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a,id AI'I'I, II:AI'IIiN



DESIGN 390 p













'lrlllel|lNl IDK Iq ,N annal IDIDI,q;A"I' IqlPm A I

Edited by Arthur J. Glassman Lewis Research Center

Scientific and Technical Information Program--1994 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Washington, DC

Available NASA

from the Center for AeroSpace Landing Road MD 21090-2934 Catalog Card Number: 94-67487 Information

800 Elkridge

Linthicum Heights, Price Code: A17 Library of Congress

NASA and space turboshaft pellant-driven power organic interest trains, Center, presented Program. 1972-73. concepts, cooling, The edited for an Any Two are the sets units given U.S. of units and reference for fluids, has an interest as in turbines Airbreathing well provide Closed-cycle metal power engines turbine-system entitled 1968-69 course aspects and was as power fluids for include related turbine rocket turbine have spacecraft. land-vehicle and interest "Turbine part of somewhat of turbine fluid-dynamic losses, ground-based and Design the revised technology concepts, blade efforts and and were primarily engines power propulsion engines been Other (cars, studied for using for trucks, electrical at Lewis Application" Graduate again covered presented including turbine design, revised blade and or a to aeronautics provide aircraft, and inert jet and l%ogases, of buses, power. Research was Study in applications. propulsion, turbines spacecraft. and electric propulsion course during The Various velocity mechanical notes written for publication. for selected consistent commonly after the set used introductory

as auxiliary

auxiliary providing

long-duration etc.) a


for turbine of the

In view






design, operation, and performance. and used for the course have been Such turbine topics. of symbol units. as unity units will sets single not satisfy of set required the units These of required equations and are equations for the U.S. a publication course, a can means serve for

as a foundation self-study,

presented. values units and both SI

consistent A those

constant the covers


customary by including defining

all constants


for the SI units. ARTHUR J. GLASSMAN



i _




• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . .








C 1
1 14 19 20

J. Glassman


BASIC CONCEPTS AND RELATIONS ....................... APPLICATION TO FLOW WITH VARYING AREA REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................





by Arthur

J. Glassman


21 21 45 62 63 65

TURBINE FLOW AND ENERGY TRANSFER .................. DIMENSIONLESS PARAMETERS ......................... REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS ......................................... GLOSSARY .........................................


VELOCITY DIAGRAMS by Warren Warner L. Stewart ...................................

J. Whitney

69 70 84 95 96 98

MEAN-SECTION DIAGRAMS ............................ RADIAL VARIATION OF DIAGRAMS ....................... COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR VELOCITY-DIAGRAM REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................




BLADE Arthur

DESIGN J. Glassman

by Warner

L. Stewart

and lOl
102 118 124 125


SOLIDITY .......................................... BLADE-PROFILE DESIGN .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................





by Theodore
ANALYSES ........................



130 147 154 155

STREAMAND POTENTIAL-FUNCTION VELOCITY-GRADIENT ANALYSIS REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................



TO BOUNDARY-LAYER ...............................

............ .............. 157 160 172 188 188 191

D. McNally

NATURE OF BOUNDARY LAYER ......................... DERIVATION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EQUATIONS SOLUTION OF BOUNDARY-LAYER EQUATIONS CONCLUDING REMARKS .............................. REFERENCES ...................................... SYMBOLS .........................................









by Herman

W. Prust,

Jr ....

195 201 217 221 223

BOUNDARY-LAYER PARAMETERS ........................ BLADE-ROW LOSS COEFFICIENTS ....................... BLADE-ROW LOSS CHARACTERISTICS .................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................




by Richard

J. Roelke


225 231 238 243 246 247

TIP-CLEARANCE LOSS ................................ DISK-FRICTION LOSS ................................. PARTIAL-ADMISSION LOSSES ........................... INCIDENCE LOSS .................................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS ..........................................




by Louis

J. Goldman


250 263 266 272 277 278

METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS ......................... DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC STATOR BLADES ................. DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC ROTOR BLADES .................. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................





by Harold

E. Rohlik


284 295 302 305 306

OVERALL DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS .................... BLADE DESIGN ..................................... OFF-DESIGN PERFORMANCE ........................... REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................




by Raymond

S. Colladay


307 314 328 330 332 340 345 347

GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................. HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE ................ CONDUCTION WITHIN THE BLADE WALL .................. COOLANT-SIDE CONVECTION ........................... FILM AND TRANSPIRATION COOLING ..................... SIMILARITY ........................................ REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................



DETERMINATION PERFORMANCE by Edward J. Schum ................................

OF AEROM. Szanca 351
352 374 387 388

TEST FACILITY AND MEASUREMENTS .................... TURBINE PERFORMANCE .............................. REFERENCES ....................................... SYMBOLS .........................................


the more flow conThese and complete thermodynamics compressible energy-transfer treatment textbooks. we interrelated. resulted In of calculation and in certain ideal involving are and laws The laws these or real. all chapter. gases kind volume. the Two given U.CHAPTER 1 Thermodynamic andFluid-Dynamic Concepts ByArthur. A single constants those consistent commonly after customary by and defining the to to review and analyze in some and a of the fluid understand turbine.S. values and sets customary are the of consistent definitions. units units purposes Any occurring can be found in reference 1 and in many to be steady and one-dimensional for of equations including as unity SI units. set of units will sets set not satisfy of units These required required the and are for for the the the equations constant SI covers U. units both presented. temperature study concerning are generalizations of behavior. A fundamental mechanics. Glassman J This cepts are the of chapter concepts is intended needed processes of these subjects Flow is assumed of this used symbol units.S. as being discussing either . their referred to behavior. BASIC CONCEPTS Equation AND of any has State RELATIONS Before gases. we can must The gases get know very how far of with pressure.

temperature. in the p-v-T and of temare of of 2 to 3 percent from been the at 1 atmosphere have to express a limited of these unless at equal Deviations equations to a single cumbersome accuracy The and forms behavior. general. critical for is temperature. m3/kg. to critical of a relatively method correlation incorporate . proposal relation. N/mS. of real of several None are and applicable pressure. used in J/(kg)(K) of specific Density is often instead RT = pRT (1-3) where In sures within small. temperature. up to pressures critical resulted the satisfactory. simple general of reduced To) pc) gas a real pressure. range a high values equations degree as 50 atmospheres. R is the Thus._ is often kg/(kg J/(kg lb/(Ib mole)(K). most perature p is density. to of pressure. similarity (ratio pressure basis The method of these temperapressure. ideal high tures. gas and will the approximate conditions attractive ideal under forces behavior which between the at low free presspace are the as temperatures. estimating to p. (lb mole) (°R) molecular absolute weight. which are be accurate while gases hundred have Even and only gas is large molecules For gases gas law may deviations above their critical to within 5 percent for gases ideal found gas most be below behavicr of state universally over useful their may appear temperatures. laws that under ideal R* pv=--_- T (1-1) where P V absolute specific pressure. °R used as R $ R* universal gas constant. K. volume. volume in the ideal gas gas constant. 1 p =V (1-2) or (ft)(Ib)/(lb)(°R). or the high a real in kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3. R*/M.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ideal the The gas real is only gas can gas hypothetical only equation approach and of state is obeys various certain simplified conditions. lb/ft 2 fta/lb 8314 mole). to use is required. mole) 1545 (ft) (lb)/ The quantity a single quafftity such that R-----_-_ where law. 2 temperature reduced the cannot justified in behavior of (ratio of of substances T.

molal state error. into the ideal gas (1-4) where The and of the other as with tion and sures.60 .10 1. temperature 2. P/Pc FIGURE 1-1. show gas presthe of of reduced texts an is assumed pressure charts of one to be independent as a function in many from presented reference is derived is not compressibility Values and One This for a large data are be extended used pseudocritical of the of where the not for do take error figure 1-1. factor.0 I 7. should A of data z is the reduced gas._ ______ •90 . compressibility factor and pressure. is always can law.20 T/Tc_ 1.20 . gas ideal law factor result concerned to gas pressures averages conditions Fortunately. never to calculate properties critical 1-1 conditions fall granted of use properties shows ideal reduced of the approximated there law are this ideal of the Examination of the in a large in our we valid. for all the may The of compressibility reduced of the type number any temperature sources.1o _-'LO0 1.0 I 3. is a function factor are from and The of reduced temperature of the nature and here average correlatemperatures and by using region with However.--Effect of reduced pressure factor.0 I 5.0 I 2.80 • 70 t_ -- 1.) on com- pressibility 3 .THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS correction law: term.0 F 10. mixtures are that gas that within the use that the with agreement compressibility-factor if pseudocritical temperatures components. called the compressibility p=zpRT factor. (Curves and reduced from ref. the we calculations quick usually determination compressibility approximate associated Reduced temperature.0 Reduced pressure. 1. figure 2 is reproduced in rigorous correlation of gases gas.30! I \ -1.50 -- 1.0 I 8.0 1 4.0 I 9.0 f 6. is a large would region. 1_50 .00 N _ _-- _.

(1-7) pressure. as temprature Oh'_ T los\ 1 One of the Maxwell relations states that (1-10) Substituting yields equations (1-7). system of constant function chemical temperature (1-5) where enthalpy h is specific can enthalpy. at constant and J is a the partial is. of the differential dh= Tds + j vdp (1-8) where s is specific entropy. a h.dT+ j [v-- Ov T (_-_)p_ dp (1-11) Equation change between 4 in two (1-11) terms states is the of the rigorous state equation conditions. (1-9). 1 or derivative determined with from respect equation to in J/(kg)(K) or Btu/(lb)(°R). and a flow enthalpy enthalpy pressure: process. Therefore. of Energy the energy be Change term to State Conditions with work of and heat com- associated as p) or Btu/lb. equations in J/(kg)(K) of thermodynamics or Btu/ is where cp is heat One capacity basic at constant (lb) (°R). 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu. rigorously for and as a differential the enthalpy enthalpy change is calculated . and (1-10) into equation (1-6) dh=c. conversion constant. pressure (1-8). Oh Cv=(-_'_). as in J/kg A differential change in be expressed Oh dh:(-O-T) The partial derivatives as follows. For can a one-phase expressed h=fcn(T.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Relation In is the position. By can be v dT+(00-_h)rp expressed dp in terms of (1-6) determinable properties definition.

THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS Ts 1 P* _V (1-12) If law.T1) one give for an monatomic approximation gases. (1-15) in hand- for ca as a function for most gases of interest. and the there (1-14) effect remains of pressure enthalpy change is reduced Ah: Empirical books and equations textbooks frTcz. constant-entropy (isentropic) process is the ideal process for flow in the various parts of the turbine (inlet manifold. dT of T are available example. T_ is no to avoid ca is constant becomes between temperatures _=c.T1) +_ b (_--_)+3 not want reason that (1-15) to use this type it for (_--T_) (1-17) of expression computer for hand calculations. for cp=a-tthen integration of equation (1-15) (1-16) Ah=a( Although calculations. of some be within assumption there average a few is an value percent excellent for cv will true T2-. for Constant small. then one be might there equation assumed T2-. can there be of State the heat Conditions loss to be Entropy and adiabatic the the Process flow flow process with no is normally adiabatic. Actual conditions within and across the . and exit diffuser) as well as for the overall turbine. that the Relation In usually loss. we now assume set that the gas behaves according to the ideal gas we can RT v------P and (1-13) ( Ov' By using these on last two equations in R equation to zero. stator. a turbine. For T. for (1-18) other use should is a significant variation of the in c_ with value. (1-12).( This gases. assumed change is no in entropy. bT+cT yields 2 If. If and it can /'2. rotor. Therefore. However.

dp (1-22) For a constant-entropy process. . p) can of constant be expressed as a function and a differential change in entropy ds----(_). assumption that cp is constant (1-24) becomes between tem- T2. ds=0 and Equation relating (1-23) temperature is the rigorous. and pressure but not particularly useful. _dT---- Rln_ (1-24) By using a relation such as equation (1-16). process. dT÷(_)r we get (tp (1-20) Substituting equations (1-21) and (1-10) into equation (1-20) yields ds=_ dT--j 0v (0-T).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION turbine are usually determined in coniunction necessary For can a one-phase with some to be able to relate system state from isentropic process calculations It is. therefore. integration yields 1Rln_=aln_--kb(T2--T_)+2 J p_ Like equation (1-17). From equations (1-8) and (1-7). expression process. conditions chemical of temperature s----fcn (T. equation . equation (1-25) also (T_--T_) (1-25) is more suitable for use in a computer calculation With the additional peratures 6 T_ and than in a hand calculation. and pressure (1-19) be expressed as efficiency or loss term. entropy for an isentropic composition. (1-14) conditions and for an isentropie substitute equation we get If we assume into equation ideal-gas-law (1-23) and behavior perform the integration.

ft 2 velocity. Law of etc. process. equations. area. m/ (1-26) Jc. must equal the the rate rate of mass of mass lb/sec a steady any any flow flow section of the flow other section. VI = p2A2 V2 This (1-31) expresses is referred the principle to as the Newton's All conservation are consequences that an unbalanced in the direction force is proportional the body. That plA. force that ac_s of the unbalanced to the product on a body will cause it to accelerate force in such a manner that the of the mass and acceleration of 7 . and (1-31) equation theorems. Conservation The rate of mass flow through the use of an average value of Mass an area A can be expressed as (1-30) w=pAV where w A V rate flow fluid For across across of mass flow. Second momentum which states Motion. of Newton's of conservation continuity Second equation. Law Motion dealing of with of mass. m2. _-_----\_] (1-29) Where should specific heat ratio give a reasonable 3" is not constant. flow (and ft/see nonnuclear) path is. \T1/ But Jcp R where capacity equation 3" is the ratio of heat p2 ln. kg/sec. Substitution of the more familiar form equation (1-28) p.1 at constant pressure to (1-28) heat into capacity at constant (1-27) yields volume.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS Jc_ ln T2--R T1-and p2=('%'_ p.. approxlmation./R (1-27) 3' 3"-.

and F= dropping -.7 where (1-32) t is time. yields F=m g Since the mass is constant. Substituting equation (1-33) into (1-33) equation (1-34a) written as F=I g Equation fluid Since (1-34a) is equal mass can (1-34b) to per also the specifies rate of as that d(mV__) dt the unbalanced of momentum is the mass flow force acting with rate.Adp-dR I second-order differentials (1-37) 8 . lbf . yields simplifying. Gravitational (force) and direction equation Consider forces of are motion. lbm m/sec2 constant. of as indicated A fIictional is subjected acting in fluid is indicated and as R s. 32. F= m a g where F m a (1-32) unbalanced mass. ft/sec 2 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) g But 1 . equation dV dt (1-34a) can also be in seconds. The fluid-pressure Therefore.17 dV a =--d. element and the net to fluid-pressure boundary-surface-pressure forces friction forces acting force in the downstream direction. F=pA +(p+ d-_)dA--(p+dp) (A+dA)--dRt (1-36) Expanding. an element assumed can of neg- fluid ligible.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Thus. conversion force. (1-34b) on the of change time (mV) time. acceleration. sometimes called the from second-law considerations. N. increment be written equation F =w g A useful derived dV (1-35) be relation. kg. in figure resistance the downstream in the upstream direction is 1-2.

THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS The mass of the element is m:pAdx (1-38) (1-34) yields Substituting equation (1-38) into F_ equation dV dt pAdx g (1-39) Since (1-40) equation (1-39) can be written in the F_pAV g Equating (1-37) with (1-41) now yields form dv (1--41) F=--Adp--dRs= and dp + VdV+ pA VdV g dRs 0 (1-42) p-F--i-A-- (1-43) p+dp 2 A+dA f % . .% f Flow p dx V p+dp V+dV dRf FIGURE 1-2.--Forces on an element of fluid.

4 Z (1-46) s u. part energy. J/kg. Conservation For system electrical a steady-flow or or part of of that etc. equal can the neglect internal energy Z. and a system a system energy leaving to consider potential energy pv. mechanical kinetic energy work I¥. of 0 Energy process.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION If we now let (1-44) where ql is heat produced by friction.V12 _j[_Z1 p2l'2_l__ . equation (1-46) reduces "{72 pv (1-47) to V 2 (1-48) gd Equation (1-48) is the it. P lvl "Jr. the energy chemical energy heat entering that energy. flow q. J/kg. V2" _2_4_W Tr 2 . In addition. u.. Total The in flow Thus. (and nannuclear) must If have we system. we still V2/2g. basic form g of the steady-flow energy balance as we will be using problems. -j+q=u:+ J/kg. in J/kg or Btu/lb.+--jwhere u Z q W. V2 h ' _-h + 2gJ 10 (1-49) sum of the enthalpy and and Conditions the kinetic energy is always appearing quantity. dqs----0. Thus. Btu/lb by system. heat added mechanical a gas system. energy can potential definition h=u + -j Thus. it is convenient to use it as a single . For by specific specific internal potential _gj energy. work (lone the J/kg. we have (1-45) dpp __V_VdgV+Jdq1= For isentropic flow. Btu/lb (ft) j-2g J-J-- energy. to system.. (lbf)/lbm Btu/lb be neglected.

total-temperature to equation ideal-gas-law capacity be assumed. in addition ture. these two T' can be V2 (1-51) of as the called temperature V is brought stagnation pressure static we can thought T and used can p' temperature total terms pressure isentropically between temperature are velocity adiabatically. to rest the to write relation from and p is isentropic. equation (1-49) T' = T+ 2gJcp The attained to rest The pressure use temperature. Since (1-29) at static Thus. Flow Let occurs work. tion. of total to the when in J/kg enthalpy total In or Btu/lb. the burden and or total behavior reaction recommended. neither process process) (neglecting at constant mechanical radius. involves conditions. yields in K or °R. leads can be us The according to the as and concept the of total conheat (1-15). pressure. is also be regarded interchangeably.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS where The that cept h' is total concept corresponds is most can enthalpy. heat change. (1-50) Combining equation (1-50) defined behavior temperature constant temperature. p' is total regard pressure. to the in N/m 2 or lb/ft _. The concept of total enthalpy is general. total. h'--h=cp(T'--T) where with T' is total temperature. of a fluid equation total when temperature a gas and brought p. with the static and not convenience involving temperature assumptions path for easing ideal-gas-law chemical is between associated as will of calculaconstant a phase Total temperatotal it is rigorous the capacity. with This part Process terms heat is the With of total transfer one No Heat and No examine Work a process nor heat losses) that in in conditions. as the a velocity V and or stagnation. above-defined total conditions. (adiabatic occurs the rotor. certain points and the be emphasized. each us now. Total useful temperature enthalpy. (1-52) where With should its use energy be seen. involves no assumptions other than those associated with balance is a very For use an of but as we have useful only systems total to the isentropic considered for it. when 11 that of the turbine (including . Total temperature. that case.

process relations. h_' =-h. and total (1-50).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION the velocities Substitution are of yields expressed equation relative (1-49) to the into moving equation blade). gas law in m/sec and or ft/sec. exposed to it in college. to zero. pressure. From in order (1-55) for total (1-52).hi' = q--W_ The energy balance for q and a flow W_ now equal looks something as we were we get like first the First Law of Thermo- dynamics If we set process. this (1-57) isentropic reduces (1-58) a is an important This ratio is in determining the flow the Mach number M: of a gas. (1-55) it can that the and and pressure process total the does temperature is another ideal-gas-law that for not have to be isentropic constant. (ds>0). loss therefore. a decrease Speed An wave important propagation of Sound and of Velocity gases called. does there is total pressure remain in total constant. temperature adiabatic from flow also with no (1-18) work. where From to a= The factor called 12 ratio of fluid velocity V _gRT to sound characteristics velocit_y a is speed the ideal of sound. no work. (1-48) and rear(1-53) rangement h2' -. equations flow with (1-22). enthalpy it can (1-54) remains be shown equations remains constant.' Therefore. is the the Ratios speed of pressureFrom characteristic or. assump- to remain matter. . that total for Further. as otherwise theory speed of sound. and adiabatic eJd' l _= P_' p2' constant-heat-capacity be shown (1-56) Only for isentropic For flow flow with (ds=0). TJ =T/ Note enthalpy Total and tions. small-pressure-disturbance a=_/g(-_p). constant.

--1(V) _ 3"-t-1 2 static results and from total combining temperature equations in terms (1-61). critical The from (1-61) is speed velocity critical equation of critical condition. of static (1-64) 13 . Mach number is a useful also the parameter not behavior regimes. condition. velocity is not denominator). Consider temperature.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPT_ M= --V a (1-59) only for identifying to flowcertain static (1-58).--acr where sound is equal condition (1-60). temperature of fluid velocity critical number the velocity ratio. for the as the while perature The critical (1-28). whilethe critical velocity preferred is a square is sometimes over root Mach critical use is often there is directly proportional to velocity. or or ft/sec. (1-59). is that condition where the critical condition Consequently. critical changes.) speed of sound (1-63) (no heat remains and no work). (1-51) Combining yields equations in equation equation T' l_I_7__ M 2 (1-60) Another velocity critical velocity ratio often used is the ratio of fluid velocity to V V Vc.=3"+ and substitution of equation (1-62) 1 T' into equation (1-58) yields (1-62) acr=_/_lgRT' Thus. and given (1-28) with for simplifying and generalizing relation of total temperature (1-51). T T '-1 3.=a. the The because in any the entire static ratio the Mach in relation velocity and flow process value process. Its of the with constant value to ratio (since total of the temperature (Vc. V. velocity constant (a) changes called number temof the (1-63). at is critical critical to the at velocity velocity. ft/sec. 2 T. between ratio (1-51). and The a. of sound in m/sec in m/sec at the M----1. but expressions.

increasing change condition decreasing (dA=0). B.mon_ manipulation equation pressure.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION APPLICATION The the (flow the in the turbine.. Much that shows that and than to the number a nozzle and the flow in l)ressure with than directions in velocity or greater pressure changes 1 (subsonic flow). previ- We area ously flo_v: are change. going and to examine Much equations number. of the yields Flow relations Prot)er the diffuser) of the Regime a. or or mini- of a varying-area passage. equations through process is isentropic). only at the (dp<0) Thus. 2. area increases (dA>0). Velocity decreases (dV<0) and This is the subsonic diffuser. changes (1-65) is opposite the flow). way By passage the (1-65) change depend equal to static which of definition. 1 (supersonic is a varying-area us specify pressure in which passage decreases us examine Subsonic 1. inlet. Sonic Both Area critical. Increasing a diffuser various (M<I): cases is a varying-area from equation increases. is the diffuser. there flow provided are Although to learn passages Effect something (stator. velocity. the exit. pressure decreases supersonic pressure increases supersonic (M= area (tecreases (dA_0). sonic. VARYING to analyze that the and there behavior exit in a turbine. Supersonic 1. of the presented following for isentropic _(I_M_ )dV V-(1) change is less for 1--M 2alp 7M 2 p all Much dA A numbers amt (2) the in area flow). mum-area 14 flow is the flow (M>I): (dp>0): (dV<0) (dp<0): (dV>0) nozzle. and zero occur 1) : (dp>0) must section equal can and and area decreases (dA_0). Increasing Velocity This 2. pressure. in : in of on 1 Equation velocity the whether (sonic let pressure static Let A. . (1-65) pressure (dp>0): area increases (dA>0). loss-free varying-area already turbine TO FLOW are WITH sufficient losses about rotor. AREA completely are no of the losses use flow we can presented passages. Decreasing Velocity This C. Decreasing pressure (dp<0): and Velocity increases (dV>0) This is the subsonic nozzle.

we will narrow We will further limit the discussion the This nozzle is subsonic. (zero pressure at the less with velocity) p' static nozzle than Pt still p'. for nozzle pressure remains state. flow rate reaches a maximum and thereafter flow remains can be constant The pr6ver_ for a fixed value when no that matter this upstream M becomes to what condition exhaust pressure is reduced. 1 at value correin 15 pressure ratio constant the mass the the throat critical also rate under these conditions.THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS You dition must portion. may (M= have also want to note either up that portion in order followed Nozzles with to cross by an the the critical flow con- 1) going or down in velocity. pressure this nozzle. to sonic that condiin to equaa (in the simple previously.) means below nozzle. Thus. throat further? be remains pressure velocity velocity throat..--Let corresponds is supplied temperature as p.+ 1/ exhaust expands from pressure from with p' has no (1-66) effect the on gas to pt=p. At some What Mach nozzle. pt is equal both at the lowered 1 cannot throat pressure. As p_ is progressively becomes We have in in the The static according a equal seen critical 1 at the than flow how the is if pc is now greater the at (1-29) attained convergent pressure at the much critical (M= throat (1-62) 1) no matter remains and p_ is lowered. expands from are throat greater that the p. static as pt. happens the throat of p. pressure designated pe is a little increase. within nozzle. to pc. Assume where a static is comto pc. and gas a static The When since first case from (and exhaust. passage a decreasing-area Flow increasing-area in Since diffuser nozzles. and is designated and flow value and number Therefore.. fact st)on(is to maximum mathematically. The the { 2-_-_ "_/(_-') \_. occur and further and will Pt to pe outside shocks a little expansion Pt to Pe occurs not valid condition than nozzle in entropy be discussed isentropic The fact ratios (p'/p_r) for this part of the remains constant or equal mass to the flow process. gas we are concerned primarily nozzle flow rather than flow in turbines. us to the with at the T'. the the (and throat) mences lowered. tion the tions velocity. (which later). M= the rate consider the discussion to flow in to the case where the flow is the the case of most interest. entering nozzle. which P'=P_'=P' Once the the The with the pe is reduced flow nozzle an within and increase the then process equations that the (p'/p. A nozzle . and exit flow equal convergent Convergent nozzle total) A2 mentioned a reservoir total) right is maintained or outside.

. the convergent-divergent Figure than Again.--Nozzle flow processes... -_'_"_'_'_ . at the particular velocity. throat maintained plots discussion. us from will less now the consider nozzle._r.ll B . and of p_. at some the sonic higher at pressure temperature nozzle the length.= N Z K H E Length FmuR_. diffuser. becomes 1-3). than or Mr----1 p_ is still subsonically _X. pe is a little supplement commences lowest pressure (pt_P_). Convergent-divergent to be supplied against pressure with this case. the divergent section As pe is progressively throat decreases value Pt. nozzle. p' reservoir showing this (curve occurring of the lowered and the throat AD still AB at passage (curve velocity velocity in fig.--Let of the with gas T'. in fig. In as a subsonic 1-3). diffuses the somewhat assume of presIf 1-3). the (curve gas the is acting AC in fig.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION this more the sure the flow condition involved nozzle ratio exhaust p' is said case and to be choked. Note pressure p. 1-3. equal that the to Eventually.. same 1-3. increases.B & -._I / rpt I/ I / /r Pe I Th roat I I I I - A .. 16 .

between to isentropic process. but velocities downstream is less Let for the If the D. is represented falling unreasonable p_ that AD. shock. normal shock. but. isentropic l)ressure diffusion instantaneously from the subsonic occurs shock to the 17 . the constant. conditions changes flow are the fluid density in the and even pressure under nonisentropic reveals that surfaces of abrupt These apparent discontinuities waves be across with shocks and shocks (and of the that are of very as remains there small thickness. occurring constant instantaneously. continuously. or 1-3).THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS in the diveruent pt:pc. section.) required in a simple convergent nozzle. AE. than remains of the the Mach upstream us now region exhaust complete of pressure pressure shock the discussion between of convergent-divergent points a little point D and below the nozzles 1-3. Shocks may be strong or flow (and are thus called downstream with respect and the the of the to the velocity number angle shocks). by occur shock state Total there the because the AE. to allow fig. at the throat as and the critical (1-65) showed is the with the mass convergent flow must remain critical condition and If the the convergent of the flow part of This pressure flow subsonic supersonic that does the is area. nozzle the and for as any well It the some therefore. we the Since see that the the throat nozzle condition pressure is now ratio critical (p'/pe) to (with required nozzle achieve If only condition critical condition in a convergent-divergent the nozzle condition lowered. Shock may in static constant at is maintained part conditions to only and be of the its maximum at the throat. continues isentropic given the 1-3 of by ratio p_ will beyond supersonic then exhaust one throughout of throat satisfy curve of the nozzle. (curve (curve is impossible diffusion expansion take gas place. considered a shock pressure. mass case pendently divergent to discharge servation relations. occur normal to the result occur are shock thus in subsonic at some called small oblique supersonic. the Thus. As long as the nozzle is choked to behave indethe area conwhich assume either 1-3) fig. changes temperature is a rise process weak. ratios E in figure value part such p. value. these pressure as is in figure values Pe_pt Pe_Pt cannot throat. to achieve is less than the critical p_ place is a_ain because where nozzle. shows that isentropic isentropic The flow Observing optical in the waves. flow to some be isentropic._pe). equation the the critical throat pressure ratio (p'/p_:p'/pc. flow occurs Strong shocks) Weak direction means flow. though is a loss in total an increase in entropy. is reduced at some rises at point of the that nozzle a normal and occurs in the divergent to a value plane nozzle. energy. the throat condition state must can remains remain us that exist.

E. points and the E. pressure flow Also. is again of pe between it is too p_. 4 as thermodynamic of air water and its vapor. idealized. and The tables of temperature include are the presented variation in references in heat of air 4. . qualitatively Thermodynamic-Property In sets books order of and to facilitate and charts Some properties reports. products are (nitrogen. and published 3 to 7. 5. Flow-Function and listed and its thermodynamic have of these of been are air calculations. shock Also in references included are Reference _hock velocity 4. flow process exit. the is and an isentropic isentropic toward such normal nozzle expansion. diffusion. the The shown and general in figure the subsonic 1-3. The of pressure. the real-fluid and shock rise. a shock shown not in a nonisentropic be pointed in figure exactly place out 1-3 over effects from are manner. process the moves in this case is illustrated KL As exit. and critical a listing in terms of compressible of both Mach flow number function and function ratio. the pe occurs expansion nozzle It should esses do tions abrupt. to those processes. the shock is AEH. values to shock occurs the cannot pressure at point the E. a normal in shock previously. pip'. with and normal The AK LF flow being being shock H.A/Ac. presented the effect in references 5. Compressibility presented factors in reference presented in reference 5 include as temperature. occur takes may instantaneously a finite that make produce similar downstream different isentropic. These temperaindividual oxygen. Tables flow and Charts many in as discussion actuality. 6. as p_ approaches p_ corresponds completely the from to point nozzle-exit as mentioned For static lower pressure nozzle outside of p_. products 3 and with the tables constructed as references combustion capacity and also Thermodynamic functions charts ture. In with the this shock strong case. pe is reduced value at the further. and tables and 6 preequa- for various charts sents tions 18 for of heat-capacity and oblique calculations. final would weaker result oblique a static becoming isentropic. H weaker and nozzle as AMNG.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION exit. properties combustion and are argon) also components carbon and properties well dioxide. that the previous In and distance. At some being and by the the the path normal AKLF.. the proceffects although consideraof are however. p/p'. and 7 Isentropic others) as functions values normal are presented ratio. represented ing the to point flow For occur higher nozzle When flow the path by a path the in the of pe correspondnozzle will be right values because than exit. shock. compressible-flow of Mach number functions (TIT'.

: from the RICHARD New . JOSEPH. l. FANO. W. Air Charts.. WOOLLEY. AND KAYE. D. KUNKLE..THERMODYNAMIC AND FLUID-DYNAMIC CONCEPTS REFERENCES 1. KIAN. AND TOULOUProperPropNitrogen. Compressible NACA 7. MASI. F. July Charts 300 ° to Thermodynamic Combustion KEENAN. Generalized pp. and AND Chem..28 to of 1. LEwis 1953.. NUTTALL. BENEDICT. LABORATORY for Functions Specific-Heat 19 . LILLA. WACHTL. 6.. Use no. BECKETT.. ED: Com- Handbook. 1948.38. . JOSEPH: Gas Tables. ENGLISH.. Equations. W. NACA Compressibility 3.. STAFF: 1135. HAROLD S. Steam. Carbon NBS Tables Dioxide. RESEARCH Rep. . HOGE. AND SP-3045. Nov. S. CHARLES JOSEPH W. Monoxide. J. Circular Thermodynamics Carbon 564.. 5. HAROLD of Thermal Transport Comprising Argon. 1969. 203-208. 7. ° R. E. Bureau for of Oxygen. Various NACA Mach TN Number 3981. 2071. 2. SAMUEL NASA E. COMPUTING Ratios STAFF: from Tables 1. Standards. 1954.: Tables WILLIAM RALPH of and L. John Wiley and Sons. COTA. S. YERAM Gases Air. pressed NELSON. Flow. JOSEPH Inc. AMES and 1955. Tables. Properties TN 4..j WILSON. JOHN Gas L. WILLIAM Products AND to 61... How col. National and Charts Hydrogen. ROBERT of 1950. ties ties of of H. OBERT.. 1957. HILSENRATH. C. F.: Eng. of 3500 A.

specific ratio system. ft potential of heat energy. m/sec. lb/ft 2 Btu/lb J/kg. specific entropy. lb 1 . gas constant. ft/sec general constants for polynomial. m/seC. capacity volume lb/ft 3 condition condition (M: 1) J/kg. factor. (°R) J/(kg) (K) . J/kg. 1 . added produced defined kg/(kg by eq. done kg/sec. m/sec. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) force. ft/sec 2 speed of sound. mole). lb pressure. defined at constant (ft)(lbf)/lbm by eq. (1-16) J/(kg)(K). flow T t temperature. °R (°R) 8 specific absolute time. heat capacity at constant pressure. (K) . (1-59) lb/(lb mole) molecular P q ql R RI R* friction.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS A a aj c_ b_ c flow area. J/kg. by J/kg. unbalanced conversion force.17 eq. Btu/(lb) K. ft3/lb by Btu/lb ft/sec V V Ws w x fluid specific mechanical mass length. work rate. ft _ acceleration. J/(kg) frictional resistance universal (lb mole) gas constant. m2. weight. (1-4) to heat capacity pressure Z Z compressibility at constant P density. sec internal absolute volume. constant. m3/kg. Btu/lb lb/sec in. velocity. N/mS. absolute heat heat number. critical critical exhaust throat kg/m_. Btu/lb (°R) 1545 (ft)(lbf)/ to system. (lbm) Btu/(lb)(°R) F g h J M M_ m (ft)/(lbf)(seC) specific enthalpy. N. lb 8314 J/(kg mole)(K). N. kg. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu Mach mass. Btu/lb conversion constant. state flow Subscripts: c cr e t Superscript: ' 90 absolute total state . energy. J/kg. 32.

energy-transfer. through of rotation. are of in figure coordinates depicts radial types and Analysis desired the and the circumferentially-averaged of the ignore values we can (or blade-tocircumferential just axial of calculations.CHAPTER 2 Basic Turbine Concepts ByArthur. values. nitions. consists For within fluid directed directed radial. turbine dimensionless geometry are geometric. the the blades end chapter and and diagrams. planes. and These three variation wheel. TURBINE FLOW Analysis AND ENERGY System TRANSFER Coordinate energy-transfer coordinate system of rotation. defined flow. Glassman J This efficiency. is called value Velocity are (or blade-to-blade) Such Calculations usually the third made at some variation in the constant calculations of parameter axial-tangential (rather diagram. of this introduces performance and blading chapter. usually a calculation an axisymmetric or radialthan as made well analysis. indicated tangential These radial-axial blade eters. as blade-to-blade velocity-variation. When 21 for average in these coordinate. . tangential conditions) planes. axis a turning parallel the to three average) For many the directions plane a logical of one coordinate to the axis rotating one one are 2-1. parameters. of flow flow use a turflowing raditanand in the t)aramaverage planes convenient wheel. form An bine through directed ally gentially analysis requires of the some flow and processes system. by Terms in the means of defito at referring characteristics primarily GLOSSARY. coordinate coordinate the axial.

in an such plane axial-flow as at the inlet When the to flow a radial-flow is predomi- radial-tangential is used. a rotating can be analyzed in a manner in a stationary . to the velocities flow analysis we will transfer direcblading are of and in important of turbine in the analyses the rotors. with velocity assist types. shapes For interest. turbine. parameters to be discussed passage. in and flow to the row if not in the and we use across in and rotating Vectors the most. the diagrams.--Velocity components for a generalized rotor.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 2 Vu FIGURE 2-1. be consid- blade. and Diagrams variables flow different and absolute velocities of relative in this similar later and that energy coordinate in depicting velocities must chapter. In terms be concerned analysis its variation these the across us in making velocity-vector stators. ered other of flow _2 of the fluid To and flow For relative blade relative most. flow turbine. such as radial. is used. nantly plane is predominantly the axial. axial-tangential Velocity One is the tions.

upstream the and circumvectors relative of the blade or at just velocity infinitesimal velocity and that velocity the distances the variations in flow the circumferential velocity diagram the In making are not average both considered. are rows the made at locations diagrams. cl7 I I I of flow.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Velocity-diagram downstream inside ferential represent The velocities. speed. we need we can only write magnitude. Assuming velocities can Absolute Relative angle angle of flow. of (2-3) also the their relative velocities. Relative or calculations various In blade making rows. the absolute note diagram. So. W= The shows this absolute velocity the velocity and diagram components diagram relative in figure of the to be 2-2 absolute drawn V--U represents and in an be equation axial-tangential expressed in terms (2-3) and plane. The of the flow. shows velocity velocity=Absolute velocity--Blade (2-1) where W V U Since consider relative absolute blade blade the velocity velocity velocity velocity vector vector vector is always that W=V--U (2-2) in the is. V V x = Wx VU FIGURE 2-2. components 23 . the tangential blade direction.--Typical of absolute velocity-vector and relative diagram velocities in having the same tangential direction.

the convention Relative angle of flow. could In this diagrams diagram diacomponents are directed (2-6) that is velocity geometrical in figure shown flow angles example. ft/sec m/see.. component of W. of we must of We 2-3.d relative diagram having tangential velocities in opposite directions. 13_ r-Absolute angle of flow. m/see. m/see. write (2-6) A are shown gram and in valid. in figure directions.--Typical absolute Wu Wx = Vx Wx = Vx U ---I components of velocity-vector ap. sign of the convention components exact same 2-2.. ft/sec m/see. 24 . the will and be established since shape have. component of relative m/see. m/see. component ft/sec Wu 2 component of absolute velocity. tangential velocities that equation absolute adopt relative obvious stick with opposite it is not Therefore.=V. for not as the the all the angles velocity example the and the tangential velocity. If this diagram (fig. would be radial components._ t FIGURE 2-3. and W 2=W2+ where V V= Vu W IV= W_ magnitude axial tangential magnitude axial tangential of V. velocity. ft/sec of relative velocity. and and for instance.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION components in the axial and tangential 2 directions as (2-4) (2-5) V2:V_2q-V. 2-2) were drawn the values marked as axial components From figure 2-2. ft/sec of absolute ft/sec velocity. cI .--U in the radial-tangential plane. we see that we can W_.

r)2 (2-7) 25 . remains a above a location negative work than In many analysts rather have someone small are are With valid positive this for if they are direction negative if they convention. positive U yields a negative convention immediately directions cases this with the convention switch upstream at locations working defined direction velocitysure information. components of the in magnitude corresponds in the radius of the transfer. passes 2. A condition the values can discussed components be taken by velocity axial nor motion change that results average vectors Further. effect angular It is the of velocity fluid (except and effect of bearing friction). diagram you are aware Therefore. to the avoids angles axial to use negative respect tangential generated convention as we are using. Also.. axial components which of the Neither on the in magnitude bearing have any load. path. value use positive of a rotor. through a thrust components the radial of the perpendicular of the axial force. and vectors representing outlet be resolved previously. The angle. considered. many if you direction should by used of at velocity blade (2-6) where the and of velocity and velocity. of the occasion else. between or the inlet and of tangential force r:(F_r)_--(F. cases. regarded being The mutually in magnitude rise to an change a radial nents the basic simple generalized angular by at fluid 2 are as inlet rotor any at any the energy-transfer and is only to a fluid velocity.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS all are we angles in the can and tangential of the that in positive analysts above then opposite see figure components blade to the equation 2-3. rise compofor and state outlet of the is rein of Motion a rotor and through directions points is asare flow three change gives The to relation a form a rotor. information make this in generating Energy The tively of the a the of the 1 and sumed. radii points traversing Fluid and 1 and velocity the velocity velocity must radial the Transfer for all turbomachines Second 2-1 axis point the at Law represents of rotation 1. the value value for all for in the diagram minus Not Some direction now a larger all use turbine the and shown velocity of Vu Wu. at point arbitrary rl and r2. that of a rotor immediately with with downstream values. of steady inlet for and the the mass into The the rotor gives velocity rotor bearing. with enters 2 are the at is discharged of Newton's Figure 0-0 rotor any at as applied turbomachine. Net outlet tangential to a change desired energy in angular momentum and rotor products torque is equal to the difference times radius.

way be accounted equation for All all the forms energy of turbotransfer difference it Euler Equation is called for by the (2-14) is stated. ft equation to V=V (1-34) in the and tangential setting direction.2r2) to the product of torque (2-9) Power angular (rate of energy transfer) is equal and velocity: p_r_ w _(rlV_ 1--r2V_ 2) J -gJ . lrl _ w V. constant. lb-ft N.lrt--V_. w=m/t yields integrating from N-m.2) P=whh' (2-12) But (2-13) or Btu/lb. _w_ Vu F. W..--g where w g rate of mass flow. . . Substituting equation where (2-13) h' is total into equation enthalpy. constant. (2-11) we can write p=W gj (UIV_. force. lb/sec (lbm) (2-7) (ft)/(lbf)(seC) then yields conversion 1. Applying V=O at t=O at t=t.17 (2-8) into (2-8) Substituting T =-- W g Yu.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION where net F_ r torque. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu angular conversion velocity. (2-12) in J/kg yields (2-14) J t where machines between between 26 Ah' is here (2-14) and the the fluid two defined is the and UV_ the as hi--h2. equation kg/sec.-U2V. basic the rotor terms.. m. (2-10) where P J Since roo:V net power..2r2 =- g (V_. work must The equation equation. Btu/sec rad/sec 1.. 32. lb tangential radius.

Vx.. 1 Wu. _z E' . we get at either not also neces- following derivation be made From a general (2-4) three-dimensional and (2-5).". (1-46). 2 = WX.--Rotor section with inlet- and exit-velocity-vector diagrams. is assumed at the component these the case. 1 Ul of rotation ''e* Direction V_. as positive. be positive equation the Euler with diagrams radial Actually.. or the for It is useful turbine and There inlet sarily to transform with The outlet same the aid along section of figure which axial-flow planes.Vu.2 u2 \ '. are velocity in where into This work another shows is consistent done form. Substituting equation (2-6) into (2-16) _ gives (2-15) (2-16) Vx. radius. an for the by the This inlet the can energy is defined be done blade outlet.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS can with fluid will be seen the that Ah' must balance. 27 . 1 = Wx. although the for a turbine.V= _ and Wx_=W*--W. diagrams axial-tangential of velocity locations are velocity to be no locations. equation 2-4. equations Vx *: V 2. 2 FIGURE 2-4.__i/_.

. 1 (V_+U2 W2 ) (2-20) 1 U2V _ _:-2 (W+U_2-W_ _) Inserting yields Ah'--2gJ Equation relation. Therefore. By (2-22) definition. combining equations (2-15) 2 and (2-17) U2 yields (2-17) V 2.V. fluid The change is actually fluid flows a centrifugal previously.2+2UV_ (2-18) UV.. sometimes components Loading change transfer and in the of energy figure and passage 2-5 the tangential from concern way momenthe fluid the to the of cause it is the in the discussion to the the on of this energy blades. (2-14)) (2-21) finally (2-22) is an alternative form of the basic energy-transfer . _.. Vl _ V__ 2gJ (2-23) equation (2-23) Ah'=hl--h2=hl+-_--h2. while across to as energy referred Blade As mentioned tum the of the rotor.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION W.V. 1 (V2 V2_+U__U2_+W2_ Wt2 ) these values into the Euler equation (eq.. .2=W Therefore._=W*-(V.. the U 2 and enthalpy in absolute are W 2 terms across kinetic the (UI2-U22 of equation rotor. shows that comparison of equation 1 Ah:h_--h2=_gj Thus. 28 As the momentum wheel. adding subscripts for inlet and outlet 2) yields (2-19) U1V.= 1 (V_+U2-W Now.. curved in which each of the pair between it in the direction pressure . in static change of terms transfer.-U) Since Vx= Wz. that in results following tangential transferred through force acts (2-22) with +W22-W_ (2-22) the the the 2) the represent three of (2-24) change the pairs energy represent V 2 terms These rotor.

29 .Suction surface "_ ] I Flow Axial chord pll Pl m --P2 Suction surface--._ce J \\1 / /.' Axial distance FIGURE 2-5.--Blade row with surface static-pressure distribution.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Stations 1 2 f Flow sur.

surface on and the normal to the pressure lowest blade at the is highest distribution of static pressure surfaces axial point is illustrated distance. At where the tion value.UI_ 2 gJ total is no the enthalpy is a change change relative total of the in the in radius enthalpy to relative T". trailing crease the in figure 2-5. conseremains total When changes in blade if there a temperature the relative that corresponds temperature. acting in the illustrated area between direction. Let us first define to the definition of absolute h"__h+2_ where examine through to equation h" the is relative what happens (2-25). Thus. flowing point. as the Now fluid (2-25) let us to relative total enthalpy we substitute flows If in equation we get for W 2 according h '2'-. is called total . a pressure force and turn the not force fluid path. static increase in the decreases reaches its stagnapoint for the fluid From pressure back figure curves the toward will up 2-5 stagnation the to the blade deexit often around edge. The pressure-distribution the the blade-loading blade force diagram. process. 3O can the purely we see that rotor axial no change for the also This define flow. below suction pressure pressure. total enthalpy. and curve The of the surfaces the then blade. constant We enthalpy. through For quently.h '. Since the free to move in the direction must be established its curved and toward passage surface. rotor the where flow relative only there speed. The the suction at the force is directed surface.'-Therefore. resulting to balance through the flow in the suction The fluid is constrained of the centrifugal the centrifugal pressure (convex) pressure and. therefore. U_-. rotor. similar in a manner to in a stationary relative to the passage. force.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (concave) surface. (2-24) J in J/kg or Btu/lb. is called represents tangential Relative Flow flow moving similar in a rotating passage passage can by Conditions be analyzed considering relative total in a manner conditions total enthalpy enthalpy. where pressure or near the blade leading edge is plotted against there is a stagnation velocity becomes The stagnation to On the the exit the along two the pressure zero and the pressure point is the dividing sides blade surface. (2-26) flowing speed. fluid blade and.

V12 2gJcp like remains defined a relative relative constant as the total for pressure that (2-29) For the rotor flow process.2gJc-_ (2-28). related V__W 2 J/(kg)(K). speed can and be from ]! isentropically velocity W and p. N/m2. total to rest total blade pressure temperature. equation (2-27) Combining (2-25) then yields (2-28) we see as follows" that the absolute equation are temperatures T'-- T"-- -2gJc_ write T_') shows U_-. For constant. increase. the rotor or remain and flow on process. purely of axial a fluid a static Therefore. Therefore. where p" _.-') =\--_-.T/ (2-33) total on purely pressure the change axial can flow. relative total pressure.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS ideal-gas-law we can write where c_ T heat behavior and constant heat capacity can be assumed. relative detotal total 31 relative depending losses. the (T"y/(-. (2-27) h"--h=%(T"--T) capacity at constant K. pressure. we also see that p" p' For crease. depends flow Relative brought pressure through relative only on a rotor.. at lb/ft 2 pressure to heat capacity at ratio of heat capacity constant volume this equation and constant From equation (1-52). in relative temperature . Btu/(lb)(°R) absolute temperature. we can h_'--h_'=cp(T_'-Combining this with equation T_'-(2-26) T_'-- (2-30) (2-31) enthalpy. °R with equation W 2 T" From and equation relative total (1-51) and -= T _.

act.--Stage enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy enthalpy through we can across across across across the write stator. can define constant only Mach if the number W a flow Mr_ is isentropic. 1 and 2 refer (2-38) the to con- upstream downstream of the is stage reaction. and is used for classifying of velocity it is also an important as the correlating losses. we can get T" --1+ T 2--1 M_e_ (2-36) and T._=_l where gRT" (2-35) We._= (2-34) and a relative critical velocity as Wct=a_. (K) . and constant. ft/sec R Then.--1 3. Stage reaction. The simply.+1 Reaction The enthalpy) portant energy classifying of reaction. According to the R_'_--hl' where ditions 32 R. at relative J/(kg) similar ft/sec critical condition. Note is the since is defined of the the as the above that same total as a fraction change change cha_lge in absolute absolute in absolute remains of stage enthalpy detiIlition constant reaction.. enthalpy change important cases as a fraction a blade or more parameter the reaction. types fraction that way of of total energy by a exit transfer a change turbine kinetic (change in static stage. of sound m/sec. stage rotor. diagrams.. ttt critical speed gas velocity. tile the the the rotor reaction stage. m/sec. (ft) (lb) / (lb) (° R) to the way we derived equations (1-60) in a manner (1-64).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION pressure it must We will remain decrease. . energy used Reaction The is one in both in absolute is one in is the parameter change in in way total imof kinetic degree for static total total total _ (2-37) is obtained classifying of the row. a relative M. and and hl--h_ --hi subscripts rotor. as otherwise.

to that reaction. a blade-row corresponds represents develol)ed energies stator to the axial-flow in static similar change enthalpy. used herein. defined fraction kinetic rotor.. or zero. enthalpy an equal an impulse in one effect.-Reaction (U_2--U_ Zero stage rotor. the in static Thus. of relative WI= W2. basis of from by the any having a change (U 2) by only.. from the lawn rotation. that wheel ejects turbines operated the water reaction blade These or row are are by the the child's impingement pinwheel.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS The preceding equation for equations reaction (2-22) can be and expressed (2-24) in terms into equation. reaction an effect represented blade row. The definitions exactly Simple windmill. is approximately to losses. Blade-row energy energy to that kinetic blade-row stage For at the blade energy reaction. 33 . is one If Rst0=0. (W2_--Wl_). by in a stationary A simple example from is as a the of a reaction nozzles. V1_-. This stage is called an impulse stage. is stator reaction. reaction (2-40) is defined where as Rs. a stator examples or the sprinkler isentropic of impulse paddle nozzle. can 2) and reaction design. and all the be positive. For the exit. reaction is defined as R.--Blade-row within row. Substituting (2-38) yields R. of static effect direction contributed centrifugal change contributed velocity relative-velocity enthalpy must be caused by a change an axial-flow impulse stage must have Some pressure definition people in the in terms define rotor impulse rather than pressure is due on the no no change the same in static This as that the change in static For enthalpy. In the general case where the fluid enters and leaves the rotor at different and radii.. depending on the (2-39) values of important there done by value is no the that characterizes in static is a result a particular enthalpy of the in the change in change stage absolute kinetic energy across the stage. of velocities.V°2----1 V12 For a rotor V°2 Vl 2 blade row. turbine thus as of the the the the is of a fluid causing kinetic kinetic relative change Therefore. flow. work (U?-U22) + (W 2-W ?) V22)+ (U2 U22) (W22_W2) + negative. change For stage in the purely may other axial result direction flow. of static difference coincide.

34 . entropy as can and of constant increases be seen Constant-entropy- b. veniently all adiabatic expansion of work) Expansion processes. against with from in this constant-heat-capacity energies and energy and temperature entropy all the by being ideal assumptions. reaction. except (i. of the stator. we will illustrate previously by temtemperature. 1. to condiand downterms similar of to respectively. the of and than kinetic (2-41) The subscripts downstream reaction This that 0. and of the 2 refer stator.--Typical temperature-entropy diagram.- E Pl > P2 > P3 E b-- I Entropy.e. instead (2-40) rather the to the power squared V rather Turbine For formation velopment when this the fact presented gas-law shown peratures pressure. changes. is in appear literature. we can conexpansion diagram. decreasing Since pressure. is defined definition velocities than V2).o is rotor upstream of the some rotor.. blade-row energies. we will not do it here).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION R --W22--W1_= to-W22 l - W12 W22 (2-41) where tions stream In velocities equations first R. a little be proven discussion. and with actual variables (isentropic) of interest. s FIGURE 2-6. kinetic for This later Process the maximum or energy ratio from and the With pressure energy transfer trans(de- (development of mechanical process equations graphically and that (but energy) a given can is obtained previously the ideal- is isentropic. and represent processes in a turbine The temperature-entropy entropy increasing for lines temperature means of a temperature-entropy diagram is a plot of temperature pressure. we have changes can be represented Therefore.

by a shown the pressure the into four of in the coastant-entropy-1)rocess or A increasing diverge. s (d) (a) Expansion process across stator. exit.. at the stator P()" id P'L _. like is repre- in the and values two be chapter example sented entropy. the each be turbine shown combined T-s..BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS the discussion 1. CPl (c) l Entropy. (d) Relation absolute and FIGURE 2-7. for flow-process axial- 35 . curves four diagrams purposes expansion in a separate into four diagrams represent the stator expansion process relation between absolute and relative conditions (fig. difference thermodynamics diagram of at looks process temperature increasing between process T-s a single any will diagram. At constant-entropy values therefore. (b) Relation relative between conditions between conditions at steps at absolute stator relative rotor of an exit. 2-7 (a)).. 2-6. steps. temperature increasing.-- p_ / P_' T_' Ti' : T_' / T_ 2gJcp >2gJCp P2 T2 hl--_ T2 . curves the is also of clarity. of constant For divided These The the given temperature-entropy. and (c) Expansion process across rotor._Jc-T_= T_ TO Ti Tj' ------7 vl p? T1 Tl. figure line. with will then a vertical pressure entropy.--Temperature-entropy flow diagrams turbine. diagram. kJ NJCp 0 (a) (b) T1 i..

2-7(b)). expansion represent expansion. the 2. conditions Figure four state point the state the by the indicated small pressures and 2-7(a) before the by stator. subscript stator expansion of the .id. temperatures process relative constant-pressure pressures assumed._d). If the related and total expansion of the the For expansion static The and of the 2-8. constant-entropy in figure figure the 2-7(c).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION exit blades (fig. on the the point appropriate T2. rotor In ideal as in(licated across l_. actual process 1 with It absolute energy the static distance the actual the be state subscript can point in accordance equation would process kinetic proceeds as indicated energy by the a small be noted is less in entropy. 1. state refers the (both which the the differences is not to indicated is on same ideal 2. enin are indicated in the figure. These states and across conditions. absolute are now developed total are energies into and be noted process between in process. expansion to the The processes the turbine state expansion the developed an at ideal the isenstage is less the figure and 2-7 static.'= indicated the T_'. were final be that by the subscript state 2. vertical isentropic. 2-7(c)). 2-7(d)). stage four as diagrams figure relative of figure The the combined total. as indicated Here by the again it can actual The actual process proceeds from state 1 to the small arrows. The increase that than we the process between process the The relative relative across static between with final state and kinetic to the and the moving absolute The total at each state If that from by ideal in be (1-51). that the relative would and be kinetic energy by states related at one relative by being. constant-pressure is represented total the expansion 0 to state arrows. and the exit are indicated. with an increase in entropy. across subscript where subIn the 2. As mentioned terms of relative the absolute and are gies terms represent expansion. and relative axial the the absolute rotor The total flow the and is shown four is relative in figure before so would and that kinetic 2-7(c) curves after T._t_fing it is on 0 constant-entropy refers rotor). The relation rotor exit absolute states kinetic is shown These tropically. (fig. state simplicity. isentropica]ly. 2-7(c). than relative 2-7(d). at the the rotor shows and rotor and the exit the curves after by the were expansion relation (fig. for absolute For right state line. are the ! time indicated diagram total arrows the the in 2-8. The shown state through enthalpy point figure script figure entire 36 (p_. developed through developed the rotor process would analyze process. Note the ignore that line 2-8. Figure 2-7(b) shows the relation between relative total states at the stator exit. the alone. by isentropic. flow conditions.

. FIGURE 2-8.d). from ambiguous figure from 2-8 an but that by ideal is commonly the T owork T_) turbine is less used than in both from the (as the work senses. and L For the rotor \pod (2-43) Wi _'°=W_. 2-7(a). parameter energy is defined exit kinetic energy row. id I Ahid (h 6 " h2.. . By The relation between V_ (1-51). represented by Blade-Row Since parameter used actual blade for turbine this blade purpose rows do not Efficiency operate efficiency.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS T_" T_ i1 ii To T_? T_' '_ p- =_ _Po \ P2 Ah' (h6Ahid lh ---j. by the ideal isentropically._d is indicated purely 37 . W_ and (2-44) W_. and 2 Vl. The For relation axial between flow.--Temperature-entropy s for a stage of an axial-flow turbine.d where Vro is rotor in figure efficiency. For the stator.T. diagram is. V_I (2-42) where _ is stator efficiency. One exit common kinetic which we need as the of the a to express blade-row is blade-row divided performance. we get applying equations (1-52). .J T1 T_ Ca E T' 2. real that It turbine could is obvious process obtained process (as represented be obtained To-. 2-7(c)._a is indicated in figure (1-55). therefore. id ) T2 TZ id Entropy.

. definition of actual efficiency to ideal isentropic several different discussed in the Overall stage or the we 38 stage turbine are process. kinetic-energy performance Several the loss coefficient. yT o__P. po--pl. Po f f YTo-_P-' ff --P2. inlet discussing aerodynamic efficiency present. (isentropic) or adiabatic the or stage efficiency. actual dynamic in terms have to make dynamic this been of a loss used. the and Y" are can total-pressure loss a Mach and transfer the coefficient be derived. exit head have all been used the coefficient head. Efficiencies when isentropic.d=2gJc_. Y. PI _f (2-47a) v' Po--p___._ "--P.--Overall It is the the ideal or stage to the transferred on exit and overall turbine turbine flow Note at in the isentropic pressure.TURBINE D]_SIGN AND APPLICATION W_. also can be expressed of this type used ideal for Axial t Blade-row differing by dimensionless. energy Since turbine is maximum is never or stage process for expressing is the energy is known ways sections turbine transfer as the performance. sometimes as an efficiency. in coefficients each normalizing parameter Inlet total pressure. it is possible Blade-row expressed to calculate performance as a loss rather exit velocity terms for a specified pressure. The are or from that a Turbine process parameter that ratio This we use or stage is isentropic. are not. --P2 p_ --p_ I¢ t! ' (2-47b) V" "Po--Pl Y"o P_ P2 p2 --P2 (2-47c) • 't--P--_--pl where between pressure stated. The energy above which the expansion we need parameter as the transfer./ efficiency of known kinetic j for a given exit static energy as is blade (2-45) row..--Pl ! ! . to that we can to follow. e=l--n (2-46) where total e is the pressure..T. is defined efficiency. with inlet conditions in than and 1-\-_. loss These coefficients. efficiency ratio energy of actual transfer condition apply refers energy based to the e_ciency. and exit as follows: purpose Stator: I rotor: /I It y. .' Thus. Y'. and the relations Relations totalsimply kinetic-energy they involve Turbine various are not loss coefficients and number Stage dependency.

be considered converted of their a useful work example be expanded a high between the inlet The of these work kinetic over Thus. In pose. 39 increasing kinetic .on(litions work called enthall)y It can must based than conditions in figure conditions con(tition than that higher two be less (as long on the exit static static with efficiency. work available the static between efficiency. energy shaft for expand the If the then could work to shaft sometimes the have At the turbine or stage exit.. efficiency exit based by static on the the ('. increasing as there condition. computed jet-engine Here is not based on ideal is ideal 2-8. however. used to define or total the inlet energy At the conditions. l)lus exit kinetic decrease is indicated available inlet. energy. is rated of its exit condition. absolute in figure Now to do total mechanical define actual energy energy enthalpy consider basis inefficiencies energy is the transfer transfer across the transfer one as due to items as the by shaft such as bearing done by and the work This actual Actual total 2-8. kinetic state is ahvays used energy for conversion conditions are used. are shaft kinetic The carried work. leaving the the on kinetic the The the engine. the as in a kinetic to state to In exit turbine exhaust-flow energy In static the such work been turbine. while total conditions. ideal of ideal obvious must therefore. because with total state energy wasted. plenum. the we must work on the whether of static because work. the is available in is defined defined turbine as shaft or stage. exit case. kinetic equal above not be basis serves this desirable static state. static and total conditions are sometimes kinetic is just a case. considering energy from energies to the the the the turbine total before turbine state last other a multistage only next the stage. This been the exit be wasted static desirable energy. with exit. 1)ut to use exit kinetic if it could converted in the computation down to the ideal of ideal state exit exit. from case high leaving The total exit effi('iency total rel)resented in(licated the exit total kinetic energy) efficien('y between the cases the the is the velocity the and where entire exit turbine-exit is rated conditions. definition used most herein people. a waste. turbine. are may basis the we use is dissipated.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS considering seal friction. stages are last the leaving stage turbine stage other where rated situation. as a but to static exit purof this to velocity the total cases based inlet The and are on exit total a wasted. work and ideal is the this occasionally. We will turbine. for each the ideal is culled available tile be total seen that decrease efficiency. is some Thus. have it would zero would in tile would stages they on the on energy basis most gas and. the is always difference energy. If we were the loss.

is prol)ortional a turbine._ [1 --\p_--_-/ _('-'>"] (P-_= are similarly defined but overall performance efficiency (2-49b) Stage total and static efficiencies e3_ciency with the appropriate Relation efficiency turbine.--h'._ _' = . There is an inherent thermodynamic hidden in the overall turbine efficiency expression. stage. the on same the the that transfer. Overall turbine subscripts instead static in and ex are used to denote turbine of the subscripts 0 and 2 used for the can be expressed as efficiency (2-48a) For the ideal-gas-law reduces to and constant-heat-capacity T'.. be (To--T_). If equation or (2-49b) stage gas the gas is then all the overall pressure would entering losses entering capable individual turbine of stages. stage following delivering stages still may for a stage. in the (T_T2. 4O subscripts.--The overall of the turbine of the of the as a measure of the it is not indication comprising the turbine. can as be shown diarepresents figure for a stage of the 2-8. _ T_ T'_.). ratio of a higher Therefore. stage For appear stage have it could the be seen energy to as can form work._. The inlet and exit conditions. stage additional del)ends efficiency pressure number This effect such .. by The means solid of a temt)erature-entropy verticnl line O-2. stages effect (2-48b) a given which ture figure perature stage though the the gram.--T'. of turbine is useful However. this . were written ratio the of one the of and stage. teml)eratemeven and for efficiency. =h' _' (2-49a) For the ideal-gas-law reduces to and constant-heat-capacity assumptions._.-_-7-.--T'. Overall turbine total efficiency is expressed J as (2-48b) hh' h. be __een from This following efficiency._ V / p..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Overall turbine efficiency _ and stage efficiency _tg are defined by similar equations.. \(_-l)/_l assumptions. to stage a true efficiency. this T.

A-h_. and Z Ah. that greater constant E-F ing the which and the sum the line place expansion 0-2 in three work ideal values the from stages. represents turbine stage efficiency efficiency previously. Ahld. showing reheat effect in a multistage isentropic dashed taking The difference with p_). the B-2. for it can ideal the between of entropy. stt representing is greater the sum of these. 41 ..'i . representthan of 0-A. stg 2. that represented from Po to of overall the same stage exit pressure actual is . the inefficiency actual With three work be seen of constant the the line increases than increasing represented stage ideal is the B-2. by the of work lines stages. is greater \ _\ Ahld: stg E ¢D b-- \I: \\ Ahld. be greater. to is for Ah_d.stt. The _' _'sto.. 2. Similarly. obtained work inlet the each for pressure process having each As lines Hence. represented Thus. mentioned for the of temperature isentropic by of by virtue than work turbine work A-B. isentropic will C-D.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS Pk k _ \\ 1 b--- E ¢D i ' \\ A. A-B. pressure second C-D work for stage is greater this stage E-F where the (p_ stage an(l.dstg by previous and efficiency.7_tg Entropy. s FIGURE 2-9.--Temperature-entropy diagram turbine. stg is a stage.

to be the p to eliminate of an infinitesimally T.--Starting is expanded d T is the we write efficiency pressure (p--dp) using of temperature to pressure vp...t_ 1 --\_oo/ 1--\_-£] ( p i t nt(.. _1 -- I-- 1--_. Ah'_ (2-51) Since greater This between The stages 2_ Ah'_d.t. equation of constant _t_ is efficiency and constant efficiency -. efficiency raises of two of their is helped all reheat small a gas where a true The derivation from turbine of this efficiency. be confused source several stage stages. suppose stage Infinitesimal-stage temperature temperature an infinitesimal tropic-efficiency (T--dT). effect. eff_ciency. -'Ah' (2-50) or .. stage. d T = _pT E l --(ppdp and dTT_ _1o[1--(I 42 ) (_.l_] (2-54) .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION The these total two actual be values turbine must work by obtained either Thus. ' 7' from the expansion _tg from Po and to P'2 can represented Ah'. be equal. in turbines is called the "reheat" effect. of different behavior. 1. would from increment It efficiency have reheat this A comparison pressure as the would of turbine a true efficiencies comparison ratio pressure to be able to express aerodynamic effect.y_ l)l_.s. the turbine overall isentropic efficiency This external for must is not the stage isentropic efficiencies. By of isentropic the definition.g than effect _Ah_d._. or _' _tg. ] J) (2-52) where n is the number be found in reference The on the not higher sirable In order ciency fact that stage ratio. pressure of stages.' ) /_] (2-53) __)(_- z.d or Z Ah'_. _-_ z ah. with the which for process is also calculating stage pressure of adding called overall ratio heat turbine p_/p_ from an "reheat".. equation can differs machines by depending ratios one be is of deeffiand and for isen- an important aerodynamic the consideration. for a turbine.

BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS These equations definition.n {p. name aeroThis arises is law. and if as the (2-5s) turbine we couhl to be expressed a ])olytroi)ic polytrol)ic process. should than are not Some be quite rigorously ignore in accord the fact with that the the isentropicactual work authors across seems to differen- efficiency differential tial make the be the Using evaluation rather the authors proportional static-temperature that there that expansion (2-54) so that to the total-temperature differential.. and the v from exl)onent for the This true ratio. infinitesimal-efficiency (1-#x) n= 1 +nx for expression.n'_ (n-l)/n \p. is also method where a l)olytropic for the the known efficiency exclusive as the the process of an the _p is SUl)posedly effect of pressure efficiency. Substituting l)olytropic T. However. exponent then n--1 n -). assumption temperature series is no change is used in infinitesimal static the d T'----d T. in kinetic the Other energy it ahvays the stage. process .! Equations process relate were l)olytropic (2-57) and efficiency (2-58) as and are the very similar. l)olytropic polytropic of expressing n is called process. irreversible path the ideal as pv"= process gas constant. kinetic energies for the overall turbine 43 . approximation yields of equation dT 7_1 dp T --_ 7 I' Integrating between the turbine inlet Tfn (2-55) and exit yields In _(2-56) z/P--7-"Y 1 In p_" Pex Equation (2-56) can be written as The dynamic efficiency from called we get infinitesimal-stage efficiency.--1 ? (2-59) If we neglect inlet and exit.

