptlers to squeeze the shding mcul;l contact into place. When the contact moves. it plerees the insulai iOtl I) f ooth IN i res simu.h . .aneousl,y, pro .... lding_ r'(mriuJlir)' between rhem, A second flap snaps shm ever th,t! metal coranci 1,0 prmeeli! from shorts.


lI u rt.J..wlr. (l1:1(;M~ termlnllilll:N uloUIly polWfty p,-ghr(:,.,.-um Is. Ibo1 -oan be pluggl!ld t~ anI)! .oM w.y -. ThIN mO:Id~LadlC connl<1ol"1 .,. Usually IOICI Wt:tn ttlort Ien(llnlo at wi,. .tttad'led. ThIS Dlllt:!:tI rullyh~:I.iJ~. see Nlp!3 far'monJII hlh;nm.Ion.. Pholi:l by .Jim Blttttt.

Clo.ald-lftd cannKIOfa' lor lIU'IomD'lm 11M In .i1Ul1ll\l1Od b1' Cflrnpj'ng. Don'l COni'UN U,em witt-. typto uAd 113r hou ... wiring. Thlti OM I .. used: 10 join: N13 wlNI.-llrg« OMII ,coulCl bIi uNCI 'Lo,laln tI'\rIe or mo ... wn... a.a:. SuN, -tCrIMd.atlnsullllon 1CO¥tfI ... xposed COI'iduI:I.ott. ot fill ",nl.

Sna~!CII!II -c;:gnneclJ;lrlJ IIr'I!!I sI:DlId ~eOrdil'lQ to 'Wi .... EJ898.. Of .11 COI1I'MIClon mIlD" lionlHl', ttJ;aM Ill. oo'ly onBS that c.n 'tit ~_ ~ 8hown hltflli"- ..... buH:t-tl'llti.JMI'. TD In:I"",!. 11'!HC1 wrtrn 'Into "IllS .,rovldR .1"JId! 'oIIDW dlre-etionlJ l_fI PholOilt rlghllt I" rmll')M:~ tl) "'trip In$U~Iqn_

u~ 'pTi~f1!; to !5onap p~ 5huL II rN!1I pierce inll.ullltlcn ,!!Ind m.,.ke'I:-Of'It.l!lcl 'wl!~ cut· tlng eq.l'Mtuc:tor.

AI [hough .a sncp-spt lee ccnnccror should be regarded I1S permanent, it can he ren'lOvcd and reused. De sure Il'ie.n;: 's nu eurrent .i 0 lti;e wires before ,ttllJoylng il. Open the nap to gain iI~S tc lh.o!: !:tin,ged lid. Pry open l1:Ie lid and remove thecon necror from .. he wires. Push the movable metal contact back 10 its ori,gi. nil] position. The ecnnecrer ls nnw reildjl for rt:1J5eT Be sure to tape carefully ever me: wire i ~SU lation that rwas pierced by ibe ccanecror.

s.n.ry-Cabl. Tennlnals- Thi:« arc aval Iabte in a llumD,cr or c1l'n.figI,.lI";lIiQfl.:5. determi rttd by the type of b:U1CT), btinili: used. AU can be divided 11110 two ba&-t:

types: cI~fm~ :and hlg-,rY{Je letmhruls.

Clamp-type: cable tenninals arc used on bau~ri I;:S whh mp PCJoSI!!i. Tnt: serml nul is designed 1'1) sl ip O v er the post I' .and is then I'ighlened whh a ctamp boll. Becausethe posi r.i ve pasIon a baucry has D .ligh\ly larger dirune,t<r \han lho ""GO!ive post. hlgh-qualhy damp terminals arc siji'..:cd accordingly. Cheaper li:_ind!ii are 001.

Lug- tyP'C cnbte loC=rrttino.l!5: lire used on baucrica whh side terminals. Thl:)' 're ,tls.a 1!J.sed at the Q!hc,r end of [be battery cables where one cable :ilUiC'hes ro !,he starter solenoid or st a ncr motor. and. the other to gn11,1nd on the eng i ne block or

65 Urrob~rr .htlich ~"schiiiZI s ~Iawi"



M IIlOHf.lJlau: IDIJIII ....

RAenRMI ....






~ Io<!n ..... fo< """"",, 1>11118_1", cable ......... fo< 01_ _ 00mi><aMl«> lormlOlll. -. to ..... by cb;IidiII.t:.uJd.-"d:~"rmlrJal ,top""li righI:" usalllf'gl"rtng ~ lind bCIft. ThlI 001 ~ bqu -c::cnnp ..... 1orI nut.

""II" IonnlnoJ ltop riOI"J •• nd f.t)lPO..... .. _ i>l' mmping.

m!r:u.I· ~~rtom) fgi' eO!'lollliO.h'lI :h!'o gt rn(Iofl!I

betbKlet Iii Don .... own I!I!I"4!I IrI-

-""-pi .

Laut dHi~. aM hlmpOniry 1..,..-n1rw.!, (hOI damp'" "'."""l1li_"" """_

ch3.'5sis. The IIJi]: ~ina.1 is flatened and has it bote (or an aU.iiCiling bon. In rilClol1 looLs much I ~te a lars,e ring !.erminal,

O ... rnlly. beneey-cable terminals ore ",,,,,,hod '" ihecable by <rimping. 11Ii. requires a ~pecial crimr-ing tool, Small baltelj'~tennil"lal crimping tools are clamped 111 ,11 'I,Il:5Ie or SlnJ.d;: w nb fI: ham~ I'DeT 10 operate the ·enmping. jaws, Larger IY~~ work much lik.e the: c:rimping ecors used on smarr teeninats. except they're much bigger.


Tg. InJtgH i::Ghilli"ii!lUIDri ._8ffr.1lnal. a:lmpty 91rlp ~~fttlrl" cabte, ~tl.dS Com~Is.IMi: nul cmn ~bi •• il.d $4;;i'1:'I'I' n'l..lt 11'1110 tflfmTn&I. Pil(lW CQ\.IrI.e!!ly or Cl'try"l."r COrp"

S-OrDe, LULL .... esel terminals are inslaJlai to the C'41ble by.a clamplng screw or set of gcrews. These a:it:' best I"CSCl'\'ed for cillCrg,eneies:~ l.bey 're f~ 1_00 crude for a professional .lnstalla.th:J1I.

Another type of tumi:r.1.81 anaches 10 a cable. by meM$ of ,Il ulntpJl18 nLiI. A cmJc is slld into the I.c:nn.in.al and the crimping nut ,i!! tigh~ned. It wOJk:g on a principle similar to that of a ferru te nttins on a tappet 'W'&tct ptpe. It provides a qunlily. flntsbed "1'1"""""0<.

L"t1~, Corn~relSloll tormlngl:l IlJr _lop I!!Ind .lel. post banertei:. FI'9!l1~ 'fAJl&:k ~j,"" con.n.et term'inal. use !51u'h"~P'b ~JlPCuen whh wing nul for qure~ ri"emovi!!l 1iiir'1L1 Instliil:'BUon 0'1' uDl:u_. 'P1tollO el)~I1Hy 0:1' Cluy ..... Co<p.


This section covers: ~n .. he mis-ceUaoeow, components ),00'11 need to make a wiring: ~~.lCcept the 'wire, whic.h was dlseussed in an earlier cn:ap-. I,cr. Tbese ,indude grcmmeu, lnsulemrs, harness "WI'8p5!lies and clamps.

Grom m ",,- Whon making • nolo 1h","C~ • body p..,01 for ",,"ing wires. uoe. gro,"mo, 10 cover the ragged edges. Allhough obi. is rnoJIdRtOl)' for holes

made in sheet me-till. i[ is often overlooked for those in lIt;ergJas.s. This i:s a mistake for two I1:3SCIfIS, First • Jfberglass Stl1m,d,s (;;).[1 evenllJ.(illy CUi through lhe wire i nsu lntlon. I r this, happens 10 adjaecru, wires, lhere's poten.jaJ for a, short circuit. Second. a correctly flrted grommet providC-s p',rotecLLon fipj nst tile jnrrusion or water, r u melli, air and dirt. If jhe fit is norctose enO'l:lsh" seal the open in.gs with silicone seal 10 ensure a weatherlighl fu,.

Grommets am usualty made arru~L'" or a rubberlike rna [en al. Then's a groove in the outside diameter lhal ~~~ over me edge of Ille hole in lhe panel. T'l'\e wires ));OS:S diro:u_gh a hole in .lit cemer of (rn: grommet.

In. selecting a grommet, consider SI: vcml dirrcnsiona; Ern. the diameter of to. hole i n tho g",mmel must be ju>\ large enousb to ccntaln the wires, The; hole in the. panel must be [ust large enough to ecccmmodmc the diameter of the bonom or the. gTQQ'rte. Fioally, the groove mUSI be] usi wide enough !O Ii. [he ~bjek.ness of the. materinl jhe hole L.;;. cut in. With f berglass. this last dimension is di ffictJ.Il [(I mat-ch because most grommets are made for sheer metal. which is ~hinf.i~r I.h!lf.i mcst f OcrJ!los s,

[f you can't fmd a grommet to nr your reeds, wnop .""~g~ lay." of electrical tape around [he- wires to wedge them ,~nlo tho ..,Ie. Allow enough 'look "0 ""ill :s ides of the panel so the wires are 001 ",.i ""d a_jJoi"" the odS. oJ ,he hole. III5u.lators- An insulator is ,my material thm prevents shorts eerwece arljileCQI w ires or between wires ana grounds. ObvitHisly, auromori 'V~ wi re rs manufactured wjt~.ail inSIlI;;il!i.~ co v enng~ usu.ally PVC p'[a;slj.c:_ so i[ doesn't need additional i.t\S.utl!ll.hofi. Bill wire ceanecnons mil)"

Shr,ink wrap. also C.illied htdr-'$J'r.dnk r~bins • is cernmonly used 10 insulate Wtlt ccneccticas. II is manufactured in ~ variely ,of le"glhs: .an(j di;:i.:melers, iUld comes iii severelthickaesses. The leas. cxpem lve type ia iJ. thin-wall plastic tube mat s.hrin};:s 10 aool,n half i15 ,original dieme~er when heated,

Hlgh-qlt~.[ily. lnic1c,-wall shrink wrap is prcfereble because i t ts lese [ikt=ly to splh when heated enough ·[0 yield maxi mum :;oh.rin\::a,ge. A uuck-wan sh rink:

........ dt1l""11 ""Io In 00,,", lot g_. IiNIQ ';;UI'1!l' ~I ~ bottom of!illl'Ol'n'" .._t groowtL ChOOM {VOIIImsl wlth"!II1"tlOW Wld1h ttwt ,., .. tet.I ,pII!'I-" Ih~,_ ToO Ililnlml:Di 'IfWld Or ...... ~ ........ buMlIiIriI &houSd fit Q~ Qpitlf!I~ "'UI'r.

Grommet. como 11'1 nurneroul llzeII; to KeOm~ a Ilqgl4i wlrtll up 10 .. II!tI1iI9 I>!il'dlo.

Uu 1ii:rQmryu!Jt to pm.eeI wh'Ii!:Iii. Ihat pa-U ItJrDljlJ1J ,rtl!'Willi (Ir pl!lneI~ ~.h bl;nJywlJr'k., :Ptmlo bJ' ,:rrmBartfl!itt.

Stu1nil; wnp tubing' com ... In IrWflY m. Itla c:okIra. U .. U~ Inlidal .. II\d i"Ri1'l~ JL.il'liCtlOnl ot 'WInitt. sea Ir'IIlItudlon..on pt;e1111li-1 '1. Pnoto~' flGf'I SesUonI.

WI!'4I,tll*lBning kH from c.l Term Ir'lCllICIM UiICinment 0( ~I"i t.., gl'Ol'M\tU, ;nybn damps and !\.iD:Dtr .... nl'.dI. ... metal c~mp •• PhcMo byRon Seu4C1n.,


Urhebsrrechtllctl 5[;IItJut s r., .. fa4[Jrl[.!

wn u p oI)lso pro ... idc-,s e~lro suppon at tcrminul ends to prevent wire fatigue at the eosmecuon pot nt. The !l10:5t expensi ve type conraurs ~ ha.-meJt ,::!dbe:.s:iv-e '~hut runs lnro the connection to proVtOO addltlo,t\:tl prm,eah:m I.!!gainsl, moi;sl'u re penerraticn. Alpha FT~ 105 'is one brand or hig"-q .. lhy, 'hi,~.",".11 sh"ok wrap-s-there ore oLhef!ii_ Olec};: t.h:e supplier's Ii" on p'ge> 1'2-153, For inrOmUU]On 01'1; installing &hnnk 'W'r.lPI see p,go, 116 on<! 118.

Electrical tape ls another form or lnsuJc'ii i{in, I nle'll tii,)tloo 'i ~ n,Q4. beceuse il is (I good Me'IJuxl. hlJt :simplY 1,0 give TIll: the: opportun.i t)' to beg you to res lst using. II. MortQ,l(:r. it l.ooks terrible, i_( is susceptib]t 10 heal. ,3J]d 'the adlrcstve may de", lenmale in rime, causin ~ the 1 nsu latioo 1:0 drop off """,p<:<tcdly:E'.Ie<lriooJ lap" is not reccmrnerded tor h:o:.mess wraps. chhcr.

Klu'"css WTI!!lp-s:~To bundle wires i"lo hamesses, you com chher we nylon ties. described below, or one of the harness "'J'3PS described bere. Bach meihod bas advantages and dlsadvanteges. Using lie-_~ is pcrl'il.:!ps \t-.e' ens-est W;lY 10 ,bundle n harness. so this is thr.:. bundl i,n~ method cl~stri bed in lhe c-11(!plerson m~}:: i I'],g and in5tatllns u harness, On Ihc other hand, a

I:CI1TeCd)' imniillcd hamess WTap can. g_i ve Ihe harness c reater appearance I han tics, Wraps al 50 provide: ~dd i:tlonal prorecdcn from hear, greasel din nnd abrasion.

Spill loom i. • n .. ible. corrugated COf](h.l.it rnade of black poJ.yelhyrene. The oCotJdtdt 1S spJillcT.lgthwisc fer easy InsertiQTI of wires. After the wires. are in:serted, !.he sewn springs back to !I dosed position and remains tig,h1l1' closed.

Loom tape is a non .. adhesive vin.yl tape ".00 specifically for """,,,ping harn,~_ Because it is nlJfHidhe:sivc-i~ sdheres 10 hs.elf ~l!Id ~mhln,g else.- a piece of shrink wrap is cseo er ,each end or the wrnp 10 keep the tape from unraveling. For more Lnform.atiQr!. 08 i nstall ing loom tape I see page: 141. ,As m.enllone(!, clC{:lt'1C"al tape or other edheswe .. type tapes make poor hnmcss wrups. Ties-Nylon Iks are narrow strips of piastlc with ,!!I ruw of lo~th melded Into lh.cir entire length. They are avaljable in fllan,l' ..... idths and leD!;llls. At cnC" end. ~ clamping, bloc-k grip:;. the teeth or the tie w:h-en [he lie is pulled thrnu gh. They are easiljl i~sralled wil.llout tools" However, Ihey are one-way; !hal Is, they cua'r be loosened easi Iy. SO you illuSt Cl.!_11he:tn to remove tbcm.

N ylCin tles are. used ro bundle waes

into harnesses. necar .. se rbe witts !."ire not under much stral n aft·cI the baness is installed, don't go. overboard whh size. Because width .md Jel1glh lsereasc tog,ether. I found 'that ei-inch ties am. long enough, though <!; liHle wide:r lhan, need be, BUI. narrower ones are often inconveniently :sllo-n_

Tie mounts allow Y(lU '[0 uSC tles 10 ait~_ch. ~he harness 10 nlll sLuf3ces;, The mount is a, small plasuc block with a slcr [hroogh it for' the nylon ric to pess thnRillh. The back of the mOIJJU ls selfauhestve. A stranger mourn lnciuoes a hole foee #06 SCl'eW to attach the mount, H!'ir.ncs:s CampS""""" There art'l several types of clamps and clip'S 10 attach !he nemess 10 the car's frame or body.

WlrinE: straps arc pl astic straps whh prong. ·0' I,ll' 0" 0'" 011'-; 'hoi posh into • predrijled he! lc. TIle othee end hes a barb. Arter wrtpp i-n_g ~he :~m-iI,'p around the wires, inslall the barb into the hole pro--vided. The barb e~,,,:!m;b tile prongs behind t.h.c panel. locking the MI"l3P [810 place. Irs poss-ible TO pry one of .ne~ streps loose whhou t destroyi.ng It r bur they're not designed for frequent disassembJy. Wiring straps are .tI¥wlablc iJJ. LI variety of conflguratlces that all work e~senr:1mll'y us descnbed tere.

Splt'al wnp I .... good a1tomlliYe 10 r:ornuailld "P~t 100m" II PIf- F,IiICIDr)' hameaeea ,I!!rijl !,.I:!i;1.J.iIlIy covered wil:h' C(H'rUg:i!tl~~ iplrt IooI'1"L.

niiU. bl'U'lefws to be pllc.d Inywl'len al'Of!U ,~", at hlirnHL One M: 1111 .f.llill 1!fIj'~!!I!ble III tf')e .-lierTpll!!ml In :II ",1IQe yarlety 01 !111Ita,

driwbld, IJ.Iha1 11 IU!Io to tie "!Knwed· ootD Wln!I' bu.nClJil. Thl.,.

lime tOI'!!!;umins ."CI' maul-l1 ,jnool"lover'lllllf1llo .dd 01' ramow. _ wire

.... ItI 1he hl!rFNIU It. flnl.a"'ed. Pho'I:I)~rtB;\ly 01 Chllll.r Corp-

Rubber-Insulated metel damp> ond P'lyitJ7I co.blt d~mpJ are exceuem for auQtbing wlre£ ,:m.d harnesses to most surfeces _ Each type reqll~~~iI single hole in the panel or [rounc rail for Iluachmcnl. The clamp can be im;L1Il(;d wi th il mn and boll Of W11ho!l rivet, Either me.!'hod to:;; fli'Co. b\)t :P Pop nvcl is les.s ume-consumlng 1O install and costs less.

0". drawback of ,he se clamps is thO!

Lhey cannot be ndjustcd for !l,g.h.tnes.s exc:ep by replacing ~m wilh! a di rreretn :size. Another drawback is thatjhc boles i ~ tne lar~~sj_:te clamps. ate too large for rivet ilItaChm.enl-ilie rivet head will J>UII Ihro"gIl, in ,hi. ease, you' 11 need a backup washer under the rivet head .

..... h-en r .... me clip> "'" g<><><l fer alta.cning h:.il"H~:s,ses to We edges o.ftbi,ck pantls or c:-JJ.ilssis.rails , These spring-steel clamps can be dipped on wnhout using tools, Oco<llh.y·re f.irly easy '0 rem,,, .. Or [Jdju.s.'!:. T'1i£ number of wires. they'll carry is limited ~ SCI Il'ICY are be$t used for f my .5maIl bundles, Or for .sillgk: or double wlres nlnniqg ton remote lccatlon on the ear, They ore be" for a<idiog on accessory circuit to ii ,car thnt's alre..il.dy wired,


Puah-on ;l'IIrM-cUp .. tacnel wi ... or NItnna 10 edge 01 c:'nlull ~.No'tJOft .....


I!IDtllIII==.lIl1l111ll1 II "1111' II j I

TtlI, .11Iirnp1t! tI....onllt ...... COf1'IIC't u.. et ")'Jon ~ .... II b~ poLnt. To. buiidI. !'IN" ~I"I ... I till on IN!q hi",", lmi'Mdll..,. QII"II ~'ItIer 1-1.'1:1'. of brJ.nc:h. 5pKtI U.I ,Ibout IIIi 1_ 'port oIo<Ig homeu.

\J!Ii\'EllML 'liE STRAP

IiIOU"".O nr 'SllW'


Nylon lI" ... :lIIv"nabla In nLl.I"!"Iet'Q\,I. tIHfI ti1d HV1II1II wiota. l.eilgth. ,1IIr4 wh:1I1'I ,til- 1;__ i;ogcrt.Nr ." you progr1l" up

lhivugh the .. 1a:I. ".. • ..., IN.., to j'n .... 1 .i'ld'~" wUtl WI", cu:n.r1i 'bvt e.nnor bIiI ~$IId'_ Evervon411 h;Q, ;!II ~~ NlI1'ItU Wi'l!p_ Mine I. I'JYIDn dlHl. They ~I"I &110 tIiI!I I,lIJed 'lIIiiitI nytlgi1 lie 1II(H,ir'it1lo to .nach Mf-' n8: .. tDI;:oJJ.

!i:t!gn ":I'{trnp,' (top) ,prqvit!IlI' good 11,GI31:EoI"II to, Iqmn" ., "",II ." ~"!II WIn in~1I:t1on. RI,I~.;JillP)l""'* InNI -ci,,"" ~1Wtn) {IIlII IJQI*'b tl;K light .... UI;IfI gf ,. ........... B(JI;!'w ~nd. IIIn!II 1I'I.taIIiMI to n.-t I.UI'fa;C:tI wftrJ. rheI. or .:teW.


