P. 1
A Sanskrit Manual for High Schools, Part 1, For Classes VI - VIII (R. Antoine)

A Sanskrit Manual for High Schools, Part 1, For Classes VI - VIII (R. Antoine)

|Views: 1,267|Likes:
Published by another700

More info:

Published by: another700 on Dec 25, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/10/2015

pdf

text

original

-~' - .

SC:lnned Spec:lllIg for Uz-Translations

lag Ile1(IIISI08

Approved by the Council for tke Indian School Certificate Examination (12th January, 1961),

A SANSKRIT MANUAL

FOR HIGH SCHOOLS

PART I

BY

R. ANTOINE, S.J., M.A.

ALLIED PUBLISHERS LIMITED

NEW DELHI MUMBAI KOLKATA CHENNAI NAGPUR AHMEDABAD BANGALORE HYDERABAD LUCKNOW

ALLIED PUBLISHERS LIMITED

Regd. Off. : 15 J.N. Heredia Marg, Ballard Estate, Mumbai 400001 Prarthna Flats (2nd Floor), Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009 3-2-844/6 & 7 Kachiguda Station Road, Hyderabad 500027 16-A Ashok Marg, Patiala House, Lucknow 226001

5th Main Road, Gandhinagar, Bangalore 560009 1/13-14 Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi 110002

17 Chittaranjan Avenue, Kolkata 700072

81 Hill Road, Ramnagar, Nagpur 440010

751 Anna Salai, Chennai 600002

Reprinted 2002

© Allied Publishers Limited

Published by Sunil Sachdev and printed by Ravi Sachdev at Allied Publishers Limited, Printing Division, A-104 Mayapuri, Phase-It, New Delhi - 110 064

1/2002

CONTENTS
LESSON PAGE
1. THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET 1
2. THE FIRST CONJUGATION ( ~ ) 4
3. MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN 81
NOMINATIVE .AND ACCUSATIVE 8
4. THE FOURTH CoNJUGATION ( ~ ) 13
5. INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE
THE SIXTH CONJUGATION ( ~~ ) 18
6. MASCULINE NOUNS IN ~ AND t
ABLATIVE AND GENITIVE 22
7. THE TENTH CONJUGATION (~~)
LOCATIVE AND VOCATIVE 27
8. FEMININE NOUNS IN lIT AND t
PRESENT TENSE-MIDDLE VOICE (am~) 33
9. THE IMPERFECT TENSE (0") ACTIVE AND
...
MIDDLE. FEMININE NOUNS IN i( AND ~ ••• 38
10. MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS IN '"
IMPERATIVE MOOD ( met) , ... 43
11. FEMININE NOUNS IN 6i
POTENTIAL MOOD ~ AAf~ ) 48
12. NEUTER NOUNS IN ~, ~ AND ~
AGREEMENT OF THE A,DJECTIVE 53
13. PERSONAL PRONOUNS-PASSIVE VOICE 58
14. THB DEMONSTRATlVB PRONOUNS ~ AND 91~~L
\ P.\SSIVE V01CB ( coni. ) 63
15. NOUNS ENolNG IN CONSONANTS 70 LESSON

16. NOUNS WITH ONE STEM ( cont, )
17. PASSIVE IMPERSONAL { m~ SPi'lq: )
NOUNS WITH Two STEMS
18. PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES
19. THE USE OF THE PARTICIPLES . ..
20. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH Two STEMS (cont.)
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
21. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH THREE STEMS ...
22. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES WITH THREE STEMS ( coni. )
23. THE FORMATION OF THE FEMININE
24. INDECLINABLE PAST PARTICIPLE ( ~ AND ~~)
LOCATIVE AND GENITIVE ABSOLUTE
25. INFINITIVE IN gil t ~ .... )
THE SUBORDINATE-CLAUSE
26. THE ADVERB-CLAUSE •••
VERBAL ROOTS WITH THEIR PRINCIPAL PARTS SANSKRIT-ENGLISH GLOSSARY ENGLISH-SANSKRIT GLOSSARY SYSTEMATIC INDEX

PAGE

75

80 84 89

93 98 101 105

109

115 119 124 136 151 164

PREFACE

The purpose of this Manual is not to give an exhaustive treatment of Saflskrit grammar. It is meant as a practical method of teaching and learning Sanskrit through the medium of English. Its composition is based on the two following principles :

I. The effort of memory which the study of languages demands becomes a mere drudgery when its rational usefulness is not clearly shown and immediately giq.!en practical scope. An instrument, however beautiful, remains cumbersome as ,long as it cannot be utilized.

2. The drudgery of memory work is amply repaid by the capacity which the student acquires of expressing himself in the language which he learns. That is why greater stress has been laid on translation from English into Sanskrit than on translation from Sanskrit into English.

This First Part covers the matter of the first three years (Standards IV to VI or Classes VI to VlII). The beginnings should be extremely slow. The vocabulary should be learnt by small doses (five to eight) words a day) and frequent repetitions should be given.

The first ten lessons could conveniently form the syllabus of the first year. Their treatment is very analytical.

Lessons I I to 26 are more compact and will require more time to be assimilated. They should be distributed over the second and third year.

In this seventh edition, besides correcting the few printing mistakes which had escaped our scrutiny, we have incorporated the valuable suggestion of colleagues and well-wishers.

R.A., s.r.

LESSON 1

THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET

1. The Vowels-There are 13 vowels in the Sanskrit alphabet.

They are divided into simple vowels and diphthongs.

Every simple vowel, except the last, last shows a short and a long form.

t short; at ~ a ~ i ~ U '" r ~ 1

Simple vowels I ~

ong : an a It i ~ n ~ ~

Diphthongs : ~ e ~ ai sIT 0 ~ au

2. The Consonants-The Sanskrit consonants are classified according

to the organs of pronounciation. There are five categories: those pronounced from the throat are called gutturals; those pronounced from the palate are called palatals; those pronounced from the roof of the mouth are called cerebrals; those pronounced from the teeth are called dentals; those pronounced from the lips are called / labials-The Sanskrit names for those five categories are:

~,~,~,~,~

Each category contains seven consonants: 5 mutes, 1 semi-vowel and 1 sibilant. The five mutes of each category are divided as follows: 2 hard mutes, one non-aspirate, the other aspirate; 3 soft mutes, one non aspirate, the second aspirate and the third nasal. The semi-vowels are soft, the sibilants are hard.

M UTES

Hard Hard

Soft

Soft

Soft Semi- Sibi-

non-asp. aspirate non-asp. aspirate nasal vowels lants

GUTTURALS ii ka ~kha II ga ~ gha '1J na (~ hal : J.t
--- ---
PALATALS :or ca ~cha ~ ja ~jha or fia lI' ya ~Sa
---
CEREBRALS C1: ta o 1;ha ~ qa G qha or 1)a ~ ra " sa
---
DENTALS ([ ta ~ tha ~ da ""dha if na ala q ~a
LABIALS q pa tfi pha iii' ba ~ bha 'l'ma " va : 1,1 1

2

SANSKRrr MANUAL

N.B.-An 'a~ has been added to each consonant to facilitate the pronounciation, Besides the consonants given above, the following should be noted :

- anusviira-a dot above a vowel. standing for final J{ or for any of the five nasals followed by one of the first four mutes of its own class:

<t = karp; attr=ailga ; mt=siqtha

visarga-a double dot: standing for a final ~ or a final ~_ avagraba-the sign s marking the elision of at at the beginning of a word~~

a stroke below a consonant <Ii indicates that it stands by itself

.....

without any vowel following it.

3. Consonants followed by vowels-When a vowel follows a consonant. the cosonant loses its stroke and the vowel is written in an

abbreviated form:

-at

-an

-~

-~

is written as't

is not written at all: J{+at =Il

is written as T : <It+atT=iiIiT

is written as f : :sr+it =~ : Of.+~ =ift" : a.+a =!I

: ll+a; =ll.

-s is written as

~

-a; is written as

C\

Note-~_+a=~; ~_+a;=~:

-'lI,; is written as c: : <It+'lI,;=ii

-'IE is written as£ : a.+!II\=o

&

-~t is written as ~ : ~+~=~

-~ is written as' : J{+~ =iI"

-~ is written as"'lo : iT+it =~

-aft is written as) : i+aIT=m

-at' is written as' : 't+m=~

THE SANSKRIT ALPHABET

3

4. Compound consonants-When two or more consonants have to be written without intervening vowels, the following general principle is followed:

All consonants, except the last of the group, drop their final vertical line : ~+\t=nT ; ~+ij_+1I'=~ ; il,+q=;q; ~+~=~ I

The combination of consonants which have no final vertical line assumes a form of its own: l6'+ii=Qi; ~+a="'Ii; l6'_+IIf=~,c~, ~+<Ii=~; ~+IT=W; ilI,+OJ=~; ot+Gf=!§I; .t+lI'=2q; ~+q=l'; q_+a='tf ; ~+1I'= ~; ~+\t=4l:; ~+"'=~; IS(+~=~; 't+o='iJ ; ~_+1If=fi ; ~_+if=~ I

The consonant {_ has a special treatment in combination: when it follows a consonant, it is written as

il,+~=;J ; q_+~='" ; 't+~=sr

When it precedes a consonant or the vowel ~ it is written as

~ ~ ~

{_+<Ii=q; ; ~_+~=~ ; {.._+liI;=~

S. The Sanskrit numerals are:

~, ":!., ~, Y, "', €, ", ~, ~, 0

EXERCISE 1

I. Write the Sanskrit vowels.

II. Write the Sanskrit consonants. m. What are the hard consonants? IV. What are the soft consonants?

V. Join ~+et; ~+'lI&; l1+t: ~+eft ;

the fol1owing groups of letters:

't+srr ; i!t+~ ; <;:+t;

tJ:.+~ ; ~+~ ; ~+et ;

~ +\J . {_ +e; ; n+liI; ;

- ~' -, ~

tI+l1; ; '<t+~ J ~_+err ;

~+\J; ~+srr ; iT+t!; ~-+~;

If+e; ; ~+~; ,!+81T;

~+~I

4

SANSKRrr MANUAL

VI. Write the following in Sanskrit. letters :

bhnmavupavisami ; snayuh ; jnanam; ksetrani ; ailgat; udyane; rohanti ; arthnbhysm ; §astraih; sarvada ; krit)ival:t; dr§yate; asti; andhakarena ; ratna; atra; . tyakta; ti§thami; bhramati; asva ; baddha; sa na janati; tena suhrda raksitah ; maya dattam; tvaya d~~tam ; yu~mabhiruktam.

LESSON 2

THE FIRST CONJUGATION (~)

6. (I) The Sanskrit verb cojugated in a finite tense has three persons and three numbers. The three numbers are: singular, dual and plural (~, ~, ~).

(2) The verbal root (\tIg) is the original form of the verb. The verbalbase (anr) is the form assumed by the root before the terminations are added.

(3)' The formation of the verbal base depends partly on the strengthening of the radical vowel (i.e. the vowel of the root). Simple vowels are subject to a twofold strengthening: the first degree of strengthening is called guna : the second degree "r strengthening is called vrddhi. The following scheme of simple vowels with their twofold sfrengthening should be committed to memory:

Simple vowels 81m ~t
short and long ~iii 1JIg'l{ ~
GUNA at ~ en 8R'_ a{W
"
VRDDHI atT 1t aft m{_ em;5_ THE FIRST, CON!JUOATION

5

7. Formation of the base in the first Conjugation

(1) The ~~J vowel and the short medial vowel of a root take guna,

A medial vOlfel is a vowel which stands between consonants. When a short vowel is followed by a compound consonant it is counted as long, e.g. : ~ ~_I

(2) The letter 8{ is added before the terminations.

That a:t' becomes err before the terminations beginning with ~ or '!: That 8{ is dropped before terminations beginning with 8{.

8. The termlnatioas of the present tense-active voice (ii5~ ~~) are:

s.

D.

P.

1st pers. -fir -or: -II:
2nd pers. -fu -~: ~
3rd pers. -fu -ij: -8{f~ 9. Applications

ROQts having a short medial vowel: '«I. (to ran), ~\-f (to

know), ~ (to pull).

Formation of the base

( 1 ) GUQa of the short medial vowel: '«1.-'«1.; ~-IIT~; !i~-~_ I (2) The letter aI is added: '«1.+ a:t' = ~ ; an~_ + 8{ = iii'tlif ;

~ <

<6'iI" + a:t' = <6'iI I

Before terminations beginning with 'l. or <r. q'ijT-, anlifT- ~I!ffBefore terminations beginning with 8{, '«I-,""1:1 -, fiE(-

... "

6

SANSKRIT MANUAL

Adding the terminations

s.

D.

P.

1st pers. qmf" wcr: 'rtmJ:
I rail We two raIl We ran
2nd pers. trnfa qa'1: trn'1
Thou fallest You two ran You ran
3rd pers. qaf~ ~: qaf;{:f
He ralls They two ran They fall In roots like ~'t (to live) and ~ (to blame), the medial vowel does not take guna because it is long.-Hence: Qfycrftr, ~ I Roots having a final vowel, short or long: ftiT (to conquer),

~. (to become), ij; (to move).

Formation of tbe base

(1 ) Guna of the final vowel- ftiT·~ ; ll:';IT ; ij;-m:_

(2) The letter 8f is added-~ + 81; m +81; ~\_ -t 8l=~

In Sanskrit, two vowels following each other must be combined according to definite rules. Those rules are called the rules of vowel-sandhi.

In the case of ~+8f and of m+8f, the following rules applies:

When ~ and err are followed, in the same word, by any vowel. they

are changed respectively to 8F{ and ~

Hence: ~+81=~,+8f=qr~; m+8f=~ + 8f=~

Before terminations beginning with ~ or '!..-~-' ~crh ~nBefore terminations beginning with at -~.:, ~-. ~

Adding tbe termination S.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

l st pers. ~f" ~: ~: ~~ ~: ~~:
2nd pers, ~~ QflPi: ~ ll'ffti ~: ~
3rd pers, ~f~ ~: ~ Q ~: ~f;{:f THE FIRST CONJUGATION (~)

7

EXERCISE 2

I. Vocabulary

~ (~fu) to draw iIiT't (iIi~fu) to play ~ (~) to dig ~, (~~fu) to eat :;;r{, (:;:n:fu) to move :qw_ (~) to move

~ (1iI'~) to conquer

lift"!. ( ~) to live

~ (~fu) to abandon ~_ l ~~ ) to burn

~ (~) to run, to melt

~_ (~) to run

iPl. (d) to salute

oft (~(f) to lead

q:q_ (q:qfu ') to cook

'ffl.. t qofu ) to fall ~ ( oi'Nfu ) to know

~ (~f(f) to be, to become ~ { ~(f ) to walk

~_ ( ~(f ) to worship

{~ l {~f(f ) to protect

~ (U&Rl) to grow

~ (~fu) to speak

1fQ'_ l CNfu ) to sow

em (~fu) to dwel

~~ ("~(f) to carry, to flow if\lI'_ ( iI!j(f(f) to go

~«" t ~«f(f ) to praise

~ (~fu) to go

~ l ~Uij ) to remembre

II. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice: oft, ~, I, ~"!.. and ~~

III. Translate the following into English:

vuflr I ~f;a I \iIT<ml: I ~«(f: I q:qfu I ~tJ I ~: I ~m I {'t~tJ: I ~~ I ~ I :;;rmr: I liI'lI'a: I iiftqfu I ~: I iRlfu I ~ I ~: I mftr I 'iJliSR£ I "1JCffi: I q:qf;:a' I &i't1:lfu I iiflPI I ~fu I ~:I ~:I iI~":1

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

We worship. You two move. He conquers. They grow.

I sow. W~ two abandon. Thou salut.est. They two remember. They cook. I fall. He draws. You two dig. They know.

8

SANSKRIT MANUAL

We two become. Thou eatest. They two move. We protect. You live. He leads. We go. You two praise. They melt. I burn. Thou dwellest. They two speak. We two run. You go. He carries. I cook. You two eat.

LESSON 3

MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN ar NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE

10. (1) In Sanskrit, the grammatical function of a noun in a sentence

is indicated by special terminations called case-endings. For instance, the noun ssr (son) becomes ssr: when it is subject; it becomes ~ when it is direct object. What we express by means of prepositions such as 'with', 'b)l', 'to', 'for', 'from', 'of', 'in', etc., is also rendered into Sanskrit by case-endings. There are eight cases in Sanskrit: nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative and vocative.

(2) As in the verb, so also in the noun, Sanskrit has three numbers: singular, dual and plural. Sanskrit has three genders: masculine, Feminine and neuter.

(3) The various forms taken by a noun in all its cases and numbers are called the Declension of that noun.

(4\ There are two types of nouns ending in or Some are masculine and some are neuter. Both'masculine and neuter nouns in or are declined in the same way except in the nominative, accusative and vocative.

MASCULINE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN at

9

11. DeeleDsion of 'F' m. (a well) and of,,", n. (a forest) :

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

Nominative 'F': ~, "fIT: cr-Pt. ~~ ififTfit
Accusative 'FPl Fr ~ ~ ~ q'ilTfit
Instrumental F-r "I cRor ....
~ ifl: ~ CfiJ:
Dative ~ ~~ ~: ifiIW q'~ ~+'lJ:
Ablative ilffil. ~ ~: ififfil ~ ~:
Genitive ~ ~: T'TiI1~ ~ ifiPit: iRTimt
Locative ~ 'f'lll: ~9 ~ ~: ~
Vocative I 'F' ¥r 'fIT: tr-f ~ ~ ll. The verb agrees with its subject in person and number : e.g. : A boy falls-~: mij I

Two boys faII-ilTa"\ Ifflij: I

Boys fall-array: ~ I

13. The Nominative case is used :

(1) to indicate the subject: The father leads-\lfiAi: ;p.rfu I {2) to indicate the subjective complement:

The SODS become heroes-ssn: ~..a <ftu: I

(3) to indicate a nODD in apposition to the subject:

Rama, the hero conquers-e-tten cfT{: ~fa I

14. The Accusative case is used:

(1) to indicate the direct object of a transitive verb:

The father leads the sons-~: ~T"l. iI;ffiJ I

10 SANSKRIT MANUAL

(2) to indicate the objective complement:

We know Rama (to be) a hero-mfiJ. .fh:at. lIl"lnr:,

(3) after verbs indicating movement:

The servant goes to the well-~: ~ ~fu I

(4) with the following prepositions: Slfij (above), ~ (after along), atfu (near), ~q (near, below), Slf~: (near, in front of), qful': (around), ~6: (on all sides of), ~~6: (on both sides of), f~ (fie on), UiIllT, ftlW (near), hqT (without), SRl~ (without, concerning), SRlU (between), Slfij (to, towards).

15. Sandhi rules do not apply to vowels alone, but also to consonants.

Thus, in the sentences above, the final at. and the final: of a word followed by another word undergo various changes.