.8 poly_ropic efficiency.. differ The two efficiencies each at lower apeffi- pressure efficiencies efficiency especially signiticantly. ciency. is illustrated other at the two as higher in figure ratio can 2-10.--Relation between Specific turbine heat ratio overall 7. levels.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION process. we Actual can relate turbine drop overall could efficiency be expressed to as polytropic effi- temperature T_ _Te_='_T_. 1. 44 .4. ffp I ./ y"-l)/_ (Pe_ 1 J (2-60) _1 (_-e_) _'{(_- 1)/_] L -\_/ Equating (2-60) with (2-61) then yields k J (2-61) _=1--\_/ (2-62) This proach unity. approach pressure .9 I 1.5 1 .7 Turbine I . or E1 --\_-_._ 09 ---./// _. ciency relation each However.0 FIGURE 2-10. and ratios.8 B b--- .9-Turbine ¢- pressure r_tio /.. and polytropic efficiencies.

number). this discussion. a product which be expressed representing dimensionless a dimensionless groups including to the the nature terms of velocities. number.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS DIMENSIONLESS Dimensionless classify number introduced turbine of the and parameters geometry. general for obtaining variables is presented served as the basis for Application flow yields relations. of pertinent as a formal physical each and terms. from reference problem basic into a smaller minimum analysis a complete of of the at least to represent of dimenform powers The formal 1. parameters for the more commonly used dimensionless discussed in this section. similitude. (which surface-tension to the the terms an elasticity compressibility gravitational in general. based on These viscous effects. number variables. flow There of a real Reynolds Weber parameter expresses expresses effects. pressing are the The matic. The of such for grouping groups basis in the of the group. number. idea that of reduces and Of and these Mach effects. analysis into ratios dimensionless and linear (as a ratio of dimensional considerable resultant of forces. groups. the Reynolds flow. to include relation equation term the forming 1)rocedure may The a group they groups. of variables throw each will once some the conbe and states of a of to be arranged so that of the It is a procedure of dimensionless number all the between is the variables them. by itself. parameters of dimensionless dynamic If two quantities operating ideal attributes the the forces. for gas groups leads conditions kineor dimen45 similarity all the . Another term expresses of pressure in the fluid to the fluid. term the implies actual The ratios that magnitude in many texts. parameter various include number. variables 7r-Theorem. ]'his on an is a basic fluid. The basis is dimensional Dimensional analysis. Analysis that allows dimensionless parameters Dimensional comprising light taining the sional that number some procedure on the two variables analysis a physical nature or the more necessary physical is a procedure relation relation. as ratios _o are the such of geometric. which of fluid physical ratios geometrical rather than change of the analysis based effect Mach Froude exnumbers of relations. dimensions. shape of each insight of the represent The of linear dimension dimensions). of ideal the an are fluid. which which real fluid significant concept and the ratio of the force due to the inertia force due to the motion characteristic other that which for dimensionless modify the which expresses expresses a gas effects. serve and PARAMETERS to correlate classify turbine velocity diagrams. is a con trolling factor. A use are of performance.

used relates speed. to ideal and the work). and (3) dynamic of the different forces are the physical can similarity is the inexpensive to the than is ever operation full-size severe be approached sufficiently experiments machine. 3. flow. of fluid These mentioned important for the of turbomachines. _4th are this size. of similarity relatively applicable the rather operation of models can the fluid scale so that results involves Another condition. with dimension ratios which means that similarity. . terms separate have the same then value. the If we manipu(sec) N/m 2 or lbf/ft dimensionless constants groups can the dimensional the five conversion to ease as dimensionless be expressed _fcn The Q/ND 46 capacity. of similarity of machines at some at or near conditions design Turbomachine Application flow results in are rows parameters the blade of dimensional the previously Operational analysis to the Parameters general set of problem parameters. physical exactly similarity Complete (1) geometric are everywhere the velocity ity. density. we are interested (for compressible in conjunction following variables tant relations : Volume Head.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION sionless of the obtained. elasticity. kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3 u. the p-N3D 5' is exl)ressed capacity u ' pN2D2/ il_ (limensionless It can be (2-63) form further by coefficient. rate. dimensional analysis operational characterin the relation of head flow rate. Rotative Characteristic Fluid Fluid Fluid From drop lation. which means that the linear same. Power. five _-or lbm/(ft) 2 groups in order can be formed. of the of the and fluid. (2) kinematic similarity. (N) (sec)/m E. regardless similar implies of the physical individual conditions values are the ratios similar- variables. It but closely which means that is doubtful whether for most of smaller be performed use practical utility. J/kg P. linear rad/sec or rev/min D. more power The impor- has great utility in the analysis of the overall istics. same. detailed examination of flow within In addition. properties some to demonstrate or ft3/sec Q. viscosity. p. m3/sec or (ft)(lbf)/lbm W or Btu/sec speed. these variables. N. which or flow is called _2_' rate. nt or ft dimension. linear with ambient to be of great the ratios complete purposes One the it use attained. flow H. For any turbomachine. are the same.

can be regarded AS secondary. the capacity coefficient is equivalent to V/U. where the gas is relatively incoml)ressible._a: -_ (2-65) Thus. or dynamic similarity. Several velocity-(liagram parameters are co.rt)illc work. Since the fa('tor._l ill t_. The head is expressed in dimensionless form I)v H/N21) '. Since completely similar machines shouhl perform similarly. It represents the actual power And thus is related to the capacity and hea(t coefficients.XIach number. 'these factors become iml)ortanl as a means for correlating performance. a given value of t. aml it 47 (2-66 . the effect is negligible or very secondary. The term pND2/u is the Reynolds number.h is called the head coefficient. One of these parameters is the speed-work parameter X::U 2 gJ/W 'Fh(_ re(:ipro('al of the sl)ce(l-work parameter is also oflcn use_l. Velocity-Diagram Parameters We have seen that the ratio of fluid velocity to blade velocity and the ratio of fluid energy to blade energy are inq)ortant factors required for achieving similarity in turbomachines.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS rel)resented as Q VA VI) 2 V V (2-64) Thus. the compressibility effect becomes increasingly significant. or viscous effect coefficient./N2D 2 iml)lies a particular rclatiol_ of hea_l to rotor kinetic energy._ I_/'U aud H/U z are rclatc(I to the velocity (liagrams. The term E/aN2D 2 is the compressibility coefficient. in kinematic terms. The term P/pN3D 5 is _t power coefficient. refcrrc(I to as velocity-diagram I)aramcters. as well as to the efficiency. Its effect on overall turbine 1)erformance. NIost of these arc . while still iml)ortant.mnonly us(. whi(. factors of this type ar(.ise(l I)rim'trily with rcsl)e('t to axial-ttox_ turbines. As NIach number increases. This can be rel)rcscnted as H H N 2D. Ti_e Reynolds number effect will be discussed separately later in this chapter. Its effect depends on the level of . At low NIach number. similar velocity diagrams. and a given value of Q/ND 3 implies a l)articular relation of fluid velocity Io blade speed or.

is defined inlet is._ Substitution of equation (2-71) back into equation (2-70) yields (2-71) U _= -7-= _ 2gJAh. velocity That corresponding (:onditions to the Vj2= 2gJ. The across jet. we can (2-68) Therefore. and to the parameter the Is veloc)tv blade-jet by speed ratio and (.2-66) the and (2-72) speed-work (2-72) and be obtained use of equations efficiency (2-73) (2-74) parameters parameter blade-jet the flow efficiency._h. from or spouting. as the to exit or spouting. the where ideal stage V_ is the expansion or turbine. equations (2-66) and X= (2-67) can be expressed as (2-69) 1 U ¢--AV_ is the U p_ "_fj Another l)arameter often used blade-jet speed ratio (2-70) in m/see velocity st.. it be a function of the to the to the used is directh Another 48 velocity velocity-diagram .d A relation parameter the static can between the definition zXh' n =Sh-_ The resultant relation is v= _/____ _ This must speed shows also ratio that related is related frequently if efficiency onh is a funclion other. atie or ft/sec. jet. total velocity. actual While diagram of ()ne of these the speed-work diagram.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION is referred to as the loading factor 1 ¢=X-- or loading g JAb' U2 write coefficient (2-67) For an axial-flow turbine.

It related parameters.. a somewhat a particular at speed Lewis ratio.. efficiency The only loss._=V_.. of the this function different term becomes type types a function of velocity (a different for each in terms generalized. or flow coefficient (2-75) The flow coefficient can be related to the loading coefficient as follows: v. addition. is shown stage is exit (total energy. or the two flow is thus to each This and Where We seen that In be will for these shown type generally For are other required. Parameters how static speed ratio. next one section of the chapter. definition is kinetic efficiency h'o-h'2 Ah' . The a flow mathematically blade-jet impulse A velocity Further (V_.7-. . Relation parameters and the of show a single axial type turbine One parameter must the loading coefficient. be the speed-work efficiency blade-jet of these coefficient. velocity-diagram parameters a more correlating parameter correlation. for as will be discussed in the of loading diagram). such next each can angle. cannot be completely specific types of velocity diagrams. we get (2-77) _=# cot The term Vu. therefore. By using equation (2-69) and the velocity-diagram (V. the and coefficient Therefore. . be expressed loadingcoefficient velocity-diagram efficiency an more general can idealized diagram is required use the general parameters be related specific real case for other.h£--h2. is usually to four for chapter. flow the coefficient stator exit are to these case in the in the next only alone for of velocity of the diagrams._ --_h.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS factor.2). However. in figure is isentropic 2-11.'_ al kAVu / geometry. efficiency._ Substitution of equation (2-68) into equation (2-78) yichts (2-78) 49 . (W_: assume _'= static diagram that Efficiency Velocity-Diagram specific the (U_= U_) ease We can that with stage through be will now related we have constant of this this for an idealized to axial-flow velocity efficiency Assume W2) stage for 1). / v. of velocity is specified. I/AV.

-V_... we get 1.. _d=h_=hl)..._+U=-(V.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION a1 Vu.z From the assumptions we adopted.U) + U=V_..--Velocity-vector diagram for an axial-flow. (2-82) and AV..=V. W_.t The change in fluid tangential velocity is (2-79) zxV. = gJAh. 2 FIGURE 2-11. ..=V_..._= W..2) and the (2-80) sign (2-81) convention U=-W. 2= --W_..I+2U (Wl---.I--2U From the velocity-diagram geometry V_.+2U)--2V. impulse stage..5+ (2-6). 1= V1 sin m Since flow is isentropic and the Vl=_ Substitution 50 of equations (2-84) turbine 2gJAh_e and (2-85) into equation stage is of the impluse (2-84) type (2-85) (2-83) (2-83) (h2.1 j/ V2 Wu..1--(--V.. UAV.2=W. (2-81)..I--V.W2) and (W..2=V. and (2-80).. 1 From equations V.

Equation stator only. v I .47. of an isentropic.0 FIGURE 2-12. 70 °.2 I . ratio Stator on static exit efficiency angle. blade-jet impulse speed stage.8 1.4 Blade-jet I .BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS yields AVe=2 Substitution of equation sin al_/2gJAhia-2U (2-86) back into 4U _ 2gJAh_ speed ratio from equation (2-87) (2-72) (2-88) case and any constant ratio for of equa2-12 equation (2-79) (2-86) yields 4U sin al _--4'2gJAh_a Now using the finally yields definition of blade-jet n=4z. A maximum ratio optimum blade- mathematically derivative equal sin al 2 differentiating to zero: Vo_t-- (2-89) I .--Effect of axial-flow.88 jet tion exit The (2-88) angle. by The for this and angle speed efficiency exit is a function of blade-jet in figure speed efficiency is parabolic example is reached speed (2-88) of 70 °. an 0.6 speed ratio. variation with ratio and shows static a stator at a blade-jet can be found the setting that sin a. 51 .--4_3 particular is illustrated of 0.

5. exit . Q1/2 exit or turbine (2-92) exit._1/4 (V) taken at the 1/2- DH1/. The operation turbomachines tion (2-63).. the volume NE)./2 flow rate is taken at the stage or turbine (2-91) The Ds and parameter is found as that excludes N is known as the specific diameter ( H D_=\-_VD2] With the volume flow rate . because.4 to 0. where optimum of this very the speed total blade-iet type would and the and. with are. While case. is a speed ratio for most cases of interest be in the range of 0. for a real should case. speed be of dimensional analysis led to the dimensionless does not. exit. however. range the of 60 ° to 80 °. are 52 quoted but with not rotative exclusively. Thus. exhaust that would apply are possible. at combining D having values would desirable would parameters The N8 and similar of all sizes. good the it does. Equation specific. a parameter to a turbomachine that excludes all rotative is known NQI/2 When exit used for a turbine. very Likewise. ideal indeed. This less parameters dimension D variables machines would variables Such groups. previous specific as the N having of the rotative of two the of the A parameter not because values of geometrically not case. speed DH1/4 Qi/_x the N in values revolutions for these per parameters minute. be desirable to Also.-Commonly.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Since the the sine stator of the exit angle angle does is normally not vary in the greatly. velocity-diagram Design Parameters parameters. both will differ parabolic a real for correlating so are the and efficiency. (2-93) stage D. case remain blade-jet static idealized from ratio same. apply can as / Q \l/2/N2D2\3/4 parameter is found be a range in found this by on the variables relating to parameters shown in equathe number of dimensionthe linear remaining turbospeed remaining speeds. (2-88) the We basic and levels find other figure and that parameter 2-12 values trend for a turbine of course.

this set taken specific dimensionconvenience. 3=-. in defining eliminating efficiency parameter parameter expressed speed-work (2-96) substituting NsD8 ' :-. to be the Specific presented specific the less because it is specified Qe_ in cubic per pound._). . Combining (2-98) equations yields where (2-91). ideal work. A_x is the exit flow and area.KD2 _'_A_ diameter be used are to related correlate to the (2-99) Since diagram specific speed and specific can velocitythen 53 parameters. With diameter The but value can (hh_). (2-75) in m 2 or with (2-93). and diameter D in feet. all The ratio Some of total definitions authors thus efficiency of ideal prefer interrelation by to static work to the use used the can efficiency same ratio equation be appears the work in (2-74) ideal from because various equation terms into definition of the paramin the (2-96). H is usually or head. of equation differing cases. and specific diagram diameter parameters. (n) -_ and (2-72) with (2-95) equations The eters. speed The and specific exit volume diameter flow rate Qe_=A_V_ can is also be related to the flow (2-98) ft 2. equation NsD. previously total-to-total as the speed velocity sometimes. speed units and are value total-to-static not feet per second.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS volume flow rate H in foot-pounds of units. (2-95) yields (2-93).K -v/g_'X "/l" (2-97) Specific coefficient. which efficiency. (2-94). (5h. _ND K The U-where K is the head is dimensional constant (2-94) (27r rad/rev or 60 sec/min). be related blade to the speed is are head not truly for consistent. The H=JAh_d=J_d Combining (2-94) and equations (2-91).

turbine. to Thus.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION specific efficiency. are dictate parameters do not. is almost the can of the because depend determined other the geometry. on the specific value while nature speed overall to value some for average the entire specific always for evolved values condition..----Overall specific diameter "_ Overall speed-work parameter ___e. applied similar to a stage. conditions When identify as overall a help efficiency. (2-103) The script Of nificant erally for that subscript (--) these refers av refers to the its only. such as D2/Aex that referred the type imply shape. H3/4 (2-100) D"_H1/' (2-101) (2-102) gj_'_ Overall blade-jet speed ratio . ._=wv. Parameters that entire be some that used we have When represent to correlate parameters and stages. to be selected. Specific speed speed and specific and specific diameter diameter can also contain be used variables to correlate that the velocity-diagram flow rate. perhaps speed the and the is most supersiggen(2-100) parameters. These are diameter their use leads to terms. encountered been discussing can The these for applied dimensionless to a stage the to the similarity and overall values are parameters or to the thus can might the the parameters turbine. serve of these the type of design that rapid means for estimating The parameters: Overall specific speed following are be most appropriate number of required commonly most __ No1/2 N. (2-104) 54 . and equation diameter also often (2-99). be applied equal turbine.= U._ contribute to the value specific speed. to show by Equation Let application considerations overall parameters considerations be restated of overall Q. as specific shape speed since sometimes referred of design Overall parameters. and volume appearing in and the specific They shape are will sometimes to as design parameters.

0 I 1. be reasonably estimated. Also.3 Specific speed.9 I 1.--Effect of specific speed on turbine-blade shape.4 I .7 Thus. in m3/sec JP or ft3/lb.8 I . P.1 I 1. thermodynamic the have Often. cases. dimensionless I 20 I 30 I 40 I 50 I 60 I 70 I 80 I 90 I 100 I 110 I 120 I DO I 140 I 150 I 160 ) Specific speed. Ns. ( ft3/4 )(Ibm314 )/(min)(sec 112)(ibf3/4 t FIGURE 2-13.5 I .BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS where flow ve_ is specific rate be expressed volume as at exit.3 I .=\ be expressed depends as the only This product which second term oo) of can is a . the product for evaluating is available) application. 55 . (2-100) substitution yields of equations (2-104) equation -_. manner effects that different fluids on the turbine.7 I .=1_. Ns. specific speed the overall speed than and the (in cases where term is dictated are specified values the tur- power N_/J__. three gas useful choice by the in other of N and The the terms.2 I .2 I 1. and the overall The specific first term The / vex kll21 can t . performance. let mass w----_ _'H and (2-105) into (2-105) Then.6 I . individual influences is established in which axial flow axial flow One-stage. on the specified speed reflects second cycle expected term conditions. The third both by the rotative rather application. _'_ A flow [ .

a reasonable be selected varied considerations. where of estimate speed-work parameter. give us a rapid apa given application. Thus. (2-107) we and can (2-108) neglect the of compressibility Qe_:-Q_:. of stages. value Or. write which is small. (2-91) by equation of stages for overall speed Qe_ 1/2 (2-107) If we neglect change per the stage. increasing the overall of stages for any decreases specific application indicates the type The values of some of the proximation Dividing for stage of the equation specific number (2-100) speed yields N_ or types of design overall parameters required specific for that will be required._t_. in figure axial-flow. of stress by speed-work parameter.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION bine bine ratio speed. these yields n:(NsY/3 last if the two expansion effect conditions and ratio assume into is not that equation too large. (2-102) blade per stage. for specific Thus. known an this is often value for of be the the efficiency. in reference type overall of compressibility a compressibility for number and of speed speed (2-66) overall the turbine parameter Knowledge requires of blade blade for for equation of stages correction an assumed a value can may a knowledge A similar speed-work Often. and as- ah' =n h' 56 (2-110) . Dividing equation work if desired. speed parameter of stage speed gives us on of efficiency. however. Substitution rearrangement (2-109) \NJ Since assume specific application number discussed from stage speed. tip radius turbines. increasing number speed turThe specific with the axial-flow ratio. reheat we can effect. decreases 2-13 for example a radial-flow turbines. speed-work parameter. passage and For for the the of hub shape oneradius radius is illustrated and to two-stage. and assume equal head H=nH Further. obtained for the overall blade on the parato the for is stage experience a reasonable to achieve assumed The requirement. speed with from estimate estimate is presented. basis metrically parameter assuming suming equal the stage specific can in order speed tell speed us is a correlating value level specific (2-109) a given and effect overall equation 2. a constant for stage _peed-work (U2=U_v).

#) (2-112) dimensional analysis produces . useful for (2-111) Equations studies (2-109) associated and with (2-111) preliminary are particularly system parametric analyses. modifying to see may law. the f Ah' T'_.'_T"--7 'P_ assumed terms constant. rate Change which actual ideal ratio. remains is throughout pressure Instead is the depends ratio preferred in total as well preferred ratio term for compressible pressure specific on the initial on or drop temperature enthalpy variable. still R. properties ratio a molecular 3' is assumed variables p'_. of the equation. work work Q because of considerably turbomachinery correct however. number equivalent istic eluded viscosity constant. some The terms parameter ideal-gas significance the propor- of them. speed fluid heat N and dimension of interest. and to Ah'. as depends expansion. which here. -_ ) _/ RT.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS yields n==)... of as on the we include depends temperature temperature. (2-114) 57 .. expressing of preferred nondimensional Q changes constant. as temperature. mass-flow be transformed the continuity AocD _. -. above the work. initial express Since Mach is pressure mass any w is preferred while significant turbine. and speed terms.. Parameters in equation Another to w the (2-63) choice volume are of flow Performance The perfectly variables. p_. there the what and flow. R. N. Since temperature a characterare inand weight. Now.Icn_R-_n' . to H... P. D.. elasticity. performance. For operating constant simplicity with w=fcn(_h'. w (2-113) would be If the specific heat had not been some complicated. The for for Specification parameters presented flow for degree pressure on both the P. so that RT .. the the as another introduction Rotative The specific implies to introducing D are gas #. compressible is often flow the expressed flow of power work initial rate machines. D_ ratio but -. Let we can by using tionality us operate get out on second-order. ND p. following: w_/RT.

the critical the flow. --7' -r-. mass-flow for but to the which parameter of not must velocity. Thus.-7-_. Conditions under that standard molecular results conditions weight at obtained performance and sometimes is done of temperature of fluid in order . for the incompressible effect associated expressed temperature as equation All variables dimensionless form to be correlated. (2-118) Depending tions (2-113). parameter velocity. also of rotor kinematic condition similarity.. the parameters further reduce to _=fcn _-r. on the particular or case. mass mass flow flow rate rate is represented to the mass nondimensionally flow rate when as the by velocity the ratio equals of actual The or sonic. gives velocity is a kind similarity._. fluid. Mach parameter implication fluid certain machine singular with the have fixed the rotative speed Division V/U. _RT. rotor of this a certain velocity of fixed variable temperature have a given is not therefore. as for of the in order the is represented to critical of the the is that number. analysis Mach with dimensions. oc-_]RT't._ ac. may be transformed ND speed U U oc . (2-118) the can parameters be used presented to express in equaturbine (2-117). respect nondimensionally velocity.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Substitution (2-113) yields of this relation into the mass flow parameter of equation Thus. performance. For (2-113) a given can gas. Equivalent It and 58 is very specific useful and heat to report pressure This ratio. rotative but must becomes be inlet by only For speed by (2-116) the the must ratio speed The the a a in of rotor-blade number. be of varying dimensionless as parameters presented expressed (2-117) p_---_ -_-Icn _T-' For a given gas in a given turbine. the the critical.

the With conditions commonly always and used (sonic) specific and have parameters. specific add heat ratio can change effect that but out left with into are only depend a specific-heat-ratio corrections all conditions. are terms number. ratio. and Mach small velocity.q. conditions similarity eq denoting be expressed P ! (2-119) P_. and conditions. standard be directly and readily used: heat NACA compared atmospheric and also The presK or are The basis performance conditions or 14. N / Rearrangement conditions . specific-heat-ratio similarity However.2 1.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS different easily sure. (2-123) N_q= N 4R--_ta T:. only cumbersome the equivalent to work a very on equivalent conditions.d N_q (2-121) (2-120) of these equations then yields for the equivalent p'. with diameter and conditions the of equation std denoting conditions.696 29.a / . commonly used are expressed as specific-heat-ratio 59 . (2-124) by As you may recall.7 ° R. do not heat we started off the discussion of these specific heat ratio for all conditions.4.--R_._h taT' ta . that are terms.. Pst_ Ah'eq l_. effect under the parameters This is not temperature the at above critical on both with._ (2-122) . molecular NACA performance variables standard us use With the the standard of flow. ah' RT_. on the N/m _ abs 518. are for any usually psia. we desire. expressed conditions parameters subscript equivalent as known as equivalent (2-113) standard the but conditions. w. subscript can then used 101 as following conditions to determine are 325 the may standard weight. 288.=w Ah_q-----. These air. known of these Let constant. work. assuming constant the case.. RT'.0. specific or and speed condition temperature. Let The yield ratio since us now fluid.

as you recall.: ---t (2-125) _:. standard a reduction equivalent performance Number form A well-known is the reduction in takeoff Reynolds on hot The to 6O be effect one of of viscosity the in the of Reynolds shown dimensionless parameters affecting turbomachine . '\.+1/ (2-128) _and. equations (2-125) (2-129) Therefore. 0=( kYcr.. Vc. _2 V.S.=t..) ' (2-126) (2-127) . for constant specific (2-122) heat to (2- to equations we define to (2-124).-.h' ..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 8q-- V_.. Pstd (2-131) The equivalent conditions are then expressed as w.--_--P-_".(.:..) "\%..--_-_l gRT' ratio. .J \p....q=w _ _ (2-132) _kh # _'_-- 0 N (2-133) Neq=_ One operation of both reduce effect the point actual that can be seen flow of and from these than similarity speed.>._7 ) N_q_ where Nj(V_'d.. 127) reduce Finally..y+ 1/ 2 27 V<.d__Ly<. 8ldl # )2 (2-130) and ..v_. of jet Effect number was Both equations will cause of these example aircraft (2-134) is that factors of this days. at temperatures mass output greater a powerplant.

f is the friction factor.2. the machine. (2-137) where length.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS performance. = . and been but This fraction In found usually occurs of view (2-141) This exponent the all range the is an for losses ideal this are correlation. of correlation 61 ._d.o. attributable another varies machines. For turbulent flow. type not type depending viscous loss that varies the in loss of correlation is not of 0.. 1--72 and for dynamic to mmilarity V_/Ah_. (2-136) Substituting yields equations (2-138) (2-138) 1--_' 1 (2-139) Adding dividing yield subscripts the equation for conditions for condition 1 and 1 by 2 to the equation for (2-139) condition and 2 equation Since for geometric similarity '_. and L is the characteristic flow-path 1 fOCR--_0. it is still important. • -7 If we assume that the only loss . between is it has 0.2. equation L_/DI--:L_/D2 (2-140) 1--7. correlated The in effect of Reynolds number the following manner: Expressing efficiency 7' we can write as on turbine efficiency is usually A ' hh'_ ' Ah' 5h' _h J ld (2-135) . on the losses._-=V22/Ah reduces (Re_'_ °'2 \Re1/ Actually. (2-136) is friction loss._ where and Re (2-137) is the into Reynolds equation number. While its effect is secondary. to viscous suggested because total of this.1 to 0.

Param- GLASSMAN. not all as the about to exponent is viscous is maintained loss.2 to reflect tests values here coefficients presented compromise to represent 1.: Macmillan Use of of 1967.: Principles J.. of Turbines. AND of Turbomachincry. D. G. SHEPHERD. Geometry NASA TN Characteristics D-4248. REFERENCES 1. Co.3 be A and the B are fractions A and in such B serve turbine that A+B= the 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1--v_--A {Re2"_ °_ (2-142) where the and loss 0. Recent at 0.. indicate of 0. WARNER L. In equation viscous the that at Lewis.7 Reynolds discussion a good reference for correlating to 0. Similarity 1956. 2. tligh-Expansion- Axial-Flow 62 . eters Ratio for ARTHUR Examination STED/ART.4 for A and corresponding to 0. loss fact values that as well of (2-142) exponent.6 for number B seem effects.

ft rev/min (ft 3/4) (lbm 3/4)/ (rain) (sec 1/_) (lbf 3/4) 60 sec/min characteristic Mach number rotative specific number polytropic power. flow Btu/sec N/m2. (2-46) of elasticity. constant. measured measured angle angle axial axial deg fluid relative deg 63 . absolute blade absolute ideal specific relative mass (K) . energy F ] g H h J K L M N force. speed. direction. length. jet speed m/sec. 1. correlation coefficient coefficient pressure. 2_r rad/rev. flow rate. lb friction factor conversion head. P P Q R Re r gas constant. loss ft/sec number m. ft 2 number correlation m/sec. ?% dimensionless. N . in eq. reaction Reynolds radius. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) T U V Vj V speed. 32. N/m2. °R pressure. velocity. at constant ft dimensionless. specific modulus kinetic m2. m/sec. capacity diameter. (2-71)). J/kg. W 20 !:1 OL total-pressure fluid absolute coefficient. m. J/kg. ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec defined from from by eqs.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS SYMBOLS A a flow area. N. 1 . ft temperature. B C_ J/(kg)(K). lb/ft 2 ft3/sec (°R) rate. absolute volume speed.17 (Ibm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec 2) (ft) (lbf)/lbm specific enthalpy. (defined mZ/kg. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu conversion constant. J/(kg) number m. m/sec. (2-142) (2-142) Btu/(lb)(°R) of sound. K. rad/sec. kg/sec. coefficient. loss ft/sec by eq. volume. Reynolds speed heat Reynolds diameter. ft/sec m/sec. m3/sec. Btu/lb conversion constant. in eq. of stages exponent W. D D_ E e (sec I/2) (lbfl/4) / (ft I/4) (lbm 1/4) lb/ft 2 defined by eq. velocity. (2-47) or radial or radial direction.

ratio. on on of critical critical velocity velocity defined by lb/(ft) (sec) based based eq. (2-75) by eq. eq. (N)(sec)/m_.1) component axial component at stator inlet at stator exit or rotor at rotor exit inlet Superscripts: --_ -' " 64 vector overall absolute relative quantity turbine total total state state . speed kg/mS. lb/ft a lb-ft defined rad/sec (2-66) (2-72) blade-jet density. defined pressure (2-128) turbine NACA inlet tem- of specific ratio to eq. (2-67) ¢ coefficient. flow loading angular defined by p T N-m. by eq. torque. coefficient. velocity. standard parameter.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 7 ratio ratio of heat of inlet capacity volume total at constant pressure standard by to heat capacity at constant function efficiency 0 squared perature temperature speed-work viscosity. y pressure heat to NACA ratio. defined Subscripts: av cr eq ex /d in loss opt p r rel ro st std stg u x 0 1 2 average critical equivalent exit ideal inlet loss optimum polytropic radial component relative rotor stator NACA stage tangential standard condition condition (M---.

\ Axis-... Tip-___ FLow _ I Blad_ _Hu b I/-Suction Leading edge-/" Pressure surface J/ surface Camber line-_ /-Trailing Axis-/ / / / edge Tangent to camber / line at leading edge 4. or pitch Blade inlet angle 7 \. Flow inlet angle-/ FIo_ / I / / Incidence angle J / /_-Tangent to camber line at trailing edge Flow exit angle Axial chord Deviation ant -Blade exit angle FIOURF 2-14. \ \ _ Opening.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS GLOSSARY The terms defined herein are illustrated in figure 2-14. or th roat Chord l Spacing.--Blade terminology.. 65 .

ference deviation The between angle. Same between the fluid axial direction. inlet trailing angle. angle minus The blade section halfway Same as stator blade. angle. blade inlet and hub.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION aspect axial ratio. exit height. The flow direction flow flow inlet angle. The The ratio length a line of the parallel of the angle and the blade to the axial turbine between turbine angle height turbine chord the axial to the of the chord. The The front. angle. of the blade. incidence The innermost ratio. corresponding this surface. onto of the blade. the front and the chord line the rear of the line between section would the points touch the deflection. to the The sum axial external camber of the line line formed leading formed blade intersection trailing chord It edges. extends the edge to the trailing edge. at the to the tangent line The angle. blade section were is the blade convex a flat surface. line of the It is the the and from to the at the angles of the tangents. edge. Same of rotatioll of the ratio. and the tip. as hubto tip-radius direction surface adjacent are blades. axis. the the flow It is equal flow blade exit exit to the angle. at the dif- angle angle. blade. up on where surface. by by the and the spacing. exit and the The angle between the turbine axial direction. Same as rotor camber tangents equal camber leading surface chord. blade. perpendicular It is approximately halfway projection equal between of the to the pressure profile distance side blade linear laid between chord line. as set axial in the length of the projection turbine. hub blade. length chord of the line. tip minus the at the leading edge bucket. inlet or nose. axial blade blade blade solidity. pressure pressures radius 66 ratio. section. It is the to the tangent the radius direction. between to tip-radius ratio of the of the direction to tip-radius angle. and the suction surface. to the inlet hub tip radius. ratio. The mean profile. at the angle and the blade. to the The ratio The edge radius The between camber hub. blade at the flow exit angle. onto The the camber-line line. camber line at the direction. points Along . chord. in the The highest. hub-tip hubleading mean nozzle pitch. The angle the turbine section as hubratio. total the The turning flow flow exit angle inlet angle of the and minus fluid fluid. The on radius the blade the between blade. concave distance surface. the leading edge and If a two-dimensional the trailing edge.

blade. surface of the of the blade. Along this surface. surface. of the 67 . The rear. blade. The as hub.BASIC TURBINE CONCEPTS root. Same stagger angle. chord to the spacing. direction. rotor Same blade. spacing. The outermost section edge. A stationary The convex pressures are lowest. between blade. trailing or tail. solidity. A rotating ratio The of the angle as pitch. stator suction tip. the chord line and the turbine axial blade. blade.


important that diagrams turbine. Various efficiency efficiency for and produce. one 2. can the used. second diagrams and from turbines part general them in chapter velocity relation these or analysis relation of turbines speed as it passes velocities described design the next to the diagrams affect to the requirements evolution flow In level blading is required constructing flow dimensionless also was concerns the to the presented illustrated subject a single flow blade to turbine is devoted of this representative the part that the are of velocity diagram conditions radius radial in the radius. diagrams. Their that blading significantly The relating cussed the relation chapter first sidered Usually. average conditions of this result variation considered mean to the of forces with is devoted balance speed chapter.Stewart L As the indicated in chapter in the and design from their through step required specify to the methods to the diagram work were entirely chapter of the at the in chapter from 2. expected capacity and the from velocity of the parameters in by chapter an idealized that for are radial Only variations and of the important is the The diagrams. geometry angles addition. were and case. The in the direction axial-flow in the to of and are the are be considered fluid relative universally overall established.CHAPTER 3 Velocity iagrams D By Warren. one blade the of is the the of the row use flow. Whitney nd J a Warner . blade in this 69 . be associated and diswith their This The constage. diagrams turbine 2. variables velocity absolute blade row Once speed diagrams. most to the of velocity work. rotative velocity is very velocity the velocities of the next.

speed. 1 . annulus angles the the studies shape. the such as U2 U _=gJAh'--AV. ft/sec kg/m3. an in as illustrative mean are discussed. ft 2 are axial velocity expected parameters because Such the key and velocity-diagram swirl is often efficiency are parameters parameter. 32. the flow velocity area by _0 Vz = P-_an is related where Vx w o Aan axial mass density. total blade enthalpy. the of and Btu/lb ft/sec of velocity. m/see.-The 7O speed-work parameter is used in g JAb' AV_ 2 this chapter because (3-3) diagram component flow rate. relations be written described in chapter Assuming ah ' =--UA V_' gj where h' U V. between their review. 778 stage the the (lbm) m/see. relates component conditions. of velocity. can be in because they not of but Flow only the also link component velocity) with related chapter In addition. kg/see. lb/sec m/see. the (2-14) the hub velocity and by to 3-1 no can tip) the stage shows change diagrams are turbine. equation indicating assumed to represent encountered relation figure vector is required efficiency. J/kg. velocity- absolute affect dimensionless diagram diagram include ways. (ft)/(lbf) ftlsec (sec 2) (3-1) tangential conversion conversion equation axial state (ft) (lb)/Btu specific work vector the to the relation (3-2) velocity to diagram. staging In clature.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION MEAN-SECTION In this section. component constant. lb/ft 3 area.17 1 . association parameter to the 2 and speed-work be expressed in several .. mS. constant. (halfway conditions grams. g J This The rate. DIAGRAMS occurring The and at the different their stage radius mean the types selection velocity 2 and through the the section average of diawhen diagram nomenstage. velocities referred and used were which parameters (the to in as blading values discussed can tangential the swirl geometry.

--Velocity-vector diagrams and nomenclature. exit (V_. = W2) (V_--W2 characteristics Zero-exit-swirl Rotor-impulse Symmetrical three diagrams in figure 3-2.2 _/Vu .0) (W. types normalize are related the to the swirl distribution by AV.--In swirl zero-exit-swirl component diagram. thereof where either Zero-exit-swirl diagram. I ! FIGURE ._) and diagrams in this diagram. _ 1 hVu-and (3-4a) 71 . overall be design evolved.. 2 i" i'll . the can depending Diagram parameters./ u WU. al-'" VI w z v/Ivu.VELOCITY FI0w DIAORAMS VX._---. of performancecommon types of discussed (1) (2) (3) These shown velocity efficiency.. represents Vu.._).0 Station 0 Vx. head The or the diagram diagram diagram for and V2:W1) parameter the entire a loss are exit in several values many of speed-work cases.2 I 3-1. Vx. have value values swirl following swirl physical different of the constraint split the velocity sizes speed-work imposed between three the are and diagrams to some determines reaction (V_. and it is convenient to diagram velocities Velocity-Diagram After diagrams shapes on the related stator parameter. reaction (V_. on the type such the and section: Diagram requirements Velocity diagram refers shape as stage rotor their exit type and Types are the the and The and established..

the reaction the reaction negative reaction decrease Because is in of (3-6) is equations velocity.2_ AV. expressed indicates is encountered.-1- _. reduces W2 R.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Speedwork parameter Zero exit swirl Diagram type Impulse Symmetrical O.1=Vz. the rotor.----0. k=0.t (3-5) where Rst_ W_ By (3-5) stage reaction component (2-6) of relative and as Rs. velocity 72 a substantial across the . represents pressure 1 1--_-_ 3-3(a). which which. 2-- W2 u. (UI= of U2) stage 0 (3--4b) For (2-39) having reaction constant presented axial in velocity equation (Vz.2-W .O FIGURE 3-2. (3-3) m/sec.g= This 0. 1 2+W ..--Effects of speed-work stage parameter and diagram.2).25 0.5. diagram. and ft/sec equation tangential using can equation be (3-4). is equation which zero. reaction --0. and is plotted indicates as can increase be in an For shown. in static figure impulse example. a conservative Below _.5.-can be used an to reduce axial-flow the to such rotor definition loss.5 1. _=0. diagram type on shape of velocity-vector V_.5.33. at At At _---1.5. rotor.

FIGURE 3-3. _. Exit swirl.o_ ZeroS. Impulse stage reaction high therefore. (a) (b) Reaction. I 1 1.75 Speed-workparameter. diagram type potentially avoided. and the are usually used for for the for (3-7) zero-exit-swirl presents impulse.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 1.0-- Symmetrical_ \ . exit and swirl the assumption can of constant be expressed 73 velocities .--Effects of speed-work parameter and velocity-vector on reaction and exit swirl.m (b) I 0 .5. X<0.0 .Impulse I / I 1 I . and this to Rst_=O positive-reaction.25 I . negative-reaction case. WI=W2 diagram.50 . 0 . (2-6). the rotor equation inlet and (3-3).5-::3 N Zero exit swirl-.--For reduces equation From axial equation velocity. Figure losses. (a) _. 3-2 such high the negative diagrams zero-exit-swirl reactions are seldom diagrams cases.

swirl diagram constant making a loss reaction to high where of diagram front attractive is not of a multistage Efficiency design is the turbine). value with of illustrated zero-exit-swirl swirl reaction and middle symmetrical remains efficiency. one in 3-2. As the (3-11b) 3-3. Under this condition. turbine impulse From axial equation velocity. is conducive for stages stages Stage A significant 74 aspect of a turbine but diagram the are shown 3-2.5 shown greater in figure than 3-3(b). 2 h_l A-V_= 2-These typical is the at 0. These effects are leaving a 0. the equation for stage 1 R. _ AVu-and Vu X+0.5. than the impulse illustrated in is a loss and are used is are diagrams stage type and used the the Symmetrical specified diagram. and (3-8b) Positive negative encountered swirls are obtained and zero-exit-swirl figure because seldom. and the assumption can (3-10) of constant as components X+ 1 2 be expressed Vu. expected efficiency. The at _= total exit in figure 1. At _=0. This the type reaction diagrams same as the the exit good and swirl characteristics in figure increases. which to have at _ values less cases coincide.--A stator-exitsame of diagram rotor-exit-velocity commonly triangles In terms of velocities.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION as V_. decreases than 0.5. Because positive if ever. 0. (2-6). .5 (3-8a) _-_= The swirls exit are swirl characteristics at are _ values _.. decreases. swirl swirl when velocity _ is greater third shape. (3-9a) (3-9b) reaction reduces to V1 =W2 and V2=W.5.--0.5. the swirl equation velocity (3-3).5. this (e. 1 AV_ and (3-11 a) Vu.g.

efficiency the for more this efficiency on the dependent Some are preimportant can be requirements development.:K_.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS The type blade on basic sented effects. among other things. leaving yields Substituting equation . diagram to parameters. Btu/lb Btu/lb J/kg. loss. As presented written as static (3-12) where stage Ah' hh_ stage stage static Expressing static work. efficiency is an important function of. ideal efficiency J/kg. leaving for stage (3-13) J/kg.. work Btu/lb based J/kg. the up intended and of some as a basis stage diagram to 2 are parameters distribution is greatly application. on ratio of inlet total pressure to exit Btu/lb of actual ah' . Therefore. the efficiency relations and used in References between herein 1 and chapter used and the pressure the diagram selection of point used turbine hh' _--Ah_d 2. loss.. Btu/lb n' is the V]/2gJ. losses were That to the proportional is. and L_o=K_o V°2-b V_2 2gJ (3-15a) Wl2+W2_ 2gJ (3-15b) where/4 is constant of proportionality. 75 .1-- gJ(L.hh' +Lot'-b where Lst Lro pressure. J/kg.TLro) 1 V2 2 (3-14) In it was kinetic relating assumed energy the stator that the and the blade rotor losses rows. same except for the elimi(3-3) y /2gJ The nation into equation of the equation total efficiency loss. ideal work in terms work plus losses yields Lro+ V22 (3-13) stator rotor stage loss. the of velocity diagram surface. the average across L.

than fiat. previously either and 0. in are the or or procedure of their in terms type means them expressed tangential of the components. efficiency of these total. for This the from The refcurves diagram as and for characteristics diagram over of speedvarious method of proportionality Efficiency parameter total2 by static-efficiency symmetrical )4elds maximum analytically diagram. The are presented occurs for to the all in figure at efficiency values 3-4(a). than at and. region.. be found efficiency (1) axial work (eq. components assumption an angle for the test the to (3-8). 3-4. related (4) the work The erence presented that the determined associated (5) The The (3-14) exact in references is as follows: velocities tangential and axial by values of previous curves for and the for the above eq.5. of therefore.5.5. and nature (3-15) of serve the as the terms the basis and for for estimating can estimating and speed- assumptions equations 1 and are 2. still the before efficiency efficiency" exit velocity curves symmetrical-diagram efficiency than _1 below with Even merit. by of an applicationto the are a range tangential selected on by relating parameter (2-6) being considered (2) The (3) The components The basis evaluated mass-flow assumption. diagram.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Equations efficiency.5 because of the diagram undesirable efficiency characteristics the highest of 1.5. constant experience. are expressed diagram (3-11)). later 3-4(b). efficiencies. greater is the aspects type _ values efficiency consider criterion effects._0. represents . approximates characteristics a symmetrical diagram. The were not obtained for )_ values negative The For higher efficiency _-_0. The at s)_nmetrical-diagram impulse-diagram efficiency is equal not are rather less to shown. other the decreases High diagram rather designer exit this The swirls chapter. curves for the zero-exit-swirl less than 0. efficiency static }. Briefly. values rapidly. of those in reference efficiency 2. as obtained in figure actually symmetrical representative efficiency. components according (3-4). are lower discussed three-dimensional a diagram characteristics is substantially head to be discussed in figure the The total highest The because 76 presented than a loss. value the in that type. can then be generated diagram are presented are the are total types. for each reaction total diagram }. for static. is slightly efficiency efficiency is equal a speed-work of _.5. zero-exit-swirl-diagram }_--1. the in of the the impulse-diagram becomes 0. is selected. less Between As h is reduced are than such achievable about as the 0. although }. static static the two efficiency more total types than must and parameter. any where however.

the with efficiency with the the impulse at X values is no zero-exit-swirl diagram.0 . symmetrical 1.4 Diagram type Zero exit swirl Impulse Symmetrical .--Effects of speed-work on efficiency.8 f.6 e- -% _6 .. Total Static efficiency.8 I 1. and from velocity-vector ref.2 .0 (a) (b) FIGURE 3-4.6 ._ Speed-work parameter. 2.5 than is the For obtained 0.) diagram type parameter (Curves 77 ..5. diagram. exit 0. I . is a maximum swirl.4 I .5. for and For where h values for the there impulse less than greater diagram._=--_'---u- .VELOCITY DIAGRAMS efficiency diagram. _=0._.2 (a) I I I I I // / / / /// / / (b) 0 . efficiency.

parameter. with the remove this as of associated static the efficiency. X= 1. is reduced is affected but also to the reference and the about of about this level the shown are means The are total angle static best that If be angle of stress been swirls One type is related from the total by flow not efficiency only the angles. It is evident maximized. 0.5. In to efficiency referred stators. can be 1. Efficiency diagram which obtained shows speed-work through-flow example parameter component effect exit stator is desired. 3-6(a) are lower is through diffuse encountered.80-t-- L_ • 70 iency. presented staters that the characteristics figure.5. at low annulus area of speed-work reductions and turbines turbines efficienc:_ swirl the of such turbines. depends by is highest the An at _ = 1. 7' . "q 1 6O 65 I 70 Stator exit angle. (Curves from ref. from reference velocity of this of stator 1.TURBINE DESIGN .--Effect of stator exit eter X. therefore. 3-5. of downstream to axial. but decreases and V=. hence. angle stator of The could It large use back are stream shows 78 should exit efficiency the complete since the it maximum efficiency 60 °. of increasing which 3-6. annulus freedom affects and. 1X-stage the turbines with Figure in figure down- efficiencies l_-stage . by the values through-flow influence component angle that of velocity is also influenced selection.90 -- AND APPLICATION Total efficiency.) Speed-work param- the The very efficiency little is a maximum at to 0. in static the flow 3) the (ref. where there is no exit swirl. I. Figure angle total which upon is static is taken which desired. efficiencies as functions angle. zero-exit-swirl-diagram as _. % deg I 75 J 8O FIGURE 3-5. does not efficiency exist However. is to be exit a the area. angle on stage efficiency. If maximum 75 ° is indicated. selection rotor has exit always and.

losses loss.2 Speed-work . efficiency in static about use 0.i .35. that 0. h . 3-6.35 in static These of the the lower total turbine turbine For can efficiencies stators.4 .40 0 . be achieved of downstream 1. of the (fig.5 (a) (b) FmuR_. of X is below approximately substantial gains stators. (Curves from ref. stator on efficiency.) 79 .VELOCITY DIAGRAMS than are no those due gain of the to the of this 1-stage additional additional efficiency impulse friction friction over turbines.- . achieves until the X values downstream Because value below through l_-stage 1-stage 3-6(b)). O0 Diagram type 1-Stage ll-St_e ll-Stage l_-Stage impulse impulse symmetrical impulse (two stators} downstream o I I I I . 3.--Effect of downstream Total Static efficiency. efficiency.3 parameter.60 ¢.

f/.30 Overall speed-work parameter. FIGURE 3-7./" I • 10 1 I ] . t- o_ ro stages Turbine 2 2 ta_ I I I 1 I .50 ./. l_/r -.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Multistage Turbine Efficiency When the turbine requirements are such that the speed-work parameter is quite low and high efficiencies are still desired.) turbines.ZlO I .i _ N //. 4.! o-- 7° I 50 / . of efficiencies of 1-.. and the required work is split amongst the various stages." /.. (Curves 8O .--Comparison (a) Total efficiency• (b) Static efficiency. and 2-stage from ref.20 .. multistage turbines are used. •40 0 tb) / .

and 3-7. for to 0. Figure two-stage stator. by addition doubling As the of a second average in stage to adjust stage shown previously.125. maintained. diagram and with of this with increasing the the flow with no change the velocity-compounded exit velocity for swirl and decreasing for without X=0. efficiency turbine. _. between 1-stage turbine 1-stage a 2-percentage-pointthe difference points The 2-stage loss work 3-7 and swirl with for zero work impulse stator. an increasing the features represents fraction optimum as well second-stage general.125 A study made in velocity. diagram and diagram At _=0. This a type each of the the total figure split exit and a 9-percentage-point-higher As _ is reduced increases points static occurs smaller efficiencies by varying criteria efficiency zero-exit-swirl efficiency stage At associated as an impulse 3-8 (a) In in figure compounded.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS Two-stage turbine the stage with the results reduction two exit $urbines. turbine At has an is preturbines A study sented (from higher than the ref. leaving .5. exit The swirl 3-8(b) turbine. split X value In work turbines 2-stage increase _. Because the first stage.--The in about of stage work.and of the 4) are characteristics efficiencies in figure 2-stage in reference overall static speed-work efficiency between for total smaller turbine for are exit a exit split first type and the the swirl no 50:50 stage. condition is first-stage type with of zero illustrates the shown both type diagram turbine the equal. The compared the so as to maximize efficiency. As _ is reduced. stage an to a 1-stage through in and addition. swirl work has and of output. was another case of the counterrotating is again speeds of turbine blade a second-stage efficiency 5.50. 24 1-stage and the turbine 2-stage values reaction. but work fraction. is accompanied stages swirls an increase possible efficiency.15. Effiwere the the 81 characteristics ciencies obtained second-stage in reference higher than those for conventional because of the elimination of one work depends upon the swirl two-stage turbines blade row. static to 5 percentage efficiency. of 2-stage of 1-.125. the stage it becomes efficiency 4. of 0. 1Y2-. maintained produced increased second diagram kno_:a turbine (fluid by stages as in the the to 75:25. turbine in the first is illustrated velocity is a two-stage velocity increase) of turbine a velocity-compounded in which stator all expansion and all subse- three-stage) quent blade rows merely turn As k is reduced below 0. parameter. (or is achieved and _=0. total the 2. for the of the in work positive diagrams with efficiencies because fraction presented stage of no efficiencies percentage total is a much obtained good and turbine efficiency difference than 2-stage The maximum while negative work split for leaving imposing and is maximized is achieved symmetrical maximum second first The stage.

obtained the stage effect efficiency and where static stator efficiencies.5) Overall (2-111)) 6. as eq. of work considerinclude and of are blade are applications required. 0.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (a) (a) Velocity-compounded turbine. turbine. use used turbines stage and Because compactness (work work of their due utilized split splits is illustrated at low as efficiencies functions potential row. a where general is equal n is the stage number of stages. second 75:25 are lack also stage.125. Equal multistage and turbines stages (for constant composed h>0. (derived speed-work (3-16) Total total stage. of the would diagram). discussed for a first inlet For stage for velocity overall 2. and were from the reheat or last (stator-inlet velocity to stage were exit then is axial) velocity) obtained efficiencies (intermediate as functions of X.--Velocity-vector diagrams Overall speed-work fb) (b) Counterrotating for special types parameter _.=_ are being for V/STOL in which applications production. neglecting . turbines efficiency stages (for two blade-speed ). FIGURE 3-8. for the in general. hydrogen zero-exit-swirl work stage combination of turbines power fan-drive turbopump The impulse examined speed related were characteristics _<0. aircraft. applications turbines.--In requirements than turbines. Overall in chapter efficiencies static 82 efficiency. 2-stage of turbines.5) stage parameters in reference assumed. levels direct-lift the high to the in such efficiency advanced n-stage and ably speed more of a blade counterrotating many dictates stages vapor for nuclear are turbines of cr stage and as _. their engines the Such for rockets. be a low-work The and ratio.

pressure. n Therefore.) as in from at low obtained obtained when those all in from stages this manner 6.1 number The although turbine described static however. 0. vary This shows efficiency figure total as factors case. trends. Tb becomes _-- 1. large total imposed. ing ratio commonly of diagram speed as the kinetic the tubine. shown because multistage in this 3-9(a) (in of level ratio. values in efficiency increases efficiencies lower in figure of the diagrams of stages are on expected. is blade and varieither high is a limiting at presented reference are number. described Reynolds to diagram value. (0. of many upward figure angle. concern or less). effect. method This of presenting is to plot parameter blade speed speed with the ratio was performance of in chapter correspondpressure to speed-work 83 parameters of the efficiency as a function blade-jet (2-72)) across to a velocity total-to-static is related to the energy associated Blade-jet . _'-- 1. general-stage to exit This small. . used ratio. pressure. shape The the as a function all of _. ratio must required the restriction be similar of stages efficiencies levels at lower efficiencies Another in terms overall 2 (eq. _. herein. equation By using static total ideal work ideal ideal based J/kg.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS w o+ where first-stage exit total general-stage to exit Ah_. addition the or downward with illustrates varying that indicated are. blade solidity. of inlet total (3-17) on ratio Btu/lb pressure pressure pressure to pressure. to achieve in the or.88) characteristics which was efficiency well etc.. f n--1.4_n 2+1_ (3-18) Overall on the total basis efficiency of stage differs total only in that the last stage is evaluated efficiency. 3-9(b) leaving number if some show loss. based J/kg. The is reached (stator efficiency. other 3-9. on ratio Btu/lb on ratio of inlet of inlet total total Btu/lb which reference equation 6 shows (3-17) to be neglects the reheat stage-efficiency definition. the based J/kg. (3-19) The are Figure efficiency This function aspect may ations here. k----1. work work n_' .

08 . efficiency characteristics.2 Overall speed-work arameter..06 .z( b_ . the and efficiency of stages according in this and velocity level imposed of the design structural to equation it is clear diagram and (2-74)..04 I L l = 1= I=1 . efficiency or ideal) selection such are very and blade turbine integrity diagrams (related a compromise cycle compactness. that have dependent speed must to the selections upon In represent by component the an type an important utilized.8 i_.4 32 I/ of stages/ 1 . RADIAL In assumed In 84 the first half having of VARIATION this average a relatively chapter. (about a single over hub- to represent a turbine to tip-radius .TURBINE 11 DESIGN AND APPLICATION '_ .. goals as performance requirements). conditions high OF DIAGRAMS velocity the entire diagram blade ratio was span. 6.01 t .) parameter From of the effect specific actual the life).I .8 I . I l I J I llJl .--Overall (a) Total efficiency.S . (dictated discussions expected (actual the final among section. number on the work design.4 ..6 .6_ .5 • _ . (b) Static efficiency. Number of stages Limiting efficiency (_ I _ I z l Illl . p FIGURE 3-9. and weight.. (Curves from ref...02 J I = I= I=1 .

x direction. diagrams not The such are radial an assumption however. ft (product of three differentials) and radius Neglecting setting sin terms yields (d0/2)=d0/2 F_. if the streamline is inclined to account formulated of fluid If unit (directed for these balance equilibrium forces Fluid the required now an be element force factors equilibrium. be applied diagram in flow to the conditions variations Radial Consider 3-10(a).VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 0. the must an element When force. the variations and variations for must mean become will on the the in the entire radial exist in section very consider velocity velocity may blade encountered.. n_ g net static angle inward pressure N'm rad force. Equilibrium in the 3-10(b)) serves the the of the (streamline) flow net turbine component must to fluid flow be field. =rdpdO The mass m of the fluid being acted on by the pressure force (3-20b) is 85 . 3-10(c)). acting When force the there The of fluid flow pressure fluid to for and (fig. as in figure the by rea is a tangential force to keep path of velocity. higher-order 2. N. lb P 0 r pressure. of rotation. substantial the flow diagrams conditions are due In the case diagrams of hubor may span. lb/ft _ m. pressure Fp.. mean-section to the variation the flow. curved Any maintain as part be accounted acceleration of the of which is in the horizontal. balance circumferential on the required centrifugal its curved path linear part from moving along through-flow is curved pressure (fig. is termed The The figure in the radial pressure 3-10(b). This and their which section effect selection. The radial flow must have radial direction of forces will on an associated pressure force. to tip-radius represent ratios. and in average is (p+?) dr sin dO 2 (3-20a) where F_. of rotation. sulting pressure force path. mathematically. maintained the along this force.. are length radially indicated is assumed inward) is in acting weight net is neglected. diagrams important the radial diagrams. in blade speed The considerations must in also the final the that balance of forces that were described for the end regions.85 lower or greater). .

equilibrium m=p[r(r+ which reduces to dr)_--wr _] d_f0 2r (3-21a) m=--prdrdO The ferential net pressure To flow.c--m g 86 Vu _ r prdrd0 g Vu 2_p V2drd r g 0 (3-22) .I vr (b) (a) (b) Rotation plane (r-e). centrifugal associated F_._____Vx rVm. (r-x).____ dBI2 Vu e (-/dr_ or_ _ !p/ _ / / p+ dp/2 \ \ . ame . FIGURE 3-10.--Radial Element of fluid in turbine (c) flow field. (c) Meridional plane factors.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION !_!ii2iiii!_i!_::: dr J (a) p+dp + dpl2-_ P . balance the radial force the results pressure from force is the force three factors (3-21b) mentioned with circum- previously.

_e r_._e The velocity radius angle positive that radial along V_.) and to use meridional are both includes in its (3-25) all comquite factors._) V_ r radial V_.sin a. Radial In those other assumed total order effects to illustrate that the Variations nature second will radial (1-49)) is no (eq. r_ cos am_ (3-23) meridional streamline. It is._= prdrdO g V*. Therefore. enthalpy component be written definition • 87 ._ ._ a. of the the The pressure curvature minus force pressure are as indicated indicates case. streamline. however. curvatures (3-25) For is the axial (1/r. by on the right (rotational) side of equation term and can V_ r equation (3-26) has become (3-26) known as "simple" in Velocity radial variations If streamline of velocity. and certain slope and is the of the order be can are usually assumptions there will be neglected. the last two terms are small as compared to the first neglected. a. m/sec.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS The radial component force of the with pressure flow force along required the meridional to balance streamline the centrifugal is associated FT. angles the (am. Thus. the The linear sign force in equation outward is required is directed streamline to produce acceleration along meridional Fv • Z=--g Setting various the net dVme " sin _---dt radial (eqs. simplifying to be zero. prdrdO g force (eq. and dV. dt equilibrium not equation convenient flow). streamline. _gdp p dr-Equation contributing plete line form. 0-----m g where V. pressure (3-22).rium. as in velocity. flow (or near-axial inclination and stream(3-25) often be small.. deg and inclination angle (3-23) in this ft of curvature of inclination directions in figure the balancing component of meridional of meridional for streamline 3-10(c). dVm_ cos a_e---sin a._ dt (3-20(b)) (3-24)) equal yields (3-24) to the components (3-23). made. we can write gdp pdr-The approximation radial represented equilib. cos rm. ft/sec m._ r.

.r I_\_/ angle case at the of N=0 -mean ...l _I} radius. where (3-31) 88 a_ is the valid {1--tan' absolute for the am flow special ( i)rc._ and into integrating v. constant. radial the blade uniformity rows. (3-30b) equation r yields V. depend of the and the gradient the total enthalpy to radial it is here constant._-V. the dh' ds dr --T-_r-_ If the flow entering the (3-28) total if the in turbine exit is radially is radially uniform. on various have radially constant work (total enthalpy) loss. V_). "simple" we get assumed With radial assumptions expression. At enthalpy gradients due For entropy tion into extraction any place and imposed simplicity. Most specified (3-30a) as equation.2gJ-Differentiating substitute for with dh (and respect since 1 jp to radius 2gJ and using equation (3-z7) (1-8) to p= 1/v) yields dp dr 1 _ 2gJ d(V_ 2) 1 dr -_ 2gJ d(Vx 2) dr then Further. 2 . been has (3-29) independently and V_. and in the by the does not have therefore. the damping and substituted the entropy mixing. The rotor. and with equa- equilibrium v. are (3-26). 2) 1 -_ 2 In specify often. that these radially gradients inlet constant in total flow.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION " -. equation radially the (3-28). (3-31) Equation For this is not (constant .: or. then the entropy at the first-stator exit is also radially constant. may or may not probably turbine. velocity V. as will be discussed later this chapter. order to solve this of swirl dr --I-_ dr --0 to V.. vZ:=. enthalpy at the first-stator stator loss is radially constant.E: Substituting (3-29) and equation then (3-30b) and between its differential the limits form of r. 1 d(V. in terms of mean-section it is necessary r or between radius with Kr N a relation a variation between V_ or V_ and conditions.

._>= m_ 1.5 2.9 I 1.-=-V= where tan a. is radially constant.j (3-32) is that V.. axial are The velocity.. Mean-section 89 . of 60 °..:>_ Vu = KVx 1.. _ E "..--Radial variations flow of angle velocity a. equations. 60[ -1 30 .3 Ratio of radius to mean radius. and 60 °.0 ] I I V u = Kr N .8 I .m "N L.7 < .1 r/r m I ""-z 1.0 _ _ ___"'Exp°nent'N1 0 . presented radial on the and flow angle. FIGURE 3-11. integration of equation (3-29) yields r 71/2 v=V_=[1--2 A case the and absolute equation of interest flow angle (3-29) not covered to tan _ _ by In _.0 I 1.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS special case.C _-2 -1 x B e-- O ..J Q .... equation (3-30b) In this case. flow angle. in figure in specified 3-11 axial swirl as computed a mean and velocity variations largely dependent E _. integrates Vu V=(r'_ -sin'a (3-33) The for radial variations from radius flow the flow angle in swirl above angle are velocity.2 I 1.

section zero-exit-swirl mean-section . If outlets. diagrams free-vortex tip sections of a blade in the diagram shape for this an swirl must for at the example is diagram with high the when A a a speed-work impulse distribution. _x(UV_). to as and a turbine (3-34) designed design. As seen.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION velocity increases and flow variation (value of N).1 percent for for a in the most wide cases. velocity Vx is radially flow per unit area the mean-section flow within an is one set of simplicity designs example constant. design is used radial variation in the of the for flow in a free is referred vortex.1 is used for the rVu=K This for is the such condition a swirl turbine. 1. the changes in axial velocity angle with changing radius become associated lengths. is the the in order efficiency). illustrated in subsequent shorter variations discussed (values and flow angles with all blade purposes and rt/rm in figure sections Free-Vortex becomes closer 3-11 of this with certain values The range of N that as the effects velocity blades of the diagrams become radial are Diagrams exponent N in equation (3-30a). critical Therefore. As the swirl distribution exponent N or decreases from a value of --1.6. to ensure mean-section diagram hub for diagram a diagram section diagram.56). mean. the axial velocities of N cannot be obtained can be used for design of rh/r. 9O (_h=0. more pronounced. aerodynamic parameter shown in figure 3-12 for the hub. mean-section in equation the radial and are radially constant. larger to 1). and with a radius ratio of 0. (pV_) is small. leaving the rotor from the if N=--I Thus. be conservative. The The associated while (_t----1. because diagram (3-31). Further. and the mass flow rate obtained velocity diagram can be used to represent the accuracy of the velocity of main 0. variation then the is the in this condition is specified at there is no radial variation UVu Thus. standpoint taken hub low-radius-ratio section. The radial variation is considerable. the tip Thus. distribution a free-vortex or a free-vortex The turbines free-vortex in which vast majority of axial-flow diagram is accounted for. When then a value of -. The on stage chapter. valid axial mass from entire design vortex An products both entering both the stator and rotor in specific work. satisfactory diagram having is very free-vortex from special an care especially diagrams is nearly symmetrical )_m of reaction hub (lowest selecting blades. the specific work computed for the entire flow..56). use This of freedesign is reasons for axial-flow turbines.

91 . 1. This in a blade sections having of such an overhanging bending stresses. of velocity-vector diagrams for free-vortex angle a.. varies results and tip For from the inlet causing of the in figure rotor thus 45 ° at the problems --38 ° at the a variation of 83 °.--Radial variation flow. variation the blade tip clearance space. blade is illustrated tip section.0 Tip section 3-12. Radius ratio..6 Hu_ section rm/r t ° O. tip.. fabrication The positioning in figure 3-13.8 Mean section rt/r t = 1. 60°. Stator mean-section exit eter Xm. in rotor inlet angle some hub angle.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS 45. mean-section speed-work param- FIGURE very high reaction tip diagram can also be troublesome because There case it is a illushub and a increases Another considerable trated to leakage across the potential problem radial 3-12. rh/r t = O... is that of rotor-blade twist. 30.