P1udo wiring' llI:nIiP hU prong" ...... :PU'I'! l!'do pndr:lliid :l'I05II. Barb .1 other .nd PII_lnto aIoI. op<Ndlog p~

f1tl;li clamp jn:s.tiil[aUQli dlPJ:i'I(]n~liiI~:9 two Ilml'UllioQIL Artt, c:laInp I., Illill:ghl1Y too lWg:tI for _ OOOIS nt-IIMII not ~i!BM'~" was too .mil •.. Sft.Qnd.lll)JJce Ihllt I hM:II 1D USI • waIIlMt:behlnd tnI :rt;;ti. Holtlln c:lamp .... see Il:Irge .rK:I rim wouk:ll hive pu'led thl'O\lgtl.,

69 Urrob~" .htlich ~"schiiiZI s ~I~·~ri"

CMtlgfle.r 0' my ,t(li'npGii~il_t car t!'~t~f~ w'1'N!~ Il~dljil!p:;' "'rJll,!"l(1i go~ bu~ III1JU:toB:d I_Cl' rnll{e lI'Ie tlnal lilI:Iiiu"'b'Mnla.

wheo .[J Detroit ern' dcsig.Mr 'WOrD on :II new idea, he first tries ,it on ,targe. fuU-:!iiiu drawings. He checks for 'iIIterie:rei'O!s, (J~'nu'n8 space cad oiber importnm factors This is time-consumtll.C. btu Itle drawing board is Ihe theapcM fJlace to ,make fni.sl.ates, and rtnd solutions. Next comes the hand- bull [ prototype Ci31'. costing hundreds. of !hO"""'"' of doll,,., H.~, Ihe designer's cencepu an::' lI3nsflJrll:led, lntc a fullsize mock-up, where a.ny oversights are caught and corrected. Aft~r revisions and more, try0.ut5. the new C!U' design 'is fHU into prcdecdcn. If a mista1:e makes it this far. it wi 1,1 be ~peated tbmJiilGds of times!

Your project car is, slmller to th:u flrst I""lotype. You proba~ly ",on'l hove b!ueprinlS to won.:: from. 00 yoor II;Utlcepts become permanent durir.lg the try- 001, 'loge, So. yO" sI>ould work """fully :md ddiber.atcly 10 evold oversight!. ih!llt you'U have to live whh for l.ooli.Is:amls or mires.



Due to maTItlr:j)~tLU'~T':s de.S-'isn or ,!-egal ~irement5, some th.c:uiea.l: COm.~ ponents must be installed in II. speclrlc J.oca:LiOll. 0.0. kit cars, for inslaM:e. bod.), desi,gn ;md engfne tcquircmtnls dictate !he basic location of mnny components. These are c.aUed r~t(M/X1dlii:m rom' poneruJ.

DepemHng On the pTOj~1 car Y'0LJ~rt btl ild:ing or modifying, other c-omponents con be in5lallod rrnctieally on)"" ,"h.~ J1<l" ""nl. These ore called oplicmal-loca,ion, compOIlt:1TJ.f. A rew ~mponenl.!i filll between these two categories, es discussed later.

FiJ:etI .. Loclilllion CompollieDls-As menli"""". ,,11,... f"" "",wi ~.ed" location compommtsis u5Ual.ly determined by '~gnI requirements, vehicle design, tit belli. Headlemps rare one, C,_:\ample. There are minimum height requiremene Lnevery slate. If you're building u kit (fir, the IrLl! design runhe!"

dictates heudlnmp loc!Ilion-in the grille, rencers, ~.,.. .. re bucket. 01 what" ever. SOj YOLl often don"t have many ctloi_tes -or any ~ in determlniag headtamp location. Other cceipooeets. such as uluamps. also fj t (I:l-i~ c;:ategcxy_ OpIklll .. l-Loeatlon C .... ]10 ••• 1$These are romponenlS whose. location 'is nor ,ht;:l::nt'd by law OJ' ear d~s.:ign_ The fuse panel is one example. Wilhin ,reason, jou can lnstell it in any convenlera l.ocatiOl"l- il''I.side ll'\e gjove bCI:K, behind !he: dash or urKkr the sent. for example. Fixed 0' Op!loDQI? -The re ere some grny til?Q5-rompo.otnls that rna,}, ha .... e il designed loearlcn b\lt can be inst:tlled elscwhctt, "The baltery Is 011_0. ror instance, a kll cor rna)" i_nelurle a rectangu!;or batl.'Y ".Il en Ih. "nRine eompanmenr. Butyou"re free IOput 1M battery in anojher loc:n.ioo if you want, provided tl'.ere.'s 1;(J(Mj i,lr;rttil.lIlLOO .and cwu.,gh room,

With all ccmpoeems-s- fbed. opI:Lcnal OT le-beiween-s-you slill mtl!1 fcltcw l.he

stz..l'lumbir Incl toaUon 01 talUampll:i often dlehilecll by IOc:;II or !I1:i11' tIwt:. Be aurtl JoeIllon rClu·w. -chosen wllllCcnkttrn.

11'111. l:Ia ttBty lot1Illoo wil.1iI dlclsted .b1 Iwl;ll fi!ctQlr$., Rfl;t ... hill flher~ glii!i;St ~y w.iJS :if1QldE!d wUI"! b<!.tltrV $Ile]f [tl ipl"I;:~ .. Se<:M~ •. thr:5 locaUOn pUI.CfI:I tJ.8,tI(!-·ry WUh[tl IilIboLH 1 B 11"iCh~!11 011 .:!Iilarter fn(l\(lf', mln1'mlzilng cable klngtn.

In ht, In.. 11911 tpl'lm C!&:I'! .R,on, Fournlior lout ... IbaItotJ' :DI:ntOod' seal 1'1'1' tall at C:U'. tar imprQYOCl weigb1 dl':ltl1tMJticn. TI'Ila $lao placed ,bliltef')l wltn[n.l :PfJw IMI Q-f ,ilI1l"'1'houflied .a~,'lo(.

A,r\o'thlr OXolmplO 01 'W~ghl, (1~trl.b\ltlon: iDi!inOI')' for l"OI"!:I~1'1I91f10 Tran:li-Am Ml.i:litang ~i!II ifi1:IlJn\~L1 ill mar, li!i'IOf.lg WiU'l, illo:l ClU arm d.ry-Sl.!:;np 011 ,r1!IsefVo[r. TI'K; U!Cft'lQfi,; IO~" eabta- :1'\11'11 l'rom b.atl.e:ry to iI'i"iigliM. PbDln by Torn, Monroe.

basiC" princi plcs (If observation IIJld restfil1iflg bcfon: permanently Jrwu:lIll ing them. Thls is [rue C:~11 if a kit-car manufaeturer has deslgnateu sped flc tocarions jor compcnen LS_ That bctO.G nid ~ :ill components discussed from now OJ] will be l u.fnpeU into me ge:nera,t Cliitl!&Q-r.Y romponeras. with none or the above distiticti(H\S bt-ing made between !j'pc:!'i again.

r-,.'techanlcal facc()'rs-Lj'f(~ Ihe Fix.edI'QC01!tior. corapcreots jusl diS-CLlSsed.

eom:pon:e~LS inn uenccd by mechanical factors are locmed by conside!i'.uioM beyon-d -our control. F!J"clrull and t'j'j'.!rrv,"~ mem' d Icunc:: the basic loearlcn of loose components.

Obviously. the strut-cr molar. dis", tribu tor. and other such ensine· mcemed 'ccmponems cannor 'boe i"rIOvcd from ,their dcsfgned locancn. But cceslder the ojhcr related mechanical eompofl_e"L1i:s. Fo:r Instance. if I tw. starter rnom'j" requlrcs ,it separate starter relay, the ,relay musl he

lnsraued dose to lhe motor. You may pick the. exact SPOl on the inner r-Cl'lth:r or firewall for the relay. but plly:sic,.J reqUJten'ICrm; de.ermine ilS generol localion.

n,t SiUI'!C principle ~ppliL!'.s ro the igllj~ lion coil. h ~y be: mounted 10 the cyllncler head, engjne bloc-:k cr inner fender at your discredon e but it still must be in close proximity 10 the distribumr.

I. doe:;f1·\ ta.ke rmcb .hoopt te tta!iu: ihiil't wJrif.lg,~harne5S 'location is in-


U rhcberrec htl ich ges c h lilltes M a erla


JuS! as lleodlW11P I_~on i. Iflc. taled tlV slale regula_S, so ar" the number aoo !Ot8i~ et i:1I.J:IOU~'1' lamps- loal ... unl~s. YO,,,,,, bu ildlng a car lor strlclly <il1·tOad' use. 8~111 you ?Ia" 10 drMo !lie 0.' on a ?"~I" _.,. _ 01 "lg~".y,I~. laml>" mast c0nform to 1he-law.s 1:;11 YOlJr slau:t And 11 )<lll dlf'" qui, "I"ta,g. th~)"'" s<lblo<' 10 Ih. I ..... of ... J •• In "hlen you !rav.1.

i\s 'It, .. o"""",,"nying cl>.~ _,

mOtJnJing hel9 ht9IlN:l rtTa,xirrun a1JoW.. rIlI:::Il'o number of ,lamps 'II[)r:y from strJl.9 10 .1~1 e. MOsI stat •• also "El\'<Iodd,· tJonaj ~u""ions IMI MlJl1 ccvered In lhet:hfirt Far irlsl!ance. roof· or rollbar~ mcunled ramps are IlIeQ.fIl In almos't ell Sli!I.lfl5", em IIlfO ~fe.J"flh'!!d In SOfTtO illl'lo lamps are ettVoKld and di$COnF'.l8Clod-",ually ,by pulling Il1o 100"When en public- toadS. So. IhO 1>0,,, advfc:e is iOdllecf(Wllfi,~fJ~ motor ve'hi~le dt-pElirtmeni 1;1' hrgJlw,ay pa!JO'1 offloc bofo,," Instailins au>dl,.ry lamps,

Here are soma mOl..ll'ml'\g t!p$r;

• MDU~I log IaJIIp' .rId sho~ .",~g. drMng lamps as Jew aa 'p!adtcar, :proI"~.ti!y eolow ll<>adio.fT1ll le,oJ. nOs , mlnl "",e, '91. '" and ",n.e~on In log and dust, and batter IllumitJl1:!85 the to..:I d.-.etfy" Ir'O<I\ <>I you.

• MOt.Ifll 'IOfIg-llIng(l' tlnvJng lamps as high us pr:m:1icB.I, pratt1rta~~ above I)o;}dJIlJ'TIP Icvall• !SUI rom(l!rrlOOf lllal rool'mounted latnpum "'C!Iill In most ~1;j]I'Els, 'They [lIsa havo' 11 t6rtcency to flIfiem t)lf tho cars hood.

• MOWlliamps where they will be prQo- 100M This I. ,mOlcomloal on race cars, ~ell)l' oU-madeJ'S, than (or street 'iehk:les_ • .Bul Ia.m~ lTIOUllted below jhe fl1JfL1 burroer or :pro1 rudi.r.g """III "0 0.10"1110 ~I sm •• ~ed.

~!ltllalel have 1I'f1'111i1Q.V«ni~ MCMint'lnsi '"*9h1 .. o1l1tUlIi!llary limps.. C:neek (hen ee'IlinI in_.t.ltlng you .... _ 'Tlwi. ,-now .... , gill cilodl Photi) '1:1} Jil'l"l; 'a,pmllllt.

Thi:!l d1:ad ,Indicates II'tBI mCMlling ~Ionl :prl!lf9trOO iI.l!JI' d'ii ~VA j,Ameriea!"l
,~.:ncda.1or1 011 MI:MOrV'ehIde .Ad~rei!:Ofsl "l11;li !iln.ill;l' be oo~ piloT to mounrlng
;lliu;K!b!}! ,Ight:!. Ch¥! ~ of KC .Hil..iIB:s: Inc.
SPOT roc ,lux.. PA.SSNid .lUX, C:RIVING
,. ... ..... '-":a.tlgt, Mu"_ ..... ' ..... .... , _I:I,_~L
-. No, No, ~n,) No, I"'J No. ~".)
-.,. , H:.ao ~Jt~oIIj~ l~
AI .... 2 1.2..30 :24.04:2 1s..42
AriZona , 1-2-30 24.0412 ' .....
... ...,.., • 12..ao ;::1IIi-'~ Hi ... ....:12
Caliblllil) ~'I 1:2.:30 N-Illi:2 11ij.-.42
C.""""", • "-31) 2'D--A2 16-42
COnil8d~Lit 2 12...J1l 24·42 ,1>42
tIe:ia,"'-'Me • """ 1::4-1412 ' .....
O,C. • 1~.!30 24·14!:2 1~2
Aorid;a 1:2 .. 30 ~4·"Ii2 " ...
~ ""'" ;24-4:2: 111).-42
_, 1-242
""'" """" 24·"'2 106-4~
11~ t2-4:2
Ind~ 1:2$ :2A-.2 1.s~2
lOYI'll 1~-42:
Kan"" '~--30 ~,~HII<l' 1ij-4~
lool!iDM Prnhlbftl!ld 2 12.M , 2"0!1·4:2' z ;6-42
UaiflO , '1'1 '1'1 :1t~
~Iiilndl 2 ,2-00 2 \Ei-42
~1,I$e11s. ,
iMlChl!;li!ln '1'1 12·00 24 Min.
..........,.. , 1:i!.:JO 2'04 .... 2 116-42
..rL$~ 24 Min.
Mi:s~ 1.2-4::2
,,_"'" 1:l"..JO ..,_., 10Q-4:i::
-""'" 12....J:12 "24:Mm,
N!J.Ii!lda 16-42
NewH!lJIIP:!i:I'II~ 1~042
-- 1;:!-;!II:2
New'Me:del:l ,""" :24-4.2 ,e:-42:
NowYOik (6)
'''b11'1 Cotolll"l~
""'"0""'", ~a-3Q ~.i;-4_2 16-042
Ohh> , 1:,2,.00 2.$.42 1M2
""'""""'" 2j3) (40)
QrO!iiM , , 12~2"
Psnf1~a 1"1 12;ao1!1;!:
Fb;!di!l ISli!J'1d 2 I')
SoYItl Cesdina """" 24-42 1115-42
$ouDl OdOl-li I~..t~
TU8:!I ,,-00 20:1-4:2 16-4:2-
..." """
w~_on "'''''' ~.iI- .. ~ 16-.112
WI;I5IIV'irgiri.(ll , i~-.30 :24-4;2- ,.....,
WI~ 2(3) 12 Mil'l, 12Min,
[4ab) ('''')
W~_ln!;l1 12-<"(10 :204· ... 2 16-42 I'-} CaIVlOll9(CQfid! J2KcQ 01' :JO ""iiittii

(:F:l rctet 01' IWO jog til oWJC. lights ,peunlt1eg' (:1) Mu~ be mounted aJ heigl'lt be:1wMri JO-~n.,.jn.

(.iI~ Solow ~i9'ht tontol'l

[4t1) NO!1 !O oeoo::e:eo' 7:5Kcp

l~1 ErriJ wl'iil.& Of amber ligbl ody

[61 AIIL:< .fWI'itiet I!g'h~ below :l'Ieadllgl'l~ ~ 8"...00 g:la.m or [jazzle.

U r~cbmrec 1111 Ie h ges c h l,llies M a erla

Ilocnced by mecbanlcal Factors. Hil.r!.o nesses shQuld lak-c Ihe: shonest practical mute to the comporeoe the.y serve. Raeness location i .. a further dlctared by S[ructurnl me:nlbe:n. 1.0 wh ich lite harness must be auacbcd, Harnesses cannot be routed across open spaces, and they (,1'1l.rsl be protected from engine ~t und moving pans,

So" the lmponam rcaslderations of m.ec:b,&.l.nic:d f~I.O:r50 arc romPQ.I'j(!'nI f~llc';0'. and oompon~'I'I1 t'll I!jro~nl. These C-OI1S iiJerm ions are r'!J.rth~r d i~l.IssecJ under <he l\eoding CJ.""n""', below.

AIU:tQugh some preceding rem" ks aOOu1 mc:thwlLcal f acttJrs. may seem rather ub ... lous. Lhey were "lade for iii. good reasen, They'll help enable you to distinguish mcchanlcal factors. which you cannot control. from h.um.llJ1JiJ~IOrs, whleh },OLl can and mL1St >com ml, HUmBn P·:lillt'1iU·S"=,, Tbe science or hI~" ffl{l.rJ e.flgill,urj'Jg deals with bow ",arlou.~ human ractcrs-s-ancromy. pI;jS1olog),. psychology and :SO Oi'L~re!alt to the de .. sign illId pcshicnlng Qr maehlnes. lnstruments and coarrels. I [S :ilirn is to ce.sign prodUCLS Lhat w.ill. serve theuser in [he intended w.ay, Here •• ~ !e'm~ applies to I\Qw you relate 1:0 the coerrcls and displays in your car.

H1.J man engloeerlng j.~ both compllcated and given to .1 lot of special:izcd buzzwords. Hnwo .... er . some basic' priaelplea em be used to help j'0tI delcm1 i ne the locations or ele:tlri(:,tlc-omponc:JJIS in 'h.e passeoger comparunent or your pro]. tel' COlT.

There art. I wQ basic id'c:~ to consider when you're dcsign.in.g for human (actoes, The rlrst is to be sure the dt:ii.gn permi r5 maximum effectiveness and cfflcicncy when )'OLt usc iii ccncot or look ,01 ;Ii dk~pl'~)' _ The secf!i.MI is rtla[~~ to jour S!)ret)' while operating.lt.c device or looking ~H the displ.a.y. Cil!L you do so whhout causing ~m~lhii'lg undesirable '0 h"'ppen?

For lesnmce. :i r Ihe bead l:;.fItp' swiic:h and wifldshield .. wiper switch arc next to c~ch other. hi! \'C jhc SinilC· Shilj)C '-!.nd cpemre I,he same way. i ~ r'n:3.}, be: possible EO wrn Ihe: lttadliimps orr instead: or mming the wlpers on. Thi,s c·ou.1d be disasrrous on .3 darL, II1i ny nigh t! Such a dcSlgIl v iolates LDe rules. CJ r {!,-ood 1, urna n eng lneermg, or 1!f't:.m~(JJrIit'1._

Ttli. fuR ptll'Mil i1·IoeI.~ II'" I.n:Iltl.lmM·1 panel nl'xl to Clmlf":a rlgtJt ~I '.men. tMNI WI .• pltnty 01 I'OOIii tor p.nI:I IIInd aaoc:tal.ecl ·wj'rt"'Q .. It I. , • .tty *eCilllulble, c.1ON 10 ilIIJc'triCi:lI dllrtrlbUUOn P*"MiI ('tel" mIMI sttlPJ witt. 92 connection.'). :I!Ii'ltJ pro.. tectet:I !ram ~tal GOn'CK'C by moYlng part.,

Ai.FaW ,t-.nwgb rGOf'l'I to tClulO -lltiGectiflc-c:1 WirellO c:ornPCMn.ta. TnHe wll"H altKtIlO I.l:.: IlIm'lil'Ullll 01 OPOT Mp«' awtk:h 'On my ear, fblll phClC mike, h look woru man It ~1i,,!.:I1y I$.. bUI H1e ",11"fI. 11111 (lan,tIM .. a ~1r1y ·!,tIrQ1l· tM"II'I~" to ..,1 with In (liO:M q~en_

ldell I»m loulionl:.l neal' 1M '.t'OfIt,. pt'O~. hom ~~ ro.d lI.plash .nd away from ,u.~"'llol"II •• tMrIng lind ·engin .. 1m componem,_ 'Un .. I, rrH)~nttd ,tDot1orn 0' engl.1ioQ eorr'Iptl1rnenl, bJKlollid: ICI -chlUll tall I'!eIIr rrolll croumembef.

-Sn. consider human factors early "in the design precess. and do ir in iI Sl'SEeTQtl.tiC' w,py. These fll~[Jn. alscepply to selecting.gaug~, indlcnora and controls. Coneets are discussed on pa-,g-es '2.B-'J4. go.'uges ~l1d Lhdic-.:nors. on pagl:S 38A&.


NDle: This section is concerned wlr h clearances rOt compcneru ii"lSUI;II,QlitlO only. I t docs not cover wiring. except a5 it relates to C'I~ fer connection to componenrs, Clearaflce for wiringhlJJTI:eS.!i inslallallo.n is discussed all p~g.e

WI.I"lc!·:ll'Llclcl'-WI~" molo, l' ;IjI ',ol:rl)l' :Iarg.e, hll!lIyY r;J"vlQI:I' 1(1' l:Io,iI!Dr\. h h!!lJ. q~illllll!! f"w wirg1J I:Q se,Il'VH;:O iI = dl;m't h;irgl):t rn pnnrido

!IlfUUild wi If i'IiIJioi' iii mounted 1:0 tlbe:r~

g~ ae re to IlIIOw 1I!!1'It)Ug'h HK)m tgr

QPiI!II1I!UQP1 Dr IItIBGh&d' mech,"lll.&~ .. rm ar'll;l Unkag4;~ It III IPQWMfu.I ",rid ~n iIIctuall'y brNk thing. 1tJ .. gilt in ..,. ""Il'f.

I 02. Thls ch.ilptc:r deal~ with lhe lunc.iona! locatlan of uie componenu the wi:rt:s wll1 evcnmully mtach to .. Wiril1g requirements !He eu\'lt~ in the forlowi ng three c't"mptcP.ii,

A poo:rly nu,ed component rn.iJy look bad, function poorly or be lreenvenlenr 10 o~r.i!lc . h f'i'i:lj' also be difJir;utl or i rnpo:;..!i lble [0 SCi~ ice. or g:et ln the way of servicing a n.eigl'flxuing oon1ponenl. n.e obvious C1Iu:5t of such problems. ls poor plmwrng.

])e.erm~n;fig c lcaranee for ,jI rompcnern ceeslse of iUKing yourseff :3


U rhcbarrcc htl ich ges c h [<lltes !vi a erla

j .. lI~1y dJict,l .... by m .. nuf.actunlr.

O~, lI1t.!!!i"r\8lOt ~ltel$ .,. ..... Vy lI;:.IIj.tf~. or lI1iimpEng,t.. Kent. I uled 11;1JJ Illil1etfiltor brll($~ rot lTIOIJ!iling Ign[1I:QtI eolll.O leoep tl ~ to dllll,II;IIUh)r_

TN ... t.rtar lW)IIilllngkl III h:lllillily klc.ated~wHh"'I~_ or bIrtIJIty, 119d wfthl'n iIbouf 14 inct"MQI D'I :Datler mo'tDI' •. rniniml..i:'ing able ICIrlgth ••

~ I ...... thllili. I'~ newt' thOUgrll 'tryWtMlre 'bI.1t on ltitI' ~ne. R~r l-.btIt .. ar Ron Four-fiillllt' wanted to II;eep thei' II:IngQ' lXN'fI~ent Of hill :l!lip:r'l!iloQr~ JJlrl"8'l rod' .iithonW-;5ptInt .,.111, dc;In'l c:arry 11!111 illtil!llmMCr. HI!II ~ ~nt .. nd dr1¥i!1' to p,nnIll'IW" ot drtvll' IIIh.rt h, run .. nlll'1l*'tot. an., dr.wbacll.l. UII,t .. u...natOr pi.It* 0\1:1: MIl' 'I'thI:n tat "'_.


