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Opera. IX.

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THE Inten.tio. n ofMufick is not only to pleafe the Ear, b.ut to. cxprefs Sentiments, ftrike the Imagination, affec9: the Mind, and command the Paffions. The Art of playing the Violin conlifls in giving that Infirument a Tone that lhall in a .. Manner rival the moft perfec9: human Voice; and in executing every Piece with

. Exac9:nefs, Propriety, and Delicacy of Expreffion according to the true Intention of Mufick.

But as the imitating the Cock, Cuckoo, Owl, and other Birds; or the Drum, French Horn, Tromba-Marina, and the like; and alfo fudden Shifts of the Hand from one Extremity of the Finger-board to the other, accompanied with Contortions of the Head and Body, and all other fuch Tricks rather belong to the Profeff'ors of Legerdemain and Pofture-mafters than to the Art· of Mufick, the Lovers of that Art are not to expec9: to find any thing of that Sort in this Book. But I Batter myfelf they will find in it whatever is Neceffary for the Inftitution of a juft and regular Performer on the Violin. This Book will alfo be of Ufe to Performers on the Violoncello, and in fome Sort to thofe who begin toftudy the Art of Compofition.

After the feveral Examples, I have added twelve Pieces in different Stiles for a Violin and Violoncello with a thorough Bafs for the Harpfichord. I have not given any Directions for the performing them; becaufe I think the Learner will not need any, the foregoing Rules and Examples being fufficient to qualify him to perform any Mufick whatfoever.

I have nothing farther to add, but to beg the Favour of all Lovers ofMufrck to receive this- Book with the fame Candour that it is offered to them, by their

MojI obedient humble Servant,

F. G.

Example I.

( A. )

A Reprefents the Finger-board of a Violin, on which are marked all the Tones and Semitones, within the Compafs of that Inflrument, according to the Diatonick Scale; they are 23 in Number, viz. three OCtaves and a Tone; and in every Octave of the DtatonieR Scale there are five Tones and two of the greater Semi tones. I would recommend it to the Learner, to have the Finger-board of his Violin marked in the fame Manner; which will greatly facilitate his learning to ftop in Tune.

(

B.

)

B Ihews a Method of acquiring the true Pofition of the Hand, which is this: To place the nrR: Finger on the firft String upon F; the fecond Finger on the fecond String upon C; the third Finger on the third String upon G; and the fourth Finger on the fourth String upon D. This mufl be done without raifmg any of the Fingers, till all four have been fet down; but after that, they are to be raifed but a little Diftance from the String they touched; and by fo doing the Pofition is perfeCt.

The Violin muft be refted juftbelow the Collar-bone, turning the right-hand Side of the Violin a little downwards, fo that there may be no N eceffity of raifing the Bow very high,

when the fourth String is to be flruck. ,

Obf"erve

A3

[ 2 ]

Obferve alfo, that the Head of the Violin mull: be nearly Horizontal with that Part which refts againft the Breaft, that the Hand may be iliifted with Facility and without any Danger of dropping the Inflrument,

The Tone of the Violin principally Depends upon the right Management of the Bow.

The Bow is to be held at a fmall Diftance from the Nut, between the Thumb and Fingers, the Hair being turned inward againfl: the Back or Outfide of the Thumb, in which Pofition it is to be held free and eafy, and not aHf. The Motion is to proceed from the Joints of the wsn and Elbow in playing quick Notes, and very little or not at all from the Joint of the Shoulder ; but in playing long Notes, where the Bow is drawn from one End of it to the other, the Joint of the Shoulder is alfo a little employed. The Bow muft always be drawn parallel with the Bridge, (which can't be done if it is held ftHf) and mull: be preffed upon the Strings with the Fore-finger only, and not with the whole Weight of the Hand. The beft Performers are leaft fparing of their Bow ; and make Ufe of the whole of it, from the Point to that Part of it under, and even beyond their Fingers. In an Upbow the Hand is bent a little downward from the Joint of the Wrill, when the Nut of the Bow approaches the Strings, and the Wrift is immediately ftreightned, or the Hand rather a little bent back or upward, as foon as the Bow is began to be drawn down again.