_ of 1.25 a blade in figure (N=0) and (N: ratio at a huba hubcorrespond to tip-radius to a blade no the --1) design. diagrams in figure for those ratio. ratio and ratio and decreases. for which.75. exist of 0._ of 0._:0).6._ radius r/r. cases exit and 1. free-vortex at a radius diagrams with with hubare. are to tip-radius hub hub to tip-radius ratio diagrams as shown are the same all cases. 1. diagrams are rotor particular of course. the the sections. for the The the The the designs The of the Illuscases superwheelmeansame of tip Gf tip classified under of non-free to alleviate free-vortex in diagrams 3-11. any closer 3-11.111. r/r.75 the are are so commonly the common used Diagrams used heading with the that all other some design. r/r. zero constant-flow-angle This is due to the selected quite . design.8. mean-section similar to diagram the free- radius exit swirl distributions. For For of 0.889 As the section.25._ values respectively. design section for 0. 0. solid-rotation.-/*- _ ip section \\ n FmURE 3-13. or are the non-free-vortex in figure (N-------2) designs designs 3-14 are are are the the (N=I) with which shown 1. relatively to show in figure for all correspond respectively. design.111 particular of r/rm corresponds There for axial the (az. ratios to the to the section vortex.889. At the having The 92 0. swirl velocity.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION .--Relative positioning of hub and tip sections of freeovorgex turbine. constar_t-flow-angle r/r. value mean values to the 3-14 no real any a blade blade arLd 1. compared Also and values diagrams. Non-Free-Vortex Free-vortex are often potential trated having vortex flow. sections. in an attempt variations disadvantages velocity associated radial variations illustrated constant-swirl design.

large below 0.150 (a) aNo real value for axial velocity.70 (N=0) and too the imaginary) and to tipdo is wheel-flow variation with (N=O) In exit For are (N--l) in hubdesign higher high cause hub-reaction radial on blades 1) design. higher than of a free-vortex 93 . FIGURE 3-14. flow design. cannot 0. design. has diagrams no (about severe the twist. stator velocities problems of the be sustained (N= at the to tip-radius constant-swirl wheel-flow velocities free-vortex higher addition.85 and than those and about for for the the these relative constant-swirl the blade-twist here for the However. relatively could turbines.flOf O.8.--Radial variation of velocity-vector distributions. The amount (N= blade variation super-vortex of twist --2) is more of stator-exit no advantage the is large with hubdiagrams free-vortex velocity ratios about designs number absolute below hub these Mach losses axial and the for free-vortex and twist for not be sustained (Vx becomes radius ratios much below 0. diagrams for various swirl vortex rotor-blade the stator The any case. appear axial on same while to have than velocity blades problems advantage the of high is that free-vortex of can- A possible constant-flow-angle has sort. 12°). and therefore.111 (a) 1. diagrams twist a small The radial and. low hub stator present reaction. The alleviate design. 250 (a) (a) 1. 889 O.VELOCITY Radial swirl distribution DIAGRAMS Ratio of radius to mean radius. rlr m Super vortex (N = -2) Free vortex (N = -l) Constant swirl (N = O) Wheel flow {N = 1) Constant flow angle 1.

rlrt = 1 16.58 M/_ 0.O.0.) add non- 94 . 9.77/ 4z" M =o.O.0 FmURE - -8 Sectionat r/rt ._ _'" &'i_ M. rlr t.68 (a) Tip section. °--__ 6 _r \ _ "_'_ Mr "0. (Diagrams from ref. of velocity-vector diagrams of free-vortex turbines.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION M ..74 -\ Sectionat rlr t .oW Mr" 1"01_'_ I1__./_. 3o /M0.67 (b) Tip section.--Comparison twisted (a) Free-vortex turbine.1. "7° _45. (b) Nontwisted turbine.

experimental designs. complexity from the numbers. to obtain COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR STUDIES VELOCITY-DIAGRAM This diagram staging. has from cannot rotor-twist designs been be results increased shown sustained improved flow flow radial per unit true a turbine conditions rate. non-free-vortex and. blades twist of constant in the 8 and with study design.85) than to more swirl Mach 30 ° for at the at free-vortex _. on the turbine hub design than variation velocity. 9 contain of reference velocity The twist eliminates free-vortex diagrams A large closely twist exit. is presented in reference which.72). designs associated as from in reference higher design However. basic their that aspects relation the of velocityto efficiency. to a swirl-distribution-exponent is eliminated. inlet and exit 7.VELOCITY DIAGRAMS A design termed design should results design in figure exit tions procedure for rotor design. design the blade-inlet (0. the best chapter selection. the use conditions. radial in axial the conditions. turbine procedures. and basis should and the tip design mean-section of the in in specific radial variacondimeanto gradient area. 9 are shown References designs for the vaIiation nontwisted nontwisted in axial present rotor the The rotor stator-exit has increased the hub the and hub design correspond the At tip. and blade hub-reaction other twist. much computerized is no real discussion. angle. average considerable be designed order is designed between proper complex design disadvantage. designs deviations been used It the reaction at the hub of the nontwisted design is improved of the free-vortex turbine. have however. at the for the free-vortex relative nontwisted is negative for the number nontwisted However. A non-free-vortex integrating work is. large all problems deviations free-vortex free-vortex as reported performance. stator than rotor. of a non-free-vortex of a freethis to with hub comsmall 10. is also to fabricate. Such a a "nontwisted" completely be easy comparing velocity 3-15. The more all feature Thus. and in stator that over designs. at (N) the The stator condivalue of from positive is higher (0. Although 10 ° for design. and has radial presented including variations. of m_n-free-vortex problems such increased spans. may may flow because flow not occur in mass rate designs of the represent if such the and With this therefore. design in this used radial therefore. of requires 95 It is evident determination diagrams and number for a given application . turbine. The two turbines have about the efficiency. some diagram of stages of the types. over that same The work tion tions error section by compute turbine vortex additional As seen alleviate free-vortex Mach plexity.

and Speed Requirements. (Vme=V_/cos of with a large small of as In includes rotor However. evolved One such The program the only radial allows entropy correlation program reflects values no real computer dependent independent tions This instead proven generated rotor and computer includes equilibrium program is described in references consideration of streamline-curvature equation radial loss exit information swirl of these meridional the (swirl solution velocity). STEWART. : Analytical in Terms 1958. WARNER Efficiency Characteristics in NACA RM E56G31. Requireof Two-Stagein L. WILLIAM T. of Multistage-Turbine Speed Requirements. work for a. such considerations. tasks. ciency RM STEWART. 96 . 3-11. : Analysis of Work and . AND WINTUCKY. in and in enthalpy addition. of Work ANY STEWART. of and a of Work Efficiency NACA RM WILLIA_a RM AND STEWART. been in efficiency. ments.._) variations these either in determining for blade using uses exit the stator it not loss This (which many there or is the in in condi- as an input 13 as distribution swirl) for find combinations cannot variable variable solution variation existence is indicated problem 14. 5. teristics ASME. 2. Investigation of Work and in Terms L. WINTUCKY.: Single-Stage-Turbine Speed Analysis RM E56J19. Characteristics Terms 4.of Two-Stage Speed RequireEffiNACA Counterrotating NACA 6. also reference and inputs. Terms 1961. 1956. WARNER Single-Stage Speed Downstream Analysis Requirements. Therefore.. 3.: Analytical Terms Investigation of Work WARNER Turbine with NACA WILLIAM T. STEWART. WARNER in Dec. in Terms L. STEWART. in meridional modified turbine (meridional distribution input velocity because velocity) The and radial but gradients in flow.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION many designs. in reference wherein velocity any the and radial shows is used successful reasonable in meridional REFERENCES 1.: of A Study Velocity of Axial-Flow Diagram Turbine Efficiency Paper Charac61-WA-37. ef swirl very with by figure has resulted as reported velocity has can be program designs velocity. T. WINTUCKY. variations from 11 and effects 12. WARNER Efficiencies 1958. variation modification. of Efficiency Stators 1957. Characteristics E57K22b. in a program variation The valid that as input. Parameters. specifications. 1957. L. Turbine ments. an internal a basis. L. meridional-streamline then such computer If it is desired are out to of the include and realm non-free-vortex radial of hand to variation calculaperform curvature analyses programs have effects. tion. WARNER Turbine E57L05. Characteristics E57F12...: of and L.

. PLATT. no. STEWART. 8. Program. WHITNEY.. S. 1969. pp. AND LENHERR. 9. AND LENHERR. of Axial Flow Turbines... II-Computer of Turbine 467-470. 245-250. July 1968.: Analytical Aerodynamic Characteristics of Turbines with Nontwisted NACA TN 2365. F. PLATT. E. Soc.: Analysis of Geometry and Design Point Performance of Axial Flow Turbines. 90. 1953. F.. F. Aeron. F. NASA CR-1181. Roy... 14. 1952. 1968. WARREN J. DORMAN. AND SILVE_RN. 12. DAVID H. I_. no. NASA CR-1456. 1951. vol. DIAGRAMS WILLIAM R.: Cold-Air Investigation of a Turbine with Nontwisted Rotor Blades Suitable for Air Cooling. : The Application of Controlled-Vortex Aerodynamics to Advanced Axial Flow Turbines. . I0. July 1965.. H. NACA RM E53G27. CR-1187.: Investigation of Turbines for Driving Supersonic Compressors. pp. WILLIAM R. J. Evaluation of Rotor Blades.. 655. . NACA RM E52A25. WELNA. T. R. AND WESTRA. CARTER. A. 3. 11.: Analysis of Geometry and Design NASA Point Per- formance 1968. LEONARD F.: Analysis of Geometry Point Performance of Axial-Flow Turbines Using Specified Velocity Gradients. A. F. SLIVKA. V-Design and Performance of Third Configuration with Nontwisted Rotor Blades. Efficiency. THOMAS R. M. M. SMITH. CARTER. WARNER L. : A Simple Correlation 69. vol. A. F. I-Development of the Analysis Method and the Loss Coefficient Correlation. 13. K. AND MONROE. DANIEL E. J.VELOCITY 7. HEATON. W. and DesignMeridional 97 . AND CARTER.. AND LINDLAUF. Power. SLIVKA. Eng.

m_. N. Btu/(lb) (°R) constant N distribution P R r 8 pressure. K. absolute m/sec.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) g h J K L m pressure conversion specific enthalpy. J/kg. speed. flow rate. reaction radius. ft 2 force. 1. blade absolute specific relative mass fluid angle density. speed-work parameter Subscripts: a first stage annulus component hub general ideal component mean section meridional net c due stage due to circumferential flow h i /d 1 m me to linear acceleration net r ro 8 radial rotor component component stator stage due to streamline curvature st 98 . ft J/(kg) °R m/sec. 1 . velocity. flow angle. kg/sec. velocity. lb constant. kg/ma. m/sec. m. deg lb/ft 3 (K) .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS A flow area. swirl number J/kg. volume. kg. T U V t) specific entropy. mass. ft/sec ft/sec ft3/lb ft/sec lb/sec deg W W o_ efficiency 8 k of rotation.778 (ft)(lb)/Btu proportionality loss. 32. Btu/lb conversion constant. temperature. mS/kg. Btuflb lb exponent lb/ft 2 of stages N/m_.

VELOCITY DIAGRAMS t _g tip tangential component axial component at stator inlet at stator at rotor exit exit or rotor inlet 0 1 2 Superscripts: -' overall absolute turbine total state 99 .


of axial blade throughout be long to be a minimum accurate as solidity first and structural nondimensionally (ratio will be discussed includes profiles. tries part in the assure spacing. the The The and first is the These step efficiency third step of design. theory. The with The chord in the exit turbine. dictates chord fabrication of blade (ratio part inlet basis of inof this geomelast the for is convelocities is determination are usually the evolution number and/or required the size.9_i. considerations connecting as well as the of this next procedures is then which profile discussed is the design. the to spacing). A_ .(L Y _. with the steps. This The the requirements particular was diagrams speed. speed. important overall the enough step desired 3. of the blading and covers blade conditions conditions chord can must integrity be expressed or axial profile chapter.Stewart nd a Arthur . The and is the design will produce flow angles by the velocity shape._f. which blade mechanical selection of the more by the the selected value during height fluid of the is set requirements diagram. chapter. chapter state state selected The which to spacing) many Blade the determination aspects of blade of flow. velocity consistent operation. of the of three major of flow.CHAPTER 4 BladeDesign By Warner L. in the analytical to accomplish is discussed _A_}l___ i_.. in chapter involves consistent discussed This blades. Glassman J The design of a turbine of the established of velocity of stages. Channel used solidity that which surface flow spacing some and overall by consists the This that diagrams. to allow and inlet usually siderations. work. second application. design. and chord volves chapter.

8 P spacing.V._._) where Fu tangential conversion blade density. mechanical decreased itself cussion with of chord or axial to spacing. is the chord selection of the blade A minimum weight.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SOLIDITY One of the important solidity. by the fluid 4-1 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (see 2) m . height fluid used inlet and are 4-1 shows ai_d (.17 s m/see . This solidity design standpoint reduction eventually section selection. ft lb/ft of velocity. The in previous taken and tang(_ntial-velocity inlet values component are positive direcof unit by the 2) is (4-1) flow angle as negative same then inlet 1 F. . blade the components direction. with are exit distribution as absolute rows use Since stages.2( tangential-velocity if in the the two-dimensional blades. component V_ Vu This due component forc_ exerted part to the static-pressure lower distribution of figure around as was discussed in chapter 102 static-pressure .. of reducing by in dis- is usually cooling blade the is limited results considerations. increased affecting diagram and the solidity. must shows ft/sec b(. aspects which and is the cost. efficiency aerodynamic the effect between and will concern The on solidity will be a for use to will include requirements Also included studied solidity. value flow. The than velocities. are being and the relation description suppress of advanced separation Effect permissible on inlet of Velocity a typical set Diagrams of blade around Solidity as well in this chapter referring in the blade from with slightly Figure as the figure pertains equations rows rather that and if the tions. _h(_ sam(. t h(_ blade. a typical _s the force of velocity. $2. absolute static-pressure shown we and than to rotor blade must figures.. a blade. N. relative we are concerned will differ the angle convention values. lb 1. rather chapter exit as well as to stator in this The to a rotor. ft/s(. flow through ar_ in opposite a passage exerted (subscript negative considers If one between as it flows two from tangential force (subscript 1) to exit V. kg/m'_._ .c m/see.. axial tangential tangential 2. constant. The force. that to separated factors blade blading thereby loading concepts reduce of velocity desired from blading the chord spacing flow. and due of turbine ratio However. =g smV.xit diagrams The velocities in this When velocities discussion bla(t(_ rows. chapters.

. is (4-3) 103 pressure. N/m2. N/m2. {T x _- -- 8 . X pressure-surface suction-surface axial axial distance. "'" rs. and surface static-pressure distribution between the flow in the around two tangential the blade curves direction.--Typical blade-row velocity diagrams distribution. E 4-1. of axial blade distance. m.Such'on'_--r- Vx. 1 --L y2_Vu._ C X --------_ pl P Pl 13- P2.BLADE Stations 1 DESIGN surface-'" "_ /. pressure. ft static static m._-_. The solidity. force acting The on area the represents F. lb/ft lb/ft 2 2 Pv P. ft ¢z.. mln Axial distance FIOUP. = c_ where C_ L' (pp- p_) d (4-2) axial chord... 2 .. row as a function the total Thus.

) d (4-5) pl' -. pressure. been first used is the we introduce the used actual /0 two tangential blade loading loading that and d loading by coefficients blade Zweifel (l) (ref. = where _Z (pp-- p. total that loading. t' _. 1). the static pressure pressure and equal pressure exit static surface to the inlet oil the suction to be constant form. assumed minimum coeffiit must can ex_b is de- pl r total pressure. is the N/m 2 or lb/ft2_ _.m. and form. In equation /o where p. lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 defined surface on that coefficient.min static in terms pressure on the and suction flow surface are in ex- of veloerity angle V_ = V sin a and V_ = V cos a 104 (4-7) (4-8) . have The This to relate widely is based static to an ideal assumes equal surface coefficient to be constant In equation introduced coefficient on the and to the (2) the on an ideal pressure pressure.. The pressed velocity as minimum components (pp-- p_) d (4-6) pl p- ps .p_ Zweifel inlet exit static The second static of static can never loading coefficient N/m2. P_ coefficient pressure pressure exceed is similarly on the (see a value suction of 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Substituting equations (4-1) and (4-2) into equation (4-3) then yields a_ = (4-4) g At this point.. The on the other ceed a value fined as of 1. that This the loading hand. fig. 4-1) Zweifel constant value cient ahvays to the purposes. N/m2. coefficient for all practical loading be less than 1. this second except is equal surface.

1) at the blade (V. in equation 1) sin 2a2 = used to represent a measure of surface. loading is it velocity-diagram solidity Since greatly. and (4-8) into equation trigonometric sin 2a = 2 sin a cos a yields mVQ (K1) sin 2a2 VQ (K1) sin 2a2 (4--9) where inlet K is the to that ratio of tangential at the and blade velocity exit. which that shows particular cannot that exceed the solidity a value results parameter requirement. where Let V_ is the velocity on the suction surface where parameter p = p_... Bernoulli's equation P'= 1 P-k--z pV 2 zg (4-10) (K-1) into equation sin2a_ (4-9) (4-10) can be used. of 1. This deceleration is an blade to separate. relations.W. D. relation (4-7)._. does primarily not a.2) Derivation velocity pressible and flow of incompressible-flow loading With are with no loss._D. deg (4-5) ft/sec Substituting (4-4) and or (4-6).. component (Vu.--Relations usually evolved by this assumption. incom- diagrams. as us now define a suction-surface diffusion D_ = V_ 2 (4-12) Many parameters the deceleration indication this of the definition of this type have been of the flow on the suction susceptibility (4-12)) (K_ = (eq. involving assuming density solidity. fluid flow angle._. equations using the m/see. suction- decreasing in increased 105 .. p is constant. vary or a. Substituting (K-1) equation sin2a2 yields - (4-11) ¢ . Using (4-11) (Kyields 1) sin 2a2 (4-13) of the flow on the Equation constant coefficient can be seen (4-13) for each _.BLADE DESIGN where V ot fluid velocity.

must It impulse. (4-14) of the angle given In the each which shows flow for exit inlet this is expressed that angles angle. solidity value Thus. then yields Substitution (4-17) wkere 106 Aa is m--a2.a=Vx.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION surface later gential 4-2(a). The if excessive as the be seen increase decreasing toward suction-surface is to be avoided. repreparameter diagrams any given an exit with and of K <encountered chapter. equation where (4-14) V. Positive same blades. one in terms this decreasing 2 as Wl 2 A third be evolved. angle. for the consequence parameter values a reaction blade. reaction of 45 ° . solidity several an represents blade. Solidity of the parameter with is plotted with several in figure increasing solidity increases inlet parameter region of most interest 0 °.. (4-13) the can equation of K. of blade reaction was defined in chapter R--l---V= 2 (4-15) Substituting equation (4-8) into equation (4-15) yields R= 1-( c°s a2_ 2 \cos al/ (4-16) for the two-dimensional. values solidity decreases can solidity only in terms parameter of the _ angle can coefficient _.2.). of equation incompressible-flow (4-16) 2 _=--x/l-Z. value and represents exit primarily solidity sents increases diffusion move value diffusion in this velocity A value of K=tangential parameter (higher The K ratio D. This the case where with from of the flow.R sin Aa back into case. exit. for R. of which is plotted of exit blade and values flow will be discussed against angle axial with the tana 1 in figure inlet. angle relation the only. ax_z O/1 sin (m-- a2) (4-14) For brevity. a2 <-45°). . a parameter inlet (m> flow be expressed against 4-2(b). Equation in terms exit flow For angle. inlet (4-13). in the of rotor of K=0 1 represents impulse a value and are a negative reaction velocities is equal there of K represent equation solidity velocity that for direction angles in the tip sections As seen from to zero for all exit is no turning K values. a xnaximum of solidity parameter is obtained of the inlet exit angle Equation angles be modified derived 2 COS COS to a function in reference o_2 to yield 1. can for K = 1.

_ or 120 g 2__--_. FIGURE 4-2. R .50 Reaction. I -30 -45 -60 -75 Exit-flow angle.5 I I I J -1. % deg 3 [-- ! .and inlet-flow angles.. (b) Effect of exit.75 I. E 1-- -75 or -15 -60 or -30 (a) O °. (c) Effect of reaction and turning angle.5 -1.BLADE DESIGN Exit-flow angle.. Turn ing angle.25 . 25 0 . m x O % deg -45 __ X tD t.--Effect of velocity diagrams on solidity. z_ deg . 107 . O0 (a) Effect of tangential-velocity ratio and exit-flow angle._ 0 -.. K 3F _lnlet-flow angle.5 0 -.. Y.0 Tangential velocity ratio.

deg Exit angle.90 Tip 0 .70 0. deg Solidity parameter. values The varies the The the with solidity solidity angle solidity turning the parameter parametor in figure parameter unless radial both was the very in terms is plotted 4-2(c). ffz_ z Hub 0 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Equation reaction reaction that. an impulse free-vortex and tip and equation velocities. of 90 ° and are used. to parameter The radius) axial to and table can bc made is directly blade inversely proportional spacing proportional . reasonably proportion the hub row Let us now determine shown solidity radius 108 in the preceding blade variation (because in any tip values physically be of solidity consistent. (leg Solidity parameter. parameter is a maximum or very variation. shown corresponding computed table: Stator Rotor Inlet angle. diagrams. decreases for high of blade against with inlow of turning solidity little It can be seen a turning as indicated reaction. creasing angle turnings Radial diagrams and value flows radial of axial (zero varying and (4-17) turning for several expresses angle. to the and directly solidity constant assumption parameter. that the from angle that that This us convention of previous the is to how a loading being chapters. previously. inlet of -70 Since 3 discussed in order there nature swirls).7.--Chapter that velocity must occur equilibrium.83 --2 --63 .62 . axial variations varying shown variation to in velocity blade vary in the inlet speed with desired and exit exit the to satisfy solidity will be a radial of this radial turbine constant rotor swirl the (4-14) are variation having axial hub will be illustrated axial a constant this ease. hub-to-tip-radius flow angle flow values angles a single-stage of 0. used in this chapter stator exit is someangles the Herein. Assume enables coefficient desirable solidity and must _b_ is to be maintained condition. The exit Consider and ratio °. deg Exit angle. by an example.64 54 --54 1. and hub from at the solidity. with For in the a stator-hub solidity-parameter following distribution. ffx_z Inlet angle.79 Note what are again different negative. radially.

cocfficient cases.. of compressibility.min in equation shown loading (4-9) reduces (4-13).45. axial a considerable chord at the tip hub which axial can increase of the were rotor. (4-18) and the (1-64)) using of D.nin where equation between (1-61). (eqs. flow or (4-17). so that solidities standpoint especially a radial Theredesired is 1. axial at the desirable. fore. If axial the from radius axial be half For chord of the tip the solidity stator. division flow conditions.90X0. (eq. of the larger is to to hub and yield solidity then the 1. taper tip. (4-12)).. from relations (1-52).7=0. axial chord desired to tip increasing hub can decrease tip in the rotor desirable and radial the there fabrication solidity only aerodynamically is also mechaniTo simplify taper With is not the those effect on of reducing for smaller of the loaded.c such is the incompressible (4-14). yields to 1/D. velocity and By introducing pressure definition critical (1-63). axial this where turbine Effect the used and case chord corresponding the higher parameter at the tip. held value axial of taper chord. In the If axial axial than often radius cally used. equation ax..--Thc pl r- p*. would of 0.90. the (4-9) as same by equation coefficient (4-13) a compressible flow case having of equation ¢ as for incompressible by equation 1 2g t_ V_D' O"x (4-18) _*. have especially a severe plt-Ps.directly proportional to parameter corresponding 0. of 0. desired in rotor yield Therefore. an as (4-13). term variation in many selected variation blading in loading mean-section in many will not on the basis in loading is not highly diagrams. were desired constant.83. hub axial parameter value is often would so that is almost with the constant. axial velocity coefficient. blade turbines. used solidities at the which from Taper but stress. to and density.79. is modified 109 . held the axial solidity then the be the is 0. ratio. tip value is still hub from with solidity parameter value blades the is not from results lower the cases. For for incompressible flow. value as determined the (1-3).64X0.

50 -- Exitcritical-velocity ratio. inC where 7 Vc.__1. 110 .0 . The increases effect represented 1. Then..._ The (V ratio approximation diffusion 4-3. values increasing solidity 1. can be approximated O" x . either compressibility 2._.--Effect of compressibility on axial solidity.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 0"2: (4-19) 7'+1 V-c. or decreases for any decreases of 2.1 a_. = 2. expansion at constant pressure to specific heat at ft/sec and by neglecting as the secondary terms. the required for several pronounced of less than of (V/Vc_)_. For D. 2 O'X . (V/Vcr)2 1.2 . The parameter compressibility from with value _'+1 by e 2(7+1) equation ratio effect a value of ( V (4-20) values becomes is quite of critical more (4-20) good for Vcr)_ values in figure up to about solidity _x/¢=. At D._ is plotted against velocity is no suction-surface as D. there values V. equation ratio of specific heat constant volume critical by using (4-19) velocity.r) 2.6 0 . s d O FIGURE 4-3.50 1 I 2 3 Suction-surface iffusionparameter. binomial m/sec. 25 O 1.

_. solidity increases with increasing (V/V_r)2. ) With equation the use (4-21) of the definitions to of D. with turbine 5) the two blade terms loss involving with both A reaction Attempts overall been and suction-surface loss with could not parameter and diffusion parameters. reduces D=D. _ =_D_ Substitution yields 2 COS COS _2 _1 . blade is an of blade in reference includes and that important loss 2 and two solidity. definite trend but complete blade different not Consider figure 4-4(a). (4-22) (4-23) (4-14) into equation (4-22) then of equations (4-23) and D _z_ sm Aa--R (4-24) This relation and (ref. should be maintained below about Relation It is well recognized pressor Correlation described This reflecting evolved parameter energy neglect is assumed parameter turning is defined on the suction that the =0).i. loss give the with values of increasing correlation diffusion of reaction loss. (4-21 (4-15)). to correlate (ref. to Solidity of a turbine of both within blade of Loss loading function a is used terms. value since of D do in near 111 solidity same first of reaction is reduced as shown qualitatively high value As reaction a relatively .. a region of good that design is only of academic the interest ratio D. (Vp. values because it is beyond limits practice.. An or of a comand reaction. is like solidity.BLADE DESIGN For Do values of more the than 2.. enough as If it to diffusion 3. have 4) that for made compressors. Such alone would giving on loss. (4-12)) and R (eq. ratio pressure surface the Dwith the Experience has shown that 2 to avoid excessive losses. was solidity the reaction compressor widely analogous one reflecting in reference diffusion parameter compressor parameter and the second diffusion in kinetic energy. where for the case of the turbine as the and then pressure an overall kinetic is low of the sum of the minimum diffusion decelerations surfaces to the exit velocity overall 2 parameter is defined V.-R As seen from equation (4-13). a correlation of be expected. was field. from not the same was established.- V22+ V12 V_ 2 (eq. the effect increasing diffusion be obtained.

as the The blading increases. The value in blade by the loss. surface is usually in figure loss encountered of solidity at some surface hand. A minimum of the opposing Reaction. (b) Solidity.ox FIGURE 4-4. because diffusion of as a result of characteristics regime. .TURBINE unity. reaction tion flow of the The frictional on the of these DESIGN AND APPLICATION occurs with from a gradual values reaction are highly desired increase cause the is caused discussed accelerating in many when solidity. R o . in boundary-layer negative avoided is used. A minimum the amount is reduced. is increasing loss occurs suction-surface change 6) reductions This nature variaof the reaction because in there in loss varies high effect to negative (which loss to increase in chapter to diffusing. although applications. conventional As solidity is increasing. trend with reaction and solidity. surface area the optimum per on loss is indicated 4-4(b).--Loss 112 (a) Reaction. loss occurs other As solidity loss per area the increased diffusion factors. unit flow unit required.-I (b) Axialsolidity. Further rapidly.

angles. value.a_). can and Solidity have been made value in figure represents to identify when the of the in equa4-5 (a) experimental _b.8. stagger angle in was 4-6. In gencral. is equal solidity The the According coefficient axial to reference 1. of many disvalues velocity of turning. as flow angles solidity. as mentioned not exceeding 2. with blade obtained The in this four is seen model and the was axial used in reference Thus. minimum By using be determined loss occurs this (4-14). where here 6 from solidities. such corresponding as Reynolds rate about and to the number.BLADE DESIGN parameter factors tribution. are rather from angle and are (inverse angle coefficients. and of inlet 6 to relate optimum exit angles. These the importance values loss. function reaction in relative various optimum curves solidity the from the exit the nounced of figure exit maximum Loss coefficients blades based on cascade ratio replotted impulse curves larger region not the It must obtained blade data blades here indicate are of in reference and against exit 8 as a for for the in As pro- of pitch/chord terms. the penalties more as solidity curves shape velocity such optimum Thus. because _COS as (4-25) An analytical to the solidity figure determined measured The solidity were 4-5(b). For flat solidity. be recognized by using a given and 4-7 are usually optimized is somewhat and varying distribution of such a spacing. solidity (al = 0) and These the in the does (al = . solidity. and some increase becomes in figure negative) any of selecting deviation in loss. determined as optimum to be quite close a figure figure 4-5(b) for this case.0 are used. shape resultant and the cannot be correlation for each clouded. dashed blading. significance 113 . optimum the stagger _X this is plotted for a wide In order of angles. more departs as those (more cause become of exit angle. optimum shape solidity of suction is a function surface previously. it is necessary as. for impulse (long-short) values angle in terms to determine to determine of actual solidity. values of actual solidity as a function of reference the rotor data with as shown efficiency in figure such efficiency authors way different 6 compared of reference in reference to that as shown yielding presented solidity) 4-7 an optimum 7. loading and of Optimum attempts to 0. Selection Both optimum Zweifel tion the locus analytical solidity. of minimum minimum optimum gets the loss significant loss region severe that blade smaller. blade-row of points optimum inlet range and as a function curve exit flow angles.

deg FIGURE 4-5. (b) Actual solidity. I I m \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \70 % \ deg \80 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (b) o -20 -30 I I I I -70 I -80 -40 -50 -60 Exit-flow angle.---. solidity.8.o2. Zweifel loading 114 .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Inlet-flow 6-- \ \ angle. of inlet and exit angles on optimum coefficient _= =0. _ _ _ _ "_ -----Impulse -.--Effect (a) Axial solidity.1_ I I I I Inlet-flow angle. \ \ \ \ _1_ \ -2 Typeof bladerow _4 _ "" _.Decelerating "_3- 40 \ \ \\\\\ \\ g' 1 (a) o1.

The figure with that not and time mental factors optimum 4-7 those are obtained for most curves impulse with results that exit the act solidities plotted between exit-angle do cross (al = -a_) angle analytical pertain to determine obtained exit and values. o 3. blade is the analytical solidity the reaction All that profile.8 FmURE 4-6..ient. a2.0 Solidity. in a manner particular optimum .--Variation 10.0 2. % _ _ >" 80 .BLADE DESIGN •9O _ Optimumsolidity from Number blades • _ . analytical experimental variations can and agreement good the experimental Although for both the involve similar..5 FIGURE 4-7.0 3.6 2.86 .5 2.2 I [ 1..5 Solidity.-- of efficiency with solidity for four turbines Exit-flow angle. other not blading. \ \ 8-i ------ Reaction blades(ol = O) Impulseblades = -a2) (al \ _ _I 6'_ __ "_-40 4 I ""*- _ .8 I 1. (c_ = 0) blading in optimum be said the there are that at this experimany we do 115 indicated many solidity is that assumptions. o I 2.--7o Ol 1..4 o o 24 of 64 " I 2. 88 • .---Effe(:t of solidity and exit angle on blade-loss coeffi(. deg i" -70 _ -60 I of reference 7. results from angle shown the cascade 4-8 the the results and are shown compared results and It is obvious in against analytically the each are just to one in figure in figure and 4-5(b).

on the principle is utilized of separation. in figure which such 4-7. 2). 4-7 Inlet-flow angle. not are yet more fully results. understand.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ------ Based analytical esultsof fig. test references The minated 116 is suppressed treatment layer the Two past.8 mental as those is to use recommended is slightly in reference Ultralow-Solidity In the occurring some The approach boundary increasing the are blade. separation on the and surface To achieve modification the associated of the boundary solidity. results.9 such values Analytical to determine shown to 1. respectively. by suction. blades tandem treatment Cascade and are summarized 11 to 14.2 -a 2 1-0 E -(]2 o -30 I -40 I I I -10 I -80 -50 -_ Exit-flow angle. losses })e utilized do not could boundary layer been have. as the plain.(]p deg of optimum FIGURE 4-8. to reduced treatments energizing of the concepts concepts blades. frequently optimum than experipractice the 0. 4-_b) on r Based experimental on resultsoffig. the limitation suction in blade to reductions of the high Such concept must layer Blading in solidity blade. the success.0. turbulence of these alternate and the concepts 9 and jet-flap boundary by use of turbulators Certain blade jet-flap tandem applying blade and in figure as well boundary-layer to stator blades 10.--Comparison solidities. respectively. al. 1. used of 0. are rotor tests in the the have that which and region has such occur. with better marginal potential 4--9. Turbine are presented in references results of low-solidity rotors are presented in references jet-flap that. deg . illustrated concepts blades removing by blowing. (perhaps although the front a high value foil is terthen diffusion tandem blade of suction-surface at about remaining . The with 15 and low-solidity operates diffusion the point 16. ¢. as those solidity Current higher of figure are than design 4-5. of separation include layer explored perhaps. Studies alternate tandem. in is one the or on been lower that separation solidities.

_. Suctionsurface IJ _ e'- 6I I° 4 Pressure surface f_ I 2 __ .percent FIGURE 4-10. This jet edge. a secondary air stream main stream.-O.BLADE DESIGN Tandem blades Jet-flap blades FIGURE 4-9. I 20 I I I 80 I 100 0 40 60 Axialchord.-. 117 . substantially blade velocity increasing througl_ distributions its momentum. takes The trailing the own place on the rear foil with mainstream a clean boundary layer thc and with perhaps out the the rear 20 to 30 percent of the air going through slot. jetting moves jet-flap blade operates with edge perpendicular to the point around the Figure 1.---Jet-flap experimental velocity distributions..2 the jet 4-10 trailing delivers shows In addition. some thereby force to the stagnation lift.0 (-1 Jeton (4 percentflow) 0 Jetoff . experimental 1.--Low-solidity blading concepts.[:r _.

new just station The diagram which within and edge loss. at the blade diffusion trailing the diagram now approaches approaching reduced. effect shows the the Trailing of the suction consistent This blade surface with exit section the includes throat the and trailing the the As of the edge..2. the edge. trailing reference the blade discussion significant 4-11. an increase effect in chapter of the in trailing-edge is discussed addition. the potenbe confor closely on the and the The suction is substantially concepts air flow offer suppressing for solidity only purposes. inlet the be and blade considerations. In an increase turbine-loss also has further in the trailing-edge will be made at station on the flow blockage blockage blade example diagram blade Consideration exit-velocity use of figure used..--In the design it is wise to utilize considerations. 2a than A sections region. load off and The on. required length has of the The The inlet been inlet and DESIGN selected the blade and exit parts and itself exit the must blade spacing and must the the loss. there pressure is no a requirement shape. tandem-blade jet flap. with the as part blade with The velocity the obtain blade this the smallest shown in in a 17. which area at station trailing-edge is constructed in a higher just been trailing-edge results have reduced trailing-edge equations blockage that 2. the the on the suction coefficient _ more surfaces to be equal a rectangular unity.. is located due to the at region. a secondary will probably the jet-flap-blade reductions.. thickness causes thickness exit region. however. blade determination a smooth. mechanical trailing edge. is required as blade BLADE-PROFILE After determined This involves to and connecting designed channel exit must the blade from surface provide thc free the chord solidity profiles. thus tial other Both sidered Also. tendency to separate. geometries of the between efficient surface flow turning Exit transition profiles with connecting minimum provide Consideration throat. which is located "within-the-blade" at 2a include conservation of tangential V. effect 7. be designed. With loading surface the and jet on. = V. between of turbines.2 momentum: (4-26) and continuity : (p S COS or2 _)_ (4-27) 118 . beyond used to nomenclature 2a. for applications such where cooling. stream.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION around longer one such blade with for the with the jet velocities edge.

whether choking cannot in general. technique conditions or minimum becomes used successfully and a straight dimenIf one surface 119 sion makes assumes "inside-the-trailing-edge" flow . where between t is the trailing-edge from equations 2a and thickness. row trailing-edge important such that with of 2a to become be obtained. the blade blade as is often exit the (station (65 ° or greater) region. The preceding is often blockage the design Mach number and the to be station equations and specified can cause flow rate a velocity-diagram 2a can also be the at the as at station from the large 2) Because number subsonic choked. (4-26) The 2 to bc either to produce at station assumptions. suction aspect to give this the flow accelerating of the the throat design procedure.--Since.BLADE DESIGN Station 1 0 $ FIQU_E 4-11. by The (since flow angle the the to have asa flow an is determined stations are usually (4-27) must assuming incompressible changes small) or isentropic. 4-11) in meters and blade or feet.--Blade section and nomenclature. a rather velocity as a nozzle. the determination critical diagram. flow 3Iach in the high inside a turbine fig. opening o (see One in row operates area. therefore. It is. will occur to determine Throat. be designed angle determined angle blade exit angle of a2a in order 2 outside the blade row. use of the no change up to the throat.

the such that i\[ach supersonic this computed sonic exit must be modified to the than the about channel condition be located at the back numbers is obtained. achieved additional case. ft 2 flow. m. that the If it is assumed "free-stream" 1 8 cos (T2a cos a:_ (4-28) in meters velocity station 0 -= 8 COS or feet. a convergentcan be and the In by this the passage low supersonic 1. 8 compares angle position with give similar by equation (4-29). This deviation as well as larger dimension as gradients determined the blade-row throat-opening applies within throat 5[ach to the the equation velocity. occurs exit downstream dimension from o would the throat. for expansion blade dimension expands to a supersonic to account 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION between obtained equation: the from throat the and velocity station diagram 2a. the following (4-29) flow the For agreement of up to 5 ° for exit angles to 35 ° . than occur comparison deviations due to lower the throat. flow. then q2 (4-29) When the (4-28) measured this and method of the (4-29)) exit-flow indicates solidities is used. loss do not change between the and 2. then the throat 2a by dimension using the can be at station following o( = where throat o is the and the throat opening. be computed expansion channel (4-30) o = o_ \A _} where throat opening computed velocity. condition choking numbers case wherc row must throat within For greater flow is subsonic. it has if the throat flow required equation: been found that satisfactory performance is still located at the exit of the channel.3). (throat) divergent perhaps. dimensions. The or If the from exit. This 60 ° and could be across (4-28) then at the section (up to.. ft m2. 120 flow area flow area for sonic for supersonic . predicted at exit down angles that from exit thickness Both Reference greater would methods changes (cqs.3. me. throat angles close the effect but throat those of trailing-edge not its length. fC" from equation (4-28) or (4-29) for 058 supersonic Act A.

regions.8.4 1 FIGUttE 4-12.1 Mach 1 I number I 1.--The edge as structural and associated surface flow between selection on the suction integrity losses. trailing-edge on the ()f the loaded great.9-- Rt 1. 5Iach blade tail of the blade.--Variati(m ill flow area with supersonic flow Mach munl_er. are specified long are permissible. selected conventional throat and additional gas-turbine h)ading integrity blading between to the exit. discussion losses to prevent as would and surface be indicated in order the that edge keep are of surface flow acceleration Principal lowflimsy. if the is less than (greater curvatures of curvature edge the (. on loss can become higher 5[ach suction surface should trailing from throat has an effect velocity edge suction-surface is improved of remaining In general. t)y figure a wedge If eonv(. values some This and long trailing and structurally amount permits it adds the 0. Suction surface be made edge design. the throat decreases distribution. downstream throat number assumed from and isentropic throat. A "straight unity) or transonic paragraph.xit Mach Therefore. than effect 4-13 the 0. number between velocity if the constant. (approximately High subsonic next in the low. 8). blading structural by introducing is used. and in the desired resulting trailingfrom suction-surface diffusion back" blading. on the tail problems solidity 5lost ture fusion ably at curw'd from effect the the trailing must level of the considerations level (D_). in figure the such 5[ach surface with 4-12. of curvasome difangle of this (which curvature the effect in for the on the instead be lower is considerpreclude with designs a straight low D.ntionally on loss is not exit-flow severe.8).BLADE DESIGN 1. This exit.0 ¢3 . area throat of the surface type and of is shown between from region. distribution to trailing 121 . of D. uses this of the and the design and type blade the blade when edges is used trailing low values by the associated the can become utilizes region. surface is small. area correction. curvature At higher As indicated number numbers design The and type ref.

a tendency must blade bIade at the exit. the leading which in curvature the velocity be used to minimize Blade-Surface Once task 122 the leadingand trailing-edge them with Profile geometri('s a profih_ that. (4-26) be taken contraction for thc choking.\lach blade less critical large is genlead5 [ach high 5[ach as were a relatively number row.2 . have yields been the selected.8 Ratio ofblade spacing surfaceradiusofcurvature to FIauR_ 4-13.4 . to choke used and inlet and edges ellipses. a blade-inlet to check this opening for bladeis arbitrary in the and as can leading such edge. in the and care the ing edge bccomes concern can for low-reaction lead the to high area blading binding. with velocity-distribution associated peaks edge. Other around peaks. and surface curvature Inlet The than erally number velocities diffusion numbers.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Mach number 1. losses.- j m _\\ L°7 . blade blade because through row is usually inlet. values With and of low-reaction i:_creased Equations and arc excessively high inlet which region of suction-surface is not so severe (4-27). required the flow remaining is t:o join . earl usually and then the case toward that inlet.6 . a serious In inlet of a turbine At increases the be used. on both selection circular the suction- curvatures velocity leading in undesirable portions permit of the variations or eliminate geometries. and The high leading-edge low at the inlet blading. _). leading-edge the exit-region radius geometry geometry. the the . can also be used flow angle to det('rmin(' 5[aeh usually number "within-the-blade" circular limit result the region. Although could can leading-edge pressure-surface leading freedom The large edges of specified.--Variation of between profile throat h)ss with and exit Math (from numl_er ref.0 __o .

to the to both procedure of the describe the flow conditions the blade diffusion in figure required suction and. _ I ¢". Since the design nature.Tip NN _:: / .BLADE DESIGN turning desigu Two pressure turn velocity of these procedures The the and a satisfactory must sufficient major flow occur as a result Radial as a result influence should the flow analysis and velocity to impose across of the distribution design the controls arc channel around through (e.. FIGURE 4-14. velocity variations.1 ._. of a quasi-three-dimensional as the basis for these available to perform channel procedures putations computer are discussed Pressure surface7 _ Suction _su rface .:.i:!_.-Pressure surface Cross-channel Suction surface_. distribution.::::::_i_!| Tip : _i_ Rotorf_ii!i| _ °-- "'.-Hub Velocity (b) (a) Cross-channel (b) Radial variation. distance (a) __ -'Nl . variation._::. variations therefore. 'lEi.. the the blade. occur factors used static-pressure in streamlinc velocity serves difference position considerations.. The rows 4-14.. considerations illustrated from gradients surface flow. design comthe of radial-equilibrium the blade-surface be at theory in the ncxt least that programs chapter. to an accuracy Velocity limits).--Turbine blade-row 123 .:_.g.

Apr.. on Wake Turbine Rotors. LUEDZRS. SEYMOUR. and NASA and NASA AND on 1972. of Certain Turbine Bind- 124 .: Some Blade Experimental Loading. 8. of a Highly Effect of Loaded. FRANCIS and AND BEODERICK.. amination Parameters. Experimental Rotor-Blade NACA HELLER. no. ROY with STANLEY Turbine G.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION REFERENCES 1. Losses NACA Limiting E531)O1. Turbine AND VANCO. NOSEK. Experimental CR-1803. STEWART. BETTNER. in Three-Dimensional 69-WA/GT-5. 1969. BETTNER. JAMES W. WosG. NASA JA_ES Tandem JAMES Jet HERMAN and TN H. and Ratio Two-l)imensional X-2183. Geometry ing. 1945.: Use of Effective NACA 5. Large Angular 2. Stator 1971. and ])esign J. Blade.. Jm.: Blade Tandem M. Blade Design. WARREN in Blade H. tion 13. AND Viscous 1956. BETTNER. PRUST. L. sion Deflection. AND CAVlCCHI. LIEBLEIN.. J. of Axial-Flow Britain. Affected by Changes Geometry. Cascade of 0. Loadings in Axial-Flow- Compressor 3. a RM Losses ROSE L. for Four 6. Especially 12. Trailing-Edge Stator Low Flap Thickness 1)-6637. Concepts Nov.5. Y. RM ARTHUR 1953.:Two-Dimensional Cascade TM X-1836. Two-Dimensional E55BOS. Solidity 16. WARREN Diffusion 67-WA/GT-8.: l)esign Rotor. STEWART. of NACA l).: W. with pp. 92. L.. Designed 1970. AND Council. Experimental CR-1968. 198-206. 1967. Designed RICHARD at Investigation Conservatively E52C17. 11. STEWART. MICHAEL Using R. AND ROELKE. Solidities.. Pressure Aeronautical 9. l)esign Rotor. G. 1955.. NOSEK. L. Results J. R. 17.: the Flow and 2891.: Ratio Two-Dimensional Chord to Spacing JOHN Turbine X-1991. A. C. STABS.: Ex- WARNER GLASSMAN. . O. R..: TM NASA AND KLINE. WHITNEY. vol. NOSEK.: Correlation with of Turbine-BladeParameter and for Cascade Element Momentum in RM Thickness Diffusion of Subsonic Turbine W. MATHIESON. 10. L. F. C. of of Two vol. Blade ROBERT Factor for Estimating Blade Elements. Test of a Rotor l)_ign with Two-Dimensional of Axial Chord of a Jet-Flap NASA TM Turbine X-2426.: Diffu- SCHWENK. Eng. Turbine An Examination Turbines. Nov. cepts 2. Blading. WHITNEY. Momentum RM E56B29. Losses in Blade Rows Gt. AINLEY... the Performance Results 1971. JAMES STANLEY Loaded Turbine Blade ASME. 1955. AND STEWART. Characteristics of Axial-Flow Paper WARNER Blade-Lolling ASME.: The Spacing Brown of Turbo-Machine Rev. J.. in ])escribing Turbine Rotor-Blade Losses. Investiga- of Axial U. 15. 1952. M. Stator 1970. Blade 12.: of a Highly Loaded. RONALD M. 4. MISER. Results 1972. Dec. Boveri 436-444. ROBERT Losses a Series Transonic JAMES WARNER Blades NACA L.. G. Turbomachine RM JACK E56F21. to Increase pp.. Cascade of a Turbine STANLEY Turbine ROY G. AND MISER. 1969. J. L. G. STABE.5. Summary of Tests Cascade on Two Highly Paper Sector. Solidity. HELON. AND NASA KLINE. JOHN NASA F. Conno.. Based Thickness 1956.: Four of Rep. ZWEIFEL. Test of 0. Low L. Test TM Power. : R&M Research L. 32...: Analysis WARNER AND of 7. Cascade to Spacing 1971. Jet-Flap 14. WHITNEY.

32. coefficient coefficient lb/ft defined defined loading Subscripts" cr inc max rain opt p s ss u x 1 2 2a critical incompressible maximum value minimum optimum pressure suction supersonic tangential surface surface component value axial component blade row inlet blade within row exit edge of blade row trailing Superscript" ' absolute total state 125 ._/V. chord. ft 2 parameter 1. from from at a by equation by equation (4-6) (4-5) t V X trailing-edge distance. m. angle angle m._) m. solidity loading _bz pressure kg/m'_. ft axial direction. constant fluid absolute o_8 ratio of specific heat constant volume density. deg deg to specific heat at m/sec. m.17 (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) of velocity ( V_ . spacing. ft ft/scc axial direction. stagger velocity. lb conversion constant. pressure. lb/ft components _ P R 8 m.BLADE DESIGN SYMBOLS A C flow area. ft D F g K o force.. diffusion m_. ft thickness. N. ratio throat absolute reaction blade absolute axial blade of inlet opening. ft to exit tangential N/m2.


requires calculation field the velocities on the blade theory for several methods programs chapter presents calculation and developed at discusses associated computer Lewis Research Center. To calculate assumptions to flow at this NASA field of distribution time throughout because velocity of the flow through made. directly. two-dimensional three-dimensional surfaces. A flow solution on the hub-to-shroud shown but provides stream in figure surface does (commonly not (fig. we are over two of the will parts to a method surfaces. blade-surface blade-to-blade solutions. The cannot nonsteady. actual velocity be calculated viscous. 5-1 (b)) and orthogonal surface the desired blade-surface velocities. This used for this that were in the flow last section in order of to the also 4. of the as indicated blade-row surfaces.CHAPTER 5 Channel Analysis Flow ByTheodore Katsanis The chapter determine analysis design of a proper blade profile. simplifying simplified surfaces Similar mean surface). There tribution formulation of the problem. various The a blade-row extreme geometrically therefore. and streamthe For the one of these problem. flow complexity three-dimensional a theoretical must be complex certain flow is Such distribution. discuss (stream-filament) of analysis The second and first part to obtain part is the is the numerical formulation mathematical mathematical potential-function The methods and velocity-gradient methods. stream- . surfaces are used for an axial-flo(v turbine. information required (fig. passages. problem. yield for the 5-1 (c)) called the meridional velocities surface which a velocity mathematical solution of the and potentialyield dis5-1 (a). on or through are illustrated in figure 5-1 for the case of a radial-inflow turbine.

--Surfaces used for velocity-distribution calculations.-blade surface] I (a) 0_) . surface.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Hub-to-shroud stream surface -_ | Blade-_. FIOURE 5--1.. 128 .Ortho_nm (c) (a) Hub-to-shroud stream surface. (b) Blade-to-blade (c) Orthogonal surface across flow passage.

pressure are uniform the across additional the potential-function flow is absolutely curl Y = VX V =0 vector. to a for solutions The (1) surface Thus. (7) The The The For fluid total the has a constant heat and flow is isentropic. has no boundary as if the free layer. irrotational. the ideal-gas given is rotating.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS function solution. The methods A similar will be described type of analysis equation assumptions herein: relative point the is steady at any system. 129 . stream fluid is nonviscous. lb/ft S (K). relative but changes the particle rotation is zero. temperature streamthat and the total capacity. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) K. absolute pressure. in a frame because of reference has rotated. although the the to the a hypothetical of reference. with shows instant frame figure 5-2 absolute example. analyses. of reference has rotated. Y is the do at not may times shape absolute change change. fixed (2) of analysis on any of the discussed in deriving the would blade. assumption is made Therefore. are relative to the blade-to-blade surface surface. °R lb/ft 2 (5-1) gas constant. and Intuitively. The blade-surface velocity is calculated. extends to the blade surface. In the shape orientation absolute at a later the frame time. velocity on the blade be steady fluid obeys p=pRT where p p R T absolute density. J/(kg) N/m_. kg/m_. t and its location velocity their For t-t-At. A nonviscous fluid therefore. or is incompressible (3) The (p = constant). can be made for the meridional is general the This does not not velocity-gradient following The if the coordinate The flow blade to be presented made to flow law and can be used various means vary methods that with relative the time. of time. temperature. (4) (5) (6) inlet. Of course. surfaces. (5-2) this means that where particles their particle particle net blade.

be emphasized are many for solving theoretical these equations. Suppose we consider It is assumed is two-dimensional . Some also techniques excellent given numerical techniques However. there ANALYSES The simplest cascade 130 stream as shown function in figure can 5-3.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Direction of rotation Time = t r-l LJ Time-t+At I I (Absolute frame of reference) Time=t + At (Relative frame ofreference) FIGURE 5--2. and we will discuss discussion of flow in two-dimensional 1.--Absolutely irrotational flow. for solving it must the mathematical that equations there only a few. be defined but two perhaps blades the of a is in terms of streamlines. cascades will An is be discussed. in Chapter IV of reference STREAM- AND POTENTIAL-FUNCTION Stream-Function Method several that ways.

while the remaining values between 0 and 1. the stream- ciated with any point in the passage. and stream- the fraction the given the value is a streamline) the lower streamlines of the upper blade has the value of 1. The indicates blade and has is constant There may and be there is no variation of the rotation about the centerline.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS 1 . axial flow here.--Streamlines for a stator cascade. Shown the line. This value function value and can be used to define the stream It will be recalled (or uniform) that mass flow can be calculated flow by w= pVA for a one-dimensional (5-3) 131 . passing in figure is w. blades Thus.6 .4 0 \\\\ FIGURE 5-3. Note that a value can be assois called function.8 Mass flow fractbn . streamline of the lower mass flow between of w 0. The the upper between surface have 5-3 are a number number surface by each surface (which the upper of streamlines. so that the radius flow r from in the the radial centerline direction.

m2. W.--Arbitrary curve joining two points in flow passage. Then._ --/Q _ pW. ft _ expression: V A This velocity. We will assume the mass flow wl. which analysis the fluid that any by QI (5-4) to both will blade be stationary expressed row reduces and rotating of applies velocity cascades in terms to absolute for a stationary our cascade two points velocity V.b dq (5-5) -'_Q1 • FIGURE 5-4. 132 . 5-4) can be calculated has a uniform height b. normal can be extended to a varying flow by using an integral w= f a pV dA Since relative this stream-function (blade velocity rows). direction ft/sec of the velocity V.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION where W rate of mass fluid absolute flow area flow. kg/sec. to the lb/sec m/sec.._ between fig. QI and Q2 in the passage (see wl.

y) - dq-}.fc ffipW_b W dq (5-7) FIGURE 5-5. y) : for the stream u at a point /Q(_'Y) pWnb dq o u(x. as shown /c_ pWnb u(x.t will be negative if Qs is below between flow relative (5-5). For 5-6. is indicated it is relawe will (x0. This of path. dependent With for steady to the cascade. y) = W (5-6) of the lower blade. example. y). is inthrough Q2 and of the line going is a line of path integral from QI to Qt. in the flow passage.--Curve joining (x. 133 . the point that and the where integral in figure Since tively calculate is still Qo is any is taken 5--5.y) with a point on the upper surface of the lower blade. This a streamline the points sign convention wl. y). y) integral to calculate is independent of u.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS where hand that The Wn is the normal integral relative velocity component in the direction passing Q_ and of the rightmeans Q1. the easy point along on the upper surface any curve in equation the point partial between (5-6) Let Qo and (x. expression can be written the use of equation function an analytical (x. Then Xo<X such derivatives in figure Ou/Ox at the (x.

y) surface of the lower blade.Y)ff c2 (x. Along curve and between (x. and z directions. we have W._ flow is absolutely the above (5-10) Now From we will make the definition use of the fact of the curl irrotational. dx Ou (x. respec- . y) integral C2. y). with a point on the upper where zontal depend C_ is an arbi'_rary line between on x._'_k=O (5-11) curlV=fOV. and along C2 is a horiC_ does not (Xo.b w (5-9) In a similar manner. y) = -Ox or (5-8) Ou Ox aW.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (Xo.--Curve joining horizontal line through (x. Hence. y). y.y} FIGURE 5--6. OV. Qo and The and pW_b o w (x0. and k are the unit vectors in the x. we can calculate Ou_ Oy pW_b w that the and OV. 134 j.. operator [OV= assumption. = -W_ dq = dx. \or OV=_ i +(OV_ \ox ov/ wherei.

and z directions. function. in this the particular flow is irrotational case. Now. (5. Ox Actually. as (5-15) can be expressed of relative velocities (5-17) equations w 0_t W_ - = Substituting equations (5-18) and (5. equation (5-11) requires OV:. considering two-dimensional flow only. from with OW_ Oy respect to the (5-10) moving and (5.=O Oz (5-13) only that OV_ Ox OVx Oy (5-14) Since V_= W_ and Vu-. V.19) yields 0 (1 cox. and in the V. components Since (in we are or ft/sec) x.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS tively. 0 (10u_= . y.=O (5-12) and OVa_ Oz Hence. Any There function satisfying deal Laplace's of theory equation concerning 135 is is a great . 0_U 02U (5-91) which called is Laplace's a harmonic equation. m/sec and Vx. are the absolute velocity respectively.9). V_. oy/ and 0 (5-20) For incompressible p is constant.W_+_r where equation _ is the (5-14) angular speed (in rad/sec) in terms OW3. flow. 0u\ since w and b are both constant.18) pb cOy w Ou pb Ox (5-19) into equation (_-17) coordinates and the radius (5-16) r is constant.

the flow defined. Along condition _ is the exists. we must determined find a by certain (1) must can this boundary a finite The solution a boundary region. important of functions that two entire thing satisfies things: equation that thing that (5-21) is related to know satisfy or of the to the theory here is that conditions. the in the value direction a finite is sufficiently solution as shown It is assumed is uniform is known. (5-21). and FE. function boundary AB. is shown that part AH the flow is the so that flow the on the is. region._ is known. AH and DE. of the boundary that boundary u--0.--Two-dimensional infinite cascade. and that was CD. region upstream that the the way FG.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION harmonic complex The number solution Laplace's specifying along The in every figure flow /_ DE. is known. the first functions variables. (5-20) and is the 5-7. 5-8. along HG. than it is assumed angle we can specify BC. Ou/O_ the outer normal. flow to either condition A typical same in the angle along stream entire of u Along of boundary that cascade we along Similarly. 136 . HG conditions and along that ABCDEFGHA. yl Wx x FIGUI_E 5-7. is uniform _0. (2) of analytic there are and will be functions a tremendous of equation equation region. be specified in figure consider solution Since far and the From two-dimensional passage. and FE is exactly Along a periodic u= 1. 1 greater where it is along distance AB and CD.

. must a streamline.CHANNEL FLOWANALYSIS H 6/ "_'. (5-23) yields (5-24) Ou dy Oy dx tan _ (5-25) AH. uniform Ou/Oy there.--Finite solution region. du -"-dx Further.. Ou [u(H)-u(A)'] .. gives along equations (5-26) (5-27) ia 8 137 . is constant Therefore. Ou Or and substitution from equation (5-22) Ou_ 07 However.0 function be tangent is constant to (5-22) along a streamline. since it is assumed that the flow is 1 s Substituting AH (5-26) y direction. B P _ C W Consider the differential of u in the direction of the velocity W: du = OxO'-u dx+_ The Along differential and AH. 8y s where (5-25) s is the and blade spacing in equation in the (5-24) along 8u 8x is 0 because the velocity the vector stream dy -. E Uniform flow n Uniform flow L A y _-_x FIGURE 5-8.

Vv Oy We will refer tional system for pure relative assumption axial to absolute to the of absolute flow.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Similarly. the flow is actually irrotational with as we saw in the discussion of the stream function.= Vx Ox and . techniques is obtained. the implies does not rotate. subsonic There After throughout function. determined to Laplace's a unique throughout are numerous region. this specify problem solution a boundary 5-8. If the potential function be defined so that the flow is irrotational). system flow.e. o(pvx) +o(pv. and velocities of the problem and from This stream is to this will of solving a (eq. in figure conditions (5-21). and relations will be given. this velocity distribution will give determine a blade shape not be discussed here. since velocities coordinate irrotational This the rotation here. blade or inverse.. will be orthogonal will not be defined properties (i. function. can as the later. = We now have shown unique (5-20)). one can calculate o. surface distribution. does not exclude use of the potential to the has no effect is no change radius. Method a potential they function in the same then can be to detail it can drawn. These solution the condition boundary equation is always along s the entire For boundary will always compressible if the flow (5-28) of the region determine flow is strictly or (5-21). we must This. that is. streamlines.. (5-20) blade-surface velocities the stream the This a desired function passage is what be obtained The is known A method will be discussed velocity that indirect.. that if there respect have coupled the (5-29) (5-30) flow irrotawith coordinate function in blades. Potential-Function For defined. for solving by direct on the equation differentiation problem. From the continuity relationship for steady flow. since used.) =o Ox 138 Oy (5-31) . along DE. -. as the stream two-dimensional If lines The of equal potential irrotational potential function ¢ exists but the main are flow.

. Along AH.= Substituting [_(H)- _(A)Is . CD. GH. same the boundary same the satisfies both differential solution over the Laplace's the stream equation region entire equation. = 0 (5-33) for incompotential The We can Along equation). conditions. and p_nbs (5-37) W (V_) o_t- po_tbs condition exists. and EF.o() If the flow is incompressible. in figure boundary as follows: can consider conditions (5-34) (5-35) and along DE. function (Laplace's shown Thus. AH.. V.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS Substituting equations (5-29) and (5-30) in equation (5-31) yields 0(oo. a_ a2_ and =0 So. and the pressible.. the potential satisfy function flow.(V_) _. p is constant. (5-39) V_ = V: tan/_ (5-40) 139 . function difference We specify BC and irrotational lies in the boundary FG. oue The inlet and outlet axial velocities are given W by the equations (v_) . Since (5-38) Along uniform AB. a periodic the flow is along (0yy_). 0_ where V. 5-8. is the velocity normal to the blade surface.

irrotational. for strictly subsonic compressible As for the stream function. be restricted or incomas to the then assumptions function equation.. assumptions the stream This of mass The could function flow be made for other problems. solution. For a line between that tion the is necessary flow was to the the stream function to be defined.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION into equation (5-39) yields _(H) =¢(A)q-s(Vx)_. Some used out the the continuity crossing requires assumpthat other on flow. of Streamfor solving to determine flow throughout the region.. periodicity. If the ¢ is specified unique at one will determine flow. or potential stream of ease of solution for the boundary is the same: Laplace's equation). function and function coordinate this can is defined is meaningless be shown system. is proven from the mass of path. and the potential Method there is little to function. tan #o_. A method velocity distribution 2 and Choice 3. turned to be irrotational relative considered. (steady. This if the in can easily be seen between of the as a percentage dimensions. choose between the stream function case. Another restriction is that it can be defined only for two-dimensional since two the stream points. the difference however. the flow be either absolutely additional assumption However. numerous methods for solving preceding or equivalent boundproblem of specifying shape is described in the inverse the blade references or Potential-Function and incompressible. pressible choice The choice (the if any flow) of stream existence is made on the basis differential equation of the is not function of the three applicable. value of a tan s(Vz)_._ _. +s(Vx)o. an arbitrary these (5-33) in ¢ along do not boundary boundary conditions for equation determine conditions additive constant. three flow is flow This irrotational. two points must be independent incompressible irrotational. We which case for the blade flow to be unique. we may function. O(E) along Equation This The but (5-42) completes a solution solution gives the conditions. In this If the flow is steady. existence potential given irrotational 140 relative to the is necessary . tan _. or to equation to equation for incompressible (5-32). boundary only within point. (5-32) a unique or (5-33). the conditions However. the lines FE and (5-42) CD.. for the axial-flow or steady. ¢ is exactly at the = ¢(D) outlet. there are equation ary the (5-32) or (5-33) subject to the conditions. greater (5-41) along HG Because than of the AB. Similarly.




because is, if

we must



of mixed






02& (5--43) OyOx

OxOy then

0 V ----_ Ox _-Oy and the flow must flow; with the be that respect must be continuity irrotational. is, the made potential to assure equation. Solution there are many for to the



A similar function coordinate

situation exists system being solution.

exists only used.

in threeflow is Finally, can be

dimensional irrotational an done assumption by using

if the This

a unique

Finite-Difference As posed stream flow. stated by before, stream-function detail function

Stream-Function ways of solving theory. of the direct incompressible, subject function. but equation

Method various We will problem to the The with points 5-9. (5-21)) problems consider for the boundmethod a lower in the Then a A can be in figure 1 and 0 is

or potential-function solution case of steady, Laplace's

in further

the finite-difference for the simplest we must potential for the 5-8. point four solve discussed


In this case, for the step

ary conditions of solution rate region written typical 5-10. points denoted in figure tively. tions, mesh When The first shown at mesh The

in the section function finite

on the stream is quite solution. grid is shown equation stream mesh distance


of convergence

difference a rectangular grid the to Laplace's

is to establish approximation

of mesh in figure (eq.

in figure each mesh with

A typical where


function points the between

is unknown. is shown four points neighboring h4 as indicated u0 to u4, respecvalues


neighboring is labeled The distances


in consideration 1 to 4, as shown. similarly, The value the other

0, and

are labeled hi, and 5-10. With equation points. this

are h2, h3, and

of u at points series can

0 to 4 are labeled expansion by using only

the use of a Taylor (5-21) (Further the

for u in the x- and y-direcof u at 4.) is given in ch. 6 of ref.

be approximated of this expression
[ 2U3

explanation following

is done,

is obtained:

2ul h_(h_Th2)

2u_ 4-h2(h_+h2)


2Uo ] _j=O (5-45) 141





I ] Ii'_ "_ _- .." _

. ! 1


li, ¸ ii I I _ i [ \_, I i\ I .


_\! " ' "

fl II, IJ.-"_
r A•


ilII i, I
_ 1

1 1






j i

il ,II II Ill LI] Lil
: I I I

FIGURE 5-9.--Mesh used for a finite_lifference

: !









FIGURE 5-10.--Notation

for adjacent

mesh points and mesh spaces.








for u0 yields
4 UO= E i-1





where h 3+ h4 al= a0h--_ (5-47)

= --

h3--_- h4



a3 --



hl+h_ a4 aoh4 1 1 (5-51) (5--50)

1 1 ao=(h3Th4)(_T_)+(h.+h,)(_+-_,)

Equation boring used. but these Ou/O_ the

(5-46) points


at every surface,

interior then

mesh the


If one

of the point

neighcan be be used, at 5-9,

is on a blade points along conditions by equation


of u at that (5-46) alternate AH

At other points. is given

the boundary, can be used along (5-27). gives

equation to obtain



equations in figure then,

For example,

the upstream If point


0 is on line AH,

a finite



Uo= u4+h4 Similarly, if point 0 is on line DE,



Uo= u3-

h3 (tans-_°"'


can be derived 0 (fig. 5-11) the boundary. 1,s is a distance 5-11. Substituting by using the

For the boundary


points between that

along A and



CD, If

equations the the point point in figure I is outside



condition. B, the point where

is on

However, s above this

it is known point

ul=ul.s-1, y-direction,

1 in the

as shown







2 31




u2 "u2,-s




FIGURE 5-11.--Mesh condition in equation (5-46) gives

point on line AB.





This The greater mesh HG. below

equation points than In this line below point

holds along the HG,

along HG

CD need

(fig. 5-8) not point must where be

also. considered, AB. The since since 2,-s they point is a are just 1 equation for the first 2 is on line distance 5-12. s

corresponding therefore, us=u_._._-l, negative condition
Zto = alltl-_

along the

be modified, point gives

case, this

2 in the

y-direction, (5-46)

as indicated

in figure


in equation
a_Na ,_.

aaus _ a4u4 -{- as

FE (fig. 5-8). to each region are will of unbe in the as there is unknown be applied

This One mesh interest

equation point


applies (5-46) the same

to the or stream number the

first (5-52)

mesh to

line below (5-55) can is unknown equations function points.

of equations for which the to give These to simply that in n unknowns. values The

function of linear stream points. mesh

knowns. referred Suppose tions n. The and apply. 144

points there


as unknown The points


are n unknown

We then consecutively point, one


n equafrom I to will point,

can be numbered first point, At each i, could point. point,

of u will then up to un at the

be ui at the last

us at the second equation

so forth


at a typical

be written







Ul "Ul, s - 1

FIGURE 5-12.--Mesh

point on first line below HG.




The value around


of the

aij are determined five, at most, zero, is always of the except

by one aij are for the that

of equations zero, the can and the outermost aij matrix for the valuable there iterative is relaxation. point Storage unknown uj. be obtained


= --1.