(1) Final at. when followed by a consonant is changed to anusvsra : ~ <ftut. oiNT,,: =mi ;ft~ GI)\:lTif: I

(2) Final: (visarga)

when followed by a hard consonant

-remains unchanged before "'_ ~ If ~ ~ 't and ~t ssr: ~ I ~: qot;6 I ~: ~d:6 I

-becomes ~ before 'if and ~-~£in: ~Rr=~~ I

_ - _

-beeomes 'l before G_ and ~-~: iFliTat.=~ifiTi{ I

-becomes v_ before ~ and ~-ssr: oUij=~~~f6 I

when preceded by 8{T and followed by a soft consonant or a vowel, is dropped: ~wr: ''IT'rr.:cr=;;nwr mqf;cr I

\lI'iJT: SlGRr=\lI'iIT 8{Gf;o I

when preceded by 6i' and followed by a soft consonant, Sf: is changed to eft -~sr: ''IT'rrn=ssr) "ll'fftl i

MASCUUNE AND NEUTER NOUNS IN 81

11

when preceded by at and followed by any vowel except at, is dropped : ~: ~=~ ~ I

when preceded by " and followed by 81, at: is changed to ei\' while the following at is elided: 1fmf: am-=1if1Cffl1sit I N.B.-Wben final visarga is followed by a sibilant (~-.? 't or ~) it is optionally cbanged to the sibliant :

@l: ~ or, {II1~ttj(Uj'l.1 1I1i5: ~ftI or, ~U6 I EXERCISE 3

1. Vocabubtry Masculine nouns

8fIli: horse aw;:.m:: conduct iIi'frn; pigeon ~: hand

itiRi: crow Jf(~: village \1fi(: person ~e: servant ~: country OA:: man

~: king

q~o: mountain ifTW: boy

it&{: cloud

~: tree

2

Neuter nouns

atiPl. food ~fuel ~gold ~lotus ~·water QVT'I. grass ~:~ misery tISI1l. leaf ~ vessel ~ fruit ~body

ttT1~'l. sacred precept ~ character

!!~ happiness ~place

Prepositions governing

the accusative

stARr: near, in front qfuJ: around

~: on all sides ~: on both sides ffi_ fie on

} near

} without

llfu above

~ after, according

- to, along

amt near

SIre to, towards ~ between ~q near, below

12

SANSKRIT MANUAL

II. Translate the following into English:

( <t) CfiTi6: qjWJfir ~ I (~) ~ ~ I (~) ~:~~: I

( ¥) SNT: qcffiiJ. 3116 mcrficr I ('"\) '!til arRITUl_ ~ I (~) iifiiT: uft~ I (,,) ~~: I l ~ ) ~Hi ei!cr:~: u&f;cr I (,) ~ firc6tu 00 ~: I (, 0) 1fii{<6 fcr-rT ~{t~ Iiftclfu I (<t 'I) ~ oft"llfi{ I

l <t ~) ~ ~:~ ~ftl'l (H) il~: ~1:lil1\ q{Rfi ('I ¥) oWtcr: ~

~i1fft:r I ('1'"\) q~ q~cr: <i~fir ~ I ('I~) ilfiJ: ~ ~ I ( 'I" ) ~: QlJl'i. ~~ I ('I ~ ) q'T~ S1r~T <itITcr: qSfi( ~fu I (",)~: ~ I (~,,) flfli 'n~ I (~<t) ~~ iIRI~ ~ ~16 I (':(. ~ ) iR:

Q:Ul'l. qq16 I (':(. ~ )- ~ '3<Wcr: '!til ~TOJ. ~ft:r I l ~ v ) 8G 'illl{ ~ij': il'r16 I ( ~ v ) 8G mOO{ on~ ~~ illRr: I ( ~ ~) ~1iIiJ. ~f1re: ~:

~ 'Rfa I (~,,) ~ ~lfT mil': I (~~) 13f16 ~ ~I

( ,,) ~ ~ '!til I

III. Decline fully the following nouns: m;r:, ~:, <itfu:r:, ;i~i{_, ~Ull

IV. Join the sandhis in the following:

'!til ~fij I ~~: "llqf>"r6 I QlJliJ. ~~fu I ~ I .R'5: ~iliJ. ~16 I ~lIcl: ~ ~ I ue:f;cr I

iR:: ~ I ilfiJl: ~miJ. arrmr: <Nf:

v. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

Example: Two servants lead the horses around the village.

Two servants I noun-dual-masc.-subject-nomin.: ~

lead I verb-pres.-act.-3rd pers.-dual : if(ffi:

the horses I noun-plur.-mac.-object-accus.: i3PciTOJ. around I preposition: qRa:

the village I noun-sing.-masc.-governed by qftcr:-accus.:· m~iJ. ~qfur:~~~:1

Sandhi: sm:f 1Iftij't ~ 8Pcifil. illfCI': I

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION ( ~cnf~)

13

(1) Trees grow near the well. (2) The pigeon becomes a crow. (3) The king conquers the country. (4) Two horses eat grass. (5) The servant draws the boys. (6) Persons carry the vessels. (7) We live without happiness. (8) Trees carry leaves. (9) On both sides of the well boys burn the fuel. (10) Clouds move towards the mountain. (11) 'The hand protects the body. (12) Water falls on all sides of the village. (13) Sacred precepts lead men to happiness. H4) Fie on the crows. (IS) Between the two trees the water flows. (16) Persons salute the king. (17) I praise the lotus. (t 8) According to (his) character, the king protects the people (persons). (19) You two leave the place. (20) Character (is) superior to (=above) gold. (21) The servant (is) inferior to (=below) the king.

LESSON 4

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION (~cnfi{)

16. The Fourth Conjugation

Present Tense-Active Voice (~ SlmiT:)

(1) Formation of the base

(a) The radical vowel does not take guna. (b) ~ is added to the root.

(c) The letter Si is added before the terminations.

That iJ becomes en before terminations beginning wih il. or C[_

That Si is dropped before terminations beginning with Si

(2) The terminations are the same as those of the first conjugation (see No.8).

14

SANSKRlT MANUAL

(3) Application: SIt (to nourish). Formation of the base

(a) No guna of the radical vowel: SI! (b) ~ is added to the root : ~_ + ~= ~~ (c) The letter ~ is added : ~+Sf=!:fSzr

Before terminations beginning with ~ or 't : S~Before terminations beginning with Sf:~.;

Adding the terminations

s.

D.

P.

1st Pers. wnflr ~q: !:fSllHP
2nd Pers. !:fSllfu !:fSllq: ~q
3rd Pers. !:fSzrftr ~zr6: !:fSll~6 17. The nominative and accusative plural of neuter nouns in ·Sf end in fif-q~-<f",rfir I In some cases, however, we have to write fVr instead of foi, as in mRf{ (body)-~uufUr I The rule to be applied in this and similar cases is the following:

When, in the same word, ~, is preceded by 'ltg, ~,{: or 't and followed by a vowel, ~,~, l£...or if, it!s changed to or_.

The rule applies even when the ~, is separated from the preceding ~, !II{, ~ or 't by several letters, provided those intervening letters be vowels. gutturals, labials, or :!£.., cr_, ~,and anusvnra,

Examples: q?j'T-fir=q;;rrfVr; ;R-cr=oRvr; UifTzr-if=U'fTzrur I But: ~ because ~ is followed by nothing ~zrRr because "l. is followed by 6_

6f~;:rq because the intervening iii' is neither a vowel, a -:J guttural, a labial nor ~, cr_, i_ or anusvara,

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION ( ~ )

15

In order to remember the above rule, commit to memory the following line:

W ... CfifW-i ~a ~ I

-'lItilR ... -When, in the same word, Of. is preceded by ~ ('lit), ~ or ~_,

-Cfifw.i -and followed by a vowel or by <!..' "I., It. or ~.'

it is changed to or..

-:qC!Q ~~~-provided the intervening letters be not palatals (~ ~_ Gt ~ ~), cerebrals (~~ ~ ~ or..), dentals (ij_ ~ ~ "!_ Of. ) or one of the three letters ~ ... I ~ or ~_

18. Both in the first and in the fourth conjugations there are verbal roots which form their base irregularly.

Irregular verbs
First Conjugation Fourth Conjugation
tTJI. (~ftr ) to go f~ ( !{tOlffu ) to play
ltil (~m6) to restrain ~ ( ~nRffu) to cease
!lil_ ( ~fu) to hide
~~ (~fu ) to sit ~ (m~fa) to be weary
m ~f~) to smell ;r~ (;rT~fu ) to rejoice
'tT ( fqorfu ) to drink GlN_ ( fif~ftf ) to pierce
~m ( ftI~fa) to stand ~.~(~) to fall
~ (¢o ) to bite
't;Jl ( \:l;rffl ) to blow ~ (~fu) to forgive
rn_ (~fu ) to see ~ (m'iijf~) to roam, to err
19. The Sanskrit sentence usually ends with the verb. The normal
order of words is as follows: subject-object-verb:
e. g. : Two men see the forest-ifU <r.f ~o: I 16

SANSKRIT MANUAL

20. The negation if is placed immediately before the verb:

The king does not blame the servants-~ ~TOl. if f.i;~ I

The conjunction 'if (and) is either repeated after each one of the nouns it connects, or is written once only after the last noun of the series.

The man and the boys go to the village : -if{~ orTWT~ m.r ~f';q I or-ilU arlWT~ s:nii ~~ I

EXERCISE 4

II. Vocabulary

ar~ (~<lfu) to throw g-t (~fu) to be

pleased

~ (~~fu) to perish ore.. (<r~fu) to dance ~ (~) to nourish ~~ (!!Ufa) to faint 'Q'~_ (~m) to fall ~~L (~~fa) to bite ~ (fiI;~rn) to blame

~<i (~fa) to play I flii..l iT~~fu) to go

~ (~fu) to be quiet ~~ (~~:gffi) to restrain ~1ll. (~~~fu) to forgive ~ (~) to give

~ (~~fd) to be g~_ (~fd) to hide

weary

~ (m~fu) to be glad ;e~ (QT~fu) to sit

«j'l-l (~~fu) to pierce m (f~) to smell

'Q~ (mRrfq) to roam, 'n (fer.lm) to drink

to err

<+rT (l:l+rfa) to blow ~T (f61lfu) to stand

i?; (~~fu) to take away rn, (q~<lfa) tc see

if<'f'l forest ~q~ head

if not

'if and

~: well
tT~: elephant
~: moon
mm~: palace ~~: lake ~ flower i5iR~ life 1:'f~ wealth

II. Translate the following into English:

( , ) 'lCf 8n:qT~ fOR:fa I (~ ) ~ qfta: ~~fif Uf!~a I ~ ~ ) m'T~

f-I~':rfu I (v) ~TeT iT'i ~iffu I ( ..... ) SlR:rr~+r~cfr 'lcm;f: I (~) ij'{: ~T+lifa

THE FOURTH CONJUGATION (~)

17

iiW5 :or TqiJfu I (,,) iifi(~;j{' ~lffu ~fa :q' I t c;) tr-nfUr ~~ I (\) oNt ~ ~ful (~o) ~ fitw ;m;5T ~~~61 (<t"I) fi'i fiifmflr I t 'I ~ ) iT~rpt;r~ I (n) trilT <R f.r:!ifu I (h) 00 ~~: I ( ~ .... ) .~ V~ 'l~furi;5~ I ("') ~n:!fTif: I (9") ;rT~q: I ('I ~) ~!fq I l 'I \) ~~fu I (' 0 ) ifTWT ~TPrl';:a ~ijlf;:a :q I (~'I) l:TiI'iFa=tvr iifTq.i ~fu I (, ,~ ) ~ ~: I (~~) iJreT "l~Rr "lq~ ijl~fij I (~¥) ~rfC: 'fii{~m:lffu I \ \ .... ) wt l@:fu I (' ~) e{~' If'Cmftr e{~~ ~lffu I (\,,) ~f;I iPlfu I (\~) iOqja: ~ ~~fu I

III. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice: ~, qrr, m, ~, ~_ and ~~I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) I throw fuel. (2) Two men are dancing near the well.

(3) People run to the palaeo. (4) The elephant eats leaves, drinks water and is pleased. (5) Pigeons do not bite. (6) Two servants hide the fruits and the food. (7) I play and I am glad. (8) We do not praise wealth. (9) You two smell the flower. (10) They stand on all sides of the village. (11) Men dig the place and carry the gold away. (12) You are weary and you sit. (13) The horses are not quiet. (14) The king is not pleased. (15) The crow pierces the fruit. (16) The boys faint. (17) The man blames the two servants. (18) Life without happiness becomes misery. (19) We see the moon. (20) Elephants live on both sides of the lake.

LESSON 5 INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE THE SIXTH CONJUGATION (~)

21. The Instrumental Case is used :

(I) to indicate the agent of a passive verb.

(2) to indicate the instrument which is used to do the action.

The boy hides (his) face with (his) hands--orra) ~ ~+lif ~~ I

(3) to indicate the person or thing accompanying the action.

I go with the servant- ~ ~f1r I

In this sense, the instrumental may be followed by the preposition ~ (with~ Q ~ I

(4) to indicate the cause or reason, i.e. to translate expressions such as: 'owing to', 'on account of', 'out of', 'because of', etc. 00 account of misery I leave the village1;~ ~ ~ I

(5) to translate expressions like 'by name', 'by nature', by family', 'by birth', etc. Rama is a hero by nature-~ @it cfR) ~I

(6) with the prepositions ~ (with) and f.ron (without).

(7) with the particles ~ and ~ (enough). Enough with misery !-am ~:~ I

22. The Dative Case is used:

(1) to indicate the indirect object of verbs meaning 'to give', 'to send', 'to promise', 'to show'. The preceptor gives the books to the studeots-an=;;rpJ: ~: s«tii.fiI ~ I

(2) after verbs meaning 'to be angry with', 'to desire', Ito long for'. The father is angry with the son-~: SSIl1l ~ I

INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE

19

(3) to express the purpose of the action. He goes for war (=with a purpose to fight) ~ ~ I

(4) to indicate the person or thing fOT whose advantage the action is done. He digs a well for (his) sons- ifilf sSr+ll: ta-lfu I

(5) after verbs indicating movement (see Accusative, No. 14).

The servant goes to the village~TID ~Pl ~o I

(6) after the particle') ;:rill (salutation) and ~f\q (hail to).

Hail to the king !-~ ~~ I

23. The sixth ConjugatioD (!1~~) Present tense-Active voice Formation of the base

(a) The radical vowel does not take guna, (b) ~ is not added to the root.

(c) The Jetter at is added before the terminations

That et becomes etT before terminations beginning with

Il. or ~

That et is dropped before teminations beginning with at The terminations are the same as those of the first conjugation (see No.8).

24. Application: n (to strike) Formation of the base

(I) & (2) Neither guna nor ~-~

(3) The letter ~ is added : ~+et=~ Before terminations beginning with Il. or C[ : ~Before terminations beginning with at : g~

Adding terminations

s.

D.

P.

1st pers. ~ ~: g~:
2nd pers. ~ ~: ~
3rd pers. g~ g~o: g~Rr 20 25.

SANSKRIT MANUAL

Irregular verbs of the sixth Conjugation

~ (~fu) to cut I ~ tf.i~fu)

~_ \~fu) to release fu:<{_ (ful§fu)

~ (~~fu) to break ~'t (~:e~fu)

ft?tr_ \~fo to anoint ~ t~~fQ)

to find

to sprinkle to wish

to ask

26. When final visarga is preceded by any vowel except 61 or 61T, a new sandhi rule must be applied.

FinaZ'visarga preceded by any vowel except 61 or atT and followed by a vowel or a soft consonant is changed to t

orr£: ~fo=i;i~~fu, ft:Ii: ~afo='~fu I

27. We can now recapitulate the sandhi rules applying to final visarga (see No. 15).

When final

visarga

is preceded by ! any vowel

I

i any vowel

I

I any vowel

I any vowel

any vowel except 61 or 61f

61

and followed by

<IL ~ rt ~ ~ 'l_ ~L II it remains unchanged

'i'{_ or ~ it becomes fit

it becomes Ii!. it becomes ~ it becomes ~~

~ or 6~ tI..or ~

a vowel or a

soft cons.

a vowel or a it is dropped

I

I soft cons. I

a soft consonant at: becomes eft any vowel except I i~ is dropped

61 I '

at 61: becomes eft and

the following 61 is elided .

.

N.B.- The particle +it: drops its visa-ga when followed by a \!1fWel or a soft consonant.

INSTRUMENTAL AND DATIVE

EXERCISE 5

I. Vocabulary

iiI!. (liemr) to plough I ~ (~fo) to release

fu1t (f¥q'fu) to throw ~t{ \~p:j'fu) to break

~ (~ffi) to strike ft?tt (ft;5;Qfu) to anoint

~Jf~fo) to show ~. If'R:fu)to find

~(~) to write ftr"t(ftNfu) to sprinkle

f~(~fo) to enter ~'t (~ffi) to wish

~ijf (~fu) to create SR~ (~~fu) to ask

~ -

mr (~mff) to touch ~~ \~fa) to laugh

'R' (Wofu) to cut ~ , (~zrfa) to call

Slr.re: +n~:

<tk

~;YYCi5: ~:

Wf. a'1l;r

~ ~

21

wind burden hero jackal swan house bank ornament jewel

Prepositions governing the instrumental: H&: with; f<r.iT without.

Particles governing the instrumental : 6l'~, ~ID{_ enough. Particles governing the dative: iI+!': salutation to, ~~ hail to.

II. Translate the following into English:

( "t) ~~f~~Tf;r I ( ~ ) <ftUif ~~ +!'Tf'.r ~3fu ~:, ( ~) ~i1lCi5T ifTii5 ~~fu I \-lI') 'liU~~t ~~ ~'l1ITfq I (~) ~lT=tQf ~q: ~p:jfu I (~) ~ ~

~fi~<.?fa' , ( ,,) iii~: ~f! ~~ iT;~TflT I \ ~) ~1:~l!'fu if~:' ('\) 1IT~'T{

ft;5J:q'~: I ( 'I 0) lifail f<i.n 'li1f<.?Tfif if n~Rr I ( 'I "t) iili=tar ~~ ~fEf I

( 'I ~) @lTf<T f~fu I ( 9 ~) ~iI ~~lfTfiI f@€lllf: I (. 'I ¥) et~ "t~wr. ~fu I (,~) QOTif iTiilTiJ. ~!fTflr; ('1~) aH~n~ OfTii5 f~fa I ("t,,) ~. iila+<i't ~~fro I (,~) ~Tl!' ~~ ~If I ('I') ~ ~ f1roq: I (~o) smmt fi:r'li1iiT 4Tu q~fa I (~'1) ~;:I:Ti!Tlf ~mT 'l~:f iiroRr I en) ~if CfU ~«l'fu I (~~) ~mlf q'Ttt ~~ (l!'iilfu I ('~¥) SlT"'IW ~ ~fa I (~~) ~ ~~fo if~: I ( ~ ~ ) ~:~if @lTfif ~: I ( ~ " ) 'IilftaTr). ~: I ( ~ ~ ) <Rar ~tf+r I (':!,. ,) ~iS:lff~a: ii~~ iil<rT: I t \ 0) qTUlf if+r: I ( n) SJii5 If.l'if I

22

SANSKRlT MANUAL

In. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice: ~,~, ~and ~I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) I give fruits to the two servants. (2) Thou goest to the forest for flowers. (3) He is glad by character. (4) Misery breaks life. (5) Owing to the wind the lotuses perish. (6) The jackal finds food. (7) The two men call the servant. (8) Through happiness the boys laugh and dance. (9) The hero shows the jewels to the king. (10) He sees the jackal and runs (away). (11) Due to (his) conduct, he leaves (abandons) the house. (12) For the sake of wealth men plough, carry burdens, dig the mountains and leave (their) country. (13) Owing to the wind, the fruits fall. (14) We sit near the bank. (15) On all sides of the house, jackals roam. (16) Clouds emit (Wi' ) water.