One of the principal Beauties of the Violin is the fwelling or encreafing and foftening the Sound; which is done by preffing the Bow upon the Strings with the Fore-linger more or IdS. In playing all long Notes the Sound Ihould be begun foft,and gradually fwelled till the Middle, and from thence gradually foftened till the' End. And laftly, particular Care muft be taken to draw the Bow fmooth from one End to the other without any Interruption or flopping in the Middle. For on this principally, and the keeping it always parallel with the Bridge, and preffing it only with the Fore-finger upon the Strings with Difcretion, depends the fine Tone of the Inflrument,

( c. )

C thews the 7 Orders. What I mean by an Order is a certain Number of Notes which are to be played without tranfpofing the Hand. The firft Order contains 17 Notes, and the other fIX Orders contain no more than fixteen,

Under the Notes of the firft Order you will find their Names, and over the fame Notes Figures denoting the Fingers with which they are to be fl:opped, and the StIings on which

they are flopped, •

It muft be obferved that between the two black Notes is the greater Semitone, and between

the others is the Tone,

The Mark (0) denotes an open String.

From the firft Order you are to begin to play.

'Tis neceffary to place the Fingers exactly upon the Marks that belong to the Notes; for on this depends the ftopping perfectly in Tune,

After having been practifed in the firft Order, you mull: pafs on to the fecond, and then to the third; in which Care is to be taken that the Thumb always remain farther back than the Fore-finger; and the more you advance in the other Orders the Thumb mud be at a greater Diflance till it remains almoft hid under the Neck of the Violin.

It is a conftant Rule to keep the Fingers.as nrm as poffible, and not toraife them, till there is a N eceffity of doing it; to place them fomewhere elfe; and the Obfervance of this Rule will very much facilitate the playing double Stops.

The fingering, indeed, requires an earnefl Application, and therefore it would be moR prudent to undertake it without the Ufe of the Bow, which you Ihould not meddle with till you come to the 7th Example, in which will be found the neceffiuy andprope:r Method of uftng it.

It

[ 3 ]

It cannot be fuppofed but that this Practice without the Bow is difagreable, {inee it gives no Satisfaction to the Ear; but the Benefit which, in Time, will arife from it, will be 11 Recompence more than adequate to the Difgufi it may give.

( D. )

D fhews the different Ways of flopping the fame Note, and difcovers at the fame Time, that Tranfpofition of the Hand conftfts in pa1fmg from one Order to another.

As for Example.

If a Note ought to be napped by the fourth Finger on any String whatfoever, in the lirflOrder, and the fame Note be flopped by the third Finger, it will pafs into the fecond Order; and if by the fecond Finger into the third; and confequently by flopping it with the firfl, it enters into the fourth Order.

On the contrary, if the firft Finger flopping any Note whatfocver falls under the fourth Order; by flopping the fame Note with the fecond Finger it pafles into the third; by flopping the fame with the third, into the fecond; and finally by flopping the fame with the

fourth Finger it enters into the firft. ,

This is fufficient to fhew what Tranfpofition of the Hand is. I have only now to recommend a good Execution of the whole, both in rifmg and falling; and great Care in conducting the Hand, as alfo in the placing the Fingers exattly on the Marks. With all thefe the PraCtitioner mufl by Degrees acquire ~eknefs.

(. E. )

E contains feveral different Scales, with the Tranfpofitions of the Hand, which ought to be made both in rifing and falling. It mufl here be obferved, that in drawing back the Hand from the 5th, 4th and 3d Order to go to the firft, the Thumb cannot, for Want of Time, be replaced. in its natural Pofition; but it is neeeffary it Ihould be replaced at the fecond Note.

A Sharp ( i ) raifes the Note.to which it is prefixed, a Semitone higher; as for Example, when a Sharp is prefixed to C, the Finger mufl: be placed in the Middle between C and D, and fo of the reft, except Band E; for when a Sharp is prefixed to either of them, the Finger mull: be placed upon C and F. A Flat (,) on the Contrary renders the Note to which it is prefixed, a Semitone lower: As for Example, when a Flat is prefixed to B the Finger mull: be placed in the Middle between B and A, and fo of the Refl except F and C; for when a Flat is prefixed to either of them the Finger mull: be placed upon E and B natural. This Rule concerning the Flats and Sharps is not abfolutely exact; but it is the eafiefi: and heft Rule that can be given to a Leamer. This Mark ( • ) takes away the Force of both the Sharp and the Flat and reflores the Note before which it is placed ·to its natural ~ality.