All but the

The points non-

of ki is always boundary. there solution These equations but an few and roundoff The the the simplest estimated hence

unknown is always

It can be shown a unique are type; to equation that

singular; techniques. of linear unknowns, small, the required. changing satisfy procedure The ever, time the factor. the change


A numerical

(5-56) particularly is, where equation. with of u at

by iterative systems number To consists point, values of are start is of the of u. Howpoint

techniques of this terms error initial

in solving requirements methods. mesh This at every in the exci_ssive greatly the and the

are a large

in each is minimized estimate



iterative value until and rate for that

procedure of u at each After

in succession

so as to

equation is repeated

point. there


is done change so that _, called relaxation, 4 that

is negligible converges slow,

procedure is required. When

is simple The

it always

for this


convergence in u at each w= 1, the It

is extremely


convergence iteration procedure is proven

can be accelerated by a factor is straight in reference if 0 <:_ <2. there

by increasing overrelaxation when _:> 1, (or rate value of 145 of

it is overrelaxation. underrelaxation) convergence occurs

overrelaxation greatest

is convergent when


1 < _ < 2. In fact,

is an optimum





between To give estimates estimate calculate

1 and

2 which factor

gives expression


most for the



This procedure,

optimum 4. we will initial an initial

overrelaxation use a superscript are

can be calculated ul. That ui ° and

as explained overrelaxation value. by

in reference

an explicit denoted

on the

is, ui m is the m th iterate may be any Then, For if ui m is known

of ui. The example,

of ui°=0

is satisfactory.

for all i, we can

ui re+l, for i = 1, 2,...,

n in succession




Z j-I






any other

After method), tions

a solution (5-9) and


u is obtained to calculate as

by the

overrelaxation velocities with the


it is necessary (5-10)

use of equa-




W_ = pb au/Oy curve, blade must such surface, angle. Analyses and is best at the are called axial, the calculation by comLewis blading blade-toTURBLE, radial, with or the NASA for be estimated done, the either curve, two (5-59) The partial derivatives discrete or by The mesh values fitting points. and





calculated differences, the from points. at unknown

of ui. This a smooth velocity On the the blade for

can be readily from the

by finite through

as a spline velocity


is calculated tangent

components is calculated

one component Computer

Programs the solution

Stream-Function equation which written programs program to analyze

As can of velocities puter. Research by blade which mixed solution 146

be seen,

of Laplace's procedure have been of flow

is a lengthy computer for the (region In Center

calculation programs analysis Most



through The


stream-function analysis flow. is described

methods. shown in reference aqcordance method, The the TSONIC

of these

in fig. 5-9). with the

5, can be used flow must program,

constraints be subsonic described

associated throughout in reference

stream-function region.

the entire 6, super-




sedes addition, flow gradient

TURBLE extends equation (lower called flow Another a detailed or in the MAGNFY in the by problems.

in that the Transonic of the mass TANDEM, in tandem program,


performs solutions

all are


same (local

calculations supersonic by using section

and, velocities) a velocityto extend solution. rows


solution type

to transonic described

obtained in the next

a A

preliminary program to analyze splitters. 8, obtains blade and Flow indicated turbomachine described

flow rate) which or called in the are or 9 and

subsonic is described blade

stream-function in reference rows and described blades. flow. flow axialcan or _IERIDL, The or blade

7, can be used with of any in reference regions TANDEM surface, mixed-flow which subsonic is by as


MAGNFY leadingor slotted

solution region

or trailing-edge


of tandem restricted (mean fig. by plane

programs meridional fig. can 4-14(b)

to subsonic hub-to-shroud of any called solutions

5-1(a)), a program

be analyzed

in references

10. Transonic equation

be obtained

the use of a velocity-gradient stream-function solution.

to extend

a preliminary

VELOCITY-GRADIENT As methods within additional give sonic, the called involves guided method blades. such guided defined. shown guided half must an possible basic indicated previously, are the limited region. however, solution in stream-function to solutions the subsonic the

ANALYSIS and that are potential-function entirely subsonic and to subthan is also equation can be extended regime. alone It other to obtain

of analysis the computation assumptions, approximate to use transonic, ones the

By use of a velocity-gradient solution flow transonic without the

a velocity-gradient or supersonic indicated earlier. analysis method that on the in figure and the other 5-9, and is, a solid degree 4-11, associated hand, less surface surface. than for

method solutions The because

of analysis

assumptions analysis and velocity-gradient

velocity-gradient curvature can only both Therefore, solidity suction velocity suction ends the provided and/or

is often equation

a stream-filament streamline,

or stream-filament, of analysis where boundary. passage most (high of the surface half a passage

position. within streamline of this turbine angles), the the a

A velocity-gradient passage; depends For region, On region, in figure as shown the orthogonals intersect

give solutions of all by usefulness small

of flow guidance

a well-guided

surface distribution row, only velocity

is within such

can be well as that the front is within on the

a low-solidity of the can case,



velocities In this latter

be computed

of the suction

the stream-function

analysis distribution

be used if better


of the suction-surface

is required. 147





Method The sidering narrow passage velocity idea of a velocity-gradient case. Suppose as shown in figure method we have 5-13. can We be demonstrated assume the height the by cona of the average

a simple passage


flow through

to be b, and the can be calculated

width d. If the approximately W.,o -

mass flow is known, from continuity by

pbd across the width we are centrifugal 3 for consideration of the force


However, and With the


is a variation

in velocity velocity

passage, in. against of radial

in turbomachinery a force-equilibrium pressure gradient

it is this equation, as was done that



by balancing in chapter


it can be shown

dW dq where radius q is the distance from of curvature for the

W ro (convex) surface, and The sign convention


the suction streamline.

re is the for rc is

important; rc is positive cave downward. For the can be integrated curvature for integration along from the to be equal

if it is concave upward, and negative if it is consimple case shown in figure 5-13, equation (5-61) a radial inner line by assuming to the to any ro r passage point radius W Wo the streamline radius. in the There passage, (5-62) radius results, of in magnitude


FIGURE 5-13.--Flow

through a curved passage.


the is a velocity-gradient passage. angle velocity x axis. m. or suction. blade-surface which to velocities can be obtained equation. or pressure.. = (5-64) In a similar puted as manner. plane angle Also meridional interested system indicated component W_ and The consider with are a very radius the the the following Ws= W_ is the general r. ft/sec flow through passage is expressed as w--rl rm+d pWb dr into (5-63) and integration. the outer. (5-62) yields constant w w. of W. on inner. We will now we are coordinate 5-14. and components. velocity-gradient we will use 0. surface. x. resultant in turbomachinery. surface. angle meridional relations W sin/_ components: (5--66) (5-67) (5-68) (5-69) W. simply We are some could Since in figure We. and 5-14 flow. r relative radius radius The mass velocity of inner. as shown W. The in figure for the between meridional W and the is a plane between plane. W_. (5-63) with and substitution density of equation assumed._ = W cos/_ Wr = W_.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS where Wa r. of passage. containing x axis. If there were gradient equation. surface velocity can be com- W - (5-65) Thus. a velocity necessarily restricted two-dimensional variation of velocity in the height of the be calculated in that direction also. m. ft the or suction. by not using an estimate equation of the (5-62). sin a W_ = W_ cos a 149 . The are a. the hold Also shown axis a rotating cylindrical and W_. ft m/sec. and/_.

In line.n sin _ (5-71) 150 .) dW d--q=a dr jq+b curvature of curvature if the streamline the velocity this curve. meridional of the of the gradient For the (rV_. and 5-15. of the addition as shown to the The if the in figure r-. 0-. the streamline streamline. meridional meridional upward.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION W FIGURE 5-14. dO case of constant at the dx total temperature momentum dq +c--dq (5-70) where W arc COS ol COS 2 W sin _ r /_+sin a cos _ -----2_ dm dW. along it is convenient along a meridional the true is less than streamline that is. The x-coordinate. is the distance m-distance meridional plane. to use stream- an m-coordinate. line distance a streamline The radius We distance constant want neglected.--Cylindrical coordinate system and velocity components. is r_ is is 1/rc. along angular of rc is q be the and is concave an arbitrary inlet. _0. positive m-coordinate angle in the stream- The is the projection 0-coordinate where sign Let The curve.

In using it is necessary parameters. (5-70) no However. and number For equation are derived velocity-gradient involving 8. Outerwall--.W sin a cos 2 _+cos re a cos/_ dW_______ dm (5-72) c=Wsinasin[3c°s[3+rc°s_(ddWWm These ential vature. known ). precisely a differas curwell. in figure (into to the are as equations equation. streamline-geometry not cases suppose 5-16.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS Meridional streamline 7 _' rc Q r m J Axis FIGURE 5-15. 151 . in advance. with 11. page). 5-16. equations any a. (B13) +2_sina and (B14) (5-73) of reference to solve such reasonably equations passage where (5-70). _x b = . these of special example. blades. A great to tial (5-73). from annular component dW/dn. Llnner wall FIGURE 5--16.--Annular passage with no blades. These channel. Meridional streamline -. for a guided parameters we can Let can be estimated have an can be obtained no velocity calculate q=n from as shown normal then in the tangenn is the Since be it can (0) direction streamline. in equation figure dO/dn=O Further.--The m-coordinate. distance We=0. and and We l_=0.

mixed-flow orthogonal to base along programs 11 for impellers equation not known on program lines. turbine and is presented along the streamline use were analysis impeller vaned plane and diffusers in advance. are flow rate to as illustrated Computations passage. was more velocity-gradient quasi-orthogonals. by this can high-solidity because previously. to use or velocity orthogonals orthogonals. presented reference centrifugal have also been The centrifugal lengths are to obtain method meridionalfor a meridiin it solutions. Computer Several machine NASA CTTD computer blading Lewis program. A further viously 152 use of the for a radial-inflow velocity-gradient is to extend a subsonic is described preto mentioned solution in this chapter. equation (5-70) W rc reduces to the simple form (5-74) of equa- Programs the that analysis methods was in reference which used of flow have been for many by the through written years more turboat the is the to axialgeneral 13. stream-function . rate. has for One case. mass than blading. velocity-gradient a computer fixed for of the called are in of equation Such straight which meridional-plane impellers turbine equation. of the mediumThis by Research which This programs Center. for can also 12 and is limited is described axial-. flow turbines. be needed for fully can be provided solutions passage. from equations (5-70) dW_ dn Thus. a radial-inflow or radial for 15 for backward-swept A program a blade-to-blade impeller as analysis that uses quasi-orthogonals in reference 16. which Since convenient onal-plane reference orthogonals. Then. to tip along equations along hub-. and easier The flow turbines CHANEL program CHANEL compressors. tion for this (5--61). blading. can be used both from This made for the results 5-17.sin a.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION seen to that (5-73). dr/dn = cos a and dx/dn = . to and flow the velocity-gradient is described program. blade for in a flow solution which satisfies of these program indicated may be obtained used basic for an orthogonal surfaces the gives in figure program a specified a number be used The As only to compute maximum results more for lowguided (choking) definition solidity sections plane channel. variations and now been superseded in reference radial-. mass along good Velocity-gradient blade to blade determine streamline tip-streamline surface. in reference compressors. methods plane the for uses the program Velocity-gradient and blade-to-blade analysis 14. are used program to analyze from hub or mixedmeridionalmean-.

i Mean Parallel to axis of rotation-_ i Hub T FIGURE 5-17. curvatures transonic-flow method are presented in references in reference 6 for a blade-to-blade 9 and 10 for a meridional solution. solution Orthogonal su Hace _/ / j.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS obtain the gradient local flow supersonic and velocities. streamline Programs for The subsonic solution required solutions is used for the based to obtain velocityon this and angles equation.-Suction Tip orthogonal I surface f Midchannel stream line--.--Turbine blades with flow three-dimensional passage.f su rface . orthogonal surface across 153 .

Calculating face 9.. Detailed scribed 1060. Calculating a Tandem 8. 11. Calculating Surface NASA THEODORE. Calculating Surface TN AND McNALLY. 978. KATSANIS. Velocities Blade AND McNALLY. culation NASA 14.: of Plane 1972. Arbitrary Quasi-Orthogonals Surface in a for Turbomachine. AND THEODORE. Velocities of an Axial1973. JOSEPH AMBROSE. CUMMINGS. 4. KATSANIS. Use of Arbitrary Meridional Plane D-7344.: FORTRAN H--Programmer's Program Manual. GEORGE Distributions R. Blade-Surface 1967. on 1969. JOHNSEN. Program and Choking Velocities for THEODORE: of Surface TN D-6177. THEODORE: on 1965. for Flow Quasi-Three-Dimensional for Turbomachine Blade CalRows.. for Calculating NASA TN Flow D-2546. FORTRAN Velocities 1971. and TM Program Prentice-Hall. WALTER M. Velocities of an TN Axial- AND and MCNALLY. 3.: Aerodynamic Design of Compressors. KATSANIS. a Blade-to-Blade D-5044. JOHN Blades Computational Velocity 1952. LOIS T. and Streamlines Mixed-Flow WILLIAM on the Turbomachine. or 1969. THEODORE. VANCO. T. KATSANIS. Calculating WILLIAM Streamlines X-1764. Mixed-Flow Centrifugal Impellers MICHAEL FORTRAN a Turbomachine. NASA Method in ROBERT SP-36. 10. THEODORE. THEODORE: FORTRAN Stream Transonic NASA TN Velocities D-5427.: of Designing Cascade Potential L. Velocity 1950. 7. Distribution D-2809. KATSANIS. FORTRAN Program Stream for SurProgram Surface for of 5.: FORTRAN Stream 1969. for NASA Calculating TM X-1394. and Streamlines NASA McNALLY.. a Use of NACA Flow Rep. Compressible ROBERT for AND SINNETTE. AND BULLOCK. RICHARD S. Velocities WILLIAM Region D-5091.. Analysis. Blades Flows.: Turbomachine. 13.: Method of Analysis of Arbitrary 15. l). Through 1082. Meridional D-6701. gram Surface 6. ProStream THEODORE. AND DELLNER. IRVING A. Program for CMculating Velocities NASA in the TN I--Centrifugal Compressor. I). Calculating NASA Flow TN Blade-to-Blade 154 . ]). for Flow Hub-Shroud Mid-Channel or Mixed-Flow 1974.: on 1969. with NACA Prescribed Rep. 1965. GINSBURG. TN WILLIAM on TN O.: PreRep. THEODORE: Distribution in the 1964. HAMRICK. 12. AND OSBORNE. on in a Magnified NASA a Blade-to-Blade of a Turbomachine. KATSANIS. KATSANIS. Culculating Revised Inc. Axial-Flow 2. VARGA. Iterative MCNALLY. a Blade-to-Blade Surface of a Turbomachine. Quasi-Orthogonals of a Turbomachine. KATSANIS. COSTELLO. 1962. THEODORE. JR. R. for FORTRAN Velocities NASA a Blade-to-Blade of a Turbomachine. 16.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION REFERENCES 1. Streamlines WILLIAM on the Turbomachine. O. : Matrix AND Distributions Procedure in Design of Cascade with NACA Compressible Potential Flows.. T. 1952. for GEORGE R. Hub-Shroud Mid-Channel D-7343. for Compressible Design. COSTELLO.: FORTRAN I--User's Program Manual. KATSANIS. EDS. for Flow NASA KATSANIS... 1).: A Quasi-Three-Dimensional an Axial Flow Turbine Method Blade.

m/see. m. ft mesh points. °R temperature. potential distance kg/m3. from out axial of the direction meridional boundary. relative (in the tangential distance in direction 0 P direction). flow rate. J/(kg) N/m2. (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) T t u time. m . (5-56) m. between in equation m. absolute m/see. ft m.CHANNEL FLOW ANALYSIS SYMBOLS A ai flow area. deg fluid flow angle. along m. ft (5-46) b d h ki m ?t along meridional streamline. ft V W W meridional plane. mS. o3 angular velocity. lb/ft curve. ft spacing. blade absolute for equation height. velocity. ft m. function in direction lb/ft a of rotation. width. ft pressure. ft 2 coefficients cascade passage distance constant distance distance absolute distance radius. tad/see verrelaxation factor Subscripts: c in m n out p r s x y z curvature inlet meridional component outlet pressure component normal surface to streamline radial component suction surface axial component in y-direction in z-direction 155 component component . normal to streamline. (ft) 2 m. in the plane m. deg of outer normal to cascade rad angular density. kg/sec. sec stream function absolute relative mass fluid velocity. angle ft/sec ft/sec lb/sec of inclination to blades. (K). ft K. ft arbitrary P q R r 8 gas constant.

4 3.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 8 tangential mesh-point component designations o 1 1. 2. I 156 .

friction chapter to calculate _Iethods and (windage). the parameters mixing losses (friction) associated chapter. As shown certain ducing work aspects Before causes. the with the blade This the layer use on at normal is called of ideal other as air) of viscosity outer with flow fluid flow is confined layer to a relatively neighborhood flow is frictionless. flows. is the prediction it is necessary primary cause of losses is the boundary layer that develops and end-wall surfaces.CHAPTER 6 Introductiono Boundaryt Layer Theory By William McNally D. operation. (such OF BOUNDARY flows on the edge those past of the of this calculated At LAYER a turbine blade. which disk is used losses. wall. in chapter of ideal The portion design can be 2. the energy of the pressure that One ideal ratio energy more of the across that losses. thin the and hand. 157 . (no-slip the (frictionless. layer boundary conditions thc velocity a real the in the fluid influence immediate At the agree there nonviscous) of the layer. predicted. on the work. gives an flow incidence. for determining trailing-edge presented NATURE When velocities. assumptions. Other losses occur because of shocks. needed the are basic and partialThis introduction to boundaryto estimate viscous loss in the tip-clearance admission layer viscous and next the theory. to understand their a turbine to the important turbine and is not provides for converted difficult a proto amount is considered of turbine losses The blade is available of the to be a loss. is zero in all directions condition).

this a separated can likewise in which blade. -. remain region. surface positive of are characteristic about 6-1 Separation layer manner of turbulent as in turbulent fashion Figure layer. / __ _. lull _' _Z////'_ \ Separated region-t FIGURE 6-1. surface sufficiently ness of the or changes Most are significant boundary tance. fluid The its free-stream. static is illustrated portion correspondingly r-Turbulent boundary layer As the free- velocity decreases pressure _.--Boundary layer on blade.a. develops edge The other.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION It is the frictional. bulent flow are that turbulent layer It usually boundary amplified. 158 . blade When surface. random In the any region point With region weak laminar a combustor.. The smooth ducted in this as figure flows to a turbine.. a in nature. from frictionless a small blade portion layer. The blades through In the this the value.. pressure slide from layer A boundary at the or viscous. and flow. have to zero at the thickness at the both wall._. suction This shows separates. 6-3. over damped overall in some being each layer In a laminar boundary so that they way. influence on the passes layer. stagnation the to the suction is always blade are time on a turbine of the initial is illustrated grows of the layers along boundary in figure leading surfaces. layer forces in this thin value finite and fluid local negligible at a point 6-2(a) blade layer that reduce the 6-1. fuctuating type of cannot transition to the flow. great the disa turin the layer. The a boundary stream a turbine as figure occur the happens along the fluid 6-2 (b) indicates.. at or entering components flow.Transition _ region Laminar boundary layer --. a mean also of velocity overall for any disturbances boundary a transition becomes fluctuations turbulent oscillates turbulent the in velocity in a random boundary layer. in the away in the moves rear laminar boundary from in figure of the increases. it from this and in velocity on the steady with smooth- flow. have flow.. leads velocity parallel Any minute velocity fluctuations influence is either indicates. velocity boundary point and laminar.

INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY Steady Steady t t I t (a) Laminar FxovaE flow.--V_riation of velocity with Unsteady t (b) time Turbulent at a point. This of a turbine surface 6-4. 6-2. that flow at the very reverses leading retards The flow closc the in the the to the flow in the boundary This blade as a is wall it moves blade. point. 159 incompressible or compressible. can turbulent Finally. pressure boundary layer gradient layer and can be retarded (adverse causes to such to that at pressure it to lose a degree the gradient) energy. separation in a direction separation.--Boundary-layer separation. flow. separatc boundary it should be either and the Mach immediately that Just reattach both laminar are itself in figure and is illustrated be noted number. layers sent can laminar for lew_'l ()f the equati()ns The also opposite The laminar point and of the mean layer flow passing itself edge to which is the the boundary layer. FIoUrtE 6-3. as there different flow. boundary-layer and compressible . turbulent incompressible turbulent depending equations there are variations boundary on the to repredifferent of each.

1-f_.. directions.Z__.. References 1 and by applying This exercise 2 both have derivation.4. . of the Navier-Stokes during constant their equations viscosity: equations. and if the free-stream The boundary-layer solution methods are are derived DERIVATION The Stokes equations.rrt_ c Stagnation point FIGURE 6-4. The combined into depending following vector derivation. equations general equations In OF BOUNDARY-LAYER of motion of viscous fluids EQUATIONS are called there The equations.u) (6-1) general time... will not be repeated here.3 to 0. three The one for each be derived boundary-layer Navierthe law of conis lengthy.. Laminar boundary layer_ bubble..17 ft/sec (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) mass (sec _) N/kg. Navier-Stokes fluid with for a compressible du dt where u gf_g__ Vp+_U V2u+ p p __ p V(V.32.. lbf/lbm t g f 160 constant. body force acting on a unit of fluid. m/sec. 1. can normal of the from coordinate coordinate the systems. . Boundary layers should be considered relative Mach number exceeds values equations discussed for these in this various cases chapter.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Turbulent boundary Separat ion layer 7 _ II I I __I __' ' . compressible of 0. general conversion velocity sec vector. and the complete on equaform Navier-Stokes Stokes equations themselves can be derived servation of momentum to a fluid element. are the Naviersuch equations. in two somewhat There are various forms what tion assumptions represents the are made different forms.--Laminar separation and reattachment.

. and total. gpox p t0_-t=g l u 0 [Ou Ov Ow\ Ov Ov Ov Ov g Op __u_/O2v 020 02v\ -_-t. l u 0 [Ou Ov Ow\ 161 . k are the unit vectors in the three coordinate In any of the directions. kg/mS. reader. equations are 02u 02u\ _y2+0-_) equations.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY P density. Ou Ou into three one for each coordinate resulting +U x+V y+W Ou Op __u /O_u _z-z f . equation of the (6-1) has to be expanded directions. and u represents three w in the coordinate directions z. becomes be more (6-4) du gf-'q grad d--/= p p-f-_.V(V. equation curls.. respectively. static dynamic equation.grad(div P u) -_- p curl(curl u) +_ 1 _l P grad (div u) (6-5) In order to derive The Ou three the boundary-layer scalar equations. 1 p.. pressure. viscosity. Ibm/(ft) velocity (see) vector x. v.u -_x -k-v -_y + W oz = gf u . (6-2) u=uiTvj+wk where The i. s lbf/ft 2 2. j... and with components P /z (N) (see)/m a general In this u. coordinate or substantial. lbm/ft N/m2. du _ -_=g'--p Expressing which may the g VP+U-o V(V..u)--p V operator familiar in terms to the (6-1). d 0 0 0 0 Oz In equation rather vector than quantities. derivative of u is du/dt. V2u is expanded into (6-3) vector simple u equation (6-4) divergences.. y.u) and V2 is applied to the function. directions. to a scalar the Laplacian (6-1) operator If the term becomes _ [VX(VXu)-]+_ of gradients.

._+_) becomes cO u cOy equation _x+_yy=0 In order boundary-layer and show that velocities 162 some and to make equations the (6-10) check with directions to (6-12) is performed respect pertinent suitable on to the the (6-12/ for the analysis made Figure boundary dimensionless. reduce to the forces. Incompressible Prandtl's the following equations. equations negligible in relation Navier-Stokes f. boundary-layer assumptions This has already incompressible Viscosity of the Flow equation will be made: been is a constant. O_w. fv. Since for Layer equations for assumed flow the laminar in the con- In (1) writing (2) tinuity order to derive flow. u=div the final terms (3) and (4) (5) Thus. to inertia (6-6) and viscous and (6-7). equation (6-8) from (6-6) w or O/cOz in equations is two-dimensional.and y-directions: COu u_+v cOu 00p ___ /O_u CO'u\ _= __ . incompressible /cOu V. equations two equations x. forces are This eliminates from the for the consideration. COho'_ +5-_ t. t. equations are traditionally to others. preceding is is incompressible._+_+_)(6-s) P 1 tt cO[cOu cOy cow\ where f._. tt [CO2w. terms shows layer. are the Laminar components of the body Boundary force f. andf_ can be discarded assumptions. Flow Body these is steady. in equations as well cOy cOw\ )=0 (6-9) u=t_x+_yy+_z (6-6) to (6-8) This involving can be eliminated. With following Flow (6-7). to the 6-5 various of flow. _ . an order-of-magnitude are negligible coordinate .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION aw aw _ + w aw g Op. and f._+_) (6-_0> (6-11) u_+__: Likewise. the continuity COy COy g__ + __ / cO_v cO2v cOp \ .. as all terms eliminates cOOr terms.

m. m/see.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY U =u uO_ u_5 _ full Trailing y x L FmURE 6-5.--Boundary-layer velocities and dimensions.L Uo (6-13f) where X L Y U dimensionless characteristic dimensionless dimensionless free-stream dimensionless x-coordinate length velocity velocity velocity (in this case. ft/sec in y-direction 163 the blade chord). The following dimensionless parameters X X =- are defined: (6-13a) L (6-13b) u U0 (6-13c) (6-13d) Uo (6-13e) Re = o. ft y-coordinate u0 V . in x-direction upstream of blade.

1.1 O_U 0 y2 (6-17e) 1 e.=-= OX 1 OU ----OY oV OX OV --=-= OY 1 1 (6-17a) (6-175) . various Since be compared X and U are of order Y and OU 1 -..m/L u is of order velocities those in the U0.u. And Y is of in $r. each of the other. a quantity in the to the much 1. OU OV = 0 terms in these equations 1. Likewise. are The of dimensionless by L/Uo _. U = u Uo is of order the y-direction x-direction.. much smaller in terms multiplied resulting to L. and dimensionless OU OU OP 1 /O_U 02U\ OV OV OP 1 [02V O2V\ u +v .e 1 e2 (6-17f) 164 .. and _--_+_-_ (6-15) (6-16) can now V The are order of order of magnitude with e.. since y is proportional = _. equation equations V = v Uo is of order boundary to put equations (6-12) are equations (6-10) is multiplied to (6-12) (6-11) L/Uo. X is of order thickness since _. In order quantities. since than _/.= _ 1 (6-17c) 1 (6-17d) O_U 1 -=-= 1 OX 2 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION P Re From And order dimensionless Reynolds figure pressure number 6-5. we see that since x is proportional boundary-layer less than layer (6-10) and by are 1.

with unless 02V/OY number equation 02V/OX OP/OX. allows than P=P(X) In equations (6-18) to (6-20). smaller fore. Therefore. _ and Therefore. be of order and the e or less. 1/Re[(O2U/OX terms 1Re 2 and 2) -] are of the of magnitude larger U(OU/OX)+V(OU/OY). the following conclusions boundary-layer 2) + (02U/OY must be must theory.1 02V OY _ Furthermore. terms so that same (6--17g) (6-17h) in P with of U with respect respect to the order of is of OP/OX of magnitude in equations (6-14) v v o-T= = -. of order e. l/Re are of order this that order the viscous terms as the than the 2. a function the OP/OY ThereThis in the 165 it too must or p=p(x). _.e 1 e to X is of the to X. since terms large. Relating to (6-16) the as the these yields OU OU OP 1 /02U 02U\ change change orders -_ _. 02U/OX Reynolds (2) In dominating is to dominate. magnitude order 1. the and that to be true 2 is much in equation 02U/OY in parentheses. Therefore. OP/O Y is much of X alone.1 + (_) i3-X + (1+_) (6-18) (1) (1) + (e) (!) OV OV OP 1 /02V 02V\ v + v oT= or (t2) (_+!) + ) (6-19) (1) (_) + (E) (1) = -_+ OU OV (6-20) 1+1 By examining can be reached: (1) inertia (6-18).INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY a2V e ----. layer P can be considered OP/OX=dP/dX across pressure or Op/Ox=dp/dx. of order the two with terms be relatively dominates (6-19). boundary us to assume .E 0X _ 1. it is assumed same For d.

as a general viscosity be put by equation - g dp p dx _t _ 02u p Oy 2 (6-23) --+--=0 Ox Oy These laminar. to (6-21) OX +-_=O These The the are Prandtl's of the fluids. the In is essentially existing the second equation first constant.e. Just as for their equations flow calculation. and be leaves the is of order equal layer. equations and viscosity along the blade The remaining for (6-24) two-dimensional. The boundary-layer as Re increases. equations equation equations Ou u --+v Ox So. number is not included in the boundary-layer about the interaction of shock waves and Since the influence of equations. second to the potential equation is of it is so dimension- outside equation (6-18). us nothing 166 . as the can (6-21) are Ou Oy Ou Ov increasing decreases. the viscous-force smaller. they tell boundary layers. in terms Uo2/L and Re corresponds rule. arc not valid adverse pressure waves instantaneous number. is also are u and v.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION y-direction flow pressure (3) order (4) small Since _. with can be neglected 02U/OX 02U/OY _ can 2. at the equation It can be assumed of the boundary 1. neglected the because following in comparison less equations: OU OU dP 1 02U U _ T V O----Y . decreasing The variables by Uo/L. Furthermore. are Prandtl's boundary-layer flow. layer in and So. of the thickness dimensional (6-22) if pL Uo is constant. constant dp/dx. This completely. in incompressible arc assumed surface. Density gradient solution. boundary-layer equations Reynolds From equation number equations in this (6--21) form on the boundary-layer in determining influence for different we see that as Re increases magnitude. where the occur).d--X -{-Re 0 Y_ = OU OV (6-22) in dimensionless are size useful of the boundary form. unknowns and known. magnitude phenomena conditions in the in a on mainly Reynolds wave depend on primarily the Mach number. The pressure known from an ideal-flow and equations (6-23) It should be noted the presence of shock of large layer depend gradients boundary shock Mach and that (6-24) are sufficient the boundary-layer (i.. of the boundary _i_u decreases. layer decreases viscosity boundary-layer by multiplying The resulting terms (1Re) (02U/O y2) will get smaller thickness will correspondingly decrease.

wall. Very and completely used close in their to the are since in the equations to (6-8) reliable derivation separation as separation is that point. boundary-layer for an orthogonal system of each of the coordinate effects equations are negligible). curved such in curvature.. as were equations no large obtained may variations for fiat Therefore. neighborhood (6-6) of a separated flow region. error these to be of the the same region Nonetheless. 167 . as would y x x Y FIGURE 6-6.--Curvilinear coordinate system on a blade.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY The velocity boundary boundary-layer v is much layer the right up is very calculations Navier-Stokes equations smaller than are net u. a new a system. where the curvature question (fig. compared no large fiat-plate occur x along With surface. dr/dx applied and . in the separation and However.e. boundary-layer as well. in the of the boundary-layer equations were derived of coordinates in which the radius of curvature axes flow wall can is quite arises over and large (i. walls. order used where point be used development of the not the the as u. The for flow terms reference of curvature of magnitude as was thickness for the the same arc very r at a position of the is small individual previously. culations significant separation detailed The boundary-layer to the small. equations little generally location should used is incurred. v begins equations point. to in on the a curved is introduced the y-axis If a curvilinear orthogonal wherein is normal in the in such is in the direction set of Navier-Stokes These equations dependent The the of the curved be derived 1. in calV is of for is approached. the blade assumption the radius result are in curvature equations terms the with variations equations provided near sharp there edges. that of curvature can be estimated in the same of the so that bc done boundary-layer case where the walls occur. would coordinate change The for system equations are relative given radius orders manner wall. One of the grows assumptions rapidly. 6-6) as to how boundary-layer the x-axis to it._ l.

T temperature. case. and with (6-26) For air. several relations is probably parameters specific conductivity. _0 is approximately thermal conductivity fits these relating of the for With can the variables these Specific perature v. °R S= temperature To.ssible con. of temperature. was not be Layer performed to derive variations the a function and density compressible.5<oo<1. K. complicated. The that to temperature gas and temto u. temperature. and of the energy the case.. thermal There The most variable-viscosity to temperature. p. related are boundary-layer equations viscosity. °R (for air.pressible to _()-10) is almost are the analogous to (6-12) . _o= \_o/ where by the _ is a constant. viscosity is used temperature is considered pressure some three compressible density is no longer the equation and.0 0. in the one compressible-boundary-layer equations component equation. were of to equations viscosity neglected. flow will involve These for viscosity Sutherland's are form for is required. constate to temperature. z [T_3/2To+S _=\-_o] T÷S where _o (6-25) dynamic Ibm/(ft) absolute reference a constant. reduce the will be the least-squares unknowns cquation. (N) (sec)/m_. power law viscosity (sec) static at the reference K. to relate if the process The is not isothermal. heat range and 0. but also 110 K or 198 ° R) temperature-viscosity relation less accurate. For of the momentun_ T. and polynomial-curve involved. 1) common (rot. K. and tinuity equation. of state can Boundary also layer. 168 compr.65. equation can be for a compressible and and density the energy boundary In the used. The four the energy equations equations order-of-magnitude for incompressible the continuity flow flow momentum identical nonconstant following: to (Navier-Stokes) viscosity. temperature. incompressible For constant. analysis for flow. as a function relation nonisothermal. which heat.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Laminar An order-of-magnitude Compressible analysis were assumed equation constant. °R To S A less is the temperature. be related particular related variables problem equation.

0 [ Ov 2 /Ou Ov\l a [. is derived the from equation. pressure. equation equation check.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY Ou Ou Op. and for for The the in J/(kg) besides equation gas equation equation. where Cp U_xxTV_yy =_xx-i-_Oyy. W/(m) (K). 0 [ pu _+ pv oy-.lay au\l (6-28) O(pu) Ox If an order-of-magnitude to that layer for the equations result: analysis +O(pv) Oy =0 (6-29) is performed equations. order-of- where The The the R is the final gas constant. on these the equations similar incompressible-flow following boundary- pu -_x-{-pv --=--g Oy -d-x-t--_y _ (6-30) o(pu) + Ox The equation of state flow. Btu/(lbm) (ft) (°R) (°R) J k and 1 . j (6-34) 169 . The is also state o(pv) -0 Oy (6-31) required equation p=pRT for the is solution of compressible boundary-layer (6-32) (K) or the of state. means written (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) continuity is the layer energy (°R). Oy g Op. J/(kg) Btu/(sec) (K). 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu conductivity. two-dimensional flow of a perfect pc.-g _-v_ = L2" ou 2 ---- [Ou Ov\l O [ IOu Ov\l (6-27) Ov Ov pu _xx+P.Oxx k_-x)T_yy k_yy)+_j_ (6-33) specific conversion thermal heat at constant constant. steady required momentum energy energy a compressible a perfect is the of another in full: magnitude following equation for compressible. boundary by energy gas. equation.

components approach. could at the never present boundary-layer three-dimenequations represent flow. the is denoted density. time arc the Howcannot enough Navier-Stokes of eddies. of turbulent momentum.. the due are than two first since the mixing those is the so complex not feasible stresses of greater important. and (6-35) are the laminar compressible boundaryflow of equations for nonisothermal. which three-dimensional mechanism of turbulent two-dimensional computers solutions fluctuating is to write of mean and by of velocity. motions) fluctuations present.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION If an order-of-magnitude following boundary-layer check energy is performed equation on the results: above equations. are the often portion will pereddy These at in to have If the on the blades. decrease a resulting motion fluctuations solutions superimposed are Yet. 6-2). of pressure. gas law. largest the three-dimensional to represent second equations. sional. handle mesh flOW. of velocity motion. to fluctuating approaches exact components to the solution magnitude The due to the solution of the The of turbulent time-dependent. two-dimensional. u component of fluctuation are written velocity. is a prime even equations on a small of velocity of continuity. time by average the and _ and The and density. the (6-35) Equations layer a gas obeying (6-30). the fluid There flow. Boundary-Layer a turbulent boundary blades. stretching ever. Turbulent It is desirable of turbine probably formance. temperature u = _+ u' v=_+v' p = _+ p' (6-36a) (6-36b) (6-36c) (6-36d) (6-36e) and specific heat are p = p + p' T= T+ The 170 fluctuations in viscosity. . of the velocity approach in terms energy temperature. occur Turbulent is not turbulent. thermal T' conductivity. thc (6-31). pressure. as follows: calculations available of these components the equations and for So the fluctuating In this example. flow has that motion on the boundary layer with main irregular fluid closed-form is very mean Solution layer Methods over the major separation in their or (mixing (see since are fig. velocities. ideal (6-32). u'. required.

Boundary (6-36) into Layer equations (6-10). o(p'v') ox + -o (6-39) (6-40) /5 =_RT (6-41) 171 . time-averaged listed and set "apparent" pu '_ and v'. and performing following boundary-layer o(_) . time of additional equations or th_ before of the of temperature. the form of the to the presently are a new equations. are called of u r and equations empirical stress unknowns approximations turbulent boundary-layer available. Reynolds for which flow properties momentum. the analysis (6-32). _). (6-29). the This making adds three to equations presence a new of the (6-23) and (u'v') only (6-24) stress two Layer into equations all turbulent. o(_. for (6-27).INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY negligible as functions If the continuity. (_ and equations Notice. flow. thereby Turbulent unknowns Compressible relations and the flow: yields of equations (6-33) Substituting (6-28). magnitude pressible.) . new For where terms this three (6-36) terms parameters are calculated into the and stresses. are analogous however. are substituted for arises incompressible in thees or Reynolds average additional terms over add equations stresses. yields layer and the flow: the (6-12). equation. an order-of-magnitude incompressible. analysis boundary- Substituting (6-11). u'v' is the in the reason. compressible These They the are are product not and are not considered. substituted problem for the expressions boundary-layer Turbulent equations Incompressible can be solved. relations and then equations of equations performing for turbulent. order-ofcomfor laminar term in the two Reynolds with Boundary (6-36) then equations momentum unknown to the original equations. These So these value in equations energy of stress turbulent pu'v'. following (6-37) (6-a8) These flow.

will be the methods. describes FIGURE 6-7. We should only boundary-layer boundary-layer methods under presently exist circumstances. that many solutions solutions equations and this are dimensional. 6-7). boundary-layer be discussed. some methods flat-plate. and is defined as T.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1 0 _ k 0_ 0 (6-42) where T. in K or °R. flow. as the (6--43) for twoonly which various compressible is really concerned. as comas well defined. is the absolute total temperature. 172 . obtaining SOLUTION After parameters Included pressible velocity OF profiles BOUNDARY-LAYER are discussed of the and solution the EQUATIONS important will solution. incompressible Velocity One tions the of the principal results of the The Profiles from profile most in the boundary-layer boundary layer mathematically solualong obtained velocity velocity is a description blade surface profile (fig.= + We have now derived and as are for far the basic note basis boundary-layer incompressible at this for the time many.--Boundary-layer velocity profiles. boundary-layer the These starting equations laminar point turbulent.

the velocity boundary-layer as that from the 1 percent tend (fig.2 X (6-46b) c= (6-46c) 173 . and parameter u wherc dx (6-45) }. flow while used flow are A comis that mathematical by Pohlhausen expression (sec ref.. la) U/1/:frillill/I1 (a) Laminar profile. profiles those velocity The the a y from at surface. from the from at a distance velocity from the blade u... monly originated for laminar for turbulent flow (fig. velocity external distance Alternately. where u/ue surface. and turbulent velocity profiles. thickness. b. distance external in is often velocity. c.--Laminar (b) Turbulent profile."__ ( :. FIauaz 6-8. as a function u is the and equal the to _:_. the dimensionless y/5:. Velocity shape. differs of the velocity velocity the by dimensionless in the boundary u. stream _]. 1) : in laminar u-a The constants _-}-b ( ._y+c ( . 6-8(a)) blunted u/ue for to be parabolic 6-8(b)).y Y+ d are defined in terms of a dimensionless (6-44) shape a.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY Outeredge of boundary layer_ / ! | °e:J u / (b) J IlL rll//llllTII/I/. is the defined distance layer free- the blade.m. a = 2 +-6 (6-46a) k b = -.

Definitions Solutions often In obtained to placement order thickness thickness boundary little attains distance 174 of the thickness define of the is rather layer a value from are described of Important two-dimensional of three 5. it takes it is necessary definition from transition place the boundary of boundary-layer asymptotically. 1 .0 FIGURE 6-9. the the is of layer a small thick- in terms momentum parameters. which function value The of the of n= 7 exponent the dis- from to about for boundary-layer to other _fand boundary-layer the momentum flow on a fiat parameters.4 . The plate. in the the external velocity boundary-layer importance. y/Sfull 1. since because close 8/.H/ (6-47) Pipe-flow Reynolds is most n can experiments number appropriate be related and show varies that the exponent 4 up n is a mild 10. and thickness The Parameters equations These the to first the velocity form are are the factor define inside This at most disH.8 Fraction of boundary-layer height. layer.. d = 1 --- 6 shc. the these arbitrary.. thickness namely placement thickness in the next section.--Laminar veh)city profiles.:!== 0 o. wn in figure represented 6-9. to that which the wall. outside is very however. 0.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Shapeparameter. velocity boundary to the It is possible to define .6 . Boundary-Layer boundary-layer important parameters.2 .n. (6-46d) Velocity Velocity law profiles profiles for various values of _ are flow are for turbulent often by the power -.= Ue _ kS/. 0. .

<. `n (u. external of the the distance [. flow within the boundary As seen from figure 6-10(a).--])isplacement Equivalent profile equal mass flow.-(u e . layer due to the influence of _[ass defect = t/=81u. for ness as that from The the distance from velocity the blade u.u) ue II!_1111/_ rllllilllllllll r/Ill. distance outward pe is the 5. layer. in the defect free stream outside of by a It is boundary distance integrated thickness. by in kg/m This 3 or lbm/ft mass 3..-- pu) dy = I 1 -J_:z"':"u (Pp-_u_) 0 dy (6-50) for incompressible dy= flow reduces 1-(_) due dy to _=-.ll (p...- on) dy (6-48) where the the layer. of a boundary layer. the density.u.1 f_.u.1 The displacement peue _u-O [_-. _ _0 (6-51) presence of The friction loss of momentum is given by in the boundary layer to the 175 . (b) thickness 6-10. for compressible boundary-layer can be defined with the decrease in mass friction is given by the help of figure 6-10. thickness (p.--u) Ue _ y--O f. of flow displacement which the as shown potential is displaced boundary equation as a consequence 6-10 shows.--pU) y--O dy (6-49) Solving for _ gives = -.U. where the velocity differs by I percent flow.. decrease _ can in velocity be defined in the by the As figure (p.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY ue Ue .='. 'lllll/ll/llfll 'llll[lll// (b) (a) Actual FzGva_ velocity profile.. (a) llill. external displacement thickness 5.=_.y=Sfutt can be represented in figure field 6-10(b).s.

TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION l" y= I/ull Momentum defect = I d pu( u. energy.--u) H for both dy= ] " y=0 -l"/e 1-- dy (6-55) flow is The defined form as the factor ratio compressible thickness 5 H =0 and incompressible of displacement to momentum thickness: (6-56) There These are many three.-- u) dg (6-53) " y=0 Solving for 0 in this equation boundary gives the definition as of the momentum thick- ness for compressible 0=-Pe LIe2 _ y=0 layers pu(u_--u) thickness dg= _ y=0 pc_le 1-flow reduces to dg (6--54) The momentum for incompressible 0=-/_e2 y=0 u(u. Physical boundary-layer especially are the parameters principal besides _. the point of separation opposite to the external as the limit between forward neighborhood of the wall. the the boundary follow In general. other and however. into into layer retarded region main is transported When the the a surface.-y=0 u) dy (6-52) This momentum defect from the momentum by the of purely equation potential flow can be represented by a distance 0. away from pressure cannot. 0. general two-dimensional. and boundary used in H for layers.20 = Y=PJfull pu (u. (6-57) . point of separation is flow in the layer in the _yy/_=0=0 Figure 176 6-11 illustrates separation occurring along a surface. the kinetic Thus.u. studies. of their from move the in a particles When retarded toward exists penetrate small surface behind direction defined immediate separation fluid in the the main along too and far of flow boundary stream. parameters Interpretation from a blade a region of Separation or a casing with fluid an adverse particles pressure is deflected the gradient occurs. moves of increased layer pressure stream. boundary-layer for three-dimensional. defined p. The and reverse At separation. because away fluid and some the of the surface gradient in general. stream.

LSeperation point FIOURE 6-11..INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER TItEOR_/ (. boundary From equation u = v = 0. in the flow). By relation the examining between Prandtl's pressure that adverse of an to infer boundary-layer gradient separation pressure (6-23).. curvature pressure 02u/Oy 2.-.e._x_ undergoes separation. depends a velocity would in a boundary figure 6-12 (b) subjected to a decreasing pressure. y (c) (a) Velocity profile. layer with pressure decrease. surface (i...--Velocity gradients as flow -o .o >o . wall.--Velocity (b) Velocity gradient.. Figure layer neighborhood velocity 6-12(a) profile.). distribution in a boundary (c) Velocityprofile curvature. sign and with exist that velocity the the (6-58) finally in to the equation only profile shows immediate of the gradient. with dp/dx equations and gradient the velocity in a steady and flow considering only at the u(y). . changes profile that O_u/Oy _. 177 ._\\\'. wall pressure The the = g dx to Ou/Oy. distribution will occur decelerated conditions it is possible presence being dp/dx>O. FIGURE 6-12.. For such a profile. cquation curvature its gradient.. and indicates of the dp/dx. we have dp \Oy_/__o We dp/dx can now through relate velocity of the on the at the profiles (6-58).

is the that have (the slope negative layer velocity form of of indicates dp/dx. Stagnation Sudion -_'_"_Adve rse gradient Fmuug 6--14. of inflection corresponds be less than point layer velocity to positive dp/dx. cases there 6-13(c)). 6-13. O. dp/dx) a boundary to a decreasing (negative of impending which would that separation exist pressure Ou/Oy fig.--Velocity distribution (b) Velocity gradient.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION indicates Furthermore. From to negative pressure indicative a profile due that to an 6-13 (b) not shows flow figure surface. blade are Consequently. that 02u/Oy _. subjected profiles Figure with near gradient). O_u/Oy _ is positive since in all the surface. zero at some distance from 02u/Oy_= profile. 178 . equation 02u/Oy _ corresponds which 6-13(a) Here. in a boundary (c) Velocityprofile curvature. Ou/Oy. 6-12(a)). the that is negative Ou/Oy figure is positive 6-12(c) for all y and (6-58). This is a point that It follows O_u/Oy 2 must must exist a boundaryflow potential for which of the in a region of retarded • j Y :::_/-Point of inflection (a| (b) TRY- _y2 .--Pressure distribution on a turbine blade. which for all y. FIOURE (a) Velocity profile. layer with pressure increase. a positive layer pressure slope This decelerated increasing indicates is. in a boundary (adverse has (fig. However. decreases we know will as y increases.

therefore. and (6-59) (6-e0) The following are the boundary u=v=O U=Ue conditions: at at y=O y= oo (6--61) With the use of a stream (6-59) function into _b. and The was Boundary theory first the was Layer on a Flat Plate first reported in 1928 in 1904 in Germany. portion is taking pressure as far place. work 3). NACA of 4). in deriving potential of of a is adverse Figure turbine readily part pressure a typical danger zone. ¢9V oy= in m'/sec or ft'/see. assumptions gradient). Since = 0 at the when indicates The a point is retarded distribution as of inflection. is concerned. the velocity the surface) used the profile velocity must in the profile have flow boundary at the equation layer point (6-23). Therefore. 8u is constant. the major seen to be the rear of the blade diffusion of the suction Laminar Prandtl's It was equations This later Memorandum German Incompressible boundary-layer translated (ref.e. Blasius the following transformed ordinary the partial differential equation: equation differential f d2f+2 dy 2 where f is a normalized stream function daf=0 dy 3 (6-62) f(. from dp/dx the ffiO. can dp/dx).. (i./p. the velocity and Technical Prandtl's in 1908. solution published as an mathematical fiat-plate translated p(x) reduce 82u to be published with solution by NACA was also later steady equations.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY (positive point (with that. of Blasius (ref. on the where will have of separation it follows separation in regions surface a of inflection. separation surface. On a fiat plate potential solution The boundary-layer flow at zero incidence.)179 . 8u to is constant u _+v where v is the kinematic viscosity 0U o_ . 8u/Oy with occur the only 6-14 blade.

6 . degree solutions recently. tabular values solution a very d2f/dy _ as functions of figure and turns of 7. 0 .4 .1 = _. Since = u/u_. Y n.0 Boundary-layervelocity ratio. and This Blasius expansion 5) solved provided df/dy profile obtained about the being joined Blasius the an approxi71 0 and = equation for f. . 6-15.--Blasius-Howarth velocity profile for flow on a flat plate. further possesses abruptly from it in order !_ E s-. rather at _= oo exactly. the curvature solution point.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION which depends on the dimensionless y-coordinate. gives small an at a suit- for . u/ue Fmuaz 180 6-15.8 1. where = (6--64) This equation has the following boundary conditions: f=_--fy=O at n=O (6-65) df _=1 dy Equation mate able (6-62) df/dy.2 . with and velocity asymptotic (6-62) in the expansion More a high profile at the wall cannot form be solved of a power the Howarth of accuracy. series two (ref.

relation order-of-magnitude boundary-layer (6-66) For a semi-infinite flat plate. pUe 2 = 0. the curve has a point Prandtl's of since for y = O. From the the asymptotic value.332 _/"-:-_U_g = 0.328 D = _ b _¢/-_plu2 g (6-74) 181 . O_u/Oy _= O. analysis we had the performed to obtain equations. So. parameters the (6-70) follow- to the Blasius ing relations important boundary-layer for laminar flow on a flat plate can also be obtained: = 1.664 v]_ (6-72) gr. we can say x2 or Rez (6-68) _is.332 (6-73) 1..u ¢c (6-69) The constant of proportionality flow. for a semi-infinite at zero incidence boundary-layer (_s_zz=5.x p number can be expressed as (6-67) In order to make equation (6-66) dimensionally correct.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY to reach inflection.72 v_ (6-71) 0=0. At the wall itself. we obtain the can be obtained useful relation from Howarth's flat plate for the numerical solution in laminar thickness and is equal to 5. the Reynolds Rezu.0 With the use of Howarth's for other solution v/_ equations.

to y=_/. and was was not Von later approximate are methods K_rm_n's translated Khrm_n's 6).TURBIN]_ DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1. transition and the expressions layer by in does the leading boundary calculated edge of the equation will probably will be valid If transition be larger to (6-75) drag to the transition then Integral M_thods for Solving the Laminar-Boundary-Layer The tions two are principal by integral means of solving and by solutions. number that Cf Re_ dimensionless Reynolds be noted flow over boundary (6-71) the drag or skin friction based on plate coefficient length l for fiat plate It should flow._.328 _-_ "uJ where I"W (6-75) shear total width length stress drag on the surface. Von momentum Khrm_n equations equations realized was published in 1912 in Germany for every close by satisfying in the or Such fluid to the the by NACA the external necessary Instead. will Rez < 106. If equations if the For thickness is obtained integration (6-30) placement are pressible momentum boundary-layer from (eq.n.328 CI = 1. on both sides m. N._) u2 dx u. ft N/m_. following dO+ (20+. and result. a mean from over are remaining differential boundary a mean by and of dis(6-54)) incom(6-30)) (6-23) only is satisfied. all of these only where length relations are valid only that for laminar is indicative that is. of laminar to turbulent equations plate occur. = gr.. only from to turbulent than that the entire For Re_ > 106. of fiat plate. in the to satisfy he satisfied region over the the where In the the boundary-layer boundary-layer region equation (eq. d'---x p (6-76) 182 . flow is approached of fluid (6-23) conditions. flow. lbf of fiat plate. (6-74). occur. wall and boundary layer. ft m. Integral formula. du. a value of the plate. are since yon (ref. laminar. equaBoth extremely integral that it methods means provide cumbersome. based original the on work Equations the laminar-boundary-layer finite-difference exact solutions methods. introduced. they are valid layer point. thickness. y=O (6-50)) equation integrated thickness the definitions (eq. and equations momentum particle._. lbf/ft _ D b l of fiat plate..

of velocity were among defined these boundary gradients. = pT. boundary The velocity chapter. those and method He relates nondimensional the that use of exact pressure a nearly followed and Pohlhausen's all for Thwaites exact collected approximate does the compared solutions the A famous Thwaites' not require wall shear. Stewartson's transformation (ref. shearing at the wall. by assuming it is known to give poor results of velocity work (ref. Cohen and Reshotko's method is based on Thwaites' correlation concept. in this boundary-layer for the velocity thickness. a trans- Stewartson methods boundary-layer to appear and of Cohen boundary to compressible symmetric and or incompressible surfaces. solution a type laminar adverse of ordinary at the wall. the subscript (6-76) e denotes or (6-77) profile. 7 and earlier first to use equation incompressible discussed Pohlhausen's in regions and Although tried solution of rising extend which is probably pressure. the profile. at the outer (6-77) where layer. edge of the boundary differential a suitable 0.. the for conditions leads u/u. 10) is first applied 183 . proposed best by integral layers applies axially to incompressible is that integral. T_. twofreepresCrabtree (ref. and layers. factor with for As a result. 8)." have families Thwaites distributions pressible differential and and layer._2_ d--_ p. and heat transfer is calculated. They could solutions. A unique correlation was chosen that reduced the solution of an incompressible problem to the evaluation pressible heat formation compressible One laminar Their stream of the method or pressure transfer of a single fluids by Rott is negligible. and and Thwaites' the Prandtl (ref. A surface temperature level may be specified. to improve among distributions. profile under equation form the His is asthe (6-76) work assumed "Velocity various disto was by Proauthors different was known laminar that velocity incomof Equation for the sumed stress obtain published Pohlhausen files. form placement to an ordinary provided This that allows thickness. its derivative quantities existed to one another without forms universal gradients.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY For laminar. from equations. 9). his method the simplest. flow solution 11 and over recognized is equal be used to 1. a solution in 1921 was thickness. to date Reshotko It handles for the (refs. 6. It developed evaluated quantities favorable Thwaites selected a single representative relation. du. compressible flow. Pohlhausen (refs. flow. uJ d_ + (20+_-MJ0) u. well in areas dimensional arbitrary of adverse distribution performs sure gradient. method number 10) was extended to comthat to when relate of 12). solutions specifying of these relation For for the To do this. us to calculate momentum was the 1).

are evaluation for In the exact derived calculation Luxton and of all the boundary-layer the Prandtl parameters. different the differential related free-stream of these carried resulting important published but from which 1. in developing of interest with results come methods into this is that relatively Smith and for solving have (refs. conhave boundary-layer and the These approximation methods the upon equations These point means. which. With and Young Reshotko's. parameters out by relations. a the is then to equations velocity. is as general to have as Cohen values slightly for Finite-Difference Methods Solving Equations Laminar-Boundary-Layer Finite-difference have digital work good reference recently computers. in N/m s or lbf/ft stress in turbulent 2. substitution containing transformed calculation problem to differential starting first mean differential of the in 1877. flow mean equations boundary-layer with for the on this Boussinesq coefficient worked In analogy the of viscosity in Stokes' law for laminar t_ Ou r. the referencing flow. and the of these of reference first-order parameters transformed interdependence quantities 11. shear stress..TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION to the Prandtl's wall shear. are expressed the surface Thwaites' The heat resulting transfer. a considerable These on the methods computer. velocity. developed motion Reynolds the mixing components. Then utilizing equations. method allows in terms concept The solutions of dimensionless of a unique is assumed. nonlinear. running the because boundary-layer of the 15). laminar A. pressure. the methods (ref. of density. in equations of of very recent give amount prominence Clutter technique of Krause short and development Another done 16). (ref. times 14 and Eddy-Viscosity Turbulent Before length" used stresses matical leads stitute flow. be of the by this By should in many produced form and any the discussed. he introduced flow by putting a for the Reynolds A. 13) which number 1960. 0_ r_ g 0y (6-79) 184 . Mixing-Length Boundary-Layer Concepts Flow for viscosity" concepts to relate mean the values are given governing values solving of the concepts current of methods "eddy to date to the into only stresses turbulent "mixing been Reynolds of velocity a matheequations.g Oy (6-78) where mixing rz is the coefficient.

in N/m _ or lbf/ft viscosity. However. Reynolds _. to find introduced His mixing theory with with the relations coefficients for mean kinetic whereas clusters requires all of which of a Prandtl since a completely argument length the the of gases. of large stress flow. =-Thus. the It is. stress. concept can be applied is that A. mixing (6-82) than l is the mixing (6-81)). the eddy stress viscosity can then is analogous be expressed paa g Oy With the use of this concept. _. Turbulent (6--81) in equations such as can be written as A similar or a virtual. and In the free theory Prandtl's fluid good deal the 1925. for the dra_: by the Prandtl's calculation is roughly of turbulent proportional Turbulent . shear concept particles. empirical applying eddy-viscosity therefore. Reynolds path in the concerns mean on velocity.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY where rt is the the turbulent concept shear of eddy. length is equation length. that second On comparing viscosity _ of the is generally Prandtl's it appears l of the more (6-81). expression little (eq. g (6-82) where (eq. microscopic macroscopic expression model final motion motion for is of particles. first expression suitable has merely expression. His rt =- of discussion of turbulent is contained expression --PU'V' p l 2 Ida da --= g }-_y dy in m or ft. different approximation mixing-length to the is that stresses. has (6-82)) been been with that The replaced of Boussinesq unknown eddy unknown equation motion to the 185 gained. terms p to the as -Pu'v' g (6-37) and (6-40) kinematic viscosity (6--80) p= u/p. In 1880. to the and energy The hence equation difficulty _ depend between where with these an eddy. AY . where introduced or virtual. conductivity method necessary velocity. kinetic itself deals Deriving in reference is called is somewhat The main Prandtl's analogous difference hypothesis. Prandtl's of his physical 1. can be defined.

to the Ludwieg was for (ref. So. boundary Tillmann. proposed Stewartson's momentum methods method is directly relation methods. proposed layers. followed. proposed not use the and in Germany solutions flows. equations. whose work was (ref. The Ludwiegskin-friction formula is used to calculate the skin-friction disand gradient. had the When adequately in 1957 equation usually relations.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION square mixing property mixing of velocity. is obtained although to make _. turbulent solutions. provide flow are now impossible. been power the Prior utilized law. and work in 1950 in the in many improved which current whose term used the was data equations published making used by an in Gerintegral for solving for incomequation integrable parameter is boundary of works technique by NACA in many to propose for an incompressible in 1931. turbulent like It applies method use determined the approximation from an empirical auxiliary differential equation. boundary-layer Gruschwitz in Germany improvements Gruschwitz. flows. brodt's with 20). tion. a method layer. skin-friction are 18). and from (6-82) say about if the it is a the the is assumed fluid. there the are both Just integral since as with the and laminar-boundary-layer finite-difference Both for turbulent the first turbulent A rash calculational and the 10) (ref. one with and laminar is simple equato determine a separation point for flows with adverse Truckenbrodt. boundary treated Tucker integral profile. does published 19). Because of its simplicity used turbulent Compressible methods the to their K_irm_tn momentum an assumed of several boundary-layer empirical 186 . transformations Maskell. length length of the length and the same local the result function. many empirical equation. Solving the Boundary-Layer Equations equations. to both is still of integral work. incompressible boundary-layer two-dimensional and relatively layers by for incompressible boundary Reshotko symmetrical Truckenlayers. momentum an translated is still used methods of these methods exact solutions was for solving approximate for solving His work most was (ref. likewise equations. mixing is a purely about 1 than viscosity that for constitutes superiority of Prandtl's Integral Turbulent expression Methods of Boussinesq. The momentum rotationally accurate turbulent were first and velocity skin-friction in 1952 and for both method integral results. in 1951 turbulent determines relation This of them published empirical in 1949 and 17). pressible and thus the turbulent-boundary-layer He replaced thickness. was by NACA Maskell's in I955 method. to be independent It is far simpler eddy over of the magnitude we cannot assumptions this of velocity. (ref. the momentum A profile by an empirically obtained Tillmann tribution pressure translated and and.

INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY pressure tiplying normal The solved heat form (ref. extrapolated. of numerical Sasman-Cresci results and for profile to compressible expressed 18). equations. heat (ref. years layers. Spalding turbulent is going boundary-layer on in this and no method is yet 187 . and of the still (refs. computer today Cresci It method. method 31). 26. boundary energy to appear. boundary the skin moment-of-momentum several boundary One turbulent simply the and same of equation. 11 and 12) work and source is the of information additional analysis compressible boundary-layer of Herring for and Mellor Solving Equations the Finite-Difference Turbulent Finit_difference equations large and (refs. 22). layer equation. 23) has developed (refs.) were flow and then with of-momentum is obtained to that equation integrand surface integral respect momentum and and are and equation method. equation integral with auxiliary usually equation the momentby mulby a distance distance. methods use developed equations field at the the turbulent and 27). for handling A great deal of a Bradshaw. (This momentum integrating and the equation. was of the and then an auxiliary used. Patankar the work Atwell 28 have have and and portion methods recently begun to date on have the Methods Boundary-Layer for solving (refs. for compressible reference-enthalpy distribution are used zero. gradient. with the simultaneously. techturbulent (ref. equation. best was in incompressible transformation Ludwieg-Tillmann flow with concept through to simplify point method. at predicting separation (ref. boundary-layer Smith have done Ferriss. Reshotko-Tucker gradient. turbulent than It is still widely integral layers of the but after is that the methods boundary an extension analysis. The transfer and 10) also uses the momentum of Stewartson's moment- Reshotko of-momentum integral uncoupled the relation through and the when ago. analysis. suitable shear-stress velocity Separation becomes available used in many available of Sasman is made equations. McNaUy the Cohen-Reshotko An niques. Tucker's pressure applicable These use are (ref. present also developed for the turbulent turbulent another 30 and time. uses the turbulent compressible somewhat momentum are solved disthat of pressure based on 22) 24). It is where results is used of Maskell in a form for the power-law skin-friction transfer 21). the the until today. Cebeci of this work 29) based 25. the best compressible programs for (ref. gradient the to the was present. Reshotko-Tucker integral no attempt introduction moment-of-momentum obtained from equations simultaneously tributions boundary-layer boundary-layer analysis in regions a computer Sasman-Cresci on shear-stress is better recent The of equilibrium of adverse program (ref. to uncouple These This is located as the application of Eckert's An approximation layer friction.

CLAaENCS B. 1956. 8. many for difference. THWAITES. vol. Proc. BYRON. . Inc. integral superior 32 and and 33) finite to any compare of the others. R. Set. Aeronautical Research Council. L. AND RESHOTXO. 1960. ROTT. 2. pp. ELI: The Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. : Motion of Fluids with Very Little Viscosity. whole of a method requires be achieved mentioned been the some by of solution familiarity studying The to show REMARKS suitable with some present the the of the to a particular various more boundarymethods recent of the avail- references methods of herein. 11. Roy. Aeron. 1962. F. vol. A. Soc.: Simplified Laminar Boundary-Layer Calculations for Bodies of Revolution and for Yawed Wings. L. Aug. 1928. 4. 7. H.: Transport Phenomena. 1956.. pp. pp. 1949. 22. LVXTOS. EDWIN N.)" Boundary Layer Theory. intended variety discussion historical and where development the complexity solution of the of methods problem. R. : Correlated Incompressible and Compressible Boundary Layers.. CO_EN. R&M-3233. L. Quart.. Dec. Sci. YON K_RM_N. Feb. no. 1060. 6. COHEN. TRANS. J. 9. Aero- naut. 919. John Wiley & Sons. A. 19. that of selection problem This have solution can been has techniques.. 1. : Approximate Integration of the Differential Equation of the Limit Surface of Laminar Motion. no.. Ser. ELI: Similar So|utions for the Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Pressure Gradient. especially boundary-layer turbulent flows are involved. D. WARREN E. AND YOUNG. any edition. 1938. (London). vol. HERMAN_ (J. 252-268. 18.: The Boundary Layers in Fluids with Little Friction. REFERENCES 1. PRAN_rL. available. 553-565. POHLHAUSEN. (London). 13. BIRD. pp. KESTIN. Inc. 1. solving the boundary CONCLUDING The layer able.: Approximate Calculation of the Laminar Boundary Layer. NACA TM 1092. 188 . 3. vol. Aug. Proc. K. TH: On Laminar and Turbulent Friction. A. SCHLICHTING. 8. of Two the relatively most prominent turbulent recent publications methods.. : Generalized Methods for the Calculation of the Laminar Compressible Boundary-Layer Characteristics with Heat Transfer and Non-Uniform Pressure Distribution. NACA TM 452. 1950. 547-579. 1921. Zeit. Britain. 245-280. 10." On the Solution of the Laminar Boundary Layer Equations. CLARENCE B. 200. AND LIGHTFOOT. both layer.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION clearly (refs. f. Roy. 84-100. E. pp. B. McGrawHill Book Co. 12. STEWARTSON. NACA TR 1293.. no. NACA TM 1256.. K. AND CRABTREE. vol. STEWART. NICHOLAS.. Math. HOWARTH. Gt. Mech. 5. 164. 1946. Nov. Soc. J. ANY RESHOTKO. BLASIUS. 1949. NACA TR 1294.952.

ANY SPALDING. 31. NACA TM 1379.. H. pp. no. SMITH. Sept.: Proceedings. LUDWIEG. 1963. 639-647. MCNALLY. 17. SPALDING." Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary 1967. J. Heat Mass Transfer.R. Establishment.C. May 26.. AFOSR-IFP-Stanford Press. AIAA Turbulent Boundary J. SMITH. 22. pp. vol. 28. AERO 2443.. J. C. in Case of Plane and Rotationally Symmetrical 21. Equations. 5. A. Press. Heat Transfer. G.. and Heat Compressible Transfer. 92. ED8. 1968. July 1967. : Engineering Relations for Friction and Heat Transfer to Sur- faces 587. 23.. pp.. Lab. Computation of Turbulent Conference. ECKERT. 585- SASMAN. TRUCKENBROIYr. 3. : A Finite-Difference Procedure for Solving the Equations of the Two-Dimensional Boundary Layer. B. T. Aeron. AND CLUTTER. pp. FERRISS. E.: A Finite-Difference Method for Calculating Compressible Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers. 30. A Method of Calculating Compressible CR-1144. Rep. E. CEBECI. ANn HIRST. Layer with Pressure Gradient 1966.. P. V.. DARWIN W. DARWIN W. SMITH. 1389-1411. pp. M. 22. of Quadrature and Turbulent Boundary Flow. ANn SMITH. D. AND ATWELL. of the Turbulent Boundary Rep. KRAUSE. vol. M. M. D. Apr.: 1955. AND C." Solution of the Incompressible Laminar Boundary-Layer Equations. PATANKAR. no. G. no.. 9. vol. ELI. ROBERT Sci. 4. PHILIP K. Turbulent Boundary Layers. 0. lent Energy Equation. A. 1969. Boundary Layers--1968.. AIAA J. AND MOSINSKIS.: Solution of the Incompressible Turbulent Boundary-Layer Equations with Heat Transfer. IX: Summary. S. 25.. 1951.. 1970. vol. 10. M. A. 3. : Numerical Solution of the Turbulent-BoundaryDAC-33735. NACA TN 4154. 133-143. 1. 1970. no. AND CEBECI. 20. G. M. V. 10. Sept. 92.. J. 3. AND TUCKER. AIA_ J. of the 1950. A. WILLIAM D. 2062-2071. 523-535. SMITH. 1. E. J. HUBERT.: A Method Layer 1955.: Investigations Boundary Layers. vol. no. 28. L. W. HERRING. Program for Calculating Compressible Layers in Arbitrary Pressure Gradients. 0. BRADSHAW. 593-616. JAMES. AND MELLOR. S.. P. O. Royal for Calculation of the 19. Feb. no. 7.. no. 27. O. T.. pp. R. 8. vol.. pp. J. 1. B. 1965. Jan.: Machine Calculation of Compressible Laminar Boundary Layers. COLES.: 24. 1970.: Calculation of BoundaryLayer Development Using the Turbulent Energy Equation. Layer 1967. EGON: Numerical Solution of the Boundary-Layer Equations. Aug. vol. : Approximate Calculation Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow. National Physical PATANKAR. (AD-656430). N. Basic Eng. D. RESHOTKO.: FORTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Boundary NASA TN D-5681. A. pp. Fluid Mech. Wall-Shearing Layer in Aircraft Laminar MASKI':LL. 1231-1237. 0. T. 32. 1967.. D. Douglas Aircraft Co. Int. E. 19-25. 1957. AND CRESCI. H. in High Velocity Flow. Jan. 30. Nov. 4. J.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY 14. 1969. ANY CLUTTER. May CERECl. Oct. Layers. Stress in Turbulent AND TILLMANN. vol. 16. 189 . Rep. MAURICE: Approximate Calculation of the Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layer with Heat Transfer and Arbitrary Pressure Gradient. P. no. pp. vol. 29. Stanford Univ. E. NACA TM 1285.: Calculation of Boundary-Layer Development Using the TurbuBRADSHAW. NPL-Aero-1287. NASA 26. pt. 1967. AIAA J. 15. 18.. A...