"

(17) With the heroes you enter the palace. (11) I stand near the

lake with the boys. (19) They see the lotuses and laugh with happiness. (20) The swans move towards the bank. (20) I show the swan to the boys. (22) Hail to the country! (23) Enough with misery.

LESSON (; MASCULINE NOUNS IN ~ AND ~ ABLATIVE AND GENITIVE

28. Masculine noons in ~ and :g

(1) There is a great similariry between the declension of masculine nouns in ~ and that of masculine nouns in s. When the masculine nouns in It have ~, ~, ~ and ~, the masculine nouns in :g have :g, 6;, C[_ and ait respectively.

MASCUlJNE NOUNS IN It AND a-

23

(2) The Declension of 5fii m. (a sage) and of ~ m. (a baby) :

S. D. P. S. D. P.

Nom. ~: wiT ~: 'fu~: f~:a fu~:
Ace. 5fin1. wft ~if. f~ f~ ~if.
Instr, ~ 5fq~ 5ftt'fat: ~i1T f~~ fu~nt:
Dat. 5i!it ~~ ~~: ~ f~ ~:
Abl. ~it: ~~lJ.. ~~: fm: f~~ f~~:
Gen. ~: ~;:~T: ~1lJ.. tmr): f~it: f~:a;:ITil.
Loc, ~, ~~T: ~~ f'ml' f~~: 'fum
Voc. ~ ~ ~: fu~T ro:a fu~<J: 29. The Ablative Case is used :

(1) to indicate the place from which the action begins or originates.

The sage goes from forest ~r.t~ottq_ ~ I

(2) with verbs meaning 'to desist from', 'to protect', to fear' God protects men from misery-w ;mif. ~:~ ~fa I

(3) to express the cause, the motive (cf. Instrumental. No. 21)

Out of anger he strikes the boy-~ ii1~ SJ;~fa I

(4) with the following prepositions: SIfCIi (before, to the east of), • (before), ~ (after), an (until, ~ince), Sl+lffi (since), ~: (outside), lJi"a (except), fcfin (without).

30. (I) The Genitive Case has no relation with the action of the verb. It indicates a relation between nouns, usually rendered j~to English by the preposition 'of'.

The king gives jewels to the son of Hari-&~: ~ ~ ~mfir ~~f61

24

SANSKRIT MANUAL

(2) There is no verb meaning 'to have' in Sanskrit. To translate:

"The enemies have chariots", the sentence must be turned into: Of the enemies (there) are chariots- e«\urt ~qT ~lff;a I

(3) The genitive is used with the following prepositions: ~ (above), aN: (below), sur: (in front 00, q~ (behind), IRa: (beyond), am, @l~ (in the presence of), ~ (for the sake 00.

31. When·a word ends with a vowel and the following word begins with a vowel, both vowels are combined into one. The rules of vowel-sandhi are divided into three sections:

( 1) Combination of similar simple vowels

aJ or 6lT + aJ or 6lT=6lT I 5fi1iIT atGTflr=ijfili{l~f" I

~or t+~or ~=tl ~ ~~=_~I

~ or i3i + ~ or i3i=i3i I ~ ~:q' =fl6~ I

~ ~

'Sf; or ~ + 'f,; or ~=~ I <Oil ~~: =~~: I

(2) Simple vowels combined with dissimilar vowels

aJ or 6lT + ~ or {= tt I ili{t1 ~~ =ifiM~ I

aJ ·or 6lT + ~ or i3i=en I at or 6lT + ~ or "f,;=a:R: .... 1

aJ or 6lT + tt ::a l!; I

at or 6lT + aft =m I aJ or aJT + ~ _ =l!; I

aJ or atT + at' =e1\ I

i[~ ~mil~ =lI=<:gmmil'll 5f.r.rr 'SfL~: =~~: I

~ qcr =ftI~~ I ~~=~~I ~: 'if l!;U~a: 'if ~ .. l(:MUqa~ I

~~sit~ =~~I

~ or t followed by a dissimilar vowel is changed to ~ I "1Fift:r ~ = ~l\t: I

~ or i3i followed by a dissimhar vowel is changed to 't I ~~=iI~1

MASCULINE NOUNS IN ~ AND ~

"fL or ~ followed by a dissimilar vowel is changed to \. <6Q.~ ~fu=~fQ I

(3) Diphthongs combined with any vowel

Q: and ail followed by any vowel except 6i are changed respectively to ~ and 6iC( (see No.9.)

tt and eft followed by 6i remain unchanged while the 6i is elided.

~ awf ~mr=w.s;i ~~ft:r I :srm 9{liiTT=:srmS!i"iT I

Before any vowel except 6i, et<!_ and 6i0!... may optionally drop the ~t and the 't

Cfi~ ~~fu=m~m or Cfiii ~m I ~T ~fu=~fiJfu or ~ ~fa I

l{ and OJ) followed by any vowel are changed respectively to en~ and But arr<r and 9{l'f may optionally drop the ~ and the cr.

-.... - - .....

~ ~q ~fu=o~~~ ~iifu or ij~ ~ ~fu t enn ~~=6i~'l. or amr ~~ i

(4) Exceptious

Interjections like 9fT, ~, at{r do not combine with the following word.

~, i3i and ~ when dual terminations, remain unchanged before vowels, <f.t OJfijfq: ~~fu--the guest sees two forests. ;f.tsfdf~fQ-the guest dweIIs in a forest.

ii<it ~~: I ~ ~fuffl C{lffi: I

26 SANSKRIT MANUAL
EXERCISE 6
I. Vocabulary
aff1l: fire ~: moon Prepositions governing the ablative
arfafl'!: guest ~: arrow SIl'fi~ before, to SI4lfu since
-e the east
arft: Grit: outside
enemy ~: teacher '1.~ before
16f.(: ~~ except,
poet mi: tree ariRf~ after without
ftrft: moun- ~: axe arT until, up to fiRT without
tain
~fq: sage ~: beast Prepositions governing the genitive
(fq: sun ~: friend ~ above a{~ in the pre-
sence of
U~: heap GrT&: arm arl:l: below Iffir: beyond
~fI:l: ocean ~: drop S«r: in front of ~ in the pre-
sence of
"fa: quarrel ~: baby q~ behind ~ for the sake of
II. Translate the following into English after breaking up the
Sandhis: ( ,) trrom:t ~ I (~) lR§ifT oftus~ ~fu I (~) ~ ~If: i6~ft~ f~ftfl ('t) arfu~iIf ~ ~: 'iiWTfif q'<tfifl (,-\) ~ ('I~ prl6 I ( ,) ffi~ f{6cr: I (,,) arfu~iI'~lJ ~~"l. ~fu I (~) ~qICjltlqf( {~qwfu I ( "'.) iSfa~lJ f",r~": qr.roI,. qcrf;:a I ( 'i 0) ~liIfu~<q)sR iSflJ'ft; I l, ,) ~~~(

!)

<Rfrj: I ( ,~) ~: ilift;§iIT ifU if ij1'lfRr I ( 'i ~) ~(~ q~Tij_ ;rP1:lc{: ~~ I

(, ~) 1.61'tcr: "fiIi: ~"Ta~ q~"T ~~ I ( , ,-\) tI~: ~~. iSfifT~f'.(I I

~

( , ,) srT1.fi~ M: ~lJT" ~q_ I (,,,) ~~ srfcr ~fif ~f;:cr I ( , ~) IITImJ..

Grll: ~1TTCi5T ,,~f;:cr I ( 1"'.) ~~rll '!!t~ iSfifT iI' iTr:Jf;ff I ( ~ 0) 1l{lQ. ir~: tq_~ crci cwftf I

THE TENTH CONJUGATIOl\i ( ::!(lf~)

'>.7

III. Join the following sandhis:

~T 3ffuf~: I ~"fu a{~ I I~~ aJft: I ~ aJ~lffd I i3l~ iWq: I ~ ~;:~: I ",1~ ~qifll. I ~ft:r ~;:~ I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) The poet shows the trees to the 'sage. (2) The sage calls the boys. (3) The boys stand in front of the house. (4) The clouds move above the mountain. (5) The arrows of the hero pierce the enemy. (6) The boy falls from the tree and breaks (his) hand. (7) The guests have no water. (8) The servant takes away the food from the fire. (9) The water of the ocean is calm. (10) The beasts of the forest roam around the village. (11) I hide the jewels behind the tree. (12) The poet has a place in the presence of the king. ([3) From the babies up to the men the people are tired. (14) With (my) relattves I go from the mountain to the forest. (15) H'! carries the axe with both hands. (16) With heaps of leaves we feed the fire. (17) Sages worship the sun. (18) Owing to the quarrel, the teacher leaves the village.

LESSON 7

THE TENTH CONJUGATION ( ~fi{ ) LOCATIVE AND VOCATIVE

32. The tenth Conjugation: Present Tense-Active Votce

(1) Formation of the base

(a) A short medial vowel take guna. (b) A final vowel takes vrddhi.

(c) i3l~ is added to the root.

(d) The letter i3l is added before the terminations,

That 6{ becomes err before terminations beginning with i!. or "-

That aT is dropped before terminations beginning with aJ

3

28

SANSKRIT MANUAL

(2) The terminations are the same as those of the first

conjugation (see No.8).

(3) Application: ~_ (to steal); Il (to owe). Formation of the base

(a) GUlJ.a of medial short vowel: =<i'tt (b) Vrddhi of final vowel: I:lTt

(c) S{~ is added to the root: :;;ffi:+S{~=~; I:lTt+~_=\ffi:ll (d) Th"'e letter S{ is added: r;fR~ + S{ ~=<i't~ll' ~ 1:lT{~ + S{ = ~ll'

Before terminations beginning with ~ or <i : :q)~h l:lT~lfTBefore terminations beginning with S{ : =<i't{~; 1:lT{~

Adding the terminations

S. D.

P.

S .

D.

P.

. -
1st pers. =<fttlfTfir ~: :;ft~TiJ: ~lJTfiJ \:m:lJlq: ~~TiJ:
2nd pers ~fu :q)~: ~ ~f~ \ffi:~: l:lT~lfq
-----1 ---
3rd pers, I ,",,){~fu ~o: ~f;o I:lRll'RJ I:lT{lf(f: ~lfRr -33. Irregular verbs of the tenth Conjugation

~'lit (~&<1rd) to desire; ~ (~d) to cever,

34. The first, fourth, sixth and tenth Conjugations at one glance.

Guna of

short medial Guna of Vrddhi of

vowel fin a lvowel final vowel

S{ before

~ at~ termination

1st Conj. I .i, + +
I - - -
-
4th Conj. - - - + - +
._- ----
6th Conj. - - - - - +
---- ----- ----- --- -- ----
10th Conj. + - + - + + THE TENTH CONJUGATION (~~)

29

35. The Locative Case is used :

(1) to indicate the place where the action takes place. In English it is rendered by the prepositions 'in', 'at'. 'on', 'upon', 'among'. etc.

I play in the garden-~~ i!ftGrfir I among the trees-{f~ I (2) to indicate the time when the action takes place.

In summer-m~ I

(3) after verbs indicating movement (see Accusative, No. 14) such as to 'fall', 'to place', 'to throw', 'to send'. 'to enter', etc.

The tree falls into the lake-'mT ~ 'refu I

(4) to translate expressions like 'concerning', in the matter of, etc.

In the matter of modesty Hari stands flrst-f.ffllt &ft: ~~ofttl

(5) to indicate the object of emotions and feelings:

He feels affection for (or towards) Hari-&\,", ~fu,

36. The Vocative Case is used as the case of address:

o Baby !-~ rom I

37. Verbs preceded by a preposition

A preposition prefixed to a verb changes the meaning of that verb.

The prepositions mostly in use are:

Slfu over, beyond: aJfa-~ (at~ft:r) to go beyond, to cross, Slfl;{ near, unto: aJflil-m{. (atfl:TfT"mfu) to go unto, to obtain.

at~ after, along: aJ~-ij; (~{fty) to move after, to follow.

I3{tl away from: alli-""\.. (aJlf-iRrn) to move away, to depart.

atrn towards: alf~-l:TfC[ (atf~l:TT~rn) to run towards, to attack. at<f down: aJOI'-~ ts{c{~fu) to burn down, to destroy,

~ unto, back: *-;fT (au<rlffu) to take unto, to bring.

30

SANSKRIT MANUAL

~ Up, forth: ~~ (~fa) to arise, to. be produced, aq near: aq-fiif~ (aqf~ft:O to sit.

fir under: fir-~ (r.r~ftI) to throw under, to put down. fif~ away, out: fim~_ (~) to carry out.

qft round, about: qj{-'«I. tqftqaRr) to fall around, to fly around. 51 forward: S1~ .... (~ftJ) to move forward, to set out.

S1Rr towards, against: S1ft1-mJ. (Slf~ftr) to go towards, to return. fiI apart, without: ftr-am (~~) to throw apart, to scatter.

>

~ together, fully: ~-~ (qf~fij} to throw together, to

summarize.
EXERCISE 7
1. Vocabulary
<fi~ (<fi~lJRr) to tell 1fTW .... (q'fWlJfti) emr-~ (erfa~Rr)
"'
~_ (~~~fo) to wash to protect to cross
'f'Jl. (ffUTlJfu) to count tft~ (iftglffu) ~-mr. (8fNIR~fa)
to obtain
'ITt! (~) to oppress 6Gij; (~~r)
"' .... '
to proclaim '1.ii!:.. ('!~) to adore to follow
FRr t f:q~o) ~_(~) to eat 8fq.:q{~ (etCffifu)
to depart
to think ~_ (~) to adorn S1fu-1:lTC!_ (~fu)
7K (:;fR~nl) to steal ~ (~Rr) to arrange to attack
~ (~l~ffl) to cover ~ (el"(qtjRl) SR-~ .... (~)
to burn down
~s .... (~~fu) to console err-oft (err;wftr) to bring
to punish m__(~lfftt) to long for ~~ (~fu) to arise
'l (\:l1\lJfu) to owe (+dative) \1If-fcro .... (~Rr) to sit THE TENTH CONJUGATION (~tf1{)

31

II. Translate the following into English after breaking up the

sandhis:

Example: ~ Cfi~, m~ ~olT ~ 'l~ ~~ I

~ <fi:a: voc. sing. of <fif" 0 poet,

meta: loco sing. of ~ in the palace

~T instr. sing. of ~ the teacher

:air prep. governing ~~UJT with

'l~~ gen. sing. of 'lq of the king

eli[ prep. governing '!'t~ in the presence

'fugf~ 2nd pel's. sing .. pres. tense. active of m thou standest.

o poet, in the palace thou standest with the teacher in the presence of the king.

('I) eR q~ ~"f;a I (~) ~ om:5T emT~ ~ I (~) ~

~m~fu I (~) <m1ffii'!. fTQPmr: I (~),,~ ij~ ~f~ftr I ( ~) i~ ~, ~~ :q ~1T~~rftr I ( ,,) ,!q: ~b~ \~fu I (e) W3~ ~~o om: I

...

(v) ~:~ \'J<fffi_ ~ifu I ('10) q~: '1i~Tf.J ~~fu I ('1'1) ~~ ~m ~ I

( 'I~) ~ !XU ifTi.'lTql1TTq"f{ fq;~f<J I (H) ~rm~ !,gif \:lR~1lr I ('I~) ~ cfTu;:r_ 'l_ijfJ.tT.q: i ('I~) qT~' CIi'fwTrn ~'lRr I ('I ,) ifU ~~f;o I ("I ,,) <N f<froqf.m~: I ('I e) aJf<f~if ij~ ~~ trnf;ij I ('I ') ~ii ~ctTJ.fTftr I (~o) eRs~ ~OJ. ~Rr I (~'I) if~~ft" (~~) ~ ~fu I (~ ~) wN ;;ffi qlf{llfu m: I (~~) or;:~ift ~Hl iR) "Fi ~ftr I (~~) f~ eT~~ftr I (:f. ,) ~fir~~ if !ft6lfftr I

III. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) The enemies attack the king's palace. (2) In happiness, people are glad; in misery people are weary. (3) The clouds cover the sun. (4) In both villages there is no water in the wells. (5) On the bank of the lake the poet sits and thinks. (6) We console the servant. (7) Crows live in trees. (8) Thou countest the drops. (9) I arrange the jewels of the king.

32

SANSKRIT MANUAL

(10) The swans cross the lake from bank to bank. (11) Servants, you do not throw leaves' on the fire. (12) Boys follow the teacher. (13) They sit with (their) relatives in the house. (14) You two sit on the heap of grass. (15) The child COvers (his) face with both hands. (16) The servant washes the vessels with the water of the well. (17) The enemies are throwing arrows at the heroes. (18) We owe jewels to the two teachers. (19) The two boys of the teacher have no friends.