Example II.

In This Example there are 13 Scales, compofed of the Didton;ck. and Cromatick. Genera.

Many may, perhaps, imagine that thefe Scales are meerly Cromatic, as they may not know that the Cromatic Scale mufl: be compafed only of the greater and leffer Semitones; and that the Octave alfo mull: be devided into 12 Semitones, that is, 7 of the greater and 5 of the Iefler; but the prefent 13 Scales being compofed of Tones and the greater and lefler Semitones, and the OCtave containing 2 Tones, 5 of the greater Semitones and 3 of the leffer, I call them mixt.

Take

( 4 ]

Take notice that the Sign (ma) lignifies Major or greater, and the Sign (mi) Minor or leffer.

The Pofition of the Fingers marked in the nrft Scale (which is that commonly practifed) is a faulty one; for two Notes cannot De ftopped fucceffively by the fame Finger without Difficulty, efpecially in quick Time.

Example III.

Contains 4 Scales of the DiatonicR Genus tranfpofed; and here, not to burthen the Memory of the Beginner, all the Flats (b) infiead of being marked at the beginning of the stalf, are marked immediately before the Notes which they belong to; but their true Situation may be feen at the End of the Staff.

Example IV.

In this Example are contained 9 Scales tranfpofed, and compofed of the DiatonicR and CrfJfltatie Genera; I have ufed the fame Method of marking the Flats in the full: eight Scales, and the Sharp in the ninth Scale, as in the former Example.

'Tis neceffary in this Example to be very exact in obferving the Diftance between one Note and another, as alfo the Pofition of the Fingers, and the Tranfpofition of the Hand. The Poiition of the Fingers in the laIl: Scale is extreamly. faulty and is fet down meerly by Way of Caution to the Learner to avoid it. The Scales in this Example begin at the Mark ( f:\) and are to be praetifed backward as well as forward.

Example V.

In this there are 4- DiatonicR Scales tranfpofed,' and with different Tranfpofitions of the Hand. Let it be obferved that after you have prad:ifed them in afcending they Ihould be praaifed alfoback again.

Example VI.

This Example contains 6 Scales compofed both of the DiatonicR and Cromatic tranfpofed.

Obferve when the Sign ( x) comes before C, your Finger mull: be put upon D; and when the fame Sign is before F, the Finger mufl: be upon G.

Example VII.

This contains 14 Seales; compofed of all the Intervals which belong to the DiIItonicR Genus. In which are variety of Tranfpofitions of the Hand. I mull: here remind you to let the Fingers reft as firm as poffible on the String, in the Manner already mentioned. Thefe Scales Ihould be executed with tho Bow, and it will be therefore neceffary to praCtice' for fome Days, all that is contained in the 24th Example, in order not to confound the Execution of the Fingers with that of the Bow.

Example VIII.

In this are contained 20 Scales in different Keys, very ufeful for acquiring Time and the . flopping in Tune. Here it muft be obferved, that you are to execute them by drawing the Bow down and up, or up and down alternately; taking Care not to follow that wretched Rule of drawing the Bow down at the firft Note of every Bar.

Example

[ 5 ]

Example IX.

In this Example are contained 16 Variations, mofl ufeful in Regard to Timet to the Bowing, the ftopping in Tune and the Execution. Again you muft be careful to keep the Fingers as firm as poffible on the Strings, and alfo in bowing employ the Wrifl: much; the Arm but little, and the Shoulder not at all.

Example X.

This Example is compofed of Scales min with various Pa{fages and Modulations, . which are often repeated with different Tranfpofitions of the Hand; and is calculated to render the Labour of Practice more pleafant.

Example XI.

This Example is tranfpofed from the other, a Tone higher, 10 that the Melody may be

{aid to be the fame, but the Accompanyment is quite different. .

Example XII._ .

In order to execute this Compofition well, 'tis neceffary to examine very frequently the Tranfpofitions of the Hand in it, until they are entirely imprefled on the Mind; and then to practice the 24th Example for acquiring the free U[e of the Bow, and after proceed to execute this Example, which will be then found not [0 difficult as it may at firft be thought.

Example XIII.