: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. BERTRAM.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 33. H. MITCHEL 1969.. SP-216. ED. NASA 190 .

f in y-direction. 32. m. fwidth of flat eq. 1 . N/kg. N. K. Reynolds Reynolds Reynolds radius constant absolute absolute reference time. temperature. W/(m) unit vector in the z-direction characteristic length (e. (6-25). f f dimensionless body force of body of body of body constant. (6-44) plate. (6-47) (6-13e) (°R) by eq. 778 (ft) (lbf)/Btu (K). (6-67) (6-13f) (6-75) profile. To t U Uo U temperature K. (6--13c) m/sec. °R defined m/sec. by eq. cp m. n thermal conductivity. m. (6-56) in the x-direction constant. static total gas constant. number number number of curvature in eq. force force force function N/kg. lbm/(ft) (sec) A_r a b Cf e.g. ft Mach number external to the boundary exponent dimensionless static pressure.17 (ft)/(lbf) defined by eq. (ft) (°R) m. Btu/(lbm)(°R) at constant (6-44) lbf/lbm for a flat plate D d on flat plate. °R in eq. f in z-direction.INTRODUCTION TO BOUNDARY-LAYER THEORY SYMBOLS turbulent constant flow mixing in eq. by eq. g H i J 1. ft constant in skin-friction constant specific total Blasius general component component component conversion form factor. by eq. (N) (sec)/m_. Btu/(sec) chord). as defined surface. by eq. lbf stream vector. (ft) pressure. vector on the turbulent N/m2. (Ibm) f. (6--63) lbf/lbm lbf/lbm lbf/lbm (sec _) J/(kg)(K). used lbf/ft (K) velocity defined 2 . as defined on x. °R K. (6-44) coefficient. sec velocity velocity of general in x-direction. f in x-direction. P p R Re Rez Re_ r (lbf) / (lbm) on L and U0. ft S T T. the blade Prandtl mixing length. u in the 191 . ft length of flat plate. (6-44) pressure. upstream velocity of blade. layer eq. unit vector conversion unit vector constant drag heat coefficient in eq. J/(kg) based based based (6-25). dimensionless free-stream component ft/sec ft/sec x-direction. as defined in eq. f. temperature. on l.. °R of blade m. ft in the y-direction J k k L 1 M. defined N/kg. in eq. N/kg. K.

layer. T! Tt Tw _0 at the wall. tO X x-coordinate. viscosity (sec) viscosity. (6-26) ft_/sec 60 Superscripts" time t average component fluctuating 192 . stream function. N/m_. m. ft displacement thickness. ft _yuu ¢ m2/sec. general velocity vector. (6-64) a dimensionless quantity much less than 1 Blasius transformed y-coordinate defined by 0 momentum dimensionless dynamic dynamic Ibm/(ft) p P P_ thickness. (N)(sec)/m_. defined by eq. z-direction. shape viscosity. defined 2. ft coordinate perpendicular z-coordinate. ft coordinate parallel to boundary surface. kg/m _. defined boundary-layer eddy viscosity to boundary m. m/sec. ft parameter (sec)/m at reference m2/sec. m. (sec) kinematic density. m. ft/sec dimensionless velocity component ft/sec component ft/sec dimensionless of general of general in y-direction. m. by eq. (N) m. (6-13a) Y Y Z x-coordinate. lbm/ft 3 free-stream density external lbm/ft laminar turbulent shear function Blasius constant stress a shear shear stress. (6-34) m2/sec. lbm/(ft) temperature by eq. N/mS. defined by eq. ft dimensionless y-coordinate. m/sec. ft (6-80). free-stream velocity V p m/sec. thickness. ft2/sec eq. kg/mS. (6-45) To. at the ft/sec outer edge of the boundary (6-13d) m/sec. stress. ft2/sec to lbf/ft lbf/ft lbf/ft 2 _ 2 the boundary layer. N/m2. y-direction. by eq. m. surface.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION U U. in eq. velocity velocity vector vector defined defined u in the u in the by eq. (6-13b) y-coordinate. ft m.

boundary presented layers. in blade-row of fluid through in this ideal based from used discussion coefficients This chapter flow of fluid resulting of the low-velocity fluid. layer. losses to two-dimensional three-dimensional results are also objective from the flow A fundamental loss resulting final energy energy through by the and 7-1. W J The builds are blade the the surfaces.CHAPTER 7 Boundary-Layer Losses By Herman . mixing by for primary up on the the trailing friction cause blade of losses in a turbine surfaces. The blade-section blade plus discussed. r. these efficiency loss in fluid kinetic on kinetic unity.Prust. and the loss resulting loss downstream boundary-layer 6 presented the the surface friction. determining the with trailing-edge. are in terms of the Therefore. the flow from from is the of the the of the boundary viscous blades the fluid layer these over past that losses the the from and end-wall In particular. analytically methods associated primarily obtaining dimensional an introduction covers to boundary-layer buildup and and mixing herein Methods from the the experimental losses refers for twoenergy the kinetic flow with described. means Chapter of which fluid with boundary-layer analytical theory boundary end-wall design the chapter express high-velocity can be free-stream theory. as a fractional the blade row. in chapter station can be obtained is consistent subtracting blade-row Before loss These proceeding coefficients. and velocity pressure of boundary-layer locations with and the and parameters associated dis193 the aid of figure associated blade-row velocity pressure distributions will be introduced distributions . and row. loss resulting pressure-drag edge. for loss developed These part Efficiency coefficients definition with the and the of the of kineticactual loss coefficients. expressions is to minimize blade the energy energy this 2.

.1| Station la _-r] I'--'--'I rq Station i Station 2 (b) FIovr_ 7-1. will be referred locations ./ .. !. same A separated is thicker... 194 ._---.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION cussion layer.--Station (a) Station locations. if at all. -- Total pressure Static pressure Velocity Station 0 v. (b) Pressure and velocity distributions. higher Figure refer loss. locations and associated press_Ire and velocity distributions..$ --.--_ Station 0 r la r" '-1 (a) . manner. that boundary yields a with its associated 7-1 (a) reversal be analyzed the of flow at the four surface... to an attached and cannot indicates boundary layer in the station only.

In some place. coefficients To describe presence (displacement in flow. surfaces. the various that a number stations.. blade trailing in velocity from pressure pl_ at the station loss has the the the is. and showing la and associated profiles In have inlet have both flow throughout l. of downstream mixing are again of the has taken place. in addition. boundary pressure stream flow from the chapter. trailing surfaces Velocity edge. po' is assumed. complete and flow angle sufficiently Station 2 is located velocity at a distance total-pressure of variables Uniformity Experiments across infor. of course. and order been to simplify assumed tests that stream analysis discussion. a uniform Station layers profiles Station total la developed as shown region value pressure beyond is just 0 represents pressure within on the in figure at the of the solid the the inlet to the blade as indicated edge of the varies There Total across friction where with the too. boundary- 1 is just has filled This are edge. 1.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES to in this station. blade 7-1 (b). usually do vary la does applications. BOUNDARY-LAYER When between in the velocity surface _:. mixing by free stream profiles pressure stations with the occurred. At station the void. surface. velocity resulting factor) friction of fluid the on fluid the from Some others will of were height fluid surface and friction to the velocity in the boundary-layer the losses boundary thickness. 195 . the these a real the region to fluid flows and the adjacent free-stream of the over a surface. momentum. at PARAMETERS a loss results between by from full and parameters thickness. At this in figure The and freeno varies blade as is la. layer. blade. variation flow can be accounted a com- a hypothetical convenience. Although pletely which some uniform will be later downstream downstream identified. and take constant but and seldom pressure boundary across exists layer mixing state conditions shown free is a universal static convenience can be approached somewhat in component in actual and flow angle at stations this of the is merely stances. value through This V:. only the surface trailing little but surfaces. is indicated the assumed 1 (b) region.u.. occurred. certain momentum the desired introduced in the last chapter and will be reviewed specifically used for obtaining be introduced and defined. here. blade wake across row constant la._ to zero the free-stream static P']8. region V:. the trailing-edge loss. boundary-layer are used.= po' to the static is assumed the blade where in figure entire constant loss occurs. uniform.1. 7-1 (b). pressure result row. the that The station-1 static Between mixing. Here station. kinetic-energy zero energy form As shown varies the due to both the figure layers 7-2.I. Station layer has fluid the flow angle a_o.

of the fluid in m or ft./ layer height.. fluid density. m/sec. which is indicative of the loss in mass flow. ft ft/sec lb/fP normal to boundary layer.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Free-streem velocit L Vfs =i . Equation ary layer conditions the loss in mass ideal flow which displacement flow of the would pass fluid in the through for bounda length _ yields is equal equal to the to the (or an area) thickness. The displacement by thickness 5. is defined (0V)s. thickness.=L where $ V P (pV) f.=Jo where the 0 is the momentum fs:. kg/m3. which loss.Full boundary W)odty. _full ¢////////. is defined O(pV_):. ft Y in direction ()f. ft m..u (pVV/. pV (pV):. Surface _'//////////_ FmuRz 7-2. (ideal) that m.... m. Solving ['/"u =-o The momentum by thickness dy_ dY fo_:=u .. dY_0 _lul! (pV) dY (7-1) displacement boundary-layer fluid velocity.--Typical boundary-layer velocity profile. distance free-stream (7-1) states thickness.u pV 2 dY (7-3) states (7-3) that to the thickness. is indicative of the (7-2) momentum O.) dy_ fo_.4. Equation in the boundary layer loss in momentum is equal 196 .. v =.

The form factorH isdefined as H= -_ (7-7) Substituting dimensionless equations distance (7-2) y as and (7-4) into equation (7-7) and defining a yyields 1 Y _futt (7-8) 1 (pV)I. (7--fi) Ratios of the aforementioned thickness terms are also used as basic boundary-layer parameters.) dY- _0 (pV 3) dY (7-5) layer pass through states (7-5) that to the thickness. (7-10) (7-8) into equation (7-10) 197 . H = 1 (7-9) (or)f. dY- Solving PV_ for 0 yields dY (7-4) fa'"' -o pV (pV)t.V 3 dY (pV3)s. and (or'). can fo s_'" similarly (pV )i..V dy_ fo sf"'z .=_ where the ideal ff is the kinetic energy energy _0 (pVV_. fluid in the flow which thickness.. of the ideal energy of the in m or ft. Equation would Solving loss in kinetic energy equal boundary is equal a length (or an area) to the for ff yields [6/.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES ideal momentum equal of the to the 8= ideal flow which would pass through a length (or an area) momentum thickness.. =-o . An energy factor E is defined as E= _8 Substituting yields equations (7-6). (7-4).. The energy loss in kinetic defined energy by be expressed in terms of an thickness _ _b(pV_)/.

same exusage. { F'-(7-13) H= 1 (n+l)(2n+l) and + + A_. 1. the form of the resulting 1 --4 n+l for n will depend equations and energy (7-9) n and the derived 5A_. expressed equations follow numerical the With in series expressed ratio to be used profile. (3n+l)(4n+l) A_.pV 3 dy (pV3)I. -_--Jl* (3n+l)(4n+l) (5n+1)(6n+l) 2 E. dy- fo 1 -. The with form in chapter exponent value 6 (eq. 5n+1 exponent. and The in terms ) can be integrated flow can be velocity 1 are critical factors for turbulent free-stream in reference exponent equations 3A f. for specific used that as the expressed as yn. V/Vcr. -_+• I o t- + (5n+l)(6n+l) (7-14) where (7-15) As._"/- _+1 1 (_-) 2 _ 198 . (7-11) (pV)j.25.__ (n_l_l)(3n_q_l)--I1 (n+l)(2n+l) (3n+l)(5n+l)+(5n+l)(7n+l) Af. exponent theory the being reference boundary-layer is consistent derived. pV dy-.1 and the 0. dy often represented by a power Velocity profile of the profiles type for turbulent flow are V _yn (7-12) where Note profile pressed The wherein the value this 1In of the power exponent profile (6-47)) with as n. that n is most is here general are often between 0. 3n+l A/. on the and (7-11 Therefore.f[ pV2 (pV_)1. while as yl/n. is consistent is expressed however.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION ff E= fo pV (pV)/. this velocity form.

BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES and _. physical pass on the constant is almost independent boundary-layer to a boundary aerodynamic directly the and from more so and 0 to 1.. of the blade as a fractional row.. equations H_.4 I 3 4 Form factor._ = 3n+l for turbulent from factor exponent presented They drag the compressible (7-16) (7-17) Values of the form and energy factors flow are shown in figure 7-3 for V/V_r varying from 0 to 1.6 2. Vc.r 1) flow incompressible zero. thickness. is the condition. For of V layer work.--Effect of compressibility (Data on variation of energy from ref. the are n varying more than factor and useful can however.4-7 .o .8 E" -\\\ I 2 \ rL00 1 Power n usedin velocity equation VNfs =yn r]. it is part thickness thickness thickness. the any V¢r. of can in energy parameters on any For to the could are momentum general of body. _ 1. H 5 FIGURE 7-3. the termed basis are directly of a body work.) factor with form factor. It can be seen that the form does The refer certain tained where simpler the ideal parameters parameters" the energy factor.4 and varies much n. (VNcr)fs f-0 //-0. The be ob- In turbine losses the flow is confined quantities are that boundaries blade meaningful to express herein through expressed defined "dimensionless trailing-edge of zero Free-stream criticalvelocity ratio..c=2n+l and 2(2n+1) E_. flow. 199 .-0 1. to where heat at constant critical approaches wlume. (7-13) at the V/V. row. just type instance. 1.2 hJ L= -V/21. (7-14) pressure in m/sec reduce to specific or ft/sec. is the (Mach ratio of specific and heat at constant fluid For and velocity.25 ' _LS0 6 7 1.5.

corresponding channel. (7-18) (7-19) (7-20) pressure-surface thickness momentum. - s cos a O.O. flow conditions parameters and energy that for one must represent the sum of the same.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION "%. quantities losses as indicated suction-surface loss plus pressure-surface Stot=$. s.A-_ where and defined thicknesses the subscripts boundary-layer are expressed tot.. 8 cos c_ (7-21) 0* = - (7-22) _/ tot _* .--Nomenclature for trailing-edge ala region. e.o.\ Station _ _'_'_ ____-_ _ J t 8 Ys _cos FIGURE 7-4. or bladeloss. ideal total of the The in all channels are could the obtained pass by through blade-row are the dividing channel one in figure dimensionless in flow. S COS ot(pU2)$. These suctionWith the losses the row are dimensionless and the assumption thickness that parameters thicknesses.. and value.FOp q/tot= _. the by 7-4. suction-surface of the value.o.A-_p Otot-.(pV2)i..-. in terms thicknesses. dimensionless boundary-layer ($*= s cos a(pV)I. the value. a (7-23) 200 . 8 COS 8 COS 0t (_)(pVa)l.. previously pressure-surface respectively. composed for a single channel. as p denote total Thus.

methods expressing for evaluating trailing-edge. in flow. energy.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES where dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless 8 O_ 0* displacement momentum energy m. (7-23) as fractions trailing-edge 1._*_-.t* _ from equation energy (7-26).) in m or ft. blade edge. of the to station as t t* S COS _la (pV3)i. just the blade-row edge. beyond the deg the losses respective is assumed station edge. and loss coefficients LOSS the mixing losses losses COEFFICIENTS are and to be expressed them in terms in terms of the of In this section. (7-26) it is _b_* 201 In order necessary to evaluate to know the the loss coefficient of the values dimensionless thickness . Losses _la. ideal la. Equations tum. These the and ties for the trailing (7-22). the kinetic-energy previously. fluid flow angle (7-21). surface-friction If a trailing-edge dimensionless (7-25) equation (7-24) reduces to ela -- 1 -. row can if the express of their thickness trailing to be zero. will be presented. can thicknesses boundary-layer dimensionless _11a8 COS O_la(pWa) fs. ft from axial and thickness thickness thickness direction. defined energy of the as the of the loss in kinetic actual Surface-Friction The energy kinetic-energy as a fraction be expressed as loss of the in coefficient ideal terms kinetic blade-row flow. nomenclature coefficient thickness it represents is referenced is expressed la. aa (Refer of the (7-24) to fig. trailing edge within _1_= (s cos oq_--_*_s cos axe--t) where 7-4 Since trailing t is the for the this blade-row trailing-edge in the only region the thickness. equations be subscripted to apply at either or station BLADE-ROW As mentioned kinetic-energy friction. loss coefficients. respectively. blade. momenquantiwithin blade spacing.

d (7-28) In a similar nesses manner.--In to measure are taken.--where (7-27) u is the simplifies distance to s cos _o(pV)_._. pVd Assuming 202 that the total temperature T' and the static pressure (7-30) p_. the as dimensionless momentum and energy thick- can be expressed 01*= (pV2)1o.).d (u) (7-29) ¢l_a -- (pf.cos a_of0 (pV)_odu _i*.).. 1 V pV = fo and [1-(V-_f.1o-t*s cos a..1. (7-27) in m or ft.. related the p0'blade-exit P'lo for one express which thickas to friction are po'.. The and pressure the the the density required functions. Since the dimensionless boundary-layer thicknesses the losses of the blade row as a fractional part of the ideal quantities could ness pass through the blade in terms row.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and either the dimensionless experimentally displacement or analytically.. These can be evaluated herein.(pV)i. as will be discussed experimental velocity and total velocity density and Experimental it is impractical pressure pressure static loss consist data determination. in . and the total-pressure loss survey blade space.a(pV)s. the directly. Equation _l_a = I--t*-- fo pV ._.. 7-1) p... Instead.V}. thickness determining $1". pressure data upstream for computing pressure data of (see fig.. loss values.] (_).. the dimensionless flow across one displacement blade 8 can be expressed of the pitch s cos . in the tangential direction.._.

from equation and ratios and Then.) isentropic l..\po' ] .. and pl=/po' the total-temperature of chapter 1. ratio (V/Vs. are the same as in the free ratio stream.=T_o. and 1..17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) J/(kg)(K). and the thus in terms evaluate of the the loss measured pressures equations by equations it is now possible to integrate dimensionless coefficient $1= boundary-layer can be computed The kinetic-energy determined (7-26)..BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES the boundary layer relation. that equation dividing for station of these la and again by equations P./ . T'where g J Cp T fp_C. constant. ' (from (7-31) the by ideal equation gas law. we can V_ 2gJcj. is a two-dimensional 203 kinetic-energy loss coefficient .a==plJpo ' ' --7 \p 1_. 1. The (p/p') isentropic write velocity relation. and velocity (7-33) (7-29).y-_>/v 1--_-_ = 1-\_/ (7-34) conversion conversion specific heat'). (sec 2) Btu/(lb)(°R) for free-stream the second.. division of equation (7-32) -P_s.. the density From ratio the (p/p/.T I. (7-32) with yields ' T'I. (7-30) expressed (7-35). can be related to the pressure P'ljPo' as follows: p (p_V.---7" \Pla] pin _ (v-l)/v (7-35) With the density (7-28). 778 (ft) pressure.l==po' ' and plJp/.)la as follows: equations can From (1-51) be and related (1-52) to the pressure definition (7-33) ratios and 1.. once first (lb)/Btu at constant (7-34) the Subscripting values recalling at la.._oa.1=Since ps. Po' and T_°aa = T_= yields = V 1-.32. thicknesses..

. from cover a turbine.SD -_" j COSalo r dr (7-39) S.. it is based a constant often is.. h (7-37) cos alo r dr d/_. these integrals are expressed as L:i.a_ " (pV2)f. and to obtain at a number or rotor a three-dimensional for a blade of radii sufficient dimensionless for each obtained are then to adequately boundary-layer radius.|D (7-38) "* (pV3)s.. r dr _la.... the on data either from a two-dimensional (The annular In data are hub row. r dr cos.(pV 3)i._o(pia)i/'y[l__(P"_(_-')i'_l'l' 5" Ia. can be. r dr Ol*. r dr 204 .->"'[ \p-_41 j cos al. cos alo r dr (7-36) "' (pV)/°jo k cos al.:' <.) radius of an annular full stator loss coefficient cascade. k cos al_ r dr In terms of the measured pressures.. cascade cascade order and are taken the calculated ary-layer to tip: that or from is. boundfrom two-dimensional as shown thicknesses thicknesses previously Three-dimensional integration ff' h $*_(pV)I.h cos al. .I. by radial the annulus.I.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION coefficient.1.

of reference was 4 to compute turbulent boundary-layer 01a _--- ._ r dr \p0'] &:_.--The parameters. \_ccrlfa._ = \-_ / j j cos ax.t_* where t_* is the trailing-edge the the dimensionless average value thickness for the blade loss determined as experimental consuming boundary-layer computer at the at the mean row. The boundary-layer solution.a r dr The three-dimensional similar kinetic-energy to equation (7-26) : _/la.3_ = 1 -._*o. While less calculating not costly kinetic-energy as reliable and time the basic require in use use of analytically boundary-layer values.231 on an integral method solution method of reference 3. NASA and the better computer include one (ref. also be evaluated values methods and with are much for referenced programs determination.SD loss coefficient is then obtained in a manner _1_. r dr (7-41) cos a.BOUNDARY-LAYER I_SSES O*a(Px_}l/v [ \po'] j cosaz_rdr (7-4O) \p-_0' ] j cos a.aD-. 2) based based on the finite difference equation used in the study thickness momentum 0. to obtain. la × (7-43) 205 . coefficient (7--42) radius _1_ can anaAnaare are and is used to represent Analytical thickness lytical lytical discussed not layer Center another An simple. parameters solutions BoundaryResearch and Lewis in chapter methods currently 6.

would end-wall from require effort. m. l blade-surface (N) distance (sec)/m_. considerable used. would results parameters from stator from for the to the kinetic-energy presented in reference earlier the studied and equation experimental (7--43) programs (7-43). assumptions surface the blade momentum can be represented dimensionless momentum thickness 206 . boundary velocities free-stream can be required layers. analytical boundary-layer $_ can For values. surfaces. the loss for the two-dimensional at a number length and surfaces. (7-43) and by and adjacent any (7-44) pressure for to the of the of the can be known be the as evaluated free-stream those These both blade. ft viscosity. ft point. equation is asIn stagnation distance m. equation the computer from Three-dimensional equations would have boundary-layer (7-36) the to be analytically variation somehow. to establish determined. of references to (7-38). for the will of two not boundary-layer individually however. are L\-_-Iy. It profile. as those could be surfaces values.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION where parameter X defined along blade by equation surface from lb/(ft) (7-15) from forward to stagnation rear point. momentum were reasonobobtained calculated thickness of radii also a of Such method method made: section. Hla. simplified 5 for predicting losses good method average agreement three-dimensional with experimental two-dimensional by this are mean is commonly of reference obtained results. the of this boundary exponent equation layer n was is presented has obtained from a power-law reference n Equation surfaces equktions blade-surface channel Values form for factor both the obtained thickness evaluated turbine calculated thickness ably tained from directly parameters sufficient have procedure reference mean-section have In (1) by the shown the The to be close from (7-43) of the (7-43) must The and be (7-44) . for xj 1 the and suction densities values obtained 5. 5. techniques factor flow analysis of the from form equations suction the blade blade Hla and discussed in chapter in equation With the loss 4. the H as required factor and (7-14). over over In general. forward (sec) in reference velocity referenced the 4. energy and and equations Ela at station la for each various in this surface (7-13) pressure the 01a. The sumed development that the 4. be as accurate 2 and parameters The the the determined blade so the losses Results following blade at 3. and E_ coefficient chapter.

.. blade used to calcu- (2) and stant the (3) momentum the blade section. over the blade radial length 207 .._i_. and The area can on the inner area and outer end walls surface. ft 2 and area for one passage cos a. of passage m2. • I-----. taking the average momentum loss O'a.s----- FIGURE 7-5.. is (7-46) Aw=2sc where Aw total blade surface stagger area areas). is the same equivalent as the average two-dimensional of the loss per unit as shown stagger surface angle area on the blade approximated 7-5. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::: • _''" _ _%%_. blade. outer area m._i_!_i_ _I_i_::_]_. height. ft end-wall (sum of suction-surface and pressure-surface areas) h The of one blade.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES- Approximate area o{one end wall sc as) cos 7 t Approximate s_de of blade F/:iiii::iilfi:._ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::× :':':"::_i_''"' • " "::::_!:i:i:_: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::i ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: : ============================= .--Schematic late diagram the effect of equivalent of end-wall two-dimensional area on blade loss.. angle._. 7-5) Ab = 2ch where Ab C (7-45) total blade blade inner surface chord. cross at the section of one equivalent (see fig.i::iiiiiii::::i::ili::f|iiiiii::iiiil direction [ ]!{i]_[i] []]]_]]]_][:i]i[]i][][ ]]]]]]]][]i]i !1 ][_ ]]i]i]_]![i]i]i _ __:_. m_... to those having be satisfactorily in figure equal by an a conmean blade blade. given is loss per unit momentum configuration spacing. ft _ deg end walls (sum of inner and outer end-wall Now. ft m..

but are the 208 has occurred. which e. trailing-edge which loss has both be made to station coefficients surface-friction a location 1 in figure measurements little row.--Experimental values of blade loss coefficient blade trailing _te that edge can Loss represents be values and form used are used factors as is done for the energy and defined (7-48) is then form factors. loss loss.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and modifying it to include the end-wall losses yields 01"3D=0" The are then three-dimensional calculated as fAb-t-Aw_-O* energy and (1_ displacement sc°sa') thickness (7-47) parameters * _la. 4 that (7-49). which include between experimental both surface-friction include only the loss coefficients _1_.3 D (7-48) 5" la.3 Mean-section the energy boundary-layer satisfactorily dimensional tion (7-42). that the locations. determination. reference number data for 6. and loss. obtained (7-49) Although they The from can be threeequa- were originally in terms and of individual thicknesses. determine trailing-edge downstream obtained include must mixing.3D and _ Ela * .3D = Hla . of the tained as described surface-friction same manner except measured at different based where the blade on data the coefficients trailing-edge in exactly total-pressure loss and static pressure The surface-friction loss coefficients within not at the yet blade trailing To just loss and 7-1. which previously. surface-friction from differences _1. sheet-metal of surface Analytical presented reference determination. corresponding the trailing-edge drag joints coefficients Included of different in loss. which determined are loss. where edge at station the occurred. m01*o D .e= :1. Thus. Trailing-Edge The with mentally kinetic-energy flow past the or analytically. surface-friction :1. experimental discontinuities.--In for a large are experimental .e_.mOla. kinetic-energy it is indicated in equations loss coefficient in reference the loss associated either experitrailing- determined Experimental edge loss coefficient _te are obtained two-dimensional loss coefficients loss and blade trailing-edge loss. Loss coefficients _1_. include (7-50) are obboth the are were la. just loss and include Loss only loss.

of body. geometry. anaof a boundary h. loss due over edge in the body and to the the path airfoil trailing It is indicated discontinuity discontinuity. edges.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES T ¥I _u11 FIGURE 7-6. equal to the to the of the past flow direction a trailing placed of a small height 7-6. bolt similarly the and rivet that regardless heads the to flow due of different pressure-drag geometry. coefficient dynamic pressure q_f_ is expressed as N/m. dynamic 6. D = q_IihCD where D h drag height drag and the on body.--Schematic diagram of body in boundary layer. m. part of the corresponds loss due will be treated as if the loss were in reference the as shown pressure Thus. representing (7-51) and the (7-53) 209 . ft lb/ft (7-51) effective qell=h J o 2g dY (7-52) Drag is related to momentum thickness as (7-53) D= O(pV_)I° g Therefore. lytically layer. behaves Therefore. to a body drag As indicated to or less boundary effective height than layer. placed boundary layer in a turbulent equal approximately of the body. the in figure of the of height full boundary-layer 6y=u. trailing-edge with a properly a dimensionless loss is obtained subscripted momentum by form combining of equation thickness equations (7-22) : e*.

equation free-stream ql. V/.-- ] (7-59) .... (7-57) To' Substituting the parameter equations A _. defined (7-56) and "y+ 1 (7-57) in equation yields (7-55) and using by equation (7-15) 1- A fs \_u/l/ Performing qy!=(l_A/. the equations the use h of velocity simple (7-12) power yields dr (7-55) variation of the (7-8) and in the profile boundary presented layer can be expressed Combining previously. presto (4-26) Before sure the (4-27)).TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION q. be evaluated./ 210 _ (6n+l) A_ +. ratio of the is equal effective dynamic be determined. a binomial expansion and integrating then gives ) [( h ) 2" 1 ( h _4'_ A. L\ (i/.(pV2)fs 8 COS 0_1 -- (7-54) g The flow angle and must a. For turbulent with flow. Assuming layer tion and (1-64) that free the stream total are temperature the same 1 gives and and static the pressure ideal in the (7-56) boundary equa- using gas law and of chapter To' P/* 7+ I _ I. . is related (7-54) dynamic to the can The pressure angle ala as discussed the effective to in chapter dynamic pressure 4 (eqs.LrhCo 8". zt/ (4n+l) + (h_y \(_f..z/ 2 n -l---_l I. qy.k _.

energy.Ay. for incompressible (7-62) and for compressible flow.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES Substituting thickness equation t in place (7-59) of body in equation height h finally + (7-54) yields and using trailing-edge 0"- tCD (l_As. 0. • • ") 6full -- Equations momentum kinetic-energy factors. be the Equation n is not is adequate: incompressible is for compressible following n=l/_ cases. instead will be available. simplified (commonly (6n+l) in equation values. flow thickness suctionthe and and _f_u to be used pressure-surface flow.375_The information be set trailing verted edge and equal edge.16 for corresponding basis In such as equation trailing a case. = He*. t 5-_-t. = EO*. that a rounded trailing (7-61) reported in reference 7 and to the same are 0. the form for compressible flow. . (7-60) due to and the (7-61) blade give the edge. fractional To find to find and (7-14) the loss the in blade-row losses energy are trailing corresponding fractional and loss coefficient.14 for a rounded Frequently. (7-63) 1(1 -. from it is necessary (7-13) and (7-17) in flow and kinetic evaluated flow and from used to obtain As a simple equations (7-16) approximation.) 2s cos a_ L\_-_-! 2n+l _. and d/*. flow. In many used +"" (7-60) at least which turbulent (7-60) should when flow).) 1 .22 for C9 can a square contrailing of _i/_.=0. (7-64) ( 7-65 ) 211 . (n--_-t-_ A/. for equation. equations for incompressible 5*. assumes 0". A_. a square t _futZ ted S COS oq (7-61) the edge drag and coefficient 0.22 The for in reference to 0. 6 indicates values edge. (4n+ 1) + The boundary-layer sum of the (7-60) well known. 5to.

8. expresses of the The the loss in kinetic flow that would energy if the as a fraction trailing-edge loss thickness loss exist (7-66) of the loss for 7-7 by is with friction is dis- trailing-edge against on the kinetic-energy trailing-edge momentum with but Expression this thickness coefficient in figure incompressible for several thickness. 1.5 _ .005 0 . energy loss. of the surface-friction and trailing-edge loss in terms cussed in the next section.015 . to boundary-layer as expressed friction kineticadditive blade-surface trailing-edge combined in equation loss (7-66).D Dimensionlesstrailing-edge thickness. U_ul. which the is just downstream the trailing Therefore.O i . of a kinetic-energy loss coefficient . Cv--0.16. O2O Ratio of trailing-edge thickness to boundary-layer height.05 .! _ . not rigorously.olo . fluid has a void area behind blockage. of the edge blade trailing edge. equation not the energy included flow is plotted of the ratio figure The is based flow of trailing-edge loss associated Therefore. drag coefficient loss coefficient.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION At station flowed into 1.3.--Effect of trailing-edge blockage on kinetic-energy factor H--1. t* FIGURE 7-7. energy factor E-1.10 . coefficient. Form 212 . loss coefficient is approximately. and there is no longer due to trailing-edge is obtained as a kinetic-energy loss coefficient * This ideal were loss coefficient kinetic the only values This (7-61).

BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES Combined As stated thickness combined experimental which versions obtained is just experimental in the parameters friction and Friction of the and Trailing-Edge loss. where thickness ideal surface-friction be expressed the friction boundary-layer on the basis at station thickness of the same la where (61". 01" = Ox. of &*.t ) where friction parameters the subscript at station f refers 1: 6x* = _I./_ _*(s la s c°s Ola--t al" COS ) (7-68) 0* and 0* (s sc°sal" (7-69) .( _bl'! = _bx_ s scosa_ cos al_-. with there by the boundary-layer adding they the must and trailing-edge 1--61" thickness loss parameters to the at station trailing-edge (7-67) 1 are loss. flow ideal the true blockage./A-O t. In this appropriately trailing-edge loss can be obtained measurements downstream values (7-28). Howflow 1.IA-_ t. ideal at station blockage) is a trailing-edge Therefore. (7-30). . the parameters ideal 01*a. and (7-29). flow. can be added. and _ll* -IY l.f 'fire (7-70) friction. the Adding combined the loss to the loss due loss parameters to surface then yields and trailing-edge (7-71) (7-72) (7-73) (7-67). the Los boundary-layer expressing by making to way. boundary-layer (with parameters are flow as follows: adjusted _* 1. obtained Before The ever. at station friction-loss blockage be comparable to account is no blockage. friction-loss expressed there dimensionless of an ideal thicknesses flow without blockage the to the for _l*a) are in terms must trailing-edge la. discussion and trailing-edge a kinetic-energy at of the a location trailing and loss coefficient corresponding edge. station we obtain subscripted of _1 is then the the 1. 01". 213 And the value of _1 is then obtained from equation . _1" from of equations as The value Analytically.

where reasons: require by subtracting measurements _1 from blading several be made occurred. either thus leading to possible po'-p2' error. integrals variations could If experimental pressure written for any before-mix location at which data used to evaluate the after-mix loss coefficient. mixing Equating (station the mass 2) yields The basic equations those for conservation and momentum before in the mixing flow rate during after o(pV)1 From conservation cos o1 d in the =cos a2(pV)2 direction (7-74) we get of momentum tangential f0 and from (pV2)l sin al cos al d of momentum =sin in the a2 cos a_(pV2)_ axial direction we get (7-75) conservation g fo p_ d Although can the static these ' + equations survey (oV 2) cos 2 al d are data angle. The after-mix in this section. if desired. values reasons. that the com(1) (2) the for the flow had enough For the with large. while quite long. The length for complete mixing. In the case evaluated conservation also be applied above equations and to three-dimensional could flow be directly These radially. mixing. $_. after-mix loss would have to be corrected for side-wall friction mixing mixed. and the mixing the previously downstream is impractical determined of the for loss experimentally This would loss coefficient loss. is unknown. it would and then where the not be possible to determine 214 . error loss are or and (3) after and the small of after-mix values would be constant would obtained possibility of measurement of after-mix be relatively analytically determined experimentally analytically the before-mix 1) loss parameters. for determining of mass. before-mix station is not station 1. and as described the has after-mix loss that Loss includes the surface-friction loss. momentum axial direction 1) and (station after-mix conditions are in the tangential direction. they in in be for two-dimensional flow by integrating at station even 1.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION After-Mix The after-mix loss is the total loss. the trailing-edge $2 is determined is obtained pressure plete To determine mixing the mixing loss. that these use (station the of length. subscripted were available = gp_+cos _ a2(oV2)_ (7-76) flow. the with equations were available.

mixing loss completely final made pressure and by a little experimental loss that farther have are angle (7-74) means. trailing out. where in that before-mix 1 corresponds station subscripted written as fo Subscripting (7-77) yields equation 1 (pV)ld =(1--Sl*)(pV)l. _.*-01") and equations boundary-layer (pV)f. and the following to obtain 215 . and flow.1-- (pY_)l. In most and survey of the damped across cases. equation 1 to 2 al(1-81"-01") along (TI'= obtain with T_'). it is it is only the are usually angle and pressure to express differs from for after-mix variations flow measure- ments where possible used herein used downstream somewhat constant If static station of the 1. is desired._l*-.. for _2 is incompressible sin 2 al (1 . the the the can (pV2)s0a = sin a_ cos a_(pV2)_ _ a2(pV2)_Wgp_ and the (pV2)ioa=cos ideal be gas solved law conservation-ofas shown loss coefficient. equations parameters.a for station I and combining it with (7-77) equation (7-29) (pV2)l Substituting (7-76) momentum mined: yields equations the in terms d (7-77) = (1-8.01"\ _ _2=1-1+2 COS 20t1[-(1--_1*) )+co 2 (7-82) 2(]--81*--01*)_ For steps compressible are required flow. The Equation void. trailing-edge previously analysis station (7-28) can be boundary-layer in reference as was done to station there is no of reference l..BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES the ever. howedge. in simultaneously kinetic-energy after-mix solution compressible incompressible flow. 1.l into parameters cos a2(pV)2 (7-78) (7-74) of mass to and deter(7-79) (7-80) (7-81) (7-78) for equations following of the COS conservation previously oq(1--81") sin al cos al(1 --81"--01") gpl+cos These energy reference for both For equations. that to (7-76) 1 only in terms in reference the la herein. no explicit _: solution was found.

)2 (___. loss.t (7-83) C- D V =(V-f_..tsinal\ is obtained (l-_x*-0.7-4-i / (o/p'): is obtained from (7-s5) (_)---_1 (4) The total pressure ratio (').y-1)D. \:]'I ''('-') from (7-86) is obtained i0_I P c. the all the blade-row trailing-edge loss.)_ (3) The density ratio .)t._x(1.--'_[I p2'/po' .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION (1) The parameters C and D are computed from (1--As. the frictional loss.*_ ]_-_1" from / (7-84) (2) The quantity (V.o.yC )'_l+(._.yC . 7-. -\pi / 1 Values the blade of _ include row. Values loss of of $1 mixing 216 . _2 is obtained from (7-89) (p. j. \O ..a) ?+1 +cos_ --_-7 at(X--*t*-01*) (V)' _ y.*) cos (7-87) .-7_.-"/..'_('.+1 X/(.. and that the is..V_./Vc._.l_ (5) The pressure ratio (p/p')_ is obtained p p from v (7-8s) (6) Finally.

8. Therefore. angle different trailing mean the trailing section. annulus mixing. (7-90) energy due to mixing.) 217 ..--Comparison stator of experimental area settings.m._ where _m. including taken settings losses. the experimental represents radius) edge. stator reference a given the compares determined of kinetic-energy loss coefficient section.0: e2. and analytical (Data from loss coefficients for different ref. the the end-wall $1. losses and of the experimentally considered geometry will be presented of blade-row on losses and Distribution Figure analytically different senting blade beyond at the the (arithmetic mean 7-8._.m v g_ ¢t_ Mixing and end-v/all losses Trailing- edge loss ela. from values for The Comparison 8.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES include all the blade-row losses except mixing loss. types LOSS CHARACTERISTICS and analytically and will be discussed of Losses experimentally loss coefficients and at three loss _1. and blade the represents and surface-friction friction obtained total and loss plus trailing-edge tra_ling-edge coefficient between good. agreement loss coefficients is reasonably analytical . _miz = &-.z is the fractional loss in available BLADE-ROW In the effect this various section.3D" ! ? ¢.0: Mean-section blade suf/ace friction loss o 70 I 100 Percentstatorareasetting I Do FIOURE 7-8. and within determined compared. edge.3D represents friction.04 __ 0 Experimental results t'3 Analyticalresults O_" . m . In general. the stations just at the and at three reprethe mean just loss loss for drag. obtained coefficient _2.

30 . . stator as was primarily vary with total one-half of the trailing-edge trailing-edge in figure ratio of the design.8 I . 9. and total but conloss for this one-quarter with loss. taken locity. of the trailing-edge was design. that each depending end-wall will vary The The 15 percent remaining of the on radius 10 percent the losses stator may spacing. 2 I . the loss is presented assumption . of the case.5 I .o . FIGURE 7-9. m .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION A el. loss made loss breakdown comparison sequence. .. (Data from ref. indicate blockage about up the of course.7 (VNcr)i. ve- separate is seen mixing losses. be of 7-7.Mixinq loss End-wall loss ¢. m 0 ela. coefficient increasing from 9. will. The the total shown losses. loss.--Variation of loss coefficients with velocity. as well stator This figure also shows as the other blade-row In this particular ideal loss The case.) Figure row.6 I .05 0 el. with mixing does which the In general.01 -- Bladesurface friction loss o . m. In that on Losses boundarywas effect on turbulent-flow study.9 Mean-section ideal after-mix critical velocity. the Loss coefficient to decrease slightly velocity. but 7-8 does gives not reference some idea of the the the distribution and variation the mixing of losses end-wall in loss with and in a stator Figure with blade 7-9. Effect A study layer 218 of the of Blade-Row of turbine in reference Geometry geometry 10. friction of the loss was about total loss.. the energy about vary will and loss was about end-wall 2 percent loss. shows separately losses...

of the form equation equation three-dimensional an equation 0.) where the as blade given ponent hess order Reh is a Reynolds of the c/s._ (O. the respect 08* with loss for a function In reference to find the minimum-loss (there values of the other With the loss around analysis in the with variables optimum the from each change Figure value results number may loss..ot_ (_)1-_Re__. and number momentum geometric height in reference therefore. geometry variation little 7-11 effects optimum in figures than also area. the relative variations in momentum values were then of the a wide causes Figure from results determined. that ratio.*¢¢ (_)m _1 +cos a. value a exthree-dimensional a function solidity solidity thickness parameter Reh. As indicated. variation (50 results and 7-12. the counteracting of changes with some. increase shows 7-10 in momentum in chord solidity but not shows that and the loss. known. as explained m is set equal 10. the The of end-wall considerably of the 7-11 loss is more sensitive of figure number to solidity 7-11 and height-to-spacing counteracting reflects end-wall influences 219 . curve chord is no minimum for height Reynolds number)..(". 10 are shown in figures minimum reference figure in each 7-10 from and be varied Comparison shape Reynolds around of the Also shown is the nature that associated or more) variable. momentum was in terms h/s. can be expressed ratio reference The minimum of solidity. derivative to each to _/_ in the based on blade height h. is based of O.). 7-10..BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES made that the momentum Reynolds loss per unit number blade surface varies as the inverse of the chord to the m power: --_Re7 C _ (7-91) where equation into Rec is a Reynolds (7-22)... effect and number and then based using on blade chord (7-47) c./c. to the the The 7-11. (7-92) fC. The on the variables--height-to-spacing Reynolds becomes analysis. Reynolds of a blade excessive. shows the percent in h/s This optimum two area. of the of the value dimensionless variables variable thickin geometric of each obtained number 9. and. Expanding substituting to express the (7-91) by multiplying yielded dividing by like terms.

(cls)/(c/s)opt I 1. 4o .4 ==o- I \ IX.=L4E.4 J 1. \ _'_Z_ _ b.6 t"--_ I _ . (Data 220 .--Variation of momentum-thickness ratio with spacing ratio.8 2./ his and Reh are co Lo .==P J/.6 FIGURE 7-11._I 1.6 LO ¢/s and Reh are constant L4 1... .21-_'--.2 Z6 Height-to-spacing ratio relative to optimum ratio. J" _i/I- .'/ _:.) variation in he_ht-t_ _<'//////////(/ I I I I Y/'////// ///i I _ = .7 . (htslllhlslopt FIGURE 7-10.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION /_ _/////_/////// I ! I I i I / H n .8 LO 1.4 I .--Variation of momentum-thickness from ref.=_ i.. j'. 10.2 Solidity ratio.) ratio with solidity ratio. 10. (Data from ref.2 .

J. (Data from ref. 10._ I .s o I . These results show that results used in improved in correlating performance. STEWART.s I Lo I _2 I ]. Layers. TN Downstream Characteristics.4 I . Press.4 I L6 HeightReynolds umberratio. 4. B.. L. STEWART.: Analysis of of Two-Dimensional Blade 3515. WHITNEY. shape. /////Z I ! I 1 _Ls 4 _ 1. I--7 L8 2.) Figure height Reynolds number 7-12 Reynolds shows due the variation ratio.4 //[ . Stator-Blade-Outlet Theoretical Results. Laminar NASA 3. the number is sometimes performance REFERENCES 1. ef n r FIGURE 7-12. RehlReh. AND MISER. CRC FORTRAN Boundary Turbulent Arbitrary AND SPALDING.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSEF t //..: 1970. V. Calculating Pressure Compressible Gradients. of Turbine D.: RM ExperiCharE55K24. results from the Reynolds number to the m=_ crease in height Reynolds height Reynolds number of different turbomachines.. McNALLY.6 1.--Variation of momentum-thickness ratio with height Reynolds number ratio. PATANKAR.0 ratio a change in Reynolds The curve to the an inThe with in / his and c/s areconstant . for in Compressible-Flow Rows in Terms of Loss Basic Characteristics Boundary-Layer 2.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary WARREN Investigation and WARNER with L. Boundary-Layer a Comparison 221 . WARNER.. mental acteristics 1956. in inlet number also result number could to change from change flow conditions. JAMES NACA W. 1967. S. WZLLIAM and D-5681. Turbomachine NACA TN Program Layers 1955. of momentum-thickness While the figure the indicates change in geometry.6 I . loss being inversely proportional power. l). then.

WHITNEY... Geometry.. Stator Boundary-Layer Losses. PRUST. Predicting ROBERT Y. Area V--Stator 1968. 1965. Air Cooling. X-1696. GeomBla_ling. by Changes WARREN in Blade J. the 7.: Use of Mean-Section Turbine 6. on M. : Effect of Certain of Trailing-Edge Turbine Stator Thickness D-6637. JR. PRUST. MISER. SIGHARD W. Stator Performance 1972. WARNER L. MOFFITT. WARNER Losses L.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 5. AND of BIDER.: NACA Three-Dimensional 1956. in AND WONG. etry NASA 8. N. BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect Suitable Area. Fluid-Dynamic AND HELON..J.] Affected AND WHITNEY. MOFFITT.. of for NASA Performance a Single-Stage 70-Percent HERMAN Cooling. Drag. Area on HERMAN W. Variable THOMAS Stator P.. PRUST. Midland Park.: Analysis Turbomachine E56F21. 222 .55L12a.. STEWART. HOERNER. Variable 9. Viscous 1956. W. F... RONALD J.. with AND BIDER. STEWART. of NACA X-1635. Air TM HERMAN and TN JR. TM 10. JAMES RM II--Stator 1968. on Detailed THOMAS of Losses P. WARREN Parameters RM E.. W. BERNARD: Turbine Design Effect of for NASA Performance Detailed Losses a Single-Stage with 130-Percent Suitable Area.

defined of end defined m. Y Y (x o_m to boundary to boundary deg thickness layer expressed as of boundary-layer axial fluid flow angle blade ratio stagger of specific direction. heat pressure. ft K. pressure.41. ft/sec surface normal normal axial from at from m. N/m_. number number m. deg to specific heat at 3_ pressure m. ft spacing. A.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec _) g H h J l m n blade height. conversion constant. ft in equation boundary-layer pressure. constant direction. blade absolute trailing-edge distance fluid distance m. blade surface surface from angle volume displacement thickness. by equation loss coefficient 1. ft constant boundary-layer boundary-layer 223 . C C parameter by equation by equation coefficient chord. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu blade exponent turbulent absolute dynamic chord height radius. . stagnation m. ft 2 (7-15) m2. in tangential m/sec. ft heat temperature. ft direction. °R m. Btu/(lb) (°R) Cp D E drag. exponent P q Re_ Reh r 8 T t U V X forward layer. N/m. m. ft at constant area walls m2. 32. Reynolds Reynolds m. ft height of body placed in boundary layer. m. J/(kg) (7-84) (K) . ft to rear stagnation point. ft distance distance fraction velocity. 1 . ft point. thickness. lb/ft parameter defined energy factor kinetic-energy conversion form factor constant.BOUNDARY-LAYER LOSSES SYMBOLS Ab surface surface parameter drag blade specific area of one blade. ft _ (7-83) for one passage. m. along from from surface distance from (7-91) velocity lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 profile forward m. ft thickness. N/m2.

lb/ft 3 energy thickness. lb/(ft) (sec) m. ft m . ft P boundary-layer Subscripts: cr eft f fs h i inc m min mix opt p ref s t te tot x 0 1 la 2 3D critical effective friction free hub ideal incompressible mean section minimum mixing optimum pressure surface reference suction surface tip trailing total edge stream thickness. momentum (see)/m2. density. flow conditions axial component blade-row inlet just beyond trailing edge of blade row row just within downstream three trailing edge of blade uniform state dimensional Superscripts: t * absolute total state value dimensionless 224 . (N) kg/m3.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 0 boundary-layer viscosity.

blade turbine. with some nature by the some LOSS clearance of the tip in the work between fluid leaks This that and the through tip the tips fraction of the amount difference across leakage is. as to influence losses of normally a very in other the boundary-layer were loss and small other part losses losses associated To determine loss. partial-admission as they pass herein. also be considered. tip geometry. are and the of any the usually In some output can design must with the the flow channel discussed. a turbine blades first of radial a given loss. Finally. incidence is the admission turbine at off-design operation will also be covered TIP-CLEARANCE Because of the the the the rotor thus tips. amount For leakage shrouds. additional considered losses a full-admission turbine loss in the blade occurs is being The passages inactive axial-flow considered. turbine losses that If. by the clearance. filling-and-emptying arc. and may The be sum in the that mag- neglected. blade efficiency tip-clearance represent however. the selection comprises of the turbine are considered however. which design-point include losses last in the chapter. geometry. a large in turbine recesses output. across loss is affected. reaction) of blade reaction pressure higher-kinetic-energy flow to leak . instances. causes since more causing must and the operate casing. a partialare the be included. all the be of such point. instances. casing. disk-friction of the these losses there losses channels through overall of a turbine. by by tip affects (high the tip 225 a reduction of all.CHAPTER 8 Miscellaneous Losses By Richard. Roelke J In the process these these nitude of these design admission must pumping loss in the a loss that loss.

6 of exit flow angle with from radius ref. I . have been of tip and the author clearance loss have been in reference 1. A number to determine impulse these and tests is inherently of the Several empirical expressions for and some of these are summarized rather complicated.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION gap from the work.+rw. Figure at the blade of a 5-inch stage turbine (ref.7 .0 -6 4--P -2O -4C . 60 Tip clearance. (Data I I . 2). pressure this but side to the leakage evaluation flow suction not of the only side of the causes blade. however..) 226 .5 lTr +. . blade. a loss due to its also causes an unloading drop difficult of the blade. With an unown in the caused flow shrouded reduced tip region. in turbine because primarily efficiency complex Analytical leakage by tip-clearance problem. developed. I. percent of passage height Axial . the angle An examination a better traces things space understanding to obtain shows tip-clearance single- loss. Two that the flow in the clearance to be noted from the angle traces are and near the tip was not fully turned. 1.9 Oo.. 4_ 0 1 2 5. states that Lewis geometry of some exit of the none is entirely Center axial-flow results of of tests the helps 8-1 reaction made at the NASA and tip Research on of the effect clearance turbines.0 direction = 2' 2O • 1:3 o 8.--Variation ratio for four 2.0 rotor tip clearances.. they are satisfactory..8 Ratioof hubradiusto tip radius FIGURE 8-1.

aerodynamically decrease in figure The (ref. 1. impulse (ref. that of the flow all the the blade The increased with increasing this occurred efficiency. 4) --Estimateref. represent single-stage a single-stage importance evident the from in losses two-stage of reaction the same 3) reaction in the and from loss is clearly turbine All turbines plays ratio unshrouded. 5) for ref. to blade double of the of tip clearance were are efficiency turbine.reaction (ref. 3) l-Stage.08 .6) data and reproduced of figure loss as figure experimental satisfactory estimates of tip-leakage clearances. 8-2 and that and turbine as well test turbines were clearance about of the underturning effect flow and unloads others.96 _ \\ . from The height.76' 0 I I I I.00 m . 5)for ref.04 .06 . I I . underturning in lower turbine.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES Turbine 0 C] Z_ 1-Stage.reaction Iref. 2) 2-Stage. that the impulse figure. clearance. FIGURE even way at the down smallest to the hub. 2 turbine ( m m Estimateref.10 Tipclearance.02 . and clearance tip This results for this tested. The the two published Extrapolation gives for the reaction dashed lines turbines 8-2 for the impulse losses for 8-3. 4 turbine ( 1. (ref.--Effect of tip clearance on efficiency.80 . solid 2) and the level For lines output in efficiency as for two results is shown in figure (ref.12 . 4) as obtained 8-2 shows for the curves figure fig. 4). 8-2. 227 .fractionofpassage height 8-2. 8-3 in figure turbines 5 (as estimates 2 and efficiency from here small that tip single-stage in reference of the (refs.

91-- . 4. casing and 8-3.) Reviewing loss large leakage creasing schemes stage the tip clearance in reference A clearer the ratios the results shown in figures with to blade 8-2 height.01 . a tip shroud.00 •99 . methods above it is apparent that the to tipin- in efficiency increases to reducing include increasing clearance.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION 1.OZ Tipclearance. configuration blade of the leakage to a zero-clearance clearance-gap throughflow. the adding and for moderate for reducing the blade These at the several recessed configurations are shown affecting area.2 .90 0 I I I .fractionofpassage height correlation for unshrouded FIGURE 8-3. (2) in figure is possible turbine the of tip clearance the loss is appreciable• tip while loss-reduction The ratios casing singleof tip and tested 8-5.--Tip-clearance blades• (Data from ref. channel of (1) reduced .1 .3 . reaction.03 . if work In addition losses the can impulse shroud• the and tip recessing either blade height.98 U O r- .o • 94 _J r'- .4 • 93 • -92 b- . and the turbine-performance understanding are blade-height consist (3) mixing of the performance considered.97 8 • 95 . 5.95-¢- . tested with general results The factors loading flow with be used turbine Figure individually 4 was both shows without the or in combination. characteristics as compared loss mechanisms for the reduced configuration leakage 228 flow. and three of reference 8-4 to blade height.

however. leakage shroud side blade as the Thereflow added to the extended clearance fore. and (4) blade suction unloading side). and the leakage flow was reduced. 8-4.-Rotor blade (c) (a) Reduced blade zero-clearance FmvaE height (relative to blade height). was amount path. (c) Shrouded rotor. passage changed blade (as a result With the outer loading radius area of flow going and the leakage 8-5. of constant of casing and With that the the to the gap was reduced by varying indirect figure was eliminated. from the pressure the height recess.--Tip-clearance configurations investigated (b) Recessed casing. E ".MISCELLANEOUS R_s_casi_ LOSSES Flow -_. further unloading was eliminated.Rotor blade (a) (b) Tip shroud-_ Flow_ _'. was the recessed-casing configuration. at tip-clearance 229 . 4). for impulse turbine (ref. reduced because the blade Note of the from to the blade.

shown upon not that only in figure particular true on the of seals be noted additional presents is not easily the different and may span and respect will flow with as seen height blade-tip not apply since to just the not be blade. attributed clearance to an increasing friction is decreased.08 . that losses. increases. to blade problem consistent on for a turbine diameter) gap primarily previously. can be as the for the shroud no gap in efficiency. fluid and tip-clearance many factors gap clearance clearance as the the blade If it does.12 . The to other the difference extend churning In influenced accuracy. flow but the also geometries leakage loss between results This depends on the casing 8-5 of the clearance used.) on turbine efficiency.--Effect of tip-clearance configurations ref. loss increases of clearance . (Data from fractions longer below provides some an value. overlapping a complicated predicted depends and.04 . increase about 0. dependent design is particularly number it should creating loss and required for larger ratio shrouded With section pressure should recessed-casing stagnant configuration. 4.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION "O R 38 36 i I I I 1 .035 shroud in this This and instance. diameter the 230 into summary.10 Rotor tipclearance.06 . recess. by The (larger comparative are turbines.fractionofpassage height FIGURE 8-5.

disks. to small the therefore. and and In circulation a small of fluid between turbines This steady stream cooling flow and the stationary aircraft bathes The for hot applications. ratio height. 8-6. without qualita- of the rotor in figure herein. throughflow timating of cooling the associated Equations are presented Throughflow For the case with no throughflow. a desired hence the of clearance becomes severe therefore. ratio. have the near tive rotor the nature disk-friction some disk. ratio. case. for larger tip-radius blade increasingly smaller. engine loss (or windage the rotating loss) disk LOSS is due to the skin friction casing. by the thin layer action of fluid close to the rotating outward centrifugal 7//A//////////_ (a_ (b) (a) Without FmuaE throughflow. engines.-Flow patterns (t)) for With rotating throughflow. leakage is considered particular leakage it might be worthwhile DISK-FRICTION The addition. cools from with for es- surface and centerline outward patterns gas losses No are to the around shown of the blades. loss is more If tip for small to carry turbines to be out tests less severe turbines.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES For any given huband diameter. of lower-temperature gas flows along base for example gas that the rotor-disk disks 8-6. 231 . effects. surface as in figure is thrown 8-6(a). the It tip-clearance becomes gap loss increases diffacult height a given and a problem to evaluate to blade For with to as the radius in a the increasing maintain turbine.

for both sides By substituting of the disk equation (8-4) (8-4) as can be written Mo = fo a 2__# Cip_2r 4 dr where a is the disk rim radius. coefficient 1.r2rr 2 dr in N-m The C/ (8--2) for both can sides of a disk as or lb-ft. ft/sec (Ibm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft 9 P constant.32.o is a torque loss expressed coefficient as power for the is then ease of no throughflow. component v. tangential disk surface. and J is a . acting over this the disk rotation of r produces a resisting dMo 2 where in the Mo is the case resisting torque. in m or ft.17 _ of fluid absolute velocity velocity. and stress (8-1) r is the radius. to the Consider inner an radius.o CM. the total velocity. torque in rad/sec.CM. stress of no throughflow. At the the fluid tangential V_ = too where into w is the angular (8-3). of the in m 2 or ft 2. shear lb/ft _. the torque times the The disk- angular pwaa 5 --(8-7) J where 232 Pd/is the disk-friction power loss. of one side area element area dA. is m/sec. .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and returns via the stationary wall effect. 2gJ in W or Btu/sec. element thereby of area building on one up a continuous side of the disk circulatory dA = 2. r. Performing w2a 5 -- (8-5) the integration yields Mo=CM. kg/ma. in N/m torque 2 or to in m or ft.op (8-'6) 2g where friction velocity: Mow Pd$ --. shear be expressed (8-3) where C! fluid shear-stress conversion density.rr dr where A is the area. The radius at the of the fluid disk.

axial 8-7(a) of the variations components for torque in the gap. in (N) (sec)/m 2 or lb/(ft) (see). between as wa 2p number R = -- (8-10) where u is the dynamic viscosity. 211- CM. no somewhat and the the (8-7) between to variations oversimplified the is that (8-7) be noted is derived. this loss is. Figure tangential equation a continuous indicates variation of fluid coefficient. is The form of in most handbooks 5 Pdl = KdlpNaDr where Kd! (8--8) disk-friction power-loss coefficient N Dr rotative speed disk rim diameter A number of investigators to be used to the changes have exponents of the from types One which thing blade that rotative published to better used values of the constant others data. Kds in have The equation made wide doubt. of flow that speed. Reynolds and number. so that s. by having 7) to deterto present In general. from equation of different casing. 233 . empirically. associated Flow.owhere the s is the Reynolds axial distance. gap and The is best each regime follows: Regime rotor velocity at a given theoretically disk I: Laminar and casing across in the exists radius and Clearance. the and of are as on the in nature velocity both between a diameter effect a higher An extensive picture the has been proportions modes depending The of flow. fit the while available the assortment of semiempirical model equations test-apparatus equation can to predict geometry. conducted on disk of flow that in the space loss is obtained (refs.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES conversion equation constant (8-7) that (equal is found to 1. are the radial can exist in the axial on the in each for the torque coefficient dimensions A description coefficient layers the CM.o was evaluated theoretically experimentally equations Small merged. and (8-9) R is in m or ft. space for a given and investigation of chamber of the rotating and the several disk. or 778 (ft)(Ib)/Btu). friction may chamber regime. or flow regimes. torque Boundary 6 and and exist. can occur lower speed. defined (s/a)i _ disk and casing. existence rotor and or (8-8) a smaller mine clearer four casing the both the modes and flow (8-8) small due for different circumstances.

TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Radial component ofvelocity Tangential component of velocity 0 Disk r_ "_}/////////////////////A_ (a) Radial component ofvelocity Tangential component ofvelocity 0 0 r(d I (b) FIGURE 8-7. patterns around rotating (links without throughflow. (t)) Flow regimes II and IV. as shown in figure 8-8(a). radial and and tangential empirical velocity equations a core of rotat8-7(i)) shows for this coefficient components for torque CII CM.o-1_ 112 (8-11) where 234 CII is a function of (s/a). and between ing fluid in which no the case.--Velocity (a) Flow regimes I and Ill. rotor and The on the casing exists Figure combined thickthe ness of the boundary is less than axial gap. and . arc variations The best in the theoretical these boundary layers there change ill veh)city occurs. Regime II: Laminar Flow. layers Large on the Ch.arance.

080 CM.10 .30 . The best Small Clearance.20 .25 Ratioofaxialgaptorim radius. I. and The empirical turbulent equations of Regime coefficient theoretical .5 I I I I I .09 . Regime counterpart for torque III: Turbulent are 0.--Evaluation of torque coefficients.9 2.05 I I 1 I I . 235 (8-14) (s/a) V4RV4 (8-13) Flow. s/a (a) Flow regime II.70 (s/a) R 1/2 1/1o (8--12) respectively.3_ 3.0622 CM.o-and 0.7 2.oz 0 I .15 .o -- 3.(s/a)1/6R1/4 respectively. 6. FIGURE 8-8.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES 3. (b) Flow regime IV.1 m 2.) CM.o-. (Data from ref.

102(s/a) C_. _10 -2 III _ \ _ IV \ \ \ _\ '_ \\ _'- _ boundarylayers Ratioofaxialgap to disk rim radius..--00.merged boundary layers Turbulent flow. _. I "\\ lOI--- .TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Regime counterpart tions IV: Turbulent II.\_. values 8-9 flow regime torque (8-13).) 236 . and (8-15) (8-16) respectively.O-RI/5 where Civ is a function of (s/a). (Data from ref. The are Large best Clearance. I [ ["1 I@ I@ lol° lon R FmuRE 8-9. 6. flow regimes by matching Slope ofcurve ' Flow regime I II Description Laminar flow. The equations several of figure the particular (8-9).L "_ %_ . separate boundarylayers Turbulentflow.--Theoretical variation of torque coefficient with Reynolds number for no throughflow. indicate are that exists and from at any against (8-15). The (8-11). as shown O._ . coefficient Flow. . one regime (changes the Reynolds Reynolds as shown to another. merged boundary layers Laminarflow. and The empirical turbulent equa- of Regime theoretical for torque Civ C_. slopes in slope) of the number number in figure 8-9 in the lines can be from for lines with determined by plotting coefficient discontinuities transition determined In this figure. of s/a. separate _'_ •.05 :_I I I I I 1o2 lo3 I@ lo lo ld 5 6 Reynolds number.o RII5 in figure 1/l° 8-8(b).

6) in determined experimentally oil for several a 50. of reference moreover. the values (ref.025 that to 0. rotating rim of the angular of the is the increase in torque. where Q is the volumetric in m$/sec total torque or fP/sec. as in figure This problem 8--6(b). In this case.) theory.o wa 3 (8-19) KoR 1/5 --_-o= 1 + o. for the in the through- clearance space on one side flow case is then M = Mo+AM .(gowa)a=2p g throughflow of the disk.0255is/a)l/l where T is a dimensionless = 1 +39.12. equation the effect (8-20) of s/a predicts is not values somewhat accurately 237 . 7. of angular of change momentum fluid flowing AM=2p the system: Q K_a g rate.2 Ko (s/a)m defined o as T (8-20) throughflow number V= _ wa Rm (8-21) According that are to the data high.op_a 5 Substituting equation M (8-16) for CM. chamber near the centerline with no with some disk. the noof the 0.8-centimeter of s/a verify disk rotated Throughflow For the the friction case of the torque rotating disk with with throughflow. rate angular velocity The velocity of the K_a. velocity of gas over and leaves at the the ratio velocity throughflow through symbol Ko represents to the that of the angular without with regime-IV flow.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES those water shown and in the insert in the with values figure.o yields Q ° we _ _ -1+ throughflow g from by to 0.CM'°pw2aS+2 p QKowa 2 (8-18) 2g The An friction value of Ko is approximately of the of the power torque case: M --=It Mo 2pQK_a 1 -_ C M.45 for s/a ratios loss can case be obtained compared assessment calculating throughflow 4Ko CM Q . has been increases the throughflow. The 2 (8-17) Q. Torque-coefficient (20-in. analyzed for low values of throughflow it is assumed that the fluid enters the angular The core AM.

02 Throughflow .12 _ 1.03 number. turbines sometimes are arise design blades LOSSES used for most applications. rate blade losses leakage short the the is for which would may a partial-admission mass-flow very-small The the having allows Also. Empirically.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Ratio of axial gap to disk rim radius.--Empirical variation of torque ref. turbine admission speed ratios. -- 1. to partial be less and low Reynolds-number blades. 7. for example.05 FIGURE 8-10.1 + 13. sla f /o. (Data from given by (s/a) m°. freedom In addition.9Ko Mo (s/a) in figure 8-10 1/8 s/a values.01 . 1. turbine so small heights. partial way blade-jet for a given may use of partial 238 admission be a convenient to reduce power output . than be a better a normal it may admission If. of larger diameter of the full-admission speed. T . due unusual may that then axial-flow conditions choice. -- .04 . T (8-22) Equation (8-22) is plotted for several PARTIAL-ADMISSION Full-admission however. the design give full-admission be advantageous with losses and long rotative higher to use partial admission.2-- g 10 0 . the test data are represented to within + 5 percent by the relation M .o.) with throughflow number.