RECAPITULATION
I. Vocabulary
hl~: God atRllllll. health atre: bee I O{l'(j': wind
~: son CfiT~ poem Cfif'q-: monkey ~((j': death
virtue '" fate ~qftr: king
gUl: ~ sm: lord,
mi6: world ~ strength ~q: seer master
friq(j': modesty ;:IT@{ meat ~: sound ~: enemy
\'ifiICfi: father ~ friend firfl:l: treasure ~: cause
atT1fiffi: sky ~ saying qyfVr: hand ~: honest
-e
anm:r: arrival ir~'{ beauty I fcffl,y: fate man
smT~. favour ~I{ plough ~~: ray l~: Raghu f.r-~ (firf~fd) to put down fim-cr& (f.r~fa) to carry out qf~~tqRqcrfcr) to fly round S!fa-~ (qfa~fd) to return fif-S{~ (o~fu) to scatter ~1{-~(dTh.1qfC[') to shorten

II. Give

the instrumental singular of ssr:, firSJq_, fitfl:l: and ~: the genitive dual of gor:, iIiTO~ QYfVr: and ~:

the vocative singular of t~:, ~ ~fal and ~:

Adverbs and prepositions

here ~ like

there ~Il. thus

just, only s{N even

today if Cfi~fq never

now ~ always

FEMININH r-:OUNS IN err AND 33

III. Join the following sandhis:

filflq: ~ I ~: foeofo I <$I' t:t~ I ~ftt: atflt I at~ifT anif~ I

ij~ ~ I ~ t:ta: I cr~fo ~;~ I f~~ ~ I 50ft SIN I

IV. What case is governed by the following prepositions:

S{f~:, fClifT, q'f<!fRl,., 'l-Cfll, ~~, ~q'ft:, ii(f~:, fiI'V:fl ~

V. Conjugate the following in the present tense, active voice: ~, ~, fw~, ~~~, ~-ij;, fci-a:!ij'~1

LESSON 8

FEMININE NOUNS IN ~T AND ~ PRESENT TENSE-MIDDLE VOICE ( ~Tc+J~q{t )

38. Feminine nouns in m and t are declined as follows: C15ffi (a creeper), if~T (a river):

S. D. P. S. D. P.

~ 1 if~ I if~'
Nom. woT I CiSffi: -I ~:
I CiSa q~ Iqqft if~:
Ace. C15OT~ C15ffi:
- --
Instr. C15cr:rT C15OT+lfT~ C15oTrn: ifm ~+lIT~ q{"tfu:
---
C150'* '" q~+m~ ~~:
Dat. C15c;T~ wo~: ~
--~~-
Abl. C15OTlIT: I C1501+~ C15o~: ~: if{t+lf~ if~~:
_----
Gen. C15oTlIT: C150l[r: C15ffiifT'l. <:~H: ;Wr: ~ifTIJ.
-
Loc. C150~ woliT: ~T~ ~TIJ. ifm: ~ISI
'"
Voc. C15a I C15a C15oT: q~ ifm if'll: 34

SANSKRIT MANUAL

3'. Present tense-Middle voice

When I do an action for the benefit of another, I use the active voice (q(~~). When I do an action for my own benefit, I use the middle voice (e:rTtII~q(T). In Sanskrit, the distinction between active and middle voice has not been strictly preserved. Besides a small number of verbs which can be conjugated in both the acti ve and the middle voice (~~'T), most verbs are conjugated either in the active or in the middle voice.

In the middle voice, the verbal base is formed according to the rules given previously for the active voice of the first, fourth, sixth and tenth conjugations (see No. 34). The terminations alone are different.

40. Terminations of the present tense, middle voice (~q~) :

1st pers. -~ -~ '""~
2nd pers. .« -tit .~
3rd pers, .~ ·t~ -at~
i The letter at added to the base before the terminations becomes 61T before terminations beginning with ~ or i{_; it is dropped hefore terminations beginning with 61 or ~.

41. Examples

lst conjugation : ~ (to rejoice) ; verbal base: OJ~-; 3rd pers. sing.: m~

4th conjugation: IR. (to think); verbal base : qrif·; 3rd pers. sing.: ~a

6th conjugation: a?i. (to incite); verbal base: ~-; 3rd pers. sing.: ~

Itnh conjugation : ~ (to counsel) ; verbal base : ~;:rj~'; 3rd pers. sjng.:~1

FEMININE NOLNS IN en AND ~

35

42. Conjugation of ~~~ (to obtain) : s.

D.

P.

I ht pe"·1 ~ 1 ~1~ [~

2nd pers'l ~+{~ ~lt~ ~ ~~\:~ I

3rd pers·1 ~~m ~-I-~~~J

43. A Sandhi rule to be remembered (set' /1'0. 31) The final ~ of a word followed by a vowel

General rule : ~jo!lolved by any vowel i: changed to 8~

Exceptions

(1) Final ~ of a word followed by 61 remains unchanged while the e{ is elided : ~~~~ Slfijll. = ~~ilsfu~ I

(2) Final ~ of a word-followed by any vowel exceft Sl. after changing to 8FI'_, may optionally drop the </ .... : ~.~ ~;:~Il = i~f~q.._ or ~¥ ~;:lq...:--171C second form is by far the more frequent.

(3) Final ~ of a dual form followed by any vowel remains unchanged: ~'f~ SlfuJ{_; t~~ .~~i{ I

44. Speclal censtruction of the verb ~"! (():qtt)-to please, [0 appeal to.

The verb ~ governs the dative of the person who is pleased, while the thing which pleases is put in the nominative.

Fight appeals to the hero-ll'~ ift'(lll' U:;ffl I

'"

Boys are fond of fruits (=fruits appeal to boys)-~Tfif lifimm

U~l

Travellers are found of water (=water pleases travellersj=~~qf~~1

36

SANSKRIT MANUAL

45. The difference between w~Tg and ~~ is the result of the

'"

following rule:

When tI'_ is preceded by a vowel except e{ or 9fT. or by ~ or ~...? it is changed to Ii when, in the same word, CL ~,q_ ~ <t or any vowel followsAn anusvara or a visarga do not affect the application of the rule. if~T+g=~~, EIG+~=~, 'G:+~=~ij:~, e{f~+ij;n=e{~Cfi I

EXERCISE 8
I. Vocabulary
<1m the Ganges iflf{1 town t~ (t~~t) to see
{~~T plantain- if~ river Cf.~ (~~qij) to tremble
tree IfflfT nurse lfTi{_ (lfT&ij) to dive
~ seal, coin 'lf~<ft earth iiI"<l, ( iiiT~) to be born
~T splendour <HufT voice it (~T~) to fly
~f wife U~ queen iA_ \iJ~ij) to think
~PH shade mit lioness ~~ (~I:<rij) to fight
~ twilight iil"iiifT mother ~~ W·:qij) to please
~TliIT speech ifTft woman q.q(~~ij) to consult
tl'm assembly ~ wife ~(~~) to search
00 line ~flf'ft sister fcr-f.sr (f.fi!!~) to conquer
'IlWT garland ;Zf&OJT house- qn-fi!! (~Ti!!~ij) to defeat
~T creeper wife e{T-S''m_(e{T'l~~) to take leave
ilfTft;5CfiT girl ~ night of (+accus.)
II. Translate the following into English after breaking up the
sandhis: (~) ~~~f: ~ihTI ~~~ ~~: I (~) ~~ illf~f: Slful1~cr: I \~) m~m. ifT{T +fl~ fill¥qfcr I ( ¥) fiffl fTWT~t lfT~ij I ( ~) ~qij: ~iJa.=f uijT ~frr.lht~ i t ~) <wfq'+!f: 'li~Tf'H"t:q;:ij I (,,) ;Zf~orT ~ rrar1.ITo I (~) fq'fI;r~< :~~ ~~"fa I

FEMININE NOUNS IN err AND t

37

t q,) if~qf ~T~~ ~lifu I ( '10) ~ ~ ssrR. ~~f6 I ( 'I 'I) e;~t ~fan'r.r_ fffi~ I ( 'I ~) ~T~ '6l'61 qf~q(la: I ( 'I ~) <rTm~ ~fif ~~~ I (h') iifiI'~~ enmrcr OfTfi;5'IiT ~n(;5t ~lif.:a I ('I ,-\) ~~:qqTfif Q~llJfa '6f.r: I ( 'I ~) .reift(t"", ~~fq\lfl{~ I ( 'I \5) "t~ ~TWT~ ~):q~ I ( 'I ~) ~:~ ~ :q ifT~ ~. ~SJ~ I ( 'I q,) "8~Cffq eft() if es;~ I (~o) ~SfT ffi if 'f.~Tfq

'"

~i1ffu I (~ '1) rnfT ~ er..ijU lifitft:r I (~ ~) crm~1~ ~<it ~~~~fI ( ~ ~ ) S{~ or

"l'tfu: e~wt iI1qfiffiftr I (~~) ~~W{ sre~ ilU enuR1"fl:lfl~f;a I (~'-\) (l~~~ '6Q'1'ar ~~ I

III. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Through fate, the enemies attack the town and conquer. (2) Even today I do not see the Ganges. (3) The voice of the queen pleases the poets. (4) The speech of the child is the cause of the mother's happiness. (5) We carry out the sacred precepts of the Rsis- (6) Just around the village men are bringing heaps of grass. (7) Out of modesty the honest man worships God (as his) Lord. (8) The sound of the waters of the Ganges pleases the sages. (9) I sit in the shade of the tree and think. (10) Like a jewel, the moon adorns the sky. (11) Thus speaks the king. (12) Here people have no wealth. (13) The woman scatters the flowers of the garland on the earth. (14) There the creepers adorn the trees with (their) flowers. (15) We take leave of (our) mother and go to the teacher's house. (16) Because of the splendour of the sky and of the earth we praise God the Lord.

IV. Decline fully the following : ~ and t:mft I

LESSON 9

THE IMPERFECT TENSE (enG':_) ACTIVE AND MIDDLE, FEMININE NOUNS IN '{ AND ~

45. Tile Imperfect Tense ( w~ )

(1) There are three past tenses in Sanskrit: the Imperfect (w'S), the Perfect (ft;5C?;) and the Aorist (~'S). Originally these three past

tenses had specific meanings : ~

the Imperfect was used for past events of which the speaker had been a witness;

the Perfect was used for past events of which the speaker had not been a witness;

the Aorist was used for the immediate past.

In classical Sanskrit, however. those three tenses are used almost indiscriminately, with this restriction that the Perfect is very rarely used in the first person.

(2) The formation of the base follows the rules given for the present tense of the first, fourtn, sixth and tenth conjugations (see No. 34).

The final a{ of the base is changed to err before terminations beginning with ij_ or ct, and is dropped before terminations beg.nning with 8l.

47. The Augment

(I) To all verbs conjugated in the Imperfect, the augment at is to be prefixed, e.g, : tm.; verbal base: Iffi ; augment: e:{-qa-

(2) When the verb is preceded by a preposition, the augment S{ should be inserted between the preposition and the verb, and the rules of sandhi should be applied:

~-f;m~; ~-st f;m snmr·

THE IMPERFECT TENSE ( (:5~ )

39

(3) When the verb begins with a vowel, the augment 8f forms
vrddhi with the initial vowel:
8{ij'; 8{-ewr- ~-
(lSI;- a:r-~- 'i{~iJ-
~ at'eM- ~!i[-
'if;- <
6i'~~- err~-
48. Terminations
q{~q'~ ~~
S. D. P. So D. P. 1st pers. -a(~ -or -Il ~ -~ -Ilfu
2nd pers, 'ij' ~l'J, -(I -~: ttlT~ -~
"'
3rd pers. -Q_ aT'l,. -9foI. -(I ~t1T~ -8{;a 49. The Imperfect of f"~l (Par.jand of ('5~ (Atm.) :

S. D. P. S. D. P.

1st pers. 6i~ 6ifq~lCf err.rmll 6i~ 6{(?;tllq ft{ 6i~mllft{
2nd pers, eITcro: a:r~~ Slfcr~ ~tlT: 6i~~~ ~~'CC!1t.
3rd pers. 6ifif~ 6ir.r~T'l,. 6i~ 6i~tla SI~ml{ e;~~(1 SO. Femine Noons in ~ and is'

Feminine nouns in i{ and is' borrow most of their declension from the masculine nouns in i{ and is' (see No. 28). Their instrumental singular and accusative plural are similar to those of feminine nouns in t (see No. 38). Their dative, ablative, genitive and locative singular have two optional forms, one similar to those of i!~, the other to those Wif and fu~ ,

40

SANSKRIT MANUAL

Declension oflfRr (thought) and of~ (cow) :

S. D. P. S.

D.

P.

Nom. lifo: ;rij\ / ~: ~: ~'l. iRer:
-
Ace. ;r~ ;rffi iRIT: ~ ~ ~
Inst. ~ ;rfo+~ Jrfafu: ~;:qT ~ ~:
"" mCl+<m{ ;rrn+<:r: ~;if ~ ~:
Dat. ;ri:ll"
;ra~ ~~
Abl. ~: iffu+mJl. ;rfu~: ~r<fT: ~~ ~~:
~: ~:
Gen. iftlTT: ift~: ifa1i1T~ iitrorT: ~rq): ~
q~: ~.i't:
Loc. m~~ m~T: iffCl!J ~ ~!fT: ~
ifO') ~iI'
Voe. iI~ 'RfT I qa~: ~ ~ ~iJCI: 51. The verb ~. to do, belongs to the eighth conjugation. Yet, owing to its frequent occurence, its conjugation should be learnt from the start:

s.

D.

P.

s.

Imperfect D.

P.

Present

ifiufif < < < e
1st pers. Wf: ~: I3lifi{!fJl. ~ ~
2nd pers, 'fiuRi ~q~: ~ 6l~: Si~C!JI. ~
-
3rd pers. '6{Tfu ~ 6li6{ttI. <
~: 9l~~ ~q"I. THE IMPERFECT TENSE ~ 8~ )

1. Vocabulary

'li ( ifirfu ) to do. to make f.J~ ( ~ ) to disagree 'Fl. t qij~ ) to exist

f.r-~ ( fir;ffiij ) to desist from ~-mt. ( oqil=egfa' ) to approach f.J~ t fCffft~fu) to be sad atf1;r-~T ( 6{fuftmfu) to live in

l -l-accus.)

41

EXERCISE 9

qft-;tT ( qfturma ) to marry "f\:r-fir-~ ( arf~firmffi )

to resort to (+accus.)

arr-{ t arr~ ) to-respect

+rTl! ( ~~ ) to speak

arr~~ ( em:mt ) to begin

iI5~ ( Ci5~ ) to obtain

;rft:r: (f. ) mind ~~: tf. ) cow A few idioms containing

~fffi: (f. ) power ~: (f ) beak the verb ti

~fffi: (f ) devotion ijij: (f ) body ~q ~)1lr I place on my

Q:fu: (f) satisfac- \\1'~: (f. ) rope head

tion t!?J: (f· ) dust, 'fit ~Tf1T I take in my hand

;ftftr: (f ) conduct pollen a;laT qi~ft:r I wait one

*m: (f. ) jest ~: (f. ) jaw moment

ll.ftr: (/ ) earth 'tiT~Jl. work ;rm qiufiI' I turn my mind

~ft;s: (f. ) dust 'qG: jar to (+loc.)

ufi;r: (f ) night en~: order I q~ qi(tflr I set foot (+loc.)

II. Conjugate the following in the imperfect, active voice:

ofT, ~ctl, \3q-mt_ and 6{m-foi-f;re_1

III. Decline fully' the following: ~:and~:1

IV. Translate the following into English after breaking up the sandhis:

( 'I) :q'5't1fT 'tiT'tiT qf«'f~\Q.. I ( ~ ) srr~Ta: ~;rq;~cf <rqrn ..nq'fiT~ I

("01,) ~ifqi~~ iUCi5T ~"l !U'im.. iiT~\if~Q..1 (¥) ~Tm ~ ~'Tq ~ij: I t '"\) \~~ I

42

SANSKRIT MANUAL

~) ~1 \bqfa I (q ~ij::Jii~H~ ~ip:r+rt\{"lfcf~ffi ilTfw~ It") ~ {tiT, mffl. if ;:~lfi:l:>.n: I (~) ~§Jfm.. ~§<=i ~T 3ife,;;s1~ I (\) ~JffTIitif Ii~;i ~T~~fo I t'1 0) 5if1 ~q~a I (., 9) f~~lJ "lc~i1T f~l'ft~q: I (, ~) m~ ~m:~~ I ( , ~) qm~::qRTifg~ I ( '1 ¥) qi(ij~lJf:i'fw:r. I (1',,) ilr.Rt: ~) gU.\fir.ff ~0Fm.. I t '1 ~) fl{:;r~~TfliT ijfuijor;ffiI. I ( ,,,) <i.rr Q:OR:~ (T~m wrij- I ('I G) m!:l: iifiT~' U?[t i{T;::mtl ('1~) sr~): ~ij~ ~«~fH+re,;;lF(f1 (~o)3:~) iiIifCfi ~'f ~~~ I (~,) ~mlJt iiliJ'6TSmQcr I ( ~ ~) 5fciiff{TUft .rTfgij~~ I ( ~ ~) l~~~ ~f~ ~e( ij::1F{f ~: I

V. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Through God's favour he resorted to devotion. (2) I was always fond of jest. (3) Two boys took the rope in their hands. (4) The girl adorned (her) body with jewels. (5) Owing to the clouds and the dust cows did not eat grass. (6) Even for the sake of (his) friends a honest man does not desist from virtue. (7) Men think Raghu (to be) a hero. (8) At night a sky without moon is like a lake without lotus. (9) By order of the teacher we began the work. (10) He spoke thus and the people of the town praised the power of the king. (11 ) You took the pigeons in your hand. (12) .We two always disagree. (13) You two obtained happiness owing to (your) modesty. (14) Two friends found a treasure and carried (it) home.

LESSON 10

MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS IN ~ IMPERATIVE MOOD (~)

<,

52. There are two types of masculine nouns in 'lIg, agent-nouns

and nouns of relations. Their declension differs only in the nominative and vocative dual and plural and in the accusative singular and dual; in which case the final 'l!L of agent-nouns takes vrddhi ( 6JH_) while that of nouns of relations takes guna (SR_).

(1) Declension of ~ii (leader) and of ~ {father) :

s. D. P. s. D. P.

Nom. ~aT I ~oT{t ~tm:: fqaT f!faa fuR:
I
Ace. . ~a"" I_:al{t. ;m~ fm(ij, f!faU ftffio(
~ l
Instr, ;r:;rr ~f[RiT'l. ~fll: fq:H f!f([~11J. I fQiiflt:
f------ l-
Dat. ~# ~~ ~~: fqS[ ~~ flfii+!f:
!--- t-- --
Abl. ~g;: ~i!+1111J. ~: fqg;: ~<Jl~ fi«!~:
1------ 1-. ~aOfPl.
Gen. ~'g;: ~:;rT: fqg;: ~T: fqaOflll
~ ~
Loc, I ~af{ ;r;n-: ~Q~ f!faR fq-=n: fqQ~
I
I------~
Voc. ~\ ~mu ~oR: f!fo\... fqan fqa{: (L) 4{Q.~ (husband) and ifH (grandson). although names of relations, are declined hke ~C!, e.g:: accus., sing: mtf~, CffiH~ I

53. Feminine nouns in ~ are all nouns of relations. They are declined like fqq; except in the accusative plural which end with !ilt:; ~{l (sister), however. is decline like ;m except in the accusative plural.

4-

SANSKRIT MANUAL

Nominative and accusative of~ (mother) and ~ (sister),

S. D. p. S. D. P.

54. All the visargas met with in the previous lessons stand in the place of final« - \l(ir:=ijfiffi; iRlq:=~ Final ~_ also -ecomes visarga: ij-6{___ =~:; 'ffif~.: -=-'ffiI: I So also in the adverbs ~..:~: (again) am_ri SlRr{..:::Sffif: (early).

Vrsarga standing for final {_ follows the general rules of visarga-sandhi (see No. 27) with one exception.

Visarga standing for final ~ .... even when preceded by 8{ or en and followed by a vowel or a soft consonant is changed to ~_ :

e.g.: ~: 8{fq=~; fqij: ~fEr=flrn;i~f« ;

'ffiI: ~~. ~=,"ijft~· ~lffir I

When visarga is changed to ~ and is followed by ~ , the first { is

.... .... ~

dropped and the preceding vowel, if short, is lengthened:

e.g.: ~: U\lfij=~~~ u~Rt=ROOI

Sffif: ~:qlffu = ~_ ~~ =SffifT ~lfftr I

55. The Imperative mood (t'5'to_) is used : (1) to express a command or an advice (2) to express a wish or a prayer

(3) to express a possibility or doubt

(4) with the negative ill to express prohibition.

MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS IN !IlL

45

The formation of the base follows the role given for the present tense of the first, fourth, sixth and tenth conjugations (see No. 34).

The final at of the base is dropped before terminations beginning with at.

Terminations

s.

P.

s.

P.

Is t pers, -anfif -stN -amr Tl; enCil -emrl
---
2nd pers, - -61l -(f ~ -~ .. ~
3rd pers. -~ -ffilI. ~ -ffilJ; tali{ -SRI'lll. 56. The Imperative of !!AI:! (Par.) and of 'f~ (Atm.)

s. D. P. s.

D.

P.

1st pers. oj'r!,f(ffl ""!,f(q ""!,f('f ~$...-t ~
2nd pers. <ll~ ""~il. iilT~ ~~ ~~~
- .
3rd pers, iit~~ iiIT~Tl{ iiill:"R! 1R6lll. ~ ,,~;aT~ 57. . The 'I. in atTf.r (1st pers. sing.) follow the rule given in No. 17 : thus : ~+atTfi(=~+atTfi(=~TfVr

:q~ + anfif=:;fr~+atTf.r=:q"'R~fVr I

._." "'

46

SANSKRIT MANUAL

EXERCISE 10

I. VQcabulary
~ (00) m. donor ii~(~)f. ili'tlil': anger
CfiQ:' {i6Qf) m. doer daughter ~:greed
~q (~T) m. leader 'ffil (1f1(IT}f. mother iiTif: desire
cr.tk (~}f. sister-in ~~: illusion
~ (~) m. hearer law iJrn': destruction
ij"fcJq (ij"fiffiT) m. sun ~e: (~m)f. sister ~sin
~Q: (~T)m. conqueror ~t'I': chariot ~W{cause
cnJ (<rm) m. grandson m:rogue 3Ill ( J;f~ftt ) to arise,
~~garden to be produced
ftr'! (f4"dT) m. father ~m hail! (+dat.) ~ (srcm)
~ (mat) m. brother ~_ <Si':) again to proceed
~ (~crT) son-in- smR~ I smr:) early ~(~d)
law morning to break II. Decline fully the following : ~ and ~ I

III. Conjugate the following in the imperative mood, active voice = e: and ~I

IV. Translate the following into English after breaking up the sandhis =

(,) ~qq~crT~gt (~) ~f~U;mR~t (~) ~:im-~ I

(Y) ~ ~~Tiffil ~q;ft~lffl. t ('-.) ~ ~)cf~~~ t (~) msTT

ij"~ ~~R ~~ t (,,) ~ orR? f'«l{~~ t (e) ~ ~ f~ t (\) ~~lJT ~ \iI1imtT ~~t~ q~ I ('0) ~'q.rt~ ~Hrll~*,lf(1

( , , ) ~,,~ OiaR tt<f ij~~~~ t ( , ~) ~ffi{@U~ I ( , ~) mol

~~ffi'6T~ u~ qu~ I ( , v) SCt+l;q"CCff( I ( , '-. ) w)~HI.~: qf1i

MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOU~S IN 'li.; 47

~ufo I ('I ~) fi«R qrn( :qrfW:mrl1 ('I \t) srnt: ~~~~ I ( 'I ~) ~ ~:, 1fTmJ.. ~I ('1\) ~ ernro, fti5JT'OJ~sfq -m~ I

~ iit~: SI~fCf Ci5T~ cmt: ~ I

w)mtl. 'Il~~ iI'ro~ ~: qmlI ~f.IIlll. II

V. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Out of anger (my) brother broke the jar. (2) May the donors give wealth to the people of the village! (3) Let him live in the forest. (4) See the beauty of the garden. (5) You desire happiness: desist from greed. (6) The man sat in the garden with (his) two grandsons. (7) Hail to the poets 1 (8) 0 sister, do not abandon the house. (9) The hearers stood again in front of the palace. (10) Through the destruction of the enemies the conqueror has freed (released) the country. (11) May I always live among (my) brothers! (12) Let the leader punish the rogues. (13) 0 daughters, follow (your) mother up to the bouse. (14) May sin, the cause of misery, perish! (15) 0 heroes, fight with the enemies, follow the leader and protect the country.

LESSON 11 FEMININE NOUNS IN ~ POTENTIAL MOOD (fqf"lfuJ~:)

58. Feminine Nouns in OJ are declined on the same pattern as if~ (see No. 38); where ~ has ~, { and ~, feminine nouns in OJ have a', ii and er.. respectively. Besides, their nominative singular takes visarga.

Declension of "Ii. (young woman, bride) :

Nom. '1~ ,,~ ~ii{:
Acc. ~ .....rr ~
Instr. C('tq1' ~+1mI. ~fiJ:
~ ~
Dat. crcq ii{1:T+<i:
e,
Abl, C('tq1': if~ cr,~:
Gen. Ci'CCfT: ~: ~
Loc. cro;nll. crcci'r:
Voc. ~ ~ I ~!f .

-- 59. Potential (or Optative) m06d (fcffl:TR;s§_) is used: (1) to express a wish M a request

(2) to express au adviee

(3) to express possibility or doubt

(4' to express probability or near future (5) in conditional clauses.

FEMININE NOUNS IN

49

The formation of the base follows the rules given for the present tense of the first, fourth. sixth and tenth conjugations. Since all the terminations of the Potential begin with t. the combination of the final a{ of the base with that t will give tt (cr. No. 31 : a{+~=l:O :

Terminations

S.

P.

S.

D.

P.

1st pers, -~~ -tcr -~ij" -~ -tcd{ -W(
2nd pers -t: -~~ -~a -t~r: ~ -~
3rd pers. -~ -~ .~: -ta -~ ~ 60. The potential of II (to become) and of ~_ (to search) :

1st pers. ~ ~if • ~~ll ~f{ ~I~q~
2nd pers, ~~ ~ ~: ~11~1I1"1~ ll~
3rd pers. ~aT'l. ~!: ~ ~II~~ 1(1 lit. ~
- 61. D1ustrations of the use of the Imperative and Potential

(l) Order, prohibition, advice:

{ ~-Bring water.

tmt III ~lf-Do not annoy the baby.

'"

{ if{: ~ ~ ~ -Man should always tell the truth.

~ifTift ~ if Slr.r~:- You should not enter the house of the wicked.

(2) Wish, prayer, request:

{ fqsrl~ ~rfor- 0 that I may stay in my father's house! IIla~ ~~:-May the boys see their mother!

50

SANSKRIT MANUAL

(3) Possibility and doubt:

{ f.rt,f ~- There may be poison.

qyftffifq": if ~-You might not receive the reward. (4) Conditional clause:

~ maT ifl4l'.:i;a ~lta-If the mother does not come, the c.iild will die. "

62. Imperative and Potential of the verb ~, to do.

Imperative

Potential

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

lst pers. _ L ~~~TfVJ ~<flq I ~{q~ ~~fq_ ! :t<rfq- ! ~f~
1
1 T ~~a_ ~f: I ~~fa:~ i ~lIfa:
2nd pers'l ~~ ~n~ I
i L I
------1------ ~~fa: ~~fm~ I v
3rd pers. i ~Tg ~~~ i ~q;g !'P! ;
I '" s (i;3. The verb aR1, to be, (2nd conj.) is conjugated as follows:

Present Imperfect

S. D. P. S. D. P.

8lft:+r ~ilj': ~ij': arlml amcr ar~'l'
1--- --
arf~ ~~: ~~ 8lTdh ~ ar T«i
-+
6t~a ~o: ~~ arTttq_ I
I arT~a~ arT~ s.

Imperative

D. P.

S.

Potential Do

P.

• ar~ntir j
art1M' ~ ~!fT~ ~T<i ii<:im
ttf'q _ __L ~~ I ~ m: ~mdf{ ~rn
--- - -- I
et~ ~Pl. ~g ~ ~.mnf:l ~: FEMININE NOUNS I~ i3i

51

I. Vocabulary

EXERCISE 11

"Ii: bride '<r'l: army

~*-r: wicked person

~~T once upon a

'Ii~: mother-in-

e,

law ~T star

8{fti: (m.) sword

~m- maid-servant

8{Tmc: hermitage

~eye aITliI~:rq_ medicine

5@'f.'l.book

~'l. field ~q_ fear

fil;aT knowledge ~c<n=I.. truth II. Decline fully : 'Ii~:

<-

time

fq;;g; but ; Cl~, (ClTGlfm)

to beat ~ C'IiQlfu) to be angry

( +dat)

~l{_ ('fii?1ij) to be fit for

( -l-dat) 6lQ-illi. (61q;r~fu) to know ~-~n (;a-f'flWcr) to rise

Q~ (ffi~lJfu) to weigh

I ;'i=f~~~ (anf~:rrfo) to order, to command ~-~ (5!.i'rerfu) to wake up

OJ: (f~1:!ij) to die; Si~

(8{~ff) to be

III. Conjugate the followmg in the potential mood, active voice: fl' 5!-~~,~, ~ and ~ I

IV. Translate the following into English after breaking up the sandhis:

(,) 'Ii~~ if ~_ I (':1,) ~-w.Tsferfi'f~~ur:+m_1 (~) PeroT ~nTlt

f.:tN: ~_ I (¥) ~'ii~ mo: 5ITOITI::f ijt~~ '<rT~'l.1 (",) %" ;rouf~, '<r1<lT

;fi{lurt ~~ crrfur I ( ~) ~T f<rol~ if ~{~ I (,,) ~ q~, ~ ~~~

mq~~ I (<;) 8{fu;rC{ ;r~vrr~<lrwlhffl'lfq'tlJfCl I (~) ~f'fjt~ iRT i!l?J~ ~urt ::or ~~ ~ ~g I {'l 0) 'lqrn qfta) '=J~ ~~. qf{~{T: !6~q;-d I

'"

('I') ~: m~~): I (,~) (:j'r~~~~l (Cj~) ~q~+"lf ~ mrt if

52

SANSKRIT MANUAL

~ant I (" 't) ~ft{ ~~ ~ \11~~ ~ firoffi\ol. I ( ,,'-.) (1T~ ~m %;g tq~~ ~ I (,~) Smr: sm~ if{:, ~~ ~~, m \~, ~~'f.

aFt'll«I., 6t<i il(~: ~~ef ~f<t. if iIi<i{TN ~:~ iiiROT ~ I -

v. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) On the order of the king the army may set out for the viIIage. (2) If you were to rise early, you would roam along the river's bank. (3) People should know the modesty of the sages. (4) Wait a moment: I just put down (my) book and come. (5) Maid-servants should follow the bride up to the house of (her) mother-in-law. (6) If you long for knowledge, you should dwell in a hermitage with (your) teacher. (7) You tremble out of fear of God; you should worship God out of devotion. (8) Men live and die, kings conquer and perish; truth alone does not die. (9) Like a star in the sky, like a lotus in the lake, like a flower on a creeper, the sage should live in the world for the happiness of men. (10) Do not be angry with (your) friend; anger could only be the cause of sin.

LESSON 12

NEUTER NOUNS IN ~, ~ AND stl AGREEMENT OF T.HE ADJECTIVE

64. The neuter nouns in ~, ~ and ~ are all declined on the same pattern.

Declension of ~ (water), ~ (honey) and of ~ (dispenser) :

Nom. ;nft qrftUJ1 qr~'Tfur I 'l~ ~ ~}nQ " IiflCf~ fVr
I:lTQ.QJT
0-
Ace, ;nft crrftvfT qrtyf;Jr il~ 'I'~ ~qfif ~Q I:lTQUft IiflCff1Jr
c, s
I--
~. erTftwt,~ 1!fTftf~: IiWtT ~T~ ~fw. 1iffi!OlT IiflQ+'lfPl. IiflQf~:
~~r 8iff{it 1~ erT~: 'I'~~ ~+<mJ. 'I~+"lf. I:lTQit I:lTQ.~~ I:lT~~:
AbJ. I qrfuJr:~~ erTfh.<r: qif: 'I'~+"lfT~ 'I'~ I:lTQUT: I:lTQ.~Pl 1:lTQ.+"lf:
1-
Gen. ertftur: ertftvi): 00- 'I'~ilT: ql:l- IiflQUT):
~: " I:llQUT: IiflCfurpt
Ofl1t. "''"l_ ~
1fIftfQr qfir 'I'1:liI): r------
Loc. 1.fTftvI): 1fIftq il'I:lEl IiflQf1Jr 1:1TQ.Of"t: Iifl~
'" ',"~
Voc. {: IflftvIT qr~for {::n 'I'~ 'I~ {:\ 1:1lQUT'T 1:1TafVT
~ 65. The declensions seen so far can be classified as follows:

(1) Nouns ending (2) Nouns ending (3) Nouns ending
in 8{ & an in ~ in ;;
Mas. : Tt: Mas: : ~fij: Mas. :f~:
Fern. : am Fem. om' Fern. .~.
. . . .
Neut. : i!fif'I. Neut. : 1.fTft Neut. : '11:1
'" 54

SANSKRIT MANUAL

( 4) Nouns ending

in ~ Masc.:~, ~ Fern. : '11Q; Neut. : 1:1'TQ:

(5)

Nouns ending 1--- (6) Nouns ending

in ~ in i3i

Fern. : "'~

Fern. : ql:l.=

66. The adjective, whether it be usued as an epithet or as a predicate, agrees with the noun it qualifies in gender, number and casco

(1) Most o. the adjectives ending in at form their feminine in eu and their neuter in Sill I

Thus: f-:-.<r (dear) will be declined in the masculine as ~:-fW1: in the feminine as C!5ijT-fSl1lT in the neuter as EfiIWI. - fSrll'l.

Examples: fSr1f qualifying the following : 01T~: (instr. plur. masc.), ~~ (instr, fern. sing.), EfTftfVr (Ioc, sing. neut.) will take the form:

~: orr~:=~~: I f~T ~mrr I fSIlt EfTRfVr I

(2) Adjectives ending in ~ are declined as follows: in the masculine, like ~:, e.g. : ~: (pure) in the feminine, like qfu:, e.g. : ~f.q:

in the neuter, like CfTR, e.g. : ~

In the neuter, however, adjectives ending in ~ can be declined like the masculine, except in the nom., ace. vocative.

Examples: ~~ (pure) qualifying the following: ;roi'r: (gen. dual masc.), ~ (dat, sing. fem.), ~m:_ (abl. sing. neut.) will take the form:

~: iR~:-==~tR~: I ~ or ~it qqf I ~"': ~=~II) ~; nr ~~: ~rn.=~rn.1

NEUTER NOUNS IN ~,;:r AND ~

55

(3) Adjectives ending in ;:r are declined as follows: in the masculine, lik ~. e.g, : ~~: (sweet) in the feminine, like ~:, e.g. : ~~:

In the feminine. however, adjective in ;:r denoting a quality have an optional form in t (e.g. : ~.~~, ~-~;r'T) declined like ij~; in the neuter, like :q, e.g. : ;Z~

In the neuter however, adjectives ending in ;:r can be declined like the masculine, except in the nom., ace. and voe.

Examples: ~~ (soft.) qualifying the following. cR (voe. sing, masc.), ilTg: (gen. Sing, fem.] a{~~ (instr. sing. neut.) will take tbe form;

{4) Adjective ending in 'IL are declined as follows:

in the masculine, :ike;rer, e.g. : ~Tm (generous)

in the feminine, they have a form in ~ declined like ~, e.gv : ~

in the neuter, like ~, e.g, : ~Q

In the neuter, however, adjectives ending in ~ can be declined like the masculine, except in the nom. ace. and voc.

Examples: ~TQ (generous) qualifyingthe following: ~~: (date plur, masc.) ,,",lfT~ (loco plur. fem.], ~ [nom. dual neut.) will take the form:

56

1. Vocabulary <iTft: water

SANSKRlT MANUAL

EXERCISE 12

'J1:l honey

':l

Adjectives forming their feminine in an and their

neuter in 8fIt

~ small, mean ~ favourable,

~I§f lame clear

tftif fat

8T~ sharp, acute

~ difficult to get

~ generous ~ (~) to salute S{fl:l-f~f{_ (61f\"r~) to abuse

~ (q~in to go, to

~ victorious obtain

fif-~ tf~) to fall

into misfortune ~q_-~(~)to m~ virtuous ~ sweet q;:q going proper

II. Translate the following into English after breaking up the

arrI:l b Ii n d ~ generous 'fiTUl one-eyed ~w skilful iifSr'l artificial ~ wretched

S{~ tear

"

~water ~knee ~ thing ~wood

Adjectives in ~, '3' and ~

grWl:l sweet- an~ swift

smelling

~~ soft

:qr~ lovely

~ fragrant

~ heavy

~~ pure

CiI~ much, many

ifCI new

~ regular, obligatory

wdead q:old ~fl:m sick ~ killed

<ml doer

~ eloquent

sandhis :

(, ) c!JTfl:TcPlT ~r ~ ~ ~~ I (~ ) ~ <rrftfVr ~: ~

(tClff;:ij I (~) e{;1:W:r~: wrar ~~, ~ijlq_ I ('t) ~ 'll~ !f~wr:

SSJT ~~~ wi ~ I (~) ijli;hJr ~:@q ~ ilm ~~fUr ~r.:a I (~) ~ ~a: f4gll(~ ftW;: I (,,) 61T~ifI~~if .n{: ~1:lffiL I ( (.) ~if: ~ iI{'lfl:l~qfu I (\) ~ m1:R.. ~m: mijs~~l t,o) m~;ft ~~ Jfffit ~a- I (' ,) SHIT: ~,,~ ~E.rt ~~!Jf ~ij'fcfqcr~ I ( 't ~) ~ei't wijl:

e,

NEUTER NOUNS IN ~, :a' AND ~

57

~fVr ~ ~ ~ I ('I ~) lif$tvr ~~if ~ Offi'l' ~ I ( 'I ~) li~ f.Rlnfir i'.fi'NffbJ ~f if f.m:i'~r: I ( 'I I.t,) ~C(: f~cfr ~~ ~ I ('I ~) atWfi~fuoIT ~ ;ft~ C(~~ I l'l ,,) Jim iTr(lRT ~: ~ ~~ fqot;g I l 'I ~) ifcWr m~ q~q__ ~fVr wtur ~~ I

III. Make the following adjectives agree with the following nouns:
!li~ with if~IS(, ifT~IS(, <iifcforr, ~
':I ':I
ElR with omit, ~, '«ft, ~~:
:qy~ with !li~fllV cnftur:, iifT~, Ol~Hl.
~ with ~, ~ ~, ~~1'l_ IV. Translate the followtng into Sanskrit:

(1) 0 Lord, be favourable! (2) A skilful leader obtains many things. (3) The one-eyed servant burnt the heap of soft wood. (4) A pure mind is like a fragrant flower. (5) Let the eloquent queen lead the heroes. l6) Hail to the victorious king! (7) You insult the wretched blind men, but you do not blame the wicked man. (8) Persons of the village carried the bodies of the dead heroes to the bank of the river. (9) In the lovely garden many creepers and many trees scatter (their) fragrant flowers on the soft ground. (10) Let the victorious hero pierce the enemy with (his) sharp sword. (11) Sick and wretched, the travellers (q;q) stood near the well. (12) In (his) new book the teacher has summarized -many things.