J i i


.... r" , " ... ~ ...

~ - ~~~ " r4 .' --rr, _

.11:, " ~. -; __

'. - '-I

. , • __...-' , ''!-, _ i;/ 111

NotCI how ......... n"IOcIIi'.up to_lI .... hoo:p Itl'Mlpe ot 'r.dlator .UP"' porLlt; would ~beon Ihor'rer to fUI'I 'tMI ........ ~I:lg"t IKI'ON, bUI il;W(Ki~, ...... ..". vul~..tI" 10 d.lIIJ9II.nd hI_look.,d terrl""_

Ford bnlk.,liW'ltch ~II, dQ~ tobil, I~.ted dlndlr 00 bnb ptibli .. rm, I Ig,d to :IIdd :III 'Wirl~ Cllmp to n.p wkl'8. ircmljltlting ~ by up.-ttop ot C:lu'tc:h lirm nen lID ,brake..

lb •• lI:utnft .. wU[:h I, 1.1," 10 k!ll '=lir'. II!Intii1!l' iI!!Il$c:.1;ric:.il!l i!ol~m- ~ IuIpdle (Wi sWitch I. 'r1IIlQDVabie Igr ~rtty~ ~U" th.1* car hn compul~' fU1I1 In,~'QoI'I 'IyS111f11 .... pn:rv'l,d'~ an .. ,,, .. ,. .. If'Vtl, lI::ircui't, byp:lKl~ udl .. Itch. to ...., ,compUlM'I' Iong-tetr.o ~ .. Ihot.

'~'tIorI, Of ~It: f:u.el 'pump !. well pI~"'_"belo'w hli)ll-tIInk level tDr EJDDd vt-'I'ity IMei to pNmp! elo •• tg, hi .. t bmk to ha£p prBVlIIlt ".por k!dt 00 hal day1ii, and wetl p~led Within' gr'1!I fTil!llP'r'l!eMlr'k..


series of questions. How well yo-u answer Ihen1. or wberher you answer them, wil.t largely dtt.erh1.LIlt how well the compcnerus 111 ln to !h~dr ~igr1:3;ted spaces and how well jhev (unction. There a..rc four cjenrance coosiiier31ioM ill p!illIl\inS eompoaem "()(:atio-f.I.s~ tlwrarrt;e for' ;:rJyt~Ut:ilfo.,., df:QJY1Jrci!Jar (us.ociataJ I"';r· hrg. dt;fJt"(J~"(;(! jn,opennrcHi and etrarance for' service.

l.na p'nlctical sense • al [ fooi clearances ilrC illt~lat~ nnd c .... ctlapp~ng, So, il.'s :n.ece~aty 10 define them onl:;, to make you aware of the, grcjn number 01 factors that can. cau.5t: a comptJinelU riot to fiL

Also assod:alcQ with these clearance rlletOn; a:rt: the ideas of crJnjuJ (',I"(1mlf.lfJtion. car~fuJ plannillg and ('a'~fuJ amfinillB- These will be covereo after I explain .. he four clearance factOrs. Clear:nnr:c ror' Insta.ILadon._ Thi$ i$ simply a mauer of space. Is there eoougti room for [he component whC>ie you wan! it 10 EO? Are Ln.tre 3!lY structural mcmbera in the W'iI au. <100" .. hood and Ol~r mf),.."(jbJ_{! body parts oper:!lt through lb.-eir full i'aJ]ge wilhou,l, lnrcrfcri ng whh the ccmporem you' re installiUS? Cap the ccerponcnt operate without lrueference (rom adjarcm componenrs? See Qear.UlC'e for Operahon. at rig'h!. Is lhcre a way to get the ccmponenr into the position you! ve selected? Does the compcaent have to be: i:nMa1tcd before or after

iinOlher cne 10 !l'YO id interference during lnstellation?

Cleara""e [0' WlrinE-Onre the componem is .i nstal led. can you get 'the associated win n,g 10 II'?' Is there enough room for the wire connecroesj I!. there enough worn for Y'JU! itiAinds and tools 1,0 i.11S\:s1 t Iht conncc-t()fs7 Wires. ami eonnectoes ore bulkier ~ they 100,11:. when space is cramped. [50 there enough room for H~ wiring harness? Thehamess bundlc can become bulky and dllflcuu to bend when SP;.IDf: is. Iimi.ed_

Clearance rer Opt:nltion~ If Ihe componenr is a switch or knob. can you reach .1, from ltie nOrm:3l dri ving position,? Is there enough room for yom hands 1lQd fingerS, [0 opcr3lC! il without tnterfereece fmm adjocen.t components? Cal'! it te Oil"" ernted when you' re "",-eariflg glove.'> or mhtens.'l' Docs the switch handle contact ~n,adjace[[;t c:ompor.-en( in ,u',y of iu positions.?

If .tle component has moving parts. is there room fOl"lh,ese p.atIS ro operate II! all pcsitlons 1 A good example is lil& linkage on ,t\e back or !he wi.nds.hield-wlper motor. I r Ihen:: arc several moving. parts close to eac h other. nll or then' should ha ... c room 1.0 Q~i1l[C freely. regardless of posltlcn.

Clearall(f' for Set-vlcc:~ I r [he LOillponcnr e .... cntually fa.il:s- i t cvcn'tuwly wilt you know. and ill proba.bl), Ibe leil:it

liI!ltrurnen1 ,"_MiI IIp:II 131,11, for HI.,. "MCI', W"provi'A:!'tdi loop In gJ;IlJUie ~ w!.re .. 113 ~rnoctI!l •• hl, fCiatLlf8. All yDiJ c;IIn IJM'. wlrblv •• 11- dfl:fJe befon' eaJ's u:ulrt l5i!ln wat In!._t!i!IIet1, ,r'niiIidngll a ....".

convenient time-will ,'00 be abJe 10. replace t(~ Is there room mound the compcueru \0 Innte ,ilrljl!S1.DlenlSr [5 Ihen:: room to unplug lfIe wire connectors for lest purposes'!



Many cf the' C"Qrnponcnl:5 rlsred in this section will be eprlonaj-locauen comporn:nts i"your c'~r-pem.,ps .11 of tbcm. IJ you' n:. iTl5~mfi£ optionulII)C::atiiJrt cQmpon.en.,g .hht aren·. meneioned here, follow tt.c general guideI lres ju.~. discussed ~and use co:mn.'IQf1; sense.

Bat1uy~As rn.e"lLon~ e:arii(:[. Iht battery may have: il deslge-llmired JI;)C:a~ lion. Ir not. IOCi1l'c i:lJtcr constdertng Ihe [ollo",lojl;

• Can it be ~curely fastened down']

• Will it be ea sy 10 get to [or ,be<l"ng and adding, w8.u:.r-ulllcs.s it's the newer, _~~led-for-'Iif~ type'l

• IIi it dose to the starter motor? This keeps long. hemv)' bau~1")' leadstoemlnlm_um m"\d reduce!!: unf'lec~sary \'01 tagc, drop.

Gauges-Oil kit cars. gllug,e 11):;(il!0t.I may be dictated by kit d~isn~ paniclIlarly in ,;1 replicar. wh~re nuthenuchy may be: lrnporuuu. em produetlon cars, tbc local_wn of add-oa g:u;ygl:s m(ly Or InUl' It(i! be ~ ic:-t!ited by the

Rea- eli"" I!n:glod Irulnll'Mnl p.ilnlli pro~k:Jeio Oll'tfrnUfil !iIl1'IJgo 'lil$-lbIlU-y :g;rNt 5Wi!eh ao:eu ff01l"l C!ttVC'.r"s 5e.lL 'Dl\I~ l/l11ii"'Uul1 r~:!5l$nl!!r:!;l iI!Iflgw q:ul~!I; ~JlIe. '-C-J'IlQ"i,!Il I'orp:ltrepe!fl. T,!!idi t; ;po.;.~ IJone.i1 so tltldllne l;l!l atrafgll! lip. Photo by Torn Monroe.


Urhebsrrechtllctl scnutzt s r., .. fa4[Jrl[.!

i nstrument-pancl design. depcndi ~~ ot.J the car and Ltle gal!ge beIng 'nSl~lr.cd. Even though gauge lecmion m';:I~" be d~cuned, refer 10 rh~ foJlL1win~ tisl to be on the Si1_fC side. lf you huve (i ebatce. be ~'bsah,:U,.eJy sure 1.0 ccnalder these:

• Can the spe~ometcr ceb!e be routed wi rbout kink in~'/'

• Can you see t.tie g,;aug_e faces clearly from the driver's scat? Thls ~:'O why rrs imporuu'lI[ 10 ha ve the se .... u and steering wheel !mud led . .ui l,e:i:S1 u~mpOfruily r before determining ihe tccuucn or .an}, of Ihc ,g:n.!gcs.

• Are the: most hnportaru g.i.llIges in It'i_e most irn~tt.lIlu p I_.[jre~~~ Only you can ~r cldc if 1.~ tatllOllleie,r i.s J:tlore Important I.fum the speedometer I or tbc oil-pressure gauge more impanam then the coolanttemperature gaug!;: .

• ' Are Ihere provisions for li,ghtin,g. the S3U,~CS? IF g:ruges don't come with built· i ['L lamp, sockets. :roo must determine 1t.c: npprupn,alc IOC.Bl~OnS for illumination lamps,


A&ndom -D,p4Ifa!ion :2 In. '(1 In.) :2 ., t 1I2fn.) 2in. (314 if1,j

Soo,ueoolol 1 "" i'14 In,1 I 10, (112 In, I


• is there room rOT th~ gau£C wiring bc.h.ind ~f1c: Ins~ru!11elJl-p;ilne_l? Is Lb.ere.su.rIlcicm access behind I.be panel for hands and toots to im;laU ihe gauges and auach l.he ",I"tres'l' I r 004. Ii m Lgtu be easter 100 install all gauge;s In il removable pane] with Ihe gauge Je<!lds a!r~dd,1' nueened. You can always run Illest pee-anached wires to a junction block for continuation of the circuits.

Indicator & wamlng Lemgs-s-Thcsc deserve !"11M)' of Il'Ie same basic con-

5 ldcratlons that you gi ve 10 gilUge!;.: Make. sun;:: 'yQlJ can sec them from lhe dri v cr's seat and lhal the~ aren't hidden behind the Sleering wheel. Is Ille Jaj'oul of the lamps logic~]? Fo_t instance. the lcfl-urm indicator sbou rd be Ieecred 10 ,th~' len: of the cl uaer uad Ihe right tum inil.icatOf to the right. rr you're using lamps ill con~ junction with gauges-c-rhe ('Iii pre~urc .glWge and wamlng lamp. for lnstnnoe-c'h.e "~'I(Iij cornponent ""o'id be close to cac.J'i. other for quick discrfmi nan On.

TheM .-wllC:~ *r1iI wil2llly ~r::-MI for ml .. llmuiJ1 ot ,.;:onlUa.lol1, '!IYBfI t~lJgn both pill's art I.li~ •. T09!111iaS optIraI .. e;;I,~llIi tl\tl .... not1'I"!"'l~ ON wtI.", Ihe Itl_' I. runnln:g. FlI,p-up u1:t!y 'Ihl.h:ll pr .. vi!!nt 1tCt:ldti'ltil cperanen 0' IClfiIli.. Puiltl buttons 11"8 """"""wron type.

Spatjng ar f"OdI:litr IlIiMI.(:;h!I:,. In my el!r I", not 1I:!;~riQnl~I~ 1IO\J:ncI-IIMIY'.ni much loa Gktae tDgl!!l"""'j illin!!l' 1111 ,i!IUke jl'l~l'lInee ancIloud'I:., f1~ ..... i'let ttbMMI~ I Cho:M the.8 ,llwitcrwa prj~"yfo_riippl:lfltlCl_l'\01a~OI1lOi"lQtnk: p"u1Q.r'IIITh.el'"&bOtl lhey'rq! no1 lablkrd I'. 'to maxfmlm c-onhi.li'an 1.0 potlnlilJ IImperer'~lt":I -In opt1'I road.IllIM" wllh IftllI' Inlruslo-n pl"04:ectlan.

5W!t!:;h ;U'hify iliih~rd m,p-iIi up !I;JI p!!nTi11 iJ,lm!i'lj;l e ..... I!et\ 0'11, Thl, Iwo.-:!itl!lll p,~~ur!!l m:lnimlU:!I :aCilOr~lat'Dpi:I~'t~ thou:gh In.,,, Ditlillfg,lll"u;:V, :B.wib;:hslii cnn. 00 lutnCtd' (]f1 J.D;a~tL'y jL!lIIl by ,p:tJ,"!lI~9I on&h.~ ..

S'witcbes -The JQtations of 'V:u10liS switches on the Ln5.lRlmcnt panel mil)' be die tat-t:d OJ' ear di:-sj gil. eon1po'n~f!llS the switches; serve, or Iheir Ioglcal placement in reteuon to Olher :!;wit!:be.s; ill'l.d oompcnenrs on !he panel. Logical placement as, an important COfIsid.e.ra:tioo 1" [oca!i.nC swircbes. Don'l fo:rgel lnis !lfId c-L\d 'Up with swhches ptceed in random locations oil over ,I", p"nel- II will "0' ".Iy be unanracdve, bUI wi 1.1 be lnccnvenient whe:n ~ll epemte them. Here ar~ some consldcrmions.

AFter general locations L1fC dcteemlncd for s:w".ltct'i.es, }'0'iJ n~ust .arral'L_ge lhem in speclflc locations. Often. it's helpful 'to position ccmrcls fer tl;l.alCd systems in the sene general. area. Two Ihlng5 togi .... c. careful thoughl 1,0 are the layout of controIs. n:hui vc 10 each cibcr. :md spacing between them.

If there ls U SoI.:q'Ucnce of operations ~h(n is commonly used for :1 Set oI conltols, Iny !hem mil to make th.ilt s~q'Uencc con... eniefit to foll'ow_ A goodexampte is ~ ~, tempe:nnutl: and fan cOlu.rol:li for a tearer or i':!;ir~c(mdi.tiOf1in.S system. Another ls ibc w1-ndsnichl-wlP'Cl"und~ r comrots if ihcse [lJ'C controlled by sc.1l'lrote swi tcbes.

The spac:l_ng or controls is just as 1 mportent as rocation. rr's dedmbleto space controls j3S, close together D5 prueticablc, simply to mini_mjz.c. Llnnc;ccssary reac.hirrg -'~pec ial Iy in the case of the related conlTOls rne:"'tiof\ed ~.bove. Slii

llitre';s..-. minimum rli.i1'.(ll1c~ to observe SO you don't nccidentall y operate il concot by miS!ak.ing, it fur WIOthct ceo. Tbjs is especially tt1e case 'in .off-mad r.M:ing ~ntJ raU)' cars wbere lhe going is catremcty rou,g,h _ [I'S not unreasonable !.O double lhe re:oolTune(l,ded d i,s:tM't'l:S 1:0 ;,\,ok) ace idenl,id .aCti¥';3;'llon of it s wi rch.

The: chnrt On tbc f~dng page gi .... es typical distances between controls. MCii51J.rr:mc.ntS ,arc ud;,cn. edge to edge. Preferred distance is given i:n inches. min imum di:S[3!"JC"e J rI! parernhescs.

Here are some otbcr coesldcrarions for locating ~~"Wilches and ~o,urols:

• Com the switch be reached comjortably from lht nontl3.J dri ving position? • ls ihere sufflclent clearance on all sloes gf I_b_e swilch1

• Js 'there :i:uffkitni, room behind the pan~1 for attaching the WIre connectors? • Will the ecn fiei:4ors c()f,i1e i 1'iII!) accidental contact whh ,me131 OOm.~ ponenrs. which CQU rd reed to short cir(uits:. Jires and oth~r not-fun OC(:IU'~ reecea?

• 1.5 there a need or provision (or il [umkn:ltii1g ~tlc :SWilth 1 I ( so" is I here enough space for the lamp and nssoclatcd wiring'?

• I r toe instrument panel ts Jlberglass. wil~ me switches you've.chosen m(lt!nt to Ihe: pan!.':l1 Remember. IIbc:Islas"s, is usually much tbkk~r Hu~:n ~hcet n~.ta.[ lISU(llly fo..-pd if! the pant-Is of faciO!')' lns ..... ll:;ttion~.,


The ti me to LlrrS'I,I,'1.":f the. questions raiscili so far is dUl'illg Ihe tf'~il jinifil, !lOI ilfk't 1'00. ve cu t openings or drilled holes.

T es , Fllllng-lr you're building" ki' car. you mig]'Lt ,.ss.l,une that nx~~ loe, u ton coeapooenu don.' I rlC(:r;:i to be'tt:lt r,,,ed. An er '11. ,ho",·, only one fixed place rUt certain components. so you. r:na,. as well go ahead end cut or dri Il. The lit manuf .. c.tllrcr PU! dimples; in the body just where telllmnps are supposed: to go, di,d.n't be? BUI :S1,OP line.! Ihink abo,n it far a minute.

What material are m05-! componentcar bodies I11l1de of] Pl D<:rt1I1ss. ArHI how ts the lh tckness (if f:i ~rg.l ass: c-o'n.[rolled'i Often, it's net. This is an ir.r_1x:It:TU dilar-;;)CI~ri!ilic or the material and the PfOl.'C-SS. 001 necessari I)' lit'! i n,dic:trne~~ .of the. body bujlder. So. don 'I uke anylhing, Ior gt[j.:nted,

Many r~:\cd-local ion 1:.1 eetrical COn)ponems depend on major parts of Lhe C3t b<ing as sembi..:! before you lnstan 01«" trical componeau. So. 1''''10 ilss.umc:d your cur is cs,s.t:nliallj' esse mbfed. wilh body parts. engine ~ suspension a:oo majer interim components installed, at least temporarily.

Decide which 'flxc,HOC.Ql.l on C'Om.J.'1'Of'L.efU to lnsran fir..; r. U't't.L:-c,.Qffiponer.rt l~ \0 be rnoof!~d on: [he body or in tile passenger compartment, ecver the area

TI Jrhcberrechth h Gc'chLrtzlBs ~I~" de

". rnl!i ._al'l'I1:tEngi;\nd:ltl.~'Uil!.aUOn l~uet\CO 2. Trw:. polfUon 01 tum-llgnlllarr.!j:I onto h;lr 1'M1i1:U~:f-l"MJ,u:nt~h.lfR-$lg_fl_allamp ,haws ~_. Sa ' ...... 1.0 ,cn.dcpoaitlOn -vIIUIIIyU ihe blI:!!Iir.c ruuuae, ;MtJli:Jl1')' il 10 ill ')lour par- ..,.:fI.1i; dl;lub~ y(K.Ir tnfJIklte-

1k:ul..- d.uaUr;m. Bogin by fnQIliliJrl'.n:g. It ~

cornJlc;llnl!l!lil" dl,.ll'lleeted' on ~.~ .. Ide

Of cu~ IOU.Uno oolh, T_,:MI on t..,ce:r pro-

ttda flnl:t:h IlfiCllllrovIdn ,(ftiIridng 1lI'"U_

3 • ...,..1' ..... POlltJoMc1 psket 0Vfl ou:tfJne of tamp :baw. A811'1'n. a«UJ'aqr COU'"U- Ge,~ ket :mull be perlec:'tty eemeee. Tf'IIt:o J."pmounting .f'd .,... .c:e1I'. ~81!1. Ul!ltng ;aH1't u. 1emj:llat41 ..

., Af1er ou'tl ine '0.' 'IIIasi{-e1 Bind tlote:s ,Bre in.IIr~~, rNIIrll: c:f:fttert~ for hole$ 10 be dtlJIIId.

5_ When IrTIOtm'~ m}lll!lmpl!;, l'~ UIII_t the 'tcr'"$W$ tiJi"hI_.t1ed w'tth trJ;em '""" a.o long th.iirl !hey .III&tualty t(M..;C:hI!td lbir, ~mp bulb. FlI'oru!:ng nllil,tLlilI IIItJip trIJl!-Ir'1I', I frlilld 1K~IjI.:r!Ii!lor1-11r. Dor!'t be .urprillOdiftlrJng. dan' ':lwl~llil e:l:actly ~ way IhIIy"Il!r 1tIpPOHCi to.

5. Oflll hoIe,,_ I'll f1~I~~' l'I'IaYW1lrn11O prw:kiU with :err 'InI!IU bUPlJI'II II slOw .peed, .......... ~Igw .nth fil1llhtu bll al modtn~ apMd. S!rr C11I'(1M ntrlltl' po_rrn!! roUrt~ d'"[1 t:"'L,I(:~ 10 eol'llllCl 'tlllpe tIIr reer ttlrDugl'i 11.

with masking nilp¢ eo pruu:Ct Ihe fintsb. The tape al so provides a con venlent place to dmw jhe ccmcrlioes of'boles and outlines of opening!i_ Then, have !U'I assistlmt hold ttl!:: compoeeor in place while vcu :step hack 10 view it from evert angle ~s5Lble.

If you don't ha\"t! MI asslstanr-s-ycu'H prooobly have several. because project ems often draw klbhzcrs Ii~c mcs~ temporarily brace or tape the compoeeut i:il place, I was lhli't~ing S'~ificilll)' of free.SlonOing l>ea<llamp' when I 01""" th ls, but the same upplles to most other componc nrs.