( 1 . or sector or fully and low volumetric-flow previously loss in the pumping As mentioned partial-admission and the the active clearly channels through filling-and- loss encountered loss has been but as the blades referred to as expansion. m. coefficient recently. in this inactive block have some of the stator In general.. ft/sec (lbf) (seO)/(Ibm) (8-23) loss coefficient. ft area in reference (lbf) rotors above losses enclosed. and location of such accounted it used is of obstructions vicinity that for only by differences appears a generally empirical The coefficient. values.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES of an existing passages).0105 of the unenclosed one-quarter disk-friction the turbine 9 and the (ft3n). one equation Pp = KpoU.. are not power The mechanisms compared of partial-admission in a decrease operating turbine understood.92 higher than Kp is found ]/m _/_. blades similar The pumping a fluid-filled and often expressions several estimating showed power blade open the on these that terms. (ft 3n) u. combined all seem and expressions to trace for it are somewhat to reference resulted and disk-friction 8._) where Pp K_ pumping-power pumping-power blade blade blade active value units were by an mean-section height. output are the emptying This loss. for in reference from 8 and (sec2)/(lbm) the More loss. where The these These experimental the investigations loss of blade the nature etc. of for full admission. (ft) (lb)/sec 1/m_/_.0171 coefficients 239 . m/sec. rotor to the values enclosed friction losses equation (lbf) is 3. E mean-section diameter. losses with in output scavenging. sides casing loss as evidenced or lack by variations in the in the exponents Further.63 l/m _/2. they do result to the same loss is that with. the equations investigations pumping(adjacent of the three in results in to. and efficiency rotating in form loss. of the loss caused the expression back that are height by the inactive for the casing. when latter full-admission turbine (physically turbines chapter. fraction of stator-exit coefficient herein rotor. (sec _)/(Ibm) is subtracted remaining is significantly loss is converted to be 5. or 0.) channel were summarized.. from diameter pumping-power effects uncertain. blade on the loss are quite rows. If a diskcombined form of to the the loss estimated of reference (8-23).al l'sD. often applicable expression for pumping-power loss is yet to be found. partial-admission high specific-work losses sector.. l D. perhaps most Therefore. W. blade pass the rates. The for the of the used Kp as reported For and the same converted (fts/2). speed. to one-half housing by equation if the This coefficient were combined pumping (8-7) a single-stage the reported 9. ft m. wall.. or 0.

for the sector loss. active this diffused a second channel. is a rotor f is the nozzle active that arc acas in m or ft. axial inlet m/sec._) where turbine. angle of relative ft/sec from rotor measured to the most 0 The 2 refer (which an impulse partial-admission turbines 01= -02. W2/W_ for the (8-26) full-admission the sector loss partial-admission applying . and K. 240 K_ is the For rotor the relative-velocity ratio turbine. Effectively. Ah' = g_ where Ah' Wu W turbine tangential relative fluid relative subscripts 1 and turbine ( W_ a- Um ( Wl sin 01Wu . Um Ah' = _-_ W. the active is cut enters to flow losses cause starts that within off from This active partial-admission relatively stagnant is completely out by the will continue As arc. Btu/lb velocity. counts The follows. channel leaving of the channel fluid area through reported by These as it just fluid nozzle. and the difference loss shall is attributed herein to enter must the the scavenging active nozzle Since decrease this sector be called the be pushed to primarily the sector sector. For where component m/sec.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION reported lack The Imagine filled the inlet less entire through of the of the with blade momentum channel in reference other 8. in m or ft. sector. we can coefficient on turbine and is determined from express volume the (2-6) 1. direction. are). It is highuntil blade As the and the of an adequate a blade fluid channel passes out blade channel loss model. in reference tum may coefficient multiplying momentum where length. ft/sec deg respectively. the loss. fluid the less has sector. work. the into. sin Ox(1 +K. It was be found it is rapidly decreasing 10 that rotor-exit as it flows energy by a loss an overall thus the in the momentum the available decrease in momen- the rotor.2) = _ W2 sin 02) (s-25) specific velocity. and exit. and specific the associated velocity diagram work of an axial-flow turbine as geometry. loss occurs. p is the rotor-blade pitch. fluid passing fluid. J/kg. effect With of the sector loss the use of equations velocity efficiency (2-14). to the blade high-momentum the rotor.

design study should the as more known.K. a partial-admission blade profile on the loss will pumping to reduce blades blades is not Therefore..Ah_a (8-29) where Abed is the turbine ideal specific turbine work. from The arc the active admission in figure with stant over of reference combined fraction.and the partial-admission efficiencies.) qJ (8-28) Since efficiency is hh' . separately from the total partial-admission admission losses. to that the effull- ficiency of the partial-admission admission turbine is of the nm Ahrro Ah' (8-30) into equation (8--30) then Substituting yields equations (8-26) and (8-28) _=n The sector turbine however.WI (8-27) So.. penalty the expressed (8-24) closely are added of the be done 9. further. increase. with in J/kg respect or Btu/lb. admission-arc loss remained against The partialfraction increased conspeed 241 nearly inactive disk-friction losses decreasing the range tested. the the I+K. loss admission In the was total and efficiency efficiency loss only. for the partial-admission Ah'r_=-_ turbine. 10) are plotted blade-jet Predicted cfficiencies . ref. The blade were to partial-admission losses were between the full. cannot complete optimization at present. Wt sin _I(1+K_K. of a small from was taken and of a partialaxial-flow as the turbine The difference pumping subtracted of reference over a range determined loss due disk-friction of admissions 12 to 100 percent. 1 -I-K_ by equation earlier that the blades rotor. These other due to leakage losses 8--11. MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES coefficient yields W_ = KwK. rotor Also. of arcs (from loss to give what losses include the sector pumping while the to the and other 9 are plotted against was called other partialsector loss and any loss sector. of rotor indicates to the (8--31) accounts (8-31) for the pumping Equation have effect loss discussed spaced number analytically efficiency operation measured will reduce the the overall sector loss.

TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION .) fraction of stator mission o .9 1.a U qJ $ .0 Fmuam 8-12.2 gJ l I I .9 I 1.4 .--Variation of partial-+_cimission losses with active area.3 . (l)ata from ref+ 9..1 .5 . ch. efficiency is a maximum at a blade-jet . in optimum to note as admission is reduced. • Fmtmm 8-11.1 .6 .-.3 .5 .| 0 .1 I .Estimatedumping p anddisk-friction losses C3 0 Pumping anddisk-frictionlosses Otherpartial-admission losses K.4 I I "I" 'Is C I I t % . operating admission. admission reduction Aerodynamic 242 full admission expected The different efficiency from reduction important blade-jet is seen.6 Blade-jet peed s ratio.) .8 Active fraction of statorexitarea.7 . 10.5. Urn/_ performance of partial(Data from ref.7 . ratio (see discussion with The in vol.8 Ahtd .0 . 2) in figure and with thing speed three in peak ratio 8-12 for a particular amounts with this arc speed reduced figure ratio turbine of partial arc of is the of 0. 1.--Design-point and full-admission turbines.4 .6 i.5 T I I I -.2 .

The loss which at some normally all gas dashed the LOSS occurs angle and when other the gas enters than the are optimum matched the blade a blade flow at the is profile angle (8-32) only occur blade when inlet running used at off-design speaking through The conditions. Vp / i -a . line and loss is that or rotor) would at least.ob FIOuRE 8-13. since. a larger power and part decreases losses. as the for the must be disk-friction which decreasing power decreases. Therefore. angle is important of loss with incidence is different Axial direction IB. in figure angles nomenclature line defines of incidence incidence is the camber is defined as blade angle. theoretically condition. be the absolute angle The incidence or negative. losses (aerodynamic at lower disk-friction into ratio blade of a partial-admission can be selected. The sign of the incidence cascade tests have shown that the variation for positive and negative angles. 243 . deg deg angle may for stators be positive and the relative as fluid flow angle fluid flow angle for rotors. indicated because angle in figure 8-13. with aerodynamic blade speed. as of the with gross admission power decreasing decrease arc minus speeds. i = a -- ab where i ab The angle incidence blade inlet angle. angle must deg from from axial axial direction.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES irrespective Blade-pumping blade speed. admission maximum and design factored speed of admission and become arc net output power) the design arc. is obtained turbine. the partial-admission or near-optimum an optimum blade-jet INCIDENCE The row angle.--Blade incidence nomenclature. blade-pumping Thus. direction. before is reduced. design shown incidence (either Flow stator incidence The 8-13.

be due local separation in figure positive incidence. n •*. one with the at same losses 8-14 sketch of incidence higher figure loss is low. incidence loss staginto to be noted at zero may other angle. is some negative incidence . of the gas flow is large over for is that small are which the the amount 8-16.--Characteristics of blade incidence loss._/2___ _. is shown shows a summary incidence 8-15. as indicated area. i FIGUaE 8-14. FiauaE 8-15. or Also. The results. at large smaller blades reaction whereas range. that incidence show stagnation streamline curves upward and the true zero incidence 244 as the flow impacts occurs when there on the blade leading edge. (high- incidence._i_ U. which of incidence represents about loss with the incidence of cascade angle test angle.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Low-reaction _/_ blades-_.--L(ical flow separation on blade surface. o. but general by The nature figure loss curve of the variation 8-14.j'_''_ b de Incidence angle. for minimum The respect incidence. is not symmetrical is larger for positive to some zero incidence than and for the on the suction a loss that This may negative surface lack.. two Both inlet tests but flow small and at some angles negative theory of negative zero be explained at some by the of figure shown. of separation at the same in which the mean acceleration blades) have a wide blades range have from low-reaction thing occur This streamlines and the inlet value of negative incidence. Another does nation cidence the blade not incidence.

_mline at blade inlet. loss on test here into inlet the must incidence of a turbine takes be data with on importance when the for 11.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES a<o ab F[aua_ 8-16. (8-34) and has been with (8-34) In order and negative to account incidence._ \-_J 2 V_' =2_ is c°s_ i (8-33) to incidence V12 -2_ (1--cos differences equation 2i) in loss variation reaction. This type of proved satisfactory in off-design performance 245 . and blade determining An inlet analytical velocity loss based is described to the parallel that is is described V._)"1 (8-35) (minimum-loss) when incidence used angle. The incidence some angle at minimum design others while loss is their do not -4 ° to -8 °.I where equation ion..--Curvature of stagnation stre.=_ zg. relative usually blades because The off-design to the free-stream flow. normal the to. is entirely If it is assumed recovered component normal loss and energy component V_ 2 VI' 2gJ-2gd and the kinetic-energy loss due Li- (V. turbine incidence. The a predicted. Because with a small amount of the small difference magnitude of the performance incidence method Vp parallel that entry kinetic the any of this. of figure V_ can be resolved blade a component direction passes component without the (camber through line at inlet). V12 L. row lost. designers of negative involved. the aid A method in reference 8-13. for the positive the effect of blade-row the minimum generalized loss not occurring to at zero incidence. is the has optimum I-l--cos" (i-io7.

5. D4-3220. Mar. 79. 82. E. W. R.: Design of Turbines for High-Energy-Euel Low-PowerOutput Applications.:Performance Evaluation of a Two-Stage Axial-Flow Turbine for Two Values of Tip Clearance. R-_4-16. Britain. Inc. MILTON G.. AINLEY. McGraw-Hill Book Co. HORLOCK. 11. NASA TN I)-4388. ERNST.: Enclosed Rotating Disks with Superposed Throughflow: Mean Study and Periodic Unsteady Characteristics of the Induced Flow.: Chamber l)imension Effects on Induced Flow and Frictional Resistance of Enclosed Rotating Disks. 246 . Basic Eng. Aeronautical Research Council. F. SAMUEL M. I). NASA TN D-4700. STODOLA. Vol. voi. 9. V. AND NUSnAUM... JOHN H. no.. 1968. 1969. 1964. TRANS. NASA TM X-1757. KOFSKEY.. Dynamic Analysis and Control Lab. 1966.._ign Performance of Axial-Flow Turbines. (Louis C.. FLAGO. 3. Rep. HOLESKI. YONO S.. I. REFERENCES 1. DAXLY. G. V. LOEWENSTEIN. AND GROH.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION prediction loss data methods are lacking. 1927. ^ND M^THIESON. 1968. 1955. D.. R&M-2891. 2. MILTON Tip-Radius Ratio. W. ALAN H. Massachusetts Inst.. W. J. WXLLIAM J. Massachusetts Inst. AND ASnEDIAN. Butterworth Inc. A.: Cold-Air Investigation of Effects of Partial Admission on Performance of 3. Mar. ll. 1953. Tech. 30.. HONO. NASA TM X-472. 217-232. 6. Sept. AD-443060). 1967. Rep. KOFSKEY. 1945. J. 12. Reprinted by Peter Smith. 1966. pp. 200201. (ARO1)-2500-2. E... Tech. J. such as that of reference 12..): Steam and Gas Turbines. 7. DAILY. Rep. JR.: Axial Turbine Loss Analysis and Efficiency Prediction Method. C. DONALD E. G. R.: Analytical Procedure and Computer Program for Determining the Off-De.: Axial Flow Turbines. HUOH A. KLASSEN. Where negative specific and incidencen = 3 for values been of n = 2 for used incidence positive incidence have satisfactorily. 1960.75-Inch Mean-l)iameter Single-Stage Axial-Flow Turbine. Gt. AND FUTRAL. 4. 8.: Experimental Investigationof Three Tip-Clearance Configurations Over a Range of Tip Clearance Using a Single-StageTurbine of High Hub. 1. Boeing Co. G. STENNING. 10. 1961. NASA CR-710. E.:Effect of Rotor Tip Clearance on the Performance of a 5-Inch Single-StageAxial-Flow Turbine. pp. AND NECE.: An Examination of the Flow and Pressure Losses in Blade Rows of Axial-Flow Turbines. Apr.

deg deg axial direction. ft 2 in regime in regime I I by equation IV by equation (8-11) (8-15) disk rim radius. h)ss. ft active specific ideal no throughflow m. rev/min (8-35) in equation power power pitch. from from axial ft/sec direction.32.o to evaluate coefficient with torque diameter. m2. ft between m/see. Q R r throughflow 8 distance speed. direction. ft to evaluate disk. ft (Ibm) Btu/Ib based on ratio of inlet-total pressure Btu/lb (ft)/(lbf) (seC) J/kg. density.o CII Civ C/ CM Ci. inlet angle m/see. Btu/sec Btu/sec rate. W . Btu/lb for full-admission both sides of rotor disk. W.o Li l M N n arc length. ft U V W velocity. constant. efficiency (N) lb/ft 3 (sec)/m2. ft Pp P loss. axial blade absolute relative blade loss. coefficient coefficient used fluid shear-stress . J/kg.o Ci. conversion disk-friction ratio J/kg. tad/see. K. work D f 9 Ah' _h_d i J Kdl Ko Kp K. nozzle turbine turbine incidence coefficient m. work.MISCELLANEOUS LOSSES SYMBOLS A ¢t area on one side used of rotor m. m. resistance speed. ft'_/scc m. specific deg pressure. conversion 1. lb/(ft) (see) viscosity.17 to exit-static angle. rotor ft/sec disk and casing. sector loss coefficient rotor blade velocity height. 247 . N-m. deg m/sec/ft/sec axial fluid flow angle fluid relative angle measured from active fraction of stator exit area turbine dynamic P static kg/m'_. coefficient m. number m. velocity. ft torque for incidence frictional lb-ft rotative exponcnt disk-friction pumping rotor-blade volumetric Reynolds radius. power-loss 1. 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu coefficient angular velocity 1/mY2. to disk angular velocity 'v2) (lbf)(seC)/(lbm)(ft impulse turbine of rotating-core pumping power loss coefficient. m_/sec. constant.

blade-row inlet rotor exit 248 . Subscripts: m n o opt p pa r u 1 2 mean section normal to blade inlet direction component optimum component no throughflow parallel to blade inlet direction partial admission disk rim tangential component _rotor inlet ]. N/m_.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION T fluid shear throughflow angular stress. rad/sec lb/ft _ by equation (8-21) T number defined velocity.

that operates fluids high ratios are with turbines (those expansion available.2). blade-jet efficiencies. 2 and systems from design turbines be method and used. (1) method .CHAPTER 9 Supersonic Turbines ByLouis . ratios are more keep proper rotors because of turbine number simple. fluid and (often low primary minimum pressure may highest result because outthis and a relless of fluid ratio in a systems a velocity Supersonic high-energy consequently. high open-cycle potential ratio. ratios 1). of 3 the where as one rotor. and systems work level. Supersonic puts type small atively turbines than speed high criteria could To level. Because operate in indicated used for potential turbine application and/or by use have high require It of stage is defined entering in systems weights where NASA in the and'. the with high and at Both the therefore. pressure of driving be light-weight however. Goldman J A supersonic supersonic have having velocities) They have have been low relative molecular are used been studied turbines of the would of stages. the 0. speed (vol. number work the the lower primarily exit-kinetic-energy where along the choice. pressure turbopump in rocket auxiliary-power large a given specific power for space. a small would. supersonic following performance of characteristics. of stages available turbine consumption. supersonic efficiency optimum must the design of supersonic by possible stators In this discussed (2) design 249 methods turbine headings: supersonic are characteristics. high at low static For chapters jet for For amount velocities. supersonic blade-jet design generally As correspond a minimum the than turbine the are design ideal offset being efficiency designed to low losses. and under chapter.

Mach wa ye Mach wave V dV V " V__ctV "// V////// _UX/. 250 .--Weak expansion and compression (b) Compression.. shown wave in is flow a Single field that flow) These oblique are The motion simplest (other weak through and supersonic than uniform standing to be very the wave the called waves. 7"/////i / (a) (b) (a) FIGURE Expansion.. waves. (3) design of supersonic OF of supersonic turbines. 9-1. siderations. rotor blades. derivation Both of for type. handled be developed (2) by dynamics one the two-dimensional this also type can can and on only based of a perfect be discussed symmetric this method by types of supersonic axially of characteristics methods will be the derivation It is useful developments Flow in two stresses here. shock zero.I_ATION of supersonic (4) operating stator blades.. weak to other in references Wall satisfies is the waves. processes ematical equations.//_Wa II X . characteristics of partial the (hyperbolic) Only flows) differential supersonic of flow flow be (i.1).. 1 and the ways: formal mathematical simple dynamical The 2. presented method in extending are given Along flow wave.e. :/.. entropy of parallel through a single vanishingly can change pansion be shown be considered is essentially waves an expansion Examples of weak As when exwill the compression subsequently.. waves. certain ref.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPI. The by are method type of motion of this Other non-steady method The involved. and characteristics METHOD CHARACTERISTICS is a general method equation. figure produced equations Mach The 9-1. flow will for solving The equain this and (see (1) conphysical mathsimilar a The certain tions gas chapter.

) (V .e. therefore. + dV.V in the tangential direction gives (9-2) . gives m/sec. and a compression when the wall bends toward the flow.+V dp=o Conservation of momentum pV. 251 . ft/sec lb/sec wave.) = constant (9-1) where w A p V. FIGURE 9-2. mass flow density.// wave/ Z_Z_ n p p +dp + dV dO U//////////////////_ •.. = (p+dp) ( V.) (9-3) t Ma¢. flow The fields magnitude produces bend to which when surface of Mach wave Mach wave dO) in the wave. The through will now be discussed. dp dV. it is realized can.. Mach lb/ft a normal terms to Mach (i. _ /////. The bend (of the angular which wall.+ dV . +dV. included in figure V as shown p V. and associated nomenclature. number approximated dynamics at an angle 9-2. ft 2 component second-order Neglecting ('[7. The the wall which may also as a disturbance is to follow a boundary with may The the uniform solution flow flow Consider rection of mass wave is produced can be considered if the flow as wave of this surface sections. along kg/m3. in the sides wall one solution of it.= (p k. velocity flow area rate. m_. kg/sec. as flow diof the _ to the conservation Mach curved be considered is required condition is a standing The that any be on both importance of straight can be appreciated to be made a curved a series expansion standing velocity that A= along through a weak the of initial requires be considered up of a finite waves.) wave.--Flow through a weak expansion wave.SUPBRS_NIC TURBINES wall bends away from the flow.

+dVt) (9-4) dV.(V..17 N/m2..-}-pVn equation V._ by using (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) lb/ft 2 into equation dVn (9-2) results in (9-6) and expanding yields (9-7) Substituting dp. sin _V-V where and 252 has M is the meaning Mach only number..--b dV. 32. (9-9) in m/sec here shows that V. normal (9-2) conchange of momentum gp--b pV.Z=g(p + dp) --b (p--b dp) (V.) (9-6) where g p conversion absolute constant. substitution (9-10) normal from to the figure Mach 9-2 wave that (9-11) must Noting Vn=V gives V. I_E. is directed component normal in the of velocity the direction _ to tile Mach remains velocity wave. Since the (9-9) differential of equation considered is isentropic.--g Equation (1-57) of chapter 1 (vol. equation 1 .SIGN AND APPLICATION where m/sec gives Vt or is the ft/sec. velocity component equation tangent (9-1) to the into Mach equation wave._/g where process (9-8) a is speed being into equation of sound. 1) states (9-8) a---.= or pV. gives crosses Consequently. be equal the to the component speed of velocity of sound.:a Therefore. in Substituting (9-3) y.. (_)s or ft/sec.TURBINE _.=o This stant dV means as the is equal Conservation that flow to dV. for M> The 1. (9-I) O=g Eliminating dV. sin tt a 1 M ft is called the Mach (9-12) angle angle .. pressure.V. the and tangential the wave.

m/sec. critical of The (9-17) critical critical 1 velocity velocity (M=I) (vol. V.. The convenient M*=V/VcT to can relation be if dV/V rather the speed M* evaluated between is expressed than from and Mach equation M is given of sound in terms number at the (1-63) by the of the M.--Velocity diagram for v+dv flow through a weak expansion wave. du 713 / FIGURE 9-3.4_-1 It is more ratio and 1). du dV B= _-_= _ (9-13) (9-14) (9-15) ft/sec ft/sec be determined (9-16) V -.SUPF__SONrC Mach wa ve TURBINE.-. found between from limit change the (dO-*0).. m/sec. The dV can figure relation be 9-3. component component as can of dV of dV parallel normal from to initial to initial equation 1 tan/_=_/_-1_ equation (9-15) becomes dV do 1 velocity velocity (9-12). Vcr is equal condition chapter equation 253 .S V _" _ "-.. in flow angle dO and shown velocity geometrically change in velocity relations In the du=dV dv=Vdo and tan where du dv Since. V.

a single obtained (9-20) flow that compression surface. 1 M ..--Representation of flow along a convex wall. ve ._lach waves // // I \ \ V1 ---.- / / /"" . flow. / ". // d83 FmURE 9-4.TURBINE l)E_IGN AND APPLICATION / M= / 2 _+i 1 7--1 M.. dV V Substituting finally. >' '_ I/ / ._. each flow for and similar a velocity change could except us now in figure bends. at constant is constant pressure (because to specific the total dM* M* (9-19) into equation (9-17) (9-19) gives. infinitesimal flow. sign. angle A (9-20) This relation wave. temperature is constant). Let shown is the differential through have that 9-4. of a number indicated provided be a of dO. dO: equations (9-18) and heat Vc. equations is called therefore. _ V where heat 7 is the at constant ratio of specific Since volume. "-.2-1 M. 254 . _ (9-18) M. each consider relation been the producing between weak for would along the a Mach through combined motion a change expansion a single have a curved surface wave. 7--1 7+1 _ dM* M* in flow wave. as equation Assume a minus is composed Mach of small the This by equation changes to type solution (9-20) the of flow will be satisfied The of in 8 are small. or simple Prandtl-Meyer . weak (convex) The field relation wave values wave will.

. ref. • 0= _1 _I/4/_--4-1 arc_ sin [(3. /._-_ -.-45 I_ _r arc sin [(_--1 _A)M*_--_] "_ --_ 1E2-arc J sin (9-22) from V1 to V2 is That (9-23) is. the sion along derivation there wave.--Representation of flow along a concave wall. Oz-. 1).3. The angles. r d61 _o 2 FIGURE 9-5. flow there- a minus the in equation velocity decreases) in figure through _ increases Mach a concave hock Mach .-.SUPERSONIC TURBINES If the number of segments Integration approaches of equation infinity... flow and M*=I(M=I). Prandtlin going given the given is called references which Mach Prandtl-Meyer the Mach required number is often symbol 1 _ (or u). (9-20) gives the flow field becomes continuous. a compresfor lines._I waves.4/. Note given that by the the change change in flow in the direction (50) in going respective Prandtl-Meyer _2-. waves _\\\\\\\\\\_\\\\\ \" . 255 .1 )M*_-- _¢] 1 arc sin _..01: 50: The waves. would decreases This means wall.) + constan + t/'_ -4-1 \ (9-21) If angle and Meyer from the it constant by is tabulated angle is the 1 to is chosen equation in angle the many such (9-21) through that 0=0 when the (e. must The turn the angle. flow angle 9-5. compression Therefore. has be been (M that shown for expansion sign for Mach For (9-17).g. Therefore.

would be invalid in the because FIGURE 9-6. form a shock as shown in the shock figure. the converge entropy and increase.--Hodograph characteristic curves. region The derived of relations. 256 . of course.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION fore.

as the 1 at 0----0 represent of the curves. FIGURE 9-7.--Flow along (b) convex Hodograph wall. is divided to V1 number (fig. The graphical cedure may procedure entirely at best. around varied velocity of diagram characteristic and are of equation curves (9-22). numerical cumbersome if it is recalled be made _ Math waves lo _-. direction additional The the prodirec- segments. plane. of this between (9-21)) This plot convex type are can the flow angle on of called 0 and a polar the the critical velocity as shown plot. of the passing angle is called a hodograph flow has M*= critical dimensional value these variation An normals Mach Consider a finite on the constructed the important to wave surface The hodograph been characteristics. P_ is located to Ur2 (or characteristic PI is located diagram characteristic to V1). through OP_ parallel drawing /)2 must Mach (shown direction plane. 9-6. to genratio is that corresponding flow field to be into (line by that The This example. line corresponding hodograph segment curve by drawing segment in the to use.SUPERSONIC TURBINES The ratio curves The erate the in figure relation M* (eq. lie on expansion separating parallel preceding V2 is found characteristic wave continued the the normal physical as N1 in the to the Mach is P_P2. Note P1. 9-7(b)) characteristics to by the initial the the wall allows After the in the wall characteristics plane._ical plane. (a) Phy. The the wave is Point OP2 the parallel V1 and figure) to the process is. constant (9-21) through with of Prandtl-Meyer by equation property the in the physical and along expressed hodograph are parallel This wall. any The two- be plotted diagram. 257 ._/ / / -15. that through S_). 9-7(a)). graphically flow of segments is best explained a simple point a curved curve (fig..___.-J \ Cb_ \.

and by the parallel 9-9.TURBINE I)E_SIGN AND APPLICATION / '_. The channel.]dC h waves 0 cai (hi (a) FIaURE 9-8. The the flow flow $3 and the direction supersonic that will S'3. that type and lines imagine case bend 9-8(a). convex wall point. is still Flow The method of solution generalized to handle the uniform figure amount. angle problems. past between constructed two points. a single through the replaced corner-type is important throats. S_ in same used for the flow along a single flow between two walls. The and P_ in the denoted represented represents 258 . The is still of flow Mach Now large for visualization. at one intersecting tion of the that speed of Mach in the the be wave the waves the flow is given solution lie at of the the by the Math angle points. wall wall by occurs approaches figure a number flow. number S'_. to the hodograph wall is so though. Consider flow both be bounded are about the by parallel hodograph of the by two walls outward walls deflected centerline dividing here flow diagram.--Flow General along case. Since it is finite usually to the average a wall changes assumed average direction may now diagram. the of small or (9-21) flow design 9-8(b). completely useful along pass that has between numerically. a single of flow with limiting is represented called later. is often sharp-edged as will be seen sonic nozzles for this case. Suppose Between Two Walls wall can be the initially as shown the walls in region The line V_. velocity is symmetric of the the field by S_ and constructed initial magnitude of straight point line segments. with Math (b) Limiting waves case. relative The _. case the that 0. Equation a common as shown common it is bends. occur practical Mach two measured corresponding to the flow The if the point. into a 1 is OP_ flow S'_. As finite and before. a where around of supervalid A special shaped in figure point seen This corner.

because The M_ ing the The the end flow field point 3 must P.--Flow between two (b) Hodograph plane. V3 is parallel field strikes to V_. ] / c2 // 0 P7 _1-5/ J _ "" _///////_ k_V k... FIOUR_ 9-9. of the by the extensions initial and normals to the segments of respectively. Consider that continuation./////. OP'2 waves flow now P2 and P'2 for the flow in the through hodograph a weak V'2. field. of the P3 or P1 in the hodograph out because are point this would mean compression being further of the P'2P3 the waves.. representplane that which 2 through these curves through graphically)." "'/L_ u s ._L_ \ I C'I . These until wall. being be ruled extensions little makes makes plane direction given in the physical sense P3 in the flow Mach P2P3.F 2 V [ .. hodograph The are waves it represents M'2 expansion.V 2 6 _ 3 _///////'_ ... To C1 or satisfy Similarly.. since to V2 and what Flow V2 fields ---4 respectively. (a) (b) (a) Physical plane... the equations P2. of be used advancing is now the to hodograph the velocity the the flow plane. in regions The two arated lines initial by 2 and OP2 and 2' (points as before.////' .. piecemeal the channel A new of solution 259 . one construct across required. The problem Mach are parallel intersect. walls.. si . in modified A jump of motion is. and M'I. that C'L or C2. /!: >_.. of the initial Mach any wave can eq.. from only C'2 both region if the (since sets end the flow field 3 is separated form.. Because assumed procedures of the type symmetry can waves flow._>... 15v--. be either can expansion sense.S_PF__ S_NIC TURBINES . be determined. to the after be the the sepsame 2' must not is to determine happens and V'2 2 and are another direction. diagram) expansion flow in can wave. jump a iump from characteristic of the of conditions. point point region lies on a characteristic represent lie on end the point waves end and 2' must from waves satisfy (9-21) 2 and 2' by a M. s3__ i .

rotor the Figures sections. 9-10(d) direction by the any wave. in supersonic properties or lattice practical discussed identical. of small The are type of motion sides the flow in the channel are finite the regions. diagram. to arguments P8 be located between hodograph P5 and is an expansion expansion wave striking wave.IGN AND APPLICATION Consider Sa. the previously of expansion of a weak reflection expansion the reincident the flow from a solid boundary. equations discussion. smaller Mach Mach number In figure 9-10(c). separate wall segment field the point OP4. plane and 4. summarized along solution. flow the the a solid boundary reflects of the flow in the interior as an expansion of the channel foregoing is constant. may of the form "field or be approximated waves. The construction proceeds As which Mach across out fields. additional . situations. from velocity The wave since Another is often net. The Both methods "lattice-point are described method" in reference Summary The used shown (c) show intersection wave flected wave across flow for the solutions design in the figure the with of Elementary previously discussed. expansion of an that are are is and the of supersonic 9-10. angle than is the associated with Figure solid in the produced fied 260 without same cancellation proper same of an location magnitude conditions waves." seen the each as before. conditions where an 5 is not Therefore." the of stream the Mach the method. in field 6 is parallel must 4 and similar P6 hodograph flows one of the extension Ps. and. and case. P_ Also. be through- field. P_ must require the because According that wave The The in the the lie on 5 cannot the flow extend flow flow in field the in field wall. stream properties procedure. wave. method. wall. shows A bend and the at the respectively. For hodograph discussed waves. This approximately of procedure are found known flow problems. for will 1. wave. before. general. found methods at the are. it from of line therefore. most not intersections. that in fields direction.TURBINE DES. wave is at a slightly because of the higher the reflected wave. expansion top as the are. points. further. which parallel a new lie 6 are to those is parallel to field to the on in the through used in the the 6 must wall the same to the wall. in the is made deflection satis- of the The boundary (reflected) therefore. calculation used Both are "lattice-point procedure. entire by a number quadrilateral of the are satisfied regions quadrilaterals in satisfied is called in small as the In this in each and. therefore. C_ or C'3. stator each cases and Flow Solutions as well as others blade physical 9-10(a). flow wave wall at a boundary. situation (b). these In characteristics as shown is.

as shown. .. boundary. waves.4. Intersection of an expansion from flow 9-10. ./_SONI_C TURBINES Figure section point istic 9-10(e) shows region the wave solution and B and beyond D must for the lie on the the flow field wave.--Elementary 261 .:P.¢._/_ _c_ (a) (b) (c) Reflection FlovRs Weak expansion of expansion wave wave.SfUPE. of character- through in type Therefore. intersection beyond The the interhodograph each wave of an expansion representing curves passing unchanged a compression C.. a solid solutions.:. . . 6 (al 6 OD BA / b ?//'//_}i"///d . continues intersection.

--Concluded.TURBINE. (constant pressure). DESIGN AND APPLI_ATrON 6 It//l. A case sections.I//l/l_'//. compression free boundary 9-10.ft/lllll_ A t "V/I/i///// L 0 B : 04 . be interest. waves. . condition reflection The boundary.6 6_ (dt Z////////21//7_ _-B /---_1'--Compression wave O0 : 0A + 25 "////Z///I/I_ / (e) P : Constant A _on wave (fl (d) (e) (f) Reflection Cancellation Intersection of expansion of expansion of expansion wave FIGURE from wave and a at solid boundary. This free 262 is the that but is not may be encountered of general of an boundary expansion in the wave design is shown from requires of supersonic in figure the a constant-pressure that pressure blade 9-10(f).



constant velocity be equal. In general, pressure)


the outside field

streamline. fields C must wave wave.

Since lying from

the along


is isentropic, hodograph

the must plane.

magnitude Therefore,

of all the flow

the boundary

be as shown

in the

an expansion as a compression


a free boundary


DESIGN One flow also design at has of the most


SUPERSONIC uses This is of the wind flow type

STATOR the method to produce basis tunnels. stator entering will of

BLADES of characteristics uniform, design type rotor. parallel of since Only twoit is the here. of nozzle the This the

important speeds.

is its application supersonic dimensional desired

to the design

of a channel

nozzles application

for supersonic parallel on this

to supersonic-turbine based


to have of a stator


of nozzle

be discussed Flow flow curve

Nozzles A supersonic in figure sonic, (DE), Point the 9-11. nozzle Since

Producing that first



produces that outward

uniform, the flow (AD)

parallel and then

is shown and superin again

it is required curve

be parallel

wall must

so that at the exit, D is the point where that Because may, only generates for the flow of the design ABCDA one half at

the wall is again parallel the wall has its maximum the throat symmetry, nozzle waves same need the which as was is uniform, the nozzle by be replaced nozzle of the

to the initial flow. slope. It is usually parallel, a solid zone. off the and sonic axis is a streamboundary. The in the curved section

assumed (M----1). line and Therefore, The wall The

purposes, is called is the

be designed. expansion reflect centerline.




expansion procedure



















Between and waves

Two the are

Walls." wall cancelled. "Summary


region section The

DCED is curved

is called so that Flow of cancelling

the the

straightenincoming waves final A be too form 9-12(a), It is a where edge was The Mach and D. long of

ing section, expansion seen flow number For for this A limiting points (corner parallel that and wall angle nozzles Only The output 3 does number the input and gives not one the _, A large type in the past

in this

method and

section CE on Mach turbine with of D a the

of Elementary expansion a nozzle In throat, in the flow that waves hodograph occurs of the design been these

Solutions." The

is uniform, how

parallel, much

supersonic. occurs of this type cases, shown previously

depends exit

between may a limiting in figure

numbers, applications. sharp-edged flow The waves The nozzle is used. parallel

supersonic nozzle form and flow), flow half other which with at

of nozzle uniform,


shortest expands are is again

possible (fig. around by used

length. 9-11), sharp the the


coincide. reflected exit.

producing of the the of the half region is half program sharp-edged portion computer specific-heat coordinates for any

reflected diagram

centerline. uniform shows flow, the _.


to obtain (fig. 9-12(b)) of the

expansion as a result 2 is set of the has

as a result reflected equal (ref.


waves. to the

Therefore, Prandtl-Meyer angle supersonic


at an angle exit written by the nozzle 7 of the nozzle. losses.

Prandtl-Meyer method is designed the The working of

A computer

3) to design by desired fluid. program The the

throats of the program ratio flow of the

characteristics. program. exit Mach program

supersonic to the the the account


of reference





I / _,5" ]
181 I1);



Physical FIGURE

plane. 9-12.--Nozzle with sharp-edged

(b) Hodograph throat.





Stator The for tional the sharp-edged-throat design considerations nozzle for a stator

Nozzles just discussed serves nozzle as stators. the basis Addi-

of minimum-length

(chord) as compared

supersonic to the


Ideal nozzle -_

/ / Displacementth ickness-,
\ \ \

/ / / /

Straight sectior_ angle /_ozzle / /

/ Diverging section-'-. / /

Tangential direction Converging section-_

Axial _Trection




of supersonic











discussed energy

are losses.











A supersonic-turbine being as and section the flow. stream method on the determined A computer sonic lines stator in figure etc.) the local reference converging The Mach suction discussed herein The a stator (3) nozzle. (subsonic) a straight accelerates section diverging number surface the

stator is shown stator section, section flow on to 5 (vol.

blade nozzle (2) the sonic 2). to exit. the


channel 9-13 and

section will

of the be referred sections:

type to (1) a

in figure

consists a diverging suction speed In order all the This

of three surface. and can of the to The


(supersonic) The be

section, converging designed losses, of by length desired by the the freethe is section


of chapter

to minimize flow the

is designed section at the




section profile,

is designed straight and its

of characteristics by the required

as previously completes nozzle the angle. design

discussed. nozzle

program nozzles,

for (no loss)

of sharp-edged-throat for losses, indicated method ideal to the thickness, profile is then ideal profile by the

superin dashed

including is first then

a correction nozzle profile, by for final the the

is presented

4. An ideal 9-13, are

designed computed 2). The

of characteristics. momentum by nozzle 7 (vol. methods by from 2). coordiobtained

Boundary-layer thickness, discussed adding nates the

parameters 6 (vol.


in chapter

displacement in figure 9-13. parameters

thicknesses The nozzle as described

as indicated boundary-layer

efficiency in chapter

is obtained

DESIGN Two rotors tion methods are caused the that The by rotor the


SUPERSONIC been Both proposed design of

ROTOR for the

BLADES design use any and of supersonic the method formaflow The parallel. of shock

have herein. channel


methods to prevent

characteristics. entering

is designed is assumed


compression to be uniform Method rotor I) the In blades



Corner-Flow One method (ref. entering compression, surface cancel zontal of the the flow of designing blade parallel from The supersonic of this flow flow upper type

is given

by Shapiro 9-14(a). The

1). A typical uniform,

is shown

in figure undergoes concave

(region along (suction) waves. This being

a comer-type lower is curved 2, then by parallel undergoes the concave (pressure) so as to horia

resulting blade. incoming (0=0) expansion,

surface region flow cancelled

compression is obtained. with waves


corner-type 266



surface, at the to the For the tion since

until blade inlet

uniform exit. and outlet

parallel flow (as this kind


of the

desired on the

Mach upper

number surface, only The easy The one profile.

occurs parallel half of

Straight-line blade makes of one

segments directions, shown since type are present

complete in fig.

the blade

an impulse needs waves flow

9-14(a)), particularly

blade only

to be designed,

it is symmetrical. in any region.

specificato design, hodograph in figure which is desirable, Another number,

of comer

of blade

diagram 9--14(c) quite because drawback

for this blade is the theoretical unusual. the This loading type

is shown in blade-surface of velocity zero method

figure 9-14(b). Shown velocity distribution, distribution is not of the inlet very blade. Mach middle for a given


in the

of this design

is that

rParallel flow
I t t



Parallel flow -_ (a)


Inlet Distance alon9 chord _b) (a) (b) Hodograph diagram. rotor design Blade and passage. (c) Blade by the loading diagram method. (c)


FIGURE 9-14.--Supersonic







the sonic For

amount (Mach reasonable

of flow turning 1) or higher. to the Mach sum number equal

is limited. The of the levels inlet

The and

velocity amount exit to 3.0),

in region of flow large

2 must turning

be is,

maximum (1.5

therefore, turning

Prandtl-Meyer amounts

angles. of flow

(120 ° to 150 °) would

be impossible. Method supersonic the product passage rotor blades vortex (also, by this is a constant is described flow within therefore, throughmethod is

Vortex-Flow Another in reference the passage. critical out the shown The arcs, sition passage generated ated field sect. The parallel cular by field. in figure blades (2) circular arcs (lower into the upper by the inlet method 5. This ratio A typical 9-15(a). consist arcs, and lower essentially and upper) (3) flow transition arc of outlet by convert arc (see of designing method M*) field, blade and

is based

on establishing radius

In a vortex-flow

of velocity designed


and streamline

three the means and fig.

parts: uniform of the the

(1) arcs.

inlet The

transition inlet flow tranat the waves generinterflow. the cir-



vortex transition

compression waves The




begins where The concentric outlet flow arcs. transition by and

the compression circular arcs arcs the

and expansion turn and maintain the vortex waves the upper the design are

waves first the vortex flow into by and profile. in with the the

reconvert remaining on


cancelling outlet flow

generated surface blade


segments directions for the the by type degree the highly the to this


to the inlet

complete type of

A hodograph 9-15(b). letters The surfaces graph of flow provide bution blade The

diagram flows along

is shown shown, in arcs and the BF figure of on to the velocity

figure the blade hodocan This to the

blade locations along circular rotor,

surfaces indicated the circular arcs there IK

corresponding constant-velocity are diagram. turning any is seen is shown design represented In this



of design, in the of turning. loaded, 9-14.

is no limit The surface figure

amount arcs distri-

obtainable necessary on to be quite shown

because diagram, especially

circular 9-15(c).

blade-loading in figure for designing is presented the the method inlet rotor of and and numbers,

as compared

corner-flow A computer method program outlet, gas. the arcs 268 The blade

program includes Mach includes An using the


blades flow

of this 6. The angles,

type the ratio



of characteristics input and output shape. surface

in reference outlet the

computer inlet, of the of in

specific-heat coordinates the is



a plot transition



for obtaining






references 7 and 8. In this procedure, the vortex flow is established by making the curvature of the transition arcs one-half the curvature of the circular arcs. For very small curvatures, this method is correct. In this blade design, the lower- and upper-surface Mach numbers are specified. This permits blades of various shapes to be designed for

Region Vortex flow transition

AB and FG BC and EF HI and KL CDEand1JK

Straight lines Upper transition arcs Lower transition arcs Circular arcs


M*..- _H,B





X'x// )


K Outlet Distance along chord

Ib) (a) (b) Hodograph FIGURE diagram. 9-15.--Supersonic rotor design Blade and passage. (c) by Blade the loading vortex-flow diagram. method. (c)





APPLICATrON AA AB BD CC CD Circular arc Uppertransition arc Straight line Circular arc Lowertransition arc

ta) A B A B

D/ (b! A B B










gle, 0° (M = 1) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (c) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 18 ° (M---- 1.7) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 ° . (e) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 21 ° (M-- 1.8) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M---- 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 120 ° .

Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 12 ° (M=l.5); upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °.


Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 18 ° (M----1.7) ; upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 104 ° (M----10.7) ; total flow turning angle, 130 °. (f) Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 21 ° (M---- 1.8); upper-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle, 59 ° (M = 3.5) ; total flow turning angle, 140 ° . number of 2.5 ratio of 1.4. (inlet Prandtl-

FIGURE 9-16.--Turbine Meyer 270

blade shapes at inlet Mach angle of 39 °) and specific-heat

and by 9-16(c) turning in flow the lower-surface Mach selection significant problems. (f)) design and designed by the in of reference (cf. it is seen Mach shape. of supersonic-turbine for losses. addthe Guidance of which a blade supersonic in this of is obtained consideration separation starting be discussed discussed for the case later "method chapter. figure. and (cf._ Displacement thickness /__/ _. A number Mach has little number 9-16(e) of and of that (cf. (b).SUPEJRSONIC _URBINES a given program figure number whereas (c)) and effects. the method of characteristics.. profile to the thicknesses as described Boundary-layer is then ideal computed. blades the effect figs. both The procedure program including (no loss) first eters ing inlet 9-16.--Design of supersonic rotor blade section. ideal is 9-17. displacement Rotor parameters as indicated in figure coefBcients are determined boundary-layer in chapter . paramby from 2). previously is only of ideal (isentropie) for the design a correction passage by profile. 271 . design A computer sections.. characteristics" flow. vortex-flow in reference lines rotor in figure obtained profile 7 (vol. figs.--Loss-free passage i/ Z \ \ \ FIOURE 9-17. The dashed designed are then the local 9-17.. flow of will 6 for an inlet (d)) figs. the the Mach From the number..5 axe shown upper-surface on the have blade 9-16(a). _-- _ --'__/'x " . _ . number of 2. indicated and the profile loss is presented by the final 9.

the along The transition boundary-layer gradients results of the separation. de3 . upper- an indication it would numbers. and enough separation. for supersonic starting. be desirable separation lower-surface OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS TURBINES Supersonic Starting OF SUPERSONIC the Problems diffuser occur in the starting must be able to swallow of supersonic the shock that diffusers because forms at the inlet Lowe r-s u rface 140 PrandtI-Meyer angle.--Maximum Prandtl-Meyer heat ratio. Specific- 272 . limitations Flow on separation to prevent the choice in large The If it is possible. pressure severe losses. EF adverse within give to cause criterion Mach pressure the flow places rotor gradients blade of whether exist passages.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION As seen from arcs are figure HI and calculations 9-15. angle 1.4. deg I 120 I 140 FIGURE 9-18. 1 l O0 '%./_--120 ll5 llO 105 9O 85 8O 75 7O 65 6O 55 5O 45 40 3O 75 2O 15 10 120 ___------------ 20 t 0 20 1 40 Upper-surface 1 60 Prandtl%_eyer t 80 an(jl¢. o)/.

. Inlet angle. F_. c 5 E r_ 20 I o 30 I l_°l i_oo I lJ 1 50 _ l 70 L I 90 . In figure starting blade-surface inlet the to surface obtain Prandtl-Meyer design velocity angle as a function for supersonic the and order of vortex-flow Prandtl-Meyer angle rotor blade Prandtl-Meyer the problem. wave For the inlet flow this mum rotor angles. inlet 273 . diagram. a normal ing... passage the blade of blade of supersonic a first rotor must numbers expressed permissible through. startup. in Prandtl-Meyer is known angles determined 8O Lower-surface Prandtl-Meyer angle. similar shock since Since turbines.--Supersonic Mach number 2. inlet flow turbine._/'/77"7"//'77/'I /. . there Prandtl-Meyer calculation in reference of the exists of the (or inlet angle) procedure supersonic determining the maxi- established. starting criterion Prandtl-Meyer applied to example angle. maximum 6. S9 i 0 7" . segments corresponding value surfaces number be value is plotted the from usual the then be Prandtl-Meyer w_ and The is given wz). The condition. contraction be large along in enough the terms to permit to pass specified blade Mach can inlet blades In must circular-arc of the a maximum for which for 9-18. - k E _ & r_ _o 39 •_ g & 4o I . 65 °. o. I 1 110 Upper-surface PrandtI-Mever angle.5..o.. __e_. 39°.SUPE_ SONI_ TURBINES during in shape. wu.' . spans the flow angles the As the passage Mach (often rotor would blade passage is convergent-divergent to occur at the passage in the instant is set the starting that by this shock of of startit is assumed problems be expected approximation./ ' ._97.// .'_7. . deg FIGURE 9-19.'_.

fallen efficiency on at the the the off in figure partial-admission efficiency rapidly efficiency to that efficiencies envelope for as reference design is maximum pressure (circles about is 9-20) pressure The decreased. decrease in supersonic-turbine 274 ._ is plotted bounds line not be as a function previously purposes represents permissible crosshatched of supersonic will.. is due inlet exceed of 65 ° (39°+65°= only dashed would 104°). The transition w._=65 that to the the flow 0 ° to 39 °. in general.=_.. restriction designed from on the supersonic Suppose (1) _=1. of at ratio Flow separation value of w_ to much consideration lower values Supersonic Experimental ported efficiency velocity ratio) in with performance 10 to blade-jet Performance for supersonic in speed to presents 14. falls maximum is similar turbine. discussed °.=Mex=2. a blade that at least To assure satisfactory the the the starting surface ordinate the permissible is best for the seen and to the on the for the corresponding given inlet angles to the condivalues an example. _z is due 104 ° limit cannot 9-19. blade-jet this ratios were a subsonic at the The lower turbine. It is first from must that Meyer For shown.5 noted vary 0 ° limit turning (_.. and design the for inlet this region Prandtlexample. The remain the inlet angle clarity. can of conditions. and 39 ° to 104 °. Turbine data 14. the point must a severe numbers. vary flow fact angle _. be restriction on Prandtl-Meyer starting design from following that fact Prandtl-Meyer places Mach In general.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION and passage 9-18 profiles. pressure would curve.----0. conditions: °. with If variation speed a subsonic have in fig. w_ and _. (3)0.=39 for the _. This is _ to can sonic.. in figure inlet tion surface representing lie on or above angle. than the limit starting limit indicated considerations. the maximum in the figure. (2) M. The ratio speed to turbine 9-20. are shown because w_. the In figure of maximum of _.x=39°)..4. For turbines divided are by reideal references variation (blade supersonic-turbine corresponding is illustrated turbine inlet-totalwhich exit-static-pressure the any ratio data given and in ratio for the speed. .

0 L__ ..08 A_ . The nozzle is readily apparent..--Static efficiency of turbine as function for conseant speeds..8UPF_R_)NIC Ratio of turbine-inlet total pressure to turbine-exit _ a o o static pressure 150 120 63 (design) _ "_ _ TURBII_S I .. but the was beThis same It can also be seen from this figure that at pressure ratios near design... as expected. of blade-jet speed ratio lower pressure ratios is due expanded The stator nozzles.GuR_. havior was found in the data of reference 10..04 . to the shocks occurring in the underthe stator nozzle of formation variation in static pressure throughout in the underexpanded the turbine of reference 14 is shown of the shock waves in figure 9-21.16 J .24 F...12 Blade-jet speedratio 1 ... 275 . There some overexpansion followed by some compression... the divergent section of the nozzle performed pressure did not remain constant in the straight section.20 l . 2___ .30 cCD . 9--20.2O _3 t_ .10 ..

2 Fraction of axial distance FIGURE for 9-21. .6 nozzle exit pressure static L .8 ratio pressure _ 1.4 of of nozzle It ..0_ •07 -a c •05 -L_ 9 V o •03 -- A •02 -[] Theoretical ...0 with to axial inlet distance total in nozzle pressure.--Variation constant ratios 276 . section I .TURBINE • 10-- I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION __ •09 -- Divergent -section ["- Straight .01 -Throat I Exhaust Ii i .

HORLOCK. Res. H. LOUIS J. AND DRANSFIELD. NASA TN D-4421. JOHN F. G. 10. LIEPMANN. 4. ALLEN E. Aero. AND SCULLIN. . LOUIS J.: Introduction to Aerodynamics of a Compressible Fluid. VINCENT J. vol. I--Computer Program for Blading Design. : Axial Flow Turbines: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics. : The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. GOLDMAN. 1971. 1966. 8. AND GOLDMAN. FREDERICK W. 1. Council. : Analytical Investigation of Supersonic Turbomachinery Blading. J. EMANUEL. Council. VANCO. 1947. 12. Ronald Press Co.. 5. AND VANCO. 1952. MOFFITT. . D. . 1971. MICHAEL R. JOHNSON. . John Wiley & Sons. ROY G. THOMAS P. Aero. : Experimental Investigation of Partialand Full-Admission Characteristics of a Two-Stage Velocity-Compounded Turbine. GOLDMAN. R&M 3242. Res. JR. NASA TM X-2382.AND WLODARSKI. NASA TM X-2434. NASA TM X-2343.. 6.: The Test Performance of Highly Loaded Turbine Stages Designed for High Pressure Ratio. STRATFORD...: Experimental Investigation of a Low Reynolds Number Partial-Admission Single-Stage Supersonic Turbine. THOMAS P. H. JAMES R.. 1953. 1962. Application of Supersonic Vortex-Flow Theory to the Design of Supersonic Impulse Compressoror Turbine-Blade Sections. .. 2. NASA TM X-410. BOXER. 277 . ASCHER H. HANS WOLFGANG. I. R&M 3275.. VINCENT J. GOLDMAN.: Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Supersonic Turbine Rotor Blades with Boundary-Layer Correction. STABE..: Design and Experimental Investigation of a SingleStage Turbine with a Rotor Entering Relative Mach Number of 2. SHAPIRO. MICHAEL R. 1962. AND SANSOME. STERRETT. Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle with Sharp-Edged Throat. NASA TM X-1502. AND SCULLIN. Louis J. 3. AND GIBBS. . LOUIS J. NACA RM L52B06. AND PUCKETT. GOLDMAN. 11. AND KLAG. 1960. E. Cold-Air Performance Evaluation of a Scale-Model Fuel Pump Turbine for the M-1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Rocket Engine. 1967. 1971. B. 7. 1968. 14. EDWARD H. Computer Program for Design of Two-Dimensional Sharp-Edged-Th_roat Supersonic Nozzle with Boundary-Layer Correction. C. : Theory and Tunnel Tests of Rotor Blades for Supersonic Turbines. MOFFITT. S. NASA TN D-3819. NACA RM E58F20a. KLINE.. 1968. LOUIS J. JOHN.SUPE_tSONIC TURBINES REFERENCES 1. 1958. 9. 13. Butterworths.

normal lb/sec at constant direction. absolute component m/sec. ratio velocity ft/sec (M-velocity kg/sec.32. N/m_. lb/ft 3 Subscripts e_ rotor rotor lower normal exit inlet surface of blade with respect to Mach wave in l ITI4IZ maximum direction relative isentropic tangential upper direction with respect to Mach wave surface of blade 7" 8 t 278 . ratio of specific heat constant volume small 0 p P pressure deg to specific heat at change angle. ft _ (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec _) of sound. m/sec. deg g M M* P conversion constant. lb/ft _ parallel to initial flow direction. V velocity. deg deg ft/sec to initial flow direction. velocity of ft/sec rate. mass Mach flow 1).17 (V/Vc.) mS. number velocity pressure. critical component m/sec. Prandtl-Meyer kg/m 3. wave. of ft/sec m/sec. in flow deg angle. angle.TURBINE I)E_IGN AND APPLICATIO_ SYMBOLS A a flow speed Mach critical area along Mach m/sec. flow Prandtl-Meyer density. V Y) angle. ft/sec 1.

inlet. its features addition. design. compared geometry is a substantial literature. and from axially. flow In passage. design Figure The turning long the as flow 1 to 6 are general performance axial-flow of these and In offturbine. radial-inflow the rotor which about on the turbine. of the those the with and areas design of amount References and an turbine blade of information on radial-inflow in nature machines. the a radial stator is fed (tan- a tangential of a volute. 1 to as much radially turbines. and is described.Rohlik E Radial-inflow space power turbines systems. ease of manufacture. in the rotor passage. aspect Radial turbine aspect other generally A torus. sturdy construction. and reliability.5. This is is relatively which hand. fig.CHAPTER 10 Radial-lnflow Turbines ByHarold . plenum. are discussed. power sources and other systems are required.1 to 0. a prewhirl gential component the stator blade camber. Turbines of this type have a number of desirable characteristics such as high efficiency. inlet case or a volute surrounds while the (shown the volute in a typical leaves blade from blades. of blade have shows the flow In There in the most chapter. radial-inflow of velocity) is imparted to the gas before it enters row. usually pipe. a section stator takes height rotor ratios axial place through and the varies stator 0. radial-inflow performance. 10--2). ratio. narrow. by The which which torus is a doughnut-shaped is a spiral is fed inlet by pipe. This results in stator blades with little or no from figure 10-2 that the than overall the diameter rotor of a is considerably larger diameter. turbines and cover In this are design performance 10-1 enters of the and ratio 8. are suitable for many where applications compact in aircraft. 279 It can be seen turbine . to chord.

the flow velocity (W_=O)..=U_r. to the turn whirl. exit absolute shape the that seen. varies blades has 10-3 that (ratio used shown in the U is the are V_ is the velocity) V. ratio be is developed chord the has They spacing) in the of radial or in the volute.. rotor exit. At the stator the (where r is the radius. relative the section to the rotor of the rotor blades has are blade component This tangential of the more loaded.--Schematic cross section of radial-inflow turbine. flow.a:r2. generally here where the velocity Figure shows solidity generally turbine blades 280 is rather highly the blade curved or no angular component momentum of absolute W_=O. (Since rV.TURBINE DE. the low are The full little prewhirl of in here rotor. radius. radial blade Also. shows clearly. aspect can of the blades part turbines between flow passage . are used since straight rotor rV. At little usually the or rotor no straight inlet. inlet low and partial. Stator blade 0 1 2 Rotor blaue FIGURE 10-1. tangential and and with where radial.) so that The Therefore. square speed. SIGN AND APPLICATION Station :. blading to stators splitter.

turbine. in figure the the advantage velocity the temperature-entropy the temperature (T['=T_'). to reduce the the "BLADE The that The radius. and radial a given rotor p" are in relative as was temperature decreasing discussed it permits 2 of volume a distinct of a lower seen change in were below turbine. associated turbine overall diagram T" tile fig. be only because For rotor removed losses 2). the the from the discussion). shows change expansion in relative total axial the between p_' of a radial-inflow _hown corresponding would relative an slightly radial from and of ch.--Radial-inflow turbine. 281 in radius.Rotor / Volute C-72323 FIGURE 10-2. the use blades turbine are discussed further in from differs decrease appreciably in with eq. difference to rotor to both as shown because in figure the p. .' line is farther p't' line change difference Therefore. shown p_" is due 10-4. process turbine in a radial because and is be in chapter This the can which Tile If the the this This 10--4. because expansion. expansion. for level through total turbine line p[' (as and the pressure the (2-31) the for axial total of the pressure radius change 1 (see rotor. losses. only is due and for line p_' 2-8 in expansion an blade loading. Splitter DESIGN" section.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINES Stator /.

expansion exit the static rotor from the same rotor inlet total a higher than in pressure relative a radial p'_' to the same W= at (larger fluid of pressure exit in distance losses gas in p_ would require an axial turbine between a rotor velocity. energy as high if turbine.--Turbine stator and rotor assembly.TURBINR I)F__SIGN AND APPLICATION Rotor splitter blade-- Stator blade--. velocity increase the velocity turbine Since the vertical friction p_" and p= for an axial approximately advantage diagram inlet 0. 282 U2 equaled as in an .) with level figure square of velocity 10-5 for the relative is clear. A of a lower is shown in radial-turbine a turbine with prewhirl in the (exit-mean to inlet) of about speeds diagram. Rotor full blade / / t / C-?1863 . rotor ratio blade be axial evident. velocity would approximately turbine. _gak- FIGURE 10-3.5. U_ and the Us is very relative three kinetic times volute and a mean diameter The difference between the For a typical W] leaving zero-exit-whirl the UI.

RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINES i T1 tl TI 2gJCp E F-- 2gJcp Entropy FIGURE 10-4.--Velocity diagram.--Temperature-entropy diagram for a radial-inflow turbine rotor. 283 . V 0 W] W2 / p2-. U2 FIGURE 10-5.

conditions condition and sometimes as high is associated by the rotor is analogous of mass a large of this the in a centrifugal the the the Before across that when the compressor.uction urface / FIGURE 10-6. are radial 10-5 has is an a value incidence optimum at the incidence flow in figure This This blade angle. "optimum" Note this flow analyses properly angle that were near the not the streamline in figure the suction schematically is approximately separate sive cally loss. and from The 10-6. If stagnation would causing studied turbines. This flow at the so. blade. been and leading U1 has inlet pattern suction surface.--Streamline flow at rotor inlet. factor of the passage. There at the is some rotor-blade as 40 ° with to the flow with blades. there Stream-function is an radial. 284 . the inlet flow angle incidence leading a radial the in the "slip" rotor unloading fll Since shown angle edge. tip flow Blade passage. the flow edge. surface in both relation between V_._ and experimentally compressors Pressure surface . and the is influenced loading distribution then produces it is circumstatic-pressure shift toward flow condition stagnation is shown point tend analytiIt has to exces- so that pattern there is a streamline locates _1. ferentially gradient the show point that the blades provides angle optimum near uniform.TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION OVERALL DESIGN Optimum CHARACTERISTICS Incidence rotor inlet.

ft (assumed to be in axial 60 sec/min (hh'_ v. n (total of full blades plus (10-1) splitter where blades). based on inlet m3/sec.S. This blade optimum and is often U. 1 to consequently. diameter. m/sec. geometric it is not may and by dimensionless. m. U_. pressure constant. height. N Analytical examined of specific Q2.RADIAIr-INFLOW TURBINES been number determined ratio that depends there on expressed is an optimum blade as V_"=1---2 loading ratio and. Specific similarity. of Specific speed by the Speed on Design Geometry and and Performance in ch. g conversion jet constant. and on efficiency H as follows: (10-3) (10-4) (10-5) = KUI Q2=_-D2h2V2 H=Vj2 where K D1 D2 h2 V2 dimensional rotor inlet rotor-exit rotor-exit rotor-exit m/sec. based ft/sec 1 . (tip) passage fluid ft/sec speed. work. ft m. 2 of specific parameter equation N_ (derived discussed 1) is given NQ21/2 N_-where N rotative volume ideal H314 (10-2) Q2 H speed. ideal ratio. (ft) (lbf)/lbm In size its most and commonly truly be used form as a (with shape the stated speed parameter speed U. rev/min flow rate at turbine exit.17 (lbm) (ft)/(lbf) (sec 2) on inlet-total to exit-static diameter. J/kg. is independent considered effect velocity-diagram study. of V. 285 . and ft3/sec exit total pressures.--The substituting for N. that customary of expresses may be units). ft direction). velocity mean-section 2_ rad/rev. 32.. n is the number of blades Effect The vol. or head. rad/sec. m.

For fell seen region are large values.] \D. N. Btu/lb These substitutions for specific and some manipulation result in the following expression speed: y. Any specific speed infinite number of combinations of these of these combinations optimum were combinations examined over can be achieved terms..03 (a_--57)_T number (full incidence and in order This tion was to provide the total the minimum the reaction rotor number of blades used (10-1) to establish a favorable limit included a maximum (nh/D. as much envelope as 45 to 50 points of all . of 0.=(Constant)\_-7]u The terms of equation (10-6) are \-_j/ related \U]. The range efficiency used shown three was critical plotted 10-7.]2 (10-6) characto velocity-diagram value ratio teristics by an number speed. 286 set geometric The the (W_:2W_). rotor back blades to the 12 that plus zero would splitter) Other exit whirl limit angle. rotor. The properties. J/kg.2/D_ of values areas stator-exit extreme For in static dashed any curve at and the of velocity-diagram previously mentioned flow and characteristics losses a_. angle hub-to-shroud windage considered boundary of rotor according al (in degrees) n:0. J/kg. The specific calculated flow into the there computed of each in the all of the in the to be for by determinant flow values given is the of efficiency. of 0.2/D_. energy. stator-bladeto rotor-inlet ratios (U/ speed.)_. a minimum avoid of the was to mean-diameter The losses layers. were shroud kinetic exit flow those analysis caused The of reference by the number 7 related stator on and the losses variations. variables of specific variation efficiency. velocity against Stator-exit which boundaries and speed. Dt. in equa(V_. points angle a small region assumed can be a static for some is to rotor-inlet-diameter ratio static shaded a prime each the limits.4 for assumptions and with flow blade-tothe exit statorand overall geometry.)2. \D. DESIGN AND APPLICATION Ah_ ideal work based on inlet-total and exit-total pressures. varied equation (10-7) separation.TURBINE.7 for effects by of of geometry calculating combinations D. then in figure angle.2:0). A large in reference of specific range analytically a wide 7 to determine neglecting clearance. the falls by for angle rotor-exit were a large stator-exit ratio hdD_. of input value rotor-tip study. The examined number height diameter Vc. Btu/lb Ahid ideal work based on inlet-total and exit-static pressures.

6 [ . efficiencies.7 8 \ \ \ \ . FIGURE 10-7. aI . deg TURBINE_ Total efficiency corresponding to curve of maximum static efficiency .4 I . of specific that and Figure increasing optimum optimum (opens shows values stator-exit to a larger that of some in figures flow flow to 10-11.0 Stator-exit flow angle.8 t 1.3 . is large with speed increasing and inat 287 the optimum at low until of stator-blade is reached to rotor-inlet diameter specific is small speed a maximum . ratios.2 I 1. with concern geometry of the envelope shows speed speed.4 . N (ft314)'. The the optialong ratios as Figat low efficiencies. loss model study.5 .) design-point efficiency. 7.9 _ 8 of maximum static efficiency \ .4 Specific speed.0 I 1.2 [ . Ns. total represent associated primary mum the ure Most functions 10-8 specific specific height creases and the The the and solid curve above values because used however.lbm314)/(min)(secll2}(Ibf3t4) s. velocity presented it represents of efficiency there in the was ratios are study the many corresponding necessarily assumptions 7.--Effect of specific speed on computed (Data from ref.RADIAL-INFLOW 1. dimensionless l 0 I 20 I 40 I 60 I 80 I lO0 l 120 I 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed._ 0 . and are do not achievable of reference of that velocity The speed the 10-9 decreases geometric to determine vary continuously of 10-8 angle area) ratio specific these curves. with computed values.

Ns. dimensionless I 20 I 40 I 60 I 80 I l O0 I 120 J 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed.4 .2 I . Ns. • 20 -(UtVcr)l 0. Ns. Blade critical velocity ratio at rotor inlet.20 O oA XZ L_" _z u_ C 0 0 .6 .6 1 .04 0 .4 Specific speed. Ns.2 I l. dimensionless l 20 1 40 I 60 I 80 I i00 I 120 t la3 1 160 I 180 Specific speed.) of stator- 288 . 7. ratio 7.a Specific speed.2 I .ON _" 8O ¢D _o 70 60 5O .--Effect of specific speed blade height to rotor-inlet and blade diameter.0 l '1. speed on optimum (Data from rcf.4 I .TURBINE DESIGN 90-XD AND APPLICATI.--Effect of specific speed on optimum (Data from ref.) stator-exit angle.8 1.8 [ 1.2 1. (ft3J41(Ibrn3/4)/IminJlseclJ2jIIbf3/4_ FIGUaE 10-8.0 1. (ft3/d_tlbm314t/Imin!lseclIZJ_lbf3i4_ FIGURE 10-9.08 a: .

l E 7- TURBINES .8 I 1. Ns. 0 I 20 I 40 I 60 1 80 I 100 I !20 I 140 I 160 I 180 Specific speed.RADIAL-INFLOW . dimensionless I.2 0 . Ns. 289 .6 I .) blade-jet speed ratio.4 speed.) rotor-exit tip to rotor-inlet 14 -- L 0 I 20 FIGURE 10--I 1.--Effect diameter of specific speed diameter.2 I 1. 7.o f-f .4 Specific I . on optimum (Data from ratio ref. of 7.6 O . (ftJld}(Ibm3/41/(min_secll2)ilbf314_ FIGURE 10-10.0 I 1.2 .4 ¢_ -- .--Effect of specific (Data speed from on optimum ref.

turbines from FmURE 10-12. speed. geometric that 10-10 height effect compressibility is also result at shown any in smaller given ratio in figure ratios it is seen of stator- rotor-inlet specific of rotor-exit [] qb_ (a) Specific speed.54. of ref. 30 (ft 3/_)(lbm angle. angle. 70 150 (ft flow 3/_)(lbm l!Z)(lbf l/2)(lbf air).23. 1.) maximum _tZ)(lbf 3/_). 0. 3/4).--Sections of radial (Data static efficiency. 3/4)/(min)(sec 60 ° . 0. DESIGN AND APPLICATION some in the mum blade Figure value of specific The and higher to shows speed only velocity velocity that depending that levels diameter the optimum ratios on the overall level has on of velocity the optiwhere speed. Stator-exit Stator-exit (ft 3/_)(lbm flow angle. turbine. 3/_)/(min)(sec 75 ° . 290 . Stator-exit flow (b) (c) Specific Specific speed. 7.TURBINE. 3z_)/(min)(sec 81 °.16. tip diam10-9.

to 10-11 of turbines values is largely indicated static speed viscous optimum speed. covered.--Loss distribution (Data along from curve ref. 7. The different shown values of specific index sections design losses in figure of specific of reference the for curve the the variation efficiency.6 . Ns.0 -- . Ns.2/DI_-0.2 1.4 .1 . 1.8 1 I 2 speed.2 Specific . speed values ratio to the variation shown in figure that is It small specific is seen UI/Vj of static at low specific until figure with the speed imposed 10-11 and that inlimit the in a for speed from varies 10-8 of D. 291 . of flow in figures 10-12 of radial-inflow shown show study along 10-13 speed.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINE_ eter creases to rotor-inlet rapidly with diameter increasing is reached.7 optimum manner The the design blade-iet similar optimum are specific can with an the speed be used efficiency. l[t3_'4Jllhm3/d_/fi:lin_secll2_ltbf3'4_ FIGURE 10-13.9-p ¢x3 to ¥ Loss c <19 Stator Rotor :> Clearance Windage Exit velocity c_ .4 I . dimensionless 1 _0 Specific J 50 I 80 1 100 J 200 speed.) of maximum static efficiency.1. turbines. n _ 1 . losses in the This For are is low very of maximum range of specific and rotor stator . specific Sections for three speed 7 also geometries These capacity.

in Rotor with exducer extension. The exit at high values of specific C-/I-159 {a) ib_ C-69q816 C-?0-3533 to) (a) Design rotor. (c) Cut-back used (b) rotor. of the increased predominant clearance loss. DESIGN AND APPI_CATION large because loss large depends at low of the high ratio of the the of wall the passage diameter area to flow The rotative flow area. loss all decrease kinetic-energy speed. rate. Also.TURBINE. a clearance relatively which large is large fraction on specific because blade-to-shroud height. the stator because loss becomes and rotor losses. and windage flow and area.--Rotor configurations specific-speed study of reference 8. the is loss. As primarily speed is also specific because of the speed increases. FIGURE 10-14. and low clearance windage speed. 292 .

extension.00-- • 9O . throat 53 to 137 percent.8o . in reference determined area.- .6O • 9C [ 1 [ [ L L . and for internal 13 back to different was also were design the modified numbers with for vary area an inthe and the 10-14 and cut velocity efficiency.--In speed a series different reduced operation.2 .5 1 . allowed Figure to be operated rotor are area Details of the as designed. _f variation of efficiency from ref. rotor extension creased stator to vary turbine shows back. (Data 293 .8_ t'oJ o • 7{3 1 .--Experimental specific speed. dirnensi_nless t 20 t 30 I 40 I .9 Specific speed. angles. of specific reduced-area results.4 l . Ns. modifications from 20 to 144 percent over a large with range the test 8. 7O _ ¢_ WithConfigu ration design rotor With rotor extension -With cutback rotor I-. Ns. given was and rotor geometry._/'" .7 I . 8.g I .6 1 .) with FIGURE 10-15. Figure calculations Performance of stator experimentally 1 0-15 shows combinations of the the envelopes 1. area rotor from throat area on order turbine of stator blade These area operation to blade determine rows The and was of the with experimentally a turbine was fitted cut used This speed. of of specific 8) to accept blades and for area throat the the study.3 l .2 /.50 l I I 1 I I 1lO 60 70 80 90 lO0 t3/4 )_lbm3/4)/trnin)[sec t/2 )(Ibf 3/4) Specific speed.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINE_ Experimental effect (ref.