This Movement ought to be executed in (uch a Manner as to refemble an affed:ing Difcourfe, and cannot be juilly performed without having firft well comprehended and often

prad:ifed what is contained in the r Sth Example. . .

Example XIV.

In this are contained 14 Scales; fome of which are compofed in Keys with a third Major, and the others in Keys with a third Minor. Thefe Scales ought to executed with ~icknefs, and in order to execute them well, you mull: take Care to put in Practice the Rules laid down in the r sth Example.

Example XV.

This contains the 7 Orders already mentioned, which proceed one after another without concluding or making any Cadence. Here alfo is introduced the Cromatic Flat, (") and the eromatic Sharp. (I) The Sign (f:\,) fignifies the laft Note of the Order, and the Sign ( I ) the fiFft Note of the fuccceding Order, upon which the Hand is to be tranfpofed.

I am fenfible that the Modulation of thefe Orders is fomewhat harfh, but however very ufeful; for a good Profelfor of the Violin is obliged to execute with Propriety and J ufl:nefs, every Competition that is laid before him; but he who has never played any other Mulick than the agreeable and common Modulation, when he comes to play at Sight what is dired:ly op-polite to it, muft be very much at a Lofs.

B

Example

[ 6 ]

Example XVI.

This Example fhews in how many different Manners of bowing you may play 2, 3, 4t 5 and 6 Notes. As for Inflance, 2 Notes may be played in + different Manners, 3 Notes in eight, 4 in 16, 5 in 32, and 6 in 62. It mufl be obferved, that the Example marked with the Letter A is of 2 Notes, B, 3, C, 4, D, 5, and the Letter F, 6. The Letter (g) denotes that the Bow is to be drawn downwards; and the Letter (s) that it mull: be drawn upwards. The Learner fhould be indefatigable in praCtifing this Example till he has made himfelf a perfect Mafter of the Art of Bowing. For it is to be held as a certain Principle that he who does not poffefs; in a perfea Degree, the Art of Bowing, will never be able the render the Melody agreeable nor arrive at a Facility in the Execution.

Example XVII.

This Example only differs from the foregoing, as to what concerns Time and Compofi-

tion; in other Refpects it is the fame. ,

Example XVIII.

Contains all the Ornaments of Expreffion, nece1fary to the playing in a good Tafte. What is commonly call'd good Tafte in fmging and playing, has been thought for (orne Years paft to dellroy the true Melody, and the Intention of their Compofers. It is fuppofed by many that a real good Tafte cannot poffibly be acquired by any Rules of Art; it being a peculiar Gift of Nature, indulged only to thofe who have naturally a good Ear: And as moft flatter themfelves to have this Perfection, hence it happens that he who fings or plays, thinks of nothing fo much as to make continually fome favourite Pa1lages or Graces, believing that by this Means he Ihall be thought to be a good Performer, not perceiving that playing in good Tafte doth not confdt of frequent Pa1fages, but in expreffing with Strength and Delicacy the Intention of the Compofer. TID! Expreffion is what eVery one Ihould endeavour to acquire, and it may be eafuy obtained by any Perfon, who is not too fond of his own Opinion, and doth not obftinately refill the Force of true Evidence. I would not however have it fuppofed that I deny the powerful Effects of a good Ear; as I have found in feveral Inftances how great its Force is: I only affert that certain Rules of Art are nece1fary for a moderate Genius, and may improve and perfeCt a good one. To the End therefore that thofe who are Lovers of Mufick may with more Eafe and Certainty arrive at Perfection, I recommend the Study and Practice of the following Ornaments of ExprelIion, which are fourteen in Number; namely,

1ft A plain Shake (~) 2d A Turn'd Shake (+) 3d A fuperior Apogiatura (1') 4th An inferior Apogiatura (J') 5th Holding the Note ( - ) 6th Staccato ( I) 7th Swelling the Sound (~) 8th Diminifhing the Sound (") 9th Piano (p.) 10m Forte (f.) 11th tho Anticipation (1' l 12tb Separation (~) 13th A Beat (H) 14th A clofe Shake ( ...""..,) From the following Explanation we may comprehend the Nature of each Element in particular.

(Firfl) Of the PLAIN SHAKE.