[f ~1L.1.are buildinS a kil car, -e11cc::k ro see that the eomponem is poS.LI10Lled :lCL01'd_[ng to the kit manufacturer's insuuctiona. Docs the componem look rigJ1 t wh~ ; ~ is.1 Will YoOu need to make an.y adjufmnCfJts or altowences fo, production teJcl'tl:llCes'f I r ~ component looks good in its position. ~~k clearaeces of mo ... tng parts nod cille.r clear~ ennsideraricns. In.s1;iiJlaUon~Wl'r.ef! you're sure [he: component flu the location you' V(: chosen. for j r, the nen SICp ls to measure i1:I'I.d mark on the mask ing, tape the hJC31 Ion for the hole or ooles:_ Bill, before you drill or cur any holes. doubl~ cher'Jt. your m':IISj.rcm~m~_ The n~t ami tiI!S1 rule or i nstalli ng cO:i1i!XJne,n.ts i.s: M t{lyurc f1-I,~h;t. cw om:{",

M;(H~hed cnmpoecms no .0 car! such as beadlamps and milbuups. ere mourur=:d syrnme:tric~Hy" Th.iJ1 ls. they're mounted LD seemi:ngly i.ci:c.,ILcal s-pots 0'" lhe QPpesl rc sides of the car, Agnin, because of lhe nature of the fibcrgJass body maicrinl and 111.'1: varloes levels or wotkrri.apsnip. you rna)' or mil)' net fi nd lhal ~ymmilmy ac:tu~JI)' exists. So. 1:0 CjiSU!"e' best appearaeee, measure for eech component sepa!':alel .... ', {;r,U ~eSI~Fii symmetric;)] cornP"D~nl-S together.

fnstalllng cemponems OOITC("U yinvolees pre-plann ing. checking .re~ ched::io_g ami flnully doiog it. At lhis p(lin.l " follow !bei nstcjlation insrmctlcns provided with the component Or toe' car kit. If I.'l1O irrSIr:u,cli oos came wilb either. n::[CI to, the 3pp:roprinle: shop maru.!al, If you're reasonably careful, the end result will be a j.,y'o be"OI~_


When all fi sed-location componenu are lnszal fed, determine: the e.)i;ac:l 1'«:1- U(ii,(}5. for tile opeionul- location eompOlU:f.1 ts .LU'l_O iUs-tilU them. Don't inslllll these untU you've lhO'u.gtu e'o'e'Ylbln.S ihrough and ctecked each location. Tcst~FiU.ing-=-FQr opdollaJ-loe.(uiop components such as 1~ buttery or bracket-moul1ted Gauges. r",Uew.he restfitting procedures. gi ven for fixedlocation components. For holc-mouraed gauges, indicator lamps and switches .• ma.'ke ;i!. run-size mock"ull or each com .. ponem. This is especially he tprut in determlniag exact spacing of COIDP'Orll:llt5. that req L! ire .targ,e holes. For Indicator lamps. remove thc:, tenses or she be%e·ls from the lamp asse mbHcs. if possible. Wld Itmponari.ty m.pc mclD to the Innru .. mem panel. For swhcbcs , you may be able 1.0 remove the bezel or mountjngnut. Oiherwis.e. !".Ilake a cardboard mock -up.

wbcn you make your ,gilUge mock-ups )'0tI don't have to create workaof'un, but ,n.y should be fairly represemanve.cnhe actual sauge appea.rnnce. Y ou can use an Inexpensive pencil 'LQrnp:1S$ for' dr-.:n~!ilg the. cjrcles 0'0- a p ieee of thln 'Cardboard. A Slrip of red ,apo can be "",d '" "pre",", the gauge: needle. And be sure to inc tude: ~hc outside di.ilfltere~ 'Of the g(Jjj8~ bt-;_d in your mock-up. If you don."t. you may position the gi3u,ge5i IOn cjose together.

Tape the mock-ups into she Iocatlnns you've selected for them on the instrun1enl panel. Movil'lg a taped-en meek-up at I.his pel rH is much easier IhUll moving a z-inch hale later! Sit in the: C4.1r scat and care ruU), stare ill eat:b giluge and 'indicatcr in !be 5])(1'1 you' VI: chosen rOf it. Reach out and pretend 10 operate eacn switch. Rcpeut this drill until -YQu·re actually tired of doing 'it" Move the comJ)O'r.efll.s ~ rlld un til )''OU 1.11 ink YQu' re satisfied with 'Ihr:lr l(i(:(il ions.

When you' .... e finally decided, on the e~1l(:1 J,OC;!.tii)!'J of cccn gilUg~,. j ndlcmor and switch. walk I.Iway from the car for awhile._ when ),ou come b~_cl;. tlJUj. see it wilh f reah eyes, you rna}' ncuke SOllletlling that you overlooked. And', if there an: going (0 be several !.lit vers, ha'l,."e eacx s:il in the driver's scat for a thorough critique. This is your 1!lS1 chance, so take your time. Take (Jilt last measurement

plil1l0l.l.tI dl)hEI wtth Q.'too:iing w'tl:i!lllllin"d 'illII',ii( tlilfllpDI".arrly En P!ICiII. ~ClU~1"tI 'I:IHlgning 'Inll paMJ o-rlnS'la[l]ngglii\Jg&_I te 1fI' lIii:dlllting panel, you RI'I -eilher cnw g8'U,gti ,mock-ups_, or moun1 ~u1S 01' KtuaiI: gauges on c:.atdboW, ... _r-.

behind tile instrument pane l for eacn etimfJOIi_epi, jugt f nr insurnru;:r;-_

E .... cnrually, you 'It be Sluis.Ft1::d "rim y-our chosen Iocnucns, ~lld me moment of mnh has arrived. CarcfuUy punch iii hole through ~ ~l:.Ilct center of each mock-up. Through thishote., use UCI:'D.ter punch Of small drill to inrlcnt the: surface. of the Instrument panel.

Drilling, HQ.I.::;s ~ Remove the mockups 0 one al a time, and write the ,si~ or the necessary hole n"exi 10 each -cenre:r:'punch mark. The bole for the ccmpoecra will be SiIJlIU,u·lhan the outdde dinmcrer of ,h e beze I. so meascre "'" """klh. boles accordlngjy. Finally, usc Ibe coceet-nze drill btl or nole saw ro cut each 'hole, referring to the pencilled dlrnen:!iiion:s.

For 'rectangu lur boles, drU I' a M"I;J] l hok al each COmer Oflbe eutcur. IDeo cut between the: holes with n sabre saw. Cover the, underside of ihc :saw·:5, baseplate witll severn] layers of masJdng tape to keep the saw from marring !he panel surface. Finally, usc n small file tosqeare eacn come" of (he L':utOI,U.

For Stet], panels. LJ.Se :iii hoi c: sew or sabre saw 'I,l,,'j_tn a fir.Jc-looth :metal.cul.tillg bl<J.d:e_ I· ve foundrhlLi.r iI line· rom.h wood-

Sto!llhll h!l'W!J. rllG:uIRl' jum $iiJnii!!ll!I, iiart~nU~ty ,reqLJNed iliot haylilglll!liidle !!-Mw .on :&11!!!I!i'· If'I.g cDII . .mn, ~ 'Wt!I itIOt.Ime.d tn:I:I tiltl'laiQlUIl :fMIitd'i, I.:Indet Club.:IO Of'lly tip or na ... 1111.1. -vil[b.l: .. rtom Ibovt. TnI.11I1n .. ilcind or .tftermatIi:_1I'I .. whctl ci •• !gneG to Inll-tln In ~r aln anc:IlrUdcl tlYit did nat o"-Iglnlll)! n:av. turn UgItIII.

.u",ing bl ude W<>t~, well f'" fibe'Glo". Regard I."" be '0'" ,1,0 blode ,0; sharp-eflbergtass tends to dull cutting edg.es. QULCk1y.

Ir you'Ore worldng whh a flbc.rgl_lIIss, p:an~ I on.a ik h CI!I_f. "lake:some test holes 10 (beck hole Sh3f."C ~jid SJUl. Mnk.e tc.:sl boles 'in ti scrap or fioclll-tass removed frcnnbe c.w-body. Fo,r instance. maay kit cars are rabricalcd whh rcinf ore,Lng webs in door openings, which you' II be temovins end discarding .anyw::ty_

I WWl't-.d ttl wt .. ml' car wtII'I nw. .. ~ Mr,,,,,,..., Idln.d by bIItmlliat biockL ThIN ""'M'IoO\.!Qhr'OClln,batl.lncI~rCOl"lSOnlI.Cl mOllnl tnI, illiockl, to I 'librlc;tlld arnou:rn· !og "'lI'tt 1C1t :bOU'I blQlC:iI;:I If!(w:I 'ttIM' panell.

occur in u fiberglass panel, such ns the iflSLrum~ru panel. In thL~ 'I:'a.5C, I :suggest eutri ng a 90le inlhe instrument penet hlrg~ enough to .accor.nmoJalc all. Lhc swncnes. Then feericete a mctal lnsert of a suitable ,thlckness and install the: fm:tu~ loaded swnches to ] t .• Done tru,ggielii! race

I I:UfS and vinugc~rephr:a kilr:-.:ns look g,ooj with ~n_g;i:.nc:-tliJ.mcd or boabedIDCIa.1 msens, so you can add 10 the instrarreru panel's itppearanc:e ill.he same


Wtum mounting lOgglc swircbes and rocker switches. onem ehem 50 Uw=)' operate vertically. Tha.t is, up Jor ON, down for Or:F. Use a horirorual orienta-

tion only if it is OOtlSLS'tl:rtt w,irn: operatice of Lhi!: device. For example. you ma)' warn to usc a loggle swil.c:h to ope:nue the, rum ,i!lJ1"l'-lho"~h "01 likel y-with !he movanc:nttlf the: :5WI tch correspondiog 1.0 Itle stues of.lh. ear _ Anotherpur pose. fer horizontal orten union of ~ swltehes is to prevent accidental moverrem. especially if !he horizontal switch i~ mlaed among, vertical ODC:.S.

This chapter covers the lnstallarlen or only lhe most common components.

Other ccmponeuts and accessories, iHlcn ilS radiO:5!U'1d speekcrs, arc Installed a.hIPldiM pillet, wi ... :p;lulttrOugh r"brt. nn:II:'h the same w:;,y as ..:tle compon~nts ~ 'lJ'l'CI!'I'!Pnll:lt. just described. 'By [l.QW. you !'j;houJ.d jccw the rOUl:Lne-mel1!iure twice! cut once.

Also refer 10 !he lns\aUation insU"Ll(:I,~ns Ilt[H acc:om~n.y the component.

After you have all ccmponenrs ins.talled 1.0 l'oor S.i:uis,fac1.ion-o:nd to the sal.LSf4C1iOll of the tequiren1tLlts of mechanical factors, human factors and clearance considcrarions-c-you'rc ready 10 design tbe. circuits Ih.ilt will lie ilicsc coraporeers together.


SeYmd ~ wlNl:l wl~ pau tnrougt'l ttU:. _"o,g !or I'uoo pollOI .. I qI~ • ~_ of I'L:ItI ..... 1'IOM lind msttUed II Oon 1h. fPI'IOge ",_wl_

Mounti", eompo ce "I.O-Mtcnnat:kJ:1 8ii!:U ges, ind[c,§u01' l:eJmps, sw i tch,es. I,Ind controls arc most often designed to mourn 10 a: {J.p. St.lrfac;~-~ {his is be!:'iI"~ lhere·.'j no way for Lhc ma.nufw..·ulttr ,m antlclpaze all !he speeiallzed places you mPy WBtI\ 10 ItI,QUnI them, Sped Iie mou.ruin,!l: procedures v'lIf)' for di:.fTacnl types af gilug,e;~.w the best ad 'Vice here is 1,0 fOII,Qw Ihe gauge-manuracrurer'v instructions. General lnstrucuons for molJrnlns common switches, are g,i ven bere.

ROlary and pesh-buucn s,wj tches moun_t from behind jhc pane], with the OCI",,,,, p""-"'~iIl$ thro"gt. • row>d 0010. A threeded stem 5t1rrotlllding!.he: aClu..rIlOr iill!C¢(XS:l thi" he.:qgQ11.al or knurled nut, and, a lock washer. Often, lhe sWlleh indudes. nprinted swiu:hpJatt' Ib.ill can be rnoontc:~: under Lhe. nur. if desired. This plate indicates swirch-ecurator pOS.il_ioo, A lin}, lab O'n '!,he plate inslalls into .. meehlned slot In the stem for correct



When mounting these swhcnes, be careful when you tighten me nut h 's quite thin! so the wrench mil)' slip orr and <Iam •. g. !ho "","nl loS "urr&Ceif you're careless.

Most toggle switches are holemcunrec like e tow:ry .s.wit-C"h. They else usually have. .1 swltchplare. BCltSO,rno toggle swlrcbes and. moM rnc.k:er switches are frO.' J<I<'d.J in", • ,p«i.lly ,""ped ,oc"'-'1gul"ho]c. 1bc required dimtns_iOl'IS of the hole 8Jl:. specified by 'Ihe s:wet(;:,h m~nufacturer. TO' cut a rectangular bole. follow the imlI'il-Cl~ons, in ·Ihc previous sect jon on drill.in,~ boles,

BC(alJS;t, mos~ ftoll t-loaded s:witct'Jes we retained by bu llr-ln spring clips, p.a.nd thick"r,Je.ss is imponmu_ Jf Ihe ,P:mel is 100 thin, il won't he tighUy damped between the cli-p illld the switch body, You rnayoeed 1,0 f:ab.ric.iu:e a shim ror CQ,rroec.! fit,

A lOO-tI'Ii'-ck ,conditio" i.!i most Hlu~'y to

Eicr-\1"Ii pu:a:n ,DIII.ton ~lliftJ and leggl. hl'ght~ ilf1!I' lrtl .. UedI from, ,tHltlIr1t1 !pIlDIt'1 !In.Q' !l;JIcktl!d In !plI(;O w'llil!wo ,nUl., ene r)n Ifl~r ,1d" ot' p.a~II. ThII~mltJ, Iid_I!JJI~JlIj Ib&!!ilt ,wUCI'\' 81 to pAMI. of 'r,I'a:ri:G1J:s ltilc:knllll5i$eS-

U rheber reo h III h g sc h utztes Maieri"

Symbol,. art- the Jangu lillie 01 el:edrle&1 (ih·a.ltts. JU!sl as. wilh a 5poO·Iil:H1Il:all1lu:il:SJll'i 'thi!! bener r(l~ u.l1(:!er-,\and I". fru:llvldutl ef.em:ents, Un: benef YOu will ~ abla 10 COmi'.nul'li~lIit~.

The ~m ... reeding chapter describes how tL1 locate aed immililhe vurious electrical ccnrpoeeras in your project car. ThL.;; chapter shews you how 10 make .. hoi: circult dlngrems that yeu 'I ~ usc. as a guioc to wlte componenu wgelher.

A gJ.anee 3\ the wiring dlfigril.tn:S in a Iypical shop mnnuul should convince you Ehut n c;Qr's electricul system. is com~II;:~_ viewed as a whole. i.t is, However, you won 'I need to make fil''i overall schemntic drawing of your COlI'S entire electrical system,

when I· W~ employed to deve! er etectrical-dlagncsis material for some of Detroit's .:IUI,o..COlllpaHY shop manuals. I made D point of ;.so'mr.ng LOIlv){m~!f.t!l inrc independe.n.r. Iu !'l'C1 Lonal C"~rcuiis. Utal made it easy to l.mdc~laoo them. work on them and trace currant p.nils in them. 11; is is the ,oppro:u::h used in Ihis chapter to draw circuit dlagrarns for your project car. aecause you'll be drawing ellen dTCL.lil !>Cp:~:r.He(y. rhere's n~\'Cr !,! time dllring the design proct::ss when you

need to jhlnk of the car's.entire electrical system at once.

In. !.lrJdi tion to the greater eaR of understandlng t there arc other Ildvant-"!.ges (Q the indi VtdlJal-(irc:uit approach. Because you're going 10 Install ea.ch wire, one ill a time, drawing each cjrcu it separately will help simplify ~,n:struc:tins Ihe bencss. Later, i f you need to dlegnose a probl em. you'll' have the sepa_rale ci relJit diagrams for reference.


If you've ever read a road map. YQu know bow important it is 1,0 understand the m~a.ning of the specialsymbols used. The same Ih.ing is. true or elrcul: druwtngs. So. let's g'i:;t started rig.ht byestilhJh.ning some basic symbols to use for yo'U:rciifigtiitn:s.

Many dl fferent symbol :syslerns are used ror electric::ll-(jTc~i. di:a,grams_ Bu [ for the s.d::c (I f ,I;: lurity, one SI:\ of :s imple symbols will be. used throughout this

OOok_ ~y om. sbown in the roHowing pages, Tho <e= [or ""og I~ese sym.bois is uun lhe)' portray what's illside 'ttle component, so 1'011 eae visual! y trace a clrcuir' 5: 'LI'ariOL15 p.alh::i Ihmugh ·Ihal eompcaenr. This is J)<iniauliUly .~pful wben depLCliftg relay~ and multiple-pole ewitebes. for example.

1.0 recent ycar.s, many c.nr manurecterers. are 1,I.S i ng s.ymbols. of I.nis t)'pe in Iheir shop manuals ,. If .pos:s Ible, gctlhe appro-pdnr . e sho", m1;~"["U(!J f-or ihc Ll~T model you're using i:I.S lIJ,c donor of )'ou:r clcc.ri.~ .. 1 ronlponel'Hs. Chan-ces:li.rt, 1 f aile car is, relall'rlcJy new, the tnil.f.l'u.al wlll use symbols much llke me ones used here. If Ute s,ymbo'[~ .ne not -e"\.;(ac:Uj' .. he SLtrne" )'00 ,,111 should be alii, II' dod plio' them by Slud"yin.8 the. sample ·wirin£, dlagrnms shown iillbi:s ·~h(ipl:er_

To ,~implif)' me drawings, most COIn" ponems are represented by rectangles QI' eire ies, The ;shupe of the symbol LS pot necessarily representative of wb.u the component aeumu y looks like.

al Urhebsrrechtllctl scnutzt s r., .. fa4[Jrl[.!


1t seems logical to begin a de>oription of specific symbols with the basic compeeent of' all clreults-s-the wlres. Regardless or wi", ga~e or iJlSU.latioo color. all wire. are drawn .. solld black li .... Theueepti"" i. the plwltom wire described later.

h',scu5l1mwy 10 write Ihe wire gag.e in numerah: nl:JI,;t to the wire and to ,indicate insulation color, inch.ldiIlg the 'tI"Ia:r color, if opplicoble.1'or e,ompio,. 12· gage. green wire willi Ii while. tracer would be de.ignated 12 gm .. /will. or 5OrndIiin$ .imi1ar. lI)'Ou IuIVCD't yel chosrn the oppropriale wi", sizes and colors lortho component. you're install· ingj see pnses 23-24.

WI .. ,C'o!on- Tbere •• p",bobly 00 universal. agrecmetlt n::gatding abbrevia& tioes used in. diagrams for me 'l,rarious wire colora. The dUgr:om. in !hi> chapur do not i"dud<: wi", c<llen bec.u~!he car )IQU'", "''''''ing on probably woo', be wi",d "aclly like tho """" used as ex=pJ .. bere. H"""' ...... yoo should indi, cate wire colors 00 )'<lUI di.gram •. ", U~ the following abbreviations;,

Color AbbrevialioD

Green gm
White .. ht
Red red
Dlue blue
Brown bm
Diad blk
y,lI.,., }'ei
Orange: omg
Purple P'P A. deoc-Jibed on page 2) •• '''''''' i •• stripe of. co,,"""ing color !hat ""'-' tho length of • wi re, T rsee rs ore· intended 10 provide a greeter variety of' 4'0010n;>+ 10 <1""'0 from. Factmy wirin~ diagrams identify"""'" ie dill"""'l w.yo. 0;, ._ that .... printed in colo< '''''ply duplicale the wi",', appcaranoe. 0;agr.ms printed inblaek,and·while use lobeu. Foruample, 11= on: """"""Mmon dC5l.giWiom fO[ .a mI win::, wir.h e whlre U'KeI':

• Red w/wlll (red with while)

• Rod wit (red with 1r1OC<f)

• RJW (red with white)

• RoWM (red with wltile)



Usually ~ the abbreviations used in fat· 10<)' diilgrams are fairly cbvj""". Some dillgrams aI", in<:1.udo • kga><! that idenlifi .. tho obbn:viat.,.,." '" your dlag-ratru .• you can U5t: any of the lbbc't:~ia~ lion me:lhods above, ai long as you keep !hem eonsi"",, .in. all. your drswing,. Gn)UDds-As IDCDtioned in earlia<.IIapter$. can ""usually wired in 0 s.ingle-wire unngeme:nt, where the eJwsi s, e"giroc block or ""to! body of the car K:r\'CS as Ihc rensn path to compiere each circuit. Th.al is, these pan:s. 1£1 "",_ .. ""diIIgcom, !bep<ri-"'''''''''' IiII win:: ee com.pone.o[ i.! a.ttIdlcd 10 the gro<Ind is, ",prooeoled by •• y",ool. Correct use oflbe ground symbol IlIClM yOlO ha,,-c rar fewct wires LO dnw when designing oircuilS. This is because you won. 't be: dniwing wiIa. 1.0 .show return paths to tho battory.

In most diagrams, tho symbol used f..gn;JUI!d loob """"wIW h1:e on "",idedown Chri!tmaS tree, so lhat'" what I use. h~!i made by dnq se v enl hori· :onlal lines, wi!lllbeiongest """ "" lOp and !be ,_ """ at tho bottom. The

wire attacbed to !be g"",nd .ymbol """"" in. [toM !be lOp, aeling .. tho trunk of tho upside-down' tree. Ground .ymbolo an: .110"", i. the drswing obove.

YOlO may find~berr<p<e><:n!ali""" for grtIunds in wiring di.agrams Iil< some imported COB. Tb: dia_ used by Ger· man auto man.uf:IctUrenL oft.cn 'usc. a, ihon.~ thick hori.mnul line. Ot:het diagra:nu nave • solid Jine' nnmin,g I.CJ'OS.S the emire bonom of the diagram It>

_1._by.oIngIo_lo<_ circuli (o\~ __ or ...... _ run porWW!O __ , __ I>U~""

.... (8)._w1 .. cIIon!IM_"'" ....... , _ • ",ht IIIItIo (C); ft·. 001 -...ylOeot'-Y-_ .......