TURBINE DE. be used with to advantage total in applications remaining requiring varied 0. clearance turbine which of reference Increasing at 9. The shows the exit the rotor were effects clearance clearance-to-diameter The the are effects exit of blade-to-shroud on radial-inflow study 10-16. generation of turbulence. that from with each rotor configuration. increase flow can that stator is fully that turned produces even with to the the does a comparable that determines exit rotor blade inlet large angle. of stator throat static range speed Maximum efficiencies area to rotor throat efficiencies 0. as determined discussed the specific-speed unloading.SIGN AND APPLICATION design-speed efficiency as well as the overall and-rotor ratio at measured combination design for speed. It is the exit clearance the Since design clearance. of passage each 294 percent fraction it flow of the is the turning With height). ratio.90 103 were (ft 3/4) efficiencies varied simply total 0. of nearly the parallel for leakage.90.4 of about to 0.37 (lbm314)/(min)(seO when the ratio design in the (min) The design speeds) considerably turbine stators. For efficiency loss included in the losses shown clearance rotor-exit in clearance loss was based on an average from constant values of rotor-inlet and ratios. of used design. whirl. specific curves envelope was Note speeds obtained curve. in the in figure inlet and studies at rotor presented efficiency results determined of both causes inlet a experimentally clearance and of these exit clearance. Specific speed for each statorby to varying 0. 0. . to be speed thermal transients. of the a factor potential In addition.90 to 65 of about investigation could and. specific (seC/2) a)(lbf3/4)). one of the analysis. by the investigation. and due to blade-to-shroud clearance previously figure 10-13.80 (48 overall over to pressure 0. significantly greater loss in turbine efficiency than increase in inlet clearance. inlet turbine be achieved inlet was and exit a relatively (in loss terms equal clearances a 1-percent of percent for there about in efficiency in clearance. flow row rate over internal Further. might In this three.5 (51 were obtained area was near the were measured (ft 3/4) (lbm31_)/ Maximum (lbf3/4)). endwalls minimize Effect Clearance avoid contact to minimized between during avoid of Blade-to-Shroud the loss blade and of work and the due blade was to Clearance shroud flow must bypassing The losses the be adequate but it must the blades. be off even reference a variety the still yield the efficiency stator 8 showed distribution high volume blade that of a particular (different velocities basic specific is a radial variable for though of applications efficiency.

of internal and studies turnext flow The 2) are 10-11) are to specific in preliminary a particular of any and in order methods used to determine computer stator programs for this purpose.--Stator forward. \ / "< 1.E "-4 1'- _"'-b_-. as well problem the as the involves best DESIGN relating useful They design the discussed and can turbine be used velocity examination rotor blade in chapter geometry design to determine diagram. a smaller previously turbine passage of the height reasons.25 . over a small for the efficiency axial-flow turbine BLADE The velocity for bine part size curves ratios and (figs. would is largely to have with the result as a radialof rotorThe a function same lower advantage for the annulus kineticof a same larger of in a larger a larger axial-flow required clearance (percent height) diameter radial-inflow turbine clearance (in order along clearance and This may diameter) area).RADIAL-INFLOW Exit clearance. 9. energy level radial-inflow application. (Data An inflow exit rotor-exit absolute axial-flow turbine passage turbine would have than of the (since be one with would the the same relative flow conditions turbine. The profiles. large blade Typically.--Effects efficiency. turbine shape. _ I ] 4 8 12 16 20 24 Inlet clearance. design 10-8 to speed problem. exit and inlet clearance -8 i 0 L. percent of passageheight of inlet and exit clearances from ref. chords.Equal percent. and parallel profiles blade the aerodynamic blades have A long camber. percent of passageheight v 0. endwalls.) on total ] 28 FIGURE 10-16. Internal Flow Analysis design relatively chord and is usually because is relatively little the specified small straightlong because number 295 Stator.92 o 3 \ __ A TURBINE6 4 "_E 0 D 7 \ . discussed. are easier to machine . 5 (vol.

0 Meridional distance.2 . Free-stream velocity Suction Pressure su rface I {b_ t . with surface-velocity distributions.imensionless d (a) (b) FIGURE l()-17. area for a given solidity) the stator of means blades penalty are desirable because The (over that as structural supports aerodynamic associated short-chord Pressure .6 .TURBINE.8 1. velocities. (long Also..--Stator Blades Surface and passage..9-- . with chord long the means chords added large for the endwall spacing shroud.4 . blades 296 . I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION of blades lower serve cost..

provide is specified of rotor blading computer various which along that in figure of blades. number. leading whether suction edge.--The than of the that of (decelerations) design. uses blading because because combinations blade was is appreciably of adverse of the more pressure difficult gradients encountered and three-dimensionality 11 is particularly contour. suitable contour. magnitude calculated with pressure velocities are examined decelerations. between the various and these velocities quasisolution are an meridional of reference and a linear velocities basis Blade-surface 11 with velocity are equation distribution to evaluate smooth absolute used geometries avoiding of obtaining accelerations 297 . orthogonals of velocities then calculated based is shown and fixed arbitrarily located intersect all streamlines section 10-18. and hub blade program of reference thickness developed of shroud distribution. Figure radial-inflow prewhirl. free-stream will exit blades edge. and distributions for smooth Successive distribution are acceleration are made blade for the varying until and curvature satisfactory velocity suction surfaces. blade satisfactory computer inlet geometry. of the high reaction and the resultant favorable boundary-layer A two-dimensional of the described solutions. input Conversely. fluid complete parallel Input in reference properties specification of local blade flow analysis may be used The for the stator and because method transonic flow and blade- or near-parallel information and of endwalls. trials of obtained and angles. A meridional-plane streamlines approximately on irrotational blades. specifically with method. inflow design stator The screening approach. in the These with several of A complete program flow blade-surface primarily severe on the decelerations. for radialintegration straight lines in the meridi- the velocity-gradient of directional derivatives (called quasi-orthogonals) onal plane. is obtained.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINE6 blades) is small because conditions. the the the the blade velocities pressure input than by the trailing the pressure-surface accelerates deceleration trailing accomplish edge the curves pressure-surface surfaces. curvature. turning before more cross than suction-and Except edge. shown both used turning. blades angle. for the stream-function subsonic program outlet The includes flow and 10 provides conditions. for number This turbines. open angle if the more in The figure The the 10-17(a) turbine shows in the which stator the blade flow for flow row surface value a near and entering small the can for the can the flow passage the profiles stator velocities at continuously for has are the a no calculated 10-17(b). rate. a and surface rate solidity. If at the specifies curves turning to determine trailing on may remain be design flow calculated and velocity provide. Rotor.

6 .8_ 1. dimensionless section through radial-inflow FIGURE 10-18. and are shown in figure distributions the for the blading.2 I 1 I 1 l.TURBINE..._ ela CE 1 . surface velocities 298 The stream-function in a more rigorous method determines manner.6 Shroud contour Quasi orthogonal oa cfi [:Z . It can difference The linear does method between velocity not solutions variation reflect the the stream-function calculated from method of reference meridional-plane solution appreciable edges. The surface velocities solution agree fairly well with over most of the blade. mean. that an at in the the leading that and used meridional-plane actually occurs blade trailing unloading these regions. same solution of reference 11. the .8 Axial distance.--Meridional turbine. however. Blade-surface ional-plane sections of "In figure velocity distributions. solution occurs in the blade meridional- those of the stream-function be seen.O .4 . at a radial-inflow turbine rotor 10-20 are shown the velocity the hub.. but as calculated by 10. as calculated from the meridshroud 10-19. However. DE:SIGN AND APPLICATION 1.

.4 (b) Mean section.. 1. provides a better means for rapid screening of the many design variables.2 -.2 . thus. surface-velocity solution.6 .8 o" .6 ..2 O-_ Suction surface TURBINES . 11) is easier and quicker to use than the streamfunction program (ref. 10) and... A lesser difference occurs in the intermediate portion of the blade passage.0 ..4 1 I fb) I ].8 _ .. In the meridional299 .6 .4 . 1..2_ 0 -.4 '_ .8 l.2 w h •"_-- -...4 . merEdional-plane FIGURE 10-19. (50-percent streamline) (c) Hub section.. ____ -.0 .2 t 1.O Meridional distance.6 . dimensionless (c) (a) Shroud section.--Rotor-blade distributions. 1 t 1 I Free-stream velocity I .RADIAIrINFLOW 1.from plane program (ref.4 0 ..0 . _ I F I t I (al I .2 .

and surface between The stream-function and the defines mean somewhat illustrate the blade is more lower of high critical from blades follows the prescribed solution considers blade-tostream surface The between surface. heavily flow. distribution in the flow a mean blade is also 10-20 and blade of the the most different.4 Meridional .--Rotor-blade surface-velocity solution. (50-percent (c) Hub FZGURE 10-20.8 .4 ..0 d 3 Suction _Mean / _-- surface _ ""_/ t. the flow is assumed to be the circumferentially uniform..6 distance.2 0 q)J 1. distributions from stream-function section.tee-stream velocity .qle% r (a) (b) Mean Shroud section. blade blades of blade Figures in the along than Also.4 dif]Te!_%lc. shroud most velocities The because solidity is a region generally 300 is examined .6 ..6 4 ._q L ]. surface the the elsewhere shroud considered variations that loading.TURBINE I_EISIGN AND APPD£CATION 1.8 .0 I _1 1.2 0 1 __---() . streamline) section.2 0 1.2 1. _c_ 1 .0 I . 10-19 flow path. plane analysis.6 . region hub-to-shroud as well loaded and the and Therefore.0 .4 % _2 C) .8 . as the along shorter the variations variations the shroud is flow path. 1_1 t 1 _3b J __I__ I . and the mean stream mean blade surface.2 . the loading. deviates then.

calculated suction the When is now full shown pressure radial decelerations in figure splitter the the monly reduced of surface the must on The splitter decreased reduced boundary-layer loss per splitter balance. from inlet spacing Splitter loading. performance 12. the _ The is conflow r _) by the blade great this to the is nearly is due could are shows flow discussed through This results angular which momentum inlet of splitters. effect area. as to whether blades study and on turbine of splitter was blades be beneficial. velocities eddy streamline. blades previously. low the In in exit.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINE6 carefully loading siderably is nearly previously in that 50 next percent section. section. in there the blade inward. flow negative blades partial splitter results However. were This near rotor margin the reaction of 12) The result indicate rotor in tolerance taken loss and over removed. decrease particular principally the in blade turbine. per area of the unit of will. where primarily (rVu be reduced discussed a very path hub by about and section. 301 . blade to the calculated indicated meridional upstream of negative pressure in the upstream for both cases. little cases. the are is highest loading it can in the 10-3 blades additional unit use for the at the rotor surface is radially is excessive. are com- as indicated using rotor. spacing to exit at the decreased Blades loading If this surface. higher favorable the rotor than The This The rear the high rapid high the part blade-surface inlet. Channel velocities were calculated the from large splitters side the hub increase were of in the almost location. designed experimentally blades removed. As inlet. be and are losses surface reduced part used. blades 75 percent. performance ratio and the when showed no-splitter the surface conditions favorable splitters area. data very (ref. thereby doubling the blade loading of the rotor. of splitter in the was built the velocities on between blades blades. of speed between to the offset difference removed in efficiency increase was the loading discussed l l_e reduced flow and of blade-shroud clearance an insensitivity leading toward a radial-inflow such of efficiency The low inlet proturbine appreciable conditions. and/or by the indicated where large the by partial Such called loading area. A judgment blades be made. been the a reverse-flow 50-percent what had extending loading trailing-edge Turbine pressure splitter increase effect to poor velocity vide an a range due apparently previously edge. where at in near hub the near the loading loading change loading use of the from blade velocity flow the inlet the surface the long rotor distributions. to offset therefore. for near axial. A turbine The splitter examined with were half When on and splitter and the by the a then of reference tested. radial.

2 0 1. speed. matched approach is somewhat off-design calculations. balanced there because with The a radial-inflow efficiency point (see fig. flow rate this be pressure inflow in within radially the ratio The later for figure (inlet-total- PERFORMANCE of radial-inflow turbines turbines. select these used is components geometry.6 [ 1. axial-flow the however.0 to e×it_staticq)res.4 1 1. force pressure This speed is very is slightly decrease are slightly turbine at the In on turbine a radialthe fluid across pressure force. speed for turbine. rotation. 10-21. In use modifications techniques Estimated start where of methods the for off-design performance transients They system variable performance data various also be The different can can and valuable in system conditions help be in that geometry is built. centrifugal as illustrated directed ratio gradient zero-flow centrifugal ratio. similar more are be useful operating used may not from the to turbine no flow of efficiency blade-jet turbine as blade-jet ratio varies from the peak-efficiency the case of the radial-inflow turbine.TURBINE.6 e_ o ¥ N E Z 4 ._Jre turbine flow FIGURE 10-21. to that speed rapid in in illustrated to exit-static-pressure) at zero a pressure small increasing 10-21). to examine any study hardware the calculation studies. Prediction many studies before design or in to off-design design situations.O / [ 1. the rotor even inward. increases variation in this an section. With must with with Therefore. . I 2.8 ralio characteristics.8 Zero speeO .--Radial-inflow 302 . In an axial-flow becomes is only the true by is some of the zero only when is one. ratio turbine. I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION OFF-DESIGN The performance characteristics different from those of axial-flow all rotor speeds.2 Inlet-total- I 1.

experimental flow rates for off- 303 . Joss and at 14. a modified this in figure variation 10-23.6 I 1. performance Center A radial-inflow and turbine NASA the Figures version with the design operating flows are the rotor calculation is described is presented obtained presenting ratio flow of the Total are within and estiexand shown 1 perby pressure mass ratio. The efficiencies the the exit kinetic-energy off-design Lewis 10--22 of over shows flow against and this a range Research computer 10-23 computer of speed performance.4 I 1. an accurate rate with blade-jet efficiencies loss.1 Ratio of inlet total pressure to exit static pressure FIGURE 10-22. calculated to force and the variables stator and between are blade and pressure for the agreement calculated and experimental or design values at point.7 I 1. ratio results method in refin associated program illustrate program and The performance 10-22 plotted experimental of mass calculated representation pressure speed are generally Percent of design speed Experimental Ii" 70 90 100 110 -.RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINE6 fixed.9 I 2. Additional losses considered for subsonic incidence developed erence reference from calculated comparing mation perimental static in figure 13.110 Design 120 ¢- Calculated _"-- 110 B 100 90 8O 1.--Comparison of calculated and design operation."30 50 ".0 I 2. rotor the depend working-fluid speed on loss inlet coefficients conditions ratio.8 I 1.5 1. Losses selected are fixed.

experimental efficiencies for off- 304 ...2 I I .--Comparison of calculated and design operation. valuable The tool calcuin the and sufficiently of overall various accurate components.4 I .3 Blade-jet speed ratio.7 Desiqn I .. vu.40-- _ 30 • 30 .00 -- • 90 -- .9 . . I .8 J .. examination of the performance to fabrication 1.60 - •50 -- .70 -- ¢1) "5 •60 -- Experimental 70 90 100 .110 • 80 -- 100 _' ..6 ..TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION cent lations testing and at most are 2 percent system of the to experimental provide a prior values._ llO • 50 -- Calculated Design ! •30 I 1 I I 1 JJ I •90 -- .5 ] ..70 -o_ . Percent of design speed 5O c o_ . U]"V i FIGURE 10-23.__I__ 110 •80 -- 90 _ _-.

F. Effects of Specific Speed Turbine. CHARLES 13.. to the Study of Advanced Small Radial Mar.. JR. SAE. CARROLL Verification M. 72-83. Performance of HOLESKI. to Estimate NASA TN A. no. Note 38. a Radial-Inflow DONALD TN D-4384. Performance Prediction with Experimental Inflow Turbine. Mech. : Efficiency and Paper 660754. pressible Fluids. FUTRAL. Apr. I. NASA TN D-5513.: Experimental Turbine With and SAMUEL M. SAMUEL M. WILLIAM NASA J. AND FUTRAL.. KATSANIS.: Current Karman Institute of Fluid Technology of Radial-Inflow Dynamics.. Maximum AND NUSBAUM. 5. London. Geometry MILTON for G. Quasi-Orthogonals for Calculating Plane of a Turbomachine.02-Inch Radial-Inflow Transonic NASA TN Velocities D-5427. FUTRAL.. in the Arbitrary Meridional WASSERBAUER. SAWYER. Performance Characteristics of Radial Turbines.: for Off-Design a RadialIV Program Turbines. AND of Varying the Blade-Shroud Turbine. Paper 13 presented at the Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Convention. 1968. 1966. pp.. 4. 1964. P. Performance Evaluation Without Splitter Blades. JOHN W. for Tur1970. 1. 12. HAROLD E. AND WASSERBAUER. 1963. Turbine Engineering Handbook. THEODORE: Fortran Clearance 1970. 1965.. FUTRAL. KATSANIS. SAMUEL M. Efficiency. Com- J. 1 1. H.: Experiments Concerning the Aerodynamic Performance of Inward Flow Radial Turbines. Gas Turbine SHEPHERD.. JR. the Off-Design D-5059.. NASA TN D-2621. NASA CHARLES A. 9. 1966. ed. JR. J. AND JOHNSON. LAGNEAU. Int. G.: Principles RODOERS. 1964. vol. Eng. 3. 8.. AND of a 4. Jan.: Contribution bines.: A. 6. of Turbomachinery. JR..: on Experimental D-6605. Inc. Calculating on a Blade-to-Blade 1969. ROHLIK.RAD_AL-I"NF_A)W TURBI_S REFERENCES 1. 1972. THEODORE: Stream Use of of a Turbomachine.: Gas Publications. SAMUEL Performance of A Fortran Radial-Inflow 305 . NASA TN 10. D. TODD. Inst. HIETT. 85. Flow Distribution TN D-2546. HOMER J. Turbines 7. Macmillan Co. 14.59-Inch Radial-Inflow NASA TN D-7015. . G.. yon WOOD. Power.: Experimental Results 6. C.. 1970. Program for Surface in a E. 1956. 1969. 2. Eng.: Analytical Determination of Radial Inflow Turbine Design KOFSKEY.

constant. Btu/lb ideal work based J K N J/kg. passage height. (ft) (lb)/Btu 60 sec/min (ft a/4) (lbma/4)/(min) plus partial) (sec 1/_) rad/rev. jet ft of blades rate. (full absolute volume radius. relative fluid pressure. ft constant. or head. based on inlet pressures. Btu/lb conversion constant. speed. m/see. ft/sec m/see. ft ideal work based on J/kg. on inlet-total inlet-total 1 . plane. J/kg. 1. conversion rotative specific (lbP '4) total P number flow m. conversion ideal heat at constant pressure. velocity.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS Cp specific diameter. ft/sec measured measured from from meridional meridional plane. rev/min N. K. absolute blade absolute ideal ratio. Btu/(lb) (see _) total (°R) D g H m. lb/ft _ mS/see. 32.17 (lbm) J/(kg) (K) . rad/sec. speed. speed. (ft) (lbf)/lbm (ft)/(lbf) and exit work. speed. N/m 2 . m. pressures. ft/sec on inlet-totalto exit-static-pressure ftS/sec °R Q r T U V temperature. based ft/sec m/see. dimensionless. velocity. 778 2r and and exit-static exit-total pressures. Yj W Ot absolute flow flow angle angle 0 deg fluid relative deg Subscripts: b'r critical hub tip tangential at stator at stator at rotor flow condition (sonic velocity) h t U 0 1 2 Superscripts" ' " 306 component inlet exit exit or rotor inlet absolute relative total total state state . m/see.

leaving and development laminar the transition potential-flow temperature (or other (pattern combustor .Colladay S The inlet necessity requirements. DESCRIPTION one or end must wall) into from the metal make to a complete arrive at limit. in the the into overall cooling (2500 ° F). parts: gas (1) stream. bustor frequently integrity bled from for both airfoils discrete losses. ByRaymond . foil. a minimum while the in the discharge of the cooling across trend towards higher to increase turbine chapter. "blade" enter of 1644 this gases excess turbine and around the compressor thrust blades. pressure cycle and rotor row In "vane" end refers airfoil.CHAPTER 11 Turbine Cooling. term first to the vane in this through or vane. of air are effective GENERAL ]n balance analysis prediction requires the flow. blade and is dumped hostile environment. the refers the K and vanes. passages gas stream results which compressor locations inevitably thermodynamic utilize Consequently. efficiency. at peak order internal the This main cycle schemes to ratios walls and has turbineled to the life aircomthe air of the at in temperatures of cooling In term efficiency to meet The hot to a stator temperatures preserve components is routed then the turbine very required. to energy a cooling The The This over turbulent heat 307 configuration a given conceptually to the the blade temperature three hot understanding boundary-layer from the distribution. vane. the an any on can turbine the be which of the the heat location factor) cooling blade broken flux of of the (or meets up of the gas velocity design. profile airfoil.

K. The heat flux product of a hot-gas-side difference between the pressed is the would let the as an effective adiabatic reach adiabatic if there heat-transfer gas and the gas were wall by considering a onethe suction or pressure can be expressed as a to the coefficient and the temperature wall. 11-1). blade. 0 Tw. The gas temperature is exwhich (the For be the o) for convection temperature of this gas total the cooling surface temperature. 308 .o of wall outer surface.TURBINE.SIGN AND APPI. the A steady-state map the (3) prediction heat through be or of metal transient of complex To blade heat-conduction for blade-stress internal coolant closure convection from analysis predicflow on the hot from to paths a detailed temperatures maintain wall. transfer the treated energy gas to blade process--convection simultaneously. where q hz heat flux. or recovery purposes illustration. problem wall on blade coolant--must Let us for a moment oversimplify dimensional model of a turbine-blade surface (see fig. °R T_. the and for convection-cooling entire conduction calculations. °R TW. W/(m 2) (K).--Simplified one-dimensional model. temperature. temperature no cooling). (11-1) temperature q=he(Tg'--Tw. Therefore. Btu/(hr)(ft _) heat-transfer (°R) coefficient Tg! total temperature temperature of hot gas. Btu/(hr)(ft _) of hot gas. to (2) And. balance. provide tions. W/m_. i FIOURE 11-1._CATION source). I_E.K.

K.TURBINE CIOOLING The heat removed from the wall. W/(m _) (K). °R of coolant. . Btu/(hr)(ft 2) temperature of wall inner surface. i coefficient of coolant. ft on distance is defined as (11-5) Re_ = pugx la where P _tg _t density. (11-2) is q=h_(T_. number thermal coordinate wall second conductivity normal dT k_ -dy=-[ (T_.) of wall._--TJ) where he heat-transfer (OR) w.0296Re_" __ 8Prl/3 (11-4) surface based from leading edge z of flat plate.--T_.= where distance Re. ft Btu/(hr)(ft)(°R) surface. thickness. the Prandtl kg/ma. number and is defined where 309 . lb/ft 3 velocity lb/(ft) in x direction. ft holds done only for constant by thermal design. expressed in the same manner. . Pr The Reynolds Prandtl Reynolds along number number number __gx 0. the flow heat-transfer over a fiat Nusselt local is frequently For Nu in a first-order boundary layer. (sec) as (11-6) m/sec. the let for fiat-plate conductivity. equality he be a m. ft/sec of hot-gas (N) (sec)/mS. °R through k the wall is given by (11-3) T' C The total temperature temperature drop q=where kw y 1 The As plate. coefficient approximated by a correlation turbulent is given Nu. to wall W/(m)(K). m. component viscosity. K. m.

a number of cooling schemes can be used.e.o is kept equations pressure to The wall the (i. m2._.8 flow profile n-----l3. gas From with Tw. coolant-passage turbulent Now. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) coolant side. laminar m-----0.. (lbm) (K) . coolant-passage on characteristic lb/sec passage. 32._ for compressor ratio).8 power heat it increases raises a fixed bleed so the the wall temperature. temperature The heat flux removed.17 lb/ft 2 pressure (ft)/(lbf) (°R) to specific (sec 2) heat at g R M On the general. (m=0. 1 to state flux to the with 2 in fig.TURBINE._-Tc') compresavailable q must Therefore. ])E_IGN AND APPLICATION K C_. N/m2. blade increasing drop temperature increases 0. 310 . temperature when and state heat the the pressure wall outer temperature are increased from the and flux temperature 11-2). at constant 1 . depicted the hot consider in figure gas convection internal the 11-2. same constant (11-7) the and (going (11-1). Mach number gas. T total pressure of hot ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion constant J/(kg) gas constant. ft 2 and kg/sec. 3600 sec/hr J/(kg)(K). Tg' as of cooling is desired.5) through p_' and be avoided. sor for the pressure temperature outer through T.o). dimensional specific an ideal to yield h =_ (0. but in h_=CRe/."Pr"=C( where C Re f We w'_" "]"Pr" (11-8) constant Reynolds coolant characteristic dependent number mass flow length flow on based rate. at 1. geometry length___ m. constant. cooling. T_. j (11-7) p'. otherwise the outer will increase. ft J For for coolant area. can be For (11-4) equation '/3 FPz' -/ _'g. air temperature temperature increases difference (higher (Tw. # I T--1 Mx 2\(v+l)/2('_-Dm T s " x where k yW . the At increased decreases time. be convection cooling is sharply wall reduced. should the Since blade efficient wall.0296)Pr heat gas. substituted Btu/(lb)(°R) into equation constant (11-5) pressure.

in cooling and while Figure compared methods and on its supply cooling nonlinear capabilities reference limit of plain 1 shows in the is apparent. Of size flow we. flow is state the coolant the therefore.WPURBINE i COOLING Tg hg(T_ . is required. increase convection temperature gas conditions temperatures. cooling incorporate as pressure of advanced turbine-inlet application is about about 20 maincooling 11-3 to for shows atmospheres exceed these blade-metal transpiration air with illustrates l l-4(a) or more to protect the The in cooling Figure 11-4 (figs. the impossible Because quantity the from required The 1644 taining designs shows cooling convection air-cooling examples (figs.Tw. is the to air 11-3 course. of limited of cooling internal air available convection the cooling hot-spot To operating film film only.(Tw.--Gas temperature and pressure the wall. effect on temperature drop through h. the cooling the to (e)). one way the of transpiration convection and it also cooling from methods the hot is an effective cooling along cool film surface gas stream by directing air into surface. . passage he must be infinite. must case. where inside this temperature are equal. i I 1 / C FIGURE 11-2. cooled components by and or savings highly and restriction pressure. condition on a limit Figure cooling increase. cooling. ture and and an be increased from coolant infinite by increasing 11-2.Tw.o . of these the use as basic and temperature for convection (2500 ° F) pressure. boundary effective layer to provide temperature 311 a protective. The wall limiting tempera- as seen figure coolant 3.o) _ kw / _. reasonable must potential combined cooling turbine of blades to (i)). gas l l-4(f) Film the or K to achieve.

and temperature on coolant in equation (11-1) becomes flux to the blade is then the local film temperature.. I I 3O0O Tg. and the heat q=hg(T's_. I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION pressure.. [ 2O00 T_. in K or °R..TURBINE.-where T_.. in. atm Turbine-inlet 3 4O 20 lO Convection cooling Film and convection ---cooling Transpiration cooling I 1400 1600 1800 Turbine inlet temperature.) of the gas film. l l-3. be integrated metal the aerodynamic an optimum consistent efficiency. Pg. in.z_ is the total temperature T. in this (11-9) It is frequently is the same The dynamic higher transfer tion objectives 312 assumed that the heat-transfer as in the non-film-coo|ed case. to achieve temperatures which ensures yet with long-life loss in turbine ..--Effect of turbine-inlet flow pressure requirements. of film which and must minimizes blade air into tend the boundary some The losses to reduce coefficient layer of the equation aeroof using and heatconfigura- injection pressures designs causes turbine advantages temperatures. in. oF t 35OO FIou]_. K I 22O0 I 2OOO I 25OO Turbine inlet temperature.

(e) Transpiration cooling.q_UR. to oxidation be severe layer. which contaminates. Film cooling. 313 . of normal this cooling film cooling available. losses the can the extreme pores conditions. transFullin of schemes. in figure cooling blade transpiration-cooled cooling is an cooling from attempt without an array as illustrated figure l l-4(h). the blade has designs wall is the operating most efficient airwhich significant drawbacks under due cooling. transpiration to draw on some of the advantages paying the penalties mentioned. its use of a porous but it to advanced For leads efficient Also.BINE COOLING Transpiration cooling currently heat-flux should and To because offset piration A typical coverage foreign scheme limit be small. Cooling air (aJ Zn _ Xn (bt __ o c:_ c>xE//Ej (d) J JJ (e) (a) (c) Convection cooling.--Methods for turbine blade cooling. (b) Impingement cooling. FmuaE 11-4. that 11-4(i). injection point. (d) Full-coverage film cooling. requires less boundary cooling latter be recognized other holes. transpiration of blockage air air into aerodynamic it must than is shown of discrete to problems of cooling however.

Full-coverage configuration. (g) Convection(h) (i) impingement-.--Concluded.SIGN AND APPLICATION Radial outward airflow into chamber1.--The region transfer very near Equations of heat the to the surface. configuration.//// / f-Convection . HEAT TRANSFER FROM HOT GAS TO BLADE Boundary-Layer General the 314 equations. impingement-cooled film-cooled blade configuration. Film cooled--_ \ Convection \_ i_f// 1/// /. Transpiration-cooled blade FIGURE I I-4.TURBINE I_E. L Impingement cooled (fl inlet airflow /_\lmpingement cooled Convection cooled (g) (hl _Transpiration i. and and film-cooled blade blade configuration. blade where is confined large velocity to boundary-layer . cooled / /- Wire-form porous sheet (il (f) Convection-.

must o 0%(pu) where time-average m/sec.. are present. p. ()' () Conservation fluctuating time-averaged of momentum Ou .'tURBINE C(K)LING and temperature gradients process. Btu/lb 1. heat The flow 6). simplicity is Prandtl's momentum.._ u O v ) -_=--g dp -_+g 0 -_ (11-11) r-t-gpB_ where T local shear stress. the heat-transfer introduced Conservation in chapter of mass 2). conversion heat-generation dependent v. (ft)(lb)/Btu Btu/(see) H are with the requires through laminar requires (ft z) values being (i. following Consequently. pu 6-_+(pv+p _-7=7. the to the and use One counterpart. _ OH 0 / 1 ur\ (11-12) where H J total enthalpy. 778 W/m3. of turbulence in predicting hypothesis stress and resemblance structure success The laminar shear processes. N/kg. of body N/m2. J/kg.. v. and in ch.e. Q The u. mixing-length and heat flux are contributions" expressed turbulent 315 . term. equations flux time-average overbar the appropriate contribution understood. _. component Conservation of energy OH . expressions and molecular our limited assumpto hydrodynamic but of various such thermal diffusivity momentum turbulent of its heat as and the is straightforward. for variables as denoted of stress and the physical because of these and layers. shear solution boundary of heat constant. force lb/ft 2 in the x direction. and The the H. the 6 (vol. lbf/lbm B. sum of the understanding tions which but for has eddy turbulent bears of turbulent little transport diffusivity in describing persisted assumption. u. boundary-layer be solved: to describe equations. ft/sec component quantity value O (pv+ (11-10) of velocity component in y direction.

from often convenient approach boundary-layer parameters integral in term_ of integral .\ (11-13) and { aL_jj0/_ _) (11-14) q=Ko[ where yr.O_r _-_ ' where and the subscript heat diffusivity. aL . enthalpy. heat assumed (inclusive variation generation. shear ft2/sec component J/kg. . _-_-. properties equations are under arc is no intern.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION p/ Ou _--_. Integral tum equations 316 to equation If temperature-variable all boundary-layer constant data The are final results must freq_)ently be solved simultaneously. flux _ mean flow are assumed proporthat is. (11-13) and (11-14) p and q=-Ko(aL+ar) The flow heat preceding and both reduces where boundary-layer compressible... at the 'tssumed. mental tions.--As it an is corrections we saw considered 2) with the in chapter to 6 (vol.r and and ar there 0_'. and of the expericondiin the a later momen- properties cp is neglected equation analysis. solve equation. laminar static turbulent c()mponent m2/sec.vr _-ff and O. 'tt'v' = -.d as_u me t e lnperature-variable flows zero). equations. isothermal properties usually taken are These then approximately to account will be corrected for temperature- properties.4 v-'_g_= -. of laminar If the in specitic the energy onset. However. to tile respective gradients in tile variable. variable section.4 The tional laminar ity). stress of momentum of heat Btu/lb u'v---. and heat diffusivity m2/see (kinematic ft2/sec viscos- diffusivity.Koa O/ can 0u then p be written 0u as T denotes the turbulent (:omponent (11-15) (11-16) of momentum Equations (t1-17) (ll-lS) equations turbulent approach (6-42).

with balancing volume details equation and mass transport 2). -F PgU.H.... _.. then equation (11-21) to its simplest dA d--x as Kpu.--T. boundary-layer enthalpy eter for the integral defined as follows: /_= fo¢* pu( H-.)dy u..x (11-22) coefficient is defined q h'.c = dh ____t_A [ (l_Mg) Note zero flux with that at the if we make gradient.(H. difference form.(H. c_.') The ment The equation across and the enthalpy caused integral (11-3) the boundary thermal resulting boundary integral thickness by the energy or is a measure layer. no mass (T. thickness energy as the momentum momentum thickness is a significant equation.(T_.o--H. so the profiles.')= h. 1 restrictive low-speed constant assumptions flow temperature reduces d (H'*' o--11..o--Tz') pressure (incompressible).'=(T. constant-property A=fo_*u(T'--T'..) Note the that subscript the subscript e in chapter g refers 6.)] of constant (11-21) properties... and _ __d__ q_ (H...=d-x= (11-24) 317 .TURBINE O0_LING such as momentum velocity derive enthalpy and their displacement Just meaning from thicknesses displacement the The integral rather and than in terms equaparamz_ is of discrete thicknesses tion. at the the hydrodynamic In either flow wall is compressible temperature-variable q transfer Kp.°--Ht)dx 1 du. wall.)dY p..') then. da Stz Kpu. low-velocity. o--T.o--T..u.(T_.u. either by of the eonveeted energy (11-20) decre- boundary equation directly of a control layers energy properties integrating of energy case. For to the free-stream value (11-19) denoted by flow._. If a local heat-transfer q c_. can by (for be derived the containing see for ref. (11-23) h.

wall is the boundary approximated Pr 11_. factor by flow. T. therefore. t_--R_p r and (6-75) that with in and is called (11-25) similar assump- Notice tions.TURBII_E I_E@IGN AND APPLICATION The group of variables on the left side is dimensionless the local Stanton number Sty. a the wall energy layer. The there shear is dissipation within static the characterized temperature uncooled boundary recovery in the effective gas temperature of the or adiabatic is the temperature a measure by the following is.=T. Prandtl from static can temperature. while the adiabatic viscosity r is assumed has number the Pr z_. near This the reach heating is related into is wall if it in to For thermal as shown wall were the the compressible energy by in figure and layer.--Temperature distribution in a high-velocity boundary layer.o._. from the equations (6-72) integral momentum equation CI'_--dO 2 dx resulted (11-26) of kinetic boundary temperature Tt.=t. sponsible allowing that should for heat lead tz is the the recovery boundary the Prandtl The for energy a given to hot-gas factor layer. would viscous energy equation: (11-27) °R. ing turbulent that temperature.o. be ug2 2gJcp in K or by on to equal an effect ratio layer). 318 . This r defined dissipation of kinetic Tg. For laminar for wall (resuggest number vice versa.e _ Thermal _ // Iq " 0 FZOUR_ l l-5.+r ' ' where flow.. viscous an increase 11-5. tg / _'_ u2 r 2g-_j Cp---I Ii Tg. It is not surprisof the diffusivity This a high number dissipation) to the kinetic (mechanism would to escape a high free-stream Prandtl and adiabatic temperature. thermal energy. which is also equal to S Nu..



The (either


flux to the

blade gas

is proportional temperature)

to the at the

temperature wall:



or static

q=--]¢' As we terms ture The suitable wall never has on refined effective have of the difference. gas problem expression a cooling temperature. constant. the design The thermal stages. already The

Ot Nlv=0 =-k_ seen, gas

OT, _ h -_ v=0---- g.:`(T,.e--T,_.o) to express and the case wall flux coefficient which however, the actual can layer will yield the be surface surface accounted varying must the heat

(11-28) flux temperabe the a in

it is convenient coefficient temperature or the the heat-transfer h,., in this adiabatic heat

heat-transfer temperature, for In the

gas-to-wall always temperature. blade hg.:`. The a constant

in determining configuration reality, that boundary effect

to the

is to find objective outer-

is to design

temperature temperature for in more


Solutions First-order is to assume pressure faired in plate gradient proximation. surprisingly because the gradient. For dynamic energy similarity With the laminar equation solution wall flow over layers can temperature be a side into crossflow expression flow, In the



Equations to the solution the suction or correlation a cylinder the fiatapresults

approximation.--The that the heat-transfer of the for blade the pertains, results fact, often a heat-transfer blade in are coefficient a the

simplest approach coefficient on by distribution region. sense, enough only for correlation

is approximated leading-edge strict fiat-plate accurate

a fiat-plate around Though to


a first-order

close to those of more sophisticated Stanton number St is relatively a fiat both solved in plate with the at by 6 for

analyses, insensitive thermal the means the and leading of the

primarily to pressure the the result hydrothe Blasius profile. is (11-29)


beginning directly chapter




assumed h_.,=0.332

to be constant, _ Re:,'12pr'z3




is given hz.,=0.0296_Re

by °" Spr'/a Reynolds he. ,, in the assumed: 319 number. leading-edge region, (11-30)

The For the

local the following


u_. x is used

in the

heat-transfer correlation

coefficient is frequently





h,,'_=a where

E1" ]14k" (p'u' _ _D'_'/_pro.,(l__)] _\


° (11-31)

augmentation diameter velocity angular of gas distance term (see fig.

factor of leading-edge approaching from circle, m; ft edge, m/sec; ft/sec point, for deg of stagnation coefficient leading




bracketed D

is the 11-6)

heat-transfer in

a cylinder free stream.


a cross-flowing,


Ug,_ = =






The to from

term account or 1.2

a is an for blade to 1.8, associated the

augmentation highly been with leading have edge. large,

factor turbulent Various This used.


to adjust flow of

the the

coefficient factor a,

mainstream magnitudes amplification

approaching flux 'is flows. vortex thereby boundary but as turbulence when the in gradiin the on freehum-

a vane uniquely

of heat stretches of flow, the with occur in detail,

favorable-pressure-gradient stagnation region in the direction velocities this phenomenon heat transfer will allow zero will 000, within

The highly accelerated flow at the filaments oriented with their axes increasing layer. yet, Kestin no general the turbulent (ref. 3) has correlation fluctuating studied

of stagnation turbulent

scale and intensity Transition from Reynolds the ent, stream 320 boundary it can number layer generally number turbulence

is available. laminar to becomes to grow. range and

flow high plate to with

sufficiently For a fiat that 000 roughness.

instabilities pressure take place

be assumed of 200 surface

transition to 500


depending a Reynolds






on It



x, from transition

the to use

leading the

edge because momentum number

(boundary-layer it is not for a local 0, is thickness, determining point given that to the is, it is a given

origin) parameter. as the transition, then state. comes the use number for pipe turbulence, An tion the layer immaterial

is not

a practical is more the of the the length

criterion, Reynolds of the

convenient in the history critical

characteristic because how independent

Reynolds layer

number boundary


layer; in getting



For a strongly turbulent. This of x. A value corresponding flow. For flow

accelerated flow, fact is consistent of Reoccur=360 to Rex=300 over a turbine value for by be derived (6-76)) local the from velocity

the boundary with the use plate very can

layer never beof 0 but not with critical and high Reynolds ReD= 2000 free-stream variation equaas to laminar velocity boundary

is a "universal" 000 for a flat blade with of Ree.cr_t=200 momentum the integral suitable profile equation of a variable

a conservative expression can 6 (eq. 2). Upon blade chapter form ref. thickness

be assumed. momentum assumptions the the

approximate from (see


on a turbine functional


of the

through (6-76),


momentum is given by

as a function


OL__O.67vO. Ug 3

5 /




\o. 5

+0,,_. the an stagnation the stagnation approach

(11-32) point, velocity (11-33) in

where meters

x is the or feet.

surface The

distance momentum

measured thickness

from with

8,t_s at


of a cylinder

of diameter

D in a crossflow 0.1D

ug_ is

°.'..- ?..o,5
¥ Turbulent such

2_ exists when this the value of 0 is



flow, The



(ouz0/u)_200. momentum

value thickness

of x where is obtained


is denoted manner

T,cr_ t.

The by the

turbulent equation

in a similar








_x-r-t,L._ti,----_e from of the flux laminar integral to a blade

] to turbulent equations is a more the

(11-34) flow. of momenrefined previously increased sophisticated 321 and



an abrupt The than

transition solution the the heat

Integral tum and accurate discussed. complexity

method.-energy approach The penalty of the

to obtain

"fiat-plate accuracy In many

approximation" is, of course, cases, the more

for more






methods method and the

are not accounts effect the


in the

early velocity surface


of design. more on still


integral also

for free-stream of a nonconstant some equations. energy transfer

variation temperature must

realistically, h=._ can in order

be included. to solve Consider specific heat

However, integral the and


be made

integral no mass

equation across

(eq. the

(11-21)) wall






_ _



_- (T_.o--T,')

dx (T=.o--T,') (11-35)

Ordinarily, solved (1i-20). equation equation Stanton proposed local istic length, in

the order Ambrok (11-35) by that and

integral to (ref. could use Stanton this

momentum the however, solved fact weak 4), be

equation enthalpy proposed independently that can

would thickness an of

first approach the


to whereby



5 in


momentum show the He of a gradient. charactergradient. ( 11-36 )

making the

of the

experimental of pressure thickness be written


number Reynolds

to be a very number that based


number function

as a function as the of pressure

on enthalpy

is independent

Stx----f(Re_) If ] is independent should For and give us the turbulent yields St_=0.0296 Recalling from equation (11-24) Re-_ °2 Pr - 2/3 that Stx=-_ the local Stanton by number can equations be expressed (11-37) and in terms (11 38) of the for a flat, plate dA of pressure functional flow over gradient, form. a flat plate, combining equations then the flat-plate

solution (11-4)



(11-38) enthalpy



so as to obtain (11-39) by any equation arbitrary for laminar (11-35) and

St_ = (0.0296 Hence, (11-39) free-steam flows.) integrating the for function turbulent velocity Substituting yields StyrT hg'_
l"kpe'_=C p

Pr-2/3) 1"25(0.8 Rea) - 0.2_ equation and_ (The by (11-39) (11-36) assumption, same argument into equation is given for holds


from flow

variation. equation



T '







where I =-: .f .... p?I_(T_'--T.,o)' ]_* u 25 • . ['0.SRe_(T/-T_ o)71"25

J,=,... .
(11-41) the critical the 2.



is performed Reynolds equation. solution.--The to a turbine

numerically mnnber For most blade by a is to further

for being

hg._, details,


enthalpy-thickness laminar-boundary-layer IGnite-difference the are was heat several flux good and (eq. equations



see reference of calculating boundary-layer approach. this. One

accurate solve all

metho(1 the

simultaneously numerical by of W. M. (eq.
a fourth

finite-(lifference available uses addition the In to do to the equation, ix given by

There of these of the and others. for

programs l(ays (ref. 5). an<l


numerical (eq. that with

procedure (11-11)), the

Spalding censervation energy kinetic

P'ttankar mass .._is of turbulent


(11-10)), conservation solved kinetic

momentum simultaneously energy


of turbulent






(o,y+ o



az" -9

wheref/r The

is a turbulent kinetic

dissipation energy
.j//_ 1

term, as


W/m s or


a) (sec).


is defined

2gd where in the w' is the fluctuating perpendicular equation, layer. for. evaluated

(u'2+v'2+w'2) of velocity, the the the x-y plane. mixing effects in m/sec By length ix

(1 1-43) or ft/sec, the turbucalculated

component to Also,



turbulent-kinetic-energy locally in the boundqry lence can be accounted All with lion wall properties no restrictive of surface (transpir'ttion are

of fi'ee-stream

locally m' velocity an(I local



boundary on transfer are also the at

layer variathe

or approximating temperature cooling) manner. example mmwrical turbine l l-7(a). ll-7(b)), results


l)rotile..Mass film cooling


in a slraightforwar(I I;igtll'e the protile bound'n'v integration temperature, is given l,Jyer started 11 7 presents of in must the

from wine.

computer for The the

plots case of

showing a highthe can be 323 velocity


apI)roa<:h The but,

high-pressure figure (fig.

free-stream profiles condition on,

initial from then

through profiles

be supplied

as a boundary

to get, the





2500-700 6O0




200 500 10C_ 0 (a)










.03 .04 .05 Surfacedistance, , m x








.08 .12 .16 Surfacedistance, .It x

Total enthalpy (b)







.2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .l .8 Dimensionless boundary-layer variable

(a) (b) Initial Free-stream reference FIGURE profiles for



profile. boundary-layer or 249.7 over vane. a 101.28 ft/sec; program. free-stream

finite-difference velocity, 30.87 J/(kg)(K)

numerical m/see or

reference enthalpy,



Btu/(lb)(°R). high-t_mperature, high-

l l-7.--Boundary-layer

development pressure turbine




calculated through the boundary layer at discrete x locations. The boundary-layer thickness, momentum thickness, momentum-thickness Reynolds number, and heat-transfer coefficient are shown in figures 11-7(c) to 11-7(f), respectively. Notice that just upstream of the

• 16 --


(c) ] 0





_, 2.4-¢-

o8° I



E = E 1.6

b20 I
20 4O 60 Percentsurface distance boundary-layer momentum thickness. thickness. 80 100





(c) (d)



boundary-bayer FIGUaE 11-7.--Continued.






20-percent thickness increase before

surface (fig. rapidly continuing

distance and then and to

location the decrease This



vane, over


boundary-layer (fig. a short by ll-7(d)) distance the rapid


momentum slightly "blip"

thickness is caused










v _

8.6_ 7.0


ii '°
1000 8OO "T" -7600 4OO (e)




0 20 40 60 Perceni surface distance 80 momentum-thickness Pressure-side FIGURE heat-transfer 11-7.--Concluded. Reynolds coefficient. number.


Pressure-side (f)


106 J/(kg)(K) 610.8i-- 24-- .6 .4 .75 (b) Three m/sec 1151.8189X108 1151.6 J/(kg)(K) m/sec or or 2000 reference 4. reference 4. 327 .75 downstream free-stream of slot. reference velocity.2i-(b) "--Total enthalpy 0-- I _ I I I 1.2b- fl (l--x= g c (al 0l g. o m 48 -. Free-stream enthalpy. Free-stream enthalpy.6 E E >:.8189X velocity.6i-- 16-- 8-- .2 . Btu/(lb) profiles free-stream (°R). (°R). 609. reference FIGURE 11-8.--Boundary-layer profiles along adiabatic wall with film cooling._URBINE O0_LIN_ 48-- 4[-- 24-- • 8 I . 16-E >_ I .8 or ft/sec.8 Dimensionlessboundary-layer variable (a) Initial ft/sec.0 . slot-widths or 2004 Btu/(lb) at slot.E 8 r_ E o E e_ c21 32-- .

velocity are profiles the profiles 11-8(a).5 The temperature-ratio Tw.12. boundary velocity coefficient) layer. flow. if properties evaluated? Usually. Temperature-Dependent The and these perature compared temperature temperature property or the are the ture In common relations all vary profiles to results variations are analytical experimental use for the the involving in earlier with properties (and.. and St. turbulent in laminar CONDUCTION Once coolant up 328 into the side local are heat-transfer known. temperature Two the constantmethod) differences are namely. discussed transport sections.4 free-stream m=0. in finite-difference schemes results. corrected to account correction property temperature-ratio method. and acceleration from location. which temperature. heat-conduction a number is broken in figure elements. to the example down- of cooling 3 slot shown widths in figure 11-8 (b). causes therefore. evaluated flow. as can enthalpy in figure changed of the region Very be seen mainstream aft little from of the of the figure illustrating About shapes Fluid boundary flow leading resulting edge layer on occurs from the at is adverse-pressure-gradient Transition state. k. temperature in were the heat-transfer constant.':O.28 method tg+0. Pr. u.SIGN AND APPL]:CATION deceleration the about pressure the side. and dependence and Since at c_.TURBINE DE. : reference-tempera- all transport properties are evaluated at the reference temperature Tre. a n=0. influence temperature. side for and the coefficients heat-flux available. .o+0. (11-45) at the and greater constant For n=0.J properties laminar and m:=0. across to (except p. of temlarge what dimensionless contain The a change in the the be with of constant gases) in the small variation.6. problem of finite WITHIN THE BLADE on the WALL hot-gas conditions or vane example. Nu. obtained occur properties solutions data for method obtained property (for the Properties parameters gas properties Re. and given have 10-percent a laminar boundary 11-7(f).08 much Nu St N---_ce--Z-_c_=\ The subscript For than CP static refers to flow. an layer in a transitional Initial film stream. The the are boundary blade for as shown.22 Tg. the latter method._ (11-44) assumes (T_e'_"{ t_ "_" _] \T-_.

_11 oj+$ FIGURE l l-10. and an energy of algebraic equal solved Once balance total is written number by for each equations.. of elements. means analysis the of blade from element. is completed.. distribution calculations. is available 11-10. 11-9. with All a The the equations result must digital a detailed for use is of a system equations then be computer.--Typical node breakdown for a turbine-blade conduction analysis. oj+4 _ _ I \ I \ f iI _ - _ I I \ \\ I II ii J+ _ i II I il il ... temperature thermal-stress Consider finite-difference number to the such simultaneously a conduction throughout high-speed.TURBINE COOLING FIGURE 1 l-9.. a typical in boundary element figure Accounting 329 .--Typical boundary element for heat-conduction analysis.

ra denotes The superscript n or n+ is used. COOLANT-SIDE There transfer impossible the local problem coolant can by to be many convection discuss temperature. ft _ element or boundary denoted 44 jth element i. equation boundary. m. and equation (11-2) The coolant flow path the heat be for that reason. he. in the q----hc(T. ft m 3 . and z are the coordinate direction_. of momentum are solved conservation distribution the . depending on whether an explicit A similar calculation the equations infinitesimal or implicit equation may are size. as simple and the as it sounds. element l. can be very complex. element at a point is allowed energy balance yields familiar heat-conduction (11-47) Pcp0(time) where x. scheme• convection-cooling heat-transfer previously T'c) T_. depending to reduce the The on how to an be either structured.Vj A(time) (T']+I--TT') (11-46) surface noted distance by volume area between jth element and and element or boundary de- by subscript between i. ft s time step scheme subscript ofj th element. following T algebraic _ k_42 +--_-- (see fig. internal flow and coefficient and pressure pressure distribution can be determined. internal to the each flow coolant. shown This is not. m s . however. 11-10). y._._-- is to determine coefficient.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION for and all the those energy adjacent leads transfer to it to the )m+ k_Aj between (elements the j-l-1 given element (the including jth element) the fluid to j+5). transient for every volume If the must be written. dc Ac 1 (Tj--Tc' (Tj-- j+l) (Tj--Tj+2)" + where A_ • " • +_s 5 (Tj--T_+5)"-- pc_. the CONVECTION geometries and used to promote it would Essentially. the equation 0T transient or steady-state. must be known before An internal equations 330 flow network that describe the internal heat-transfer is established.

m between D The both diameter. the The in the 11-I to direction coefficients coefficient by It the can a. b. account rows crossflow caused jets. 1 _o2 multiple of impingement 1 +a3_b_3 11-I. Since steps through cycle of deterscheme is interaction (convection and three for must methods Fins to keep also help effective where from can the by heat-transfer an iterative the has percentage been surface._ \0._URBINE COOLIN_ to determine there the discussed surface. m. is the center-to-center of flow. (11-50) between distance. and _b for the (11-51) i th row of 331 where aa and ba are given in table . (11-49) 2 x. on of the the Reynolds number and array the coefficient geometry data _1 and are the 6 impingement-hole Reynolds gives A least-squares-curve Xn 2 fit of the Xn in reference m----a_(-_) and =expEa2 where holes x. ft and number wall. as seen reference (g).(.. ft based on hole diameter distance hole power functions number. wall correlation the flow split between from between each hot from gas must for various of to the parts three of the conduction blade. and _o2 is an accumulation be expressed c are given attenuation of fluid as in table factor from as functions for of ReD. and xn +b.)+c. be made. lators" They most 11-4(b)). One representative 6 for impingement NUD. of the particular After blade air available a given empirical correlations convection to determine used to enhance to the coolant-side passages the convection to act heat added flow cooling and as "turbulayers One thin. considered Various transfer. of the (fig. to coolant). in meters or feet.091 of the blade. the between mined. inside highly the mixed boundary area. convection calculations cooling be used are be surface region the he. increasing convection is surface impingement convection small jets methods of cooling in figures cooling toward gives the air are directed 11-4(b) and cooling /. irap-_-_lq_2ReDraprl/S (k_) (11-48) impingement-cooling as characteristic Zn Nusselt dimension hole m.

5070 0. metal The are AND TRANSPIRATION and must and pressure conserve COOLING increase. 300 to 3 000 Reynolds number range. either wall because be disfilm combined does average cooling same flow apto shown temperature cooling temperatures importance design given and conditions is shown convection be augmented both 11-11. 8259 • 3985 0. hot-gas rate. lb/(hr) kg/(sec) (ft 2) (ft 2) impingement-hole (m 2) .--IMPINGEMENT-CooLING Coefficient Reynolds number range.TURBINE I_E. by cooling film Here. only temperature coo]ing.SIGN AND APPLICATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS TABLE ll--I.0428 •5165 0. convection temperature much of the rapid decay First. 0025 • 0685 . 0126 --. cooling and and Except cooling film or turbine-inlet that blade 11-3). kg/(sec) mass flux.580 --O. than the as for higher will the for it becomes film air and cooling (as convection surface only. film cooling from rows cooling and or slots transpiration full-coverage discrete-hole . film the coolant hole.0260 --.4215 . the same wall Notice is about gradients cooling in a given fihn blade temperatures combined cooling-air in the yields for convection convection and region immediate of the film injection lower a significantly cooling film wall cooling for convection but the alone. all percent temperature also the arc of holes that same of combining in figure cooling. 332 then of the protective film. lb/(hr) FILM As parent reduce in fig.2057 0.0015 .5106 --.0. (m 2) . only. 3 000 to 30 000 al bl ¢1 -.4696 •965 a2 b2 c2 a3 b3 impingement holes is defined as Go! Zn (11-52) where Gcr Gh crossflow mass flux. localized cussed.

6 .A. called (i. known.. T). o is the wall). coefficient to account without film cooling.-.. z_: (11-55) is sometimes because conditions film film temperature experimental it and of an uncooled in dimensionless 11-12)). film is usually somewhat However. injection The itself.e...T'. o temperature decays (coolant from temperature at the 333 effectiveness a value of 1._m: cooling._(T'.--T_.. x the damped with under gas (see form wall film having fig..8 l. assumed adiabatic from between correlated temperature and _ is included temperature cooling.2 . by the heat-transfer out rapidly..O Dimensionless distancedownstreamof slot of combining coolant film and flow rate. Constant FIGURE l l-ll.. at .4 . wall a buffer The film adiabatic so _ is frequently it is obtained it is the a'r is of cool nl.. "nonthe followgas coefficient heat to preceding the discussion. the the Hence. ombinedfilm and convection cooling C _ _ 1000 :_- _ooI 0 I i l I I ..x is the heat-transfer coefficient (he. (11-53) and (11-54) is altered for this. convection cooling.--Effect cooling.TURBINE COOLING 1800 L2600--v / _ _3_1_" Hot9as Film coolingonly _6 2200 : I J f__'- _Convection _ Hotgas coolingonly _ ._ hg.. In the effective expression temperature temperature q=_hg.'_| 1200 ---... temperature effectiveness _'"'"= where outer T_. x)I.o) where h. data the hot of injection. The injected film film T. Tg. film-cooled" film-cooling ing To successfully heat-transfer analysis for becomes builds the the analyze on the flux film and model must film be surface. layer the e -Very near the by the to be wall point the effect unity._=--Tw.

90 ° is perpendicular).! 400 (x 600 xs#gs .1 40 60 100 Dimensionless I 200 .8 _-"_ Injection angle.1 --- . I 4000 distance.. FIGURE ll-13.1.SIGN AND APPIAI.1. increasing The film 334 cooling injection following reasonably decreases turbine-blade (from 7) correlate .TURBINE DE. 1. _. to the surface seen.. effectiveness surface. to zero.1. for by air and As angle.1. of the is with far downstream. expressions well: film the the The Figure injection 11-13 from gives slots experimental as determined from mass-flux indicated to the values by the ratio injection slot F and with slot a of film number (x--x_) between angle effectiveness is normalized film respect investigators._"_ _ I '( Coolant film I Coolingair FIGURE ll-12. // / _'mm / -J .__ _ deg o++ 90 _'__---- +:_: 08 -- ..--Experimental determination of film temperature. the (0 ° is parallel film ref. distance slot hot-gas width downstream s and the The stream.--Film-cooling effectiveness for slots. 1_ .C_TION Boundary I r_ layer -7 / Y I T..oz 10 I 20 _ I . slot.. + ¥ •+1:._ --% I 1000 2000 .

Mass-flux hole diameter. C and and the G= z8 is the measured exponent 1.5. 0.p-_2] \p_u_s/ for small values of (z--z. and (11-57) for large edge Values values slot.40-- o ° A o .. injectionor 100 ft]sec. _ of holes I O l I I I i I I ] 9O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole.50 1.ymbols denote single hole at 35v injection angle Tailed symbolsdenote single row u:. as where or feet. Film distances ref..7 for a 30 ° injection angle. _I'z'_=exp I k -0. hole diameters l l-14. 1.21 of the the stagnation for the coefficient n are C----2.. 20-- .22X 10 s.00 "_ E 30i_ xji_ ' "-_.9 k. small effectiveness from the and n----0. case.). and n----0.5 Reynolds number. of (z--x. hole diameters . 335 . 0.155 of the for a 15 ° injection and 11-14 of holes. gas velocity. m/sec FIGURE down- stream and lateral distances from injection holes.--Film-cooling effectiveness as function of dimensionless ratio.-'="_ " _ .464 in."__ Plain s. lateral (from For film a function hole a single downstream in figure a row injection from with is presented hole 1 hole 8) for film lateral cooling distances. 30.18 cm or 0.95 location from of the downstream point. in meters angle. 2 _s --2.TURBINE OOOLIN(_ O. up to about downstream in this as previously effectiveness decreases shown • 50 -- Dimensionless lateral distance from injection hole. and from diameter distance.).

coverage. since there are problems blades. and the same values are obtained for single holes as for a row of holes. order transferred small pores. at various of the giving more film spreads diameters. of a porous With film as the serves into to the is one transfer with of the from of cooling available. The wall may with a low resultant maze of interconnected effectiveness. flow passages. a large This of transpiration of small. wall from the hot gas stream in counter flow as it passes coolant However.. main very lateral 8) shows gas local stream. film coverage. injection gives far downstream. underneath data a staggered cooling holes. v_o. full-coverage problems film lies in the characteristic is used. and localized by on the with essentially film cooling on to tile of the tortuosity a continuous mass the other end. The porous wall where the heat conducted continuously through the this method extremely tion or standpoint. Frequently. The pores subject Also. For larger lateral with downstream distance flow. an effective slot width s defined such that the total area of the equals Figure single the hole direction the area 11-15 of the (from slot.ICJ_TION for slots. convection effectiveness. amount through of heat the wall the one end. or it may consist of a high convection from wall heat- a relatively term ability borrowed of the effectiveness is a measure of the (or blade . stream In cooling from surface. full-coverage of cooling discrete between piration cooling on flux over the surface. as of holes _mm is not is due to entrainment of film- of hot surface. ref. as a result row of flows injection film jet are available the effectiveness initially increases of the spreading of the injected are larger adjacent This the for jet than holes. the slot data are used for this case. separates row for the Notice from single also the with holes from angle than angle persist effective wall into convection is 2 hole of as a in from hole. Convection exchanger 336 theory and be constructed of simple. it combines cooling efficient cooling. The cooling internal air flowing pasflow transferred depends convection sages.SIGN AND APPI. of cooling a very effective heat exchanger. these to the to blockage due to oxidafrom an aerodynamic-loss air is injected still cooling. the film yet cooling. to turbine are air.TURBINE DE.v is with a straight-through holes. closely-spaced. in the is paid. the spreading For the but wall mass of a film layer a 35 ° injection less does not most the A the film compound angles of injection. contaminants a penalty essentially to alleviate advantages In number type therefore. hole that and because gases Very the values of the unity limited for the interaction at the distances. the obtain cooling into some air holes pure the of gas the film issues in the trans- normal boundary. spectrum in applying tend to be small and. Transpiration methods the boundary cooling layer.

.E E 0 -/ r.o--T c. to transfer f ! heat to the cooling air by T c. 15 o r- I 6 1 ' I (a) 1 I I d r- . "r/film -2 -_ E tO. Mass-flux ratio.. However.20 L. 15 -- I I I tb) I I I u_ _ "_. the convection 337 . hole diameters (c} (a) Injection (b) Injection (c) Injection FIGURE ll-15.g. injection.-2 -.. injection. lateral 90°. (11-58) Since an optimum design utilizes as much of the heat sink available in the cooling air as possible for convection cooling. 35% 15 °. 10 / 0--@ \ \ 2 -- .20 I 0 5 1 10 I 15 I 20 I 25 I 30 Dimensionless distance downstream from injection hole. 25 4 -6 L. 90 °.-. angle.25 _. angle. 20 _. effectiveness 0. 35°. -2 -- r. 25 E 2 4 -6 _ \ '--. lateral 90°. values approaching the limit of 1 are desirable. acting as a heat exchanger) convection. lO •30-I g X13 L.7_o.5. lateral injection.TURBINE O00LING Fi Im-cooling effectiveness. for single-hole of constant film-cooling injection. .--Lines angle.30 ..

.e-the Tw. e dTw " dy _=o G_ is the mass flux (11-62) per unit figure ba]ance wall. Btu/ . An energy equations cooling-air local coolant perature through T'c.)=kw 11-16. dy 2 (11-60) where effective thermal conductivity heat-transfer of the porous wall. one-dimensional wall metal The in figure matrix resulting the wall.T_._.) are signs shown in of the the in (11-63) figure second coolant nonlinear derivative. are temperature d3Tw hv d2T. as a third boundary condition for heat o-. blade solid 9).--T" ' _._ dy 3 _ Go% dy _ and T'_=Tw ' hv dTw kw._.)=Gc%_co..v increases._( Tz. as seen of surface area.)=kw. and G_cp(T_ In this case. W/(m W/(m)(K) 3) (K) . hv Btu/(hr) (ft) (°R) internal volumetric (hr) (ft 3) (°R) coefficient. and matrix The side heat which is a consequence heat transfer. so does pressure 11-16. perforated be written the metal wall temin the As Vco._. gives.TURBINE I)E._. and on the and differential Tw. An the overall flux energy to the q=Gccp(T' Typical 1.o) heat flux expression (11-64) with local This 338 is somewhat different from .(Tw. wall They and are coolant both from ' . flux to the wall can interaction in terms also be written of a hot-gas- heat-transfer coefficient: q=h. The boundary conditions are e dTw @-_=o (11-61) h_(Tw.o-temperature with profiles opposite of the T:.e dy 0 (11-59) kw'ed_T'_ hr. a is usually APPLICATION limited by model the the of cooling-air drop porous balance flow for the supply through or can through local pressure the wall.1-16. Consider turbine on (see wall. the ref.SIGN AND effectiveness available.--T'e.

_ ay--_t hvA . i \ '\.O ]w. not which too large. the one-dimensional good results gradient write F ht_ Stt_ _:.Tc) '_ w \ \ \ '_ dl-w d ClTw_A kw.--Porous-wall temperature profile model. and hot-zas as shown F -(pu)_ (pu) 339 . to the 10). in Tc.Xy(T .Z" cooling the in that the acual and local gives recovery ht._ the due gas temperature are heat-transfer model if the pressure of and used a "rerather heat-transfer film temperature with incidentally we can coefficient to blowing solid-blade coefficient the blade is Consistent wall.. film duced" than hg.TUR.BINE OODLIN(_ Tw. (11-65) effectiveness of the coolant where mass the flux correction in figure (surface factor] 11-17 (from averaged) is a function ref.J Gc q T__J c.o 1 "1 C.--_=eF/__ Str_ 1J of convection Fis mass the ratio flux: (11-66) .. eA -_-y) y Typical element FmuRE 11-16.eA dy + dy (k w.