The plain Shake is proper for quick Movements; and it may be made upon any Note

obferving after it to pafs immediately to the enfuing Note. '

(Second)

Of'the TURNED SHAKE.

The turn'd Shake being made quick and long is fit to exprefs Gaiety; but if you make it Ihort, and continue the Length of the Note plain and foft, it may then exprefs fome of the more tender Paflions,

(Third)

(7'hird) Of the Superior ApOGIATURA.

The Superior Apogiatura is fuppofed to exprefs Love, Affedion, Pleafure, ~c. It fhould be made ~retty . long, giving it more than half the Length or Time of the Note it belongs to, obfervmg to fwell the Sound by Degrees, and towards the End to force the Bow a little:

If it be made {hort,. it will lofe much of the aforefaid ~alities; but will always have a pleafmg Mea, and It may be added to aI)Y Note you will.

( Fourth) Of the Inferior ApOGIATURA.

The Inferior Apogiatura has the fame ~alities with the preceding, except that it is muck more confin'd, as it can only be made when the Melody rifes the Interval of a Iecond or third, obferving to make a Beat on the following Note.

( Fifth) Of Holding a NOTE.

It is nece1faxy to ufe this often; for were we to make Beats and Shakes continually without fometimea fuB:ering the pure Note to be heard, the Melody would be too much divedified.

( Sixth)

Of the STACCATO.

This expreffes Reft, ~ing Breath, or changing a Word; and for this Reafon Singcra ihould be careful to take Breath in a Place where.it may not interrupt the Senfe ..

( 7th and 8th) Of SWELLING and SOFTENING the SOUND.

Thefe two Elements may be ufed after each other; they produce great Beauty and Variety in the Melody, and employ'd alternately, they are proper for any Expreili.on or Meafure.

(9th and loth) Of PIANO and FORTE.

They are both extremely neceffiny to exprefs the Intention of the Melody; and as all good Mufick Ihould be compofed in Imitation of a Difcourfe, thefe two Ornaments are defigned to produce the fame Effects that an Orator does by raifing and falling his Voice.

(Eleventh)

Of ANTICIPATION.

Anticipation was invented, with a View to vary the Melody, without altering its Intention:

When it is made with a Beat or a Shake, and [welling the Sound, it will have a greater Elfea, efpecially if you obferve to make ufe of it when the Melody rues or defcends the Interval of a Second.

(Twelfth) Of the SEPARATION.

The Separation is only defigned to gire a Variety to the Melody, and takes place moA: properly when the N~te rifes a. Second or Third; as alfo when it defcends a Secon~, and then it will not be amifs to add a Beat, and to fwell the Note, and then make the Apogtatura to the following Note. By this Tendemeli is e.xprdS'd.

(Thirteenth) Of the BEAT.

This is proper to cxprefsfeveral Paflions; as for Example, ifit be perform'd with Strength, and eentinued long, it expre1I'es Fury, Anger, Refolution, &c. If it be play'd lefs firong and

[ 8 ]

and Ihorter, it expre£res Mirth, SatisfaCtion, ~c. But if you play it quite foft, and fwell the Note, it may then denote Horror, Fear, Grief, Lamentation, ~c. By making it lhort and fwelling the Note gently, it may exprefs AffeCtion and Pleafure.

( Fourteenth) Of the Clore SHAKE.

This cannot poffibly be defcribed by Notes as in former Examples. To perform it, you mull: prefs the Finger ftrongly upon the String of the Inflrument, and move the Wrifi in and out flowly and equally, when it is long continued fwelling the Sound by Degrees, drawing the Bow nearer to the Bridge, and ending it very firong it may exprefs Majefty, Dignity, (#e. But making it Ihorter, lower and fofter, it may denote Affii8:ion, Fear, (§Ie. and when it is made on Ihort Notes, it only contributes to make their Sound more agreable and for this Reafon it Ihould be made ufe of as often as poffible.

Men of purblind Underflandings, and half Ideas may perhaps alk, is it poffible to give Meaning and Expreffion to' Wood and Wire; or to befiow upon them the Power of railing and foothing the Paffions of rational Beings? But whenever I hear fuch a ~efiion put, whether for the Sake of Information, or to convey Ridicule, I {hall make no Difficulty to anfwer in the Affirmative, and without fearching over-deeply into the Caufe, {hall think it fufficient to appeal to the EffeCt. Even in common Speech a Difference of Tone gives the fame Word a different Meaning. And with Regard to mufical Performances, Experience has {hewn that the Imagination of the Hearer is in general fo much at the Difpofal of the Mafler, that by the Help of Variations, Movements, Intervals and Modulation he may almoft ftamp what Impreffion on the Mind he pleafes.