"'present tho ch ... is, 0J'Id each grtIIIndcd compo:ncnt ,is: wired to it. To me. I'his is UJI""",,..Jlrily eocnpUeated aDd """" di_f· [oculI 10 draw. 50 don'l .... it.

Some component5 arc ~~lfrBFQundtd, meaning the body of the """'pooCDI iuelf acta as.ll conductor. completing the circuit to genund !lunugh ill! mountiog braeltet. On .• seU·grtlunded componenl, the genund ii shown as a dot on l.M ('om· PC"'"! o~diM, wi.th a <1>0.1\ ground 'Y"'"

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h (jutes M ateri a

bot running from it. However, if it selfgrounded e"mponent m us , be ottoobed to a liberglass or oilier non-metal body pant you must provide aj""'M' .-1,.. [KIm Ihe :mounting - bmckcl 10 ..- ,srolOtndcd melaJ pan of ,Ile vcl!le)o,-uoually the c_.i. "" • designated I..-gc.gagc ground wtre running the length of tbe car.


As explahed on page 34. ruse_!. Ire ""","fa<lure4 in several types-alas. capsule, Autofuse and ceramic, OIber circui"pro'e>:1ion devices .ineludefusfble Bnks I.Dd circuit brcH~.

Fltses, regardless of type. are shown as two do" jclned by .., S-.b.pcd tine. Thls symbol is difficult 10 draw fKdwJd, so if neatDc:5S i! important! buy a templ:ale or standard electrical symbols at an HI· or dra~jng-.upp.ly siore. Write the fuse's amperage nlling [Jut to the symbol.

FUsIble links are drawn as an ""lin a%}' wire joined 1'0 tt1e protCC1ed ciIwit by a blACk do! III ea<b end. II is <US!omaty to write Millie. Ink.oJong with gag< size, ..... , to Ihe .,ymbol.

CIraJII bro.k .... "'" drawn as • pair ~f dots jo;ne<I by • C-wpe<lline. U ..... - Iy. ~ i. oJ",. rec ... gal ar box arnw.j the symbol to p"""'y the cirtu,'-bre""e, ease. W,.;", the amperage rating ",,",I to the symbol,

FuM! paneJo arc JqI!<,",,'cd two way'" In :I baste .... power dlagram, the ~1 'is draWl) in its ent'''''Y. See ""'"""pie. page 90. For an indi vlduel clrcuh, only !.be f"",,(o) "!'Plle,hle to thai circu,t need to be 5_bowfi, In lh.is case, indicate the fuse panel as a phantom ctmtpOIttnJ,t using a dOOod line ..


Conneclors and le:rminIlls are used to """,""I wu., 109<1i1er or plug them into :It component, In mass production. tJW, i~ peeferable to wldering each wirec-Onnec~ t''''' oepantely. I' ... so ma!;e. servi ee , euier a~: a btcr dan::. Project cars IUSO usc ten.Ilinals because ,n'laO:Y components to which Ih. wires altl<h .,. ","ally dec ,siBncd for productlua c;m. and have btlihin renninaJ!i_

Because most =in3L< in use today on: or tho !TIAleIfomol. Iype. Ihe .ymbols fOf lemrln,'. "'" """&ned to ~nt

• •

A. FIINO by 81hIjIOd llno

___ u.o""'IOI ... _ ..

_"'tu __ ln._""'''' .... ponol.

a. .1IoprnMtt tuoIbio Wok .. __ _____ Iho_


C. CImIIt _ I • ...- by • ___ dolo. '" oamo

_ "'" ....,lIndtho _ Cor ce ..... "' ... ..,.._.IM_I._. g • ....,._tuoopo ...... .-..,. .. _,. IoIniog ..... Iuoo • .,.._"" _Iuoo..,.,. 101_1" '" UN __ Iodoplct Iuoo ponoI'" lndIvIduoi __ l1li •• thoro ___ lnpono1. _ _....n.

... oymboIlor !hom.

Uti. di,Qncllon. The male-lerrninalsymbot ,"haped like on a"uwh.ad and re!,<"",,,,, the blatk IIf the co""",,,,,". The fcmoJo-lenninal .ymbol is shaped like: II reverse arrowhead, Of V, Jnd "'l""sents the «xu, the male blade plug. mto.

In foctory harnesses, then: ... lwo tYPO:! of connectors in common use: the n.,·/xad. and b~li<l (pin) type. ~ of

the latest Del£oi~ harnesses are abc sponing highly westherprccfcd ceeuectcrs for electronic engine: conttols. These connectors have ~ dclic.illC pins. GeDen:J.p1iJpO'$C ~ldcrltS$ (l.)"n:neel:QI'1i used for project cara arc discussed on page> 63.65. Wbcthe, yw"", U3lng 1!l,enen.I-purpo~ terminals or factO!,), oees s :dv'Sed [tom. ~M'''''. thesym· bol. I"" moJo O!ld f"mal •• ormin1)' .,. the """"-lII"I"OWhea<I and reverseOIT<lwhoad ..

In !he C3.~ of wire-iO- wire connections ~ the hot side is female while lbe. >ide beiDg. fed is male. Thi' ie becou •• the female terminal is usually bu~1t iO!:Q III in,"'aro. blod: to prevent soon ctreuns if the connection is disconnected, c:ither in~ tentiOMl!y or accidentally.

Goner"ny. wllen se veral wire, .m."h to the same torn.poncnt. Ihe tennillals on f""tory wiring ham ..... have molded iD· sulaton.liXKu:aining ;fI, 5oCParllltc:, cu\'ity for eachwlre.In most cases , tbee's a female I<nninal inside eacl! cavity, regardlelSof wbether it's a hOI wire OJ a. ground wire.

The ,Mating terminals on CQ,mponc:nts arc male blades. Again,'be female (001) terminal within the insulated (onnettor is peotected egalnst ihortin8 wben the con!lOCI'" is di se onl!OC.ed. 'The ex posed male-blade lenninals on lhc: !."Omponenl [Jff: in: no danger of shorting because that', no i ... ottage in.dl, component when me terminal connecter is uilplUgged.

When designing and drawing. ycer clr- 0IIi, diaganl', pay port,c"'or anenti"" '0 !he ori!:ntltion. of male and remale tuminal,"oed to con...,' ,he eompononts )'00,'"C: chosen. JU_:5l remember thet Ihe bot ,ide of any CIlfl11eCt;on would alway. have • fcmak terminal. Polarity·ProIootcd COl!llUlorsThe se can be plUUodtOj!ether only one way! for the purpose of preventing !he wtPQ.8. wire from b-e:Ln,C connected to the wrong I<rntinal. Severo! mothodl; ""'~ be employed. to pro v idc the ooc·way fearure. One me.hod i, '0 provide • keyw~y in one conneclcr block with It m.atChlng ke~ on the o<her. Wbc:n Ihe two con, !IOCIO' hal...,s an: comedy aligned. the key filS into 'he keyway. AootheY method. i. '0 group Iemlinai.s in non·.ymmellicoJ a:rranSer:nc::nts or at angle! to each othct. Still onoth", method is to mi. both .maIe O!ld female t"""tnal ....... 11i<"I ,n • nen-


U rheberrec htlich ge5c h utztes IvI ate,;"


..... Ionnlnol symbol I .... ..- .. 8I"td ot wi,." If ....... an murup. rntM termlnalailn _ :llngIticonMdclr .......... t'l,Nli by ocI01ng doIIod ~no 10 loin .m _nolo .

sym~-trica] palt-em if' On,e ccnnencr. with iTuning l.enninals in me other conrector.

Connectors using blii!dc terminals usually c(mfmc: bolh 'male. and femalr: terminals within the e01'lJ'LeC1or bloc~~ If bullet ItCnnina.ls are used, the exposed mal. ",,,,,inol sbould nOi be bot, for sho,rt-circuit protectlcn. If all the, wires in a connector must be hot, use one, of tbc other poleruy-proteetion methods.

[f you'('C adapting. ~xisti!"lg factoryhamess connectors to ,your project ear. the previous few p .... graph' an: relevant to ),01.1. But if you're building It harness entirely fromscratct.J., using iIidividual eonneel:or termmals, )'00 must use O(he.r methods to make lhe eeeneenons reetproof.

I<-"Y _ .. I. ... <IooIIInoO 10 II" __ "",, __ y. _onoohownh ..

• ~ood ponton (U)<)" .... _.nd

• moldllng cIop_ (kerwoy) In tho _ r, ~ •• ry. Dmoing c:ourIooy elf _ ProrIoeta.




),__: --

__ "~IO' __ IlUd .. lind or 'II'It&. At WI:h lid" htm'W ..... ~ _1Ino10 uoedlO __ rnultio!o

...... 1e~ .. ln ..... ~!'IfteII:Ior.

wben jolnlng several Wlru 10 several oibers in a circu.il ~ ),OU can cut the wire er.u1s in 'I,I:uying lengths, so • long wire: OIl 000 holf of the hames ",""ches wi th • ,s.hQn wire in lhe otner hai I, and viceversa, Or, use coke-coded We COiloectcrs 'Of the same size wilh differenl insulator colors, Use e male alld femzk 'Or Ihe ~ cclor fer a matching, sa of wteea, Anothu way is 10 use a different wire color for eI.C_h matching pair in the I>am ess.

As whh ocher te:rmrn.al~ I wirin,M~ diagram symbol. fm poladty-proteceed ttrminaJs must be drown with the ttlli.l.e and fe-male symbols correctly oriemed to ensure that you won 't ac'C_ideruaJly d~:ign :a circuit with Il~nti:l) fOf·a:shonelreult if Ihc wires arC disconnected.

Non-"~'lllnnln:lI"'IInOIIiMt~ ,proor conMCllon. ~ ttLJ.. .umpte, conMC:'Ior • '-'I: COfIUlns 0I"III ,..,... ..... lrNll .non;! two mIIIeI; mating one hal 0fIIIII1mII • _ IWO _. FoII_...., 01

1II1a '- tJI'hIn UiIId· for tr. .. , c:onneGtIttni. Photo.by Jim _


OccilSionaily. a si.ngle feed wire is used to s'U:p:ply two sep.a:rot-e components. A jWlcricm - is used wbcre the separate cjreuhs branch out from the feed wtre. In !O<'OI)' 0 ers, 'hi' may bo • soldotW or crimped joint inside the harness. For project cars! ] prefer using a junction block. The <I<.:Itkal pa'h i, tho .<am< In ~ilhe:r ease, bUl a junctlun block is easier 10 install. Reg.rol ess of the altDchment method, use I. single black dol to iedlcate • j""olioo. If jou're plonning '0 use • junClipn block! write. the words ne_:U to ll>o dOl.


As .. ploine.l on pa,ge lO. '."';ou, types of switches by Ihc number of p-olu and lMOWS. ~ di:5tincllons shDuld become 01 .... when yo" draw \he ,wi'chea lntc your circuit diagrams ..

Poles are represented by a straighr llne appearing IQ "pivoe" fmm ,a large b.lack: dOl. Depending on 00w marly Ihrow, the switch has, Ihf: pole 's free end will be pomling al one dot~or one of :several do4~ w~k-h represent the contacts, or Ihn>ws. carcfull.y "udy "'" .",,,,mpony· i.ng drawmgs to see bow 1M: pole is drawn. AHhough it ,js essentiaJly a s:trai.ghlll!le, it lsn't easily IIXInFusecl with wires, terminals or the: l.ike.

M~bipJ.~-pol~ 111.'lrcMs fIR. represented by'''' ofparallcillnes. e3<:h rqrt,"n'· illg. on~ path (or cUlTenl to now through! lht: switch. In mos. c-ases. lhe: poles are IIlCdll.nically linked tog~r,.iQ moving


)j:i-: ---


.",_ _dng """",,ymrnoIri<oI eon-

.-.""bo"""I0 _

"' __ Wh .... _ .. bIo._ _ ... _ ... 01 __ to _

...,.,_whorI_l. unpIoggod.

U rheberrec htl ich gosc h utztes ~ 1 "teriB

In tho following Jl'I¥CS. yoo 'II rmd two sets of drawmg~ for ~h t_ircuit 'Ii:!!ilr.d above. One il fer a typical r:ear~enl!:ine car-an eie-coojed VW iJ shewn-s-and one is for III typical front-en.gine. cat-a Ford pinto is show". These c:.an were chosen because theY' ate the ones moM ofie-n used (Of 'kit can. However, the: cjrcuit diagmm can be used ;i! general gUide,lines for d~;'gniog. cjrcults for any project car, U,. tb"", in """iunction witb fDCtory wiring: diagrams IIJld wiring. jusll1JCliIJhS ibal oome with the compol1Ctll.lij. you buy.

The. rompon.enls 'shown to these diagrams IUC the: OM5 used. in the VW and Pimo ftclory jns,talI8tlon.~. ~ diagrarJU 01>0 S.,..,..lIy follow !lie facl<ny wiring scheme'. but the cjreuhs are ~imp1ifm to meke tbc:m easier 10 understlnd for ass.embliTlg ~ wiring t1ames~s (or your car.

In, .implifying tho circuits, tho elec<ricol rtl.tiOIlohip of !lie vorl""" wire. and components has not been clung..!. BUl, !lie dr>wio&>, .oow routiol!' you'd most Ii.k.c:ly usc: in a. one-of-a-kind car.

Often. f~to:ry ilia.grams appear inOrtdibly oomplioated and ,oomotime • se em to dory lOgi e. Thi. is bee ecse lh< (""lOrY harness i. do<igned 10 I>c, cuily and unorringly l..all.., on a ["""m<wi"G assembly liilf: by workers who may or may nOl u:ndentruKI wha1 each wire is for. When you wire your prnjeci cer from scratch, Y"'" oIIould ....",bl. your har· ness: whh it grut deal of underStanding and ta!:o ,.,..,ing for granted.

Th e sam ple diagram. _ an: for cars that W~~ bulh bc:f~ the on.rw.h of ele(:lnmic engine. and emi[i8ion controls. As mentioned eerfier. installing :s:uch eoetrols in • project car is I>cyond 11K scope of thi!; boot.

One Ias.t reminder before you stan drawing diagrams. Each component oIIould.1>c shown .as e solid ou~in. O<Jly I~ tht drawing wh~l't. if~ ftallJ.r~d, If lh.c same component or wire ~ppe;m; as a ~ference in oiber drawings, il shooJd oj ways be .hown as • pIuJM"", <_. ponenl, Thh allows }'O\J, It) use your eir:CUi' diagrlJJTL~ as a double-check when )'ou as .. mblo lh< wiring home sses and coeoect them to !he oomponc:nu, What yoo'li be doing i, maricing olfoaoh sotldhoe ccmpcuem or wire en the diagrarn as


you install it. beeti.lSt: it will appear u a solid line on only one dniwing. When e...-erything is il'\.5.talled~ SC~ !.he drawing s, Every solid·line OOmpootnl sboWd IK marlo:d. And. of """",.Ihe plan""" ccmporeets shookl no! be mart..,. Thi. eli-min.aLes the pos.sibili!y of omitting Of dupli<:.bnS anythiDg.



I followO<llhes< glli<lclines in prepering sample di.crum fer this book: [f you draw your own d~,-and you eee"'iDly ,hould-.lso foll.w Ihes< guklelines,

• BeJ ore , cutrtnI <on now, eoeb cireuit mU50t be oompkw, from, battay positive terminal to !lie battery negati"lenmn,l Short i;;,tJ,:uilS prevent cunenr from getting ((I !lie .load, and !hey bl.ow fusu, B. sun=: you don'l .accide.nLalI,y draw a short cireuit.

• lbe cou's engine. frame:; and meW body "'" .. g"",nds, or !he return ]>II!h of u.c cin::1.l lt, Use a ground symbol to, ind,i~ em where ~, cirt:uit grceods to engloe, f"""" or metol body.

• Compor;en~s mounted 1.0 nberglw n«d • separate ground wire IeodinB to lh< rr..".. [ndkate !his in !he diagrams_ • A switch must be wii:W in stT1t1 wi.th the load it ccmrols.

• loads are lHl:lally wifed in pariUe_1 with eecb otbc<.

• B~ sure each pote.ntially hot wire terminate~ in a femlle- connector to prevCO't shorts if """identall y disconnected. A good ""y to romeml>cr !hi. i. 10 .make sure the arrow-shaped .ymhol.< for beth mole and {om.~ Imninoj" point ,_rd tM power ,!QUn:::e.

EIe<:!rio>oI & Geoerapillc ConsI_ tioas- This cltop<er deal. with. coocepe yOll mu.<l undcntar.cl.io Qlder 10 progr<$O 10 the ~xl step of your wiring. task. 11 was hjtUed at in the diSCU-S!ion on tbe differences between how • f3Ctory barnes. ;_, wired and how you '11 wire yo;'r I"'/F cor. !1 has ((I do with tlK foct tluu the ekctrical :Sys.tcm in your car h~ 11NO dis.tin<tly dilfertlll sets of ch ..... teristi"" that IIUlSt be tc:mponuily separated i. your thinking. They art .1«"1001 ""n· 6id.tTatiom and glog,-nphic C-On<id.,at/om, Hero, Ih< term /!'I<Jgrophic refers to the physi<oI p<»ilionlng o[ the eletlric:al eompenents- contained in the <pOCO wi"'in Ihe <or', body,

Ci=lil de'ign deal. primarily wilb 11K eJe~trical CQnlid.eration!i. Goo.gmpbic considerations an:: covered in the foUow& ing chapter. For now 1 bere are some: simpie •• "",pIe. that will help yon diff erem.mte bclwt:eo the two.

The iIIU>1nu;on I>clow show. four ex-

_- .... _:_-._four I0..-

Il10_l1'li''11-_ ~ In perolol- .. _In _n)'lng 1m.

U rheberrcc htlich gesc h (jutes Iv! aleri a

Ooogroplllo __ :n-Iou,_ ... __ ...,..oIwIr1n9tho

I.U __ .. lompoln ..... AIIIIoutjh .. IIou'_ _Iy __ ...

10 tho __ pndIcol '""". _.,..otarIdpOInl. __ •

ample> of how two i<ien,ic>.l Jamps can b. wired. Eleotrical """ideratiom of t"" .. diagmn[§. Illl: Kienticil,-lhiIt is. the two lornps are wi!ed ill parallel. Wheno .ibo diag=n. diff er is in Ihcir geographic po~itioning. Routing the. W~:!!i can take on a wide variety of forms. dep:ndinz, 0Il!he: geogn>phy of.ibo ct, where .iboy will be installed. Lee's look ., them.

''f'he. ilJlJ~lralion above s.howa the cacuil for ueee I"",pswi~ in panl leI , These could be Ih. left ...., rigl>! wI· lamps, and license-plate lamp, The only .1e<trieaI """';def'1llion in th .. kind of ci~"Uit design i:i lhal each lamp be supplied wilh 12 vollS and nave • path 10 Wound. NotI«: that there ............ "'Y' 10 po<tr:ly lbi •• aU of jhem ejectrico.lly..,.nd.

But !he geographic oon.ide<alion,how tIx: components relate to each oth~r within a 'p""o-{or each .wnple .... i<lent ",11<,n you '''''' 10 ~ Ih. herness. The second inu!otratioo shows: it 11 pos,sible to wire a ur fQUowUig each of lhc C"iP:uh drawinp exactly. 8m notice IhAl metOOd. B ...., C .... irnproclical. They waste • h>t of wi re. 1II<,1!od A I. probably the most common ...., pref er-

able in.stal1ation.

So. the se e xercl ... de,mons""'" thai. il'$ possible to des:isn, lht s:aJn(,citeuit in ""eta! dill.., .. 'Ways. .n ,l«triCdl/y cceece. However, only one may be 8<ographicu1/y practical for your <I,. You',e prnbably see n th't!he WIY. "ifc:uil i~ drawn on a schematic" ma), or nny not resemble: the appca:nna:, of the barfl!e~ lhaf:5 tvernua11y made. PlNSC eet lbi. "",ion ftrmly p!an!C<l in Y<'u, .,;,"". If you don 'r, I can pI3dioally guarantee juurwlring project will beconfu>in8 and _ins mh<,!han rewarding and fun"


Satla)' vo lI.g. or generatOr oU!pllt ;, ~f~ to il! B +. Thi:!i i.!: the electricity ;n the wiring 'yslem lha, doe. lb< W<lrt<. You must provide a cirt:u.illluu can dislribl.ue 9 + to ~ various Io2ds in the system.

Certain components in II '!:u's c.lcctri,~ cal, ~ystem i:"an be re,Sa.tded as pc'K'tr ctlfI~r:r. 11w is, nurrercea s:ub.-d::rcuits branch out from !hem. Power == in· cluck tbe bailer)'. '01"'&0 ltguJato,. fuse penel. starter solenoid and ignition swirt:h_. 1'heu: power centers and the_iT


wireS: farm the bat/(;' power dn:-uil_

There IJ"e two kinda orB + ci1t:uitsthose that an: connected directly to lhe banery (always hot) and ,ho .. WI ... controlled by the igni'i<m .wiTdl. called ig1liti()1l or r:-ontroll~d circ:uh.~,

Compooents ,hat operate will>o<lt !he key hlrl1ed on are in the alW3)'S-bot circuits. The", in<,lode: patl:lUjllatnps. born. interior lamps and emergency nashen. In jI VW. lht! radio j s usually jnc ludcd because the Ignitiun switch does. not ... "" an acr.....-y pcsldon. All ot:har components are ""<,,tted through the: igni1ion. switcb. which means lhekcy musr .illtet he: IUmed to !he ON p<»ition or the ACC (""'<""'Y) posiuon, Th ... ohouldn't be 1,fI on when the Ol!gine ;, oot running.

In !he power-ctrcuit drowings. nonce thal in some cues rte:1'ern1 fux:!o in the: fuse pa oe ! are grouped 'ogelher. Each grocp is coeoected by • bra bar .. lhe lr),PU1_ ~ ~ a :r.insle inpul wire-can :supply voltage to mote- than one fuse, simplifying. wiring. For example, in Ihe VW c:irroil draw'itlg. fuses I illKI 2, ilre bu.~ logethe1'_ In the Pinto circuit, fuses.j. and 4 an: similarly bussed.