LESSON 13 PERSONAL PRONOUNS PASSIVE VOICE

67. Personal Pronouns

So far, the personal pronouns in the nominative have been left unexpressed : I salute-ififTfij. Their declension is now given. In the first and second person, the personal pronouns show no difference 01 gender. The personal pronoun bf the third person is replaced by a demonstrative pronoun and is declined in the three genders (he, she, it).

1st person : aH:~

S. D.

P.

2nd person : ~6ijn..

S. D. P.

k an~ I~ (~il. I I
i3{~f{ ~ I 'l~i{
ij~ I 611<1'l1~ (qrq_ ~ifTi{
~~
(m) I (cIT) (if:) ((CiT) ( ·mU i tq:)
I I
arffi+ml{. e{Emf~: r- (q~__j ~,"+~ I ~I{lf\:r:
Instr. i tl~
--
i ~ i e;y;;m:QTIl, amr+<l+1. ~~ II ~T+<rTf{ I ~~
Dat. (in I (iit) ( if: ) (~n I (qrq_w lq:)
r--' J
Abl. I ~ 81fcfT+?ffll. L 6R1i~ ffiI. ~~ J ~11tI..
-- r------, ---- c-------- I~~
ij+r etw:i"r: i 6l~m~ q<{ ~«t:
Gen. tit) ( .rr ) ( if: ) (_~n ( qJij,) I (q:)
_. .. -
Loc, tlftf SfT'fll1: et~ ~ ~Ift: ~~ The optional forms ill, ii, oft, if:, (qT, a, <ml! q: should not be used (1) at the beginning of a sentence;

(2) in connection with :q (and), qT (or) and tl;Cf (just, indeed).

PERSONAL PRONOUN&-PASSIVE VOICE

59

3rd person : Oit. (that)

M. F.

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

N.

S. D. P.

Nom. ~: ID a m a m: ffi't a ffifif
1-
Acc. all_ ID ffiot. all{ a aT: aij_ a mr.r
.--
Instr. att ~ a2fT ffi~ ffifu:
ffi+2lTt:I. a:
a+ll: ....
Dat. a~~ aT+llp{ a~2f ffi+llll{ ffi+ll: Like
Abl. 6~ij_ ffi~ a+ll: a~~:n: ~~ 61+21: the
Gen. a~!J am: ~II_ a~: a~T: al~T~ masculine
Loc. af~ ~: ~ a~ alfT: am (I) ~ (this) is declined like ~: Masc.-1N:, ~m-, ~a-, etc. Fem.-~,~, 1:(ijT:, etc. j Neut.-~att.,~, ~fif I

(2) ~ and ~ can also be used as demonstrative adjectives: they, then, follow the rules of the agreement of the adjective (see No. 66).

Examples: I saw these horses-~~~lj'i! I

He felI into that river-~t ~'iqaq_1

I am angry with those two friends-:m+llf ~ ~,

(3) ~: and 1N: follow a special sandhi rule:

~: and ~: drop their visarga before any consonant and before any vowel except at. Before at, they become U't and ~ while the following at is elided:

~: treRt=~ qofu I tt«II: ~fu=~ q~m' ~: t~=~ t~ I ~:~=mS«1 tt«II:~ ~~I

5

60

SANSKRIT MANUAL

68. The Passive 'Voice (iIii~ sNttr:)

(1) The passive voice is formed from the verbal root and not from the verbal base (see No.6), except for the verbs of the tenth conjugation which keep their strengthened radical vowel while losing the conjugational sign st~ . Thus: the passive voice of <Pl., oft it: formed immediately from mJ.., iI'T and not from ~_ and ii~. That of ~K, is formed from :;;ft{~ and Bot from ..rt{lll

(2) lj' is added to the root.

That If becomes lf1' before terminations beginning with ~or"t_

That OJ becomes ~ before terminations beginning with 81 or ~

(3) The terminations of the passive voice are always the atmanepada terminations (see Nos. 40, 48, 55 & 59) :

e.g. : if'T-lf-~=iI'F:rl:~ - you are led.

~;lf~~~~-let it be burnt.

(4) A final short ~ or ~ is lengthened. ~-'ir~T<It we two are conquered; ~-stw:r(i it was heard.

'" '"

(5) The roots ~T,~, q'T, il, ~, q'f, ~ change their final vowel

into t

~-~a it is given ; il-lft~ij it should be sung.

(6) Final ~ after a single consonant becomes ft:-~ ~lt=I am taken away; after a compound consonants, it becomes SR •

~~ - ~q{.::lf-~=~if(1~ let them both be remembered.

(7) Final ~ is changed to t{.:.~-~_-lf-t(oJ..=m~~=they should be spread; but final ~ is changed to ~~~ after a labial:

'f -'i.{:~-;:nl1.= ~all1.=let it be filled.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS--PASl>'IVE VOICE

61

EXERCISE 13
I. VocabuJary
~I \l~: duty iiI"l: killing 1 fl6l:t what '/
~thou eT~: wealth ~sight ~ifr~ near
( -l-gen.)
QCt. that, he ~~: f salva- ~name Cfi(R: which of the
tion ~ be wildered two
tt~ this m'ffiS: Gopala ~(_fu) ~ greatly,
violently
~: arrow ~~: to feel affection f.R:tRT"l innocent
sweeper ( +loc.) sr-~~L (Slftrofa)
~: charioteer I ~ffi: Sumati it<t (m) to enter
8foI'~ ( at1J'l'fiif fa)
~if: thief I qy~: courtier to serve to see II. Conjugate

in the present tense passive: 011, ii, and ~

in the imperfect tense passive : ~, ij't and flf-~ in the imperative passive: ~'{, atf"l-f~_ and :!!~

in the potential passive : ~, ~3l and CinT

III. Translate the following into English:

l~a~iA. ~ <iTqffi'tsf~~itif il~6tI. I tt'1i~ SIl6~ i(~ ~~cn1~ I (W.f ~~~i( "lift ~~'C4d., ~~~ Cf"l'l'Tmra. 'iii I ilqau~i'f fi{~tRTl:lT 'iliiT ~TS~ I ~ ~ §'Ifu(~i( qyft~ ernfuI.1 ~ ~i[R'lilI'~TI!ffi - "Cftrnr.. t{~~ iPJ ijij1qill'l~ I (qlJl Cf'iilif m~T'I.I" iN~ mqlJ~~tt. iI~'6: I <{"ITt!.~' ~ ~~: ~qrq;rr~ I a iiI'ifiliI'~ I r.r-~ 61 ~Qn~ I '!m: §'Ifu~-tlai( ~Gi~ f'6il~!,' ~fu{~-"~ ~ <RiI'I.-srRlllm ;NIscn~ I a~ ~Q, ~ rn ~qfu I

62

SANSKRIT MANUAL

~ S1ld«(+fM~ I ~ 'Ill ~iffil. ~ ~ 0fTfta I encpfr: esatr ~:~" ifq' 'tdTfir "~ijlrljfilra:q(( I ~ ~ ~ iIiNm.. ~ ~~<ti ~~ I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit (use the personal pronouns) :

(I) I lead. (2) We two are led. (3) We go. (4) Thou art remembered. (5) You two run. (6) You are abandoned. (7) He plays. (8) She is protected. (9) It is burned. (10) They two (m.) move. (11) They (f.) are conquered. (12) They (n.) are cooked. (13) I dug. (14) We two were nourished. (15) We danced. (16) Thou wert blamed. (17) You two perished. (18) You were taken away. {19) He blew. (23) She was seen. (21) It was quiet. l22) The two (A) were struck. (23) They (n.) were created. (24) Let me plough. (25) Let both of us be released. (26) Let us touch. (27) Do thou enter. (28) Let both trees be sprinkled. (29) Do you throw the arrows? (30) Let him be punished. (31) Let her go. (32) Let it be told. (33) Let them em.) both wash. (34) Let them (f.) be counted. (35) I should not steal. (36) It should not be stolen. (37) They (m.) should not oppress them (f). (38) They (f.) should not be oppressed by them (m.). (39) It should be brought. (40) You two should be followed. (41) Flowers should be scattered. (42) You two (f.) should not disagree. (43) It should be done.

LESSON 14

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ~AND at~

""-

PASSIVE VOICE (cont.)

69

~~ this

s.

M.

D. P.

s.

F. D.

P.

N.

S. D. P.

Nom 8{~ ~m ~ir ~lff{ ~ir ~: ~ ~ ~
Ace. ~ ~~ ~m;:r_ ~ ~ir ~"T: ~ ~ It"tf;r
~iI'l. ~ 1l;ilTOJ ttCn'l ~ ttCn: '(!;iIQ.. ~ ~
I-.str. ~ 8{T~ 1l;r~: ~T 8l1+lfTll. arrn:.:
~ ~i{~T
r-
8{~ ""
L"at. 8{l+lf'Ill. 1:!;+"Q': 8{~ 8{l+lfTf{ 8{l+lf: Like
Abl. 8f~TQ.. 8{l~ '(!;+If: ~: 8fT+lfTll. 8{1~: the
Gen. ~ 8{ifm: ~ atm: SfiIlIT: arRt1lt. masculine
tr-Jlfl: ~q~:
Loc. &1~ 8{i'fm: ~ e{~lfTll. 8{ij~: 8{lij
tr-Jm: ~): 64- 70.

SANSKRrr MANUAL

~that

s.

D.

po

s.

F. D.

N.

M.

P.

S. D. Po

Nom Si~ I ~ SiIt'T I em~ ~ ~ Sl~: 113iil. Si~if
- ~~-~--- - __ --
Acc. 9J51t_lo_~ Sl~ Sii5_ 61li SiIJ: ~:l~ ~fif
I
~
Instr. ~ ~ 61Iftf~: ~T Slit ~
~ '+ijTil. fin
-- --- ---~_
~ : 8iift+~: ~ Silt
Dat. 6ltt Si~ IIllt
~1lTil. ~~ ¥If: Like
-- --- -_ --
Abl. ~. aJit ~: Sl~T: Sl~ Si~: the
1i;{lQ_ ~ '+ijT'I_ ~:
-- --~- masculine
Gen. ~ 8lwn-: ~ Si51:lJl: 8Gll): Silt
!fI'I_
--- ---
Loc. 9J5- Si5111: eMl"q ~ ~ll): Sl~~
.."
~ (1) ~'1. and ~_ can also be used as demonstrative adjectives: they. then, follows the rules of the agreement of the adjective (see No. 66).

Examples: These kings conquer~ em ~f;o I

e

The boy is led by that woman-~ iiTllf oft~ arns: I

Those fruits please me-. tfiWTfif ;r~' ~:q~ I

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ~~ AND ~ 65

(2) anfi (nom. pI. masc. of~~_) follows a special sandhi rule:

The final ~ of stItT never combines with following vowels:

811ft 8f'IiT: I 61irt ~~ I

71. Cbange of Voice

(1) In the change from the active to the passive voice:

the nominative of the active voice becomes an instrumental; the accusative of the active voice becomes a nominative;

the verb changes from active to passive and agrees in person and number with its subject. The tense or mood of t.he active voice must be preserved.

Example : Active voice Passive qloice

Nom: The king <N: ~I~ Instr. : By the king

Verb: conquered at~ ~~ Verb: were conquered Acc. : the enemies attM_ ~~ Nom : the enemies

~~sfr.liiPffl. I ~arr~s~ I

(2) In the change from the passive to the active voice:

the instrumental (agent) of passive voice becomes a nominative.

the nominative of the passive voice becomes an accusative. the verb changes from passive to active, and agrees in person and number with its new subject, The tense or mood of the passive voice must be preserved.

Example : Passive voice Instr, (agent) : By you two Nom. : the well

Verb : should be protected ~q~ <f!tTr ~~ I

Active voice

~1.fT+lifll. -~ Nom: you two ~

~q: ~~ Ace. : the well ~

{~ltQ ~I~ Verb: should protect {~

I ~Cff ~ ~iiTaIJ.. I

66 SANSKRIT MANUAL
(3) Irregular formation of the passive voice:
~_ (to bite) ~ <R_ (to speak) ~~
~.~~ (to fall) ~ij- ~ (to speak) ~a
~~ (to break) ~ ~ ( to sow) ~qffl
~_ (to take) ~ <m_ (to dwell) ~~
SI'eil_ (to ask) ~~ C((~ (to carry) ~~
0lJ"l (to pierce) f.{~ $ (to praise) ~
~ (to worship) ~ ij;"l_ (to bind) ~
=m~ (to command) ~ '" (to call) ~a
~
IdT (to lie down) ~ ~ ... (to sleep) ~ (4) The imperfect passive follows the rule given in No. 47 : at + 'iRRl = ~

III{ + ~ = eff.ar.l

EXERCISE 14
I. Vocabulary
~this aNij' inferior amrr hope
~_that at~ last ~ daughter
1lT-"'I. ( 8t1'l'mfa ) ~ boundless 'itn story
to come
f.f-~ t~) < ~ tongue
8fR1Tq: preceptor
to forget '@: messenger mii(f shame
~_(~) to play ~q.: snake em ~ therefore
lm~ to break ~ otherwise
~~ to sieze I{fi:: Hari
iUm~ to order {TIl: Rama ~enough
( -l-instr.)
~_ to speak UtaT SUa: ~ftt so, thus
~to bind
SI-'i1~_ ( ~ ) ~ ( adj ) light f.;t{l{ for a long time
to shine ~< (~) husband ~U{ silently THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ~ AND ~

67

II. Translate the following into English and change the voice:

t") mm ~ WI ~fq ~ I (~) WlFklii ~ SX+<f ~rlif I

( ~) UIl: etffi ~S~iittt.1 ( 't) Mit: 6!ff tfumm. It",) ~ 'Ii~ !fitl1re1 ( ,) <tffi m: ~"4t IWllIdl'!. I ( ,,) ;raR ~: ij~I~(I4t I t ~) ~ ~ ~ ,,~ ; ~qT ~~ ~ I (,) ~ ilmsl:li'ior mT~ I ( , 0) IlIl q:q.nfil ~ ~4tc(.1~5d ~ Of ~ I ("1"1) ~ U~ efR ~t I (,,~) ~ qmj'160:, em ~ (!If ~ I (H) ~ "lfir @11~'<i'i~ I ('t) ~OfTiIf "Toi friNifT f~ljd Iffrftr ~i~ I ("I"') f!tR SI~ftyG51 (, q t orr«r, ~~. (ltai'f ~tT11l.1

III. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) That boundless ocean was seen by many heroes. (2) Two trees were broken by the wind. (3) Let the thief be seized! (4) I am ordered by the preceptor. (5) Two cows were bound with a rope. (6) Enough with shame! (7) Let your tongue move and let your eyes shine. (8) Our father was given a rare (~~) book ( = a rare book was given to our father). (9) The work should be begun now. (10) If truth be not spoken you will be punished (potential). (11) They two may be blamed for their conduct. (12) For a long time the sage stood silently before the dead body of his son. (13) Let the wretched girls be brought to the house; otherwise they might die (14) You two should never forget your generous mother. (15) Thou art called by thy father.

68 SANSKRIT MANUAL
RECAPITULATION
I. Vocabulary
I I sr-iU (~Rr) to
~ weapon SfT'U first ~ always
I bestow
srfuqfu: f fame f~lI' second % for, indeed I
I <iroJ (em lI'fu) to
~1ffl_ ridicule ~'Ii one ~T as, ({1IT so perform,
to establish
~_old age Wi asleep ij'l~ with PlJTlI' (PlJllRf)
( -l-instr.)
to make black
~ wheel ~f~i( poor ~in ful:'{_ (ftr~) to
day-time
orflf: f. motion q~"lI' wholesome succeed
iRfi~ at night I ~(~) to
S~'IiT~: human ij't~\lf healthy «fa in secret I endure
effort I ~ (f~ij) to
~ hot !NT in vain learn
~~ij! effort ~(~)to
ma cool, cold ~: yesterday
Ilii)~~: desire grieve
~ black "ci: tomorrow ~_ ("~) to
;ai(: deer <> increase
~~ij white ~: slowly ~_ ~~qij) to
;fit;ijll': Arjuna
@tft{ at once I tremble
~~friendship ~;;n red ~ (~fu") to
~iIaT suddenly I wallow
sftfu: I. affection .fur yellow
~once I it t i(TlJ'RO to
<fu;5 blue I sing
e:m'Hl charcoal I
if1il~ song itRa green ;Si{Tfq some:- I ~ (~fit) to feed.
times to support THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS ~~ AND er~,

69

II. Decline the following: iiffii: CfiWT in the singular; ~fq ~ in the dual ; ~ ~~: ~, in the plural ; 6f~ in the singular; ~ in the plural; ~~ in the feminine dual; ~_ in the masculine plural.

III. Conjugate the following: ~.... in the imperfect active; ~T't in the imperative passive ; ij'~q~ in the potential active; ~~T in the imperative active.

IV. Frame sentences containing the following words: ~) ~:; f~, ~, ~ij'T, ij'~, IJI: I

V. Translate into English the following verses taken from the

Hitopadesa :

fcwr ~ ~~ ~ f~" ~I en~ ~Ff ~ ~<lT~ ~~y u ~ ~if ~ur if ~ iTfu+l~ij_ I

([=twO) ( 'I )

~;f ~iiiT~llf fcr-lT ~~ q fu'O<ffu II ( ~ )

~~;r fiI fu~f.:Q ~fUr if witt~: I

if ~ ~if rn~ srf'WRr ~ ~m; II (~)

~ ~\ <!IT~lf lit SI~ "tr!tt I

~fqq~q~l:iJq qzlj q'T~lf fiIi~~: Ii ( 'II )

~~;r.r ~ ij'~ mfa- :qyfq if CET~~ I

~ ~a: :;:nrn: mol !i'i~ i6~ II l "\ )

LESSON l~

NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS

72. General Principles of Consonant-Sandhi

(1) No Sanskrit word can end with more than ODe consonant. A final compound consonant must be reduced to its first member, e.g. : q~ becomes ~, "'

(2) Exception is made for a final double consonant the first member of which is ~ and the second, a consonant which is not a termination e.g, : ~ wh~h according to (3) will become ~ I

, "'

(3) A Sanskrit word (i.e. a verb with its terminations or a nominal stem with its case-ending) can end only with one of the eight following consonants! ~, ~, tJ.., 'l' ~,WJ" ~, or visarga. A 11 other final consonants must be reduced to one of these eight:

~, and palatals are reduced to Cfi_ or ~_ e.g. : 'n:;._ becomes Iff<lU

~becomes ~I

Cerebral are reduced to ~_, e g. : m¥l_ becomes m~ Denials are reduced to tJ.., e.g. : ~ becomes ~ Labials are reduced 1{_. e.g.: ~ becomes ~,

~ and ~_ are reduced to visarga, e.g.: iircm" becomes m:, ~_ becomes f'«l':' I

( 4) A final hard consonant becomes soft before a vowel or a soft consonant, e.g.: "l'lltJ.. ~=~; !fIlffiI.. iT'C~~=lfTq~ ~,

(5) This rule does not apply to the final hard consonant of a verbal base or a nominal stem followed by a termination or a case-ending beginning with a vowel or a semi-vowel, e.g.: 1ftI.+~='«t'f;o I ~+'It=~ I ~+ll+~=~ I

- -

It does apply, however, when the final consonant of a verbal base or of a nominal stem is followed by a termination beginning with a soft consonant (except a semi-vowel), e.l. : ~+fif:=~: ,

NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS

71

(6) A soft consonant becomes hard before a hard consonant, e.g. :

m. + ~ = ~ij I ~ + tRfffi = ~qafu I

(7) This rule does not apply to the final soft aspirate of a verbal root followed by a termination beginning with tI.. or '{, In that case, the final consonant of the root loses its aspiration, and the tI.. or 'i.. of the termination is changed to 1:1.., e.g. : w~ + (( = ~I:T I

73. Division of nouns ending in consonants

Nouns ending in consonants are divided into three classes:

(1) Nouns which keep the same stem throughout their declension. (2) Nouns which have two stems, one strong and one weak.

