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Indian Social Structure

Indian Social Structure

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Published by Harsh Bir Kaur

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Harsh Bir Kaur on Dec 26, 2010
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02/12/2013

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AGE & SEX STRUCTURE OF INDIA Age – Sex composition of India • Typical age structure of developing countries –pyramidal.

• In the age group of 0–14 years: 30.8%, Male: 188,208,196, female: 171,356,024 • In age group of 15–64 years: 64.3%, male: 386,432,921, female: 364,215,759 • 65+ years: 4.9%, male: 27,258,259, female: 30,031,289 (2007 est.) • The average age of Indians are 64.8 years. Age composition of the population 1961-2026 Year Age group ( % ) 0-14years 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2026 41 42 40 38 34 29 23 15-59 years 53 53 54 56 59 63 64 60 + years 6 5 6 7 7 8 12 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total

• Characteristics of Indian population ➢ Majority of young population. ➢ Age structure of India is quasi-stable: • Marginal decline in the proportion of young population (0-14) age group in between 1951-2001. • Little change in population of adults – young & old. ➢ Regional variation in age structure. ➢ Declining sex ratio is another important feature of the population. ➢ Recently a change in age composition of India is registered. •
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Some basic Statistics Population growth rate: 1.93% (2007 est.) Birth rate: 22.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) Net migration rate: − 0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) Causes of high birth rates The social & religious customs Age at marriage Environmental causes Economic factors

➢ Low level of literacy ➢ Low level of family planning practice. • •
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Result of this age structure The natural consequence of such a age structure is high dependency rate. Dependency rate is a measure comparing the portion of dependent i.e. non working population on working population. Dependency ratio = p 0-14+ p 60 ×100 p 15-59. Sex ratio of India India has an adverse sex structure. Number of females are reducing specially in the young age group. Region wise sex difference is wide - . Religion also plays an important role in sex ratio.

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Causes of low sex ratio • Strong ‘son-mania’ in Indian family supported by socio-cultural, economic and political environment. • The agrarian set-up associated with the ownership of land and the social infrastructure. • Social attitude towards females. • The chance of maternal mortality . • Violence against women. Reasons of low child sex ratio are as follows✔ Severe neglect of girl babies ✔ Sex specific abortions ✔ Female infanticide • •

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Consequences populations with more number of males remain at risk of social unrest with increase in crime and violence against women like dowry death, child marriage, bride selling, kidnapping, rape etc. The risk of polyandry also exists in such a society No scope of women empowerment. Low age of marriage will continue & increased widowhood. Health of women & child is seriously affected. Poor quality of human resources.

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