Notic:e atso LhaJ. most or ~, IN il"C! """)ins currenl In'" !he fits<' ponel ItO, :solid~ while 1hose'canying current our of the. fuse paocl an: ShO'Vt11 in phlliltom. Thl~ .1..5 because the phantom wiml am ,""ulily pan. of other cireu;". and oro shawn on the power-crrcuir drllwing only EL'5 references.

The fuses in ~ basic power circuit.llfr: numbered 1,0 CQf"1"e:!opond to the cavities in Ih< fUsc block. F.aeh fuse is iden,ified with the sante num'!J,er in eech dlegram whctt it is shown.

Th~' Pinto s1at1~:n:I.ii)' and vw W;ltiilgc tegulatOf are, shown in. phantClm 'in !.he power-circuit dr.!winp. because, tJthough their terminah: Del I.! powerdistributj,o'n points, the eomponenu are actually parts of other circuilj.


Although tho dfllWi"8' for VW and Pin'" charging .yOle"'" .0011'" n"_ of cesepoeents, most of them un: drawn in phantom. The nnly "'"'' thai. ere part of Ihc: charging system art the gcnennor, val~. ,.gol,,,,,. charge-indicator lomp, """ op(i_ """""leo ond velt-


U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ate,; a

ignition Cltcult-VW

;and :Ii condenser. When the i,grl.il1C1n swi!c,h is! in ihe ST.AAT or RUN posil r-rm. it provides ;;'01 tagc to the + terminal of Ille: igni.liv,,. coil, Ground for the. cell is; pn.'I\'ided lbroug_h cam-operated l'gfliriofJ pvilUJi in the: dlsmberor. As described earlier, with lh~ poi.,.:!; eiosed. a magnetic rlt:ld builds up i" the ceil primary wiedin g. A:;. ,he points open, Ihe lie'ld -col lapsc:s and high v ult~,c is im!uC"-(:d into ItJeserondary winding. It flows 10 I..he di,mOOI"" .nd 011 I" tI>e ,porkp.iuS"

Note that the mov a ble iPOLnl is t.n~ sclated and i~ connected to a colNkiuer. which acts. as all electrical cushion when ihc pOifU .. 'S. open. This tedw:."(:s point arciDg.

As. f.ar ax .he wlri ng h,art]e:i-S is conc~rned •• he ig,!liti()n clrcu-il cOnSiSUi of only one wire between the igniLion scwi!cft and the coil -+ terminal. For our pllrpost:S. the high~\'nllag<: Wlre.."! .. to regarded es JHu1, of • he 'engine. On VWs. the coil + I'enn_[nal acts it!i. a distribution point toe B + current to lhe b~,"·u:p lamps nod some other engjnc cornpcncnts. The iflslall~UjQn oruese wires is (O\'e!OO l R thc:ir ifldiv1dlJill 'l:'in:uitij.. Pinto Point-Ignition Syst<m- This system was used Ofll~' for the first few years or manufacture, h i~ c-~~ntjally like tile V'W ,~y;!'item a[read,Y e):.plained_ The 0'1111' si;Gf'llf!cant diffm!1'-'t' is .:n.... a ;r(:sislO£ is wired between the ignition


sw neh and the coil + terminal. Thjs red~ vOltage to preserve ihe i,gfJitl.~)rt points, During enginc:stilJt.u,PI thesrarter re:1:l), provides ful t "''C,ltog~ W the ~'()il tnrougb the I terminal on lhe relay body. This provides ftlU,imum spark for gO(Mj lS't;p,rting ,characteri.lil:ic:s. [f yoo forget to include jbc resistor in your harness. point wear will be escesst V'C. rr yoo f~l the wire: from the I terminal. ,gnitiQfl vQltage ~uring tf'l.8i~: start-up wljl bc reduced, Pinto E1edronic:-lgmtion Sy.t.mAI,thou.l;h thj~ book does OOt, Co .... er electronJc cOTnponents in general. elecu'Onic ~gn!tiofJ is SO common tooay that it is inctudl:d here. Althougb thi.lI is ;i]: specific dh!c.u~sion or the ,PlOtO system. varices other cJtr;::uoolcrignltion :!iiy~lems operate. ilnd are wired. In ~:§,senlLaUy Ihe same 'IoIr'Il)' _ Re.ft:r to the appropriiue shop ttILI.ilu.nJ for wiri.n__g dettdh. -

Cum::nt for the! system starts at Ih~ ignhlon swnch, which ~'~ up Ihe r:,ll!1:"lronic-ignrho,n module aml ;"oltagc regulator any time the ignition switch is 00. Another brarw;h of !his same circuit carries current Ihrough a resistor In Ihe coil + t.erminnl wheQ the ignition swuch is on. Ground for !he coil is, provided through tho module. Tho '1'00"10 "1><"' and ~l.(ISeS the 19nilioo-roil you.nd I obeying Instructions from a pickup coil in the ruuributar _ The pick"up coil and !nt':ltIul~ e$$C"U3Uy replece .he ron-


Y(M..'!"&I)i; 'l:tQu...ARIIII ",:-~,

- ~:.

~J QI;~~'~_~.J



'Ir'~nti(lnal poi nts and condenser.

When ee en.gine i:s ronniqg. ttle (.~L)it receives reduced voltage Ihrough!be re~istor. Durin.~ engine nan-up. the; coil recei ve~ full vohage from '.he S terminal of the :igniti~m switch. Slmuhaneously. a s.an :5:igo.al iS$CJ1.t from .Ile stiiUtcr~rclay S lCnII.Ln31 to dtc igni.:ion module.

~n drdWIlJ1; ~ assembling an electrcnic-igrurion ctreuit. be sure e\'r:ry wire.l:; connected to each compoaem ex(jClly as il was ill the factory in:no.lJutio.n, Electronic components are not (or!!:i ~ lng of !f! lstakes, 1 f Y()'IJ' re using :SOJTle other brand cl cjcctronic ignition:, obtain a shop In;anWlI for the CiU' to see tIow ihc system is wjred. then cop)' i1 execuy.


Both 110< VW ;md Pi"lo- in [act. just tdIout any car )'OU may usc as. the doeor for your pt'ojt'Ct ~~!!Ir-rely 00, minimum inSIf'Ui'tlei'ltallon rrom the ra(;mry~ usually a foci g~uge and speedometer. Some. li.ke: u.c Pinto. offer factory Ddd- 00 iesuumems-c-onen caned u raJiy ptJc:knge-. Tbese in.;;;lrumet1lS are :usually mneslhctically adaptable.o most project cars. In fact .• Lhe 'Pinto uses ,p O(;lFJ$I:at!t voIta,goe regulawr (CVR) to limit Ihe !'IITlOI.IIDlof \'o.lIa,gf! sem 10 the g.mg,es_ This, in uirn. requires it redic-ooisc Souppressor. Take mywonl for it-you probilbly won 't want to bnhee whh Ibii type

U rheberrec htl lch ge5c h (jutes M ateri"

Bnlke-Lamp Circuit-Pinto

drown a~ a squere in rIle cirt:U11 diagram. When the hnzord "' .. hch is ",mod ro, full \'ol1~ is ,provjdc:d to the 'mumlno:J.ion lamp.nd il glo ws whh lull bnll"",," 10 lndieamhazard-Jamp op=Iion.

The VW brd:r.lamp ~$/~m. sbo'WtI in 1M, diagnnl 00 lhc: facing, pag:e., i~ simpk: in opcnnion, h gels iUi; voll3,ge from il fuse. Who. tbe !>rake ped>J is dep resse d. the bral<o, switch etoses. pnwlding '011· D8< 10 the brake lamps. If !he broke pe<!<II i~ depre~ and one or lhe other brake cirt"Uitll, is low 00 fluid. the brake~ wl.mi~ tamp .is pro-vidcd wiLh voh.agc and it illuminates.

In lb. flal. ""om, three sources of volu@,c arc provided to. the turn-slgnal and ~ circuit,,_ TWQ or these are ,pI W8y~ hut,. and {me U 001 with .ignition on. ,Each of these sources incllldefi- i! 5eparate fU1iC.

Ld,'s I,ook itt brake oper(lJjorr 11m. assuming thal the lum..;SLgnal lever is ",,"gh' .hood (om. Volr..go i, p ... w":led I:>Y"CJ!!IinS, on the bra~. podal. <,I ce ing the- br:i1cswitch. From the brake switch, 1l noW'S IhnJugh !he tum~~ign:..1 lever wHh.o\Jt stopping. [I is rooted from the

nrrn-sigaaj jever through lWO wires. one going 10 cech of Ihc tt:;u" turnlb:rake lamps.

J[ I1>e ,"m-<i~"'lle'·., i. I"me~ to the right, the brake-lamp slgnal isrolItCd Qnly to the left rcal" lumlbrd:e lamp,~ be~,IU.I5C lhc right rt:1l" turn/brake lamp is na~hing on and off. The ~i re condi~ lion occurs if the t:u:m-sign.al rever is; naned M Ihe h: ft,

Now let's ~;'wh~t ha'p~lls in!,h.e li1m ,K.is,oot ,part of the cjrcuir during lhis 0peraticn. Alii n'lt:nlioncd, whe.n the mmsignallc"cf is in the Mr;aight"zhcad post. tlon, ~ .u.m·signal tamps ere off, permiiting bt)(h br..ll:e lamp~ II) operate- normolly.

When, the tum-:!i!ign.olle.;er i:s turned to ohe righ,. cnrrem flow' fi,;t .brou2h ibe rum nMh.eJ, then through the ri,glu~turn circuil of ,the .um-signal lever, !l1'\d 1In11- I'y from the tum-signal lcser Ih.:mugh two wirn:rii. One wire goes to the rig'hl.front ""'HiS",,1 lamp .nd lhe righHum tndka.tOf' 00, the: i:nurumcnt panel. ""hUe the other one goe.9, to lhc right-rear I.J.J..nIJbro.k.e lllmp_

Cun'erl' nowing through the n;jl;~er

quickly hears. [he thermal I:lemelJt, 1'hc: n'IO,"'oble CQrlti.C'l !.hen breaks. Ihe current flow to 11,l.('! lamps. which go out. As soon as lhe elemenl COOhi enough. current flow is re1iton:.d, to Ihe liIom~ and d\e cycle repeatS_ Operation of the left-fum circuit .is identical,

FlasIJlng .fikI.- ..... rk... "'mpo ere • special case ~ flO( included in. ~itber the VW or Ptmc wiring, diagrams slKnvn. H~ve )'00 ever noticed that on SCI~ can 1M [ron, ,Jde.,natI;.r lamp n ...... on and off 'SimuJ1~ously with ihc 10m :iignal? And. when the parking lamps. arc on. the >ide m>.ik., n.,l>o, alternately whh the 10m. slgn.al.s? Dkl you ever wooder wh}"~ Here':s the; answer:

In lbc diagram on page 98 ~ nOle OOW the fmru side,~ma:rker lamps ~ wlred, One .side: of.he: fIIamenl is i,t1ucbed to I_he houideof the perking lamp and 1M 011>0. ~ iltlathcd 10 the ~, :side of t~ turn';gn.1 lamp. Guaranteed not 10 _. rig.ht? Wmng~ u wOl"k.s jUM nne,

Let's use the I.r, marker as an example. In tl:>o pading·l.",p mode. tho ,,,,,,kef get. ",lIage [rom thep3"'in~lamp cjn;uit 1l_1"l(f it grounds lh.raugh ;ht


U rhcberrec htlich gesc h utztes M aie,i"

Backup-Lamps Clreult-VW

BIIckup-L.ampa Circuit-Pinto


' .... I

:" __ J

.... II'~

Typical Flashing SId&-Mlrtc., Circuit

lamp fil(J~nr of lh~ 1~~IJJr1t signal! You may re-call from the earlier diS(us.~iofi5 of eurtenl now, oiJolta.ge: drops and amperagc~ that when two resi:stances art 'wired it.l, series. \he current now in jbo cin:'L1il i ~ determined by die lotoU eestsraece in; ,he cireuh. I r me resultmg currem flow i.s, too lew, it'. po .. jble f(lf tho feeble currenno n"" Iltroogh • 10>0<1 wiiho"1 doing '"Y work, This is e.lacd)l whQl happen'S with a front tum ~ign:al. The sidt-rn.arker lamp bas ctlinkknlbly more n:;sistanu romlhC tum ,si,!,:IllI.I. S(} theside·marter lamp ligblS, .nd uses ""'"' of tho .""il...., vol .. se.The Ii'tlo voncge lila,', left simply now, ""''''~h tho tum-signal lamp. withou t ligbt ins it. 00 irs way to 8nlund.

The :situ:atioo is enlhtly dmer=:tt. thoogh. when the: tum signal Istumeden. Each time the IUm-,sign6l.Ilamp tlasha. chcsidc marurh:mporaril), g,1t's B + cureen •. on both sides. of !.be filarn~.ni_. :siJo l! goes OUl. II' then continues: to flash ahailJlIeI)' with the turn s lgml, 'That i;. the

merker is o'IT w'hcn the rum signal is on ~ and vice-versa.

If the turn '"8"l1 i. operated wifh the parking hun", off. tho side I!I>der gel> .oll:lge from the 'urn-signal <ir<ujt .od ground. Ih",uSh tho parkillg.lamp m.· mem. In this case, the- skit: ma.rker and rum .is .... ftao.b'imullancously.

locitlonrally. in .U em. tho rear ,We mark ... are 001 Jactory "'iltd to blink with the rum sl'gnds: like the front ooes. If )'011 WOlll. thorn 10 blillk. on your projeel car, wire the rmrmarkcn the s~ aJi Ih:: (""'I ones. ll1ta<hing one lead 10 the 1IIi1- lamp circuil and one to. the tumr,si.snal circuh. But be fon:wnmed: the real' side marl",,, wiU ligh, up when lhe brake. are applied in the day1i"'" and will go out ,,"'hen lb. broI: ..... appli<ol III njg!nl Back-up Uu n po-In ·Iiorh the VW ond Pinto 'Y'Iem', the lamp. will work only if tOO ignrllQr'Ii i!ol; turned On lind tbe Ir.lnSmWiion !.hift lever u in reverse,

la lhe VW system, lhe vo.I"ge to

operate the baek~~:p la_rnps i:!i pcovided by the same wire that feeds the ignition toil. Other tha.nsba:ring the ~ reed wire. the ig"i'ion and b •• k""!' lam.1" are entirely independent of t:O<:h other. N",. 1he usc: of lhe in-line fuse. This is unusual:

FU~ are illmost always in the. ruse part.1. The baol;.up.larnp'l"'lem'OOwn bere is de!;i,gncd to work- only OD VWs with manual transmlss:tan:s-me 'ir-cooled Beelk used for,this example is. DOl. avail:able ~th an I.utomatic transrmseion.

In the PInto system, thore .... 1WO tran:!iimlM.iion opt.ioru., m.anuiI[ and auto[rW,ic. Other than th~ oonrtgLm\tion ortbe switches, the bad<.up I.mps fer !>oil! lnUl.S1tU!.5.iQns operate cxa::tly the, N.nJe. V"ltage ., ,upplied tl>rtJugll "'. fuse. Curttnl no w is oonlrull<ol by the position or ,he _,Ul" lamp switch. An", no",· ins through !he IDmP',.=t ls grounded. NO!< !hat Ihob",k,ul"lamp switch used 00 aUlOmah.c In:n5miS~lQfl!il is contained in Ihc !;.arne swiic-b body as the ncUtn.lr51m1 switch, which is covered in the section on the Pinto ~tart'e, ctreurt. p.1S.9l.


The 110m .y""", al!hOllgh ,implo, i, imponanl Hum iI safely srandpoim. But the hom. dn:uiu: are shown sepa:rnlely ror anotbcc ~n~thl:Y don't, Kern 00 fit, lnro an)' cf'the other -dlOlils covered so farl

In the VWoy<t ... , currem now, from !he r"", bl.ock. ",,,,,,gil ,he hom, ihrough

U rhcberrec htl lch gesc h utztes M ale,i a

Thhl .... kIoIJe wiring fob didn' lutI: ~. 'H ... pf.I'I~_ Arid tt tglaow.d'fhf prve;edul'9l ...,;:Qf'ni'Mnd' ..... = On.-c.t ~nnl"", ~ ~p.er ptann1i'l9. fglr~, by 11'!,b!I'-'1on aet:ordlng,10 ......

If you've completed your circlJlil designs. YOI1'r~ prol)3bJy c;)ger to smn cut- 1.ing wires 4nd wrapping them into bundlcs. Bu. first! devlse O!, pl11J1 (orCUH.i.ng ~l'Id ro:i,J,ting iLJI those wires. Otherwise. you rna)' end up wilh :a \'l.l'1Iyl-oo\~rod copper 8piderw-eb .luu WOi'i~l rrtiLk.c any sense 10 ),00. Doin,& Inc Job ri,ghl means correctly !r.:J.llS.lating: yoltrc-irctlit designs Into •• "rills-Jrornes:i de'sigru, So. this procedure will boo, plajeed r, rs ,. followed oy rwo d i neren t hpmrn,-m:aki.r.rg proeeo" res.


Here's where every.hiD!!!: you' vc learned so far comes IO£,t'!Ihc.r,~I ectrical lh~my, ~]ecting end insLmllii1g 'C1),I'i'ipone.tHs. 3JlU eireuit design, wben de:;ill,ning cjrcu hs, your primary job was to s;!,ti:!ifj' me I!'i!{,~lr/(:(jl reqlljrom~fiU of the:: componcms, Thet is. you had to make sure each road was peovtded with n


protection de v lee, control • feed and pound. to name Ib.~ most common requlremen LS.

I n harness design I you rnust decide: how to bundle: and roule wires 10 provide

• be neeessary circuus, whi I~ IU [be san~e lime. :satisfying. cencin gwgnlphirnl ond physlC(!1 r(qlllJ'tfnc:nl~. These ill- 01""",;

• Specific harness routing

• Minimum wi re lengrn

• Minimum number of ihrough-jhebody grommets

III Minimum number of C'on~ors ;;Ioild l.enniMl.s

• wire color and g£!,G,e

• Neatness

TIle ilctuill prooess of harness design Ltl'liol ... es seven steps. the fLL"S.t three are done 00 the car: the. ,remaining foot en iii prece of P"PO" They are:

• Plan where 1.0 run lhe maln harness bundles

• PbLrL ,,'bert hronches will !~~'I,-e t.ne

maln bumess .0 run 10 [he ccmponems. • Decide where to break the w irin:!,l. system into smaller, marl:igetibJ.e hiJmes.sc;s_ • Sketch a rep view or the car. show lng where each oon1po-nem is IQCrn.e~ tela!:] ve m the moors .

• S kerch the rcml ng of the hamcsscs fe.biB! ive Hl the coraporerus they serve. • Show where C3C".I:i. wire leaves 1he b..:lrness WfllP to connect to a terminal.

• S'Y'~i;:jjl:!JIi-cally n.u~J!bc,~ each wire.


Examine severn) Jactcry-buih C~ th:J1 have me same genernl' wiring configura{i~, I1S the ear you're going I{! wirefronr-englne, reer-engjae, mid-cngtoe or wh~!C'ver. i'lOIC how the flWlin messes: nrc roo ted. as well as the smutlcr ones branch.iqg from memSome of tne smeller haroesses ma.y b~BnC"1'i ~g:3iil before flnatly connecrteg 10 a component ..

There 's ur lc;:Lq (int' niifflcss. maybe several. servlclng tbe 'i nsuuruenr panel

7 \



Thl.ts U"IIipr..1'I -VH' of my car. Motiet! how 1'ft labeled 1ron1'. rear, ..... IRnc:I r1ghL ",,0-.. don''l h.". 10 be III Rorr.Il:lrw"IId'I: 1.0 make .. oImpio d ..... loglII'.II>I.-lu.' ...... n n ....

coruponen t is located in relation to the genel'il_! shape or jhe car and to each otbcr .. B. '"'" to incl "de rcnnlnoJ-b.locK locations, II wfll also show !1JI:Ai1:LoDS or the harnesses: and ind ividu..al wires: lhi!i_t COfl ~ lherompo:t'l_tnl.s., Remem,ber. be oo:;:u and accurate. This drnwlns wilt serve as l.he HnilJ gui.de fot wiring you.' C'_ .... ,

Usc simple .ymOOI. 10 dcpi .. 0001· pollOn,,-. circle for. light bulb,' ,"0- tangle for the d;,n:!!:inc. Me.! so· forth. l..a.bI:l .' .. ry,hl"g, WOe" you go, do ne, yo", drawing will probnbly """mbl. the 0<"k:r drawing ebeve. NQ(e Ihlll ~ instrument ,panel i.s, the larges! area beceese It cootaillS so milll,y ejecntcal cornponerns. The drawing doesn't have to be to scale. Just be sure cvezything is in its correct pcsiuon and is huge eno'llgn 'so you tat! no"" il.

Now ~ re-f.c:rrin_g to your cer again. DOte: where you positioned the pieces of clothe,lin< th,t re ~n' the hame,..,.,_ tndicate these on your drawing Jn a dir~ ferenr color. such as red. Draw these main harnesses. extra bold so you can sec lhem cl~ly_ 1\1$0. be :sure the harnesses pass Ittrough lho lormin>1 b.locb. Rofe, to lh< dr.Iwing above .right.

_My car is 11 front-engine ~~ar'-drivc. and ,ll nas the fWt ll'I1Iin harn.eues pre'Vioo:dy inCnliOf.led~,insui.l,rnent pane.l.