(3) Nouns which have three stems, one strong, one middle and one weak.

7". Case-endinls

Masculine and feminine nouns have the same case-endings. Neuter nouns differ only in the nominative, accusative, and vocative.

M. & F.

S. D. P.

s.

N. D.

P.

Nom. ~L -ai' -am~ - -t .~
Ace. -8M~ -m -am~ - -{ -~
Instr. -8fT -~ -fl1:
Like the
Dat. -l!; -+llT't -~:
Abl. ~ -~ -~: masculine
GeD. -am~ -aftv_ ·emf
.... and feminine
Loc. ~ -amr_ -I
Voc. - -ai\ -1IRf ... - -t ~ 72

SANSKRIT MANUAL

75. Nouns with one stem

(1) The final consonant of the stem remains unchanged before case-endings beginning with vowels [see No. 72(5) ].

(2) The final eonsonant of the stem follows the rules of consonant-sandhi before case-endings beginning with a consonant.

(3) Neuter nouns in the nom., ace. and voc. plural insert a nasal before the case-ending ~ of the nom., accus, and voc. plural.

76. Declension of iI~ m. (wind) and err-<Lf. (rpeeeb):

s.

D.

P.

s.

D.

P.

~CI' I CfT",,'
Nom. ~ ~ij: ifT'Ii_ orR:
--~--
Ace. ~.[ 'f~" 'fW: Cfl"l'l_ CfT:;ft C{1:c{:
--- ._---- - ----
Inst_:_1 ~T 'l~~~ q-~: u<iT ifTn.'lI1i[_ CfTfnt:
_-------
Dat. I ~ 'l~~T~ ~~: <i1~ ~Ti{_ ~:
----- t----- ---~~--
Ab. ;rqa: 'l~+<n'l ~+<?: ;jfl:q: <nmm{ ~:
--~-----I-----_-------
Gen. ~: ~~: ~ CfT:q: en..n: <iffiJl
~- --- ----- ---'::__I------
Loe. 'Rift{ 'f~C1): 01~ ertf:q CfT:;;ft: ffT§
--_ ----- ----I -----
Voe. ~ q'~ ~: <i1<ii_ 00 ~A: Declension of ~mt. n. (world) :

Nom., Ace., : i:fmt., '3flfi.'lr, i1i~ The rest like ~

NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS

EXERCISE 15

I. Vocabulary

~'<t ( ~) m. I ~'~L ( ~ ) f. garland

cloud, iI"Q_ m. wind

trL"l ( '!tOfU f. hymn I ~1lQ_ m, king

(q'i't_ ( ~) f. skin f<ro~{f_; lightning

;n:<[_ ( ~ ) f. speech (If'ffl..f. l~htning

!ff_ ( §'Ii_) f· grief ~fur_f. liver

crfUJ~ ( ~) m. ~ ~ ~tI.) m. friend

merchant ~f~ ( ~fWl.) m. plant

73

~fip'l ( .) f. fuel !(l~'t. ( sn~) f rainy season

f~~ (~ ) f. direction at~1l'L (al~) n. blood :q;~'lij'_ ( :q~: ) m.

moon

~1:'ffi_ (~I:lT: m.) creator

~_ (~_) m. doctor enq~ ( 81T'«I.) f. adversity ~. (qq:) n. water, milk

~~ ( 1JIt;~) m. ~ ( r.rq{f_) J. danger

priest ~~ij' (~:) n. breast

~(~)f.wealth ~ ~ . d

~ (~Z_) m, qft~ \ qf{1i1Q,,) J. 'I - ( :) n, ~IO

emperor assembly iliJij'_ ('lOf:) n. mind

qft~ ( q~~) m. I ~ ( m.Q_) f. autumn !lTmf_ \ ~iff:) n. fame

mendican t §\:!. ( ~) J. hunger I cr~ij'_ (~:) n. age

II. Join the Sandhis in the following:

ij'ftm. emtrn_ I e:riJlfQ_ llmi_1 tt~ ~_I ~ifTfu: {e;'16Ti{_1 f~_ ill!!: I srw;_ ~Rt I ~: e:r~('[, ~+(_ I ij'qf~ e:rq~ ~f&:6{ill emt!; iliim_ ~~ ~ I ~Iffif.. milTij_ Of~cr:;q.rr: ~Tfif 8fTiJlf~ I 6~ 8f~~oT~ e:r~" I crfbJ<Ii_ w~ ~Offll <{fbJ~ ii5~ ~"''!. I

III. Decline the following : ~llQ., fu"Q_ and e:rl3.~ I

74

SANSKRIT MANUAL

IV. Translate the following into English after breaking up the - sandhis:

(el) liijffi~qro~: I Cot) f~", ~ ~~ srmrn I q) mft ~Rr fqffi I ('It) ~~ ~ffi<NT~~ffl'l1 (Ia,) vfWI+l'i~~ ~f;a (flow) I (~) S{~~ ~ ~Tfif funr.t' :q ~fij «fro I ~ ,,) ~fi:Jilro~ ~~f({ iliqT ~ I (~) ~ PJrT ~~fif'QRf It") ~TCf1+lri ~:~if ~ I ( , 0) ijR~ tmft""i ~~~I ('I 'I) ~~ SIT({l<{ qfc{. writ f( ffi'Ili8lJRr I ('1~) ~ ~fti(T ifU "lit Ci5~ I ( 'I ~) 8fe1 5fif: Wlil{~ I ( '1)1) ~ ~;~lft ~~ ~~f~ ~ ~§lJTift m~ ~~ I ( 'I Ia,) ~ IiRrtclCi5Rr f.r'iGTlfT litli't ~:~Tfij srfirnf;o I ('\ ~) 'fTii iftlKlf ~~: I ( 'I ,,) ~t ~~ f'fiIT lI'~

~. ~ ft I ~. ... < <~

~1~oIj ~lI'IQ ~ i(IOII+llql ..... er ~ ~Q I

V. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) The thieves were seized by the husband. (2) The lightning plays among the black clouds. (3) We dived into the cool water of the river. (4) The leaves are taken away by the wind. (5) You two go at once to the forest, for your brother is there and calls you. (6) In day-time you do not work; at night you sit down in the garden and sing. (7) The king rose suddenly and departed from the palace. (8) Why (~) should you grieve? (9) Friends sit around you, brothers and sisters are full of affection for you. (10) Should you be abused by that rogue, remain silent: charcoal blackens the hand only if it is touched. (11) 0 friend, you caz.ie once only to our house and you were never seen again. (12) Sick and wretched, the king's messenger was bound and led to the forest.

LESSON 16

NOUNS WITH ONE STEM (cont.)

77. The main varieties of nouns with one stem are: ( 1) Nouns with stem ending in palatals

Final ~ is changed to <fi_ in the nom. sing. and loco plural to q__ before +lfll[_, fu: and ~:

Final ~ is changed to <II. and, at times, to ,t in the nom. sing. and loco plur.

to i!._ ami, at times, to G before +1lT+l' f~. and ~:

Final ~t is changed to Cfi~ or ~ in the nom. sing. and loco plur. to i!._ or G~ before +lITl!' fu: and ~:

Nom. sing. Instr. sing, Instr. plur, Loc. plur.

!fl=<t.f ( speech) iiflCfi~ iifl'iff ,"fur: CJT§
qfVr~ m. (merchant) CJfvt'€_ qf~ qfUrtl~: qfUr§
--- -----
~~m. (emperor) .am~ mfliiIT mn~,fu: ~~~
~~Lf (direction) ~ fwr ~ful: ~§
f<ro~ m. (settler) ~ mrr fiiGf~: ~~
-, (2) Nouns with stem ending in cerebrals

Final 't is changed to ,!_ in the nom. sing. and loco plur. to ~~ before ~'{, fu: and +ll:

Nom. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Loc, plur.

STTTt~f (monsoon)

6

76

SANSKRlT MANUAL

(3) Noons with stem ending in dentals

A final dental except ~ is changed to <I.. in th~ nom. sing. and loco plur.

to ~ before ~, '1\1: and ~:

Nom. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur, Loc. plur.

efut.f. (river) efut. eftffi I fI~: ::~
i!~ m. (plant) of~ oflw of~fi;;:
I
eft{~f. (fuel) efirn.. eft{~ 9f4~: efimA
I (4) Nouns with stem ending in labials

A final labial is changed to Q' in the nom. sing. and loco plur. to iI' befo;e ~~, 'fl:r: and ~:

..... "

Nom. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Loc. plur.

~f. (region)

(5) Nouns with stem ending in {~

Final {_ is changed to visarga in the nom. sing.

A short vowel preceding { .... is lengthened in the nom. sing. and before -+<nil, -'fl:r: -"1{: and ~

Nom. sing. Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Loc. piur.

I rR...f. (door) ~~: ,
aT: aru iJq
'!l
fIT{ f. (voice) ift': fiTu ~ q'T~
" '!l (6) Nouns with stem ending in ~

Final ~ becomes visarga in' the nom. sing. and before ~il, ft1:, "1{: and g, That visatga follows the sandhi rules (see No. 27).

Pinal ij'_ remains before case-ending beginning with vowels, being changed to 't according to the rule given in No. 45.

NOUNS WITH ONE STEM (cont.)

77

The masculine and feminine nous in 8Rt lengthen the et in the nom. sing.

The neuter nouns in at~, ~~ and ~~ lengthen the at, l and ~ and insert a nasal ( anusvgra ) inthe ~om. acc-;'s. and voc. plural.

Nom. sing Nom. plur. Instr. plur, Loc. plur.