Thefe extraordinary Emotions are indeed mofl: eafily excited when accompany' d with Words; and I would befides advife, as well the Compofer as the Performer, who is ambitious to infpire his Audience, to be firfl: infpired himfelf; which he cannot fail to be if he chufes a Work of Genius, if he makes himfelf thoroughly acquainted with all its Beauties ; and if while his Imagination is warm and glowing he pours the fame exalted Spirit into his own Performance.

Example XIX.

In this is fhewn how a £Ingle Note (in flow Time) may be executed with different Ornaments of Expreffions.

Example xx.

This' Example Ihews the Manner of Bowing proper to the Minim, Crochet-quaver and Semiquaver both in flow and quick Time. For it is not fufficient alone to give them their true Duration, but alfo the Expreffion proper to each of thefe Notes. By not confidering this, it often happens that many good . Compofitions are fpoiled by thofe who attempt to execute them.

You muft obferve that this Sign (~) denotes the Swelling of the Sound; the Sign (.......--) lignifies that the Notes are to be play'd plain and the Bow is not to be taken off the Strings; . and this ( , ) a Staccato, where the Bow is taken ojf the Strings at every Note.

Example XXI.

In this are Ihewn the different Way of playing Arpeggios on Chords compofed of 3 or 4 Sounds. Here are compofed 18 Variations on the Chords contained in N~. 1. by which the Learner will fee in what the Art of executing the Arpeggio confifls,

Example

[ 9 ]

Example XXII.

In this Example are contained all the double Stops between the Unifon and the O&'ve, and thefe again are repeated many Times with different Pofitions of the Fingers; f6 that in any Order whatfoever where anyone of them is found you may know how to play it. Thofe who, with ~cknefs and ExaCl:nefs, Ihall execute this Example, . will find themfelves far advanced in the Art of playing double Stops.

Example XXIII.

This contains two Compofitions of Scales of double Stops, which are thrice repeated with dHferent Tranfpofitions of the Hand, in order to remove all Pain and Difficulty. in the Practice. It muf\: be obferved, that after having lhifted the Hand, you muf\: purfue what follows in the fame Order, till the following Number points out a new TJ'aIlfpofition.

Example XXIV.

From this Example the Art of Bowing will eafUy be acquired, and alfo that of playing in - Time. The Letter (g) denotes that the Bow is to be drawn downwards ; the Letter ( s } that it muft be drawn upwards. The Sign (;S':) fignifies a Repetition.

You muf\: (above all Things) obferve to draw the Bow down and up alternately. The Bow muft always be drawn ftrait on the Strings. and never be raifed from them in playing Semi-quavers. This Practice of the Bow Ihould be continued, without attempting any Thing elfe until the Learner is fo far Mafter of it as to be out of all Danger of forgetting it.

Before I conclude the Article of Bowing, I muft caution the Learner againfl: marking the Time with his Bow; for if he once accuftoms himfelf to it, he will hardly ever leave it off. < And it has a mof\: difagreeable Effect, and frequently deftroys the Delign of the Compofer. As for Example, when the laft Note in one Bar is joined to the firf\: Note of the next by a Ligature, thofe two Notes are to be played exaCtly in the fame Manner as if they were but one, and if you mark .. the beginning of the Bar with your Bow you dellroy the Beauty of the Syncopation. So in playing Divi.fions, if by your Manner of Bowing you lay a particular Strefs on the Note at the beginning of every Bar, fo as to render it predominant over the reft, you alter and fpoil the true Air of the Piece, and except where the Compofer intended it, and where it is always marked, there are very few Inflances in which it is not very dif-

~eeal>le. .

N. B. In the twentieth Example the Word Buono, lignifies Good; Mediocre, Middling; Cattivo, Bad; Cattivo, () Partico/tlre, Bad or Particular; Meg/io, better; Otlimo, very good; and PeJlimo, v.ery bad.

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