.~ 9 = eoooo-



!lI:ID ~


At 1111. pdnl:"l\I. bI:ocOClln ..... m.Pf CIXr'Ipanen'lS 'fOr r.fannce. EngIne is aJr.!"Ipty • nel.liIlgIe,lar.r.IptI .. nd gaIgOIIltO merety c:lr~ e .... Ina1rU.menI. panel arM II clf8WI"l. icU .... proporIlonattIIly luge beau •• molt 01 car!'. ___ 1(1) .....

lronl lighting, rear lighting""" eugjne. Because of lh~ wily things worked best, I further se,pmted the- In:s,'trumenl harness into III; gauge harness and a switch barness, Y 00 m;;.y' or n'!aY nOI need ro do SQ. J"". be ""iblo and <10 whn w<nlr. be" for your C"M _ Also eoeee l n lk~ drawing that liB U:rtt1.LOa1 blocks are in OfiC Jocetion 'I,;!,nde:r the ~nSIn,l mel'i"t panel.

From your examination of several factory-mild.: cars. you know th.u cach main hatnc.Ss has small hr.uu:"hcs leading to separate oomponc:n~. Indivh.l;;ral wires wually remain In:side the breech hamess until ~1" gel eiose to ll'te component, where you ean then see the lrKIi vidual 'WUt colors and the terminals, If a corapoocra has, three termmcjs, you'll fi-nd three sepnrOte wires comins f rum. the. herness:at that point. It's the same: al each component

Lm:licatc these indl vidual wires on your drawiDg, using II. thini ector. such BS blue, o,.w in each wire separately, :5:bowi,ng Where each leaves lhe red har~ ness wrap und runs to, !he terminnl on !he component shewn "n Jl"ge IN.

Not~: WI1Jlo yOO 're mol< lng Ibi, n", harness drawios, don't worry ilOO1Jt where each wire gOl:.S a~eI it enters jhe hamess wrappi ng. Jus. rn.ake S-I.ut'! that you show the UQCl' 'Uf~" o/llj!jres go[08 [rom tht harness \\'Jap to each com-

, ...... !nd~ tl.ar ........ on MJI pian v1rM, """, l!II uOOd ~ to uM iI!I ClIft'It:I'eP'rl lC:(Mor 'or tN., :sul;l'll!il rt¢ Tnll' doan't Ihow In 'ttMI black .nd wtlibi pl'u)I.Q! l'1owtW"

ponent. For now" ihar's all ilia.'s necessary.

lnl:idcn.tally, if you.' 'lie mad!;' a :!'iupcr mOS' or your drewing, <Ion', gel upset. SC! the project asi.de far :awhile" men try again, u~i:[J,g a clean sheer of paper.

If you've been wotkin,g alol'lE,:Il.5 you read, )'OU should new have some ideil what I meant 3.boul, peuenee. H-ang in ihere. You're getting close to jhc end of !he complicated part. There's jlis, One more lmporrant step.

Gel ocr the ci.rt:llj I, drawings }"O'U, completed i" !he l,oit chapter, and m;ue

IndM!:I1JII1 wfr-u!'tilnllln In mol" ... ~ until tlM'y go! doae 10 ICOn'Ipo'U:m! lhIIJ w111 oIftKn' to. On )'OU, h.Irnota dDIIMl'IQ" y.gIol'1I Indk;:,t .. gnl)!' OW fildll O'f tbt wi,... wM:re 'tMy r:o ... out or the h.li*U.

103 U'r~lmlrGoilll, 11 g sr,hiH"t 5 ~\" "rial

I've ~ trlin:aMtiltliQ' InrotmatMlli from b.IiI~ power c:ilrruH d"~ gram onto ham.1S CI.llgn Q'nring.I"vB uBilid MmII number.t both .nd. of lb. MI"&! wIIM'1I it CCmn ouIal th!III hilrnea" 0. cu~1 ru~t 't01r.I1. ''''UfM ~r tw'IcI,l'OpnS4Inting two dlf'rtll'1lf'l_t (:ir(:utt, i .1'fCIf'S lile .. tn:at ean .,. dlsaS'trot.Hi'

S(:vrtti.!l pho!,ocopi.es Or each. You·;re goin,g •. 0 I::K:: 'IA'ril:ing on the copies. so keep the originals: separate.

SliU1 with a ,copy or yom basic power!:ircuii dj.:.wiilg_ Select ~.nr wirc-clndl ... -ldual circuit-c-on Ihe drawing and find beth ends of lt. Number both ends. wiLh !l 1_ These numbers ate for you.r use. SD it doesn't matter which wire yOll start will"l._ 1 lik:,e to pL.U a clrde erou nd each number, Select another wire: and number both ends 2. Coni laue until you" ve !i .... mbcrcd both coos of each wire on the drawlug.

Do nor number aoy phantom (dQstled) wires Or.J Ute drawing. Each of these arc numbered in the circuit drawing where they are dra wn as solid Ii lies.

I r I wo d iffcrenr wires are connected 10 the S;)IDC tenninill of a ccmporem .. use 0. S~p;i)l1u.c number for each,

I find il coevenlen L to keep j] log sheer to i ndicme I ~ na_me of l he c i reui t associutl:d with each number. This does two things. II helps IJI.e Keep f rum using lite sa_Iue r.n..lmbc:r .[ wicc. and the log can be used for reference later.

Repeat the wire-numbering process fOt e ... ch of your circuit diagrams. bUI do MJ stan back at number l Ior each die-


t1 ~ JfSIfjJ 1
\, ( I i


WI'WII"I ill Mt!t trcm 1.1"i;!: hl.iTlesJ. ~I_S 10 a lermllUll bloelol_, write Clown. wir-e~1 nlim:tte, on, lne iblodc. WI"I;e,e c:~rc:-uU eontl'nue:l ~1"I10 :seeo:l"bCli ,hJifl'MlU, u~1!I Ibo &limit nurnber Ie lnd Ieftlle tn_It Ihll 15, I .conlln!.!l.tkJ.n. Cit al!lmo ctrcutt, ll'Ii:a. mMn:fl 11\1U one ,n umber ,e:prcHntl Ihe -cin::uftt ~.ai"L1IGSi:s. Cl1 now r.nan-y lorrnlnal 1:11[«0 It !=iasH:&. tn:rougl'l.

gram. Eoc-h WLi1: in the ekcrricel system ~oould have lis o.WJ1 number. 11 is net uncommon 1,0 use ;5.0 or mere numbers for a Si vcn car, so don' t worry about now ntany numbers you're u!ing_ rust k-e~p accurntcrecords.

Here's the Ilnal trick" point 10. und~.tilnd: So far, you 've drown each witt from one component to another in a s ingle unbroken :s.tr.and rn the individu.:al ereC-'I,I11 d lagram. But. because yOl.tl.l probably 00 using the baste foor or five h.a:r- 1lCSSC:~ joined together wi ttl temnnal blocks, you must LDdiciI_te (em lnal-bleek connections 00 the cjrcuu drawings.

Wtt::U tbis, meens is a circuit tbat begins in one harness could run through a terminal block ar.d end up in anolher barness, even though tht:= whole cifC'uil is shown on one circuit drewlng. For in$I.I1,I1(:r;,o, yoer circuit for the oil-pressers sender wl II eater the cngi ne harness. go through • ,.",,1 .. 1 block on li>e fi rewalt, then through the: Instrument-cluster barness .othel)il-~"ilt: S::!l.igeor indicator

lamp. .

WI"I.f:i"J a wire in one harness gets to the terminal block. l~ stops. Number this end of Ihe wire whh the !ame ftllntber YOLI used for thie be-.,gin"lng, of the wire, Use

the same number ag~irr where the c:it'tui t cemjnues al the other ~ i.de of the terrrunal bloc Ie a"d goes i nro n d ifferen. harness. Continue: using the Sil1TIC number for tbAi circuit unitl 'YQU reach the other end. whelher it goes I_n:rough a terminal block or from one harness 10 another.

Now, tt'lins{er!he wire numbers from the basic-power-circuit druwing_, o.ne.ul a nme. OMO the hamess-jayout drawing, Remember 10 i_ooiC':3lt wire nun; bers :at e-ach terminnl block as welt. See photo above right. Clearly marl;, each wire on your c ~rCUL! d.rawiQg as you lrnnsfer I.he numbers to !I\e harness tayocr. I use a yellow felt-tip marker for this,

This transferring step 1M.' i,1I take quite a wh ile. SO be pre pared to ~~e your t i me. I r al :all possible, ha ve SOmeone cbcck your work ~ cjrcun by circuit" to eli minute errors. when you've finished numbering the humess-layout drawing. LI will be your final exhort ii' for wlring your cer. so t! mast be 100% accurate.

When }'O\i lhi~k. you're done. check ever each c i rcul t draw; n.,g 10 be S.UJC each wire is colored j n, mdtcau rig thm l"Ou ueesfcrrcd it to the harness layout. Also. check each dotted wire to make SIIrt: j t is sn.owt\ sol id. .md coloecd, on cee of lite

other dmwlngs.

Aficr J't1i.l.~(:! I,ripJe-Lltltd:~ e'Y~Ih ing. celebrae ~ The berdesr pW1 is done. A II )'OU must do now is "connect the dcu."


Your hamcss-layout drawing :5.001110 cow be complete ami double-checked for accuracy. From here On our, it wlll be yellr glljde in completing the etectncal system. This, ,L5 the part I refer io as con«ecung '.h'~ doss.

There: are, (WQ \l'ay~ IO i:l'l:!!I,all a hame~s:

You com assemble lhc harnesses outside Lhe C;iU' and install each as a unit, Of you can install tach wire directly inlothc ;C4U', (hell bundle the wi res in LO h.a~5es, Both methods arc ~:tS(:ribtd In tbts cbaptel', end th~re .o:m arguments rot" nod a,gaJrn.t each, I'll present 'lxHb sides, so you can decide whjcb merbod is best for YO".

Milking. Horn ess Outside tb. CacTh L.s, mclf;loo in ... otves rnnking ::t htim~.s~ fW.jr~ from pegs. or nails ,.,Uu.chal to iii plywood s,hee.t or similar m:ne.rial, ~ fixture i~, used il:S :a gl.,! ide to construct !he harness. Jf YOLl'rE: gol~ to wire, sc .... esal sim liar cars. or you, iln~ ;j friertd are building, similar cars, thoc our-or-car method may be prefemhte bee::il:li$tl she 54JILC future c-an he used for consuucting moore: Iha:1'I 00fI~ h.ame:ss. However. iF lhe winnS job is relatl ... cly simple, this mcihod may be more work thnn it's wonh_ ImtD.Iting wires o:i\eo,Il\ ... a-time inak-es bener sense, The lener I"T"btlhod is also the. way 10 lnstau accessories 10 an exssnog system. Ott1(;:T th:u'l these CQ["I!~ sidcrarions. bcre arc the advantages BOO disadvr,u'ltllg,es 10 th:e om -or -ear m~t\od,

TI>e goo<! poi"" .• re:

• Crci..II1ng subassemblies allows you to carry LIn tndj y:tdmiJ !a:st to ~llLlllSi(in before going Of] (0 aeorher.

• II's much easier to strin g wires. on a flm toa-d-; lhoe h:)rness fix Unt::= lban l.I:LrolJgh a car.

• Otmernlly. tl·S ea.osier \0 ger .!I_n O~fview of what yoo·re doing, 'so errors are cask:r tospol.

• You don't ha'rte to i:olitit.l,Uiilly..::lm:ttgc. "1S~S, That is, finl' )'00 'JI ,rncas:LLrt! and

cut all tho wirl:> for tho harn es " The. you OUT-OF -CAR HARNESS WLIl i['i,~'l!!J! all lhoe terminals and shrink wrup. and so oe. By keeping Ihe , .... simple and discrete, ehiilnci:s for error alt: reduced.

The bad points 1I!t!:

• You: rn\J_:S~ label each wire wilh masking "'I'" or other 1 abe 1 as you goalong. If I.bols ,get removed uccidentnlty, you could end up whh a 1I1CSS.

• You can'i eu: l~ wires to exact l-en_g,lh until the harness is in lhc car , so tbr.:It'! will be some waste.

.' 1f you tWolC iii.ac:C:U.id!1;: prt:lim__i nill)' measurements, you could end up with a 1m or waste OT short wires.

.... 1.lliDg Wires 10d.;.o<lo.l\y- Tho geed points are.

• Depend.i ng on )'001' working style. )'01,1 JTt.:lf flnd that you can work more accuratel,}" j r you inst.all n:1'1d C">onn~cl -each wire 10 the appropriate component 81. both e-nds as to'l.,! go, then 'L'nQve Qn. [0 another wire.

• gecauee wsea don 'j need to be labeled, you needn' I worry about Labels getrlng :knocked off iI'(](3 jhe res:u.lting oonrusiop lIDS can eacse.

• Because: wires IHt:: in:nuUcd dirc(:lly rro:m one I_erml nul 10 tne n~~ t. YQu won'! MI,.'e 1,0 p,lan for exeess wire, resu mt\_,g Ln minimal waste.

TI:Lc bad: pcims art:~

• Y QU 'I] be repeati ng the same motions over and o v cr a g .. in as you recto each wire sep.ar;i[ely. ¥O\.I'li etso ha v -e 1,0 consUHuly switch u1S.k£-fooitl cutting .and sUi:.pping. wire to termtnar crimping. and shrink-wrapping. to connccnag rerminals. This may or may not be .. disadvemage to )'00_

• You must cl'Jed: :aM dallb!e-(l:iet::t I

each wire as you illil:nllit, After its eermi.r.u:d is .ilI.l,.(iched and connected, iC s too hilt (0 make changes easily.

• Harness wraps are harder to instill!" II y-ou use loom tape as yOLLr final wrap, il CRn be almost hnposslbte to Install in listu areas. Also. it·s djrncul! to inSlaU fluibJe ooQdui~ ro wires; aner lhey're in Ihe car. especially if you're Ir}'i.ng 10 insteu coedun ro ,a whole bundle of wires .... Once, in 3 Ilg'tu, area.

• To prevenl unnl:a:sS3J)' coolu.sj,on, )''U\] ml)' l:\C~d to use lempo.ra:ry ties to kC(:p the wW::s De;; .. J:y blmdlt4~;;;, 1'0\.11:;0-

The firM step is; to rn.nkf: a dothesH~ meek-up of .. ,h indiyid.,l homo ss, Use pustlc-ecvered clol:hesHn-e. Sf_an 111 one of the terminal-block 10C3t10flS tm_d nJllk: tho dollle,lin. throol)h lho •• mc poth !he finir.hod r,a",... w,ll fo.ll.,,, , Wh ere branches lead 00' from !he main hamcss. "I'" 0<1<1;1;0.01 lonslhl ofcIOlko,li .. OS needed. lnstnllthc clolbcs:1'inc mock-up in Ih.e car w'ith n,ylQrI ties, clips Of' 'whr,uever you' 11 use to hold tItc fiILts.hcd harl'Iess· in place, This ~n.I)W'e9.mo:::urac)' or I,eng,lh and Jceaticn of the:: V,I!II10IJS b:ttmch-


Locate each place where a wlre, or set of wires, wilt I.ead from 1M bemess to ;II spec; rte componem. Mark that spot on the c.t-OIh_esli:ne w j,th an ifidel j'blc il'H.rkLil.~ 'pen. Attach il masking-tape fla~ ri:oCxl to ,he .mill1<. On tho n.g. writ. tho ".me of the compceem and Ihe dtstanee in lnebes hom It'.e branch :POhu to ihe component. Take precise measurements. Later. when you !OiLke the hnrness, you ·11 allow extra wire for adjusrmems.

Th.e cfoihes I tee- and-marker mock-up will closely resemble 'the h;;im~ss layout )'0\1 made eerller. A..5. you mouk -c~b component's b~nch poi nl onjbe clothesIi ... use • hil)hlighlot pen !O cl>eek off lhill point 00 the harness-layout drawing.

When 'You·n:: done ,m~Jdng l~ clclhesline: moek-uporme firsl harness, ,can:fulI), I'1:moVI: it ftom the C",(U'ilnd put it .in a sare place. Stnn "' tho other ,ine of Ilio tei.'tilinal bl«k afld, re:pe:a,t U .. is ~e;s.s

1"l'.n". ilto .ho U;lelli 'yDU·U f1eea: to '""KIfI-" yOUr cat with !:lolf'lcpsIlM'. 1 ptO"af plilstk:· cO'llerecl elalMlillMi. Un iii! :ullrJly' Mlfe 111:1 c:uI'lt. MaMlng 01" dl..ld ... ~ c;ln bI uHd to. anad1 blW'ldlpohfs to maIn hame ...... weU n lOlI1Iach ''harM''- 19 (:at. Yl;liliI;U'I UHI 'M'ho notet. on 'the lapI oIIHI.JttKh ttwm 113 ltItIGJotbIIII",. U' .. _ ... ~ ~~ til writ. Y0l,lr ~ ~ lillao,~ my cli'1:UiIt

-~ ....... "" ... --


U rhebm!'Co h III h g "c h iitlles Mmeri a

Ha.r-l'. an undO_r-dlsh clolne:l(lno mt)C1!i.-up g'Oil'nglnlc 1=11101. OBlil mailklnQ hlfl'll !I} ih.c;ld IhD &Jotllotllrt1l1n pls&i!!l.1f PUi!l ilibbJo" by to repreeenr aetual ~hmlp!il '0" nyl(ln tio,ii Uuil wlll hg.tdl firti;i.l1'8d barDII:£i,1ii hi plilQ53,

Notkti I»w bnnc:~ poiInt 1'1., 'DMfi lI!P"'d 1D ~lr.l.ln. Qt tI .. rnI..... 11"1(11 e'LQ,t~lIn,' EI11tilJlIeQ Ie rre,~~H.n1 Un",1 I'I:e.mlnlll' royll1l9. ~Ci'O

nil r~nta ~lIOn of 1&i1~mp b",,~ hi fhll,h.-d: 1\8I"I'1II'':. tlow' 1Irw. ~ nJl'l In:sic!tl cil'L!!"~, ... 11 for ~ pro.-.etion. P....-.eh poIlil "~Ii to rytJ..-gIuge Mncklr. h mUlot nQ't Inler1'ere wlth 1'ftCWID'inIti1,t Drtai!lr uIe_

untl I 'fou·'I,'e mocked up e3C"h hr.mess" .MakinG a Ha.mess rulu:rt:.."..,.....In 1hc ne~1 step you're going 10 Iabricare ii:!! 11)11:hire used to COJ1Sl.rIJ-ct the harness. The materials 'YOU use for me til: turn are up 10 )"'"_ Gyp,",,, ""lIbo,,,, M<),w,II). plywood. heavy oardboord and 1'<8- .11 Yo'OT.k, well. E Ihj nk gol r lees and gilIba,g~\o b.ag ties en pegboard work !lbotiL Ittc eesr. The siz:c of tile fixture can be deknnincd by srretchlng 0tI1 YQllJ IZir~t clotheslfne moe ~,~up and measuring it.

Position the flrsr of the 'I:J othesl ine meek -ups 'On fbe board. Streich il 0 .... strn.L.&h'!, SO you. can poslucn the bt.ilflche!!. m the C(lrte:(:1 :!!,'[1I_gle ~o Il'Ie maln trunk.

Temporarily fast-en the mock-up in pleec. Usc a gr:.o.erous nurabcr of u::C'.s. or f.li1il.s '[('I "lake cf'tilrmd~ for the finished hlmeS'~ul be FOf'il\e:d wi! hin. Use yw r marker 'to. ledlcate all branch points end end points or ,[h~ baeeess on l~ board'. t.nr:fl rernove the meek-up ,ilflO ik:cep it for future reference.

Return 10 too hame"Ss~layout drawing. ldefltif,. Ihl!;: firs. wire • .0 be installed. Sekcr the. apprcprime gage -and cojor. if ~"oIj''te goio:& ',0 rolor-c:ode .four wires. Determine where on the board the wire :5hQ'u,ld S!!U"t !ltLdu:~Il!POr.lfily f;1S.L-t=f1 the t:i'ld 'of Ihc will: .. A flow 3' inches.oJ f:.{~S5 to '~xt~nd past t'heslarti n,g potnl you

mil:rii:ed ~·arljer. fcrtow Ihe path est~bJ.i:50hed by the mock-up until ym.! reecb the ,poifJ I wheT(: Ihe wire should-slop. Cut ~he wire, again 1e;;i1,lil'lg 3 inches: of excess. Use lags to label both ends of thewire with the appropriate ciecu it number. .j)o~ oompor.n::lil tJ,QP'IC. if you W.tUiI_. Then. indicate on the: layoul, drawing tha. you've ins:tatled that wire. Repent this p.l'UCc:SS unbl )"O'Ll' ve j-i\Sl:a_1 led iJ.nd J.ube·ted each wire in tbe b&J1lCS8. NOTE~ Do .. fill ins.!<!'U th-e lem'llinals on the Wire"5. yer, This is done ilft!:n.bc: harness is illtnc car.

DeL [de where, gn)i'runcU wtn be """"oJ en taOh Qf lb. herncsses .• Lise • gmml"n'C' wherever a I'tiImessp3sses


U rhcberrec hthch ges c h lilltes !vi a erla

r-'~.I, 1/

~ (f /.


OrCimmel,l. 1IfIi' UMc:I blre I.Oproil:lC:'I wlnnglulrneu ancItarge b;at. 'o<voabI._ 'heypau """"gh"'_ moIa" BoeI.u .. hameu .. nd ~ logl1he:r woutd ,MW ,t.en • 1 .. 1'91 bundle,. w. route<l 1....., lhrcuJgh Mparal_. qrGmlntlJi,

the wires.)'Qu.· vc im1;;:!Ued and redrtll for .u l_arg~ grommet.

Refer to ycur bamcss-jaycur drawing and select one cfrcult. Locale lhe componcm on the car at one ced of the etrctlil and ,illlilCI'1 ;;;. wl reo using •. he aw.ropri.a,'le lenn,nal a.nd shri ilk. wrap. i l you I re USiD,g it, ROLlJe the wire to wherever it ends and in.~.udl another terminal. Connect the wire to 1M componeat. The wire i!O now installed. Check off she wire OI'J me h3r~ il.CS.S lh~wihg _ R(:pc~t In is prcccdcre until each wire hns beea ins.alled and checked orr.