ij~.._ m. (good) WlilT: wrile: ~fl1: Wfil:i
I--- --~--
~~~_f. (dawn) ~: ~ISRI: ~m: ~~:i
~ ---
~mI_ n. (fame) ~~: ~ftI ~f~: zm:ij
---
~mr n. (oblation) ~f,,: ~CfffiI ~r.rr~: &f.f:,!
....
---- ----- -----
s{T~~:L 11. (life) atT~: an{ftt a{T~rn: 8fT!:'! (7) Nouns with stem ending in ~

Final &" becomes Cfi_ in the nom. sing. and loco plur. becomes ~t before +~, "fl1: and ~:

In nouns ending with ~ final ~ becomes ~ and ~ In ~'"" final iI .... becomes q_ and ~_

Nom. sing Instr. sing. Instr. plur. Loc. plur.

'I'~f{'5i!' .... m, (bee) I i{~2' i{~~ i{1:1~f~: if~~ .... i-
!
, .,. '"' "'
alf(~f. (shoe) i ;a'tTilQ._ aqFf~ alf(il~:
I ;aqFftij
I -.-~--
~& r. (cow) I ~'I'1f!i- <fiT~&T ~I:lft~: <fiTi{~
~ .... , ~ The appearance of ~ instead of '\ in Cfilif"!<fi_ is explained by the following sandhi:

Rule: When tf_, \{_, +t and & .... lose their aspiration owing to combination with following consonants, the preceding consonant becomes aspirate. if possible.

78

I. Vocabulary

frw~ ( ~) m. Vai~ya ifi~ ( ifi~) f. direction [T~ ([T:) f door

ai'il'«~ {ai'il':) n. glare.

energy

~, (f~:) n. head aq«, (aq:) n. penance «~~ (1iI~:) n. residence &:fcm (&:fC{:) n. oblation 'ilf)fu« ('i;ftfa-:) n, light fstlf dear

SANSKRIT MANUAL

EXERCISE 16

fq~ (iff:) J. voice ~_ (~)f town

-1:l~ (1:l:) f yoke

~~ '"

fr;:'l (fuG) m. enemy

arr~~ (arr~:) n. life ~«_ (\:l~:) n. bow '<i§«_ ('<i§:) n. eye q~~ (q~ft;5z) m.

bee ~&~(~iI(J..)f shoe

f~ (fE{~a)

to happen, to be

WJifIii (~.n:) m,

~ learned man

;;qlil_ (\'JliIT:) f dawn

Q'l1iI_ (Q'I:) n. darkness fttla- standing

f.irrUf worthless,

'"

without quality

1iI~1I, being, vigour

~lJT compassion

1iI1I,-F;; {~&~fa--ij)

to withdraw ifiTq~&_ ('fiTq~~) wish-yielding cow

II. Decline the following,

ifi~ in the singular; ~f~ in the dual ; 1iI~1iI_ in the plural; ;alillil_ in the singular; &:f'llil_ in the dual; '3"'WI'&:_ in the plural.

III Translate the following into English:

(Cj) ~r ~'i cftu: mH .. ~f;a- 1 (';!.) ~fq~ :q;:iOO~ wT'fi~lf 'ilTtfa-!fr 1

q) CffVroT_ B:Tf{ fttl~ ~f~~~lJT ~ lR3(l. 1 (v) ~f~ftll~fCfUft f~l'.lJa 1 t .... ) ~f~ .~ijT'fi 1iI~:T fcroa 1 ( ~) '3"QTii{t ~S"fi~<t ~~lf ~ :q !'Tfq~1{ 1 (IS) (Sf w~ m~ fu(fe ~q, S{~ !!~ llR ifi{f+lft q&:Tfti 1 (~) :q~r q~lff~ i'iI'ilT: 1 (') fqiij o~ai'il'liIT 4iiJ '<i~ q'T~a 1 ( Cj 0) ~ fW;r mo~qT~flil ~ ~ 1 (n) f~:q'l: ~Ti'iI'T quiif'TlfO 1 l n) ~[T ffTU ilTl!rg ilTfw'fiT: I (H) ~~~ qorf« ~lfT or fcroij I ( Cj 't ) ;;q1il~IiIT ~T~~iJT ~fcr I (9 .... ) l:to~T ~rqT:

NOUNS WITH ONE STEM (cont.)

79

IllJ: fu~: fqafftr i ( 'I,) awJ~:q ~~fi{ :q ~T1:1T~~: srij'i(il~ I ( 'I ,,) q1:T-

'"

~~f~: ~H!ilTilj ~.~ I ( 'I z ) '6m~~ ~mi[ I ( 'I q,,) ~f1~~ ij"i{: I

(,0) qf~Fs~ !:ITilT~ !fT;[ ~ftr I (,'I) Cl!fTf~ ~fq;lI'T afrqq fW;{~lJ~ I

( ~ ~) at~ <IT:qT '6T~ ~ ~<i ~ I ( ~ ~) ~ ~ §1:1T tft~ ilfu i{~j ~ I

IV. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1 ) In autumn the fruits fall from the trees. (2) Around the fire the priests were standing and singing hymns. (3) May your head be adorned with flowers, your arms with a bow, your mind with compassion, your life with happiness! (4) In the assembly, the poets proclaimed the fame of the emperor. (5) Upon her breast the blood of the child killed by the enemy v-as seen. (6) 0 worthless servant, you have forgotten your master. (7) May I stand by you, 0 mother, in danger and adversity! (8) Due to anger, light shone in his eyes, his bow fell from his hands and his mouth quivered. (9) The sage should practise (!i) penance for a long time, restrain his speech and guard his mind from Sill. (10) Pigeons fly in the direction of the wind. (11) The learned man standing at the door was attracted by the voices of the children.

LESSON 17

PASSIVE IMPERSONAL (~fcr ~11T: ) NOUNS WITH TWO STEMS

78. In Sanskrit, not only transitive verbs, but intransitive verbs also,

can be conjugated in the passive voice. Thus, the sentence:

"The horse runs" can be turned into a passive which means:

"Running is being done by the horse" or "the action of running is done by the horse". That is what is called Passive impersonal. The verb is always in the 3rd pers. sing. pass.

(1) In the change from the active to the passive impersonal: the nominative of the active voice becomes an instrumental; the verb changes from active to the 3rd pers. sing. passive. The tense or mood of the active voice should be preserved.

Example: Active voice Nom. : aftff: the rivers Verb : CfiIRr flow

af~ciT qiIr~ I

Passive impersonal ~I~ Instr.: aftf{;:: (by the rivers) +-~ Verb : ~ (flowing is being

I done) af~f;<;:~ I

(2) In the change from the passive impersonal to the active voice: the instrumental of the passive impersonal becomes a nominative; the verb changes from passive to active and agrees in person and number with its new subject. The tense or mood of the passive should be preserved.

Example: Passive impersonal

Instr. : ~f~: (by you) +-1~ Verb : ~ff (it should be spoken) +-!~

II " I

~I~ffl I

79. Nouns with two stems

The main varieties of nouns (and adjectives) with two stems are: (1) nouns and adjectives with stem ending in e:RI.: They comprise: (a) nouns and adjectives formed with the suffix 'lit. ( ilsft) and qQ_ ( crgq_) "

Active voice Nom. : ~~+t you

Verb : ~ should speak ~li ~ff I

PASSIVE IMPERSONAL (~ Sllf'ltt: )

81

(b) present participles active (parasmaipada) in ~ (~) (c) perfect participles active (~) in iI<I..

(d) adjectives of quantity: f~, ~,~iI<I.., ttmil<l.., fflil<l.. I (2) nouns and adjectives with stems ending in ~. They are formed with the suffixes l{~, fcf'l., and Ur-I. I

(3) comparative in ~_ ( ~WI..) I

80. The nouns and adjectives with two stems are declined in the masculine and neuter only. The feminine is formed independently (sec LESSON 23).

The two stems are used as follows:

in the masculine, the strong stem is used in the nom. sing.,

dual and plural,

in the aeeus. sing. and dual,

in the voe. sing., dual and plural,

in the neuter, the strong stem is used in the nom., aeeus. and voe. plural. The weak stem is used in all other cases.

81. The case-endings are those given in No. 74. They are shown again here below with the indication of those before which the strong stem is used.

s.

M. D.

P.

s.

N. D.

P.

Nom. ~ -aft -am_ I -~ ~
- I
Ace. -l3I'l. -aft ·am_ - I .~ -~
Instr. I -stl' -+lfI~ -fu:
Like
Dat. -1! -+lfm_ -:}"If:
Abl. -9t~ -~<mL -+~: the
Gen. I -am_ -eft: -am:(
\ masculine
Loc. .~ -en: I -~
Voc. I - I -~ I -aJ'iL - I -~ ~ 82

SANSKRIT MANUAL

82. Nouns and adjectives formed with the suffixes-.f(ij_ (q~_) and em. ( Ci'gt{_)

The strong stem ends in ~;q_, the weak stem ends in ~ij The nom. sing. masc. lengthens the at into ~T

t:ftqq_ (talented) -strong stem; \ftq;q_; weak stem: t:ftiIQ.

s.

M. D.

P.

s.

N.

D.

P.

Nom. ~~ ~, ~: ~'TiIQ. ~ ~qf;a
Ace. ~ ~ ~: miIQ. ~ t:ft~
-
Instr. ~ ~~'l. 1:'ft~:
Dat. t:ft~ \ft~~1l. ~~: Like
Abl. t:ftqa: ~ ~: the
Gen. !:ftqa: ~m: ~~ masculine
Loc. ~ dtllffi: ~g
Voc. t:ft~ ~;:eit 1:'ftiRI: ~ 1:'ft'Rft Iftq~ PASSIVE IMPERSONAL ( ~T~ SfliTIT: )

83

EXERCISE 17

I. Vocabulary
SlT~~Iiq_ long-lived fu:qqq ( fu:qqJOi_) m. f~ (~JJGI~) to smile
Himalaya qf{-~ (qf{~qfcn
,,~ strong ~~Ii(l ( ~q'TOi_) m, to overcome
~~ (~qqr~ )m. God Hanumgn qft·~ (qf{qffin
fcr.TI~: diversion, to turn
qfulrn.. prudent pastime qf{-~ (qft&{ftn
'til(:5: time to avoid
~ talented ~~_ dissipation, qf{-&{l~ (qft&~f~n
need to laugh at
slT~ rich 'i~: fool q~t:t hard, rough
~ilcm. learned fifi{T sleep atl~(:5 disturbed,
afflicted
1:fo'Iq<l_ wealthy ~: quarrel ~~ long n. Translate the following into English:

IIiTOllm~~iI ~~ lT~m mqffiq I ClJ~~if '<I li~furt fitiP.:rT 'ti~~if '<I II ( , )

(~) ~ ~""~ ,,~ 'It ~ I (~) ~~'Tq;o) ~orcrra~ ~~fq ~~ if f~f;a I ('t) t!oW Sf{ ~ criVr~: ssrTS~ I ( .... ) qftJq~ ~' q~fu I (~) ~~ <iiToo;a{~ film qcf~ I ( \t) 'lIt;~: SstT ~')qffi ftltfflt ~t mll<l. I ( ~) ~~ qftill~ f~Iii!frij5qTIT~<I_ I " ~ ) ~qTif~T<Ii mT I ('t 0 ) m~.<i' ~ifii ~fu f~T~q'T~ {~fu ~1lT"i~f.l. q'l(:5~m :q I ( 't , ) ata t!" ~ ql{ ~"f~ I ( , ~ ) lilSf: cro:nfVr q:;:.fif(for q"lRT I ( , ~ ) qfaq~<<tfir iI:q.n~ I r-, 't) ~ 'I1(:5T atT~) ~a I (, '-.) ~ "wtlilEg, ~ ~~ fq"m if ~1lT<t. d~q feii f~a ~ ('\ ~) '<IilifWI q~ ~~ :q ~:lSTf.r :q I ( , ,,) ~ ~~ I ( , e ) m-q~: ewl' if qftf~ I

84

SANSKRIT MANUAL

III. Change the following to the passive impersonal: arm lifT,m: I lifu+r;cr~QJ1 ftm;:g I iiij~ U&fcr I

IV. Change the following to the active voice:

<l~~t~ I ~lTTf*T: iliT6 -, lfaTli~1 ~f ifT~ ~cr I ar5"llqlf<t¥ld I V. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(1) Smile always, in prosperity as well as in adversity. (2) Learned men are not disturbed by the speech of the fools.

(3) Around the residence of the wealthy, many poor and sick people long for happiness. (4) Through hard and -long penance, the sages have crossed the ocean of misery. (5) 0 talented one, you should avoid the dangers of riches. (6) In sleep, the fool forgets his illusion, the learned man forgets his knowledge, the poor forgets his misery.

LESSON 18

PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES

83. Present participle active and passive (~Q' ~'i{ ) (1) Present participle active

Verbs taking parasmaipada terminations form their present participle active in am.. To form it, the termination arf.:ff of the 3rd pers. plur. of the present active is replaced by arQ_

e.g. : ift iflf~q - iJ1.IQ.. - leading

~"{ ~T;;lff;d' - ~1Clf(l - playing ~ f<r~f;o - fcr~Q_ - entering ~{_~:ql{lffro - :ql(lf(l - stealing

In the masculine and neuter, the present participle parasmaipada is declined like IftJfQ_ (see No. 82), with the following modifications: (1) the nom. sing. masc. does not lengthen the 8J;

PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES

85

(2) the nom., accus. and vocative dual neuter take the streng stem in-~, necessarily in the 1 st, 4th and 10th conj ugations, and optionally in the 6th conjugation.

(For the feminine see No. 111)

Acc.

( ii<r~ if<r;ffi" iilRf:
1 ~O<J~ ~~ ~Olj';ct:
:cj)~lR. :qT~~rffi- m;q-ro:
1"""'1{ ii<rrOT iiW:
~Q;q-;ctil ~10<JrctT ~~o:
=<n~q't =<n{lRlT ::ql~lffi:
r~ if~ iftI~
~Q~q_ ~ ~&if;q
:qT~;qq_ =<n~<r~ ..m<r~ Masc. Nom.

Neut. N.A.V.

mrq_

Masc. N.A. like if<rq_

Neut. N.A.V. mm_, f'fmft or f.i~;ar, mrft:o

Verbs taking atmanepada terminations form their present participle in 'f'!iI. To form it, the termination a of the 3rd pers. sing. of the present tense is replaced by ifTii :

e.g. : ~ ~~a-~m:rrii-obtaining Ifi'l. ~--~-thinking ~ ~-f~UJ -dying ~"I.. llil'~-llifllifTUJ-seeking

The masculine is declined like 'Ff: effl;r_ (see No. 11)-Masc.: ~~Tii:

Neut. : (O$~;rTiii\

.

(For the feminine, see No. 108)

(see No. 11), the neuter, like

~ifTiiT ~~ifTilt:, etc.

~tPfI;r ~~qTiiTfil', etc.

86

SANSKRIT MANUAL

(2) Present Participle passive

All Verbs form their present participle passive in tiTiI. To form it the termination a of the 3rd pers. sing. of the present passive is replaced by 'fTii :

e.g.: rri{, ,,~~ -lfilfiJIif-being gone to ~T ~~ - ~lfqlii-being given

Iii fin'1~-fijilfiJIur -being done

~'l ~wre -~q~qTur-being remembered ~{_ :;iT~~-:qoT~mur -being stolen

The masculine is declined like ~:, the neuter like qi1~ I (For the feminine, see No.. 108)

84. Perfect participle passive (fq~T 'iji )

( 1) The perfect participle passive is formed by adding il to the verbal root :

f~-~a' ~~ ~Ilo (li'1l! (~'iji ~;·U!~ f~-fu'iji
~-~a' ~-~ anq:61Ut 1¥'t-f~ ~:~
OIHTlo oft-iiTil S'!-~ at'l-am ~~:~
~-~o f:qo - f?q-il ~q-& ij'tg~ ~g ~gil
-!> (2) A great number of roots insert an ~ before adding il

iIiT~-z6tr~il !li't!lifTre f.I~-fiff..~il ~{",-:qlftil +{~+{~

~T't-~Ncr ij'<t~ ~'t-C6~qil Ilor-rrfuro ~T'tmm

{~_-~f~cr ffil'~:f~~il q(J_·qfail :qo~-:qo~ ~~~~il

f~~.:fwf~ ~~lfTf:q'i;f I 13f(i,!:~m(f f'q;q_-f:qoRlil \=<t~m

(3) The following verbs lose their radical nasal before if

rrlJ:'rril i1~'ifif I ~Ut~ I ~-qo

~-lfil {1J:'{(f o~-il(f ~OI:"~

(4) The following verbs lengthen their radical vowel:

ilil{-ilil;o 'I ~'l.~o I ~-W.ff

~I{-~ril fil'1{-fil'r-'o ~~-m;o

PRESENT AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES

87

(S) The following verbs change ll, ~ and if into ~, 'Sf; and ~ respectively :

~-'l'l I if<i-a''ffi q&.:;Z~a' i1f~~a'

I qq' -sa I if&-i3iG

if~-~ffm ~__:~H

(6) Verbs ending with the single aspirates 1:1'..., ~, or ~~ change those aspirates to ~, "l and i!.. respectively while a' becomes ~

~,:'t~ I fu~::.fij:Q §+t~ .. ~ 1 ~~W~ or liG

~,!q;a ~i15¢~ ~:~lif f!il~.:.·fli!l~

, I

[ see No. 72 (7) ]

But : ~~-~ ; ~·ijlG I

(7) Several roots instead of adding a' add or

f~fll~ ; ~-ffiuT i ~-,!Iir ; f~f~~ ; ;::-~TaT ; \'ft-\'ftor ; ~-~ I

. l

(8) Some verbs form their perfect participle passive irregularly:

~-~ ~l-f~o- I qr-q'Tcr ~"l.-~Ta &T-~Tor I ~-q'f1:f

lifl-~a ifl-flfO- iT-if\a iiI"l.-ilfm ~-RO ~~-~~

The maculine is declined like ~q:, the neuter like <ii'fij_ I

(For the feminine see No. 108)

85. Perfect participle active l fil'll cto<ig )

The perfect participle active is formed by adding <in_. to the perfect participle passive, e.g. : f~-f~a<i(l. having conquered

In the masculine and neuter it is decline like !ft~ (see No. 82).

Masc.: f~ifT~ fmf<i;m f~a'i:{ra:

f~CI1t. ~ailfraT f~i1fa: etc.

Neut.: f~<i(l. f~ai1far fiila<if;a', etc.

(For the feminine, see No. 111)

88 SANSKRIT MANUAL
EXERCISE 18
I. Vocabulary
liIf to bathe ~ to cry f~ to break
~ to hear ~Il t ~,,~I') to sport ~ (~) to cross
-!)
f~ to collect ~ to hurt Ii to fill
~
enq_ to obtain ijOf. to spread ~~ to cut
~'t (~~) to shine ~"f. to kill ~ to tear
~~ to sleep !l-
~ to praise if!' to stick,
~T~ (~FRt) to beg ~ to obstruct to adhere
~"' (~(!q'fij) ~ (~i<Jfij) e. to cut
to prattle to be agitated I:lT to put
'IT to measure &T to abandon m (~fu) to dry II. Decline the following:

~fi(cm.in the masc, sing. : ~ in the neuter plur.

III. Make the present participle active of ~~~, 'Ii'l., ~ and ~ agree with the following: f,,~, ~~,,~:. iiHTOl .. and 'fiNS'

IV. Give the present participle passive of the following: erf-lIll. ; fir - f~q:_; a{T'i_, &"f., I:lT, qr, Ei'<[, q~_, ~~ , ~ 'lIT ... '

V. Translate the following into Sanskrit:

(I) The children abandoned by their mother roam in the forest. (2) The food begged' by that poor man has not been touched. (3) The broken jar sho .. I1d be taken away. (4) See those fruits collected by the sage's daughters. (5) Yesterday the house was flied with guests. (6) The jewels stolen from the king's palace were thrown into the river.

VI. Give the perfect participle active of the following: 1:11, &"f., ~; ~, e{~-ij;, ~, ~ I

VII. Decline the following:

f~em. in the neuter sing. 8{~ in the mase. plur.

LESSON 19

THE USE OF THE PARTICIPLES

86. (1) All participles are use like adjectives.

I saw the two trees faIling-tJa;ffi W\1TiiI~~ I

Being carried away by the water, the boy died-~iJ if'TlJJfTiiT aryw) sfi;tlJij I

To the hero who had slain the enemy ( = having slain the enemy) flowers were given-~ iIij<re ;ftu~ ~fVr 81~lRf I

Blamed by my father I ran away from the house-f~ f.!f~s~ ~liIfc1Jl.l

(2) Special use of the perfect participles active and passive ( 'Qi ~) The perfect participles active and passive can fulfil the function of a finite verb in the past tense. In that case, too, they are treated like adjectives.

e.g.: The servant brought the water-~Tm ~i'I..1 ~m GlWmifTaiillOl. I

The water was brought by the servant ~ij"if ~~mifTlJij I ~ij"iI ~~m~ I

Change of voice

Active voice: The friends saw you-fil''5I'TfVr (OfT ~if~ (neut. plur.). Passive voice: You were seen by the friends-fil'~~ci~: (mase.

sing.).

(3) The perfect passive participle can be used: as an adjective (see above),

as a finite verbe in the passive: (~fur :qj:, see above),

90

SANSKRrr MANUAL

as a finite verb in the active (~fif~ 'ffi:) in the case of intransitive verbs and of verbs meaning 'to go', 'to stand', 'to dwell', 'to climb', 'to be born', 'to awake' :

e.g. : I have arrived from the vil1age-tmlT~&JHiTa: I

Two monkeys climbed the tree-~qr 1l~1~ I

as an impersonal passive (~1~ 'ffi:) It is then always used in the neuter singular. e.g.: 'fliT ~~-It was fought by me ( = I fought). "l~or qfuaJ:(. =1 it was fallen by the tree ( =the tree fell ).

in the meaning of the present ( qa-m~ 'ffi: ) with verbs meaning 'to wish', 'to know', 'to worship'.

N.B.-When the past passive participle is used in the meaning of the present, the agent is not put in the instrumental, but in the genitive.

e.g. : U'f~lf W'~a:-He is honoured by Rama.

87. Sandhi rules of final if.. followed by a vowel or a consonant

(1) Final if.. preceded by a short vowel and foliowed by any vowel is doubled:

31~~ an~fa =51~~illiT~~fa I "f~ a{i!ilr: = orft;5~i!I~: t (2) Final if..

followed by =<{_ or {9~ is replaced by anusvsra and ~L followed by it or (5 is rep/aced by anusvnra and Ii followed by Q_ or ~ is replaced by anusvnra and ~L

alif.. :q atl:{ t ~mif..;ft~ qof('f=~l<tit q(5fa t 6l{tif.. aTGlfRl= a{{f(QT~fu t

88. Sandhi rules of dentals in contact with palatals, cerebrais and ~ (1) Any dental coming into contact with a palatal is changed to the corresponding palatal: ~~Q_ :q~fa=~~fa t arr<rlfQ_ i!i~=arr<rlf' ~ [see No. 72(4)] =a{Tiflf'iif~t a<r. ~(qT=a:q" ~~qT i

(2) Initial ~"preceded by any of the first four letters of a class (see No.2) is optionally changed to ~-a:q ~ optionally becomes ~ c<IT I

. ~ ~ ",:,

THE USE OF THE PARTICIPLES

91

(3) Any dental coming into contact with a cerebral is changed to the corresponding cerebral-atftfifq_ Zn~'l=enqiilc?:_ i!1W{1 !i~+6=S'l1

(4) The preceding rule does not apply when a dental is followed by ~-~~I

(5) A dental followed by ~_ is changed to w_; "l. followed by ~ is changed to nasalized ~_- ~~ wmt =~Clm I WTiL i'ltfti =~~_. ~fff !

EXERCISE 19

I. Vocabulary
q~i!'_ garment smn~: food ~: tooth 3{wil_- ii \ Sl~'fi~)fu )
ijT~: path fiilwll: hole !i:licl'T gratitude to adorn
~H: necklace qUffiir: bra very 5Pi.CI much, qf~~~C'.I' to be
many avoided
;q-T~ meal i3tltUIil: offence. ~lf~~ fearful ~Ti1r~ joyfully
fc{r;;oor dejected r .-
~::f,: mouse iifTwi!' net I '3~'" loudly
..,. II. Translate the following into English:

q~~ ~~ q.fJJRftq_ I olWif, q;r femsq~ I ~:q f~CfT rfJU ~~iT U~ ",;r 1t~1f~ qa;r~;:,.t-ll'n,. I 'i~Tf:qq_ 5Pi.fflfTm ~~ rn~ ~~B:r ~1.iT1.if f.fl'-H 'If{"lef: I G1l[(t lilS[iT f.R?'~ iil~Ullm: m~ ~~ mr1:s~"l. I aot :ftftffi: ffI~: ~TS~ I ~i'i'fTif'li: f09~iI ~Tff: I aift'ffill. -"m: Sill) I (,f ~t q;{~ s~~ I ifl' ltUifil{) iTa: I i3ti' ~~~cf ifwCfT"l. I 8Rr ~if q~ ~::;rf ~ ," -fQ'~ <t"l liF.f q:qrj ~:nt~cf :q gm'H"l. I Ci~i1;::t~ if'tor of~q ~ iifT~ ~'ll a~ i5fT~ qfcta: ~ f«l[: I ariT~ ~f~Ci1l.1 ~ ~ffifTif. ~i ::IiTflct ~ifT~"~ srm I ~ Wtii I ::Ii~IfT\ii1TWT~~ t'l't g~T~ r" ~ itT~ ~~~ I nt~~_ -"~~ q" f1fSf~1.i '6~T !"

7

92

SANSKRIT MANUAL

III. Translate the foUowing into Sanskrit, rendering all finite verbs by participles:

0) Many women were killed. their bodies were torn by the lion's teeth. (2) Abundant food was given to the poor children. (3) People honoured ( ~~) by fools have always been laughed at by intelligent men. (4) The necklace fell from the bride's hands and the pearls were scattered. (5) They ate their meal and slept. (6) The victorious enemies entered the city by force. (7) The path was obstructed with fallen trees. (8) Our men crossed the river, fought like heroes and seized the leader of the enemies. (9) The place was measured. fuel was brought and the darkness suddenly shone with light. (10) You forgave my offence.

IV. Change the voice in the following:

~ (f~"f(:r: f~~: I errmT ~ft~lJff.;:rn:, &f&qT ilU ~~ ~a-: I iP-rT ifulq_ I ~ I'i(mQq~: I WT<lT'l. ~f~: ~ga: I ~tft!!filEffU ~oT I ~~ ~ ~~Hj f~'l~ I 'lttvJ"~11. I

V. Join the following sandhis:

t3fTif~~ ~11. I ~ ~11. flffl ~~'J~n: I ~ ~~q_ I a-f.'!' ~wo: arti: ;mCfTOl. I ~ ~ I u.or.i, ~~ I ~~ ~{'h':iI I

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->