You".11 proOObly be tempted now to

iilS-t:llllhe !,\pptOpri:4~C harness ties, tape AfI.,..~ wi '*-1I1I'ltlaUeCi ,in tnJ:t;,.., winng, ~ II .......... ~, nyiOn tMI .. to

or Ilexlble conduit. Res lsr doint: ihaL malntaiin ~ 'IItfl:I1e 1beI~ illttalledlnto ~t.

teave the (o'vtring off un ti l ;-00' we had ill

C'h31l,O!: In U::51, lIte circuhs. in ease yoo

mll:5:t c_h:I:n.ge'~clTt\eLn.if.lg_ T~:5. pn)t>C:t;h:i~s

ure covered in the .n,'c~l, chapter,

'When lC. s tin~ i .s ccmplerc. tnsran [he 'hamess wrar;pifig of your enoree. [~slalllog nylon ties I:vcry 6 to 12 laches ~ pt'Qbl.bl,y the eil$ieSl melhod of bun.dling wtres once !hey' re in Ihe car. Loom tape or fle:libl a c,oodu i t is more diffi cult to install, bl.!t usc OTIC of these WTo!ppjn~, if you can lnsrall iL

1011 Urrob~rr .htlich ~"schiiiZI s ~Ia'~ri"

mlnat bJoc_k or fu.se p!;!nel somewhere uncer lhe instrument :p.amd. h is evident !hOI you should pu t the mill" I"'n of ,~o bMnes.s Qul-Jide u.c passenger compartll1eiU and pull Ihe sheet end iDto li. h wouldn't make much sense [0 pm jbe harness; i.n.si<k: L~ passenger companmem. ihen pull mos.tof j t rnrough the

grnmmel hole. -

Install some cl Ips Or tics to secure 1M n a uness to the frame and body. btu don' t ti,gl:m:n these yet_ .Le:;J.V(l lhe .(l$scmb.ty loose enough fer final i!djLlstmcnl~', Don'. worry .aboul the; wlre ends. other Il1an bei"g ~l.[rt Lhal aU Ihe idetuirying lags art::s.tilt unecbcd, Do ,nol inslall: '!lily terminals now. Each wire should comfon..ably:reach its ccropcneru. wilh aboul

3 i:neties of excess,-w'ltiL':h )'00 should bave provided fer when nsscmbling the baeeess en your LLSs~mbl)l boill'd elU'lieI_

Repeet thi~, prcccdcre with each herness ,hal pas ... s 'hrough 'he body, TIl ese wit! probably be tt-e engme-comparrtrern h;)ml!Ss tlJJd I"CtIf~liglnins harncsa. Position jhc fnsuumenr-paocl hnrI]C;S;S 1i1:S1.ln the C,ilSC or my car. this waa a

In Ur owo"eohlli h qesnlurtztes ~l~~~ri"

I pnt., tint. to IICnW& wfttn Inl:'tllllng ...... nH1i cwn,Pl!!lto bocIyar dt.IS&II. ,Rln'll.-M:I rtYI't glUm are .\I.IJ~' at moll h:atclWIl. .kItH. For KOlICImV, ,pu~ !'InlS In bIG_I_U of 50 or 1 DO.

two-part .aSSCm bly, wah one harness for the gauges; and one fer the SW~ICncs, Harn.e.ss--A tl.tbment Dt:~i.ces-$e'Veral !)'pcs or devices tire availabtc: for aHa,ehi_rlg harnesses to the car's body ar -ch.:3J$.S.~s_ The [ype:(i) you L15.C for' each location is dcterminoo by the requiremcmts fot that il_'ppli.C:llLiM.

But, regardless o r tfu: alltlehing m.elhod. the device sfould nm. be so sharp lhill it curs through Iht win: im!.ilCl,~ uon, It :sbou.ld ,;1[50 be wide enough to spread tho cjampl ng load 0",' • lorS" eMugh area of the wires to prevent disrorting tbe lnsu ttuiolJ _ Fur tlE-sc recsons, "'01'I,'t use baiting wire or Ihin wirecl.ipslo retain wire..;: iu,d harnesses ill place,

AUilctuncnl devic-es j n{:Jude oyloo des. wiring sueps , rubbc:r~[i1s-ul;[l;t~ mel.Iolamp', ny!"" cable c!""'l'" ond I'ush" on frame dips. These tu'C d~$Cribcd on p;lg.69

Lf ycu' I"(: u:sing nylon ties IlO bundle tbe harness. you can also usc them [.0 attach the harue ss '" lllo car OOdy. 0.... exa mple ts 10 secure- a harness at an edge or hale in a, panel il runs tbrwgh.

If the: Mrn,ess doesn't JlJ n cjcse to an edge. you·1l need to d!i Iitwo "holes in Ihe peeel '0 'o".H ,oj, 'ype of ,i e. Fee<! ,he tie lmo one hole. run it behind the panel.

ant.! aul the OI.hC!f oole_ ThL':!1'I., w~ Itlt: ~

ends around lht: harness,

A Itbough this is a serviceable a ttaching m'th"". it ,.nd, to 100)( ,,,,ky-


To opIt"tUli (IilAt inur1 tint IInI:I :tqIlMH. iltvtt: IUs Inhl ptO-dfille4 MIt! In c:l'Miail. \'Vnet1 COff6C"I.IY InatlliN. r-I:WI ~ l!!IupMlor to .crew bK:iIl.Il8 ,It .can"t - ... tbtI .. IOoiM.. i Ilncl u..tlt', I&.IItHJt to 1qU<IHI:lill rMtIglin lI'Ia.n Jt ~ ~ ~ tum .. ac ... dl+v-Ir Or wren.ch~ I..og_

ather enachmem de v fees gl ¥C! a :moll: fir:rLshcd appeueanee. Or, you can use nylon ties in conjunction w~lh tte mOlll:r.rt_

Tie rnounts provide a Wil)' to nunch a nylon lie W iii snrteee wtlere you don"1 want 1:0 crtll twc holes. Oi" one w~re )'OU CII""Ol g~t behind the: pancl tc feed the nylon tic hat:k Ihrougb, For \.his reason, I ie mounlS .areil good compmmise-sbetter 'thll;n u nylon tie alone, btU nOt as goOO as , damp.

The pl_U5tiC lie mounl atraehes to ihe car whb iil; rivet Of screw. The nylon I.~ is looped lhrouSb slots. j 1'1; d'te: moent. Some types ere self . .[Jdh.e:ring. but ] don '1 rec-

T]e rl\OLJ!l.t!l atl' illiwalllllbl& lil b(]th IiDJ1,. aClI'nl-i"lng and 'i!iir::t~ Il,~ Bell'l: ~ 1M '!iii!lr.ne vra1-iiIItta~r'II 11& lJIotIl'Il 11:1 (;I\III! tI'IMI 'lhi't!ad n~'IOI"I tlii!: U,tO\illl!l, it l!ifld atOl,lo[i 'b.:tn'r'KI1d. I trl!ii!!d i!i1i!1!--i:ldh.t!!iTri,g tyPD :tJ.I!Ir"i bedlu~ MI"1rfJ:&;!I i:!l OOEIliJ :iiI!.tDl:ht:!d I(], outer .lumh'lum dIn Of th;I .... Ii' IM(:tl(m_

cmmend these. Tie IDOunU; are .Q.Yail:abJ,(:· to accommodate one or several ties en one mount. An ill:5lall:ulon us lng both de mounts and eylun dcs looh f ilirlJ' .. flubbed .... white pcrmlulng easy ,ildjustrneru and replacement. ir 'necess.ary.

One, pcshive thing IlboUI nj' J.Qri tie",s is they C",Qn be Ir:ft loose until you1re ready fer final li..gtiit,niltg. And, If j''OlJ. get one too 11Ehl, too soon, they an:: easy to cu! oJ(""d "'1'1>«_ ${Im.ny!on , .... have.an enlarged end wilfl :1 mcenrlng hale. These canbe iflSl.all.ecJ wllh ,~ rivet or SCJ~W"

Cd!HCnTI rLllin~.s are a'l,l'L'tiliibl~ rOt some

Cut ori I'IIylOfl toni will,: II wlr. ecuer .fUl'r snuggl'n'9' liol. This pt1'C1to Fl,lllill'HncI:Cr tJh.r'MlU :r •. i"8lnlnod by :ill I::llImp unl;ti!lr 1;111'1:11 '1:111 Ihlllo fu.r:rl

~ eol'nllCtmeltioG o1lnltllllng' tin, ai, ,. bnnc:h :point.. lanl(, mou nl[n; bells.., ,AAoll'I&r !:;~amp 'Io'iUl: be Itls.afl'«l in or;ro'thllft:mtt hoi. te rttaln grourw::l .n .....

Final ly, use a d iagonal wire cu nee 10 out the excess l.ails from ,!,'!_l1 tnt tics. Cut off the t~ils flusb with the clilmpin~' blocks of ~ ties. This locks neater end red~ces. the p(_Js~ibllity of catching something, Hie your skin. on one or jhe ends taler. I'm pllrticuJarly thinking of how badly I cut m,), iIlan_d:s on Q~ -of my lirsl ham~~. I wnsn't eureful. ::r.ild rhe :r,:'I'I((tp I lulc ends seemed to be: everywhere. Securing \II. """",,,,~Ch.'k each harness to sec where additional support i~ needed, 'It "s best to support jhc hamesses every 12 inc-bes Of so, Lls;i~g one of Ihe humcss-anachmcnt devices discussed euri let _ A:s yOU! in.sl,illl ~.:c tm :su:pports, nuke ~mc you tlOii't accidentally pull the harness cur or place or pUI uanecessary Slrair.r on B_ny wires.


P'4:rlon LI~ i!rrill u:.&e:d to. i1iIli!ln e:;Ieclil~ ~~ fei!(!' ""i!1!l u:r 011: Q]p~Iic'[i; lube., ~t".Jl)elt~f tCil 'r.)MrO nn~ .!rvoIIElabkl 3iUpport rilillhi!H ihrtn f,IIb:tk;ati'ng ,lIdclillonlll ~artL Ncrt-ftr, IHlgtrt r!rmounl crf r!rlo:rek.ln g(mi!rh:i.tCJi' Wli'H to PI""'~ IdjUl:'trnent, of dr.lw bin.

Once all harnesses are permaeeruly installed, tbc electrical eyarem soould look abam finished. Anti it is;~ There' Si MIl' one mere rUoLIjortask to do tw.::JO,iC you .r:.t.m test the system-'i nstal I the terminals. Please jIOl,e \hal '~~mirr!11 '~.~(IUfllkm I'Cfers to .o1tac.hing the terminals to jhe wire ends only. You wQn' t, be oonnechng the terminals to the com pooeets ullti]; (jftel' you"ve; tested the harness.

AJiho'u Sh \hc pi'"Oe--l!sses of t~nnir.r~J in~ .5lallatioo, andharntss, testing and connectlng a re de~citbed ,as three separate procedures, you may II Qr:J II mere COnvenlcnr to combine ell three prcecdurcs on e~h wire or Cii-C,ti, circuit as yo'u go. J r you wort carefully. ,his ",.,hoo ls per fec::tlyOK. But. carefuny reooeacbortho followi"S proecderes 1>«0," uecldlng

whmhe:r 0" "01 [0 C"Q,rnbine lhem.


Before you :sIan inslall inc fermi nnls, have all the required I'ools ami materials wi thin eosy l'e.ilC'h_ S01'tleoompo,ner.rl5. will require speeiatly shaped connectors. These compone:[Lts it.I.C"lude lhe: gr:·ne .... ater. vollitge rc:-gu lalor" isnl tion: switch aDd tum..si~'na.I swilch. Lr the: required conrectors arc. not ~iTy il'l,lllilablr: tU !Ul aUIO-p,atl,S store, jcu can cui them from [he wiring harness of ill jun.k.ed car. Be sure 10 leave ~l le~$t 6 if'lCh'e$ of wire al13C'lied to the ccnnecmr. The terminals on other CQmponenlS in the syMem 'lL~1lJlII~ use the ""'.dart! """"ee,.,,., doc«rit>e<l M v'ge, 63·64.

General] y. terminals 'come in I\\'0

WMn pO:!l,5lDl'fI,~ use. cuatcm IDImiMis. Thi.lI :1'\[3;;.dllllmp .iII'.l'rilir'IBI itS ,Ill goocl: U:lillilph1l. I COu!d hlil.ilB 1J&8(I i.Jli"H' 11!!MIlIJirI tlW'mtn.a11i Ilillit all; Willi. Iml .hlli one eltmhi8tt!sflD$:!i;I.b'iL~ .ot' melting wrCli'lg CQRnMlIOi'1.s.

Hraro"8 IliIlDtl'ulr examplo 01' ;0 C1Jltarr:I tlHm'fl"lat . .In thEIil C(I~. II'}. Ijrljllduell te:rrnl,flEl!!1I would IIlQt have beoIJ!1I s,@'I:u.ttu;::IOI)I_ SMQld yj)lt~ lBSe regl"l[:!ltOf need reJ:llI~I'MI'l" ecsrem lerm!MlI 'I ~ ea~y toO 0011- 1'IeCI. II CII'I go Tn only one way_

t,ype.,s.-solde.r1t'ssand so/t1t!'nuJ. To:I1eJp you decide whkll ro usc, th. gOO<l and bad poiJ'ns of each type are I i:sted on the nc~l page. If you lhinttbe infcnnation is biBsed t!'li ra,,,,or of solderjess tert'r.linaJs. you're ri.g,ht. 1 prefer them, and so do [f'l1JSt people: who've done muc.h wiring. But jhe fiIL..'ll choice ,is yourS.

Imla11ing Snlde-less .......... alsCQttt!:·'!: i:r:1.sl.aJletioJl of ~ so.lde.fl~s teeminat requlres two too-II: One to strip Ihc wire tnsuteucn aed another tc squeez.e the terminal burrel. If 1'00 ire sojtig to do j u:51 a few [erminru:s,. you CID strip lilt In su latiOfl with a knife and do the crimpl.[[.,g wi [h il pair of dLa,gOIL:il. wire cutters. But I don'! recommend eilher _ The correci tools for the job art relatively Inexperts lve and re&ldi Iy avaUab.le a! mOS.1 cute-pans stores, b:urdwllfC stores, and electrical-supply bcuses.

\Vin: strippers .ore avallable in several forms. The J'east expenslve rype looks like a pair or pliers with unusual-looking juws. ~n th~ juws ere el,osed. i.t look! Ij~e 0 serio. uf ,holo5 h. ve been drilled lhtoug,hthc: Hoc. where. Ihe [aws ~!. The holes are sized ,accoTd.tn,g to wire ga,ge_ These arc often buih into the: crimping toot.

[f you'.. never used wire ,(ripper>, praedee ou .5OJD~ ,sCfilP wire. Wilh the

jaw~ open! 'pm the piece or lnsur ated wire in the COJ'I'1:,ct opening. Close, Inc jaws ~nd pull. I r you selected jhe right opening, ttll:t jaws should cm and remove the insulation wimout hanntng the wire' insidi::. If not, try another size. When done correctly. Il'!,e slrirpingo~rntion is qelck and feels oi,gh"

Another type of stripper has a jaw th,'

OOjUSiI!ii for each wire size, These are excellera rcols. Many experienced deemctaru ,p~Jcr them. ho:vln,g cee pre5-e11OO1 for tach wire size.

A 'mQfe expeas! ve wire setpper is essentielly automatic. You insert the wire ~.nd-an,y size wilt! LQ reasen-> into the tool and squeeze. h 8i11.'Sp;S Inc wire, sizes tt, and cuts. and discards Itl.e lnsulenon,

ToaI'l"CICI:ulrt(l: 1'(1, rn.IJI.I1IQ!) ti;llmrilljl[1 ,I:ncru!;:!':,,, whll r,;utte r, oISlril)ptr,!jlM c:rimpor. t'WQ 10tI1. onion 110 ,11111 .tlt"-_ PIlOt!) b)' :Fton Sit.iII,"'IQllj..

115 Urrdm,mol,lI, 11 g sr,hiH,,1 5 ~I~ r',ial

....... ~:I .. hot r'lp ror II:Mplt\Q ~'IIiPPIy 01 tei'mlnldtl Milt .... 151 iMtI!ung II'IIIiIn'II Q(I lUinJt,U. stu! (OK, bon"owJ ,out ~iUiI·1 rrllbM ItId UIJ4II " ItI 8: GJ:lh. "~Ii ,na:l1OW I!N'KIOgI1 not 10 till OVIM' tlnllV, 11". Ii.Inl:tnil~iI!I •• ncI yot..! cen puI .. :1"IlAdfu1 01 ~. typ8I!! 01 termlnala In R at once wl~ Ihllm ~ftl", ml:lec:l 'up.

illl in less time than i! takes tQ jjes.cribe 11." This kind of tool is nice if you have a loOt of work !o. do. but it' 50 more ex penal ... e~ .u least SIO.

Terminal .• .<imp ... 0'" TIearly 011 ejlkc. OUl as wilh any handlOOl. 'price varies- with qua_tity. Choose a crimper with a selection or die sizes lhal will accommodate all the terminals you'll be us lng. Make ~U~ it can be .!A;[lJee.ted and opened SI-Jlt1(l~b Iy _ I[ :should ha .... c rubber handle ~rips fot extra comtcn. Musl crimpers also have: OJ: cutter blade, so yoo oo:I'\'! have to bu)" and keep track of a separate wire C!U uer. Some terminal crlrtrpera also include a wire stripper as pan of the too! d.esigt.i _ V 00 mil.)" gel lucky and find 00< ""', WOrn well-cmany don't.

Solderless terminals COme in :[lin i07 credible v,tirielY of sizes, shapes and t}'pcs. Fortunate ty, you 'II only need 8 limited essortmem for Wtri ng your 'car. Those used for eu • cmouvc wiring are discu ss cd on pogcs 63 -64,

\Vhe:n se leoLi1lg .enninals. fi.r:s.1 eonsteer the oorre:1 sue. The barret is .he 111 bular part of Ihe terminal that the "Wire fi ts into_ Obvjo:LL~ly ~ jhe wire should fi t snugly in. the barrel. Geoerallj-, terminals are made to aecommodare iii teast two wire sizes: 16-14 ~, fer example. The number before <he hyphen ls <he srn.allest wire si:ze !b,e tennin.aJ will fit: <he number aner <he hyphen is the I.'!lest. 'Remember that wire ga,ge.s are ex-


t1 Ji'LI ..... I)1Ilng, .. n IitIIUitlbll .. U1pper :llke Ihl. one, loo .. n .crew -.nd .dju!ll 1""- 10 ~" good .tr!p Ii¥lthout clamagrtlg wh ~e., TlJI't'I ttgtJtfi"l It. On!'y drlWb.lck Is th._t IlrIpptI" II, good: for QohTy 0110 wlre IID!I, ... dl'M.

pressed ,in CVl:t.I numbers only.

S~ClIH~, consider whether you'll use 'tennina!s whh in.wl'i!ted ornon-insnreted barre:is:. A ilon~i"s.L!I~l.eJ barttl; :simply sHps onto jhe wlre and is crimped _ To lnsulate [his .ypc of Icnuj_rwJ, add a piece of shrillk wrap. J nsulered tenninats have ~ built-in piece: of inSI,dation for Ihe wire to slfp in",_ The lnslde <Ii ...... , (ID) or lhe barrel insula~i.oil aI.tows t.he. wire in:5ula._iQo to.fi t lcslde. A.nd, the ,Ins-ulation continues for .he entire length of the bam.!_ 1,. I..tle ~.as.e of quicl(,-diSCiulUJlXl i:n5U.ll1td termlnals, the, female. resmlnal is. insulated over j ts entire teagm.

Sbrillll: wrap is B tubular p,lashc material: that shrinks when bca or name is appl led to it. h is not harmed by dlrecr narne from a match or cl garene IiS'h.tei. In terminal installation, shrink: WTii]J ts, 'Ll.strl \0 provide boom insul:!ltion end extra slrt:nglh to the conoectlon.

StlrLnJ:: wrap can be testaued over insuhned terminals, b\l\ it's u WiitiW of money to buy such terminals if you 're 'U:s111G: :shrink wrap. However, if you are using .lnsulau:d' termlnala, shrink wrap vrHl strengthen the connection.

em .0: piece mrink wrap to length and slide j t 00 1M wire: JNJor~ ,install i ng !hc t-enninal. Al'1er cri mplng ttle terminal. slide the shrink wrap onto. the terminal and brieD), uppl y heal or name- !hc wrap shrinks ln a !l~oment A t.ig,areue ligllre, Is perfocl[\}' 'hi< job,

-V au might wonder why anyone would


Sold~'I .. s (C'lmp) Te'm'n~I" GoodPoinIS

" C~11 ~D fnstall-ed immedl;81~y, wlih· 001 """'I'HJP ~me-

• can belnSWled "'lI> ne.peI'IS"'. <:timping Iool.

• Are wld'ely ,aV'.LiiIB~'1e :In alilEilan.d':nrd! ant:l rtulfl_Y (:ti$tom tyl=los.

• A!~ IJ~ In nearly Btl Inclory In".alla~on s,

II Rectuire littJe ;l'i1Gnual eklll to fnsIt:!11 "",",ctiy.

• Hlg'h.quafoy typo. cuer ·e"'ellen~ p6fmanent ccneeetlcn.


iii DtffiC1JlI to remove wnneut snortenIn!) wI"'-

• Carl: be ~IEld Mong, r' in!l_,1&n1iva

SoIdliilred Termlna.IS GoOO PoI"""

• Fal<ty "as)' '0 'emove If ns<jllo<! wTO"Id.

• P'9Vido goo<le,.cvlcal connoc"',"" _ PoI<Irs;

• .AllqW,' .poeTaleq"ip"'""' (50IC!<l<· 'rig ''''n),

• R,;qLll,a ~poeciA'mruerial5 (SOldO' and nu.).

• ~' .. 'kln '""" I""CUee "' do cor· nilctty.

• l'0IU can bum yoursaU or Ins\'! Ialion, iI~ro!6S$,.i.

• can caasa slress POll1<$ In ,,'res.