1. SIMILARITY It actual size than at is often engine prototype the the actual test of of economic turbine environment. aerodynamic lower This behave gas practice to at evaluate conditions initial tests performance temperatures raises meeting similarly the various a under similarity design valid the heat-transfer than conducted with and actualpressures question specifications actual to engine turbine engine perblade parameters as the are performance to evaluate other to whether co_lditions.7 . which are formance are discussed.6 0 1 Blowing 2 parameter. important in relating test performance of an actual-size film-convection-cooled number test distribution around conditions. blade this will a cooled conditions To answer and at necessity components Generally. heat-transfer hardware application. E 11cony 0. The number engine 340 Mach and configuration question. FtStcj ' 3 4 FIGURE l l-17.9 J o f J J • 7j f J J o k_ .--Correction to equation (11-65) for wall convection effectiveness.TURBINE I_E_IGN AND APPLICATION Convection effectiveness. the and vane Similarity momentum-thickness must in be these the two Reynolds same between is parameters distribution .

r(... (11-69) between ratio If engine the local and ...'. ." \--_/z _. w(..". and equation (11-69) becomes o.') _". coolant 0Jo_)..).-o... r....-1 unchanged mass-flux ratio cases.." #g(t) w_" Equation with pressure number Parametric for air.. Therefore. with _ temperature \(_+t)/2(_-t) F-.p. that gives _/(R-_)z(. number (11-68) must also unchanged # /z o. heat-transfer point of adiabatic laminar (t) refer To same temperature conditions same from superscript to test ensure superscript number equivalent (e) refer distribumass conditions. wy'--p'_ where for the F is an approximate variation of specific p.(._f_ _--_) Since remain the local momentum-thickness between (t) and (e) Reynolds conditions..."'-'"'e_ I(_T_)'. -(_)(..'. ry' . test the ratio remain to conditions. coolant hot-gas (ou)J(Cu)z (or density hole-diameter size hot-gas be the then momentum same in both (pu_)¢/(pu_)= Since actual- momentum-thickness to film-ejection- ratio OJD must hardware is presumed..--1 rate must relation the and shown engine in vary same (11-71) directly gas Reynolds conditions. figure 11-18 functional provide for test are between temperature which distributions equation 341 .... not change be the between in both conditions."___.. the the gas will (11-71) flow Fg(. /(RT')_. --1 (11-70) _':' _"..(. (11-67) (2-128) given and by (2-129)) 'e' _(-R-_)g(" (from correction heat / eqs.:..... the distributions and and the boundary local Mach the of layer.r.'. s __ (p_)..r. film effectiveness the to and the is to /(.p'. the (11-71) viscosity and and Mach curves shows and number of .TUITBINE O00LIN_] essential coefficient transition Let tion flow to engine does must to ensure and the same wall to relative turbulent that the two cases..

hot-gas-side 342 the viscosity Satisfying heat-transfer ratio here . to that conduction to the in the supply compared temperature T_.o=p_.) _. wall ejection by since pc. (Hc. oF Temperature.o is related coolant (He.J .TURBINE I_E_IGN AND APPIAC_TION 4O E 30 _ leD 20 a_ i0 0 250 J 500 150 1000 1250 1500 i 1750 2000 2250 25OO Temperature.n) (_) q(C) u_" the to mass (11-75) flow around ratio the (11-75) (see that vane eq. The cooling-air flow mass-flux rate ratio and and temperature momentum are ratio. the momentum of the the film temperature ratios.--Similarity Reynolds number curves of distributions constant around Mach number a turbine vane and momentumfor air properties.. where (11-71)).L(--#u-).j implies (11-73) Wg/ and it is necessary that to ensure Neglecting in the equality direction of test normal and to engine plane wall.)(t>_q(. o--He. then set by the coolant-to-gas Requiring (11-72) (7 . FIGURE thickness ll-18. K Tq. the will represents (11-71) equations ensures coefficient distribution . lg. I 0 I 500 I 1000 I 1500 I 2000 1 I 3000 I 3500 I 2500 .(_) .o--H_.

and the effective gas temperature sionless wall temperature _._--T/) pressure. defined as T_. is small. properly pressure.'):St(. as it does The those dimen- air passages same and the normalized temperature is to perform temperature only conditions. on would the there (11-74). drop flux through at reduced reduced and cooling is commonly blade the wall design. the It grouping of the since because is easier greater driving of these cooling and lower the for at high the three engine heat blade convection temperature (11-79) temperatures._. the number number temactual then.. of a given is. The viscosity coolant Reynolds factor cannot be set factor number / _'* _'*' °_ number (11-77) with the although its for coolant-side is the Prandtl departure (11-77) convec- Reynolds in equation ratio. the be 1. form the is given number discussed unity cannot are depends and engine conditions. dimensionless known. Since similarity number equation On Nusselt the the Prandtl conditions ratio from (11-76). _. wall temperatures tempera- ture T_. however. The the test-to-engine bole diameter coolant film-cooling same cooling be some between perature) conditions internal must blade invariant which are is important the test namely pressure conditions. coolant number side. (T_.--T_. As test-to-engine number. if the viscosity t ct)¢. this from range unity tg to (') independently. on set the the independently departure Prandtl coefficient number in The is heat- (11-76) if all of the other in Stanton ratio heat-transfer by (*' dimensionless Nuc (') =Nuc where m is the power on the tion. during Reynolds the the the ejection for same two a test wall includes supply Hence. Stanton number form *) {'Pr(')Y/a be met. How343 is at the proportionately . In fact. with is not impossible as a measure performance in _ for test of the potential than temperature to cool temperature conditions.TURBINE C_OLING have the same shape for both test transfer coefficient in dimensionless St(. ratio and drop If in the which most by equation (based simulated through the cooled remains convenient engine.oould be approximated c by over the full temperature a power law cc t_ (11-78) coolant and Reynolds to ensure for outer engine coolant Tf.o or some used actual scaled and because Strict similar equality hardware.

in most equations for a highAir ratio be in gas. 00 1.00 1.JCATION ever.00 I.7 23.00 1.00 1.00 ' Reference condition. 5 25.02 1.--SIMILARITY (a) Takeoff condition STATES Gas total temperature Gas total pressure. what of the air. 7 4. 9 21. Radiation can blade not under directly be a significant component and with flux and cannot high-temperature affected simulated it must (11-75). 9 32. atm.3 6. 3 11.TURBINE I)E. wall the to a is be similarity simultaneously rather using 1 percent (11-77) were used pressure.03 1.00 1.4 10.4 18.1 12.SIGN AND APPI.01 1. 1 28. range states the difference between _(t) _(e) is well example to of experimental generated is given by in table a given air. 9 14.00 1. and cases.00 1. high-pressure conditions radiation and heat-flux by film cooling conveniently test conditions. 8 145 188 23O 273 294 315 357 399 442 485 528 571 613 656 699 743 786 828 --199 --122 --45 31 70 107 182 259 335 413 490 568 644 721 799 878 955 1030 1. 9 30. 3 27. An (11-71) for properly scaled within of test the conditions.00 1. 344 .0 7.01 1. 2 19.00 1.04 1.6 16. Coolant temperature K oF _2200 367 478 589 700 758 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144 _3500 200 400 600 800 905 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200 3400 ' 33.00 1. Since the accuracy solving 11-II fuel-air it would total heat environment. properties For a test temperature high-temperature condition _(_) is gas-turbine-engine than ambient higher those for than cooling dimensionless actual engine.01 1. in equation at the low-temperature be accounted for in the low-pressure ratio q(')/q(e) TABLE ll--II.7 9.

1966.01 1. no.--Concluded condition (X_LING (b) Cruise Gas K total temperature oF Gas total pressure.136 --64 7 70 78 148 220 291 364 437 510 582 655 729 804 878 948 1.02 1.7 13. AND TABAKOFF.2 8. J. O0 1. 1957.00 1.00 1. Chemical Rubber Co. REFERENCES 1. AMBRpK. 1970. KAUFMAN. 1970. Soviet Phys. 2. Eng. AND PATANKAR.01 1. vol.00 1. D. arm. 1968.01 1.00 1. pp. F. M. : Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Effect Air Jets of Spent Impinging Perpendicular Air. Jr.9 4. KERCHFR.7 2.5 4.00 1.. T. Advances in Heat Transfer. KAYS. RAYMOND S. no.: The Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence on Heat Transfer Rates. SPALDING. of the Capabilities and Limitations of Turbine Air Cooling Methods.8 12. Power. Phys. Vol.-Tech. ALBERT: An Analysis 2. 1. D.01 1.4 1801 139 180 220 259 294 299 338 378 417 458 498 539 579 619 660 702 743 782 ! 1983 --209 -. G.5 3. M. pp. 5.8 1.9 9. Irvine. ! I Reference condition..TURBINE TABLE 11-II. 3. cds. JACK B. Hartnett.4 11. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Coolant temperature ! _( t)/ _o(e) °F K 12200 367 478 589 700 799 811 922 1033 1144 1255 1367 1478 1589 1700 1811 1922 2033 2144 ' 3500 2O0 4OO 6OO 8OO 978 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 28OO 3000 3200 3400 '13.4 8.. 73-82. 9. V. J. NASA TN D-5992.7 7.P. S. and J. 6. 1979-1986.03 1. Academic Press. EsQAB. to a Flat Surface Including the 92. 1-32. 345 . S.0 6. Jan.00 1..00 1.: Heat and Mass Transfer in Boundary Layers. vol. 4.6 5.. 3.6 10. Inc..1 11...3 6. 1966. : Approximate Solution of Equations for the Thermal Boundary Layer With Variations in Boundary Layer Structure. B.: Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. W.: COLLADAY.2 3.00 1.00 1. O0 ! .00 1.. W. pp. KESTIN.

1-FC1. 346 . AND COLLADAY. 1971. Co. Nov. GOLDSTEIN. 9. 7. P.: Film Cooling Following Injection Through Inclined Circular Tubes. 1972... RAYMOND S. NASA TN D-6405. : Influence of Porous-Wall Thermal Effectiveness on Turbulent-Boundary-Layer Heat Transfer.: An Experimental Investigation Into Film Cooling With Particular Application to Cooled Turbine Blades..TURBINE 7.. E. R. 7. P. J. BROWN. W. Heat Transfer 1970. FC1..10. G. : Examination of Boundary Conditions for Heat Transfer Through a Porous Wall. DESIGN AND APPLICATION ARTT. .. D. 8. RAYMOND S. Rep. Elsevier Publ. ECKERT. AND STEPKA. COLLADAY. V. (NASA CR-72612). ERIKSEN.. AND MILLER. L. 1969. Vol. FRANCIS S.. A. 10. AND RAMSEY. HTL-TR-91. W. pp. Ulrich Grigull and Erich Hahne. J. R. MEL R. NASA TN D-6837. L'ECUYER. 2. eds. 1970. Minnesota Univ.

2) (K) . (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) (°R) (11-8). aa area. heat gas flux. (ll-S). coefficient. in eqs. (11-27) St 347 . lb/ft" term. volumetric fit s) (°R) J/kg by eq. (11-42). Btu/lb 1 . Xlach number exponents Nusselt exponents Prandtl P pressure. (2 q 1l Re r heat-generation J/(kg) number Reynolds recovery Stanton factor. at constant (11-49) coefficients diameter injection D of leading-edge m . m2. m . characteristic m. (11-41) constant.. and circle. kinetic (:onductivity. ft z (11-31) to (11-51) N/kg. mass flux in eq. defined conversion dimensional turbulent thermal 1 . Btu/(sec)(ft a) Btu/(hr)(fC) (K) .TURBINE CODLING SYMBOLS A surface area of one flow factor. Btu/(hr) length. 778 energy. . Btu/(ft 3) (see) volume elements (see fig.17 Btu/lb W/(m heat-transfer . correction conversion heat-transfer in eq. or film. ft (ft) (°R) J/kg. Btu/(lb)(°R) of volume m2. (11-45). I J K (m _) . in eqs. b2. hole.[ G g H h hv /. 11-10). ft mass used flux to hot-gas (ft 2) (lbm) (ft)/lbf) (see 2) (ft 2) (°R) W/(m3)(K). cto. component in eqs. constant. coefficient. enthalpy. (11-56). Btu/(hr) coefficien't. 32. and (ll-4S) and (11-57) (ft) (lb)/Btu sec/hr Btu/lb (K) . (11-49) (11-49) and (11-26) pressure. (11-45).W k I M eo()l'mt-passage wall thickness. W/ma. b3 C in x direction. used number used number N/me. ft in eqs. augmentation coefficients body-force coefficients constants friction specific C2 B_ bl. 3600 W/(m) . ft d F dissipation term distance between ratio mass total internal Btu/(hr) static term of coolant factor kg/(see) flux. (11-8) eq. enthalpy. constant. m. ft 2 coolant-passage g al. heat in eqs. W/m_. in eqs. number eq. J/(kg)(K) (11-50) impingement hole. lbf/lbm to (11-51) (11-57) element. (11-65) 1 . lb/(hr) constant. J/kg. W/m3 . side eq. Cp el.

m/sec. dimensionless stagnation point. from m. component direction). (11-78) Subscripts: a adiabatic constant coolant CFOSSflOW CP C property COlbY convection critical. angular coefficients term defined exponent distance in eq. with film cooling to heat film cooling 0 tt l. static m. N/mS. of heat transfer coefficient effectiveness thickness. ft2/. m. ft to surface. ft K. diffusivity viscosity).t momentum (N) (see)/m2. referring to transition from laminar to turbulent flow crit 348 .SIGN AND APPLICATION 8 slot gas width. lb/ft 3 local shear stress. ratio ft2/sec factor. ft coefficient without m . m2/sec. volume of temperature. F specific correction ratio of specific heat constant volume . ft heat diffusivity.TURBINE DE. deg temperature (11-48) (11-52) in eq. velocity ft/sec m3. kg/m3. heat holes in Y Zn wall. 'tO component mass flow boundary distance the of gas velocity in direction perpendicular rate. ft 3 velocity ft/see to the in direction normal to surface °R in direction along surface (zgas T t % temperature. ft distance distance between normal impingement m2/sec.h enthalpy ratio cooling viscosity. m/sec. pressure (11-68) to specific impingement X Xn center-to-center direction coordinate distance m. m/sec. lb/sec layer plane (x-y plane). ft/sec along surface of flow._ec P T density. from wall by eq. ft and blade inner leading between edge. V component (y-direction). ft lb/(ft) (sec) (kinematic lb/ft _ leading-edge heat at thickness. holes m. of gas of jth element. °R K. eq. momentum transfer 7/ at constant m. kg/sec.




with fihn



as characteristic


effective hot gas hole inner impingement inlet jth clement laminar with_._, leading outer reference downstream stagnation turbulent transpiration wall local with with with value charttcteristic x as A as characteristic 0 as characteristic leading edge edge of slot a,s characteristic edge length at free-stream condition


h i
imp in




stag T t

length length length

A 8

apl)roaching ril)ts" engine test, ] total

Sul)ersc, (e) (t) ,

condition ('mid ition stale (referring component to T anti (referring p) to p, v,/, u, and w)

/ flu(:tuating



Experimental Determination of Aerodynamic Performance
ByEdward M.SzancandHarold. Schum a J
The theoretical deal aerodynamically, the etc.) entire turbine on built, goals preceding aspects chapters relating has the blading have to been been turbines directed is the (rotor concerned and toward turbine. disks, turbine turbine Associated shafting, criteria. whether by testing with primarily design. blading, hai'dware the

A great since, for

of consideration

assembly the basis

bearings, Once the

casings turbine the aerocan

is designed and design

of mechanical be determined met. Only

is designed dynamic this In of the The ments, obtained indirectly measurements. In

it must have

or not the



be determined. addition separate stator as loss to the overall performance to the readily 7 (vol. of a turbine, overall from 2). loss a breakdown is often desired. measurecannot obtained be

losses can

contributing be in obtained chapter

experimental Rotor losses usually

discussed easily from from the

direct stator

measurements; loss and

they the




developing which nature the desired




and parameters





determine ing. obtain the The

performance of the stator test

he is interested instrumentation performance vary with

in evaluatnecessary to and



and/or these


parameters, turbine


in which are the

parameters of this chapter.





PAGE _-_--'_






TEST The herein. These and bine. sures, measured calculated manner The

FACILITY stator in chapter


MEASUREMENTS is expressed 2) and to specific for the to will define work, performance inlet Specific and work ranges not and be and turbine of rotative of the exit efficiency) computed discussed overall efficiency. speed turpresare is then

in which in detail parameters are mass ratio

performance 7 (vol. used torque, define rotative (needed test

is discussed performance pressure The and

generally flow rate,

parameters mass inlet directly from

are usually in order rate, in the the temperature flow

determined to fully

torque, turbine




equation Ah'-_K rN -dw (12-1)

where ,_h' K F N J w turbine conversion torque, rotative conversion mass flow N-m; speed, rate, specific work, lb-ft rad/sec; kg/sec; rev/min 1; 778 (ft) (lb)/Btu lb/sec by the ideal temperature by equation is always ideal work, all is all efficiency where efficiency where on a pressure of outlet the axial as constant, J/kg; 1; _/30 Btu/lb (rad)(min)/(rev)(sec)


Efficiency work. Ideal and (2-48b) the total however, is based of the based of the on outlet the or

is obtained by dividing the actual work hh' work is a function of the turbine inlet total ratio The on the is total static across outlet particular pressure useful pressure is lost. recovery or and the 2 (vol. pressure and turbine, 1). The used is most is most efficiency the axial efficiency recoverable. as inlet to desired. Static meaningful is based shown pressure define (2-49b) pressure. of chapter


depends on outlet outlet outlet



velocity velocity to the

Rating of only

corresponding velocity component commonly discussed In the will this types and,

component where only

accordingly, outlet as are

is most velocity the total 1).

meaningful is useful. and static Rating

of the used


is not which



in chapter section, of devices

2 (vol.

a representative generally Data chapter. gages data with used


facility the


be described, measurements will not reading


to make and can

required systems

be discussed. in this and electroaic

acquisition These

reduction vary from

be of

discussed manometers automatic 352

visual to computer


computations with on-line

completely process-







ing. A general discussion of data measurement, acquisition, mission, and recording systems can be found in texts such erence 1. Description of Test Facility

transas ref-

A turbine test facility consists of the research turbine, a gas supply, an exhaust system, associated piping with control valves, a power absorber, and the instrumentation needed to make the desired measurements. A schematic diagram of a turbine test facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center is shown in figure 12-1. This facility, a photograph of which is shown in figure 12-2, is used to test single-stage or multistage turbines of about 76 centimeters (30 in.) in diameter. It is generally representative of most turbine test facilities and is used here as an example for this discussion. In such a facility, removal of the turbine rotor gives the room necessary to place survey instrumentation behind the stator and, thereby, transforms the rotating rig into a stator annular cascade. Most turbine component testing is conducted with temperature or slightly heated. This is commonly air at ambient called cold-air

Burst-disc Laboratory air system Venturi safety valve -. Sonic valve •

Vent to roof ", ,_i_

acilit valve


Isolation,' valves • _ /kl

Gas supply .fExpansion Main exhaust control valve -, joint _ "-_





Bypass control valve -, -= Main control."@


valve @ _,- Facility f isolation Laboratory system exhaust




of a turbine













testing. values N/cm was flow cation diagrams of the number smaller turbine number.

Performance based 2 or on 14.696 and power thereby are actual on similar turbine. however, turbine where pressure psia)

parameters standard and


reported conditions (288.2 standard Yet, the

in terms of

of equivalent (10.133 This conditions in lower applivelocity as those present For a

sea-level temperature 2 (vol. near would the the

pressure test results actual same can turbine the effect in an

K or 518.7 ° R). values model are this to then, be

discussed and and

in chapter temperature levels

1). Using the


of pressure

than to and Only for

be encountered Mach numbers number, turbines, was number found effects obtain


testing. Reynolds larger


of Reynolds

performance Reynolds can be

negligible. important,

turbines, inlet

are more the proper




Referring N/cm2-gage venturi (16-in.) 354 meter

to figure (40-psig)

12-1, air

air for the system in a straight of

turbine the

is supplied laboratory. of the the A

by the



is located line for


40.6-centimeter air flow. This




of metering






piping exceed device upstream required

is sized 61 meters in the for

(as was per and high-pressure

all piping) second may of (200 supply minimize flows.

such ft/sec). line




velocities of the



Location affords number

air-metering constant devices air-metering controllable valve pro-

a relatively of metering of valve sonic and



a range

A further


devices is presented in a subsequent Downstream of the venturi meter by vides the turbine a high operator. drop

section. is an isolation (12-in.)

A 30.5-centimeter to facilitate burner



automatic line provide is the 50.8the desired 76.2 air lines to cm then entry can the control

inlet-pressure protection centimeter turbine-inlet (30 valve diverts of lower be seen After altitude (48-in.) control pressure in.)

control. A burst-disc from excessive pressure. (20-in.) pressure main control (for the The of the

safety valve and vent Further downstream valve example used to establish this (6-in.) pressure. lines to provide (These plenum. air through turbine the is turbine,

was bypass The

of Hg into two

absolute). fine control air

15.2-centimeter turbine-inlet (20-in.) turbine turbine, laboratory and a the while entry the

permits velocity passing exhaust main valve. ratio

50.8-centimeter to the the of the valve valves


in fig. 12-2.) through system control These acrossthe discharged (16-in.) operator turbine-inlet a 121.9-centimeter bypass the is to vary pressure


permit turbine

maintained constant by automatic control. This type of pressureratio control has been most successful with small turbines. With large large its use inlet In this turbines, pipe however, between The a single with to the air. The the has per burners simple products performance are and generally complexity and both burner (300 ° F). general, using are gasoline, to the where jet means air, fuel, and flow or natural the must are these rates gas provide inexpensive added used calculations. only of large of heating air. However, be accounted provide low, because clean of natural burner desired amount the second purpose there the is shown avoid gas, and is a slower and fig. 12-1) burner jet-engine Some air air from heated inlet (in of the icing response the inlet because control the can, mixed fuel of the volume installation turbine valve. because turbineexit. air is with flow. air the by This of to flow modified

A burner

in phantom, at burner the turbine

is optional. temperature facility

is to elevate

so as to

problems of the

commercial is used. the

for operation bypassed remaining controlling particular 23.6 422 In K

high-pressure is maintained the

is then and ambient

turbine capability (52


of bypassed lb/sec)

to heat

a maximum



a relatively combustion for heat, the in cost the but

Electrical installations.







All turbines The following be guarded (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) Low Low High High Low High High High High

and are against supply pressures

test some by

facilities of the constant

must potentially

be designed unsafe



features. that must


monitoring: and dynamometer and dynamometer outlet water inlet gas gas rotor and casing gas exit gas of turbine inlet exit supply lubricating ]ubricating water oil oil

of turbine of turbine

temperature temperature pressure temperature (or low) pressure pressure

in bearings of dynamometer of dynamometer of turbine temperature of turbine of turbine rotor

Overspeed Reduced Excessive Excessive on Some Others line air

of turbine

clearance between rig vibration shaft some monitors provide orbit of the provide a signal heater

Interlocks starting. operation. inlet rotor rotation

monitoring for only gas to rapidly damage Turbine of the

systems an system. to the audible shut

prevent alarm valves quickly and the This turbine

turbine during in the stops facility.

as well in order

as in the to prevent

Research A schematic diagram of one


turbines view also sides;



this test As

test facility is presented in figure 12-3. section with instrumentation stations stated was velocity upstream circumferential has an of 2 dynamic A short, inlet inlet blade low, entering section measuring chords the the insertion blading. annular to 12-3). fig. flow measure passage the is also are turbine-inlet previously, designed and of with the air enters volume section distribution pressure a plenum distortion. to as much

An enlarged indicated is from two to provide A screen ensure giving turbine area,

of the shown. the

plenum located screen drop

as feasible further

for minimum a symmetrical This a pressure

minimum a converging pressure heads.

is shown blades.

to the effective


50 percent

straight, and pressure

annular the station first and

passage row (station

is provided for

between the purpose


converging of installing The 1/_ is flow

of blades 0 of fig. stator does

temperature blades. not

measurement 12-3) Since is located the

devices. about velocity the inlet disturb


of the

of probes


A straight, turbine station 356 blades 2,

provided air made

downstream state about

of the


(measuring 2 blade-chord


--Schematic diagram of turbine test section.. aml passages after inlet and compared a burner Also. of straight._ted numerous in the types uxia! and 357 . diameters length of engine Accurately this is the turbine. ]engths bilize(1 Both idealized The tail axial before tremely flow downstream and uniform the as has vary. and a actual the sake blading reason jet-engine the weight last row turbine turbine s_. Flow-Property The positions flow-property indicated in measuring figure 12-3. installation. measuring in varying for the turbine test passages diflicult. sections an where the exit test air turbine is relatively are sta- of the preceding somewhat inlet. the area use state of blades. \ [ - CD-11683-11 FIGURe: 12-3. the aml in the of the outlet to rotor.ving. Measurements stations There are are loe.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC f Station 0 PERFORMANCE I I 1 2 ] 1 I Stator blade-tPlenum 'LJ :" Rotor blade ]'0 dynamometer i \ i i! \ _ i_\ ¸. Flow-passage minimum conditiolls is exannular latter cone immediately following for the immediately is required.

--At both on the static-pressure and outer vides a check to minimize taps served are often pressure pressures differ. be considered expansion presence measured. usually Static 12-4. at the in figure the same the probes turbine 12-4. circulation distribution. reading. desired blade taps static-pressure subsequent surface along the information the Static-pressure . For flow an values and each the inner require large of the effect size on being measuring whether passages the desired measurements. and data.TURBINE DE_TGN AND APPLICATION x o • E_ Temperature rake ]-otal-pressure probe Static-pressure tap Angle probe Measuring stations 0 diagram 1 of turbine 2 instrumentation. as well general. negligible. can the various or number determines to the have the be afforded. average it is often If the of the occurs and manifolded reading stator a pressures. is are used installed to number four of probes. 90 ° apart. station. duplication turbines.--Schematic variations of probes will discuss primarily turbine and outlet. the circumferential pressure amount of instrumentation to provide some may not flow be the a single true test. velocities. taps. inlet and located turbine measurements is shown as at the turbine investigations. with blockage therefore. As part termine As calculate 358 the explained of the in blade performance distribution section. this however. shown diametrically opposed multiplicity pressure. experimental of stages. of The temperature. size of the the The all turbine can turbines. We used in the example research of pressure. limits there the are on flow to obtain angle. instruof the associprocess. FIGURE 12-4. could on respect the available to make the instruments desired stator instrumentation exit. In turbine size mentation probes In small ated and. consideration in figure and proIn order multiple individual the obindividual to desurface. irrespective overall of research relative with This as This size their data. walls.

12-4) One is about for also some problem. response pressure. FZ(_URE 12-5.19 pressure unshielded for for about measuring center The and in figure This all immersed centimeter in diameter are relatively shown measurement. can then blades. however. If among the by number the two the size blades of of be installed in any research is limited discussed. total in a 90 ° and such 0. hollow hub. in of the blade be blade. are probe that The used adjacent the that blade.) flow. shielded large. centimeter pressure-tap the (0. fig. (see which to yaw is has of passage.48 40 ° . The testing sure. is such commonly insensitive 12-5(b) probe total-pressure an insensitivity to yaw Flow I I Flow ia_ (a) Shielded probe. in length.) probe 20 ° . in. the For fairly The and desired the tip sections one can taps thus.--Total-pressure (b) tb_ Unshielded probe. and mean. total-pressure station the twice flow that shielding. probes.010 hole a hole so as not Inlet to disturb time. presented approximately is desirable results probes. the in figure readings inlet area 12-5(a). used value turbine-inlet to establish However.--Four at the to in. to define based on the pressure total-pressure pressure and distribution maintain ratio when readings and a constant total-pressure reporting serve are as a check used value during total that flow rate. are located is shown (0.EXPERIMENTAL D_TERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE along tubes the are major 0. is on the presoften is a circumferential turbine turbine-inlet turbine of mass turbine-inlet performance experimental measurements static 359 .0254 long apart. the used small small A taps is divided being size too or more no turbine installing hole diameter.

wall of The The the the latter of equal was radius._1 the shown the center. in figure area the in figure 12-6(a). of about number. the average in Autopresent not exist but in refburner center These contain are of a type of thermocouples areas. whictl length-to-diameter 360 . are calculated rel)resentative of turbine-inlet of the true aver'_ge is thought is the to be experimental Inlet temperature. tion. angle constant. can did number problem example Measurement a problem for was the at low conduction turbine testing herein. where regulation due large to heat research in thermoeouple rakes. where p' P 5' V &s%jT'"-" lb/ft 2 lb/ft 2 at constant l)ressure to specific 2) (12-2) total static pressure. which a number annular and the are readings. being some used small of shown . ft 2 J/(kg) heat at g Aan R T' 1.---Two located at the turbine rakes.s well as for with for this the for individual testing a constant to the of temperature is maintained. wire accuracy in figure This modified thermocouple length at low 12-6(b) probe of bare thermocouple make the conduction shown in figure The results. 12-4). tmrl)ose. pressure. Provisions of all the fuel operation. N/mg. measured value m2.17 (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec (°R) (teg pressure than (K) . with and the total flow temperature angle and obtained by the at the following turbine equainlet: a assumed to be zero [-i. area. The 12-6(a) modified has a ratio of for is inadequate thermocouple ratio of about to diameter Reynolds has gives 12. N/m2. a wire excellent wire must be exposed error negligible. inlet measuring station (see fig. 32. matic used particular temperatures outlet to determine made a radial-inflow a. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K. A large amount to the flow in order to conventional exposed good shown 170. spaced 180 ° apart.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION pressure. °R from axial direction. temperature. ratio of specific heat constant volume conversion annulus gas total flow constant. total value This more value. siinilar to that situated rake at duct readings facilita. encountered as discussed erence 2.tes inlet burner temI)erature is I)rovided Reynolds This as an turbines effects. radii 12-6(a) area-mean turbine.

measured.EXPERIMENTAL DIhTERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ! / / / / / / / I / / / Thermocoul)le junction Therrnocouplejunction (a) (a) Conventional FIGURE type. and with radial blockage circumferential conventional value being static-pressure wedge probes. surveys. type. 12-6.--Thermocouple (b) (b) Modified configurations. rake Stator at the stator survey outlet probe associated outlet. turbine is the the Although testing. especially make such on the measurements 361 . rotor the only measurement static and also pressure. it is desirable a total-pressure to obtain the the is installed. made For statorproblems effect of previously mentioned is removed.--During stator probe outlet performance testing.

.--Total-pressure survey probe installed in test facility. 12-7) Considerations effects blockage. from pressure probe flow The actuator driven probe as the facility. 362 required the The values probe required measured used at an that static at test probe pressures the hub facility has two are obtained and tip wall is shown determined sensing the is shown of the circumferential the that same wa_ of stem used by interpolation taps. stem configuration in the (fig.SIGN AND APPLICATION FIGURE 12-7. Note previously to obtain total-pressure provides outer-wall shown previously in this measurements at both equipment inner probe. unreliable. The The example sensing motoraverage in the angle the survey for radial in figure is fixed angle. the outer 12-8. and and in figure movement for not the does have saddle figure shown provides probe regarding movement. The 12-7. the these totalThis are walls.TURBINE DE. to be elements.

The openings in the side tubes are in planes an angle of 45 ° with the center tube. capable angle are located at the probes probe probes. 4. located shown to the of flow pressure. discussion come allows into the A laser techniques described recently of flow-disturbing of sensing 12-4 shows head that at radius outlet. directly velocimeter. element diameter.--Combination 12-9. angle tube is accomplished The with ranges probe used that to measure of a convenis of the a 3-tube The center two tube probe system. side and of five equal of probes annular number Measurement self-balancing with tubes the center are distributed circumferentially is located at the area center In general. Each of one the tional design. These side tubes are to the two sides of a diaphragm in a balance capsule. influences permissible. edge are discussed Although example use for Doppler velocity probes. measurements and measurement in reference 3. Figure temperature.--Total-pressure survey equipment. of measuring turbine type in figure pressure. turbine by total respect between means size areas. five of these combination measuring station 2. Turbine shown and flow not herein. total are symmetrically to a pressure are exposed pressure and the making connected static pressure. used in the particular velocity as to be made optical measuring such laser distance facility magnitude in without with total exit. behind serving have and reference the the use the blade trailing as the direction. A 363 .• EXPERIMENTAL DI_TERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE r Outer wall saddleassembly r Actuator t / cm 0 LLLLU 5 C-06-2250 FIGURE 12-8.

SIGN AND KPPLIGATI. in the to side reduce are for and gross use work is generated the and primary found of exit probe probe pressures operates flow.TURBINE I)E. specific calculation When the exit of torque specific efficiency. angle . of equation does direct which from (12-2) measuremertts of turbine to check of This and have large to be work conditions. angle total is surveyed is in a fixed range exit in order is used equation yields passage for for in flow and mined Exit is usually is small. capsule is actuated when into the the by the diaphragm. A servo-system total-pressure determirtation values that more total in order values measurement reliable temperature. position wouhl the the to zero not are used pointing for the been total-temperature used It has (12-1) measurement temperature occur over probe. pressure 364 the angle results the the of operating a self-balancing accurately. integrated pressure.--Combination-probe sensing head. error an of the transformer error probe by signal are in the unequal. differential so that tubes the Exit generally but of than true they equation does if the discrepancies. more reliable When the values measurement.0N FIGURE 12-9. to determine provides is especially variations Even to be of ideal exit flow of exit flow with deterwork. total use than determined (12-2).

inlet. should be made to assure accurate factor E accounts from is not for equal the fact that determined measurements to the room temperature. become ment the radial In total variations this case..--pt) (12-3) where A. N/mS. throat. pressure in pressure unless the choice is not and between angle values in the can exit be and passage obtained measure- large. M C E Y p_n p_. orifice secondary pressure and on the All the on The are the placed usually pressure in the may device. the obtained dis<. Pt The flow area of meter velocity coefficient expansion at meter pressure pressure factor factor inlet. is 1 (12-4) lb/ft 3 N/m2. which usually fluid flowing through the meter.. Measurement for use in equation calculation Mass-Flow Flows pend pipe. of exit integrated clear-cut. temperature 365 . requirements of these variable of any of the have constraints meters of flow: application. fluid has which in the nozzle. ft _ approach discharge thermal density static static approach compressibility velocity where The actual ferent D is diameter. as a venturi. be a simple selection manometer particular particular the same or an intricate certain advantages depends meter of these meters disadvantages. flow Although for the difference and good between the diffor caliThe meter at of the coefficient and type the of rate is significantly approximations a direct results. 4 kg/m3. factor m2. lb/ft _ lb/ft 2 throat. at meter at meter factor M:1 D.harge coefficients bration of the meter thermal throat expansion area is usually can be made from published data.(p.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE large. defluid or The caused a constriction primary element recording is a restriction which U-tube is flowing. C accounts theoretical meter. and and measured differential element pipe through Each the with variable-head by such the meters. discharge flow for rate each in m or ft. basic equation for head rate computation of the W= AtMCEY_/2gp. (12-2).

For of Y can 5: reference Y as a most be function concentric determined is presented (Ap/p_. Flow flow tube with 366 nozzle. empirical in reference y --_ l -.)<0.--Figure tube. having following (12-5). The than venturi other tube head has meters. along with the equation curves value from showing 5. the inlet and more run the throat.41q. straight difficult of piping. ] ! P2_-_ )' / Ventur4.3 5 ( _-_--_/. without the venturi and nozzle loss . of about of kinetic (12-6) of a conThe difThe a of a cylindrical section. The the the high shape to some pressure has of a commonly extent. section. section. to construct (particularly disadvantages so as to provide and requires reproducibility). expensive F low "v_" Pressure taps FIGURE 12-10.--Figure The the flow diffuser is thus 12-11 nozzle lost.. shows approaches. recovery a pressure the used venturi obtained of 30 nozzle. section.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION The compressibility factor for nozzles and venturi meters is (12-5) The derivation of pJpt_ orifices from the of equation and D#D. machined an included a diffuser angle internal recovery 7 ° with energy venturipressure of accomplishing a maximum while minimizing friction loss. are object usually section which cast a cylindrical and is made usually 12-10 consists throat have with shows the important entrance and ') features section. surfaces. it is bulky. venturi verging tubes fuser the tube.3. The total pressure loss from the tube inlet to exit is from 10 to 20 percent of the differential between in that a long.--Venturi tube.[ O.O.

--Flow nozzle. coefficient (7) for discharge coefficient Orifice. than that for a flow 0. The has a pressure flow coefficient This low value is due contracta rather than to make.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION Static-pressure OF laps . AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Flow Din Dl I i J /// :: ii\\ FIGURE 12-11. is probably the most of the inward flow of the minimum stream upstream area occurs downstream from known as the vena contracta. coefficients to specifications. is possible. pressure is obtained. in most be a high machine If the edge must must not degree shops. 12-12) head meters. Because side the and of the plate. This minimum area is it is at this area that the minimum loss somewhat for an orifice area an orifice is carefully sharp.\ percent between approach 0. hole be used. It is possible published cording ditions length made of reproducibility exceed 5 percent upstream portion .--The sharp-edged widely used of the various the streamlines on the orifice (fig. of the The cylindrical may to the effective minimum at the orifice itself.65. the inlet factor depending and and the M on area ratio. The of the flow differential a nozzle pressure (product of is about throat. and being with of flow the of the greater is about at the which acconaxial in367 The orifice nozzle. \.98. vena orifice edge. or more.

surroundings. supplied absorption is dissipated purpose. side diameter more orifices the orifice of the pipe. no the The cradled in turn. the the where turbine of torque turbine turbine absorption into for heat.--These in figure 12-13. (1) dynamometer is of prime commonly dynamometers.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPL]:CATION L f low Din Dt . . is extensively Measurement an accurate consideration used by measurement in evaluating to determine Simply. used generators this include brakes. clearly dynamometer. Because which will have the used.Static pressure FIGURE 12-12.--Sharp-edged taps orifice. types frequently A typical the The cradle shaft of torque called water is for measuring absorption the in fluid dynamometer dynamometers is almost which and are are discussed. (3) electric methods other brakes. meters water brake coupled electromagnetic (4) airbrakes. is shown generally 368 than Hydraulic since used dynamometers fluid-friction. useful and turbine devices tests. provides controller. The as the converts energy to the turbine to be brakes. mounting dynamometer installations. the it generally In turbine-component by are heat. addition. mos_ the produced performance. Torque it is possible to construct two or same coefficients when calibrated. torque This serves turbine. in speed discussed (2) and force dynamometer a load section In this is used or Absorption hydraulic. as brakes. units always shows water.

. and housing transmits the limits. turbine the to shaft The rotate. (Courtesy of Murray Iron Works Co. The the disk. pedestal shaft to an and it is free to rotate be computed.) directly housing friction so that housing housing absorbed Water to the valves depth the cient pacity disk to to the through on the tends permits may periphery are and of the test disk.Water in let . increased circulated at any discharge between be suffisince is increased. by glands.Packing gland Shaft / /.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AE:RODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Disk Water in let -_ Shaft bearing\ Packing gland . brake. in greater a consequently of water of steam frictional resistance should point. the or disk the with determination turning fed into closed the is thrown it forms opened centrifugal As the the water of the this housing. arm the to the fluid the on the power force ring casuch 369 bearings bearings.bearing Shaft Pedestal bearing Pedestal bearing FIGVRE 12-13. of the compartment packing As attached the moment./ /.--Hydraulic dynamometer. _thin it. further. A scale is supported the developed in the torque and rotates. inlet results and formation where valves a ring. \ /. absorption amount prevent .

a small lines energized rotor them the rotor machined to produce rotor principally through through device teeth. air gap of force so that are when On the between enter caused as the and the scale. be exercised. -:--_: i ..TURBINE DE. The in the starer in with are and teeth the direct with opposby the the starer a coil. 'K ' It itator Scale Shaft bearing-_ ___ _k_--7-_:_-i'---'_.current shown supported mitted rotor bearings. current. momentary capacity This vice unloading. Eddy. holes.) of Mid-West Dyna- 370 .e. torque by the may stator be by means is mounted The magnetizes of the the being ends tested... by Another to further as much because staging. and Engineering (Courtesy Co. is moved of force to sweep /. With brake a constant varies of torque water almost a_ with and power-absorbing of speed. of magnitude.. desirable disk near and occur. rotor. so that In this any dynamometer device. OCilile /-Shaft / o '.. and characteristic versa) and makes with increase of is typical them all fluid-friction particularly in the the electrical-type for testing Some the can Care outer increase must water dynamometers nongoverned brakes power in the are This absorption however.SIGN AND APPLICATION action level. disk can to more particularly of these is by way using increase power absorption one disk. . of the the stator The lines arm and measured which is supported which.lorquearmI FIGURE 12-14.--The views pedestal of figure bearings eddy-current 12-14. carries the stator. friction. of this (i. vicinity capability periphery. ends ing face in the on two the dynamometer. of the torque on the shaft. L ].Stator I I c_:Q(_-_I /_ /'// Water passages-.--Eddy-current mometer dynamometer. than is is trans- provided tends by through-holes increase erosion that as an order of the is. the increase cube would the of the cause speed. engines.

After the air enters axial diiection.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AE. a compressor) when windage measuring absorb energy. these output. they can often the larger jet-engine type when compared to the total be neglected. to measure provides the as well electric most required as to engine). and flow straighteners of the air. radial leaving is discharged on the in air arm in an axial torque torque is equal on the for for is cradled loads. torque in order the total losses and driving and and or a reciprocating capability losses the the may permits by it is absorbing as a generator. airbrake developed for 12-15. thereby. the to give dc the power is also a dry-gap A wet-gap type contact the flows power rotor. the from iotor rotor. For are generally small hence. casing. The and ment casing axial the in gives of an it blading. airbrake a paddle dynawheel entry of the stator. The magnetic attraction between with the currents the rotor. an It dynamometer. of air the and. type.--A cradled. any not the commonly water The lines of this energy in the stator. therein. it rotor. a device output unit turbine during For the it is driving. eddyhas in the can capability. rotor and the causes sweeping the stator through to cooling to try to turn the stator induce water flowing in figure does and rotor. is attached which to designed casing A torque measure- of torque. torque as a function is then friction added losses to the true to obtain represent appreciable percentage turbines. torque turbine power. at testing The a rotor dynamometer the view airbrake with the NASA small of the consists either Airbrake power Center. straighteners Therefore. (a turbine as a motor. bearing. The from wet-gap passages Eddy-current required dynamometers absorption with (testing of a prime the acts dynaraometer. passages is called dynamometer the coolant iron-core directly onto in series dynamometer shown water rotor. bearings. or airfoil type and discharge airbrake which direction momentum power output.RODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE iron stator force of the stator. the is accelerated in The the tangential the momentum to ensure axial inlet collector through removes the research through passes the opposite a direction rotor air absorbs airbrake to the are the rotation from and After tangential turbine flow direction. was is used is shown inlet extensively in figure is a Lewis type Research of than absorber 19 kW turbines (less A cross-sectional a stator. versatile to drive the When the the measured torque. to determine rotor. 371 . shaft. of speed. an researcher dynamometer. the removing torque turbine motor-generator. driving This the smaller turbine of the tests the frictional turbines. frame It can a pump mover unit acts or be be a is dissipated The because current cylindrical stator connected dc stator used or tluough 12-14 used. about mometer valve.hThe that (25 hp)). to the of a throttle collector. The seal.

__--"--?i straighteners . to drive losses.--The measurement Such absorber forces relatively The readily and 372 a scale displacements Because should are small. the design.J ._:. of can can torque acting horizontal. For imparts type or the for tangential of the Thus. i_:_- 1 x i Throttle valve J _-z-.--Airbrake dynamometer. remotely be arm vertically. to the direction power case seal of rotation paddle-wheel turbine the and aiIbrake as was of bearing be obtained used are (It dynamometer. is not used).. torque of the arm scale the proper regardless observable magnitude telescopes disadvantages available scales of a spring-balance (low-power not have may ... It for can each be noted an outer row.. -J CD-10167-09 FIGURE 12-15. [ \ stator _ _t_tteor r i I _.I\ air bearings bearings-r-.TURBINE DE. can the driving the the be a direction independent For row can valving to measure example.-I Y_::_.'.-X. low where direction inlet the with is well one stator adapted blade of rotation consists of two sections. air I ' il -_- t_- 1. pressures. these measurement Measurement frictional simply the dynamometer most because very the force. impart rotor in this This permits force scale._.Jl Inlet collector -/ /_ . the turbine. extremely a stator tangential while case.. blade small from and turbine an This figure inner stator outputs can be in the blade 12-15 blade system at used same row that row. stator is of the absorb opposite as the momentum rotor. dynamometer by a spring-balance of scales does force reading been and of the that force the have range..SIGN AND APPL£CATION Thrust Journal Flow tubes_. the power indicate remain involved. configuration momentum other rotor used to capability..

impractical torque rotative would this on the speed necessitate problem. which torquemeter. or force with devices The the or on the This required a gas fluid. A higher facilitate the under bearings surfaces. that the these indicated be and/or kept because reflecting polished surfaces and source. is higher in turbomachinery equipment situation the of an intermediate strain-gage torque and resistance Readings Problems short with the and wire a high-speed. shaft strain power is very are electronic brush the basically surfaces shaft. pressure of the are The on load principle force to be measured the terms facilities with on digital the The than use the that be used. current load output direct as the fluid the can of operation devices fluid the held is that being greater be with have force becomes in test either been a liquid used (e. the of both surface gage absorber. where to appropriate torquemeter optical measures surfaces Shaft occurrence Optical a shaft system from ination separated A stationary with of induced torquemeter. data electronics. nearly equipthe of end. with the air) the fluid. it. with this fine turbine which operates are on wire function circumvent sorber. greater the fluid. the that applied.g. readings. readings for automatic to cradle torque. on to fluid to measure space. the of the type of onto shaft has A bonded slip rings. shaft turbine its proportional.g. onto thereupon Photocell of the close tends as a laser for two by successive unbalanced life and consists at each The optical reflection photocells illumrepositions position optical to the to cloud beam. conventional the To strain mounted The unique through ment. A servomechanism the photocells is a measure Experience torquemeter This turbine these may optical torsional may be tile null-balance twist.--An polished optical the of the by on the of the shaft.. include interfere torquemeter fiat the on twist reflecting twist of a slit. component as may capability required arise of the for abbox. two photocells. the principle can between property strain brushes. must have surfaces to are maintain usually highly accuracy. the is impressed in a confined pressure produce Most strain-gage electrical provide particularly calibrated turbine cells signal torque equipped These calibrated provide an can signal is to measure which.. difficult. Both bearings light torque oil mist such The been design operated strain-gage torquemeters systems provide adequate in con373 . mercury) force. projects each image reflecting a hairline to restore of shaft has must produces condition. is Strain-gage testing. the measurement.--Sometimes. a digital appropriate voltmeter. possibly and twist gearbox intensity accurate load. wherein gear torquemeter. shaft.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Hydrostatic (e. torque voltages parallel unit illuminated gap. and is that and indicated. This suitable it is recording. a transmitted encountered measurements.

units a positively is provided are Commercial time driven units. There available are that other also torquemeters commercially Rotative-Speed One testing to give manent shaft the usually speed. good correlation. conditions contours inlet of equivalent pressure so that are be readily concept 2 (vol. of performance of speed of efficiency. For and called because 1 minute). of equivalent 374 in chapter . A means with These speed a timer. is the in can with driven turbine be used a perby the The speed.SIGN AND APPL]_CATION junction types could of be with used dynamometers. are shown presented shows. directly during flow rate an increase as rotative turbine and. faster. accuracy air supply the air are tends and of high-rotative-speed (or impulses) displays varies varies. that turbine for with are testing. are average the voltage of the is that magnetic speed remote output simplest of rotative field of which of the indicator and indication and most Measurement accurate The electric Adc Since graduated of speed. to its to speed. for a a turbine speed. conditions conditions a performance as functions Also and can shown speed The and flow. Rotative supply directly to drive there the to somewhat Since mass pressure power to pressure. shaft.TURBINE DE. available. for a given method or electronic of teeth counts count of measuring pulse is secured the teeth machines. the and discussed map are usually map of the on the used and 1). flow The turbine and PERFORMANCE of turbines Such work ratio. (usually is through revolution counter for engaging advantageous it simultaneously an rotative chronotachometers. read rotative is proportional measurements. when to have data. It The and in supply to correct within the absorber decelerations ideal taking tends accelerations accuracy is. is to be measured. a continuous a rotating armature. when pressure for this. conditions of temperature pressure. greater result control provide electronic for most accepted greater disengaging they yield accuracy should in speed be used. therefore. measurements tachometer generator. tests therefore. to the It is particumethod. operating map for are any in terms nature on means figure. a steady TURBINE The by one performance the characteristics maps. work. The the larly sprocket An given currently suited with time and speed proportional the turbine system. For speed this use of an electromagnetic a given pickup number accurately the counter. generator is a voltmeter field is constant.

a (12-10) (12-11) and ( e--%'a 2 "_%.._/(.q= and 0 (12-8) N Ne. where the square of the critical V_r= velocity 2----Z-_ gRT' 3. and sea-level temperature specific heat ratio 12-16.-t-1 standard psia).q=w --_ e _h' (12-7) ah.133 std molecular refers N/cm to _ or the conditions (288. Also. the equivalent conditions are w.ta-_) (12-12) \_-_-t_+ 1/ ( 2 y.= where rection the subscript eq refers factors are defined as to the equivalent condition.696 (29.a/ _=p. EquivaK of or pressure 518. The (12-9) cor- o=( V_. the Although performance can curves be independently of this information performance ratio in the map..o ) _ \Vc_. An lent flow spreads follow. is (12-13) The subscript (10.-. variations pressure map.. or no and conveniently shown in the speed in the mass pressure are in rotative in this contours a great Lines of constant included can presented of efficiency deal a better if some of for completeness. map against weight example specific and the out there ratio performance work the may is plotted data equivalent be little speed. case) is presented the speed. equivalent discussion flow rate on ratio (total the air Vc.0). as will variation constant are be product This in figure of the product mass to With rotative because. be obtained turbine a range from performance are sections plotted The are not 375 of speed.4).2 (1. .EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE In brief review.(.'0 Ps. understanding of the presented of pressure of the for obtained parameters following as functions type to be .7 ° R). 14..

_.I. (kg)iradl/sec 2 7 _8 I 9 I 10 I 11 _ 12 I 13 l 14 _L./.(-/_2_. with 12-18 turbine Figure angle a stator having stagger with obtained . k Ob / 4 / / . o z.-i'l l. 3 .0 _-:_-_ 3.6 / _.4:-I-_' . for the same turbine whose certain map points.o / 2.i._.-'T " / ?1 F.I _'-.j-1 I LI -'> 9 4 5 6 7 8 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed.-t-'... /"7>..-t--A= 2..t[.5-<-t-7-h937 _5_ _V -- 3. but were selected to illustrate Flow turbine for (small pressure a single-stage 12-17 having was stator-throat a small ratio obtained stagger and speed operwith area).z "E 19 "_ I. _wN/6.c.TURBINE DESIGN AND APPLICATION Percent of design equivalent speed..e. I 15 16 I 17 I 18 i 19 I 20 lOxlO3 ___L 211xl 04 Product of equivalent mass flow and equivalent rotative speed.--Turbine performance map. /'IV-" /I/--1--/7 - i 1. and angle a Variations are ated stator figure 376 shown with 12-18 in mass in figures two was a large different flow 12-17 rate and stators... -7 "i"l 30 2=.... 2 31 70i 29 33 _ q701:?_'_S:_.1 4. ¢wN/8._...'J-5" .Y 3. N/%/B Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure..8 17 15 13 11 u -C.--80-U7 -1/40 P x.. 70._-'1...6 O 25 _' 23 21 6oh 55[ . pb/@ Efficiency t 90xlO3 39 37 35 85 80 Design equivalent speedand work output IO0 105 084.c.q'-_/..]¢.. _ i" z_ --..SO li f/ i - i I _.4 _. (Ibl(rpm)/sec FIGURE 12-16.4 i-/3. Mass is shown in figure 12-16.Yd.8 7..4 -4 85 2 42.. d-._'_7.

4 i 1. The reason for stator or the rotor the has small which flow the stator For is for rate by the in pressure ratio produces no this maximum in mass flow is choked.0 1.5_ 14./F E ! _ II. mum mass is the usual tive mum The turbine. same it can the rotor be pressure For was seen both used.2 I 3.. has turbine. total-pressure ratio 377 . maximum indicates the maxiThis relathe of mass that is unaffected is choked.2 1.2 o I _ 2. increase in mass that either the In figure mum this mass that value indicates flow the rate rotor 12-17.o}. rotational the which rotor. _---__ 3 i _: _ _spee_ 12. the case rotational is influenced is choked.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE (large identical.5_ 30 31 _ 13. however.5 ' 1.8 I 3. In rate stator-throat and the as both figures area).6 2. 0_ f_ .0! 9.6 3. a decrease case of a with decreasing In some in maxisingle-stage in figure of variation foregoing discussion a multistage indicate variation shown A flow stator 32 14. choked In figure of the 12-18.4 II0 I l_i 2. the maxispeed. that ratio cases.. for the stator speed. blades the mass were flow a given increases increases until some maximum value is reached. stator-throat by the speed.--Variation of for turbine equivalent with small mass flow stator-throat with area. 5- o o 4o 60 • 24 _ 23! .6 I _ i 2. losses ]arge causes rotational speed.8 2._ I0.. 5 I.%_ .0 1 3. area.0 Ratio o1'inlet-total to exit-total pressure. pb/p_ FIGURE 12-17. a first-stage been the for flow the choke. speed. in the rotor inlet cases. 12-17 total flow In would occurrence flow rate behavior pressure of very with increases with decreasing and is due to an increase decreasing incidence speed.4 _ 3.8 l 22 t 21 i0. __ t 1. A further increase flow.

7. flow continues of choking about rotor second second pressure to increase. occurs 3.1 I 2.2 I 2. rows would have 12-19. ratio any that where (at given blade 12-19.8 t 1.4 1.2 1. choking To in some downstream exactly between illustrated with blade pressure downstream case stator ratio pressure tablishes 378 illustrated at continues turbine row determine are where this the blade in figure pressure exit choking upstream static in a turbine choking occurred.2.0 I 2.5 I 1.3 1.9 i 2. p_/p_ FIGURE 12-18. 12-18 either a would rotor indicate or a stator. variation speed) As row the in hub is turbine measurements Such data static shown by the in turbine at choke pressure the while particular the pressure for each ratio static the constunt of a two-stage in of increases. a turbine that es- ratio of about the maximum It is. the rate for the turbine. is indicated constant For first As first chokes remaining to decrease.TURBINE I_EISIGN AND &PPLZCATION 49 48 47 45 = 44 "E 43 "5 42 41 4O 39 17.7 I 1. .6 I 1. blade row static-pressure to be obtained.5L 1. ratio the the turbine.3 I Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure. of course. then pressure figure pressure 3. ratio for the type shown blade in figure row.--Variation turbine of equivalent with large mass flow stator-throat with total-pressure area.

high is due turbine (hV_) and tbe rate and ratio.--Effect of turbine total-pressure ratio two-stage tu_rbine.5 Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure.0 I 3.5 i l 4. manner ratio in which pressure mass increasing flow velocities pressure to flow decrease to a higher a given absolute increasing increases) a decrease angle in mass becomes a possible .5 2. 379 1). on hub static pressure in a Torque As should tangential and figure creases of with tuining as speed AVu (absolute) exit for 12-20.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMA. rotor and At (exit a given the This equation with the (2-9) mass of chapter rate 2 (vol. pb/p_ FIGURE 12-19.0 2.__TCE First stator exit First rotor exit Second stator chokes Second rotor chokes I Second stator exit I I I I I Second rotor exit . the resulting in the in the experimentally indicated vary by directly component any For torque constant with due from rotor.0 l 4.5 I 3.i 1. and with between speed pressure and the in flow higher increased torque the more rate. speed. the the rotor torque is shown ratio values turning decreases amount positive of torque in inlet varies in in- flow velocity The change of absolute radius. speed.

torque with turbine pressure ratio and speed. torque curves usual flow curves just discussed used can be plotted the from turbine are then procedure and torque to construct The mass in constructing at even work.2 I 4. Specific and the ideal specific map can efficiency are then calculated. Efficiency Another 380 convenient and widely used method of presenting turbine .4 I 3.8 Ratio of inlet-total FIGURE 12-20. value limiting that equivalent is being when exit approached annulus Mach mass been turbine loading at the number flow data.8 I 4.--Variation of equivalent to exit-static pressure.0 I 3.0N 4000 -- 5500 50O0 4500 /.2 I 2.4 I 5. . exit in pressure is termed map by the ratio results in no "limiting loading" lines of loading occurs the is. . performance be drawn. Limiting is choked.SIGN AND APPLICATI. increments a performance of pressure work.4 17 I> 6o 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 o- o 1.TURBINE I_E. not a maximuin 12-16.4 1. additional torque. and is to select for the speeds.3500 C _" 3000 _ __ g 1500 1290 800 -4OO -E o •_ _ 2500 4OOO Percent of design equivalent speed 0 [] 20 40 g _ 0 1500' 1000' 500' -- A _7 I_.Design point 32OO .o" 2400 -2800 E z _o. and is indicated ratio work any further increase This phenomenon on a performance to yield In figure reached. the 12-20 torque shows that as the to level pressure off and ratio reach increases for a given value. Figure speed. the various and These is unity. tends a maximum Above this limit. map.6 I 3. when of constant pressure specific the axial The measured performance map ratio converging for each but area has speed.8 2.0 p_IP2 I 5.6 I 5..

5 v I . blade-jet parabolically obtained in figure efficiencies are plotted axial-flow for a two-stage ___ _q <_ 50 _ 30 / / / / / .3 Blade-jet I . I . where For a correlation that speed case.2 I . on ratio ft/sec of inlet-total to exit-static pressure. ratio. which is to plot is given by the efficiency equation as a function of blade-jet speed ratio U (12-14) _/2gJ. based Btu/lb 2 (vol. 381 . with static 12-21 1).4 speed ratio._h_ where U Ah_ blade ideal mean-section specific work J/kg.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE performance _. speed. This shown jet speed was discussed in chapter for an mathematically to vary ratio Experimentally idealized case.6 I .7 I .--V_riation of efficiency with blade-jet speed ratio.8 FIGURE 12-21.1 1 .1 Design value I . against turbine bladeover a was efficiency shown was m/sec.

TURBINE I)E. static that an ideal always tend the for this were because therefore.PPLI.8 I 2. P_P_t FIOURE 12-22.CATION wide turbine. angle with turbine pressure ratio 382 . ratio manner be noted.2 I 2. the efficiency generalized It should as for where the turbine however.4 I 1.-2o -30 -40 -50 -6O 1 1.--Variation of rotor incidence and speed. flow we angles should are not as they turbine over performance the turbine understand vary 3O Percent of design equ ivalent speed 2O -- 80 10 100 0 "0 120 _'_ -10 g 2.6 I 1. turbine of the not serves for (1 or 2 percent) presented.SIGN AND A. represented For speed operating lines ratios. very a real well that by lower Flow efficiencies bladein as good a turbine. especially blade-jet Angles considered how Although parameters. conditions to separate limiting loading is approached. and Figure to the this higher The very total low than the efficiencies exit velocities.0 I 2. speed of speed slightly and pressure two stages ratio.4 Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure. at the speed somewhat. only and jet range very are. 12-21 as well shows turbine as for is not correlate correlation figure.

angle with turbine pressure ratio and 383 .EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE operating row to conditions. this are presented positive when same 12-22.0 ] 2.6 I 1. a typical in figure the was relative a range and are the rotor pressure values blade ratio calculated single-stage of speed the resultant defined turbine. Flow comblade from the po- herein as being vector tangential as be the made over of the The velocity following is in the direction can occurs generalized variation observations angle change figure: (1) a large range in incidence (2) the tential operating of a turbine.8 t 1. -2_-- -32 -- -40 -- -48 -- -56 2 1 1.1 Ratio of inlet-total to exit-total pressure.7 I 1.3 I 1. angles ponent velocity. 2). p_/p_. which angle The incidence as direction loss. flow as the difference inlet for between angle. of the which in flow entering each blade determines off-design is an important 8 (vol. the losses.5 I 1. FIGURE 12-23.4 I 1. contributor The the rotor rotor- discussed is defined and and chapter incidence inlet over angle.--Variation of outlet flow speed.9 I 2. in incidence angle 4 m 16-_" A _3 © [] © Percent of design equivalent speed 4O 5O 6O 7O 8O 90 100 8-- 0-- -16 -- o Q_ L.

1. gives 2). region.5 -- Suction / .TURBINE I)E. ratio loss losses stator. as with the respect and pressure to the (3) the ratio angle increases and The turbine decreases. majority where layers. pressure made for and ratio in figure last being parathat single-stage observed outlet to in the difference speed the incidence is in the to the flow to that for rotor Stator Stator means previously total-pressure trailing of such trated affected with the loss is directly in figures survey in the measurable probe 12-7 taken wake and of a total-pressure shown loss occurs edge loss as shown near by the the survey 12-8. boundary velocity can of the measurements increased flow) and (and increasing boundary-layer be converted 7 (vol. generalizations the with pressure incidence Loss in and at one 12-24.(=_ ca. the total be noted. The over the contours The terms of total pressure such the seen of many were were pressure the loss full data by and referred only ratio angle. circumferential total-pressure tip regions. radius It of can A equipment A typical just composite stator of the The traces be plainly behind as that stator that all such ratio concengreatly loss can end-wall circumferential is shown traces in figure hub and end-wall critical buildup in figure yields 12-25. 384 . Outlet a range and angle of speed turbine flow angle.0 -- it) _=_ 1.-.--Typical total-pressure loss survey data at blade exit. total-pressure as described area of one and the to kinetic-energy Integration loss for the coefficients in chapter passage perform- Once turbine stator 2.0-r. "-_c_ . angle the direction angle for The also change is plotted the apply opposite same trends in outlet over may be downstream of the turbine or to the can be obtained from the outlet flow.SIGN AND APPLICATION with rotor pressure incidence ratio speed outlet becomes becomes greater more as speed positive increases. flow angle is important design of whatever component amount of thrust that flow 12-23 graph.' surface o -0 su rfac/ __ressure One blade pitch FIGURE 12-24.

98 0 90 0.60 to 070 r_> Total-pressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet) 0.80 to 0.--Contours ance have been can be made..823.70 >060 to to to to 0.80 to 090 I_ 0. Total-pressure ratio (bladeex_t 1o Nade inlet) Pressure surface side E::3 >0 98 090 Io 098 0.90 0. critical veloccritical veloc- 12-25.90 >070 to 0.80 070 I I 4 L_j (c) (a) ity (c) ity FIGURE Ideal ratio. side - (b) Total-pressure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet} r---I >098 _zza 0.90 to 0.98 i_ 0.70 to 080 _lm >0.90 v.80 0.98 0. 385 . Ideal ratio. of total-pressure ratio critical veloc(d) ity critical veloc(b) ity Ideal ratio. stator annular surveys. from (d_ after-mix 0. Ideal ratio.512.80 to 0.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE Total-press ure ratio (blade exit to blade inlet_ >0. obtained experimentally. after-mix 0. after-mix 0.80 Suction surface . a turbine loss breakdown Surface An important surface profiles part that of the yield blading favorable Velocity design is the selection velocity of the blade surface distributions.859. after-mix 0.98 0 90 to 098 >0.671.

TURBINE DE'SIGN AND APPLICATION Analytical chapter mine achieved. The velocity There suction surface decelerations loading on blade) blade.. distribution accelerates Figure considered 12-26(b). methods 5 (vol. Flow on is considered to the is maintained on either the to be a desirable maximum subsonic.2 . v-f_'+i[-1 L_--1L-\p_-/ ( P']'"-"'"7"lr" jj determined surface similar conditions._ r.4 0.8 1.6 I . distributions.2 .6 (a) I I I I . the obtain for calculating During "designed the velocity in the the test for" surface program./.Suction surface >_1. surface distribution velocities velocities along the were discussed to deteractually surface. surface __Pressure I_ surface '_ Pressure I .2 Fraction of blade surface length (a) Desirable FIGURE distribution.. surface. on the to be undesirable.Z/ I •2 _ 0 f_). 12-26. 386 . is are Figure 12-26 shows the experimentally distributions for two stators tested under tribution Acceleration smooth. shows a velocity the suction surface 1.. _ . i. no large (force and flow shown on the in figure the maximum is well 12-26(a) velocity (diffusions) distributed along other hand.0 0 . in it is of interest were a blade surfaces blade the whether To measurements previously static distribution the velocity pressure are made along blade the in the surfaces relation discussed With the section on static-pressure along from measure- distribution can be determined Vc. (12-15) velocity The disone.0 .. "0 i .--Experimental surface (b) Undesirable velocity distribution. known./ ' / .8 I 1.4 B 1. 3_.E. static-pressure manner ments. 2).4 (b) I .0 _ Suction surface -_ ¢''_\ _..

: Gas Velocity Measurements Within a DOEBELIN.. Nov. AND SCHUM. MILTON.EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF AERODYNAIVIIC PERFORMANCE to a supersonic back of the possibly velocity boundary lead because sharp designed. 1969.. HAROLD E.: Instrumentation Used to Define Performance of Small Size. 5. Their of Mechanical 387 . is also of (V/Vcr=l.. ASME. is not result blades could to a subsonic a deceleration off the A deceleration as critical. 1.. In undergoes increase a rapid causes suction but that surthis would velocity when the a in loss deceleration thickening and face. with in reattachment are being surface. C. ASME. Low Power Gas Turbines. Mar. ASME RESEARCH COMMITTEE ON Theory and Application.2) velocity. Paper 69-GT103. AND ROHLIK. MOFFITT. Mar. HAROLD J. 4. Compressor Rotor Passage Using 72-WA]GT-2. general. Paper FLUXD METERS: The American Fluid Society Meters. Paper 69-GT-104.j AND MOSSEY.: Measurement Systems: Application and Design. 5th ed. 2. PUTRAL. 1972. KOFSKEY. P. W. layer to separation observed it is followed any separated and valleys peaks with on and Such an of the the by an then associated flow pressure flow. acceleration be avoided distributions should REFERENCES ERNEST 0. 1966. D. 3. ASME. the Laser Doppler Velocimeter. WISLER.: Some Measurement Problems Encountered When Determining the Performance of Certain Turbine Stator Blades from Total Pressure Surveys.. Engineers. HERMAN W. 1969. SAMUEL M. 1959. McGraw-HiU Book Co. PRUST. THOMAS P.

(12-4) (sec) 1. Btuflb (rad) (min)/(rev) by eq.32. mean-section gas velocity. m2. 1 . constant. ft/sec of absolute velocity bem/sec.TURBINE DE. to specific standard m/sec. 778 (ft)(lb)/Btu defined rev/min (o R) (lbm)(ft)/(lbf)(sec of inlet-total 2) to exit-static on ratio expansion constant. kg/sec. ft 2 coefficient m. thermal conversion ideal turbine conversion conversion approach rotative absolute absolute blade absolute change tween mass pressure. lb/ft 2 (K) . ft factor 1. constant. 9/30 factor. ratio.SIGN AND APPLICATION SYMBOLS A C D E g hh_d hh' J K M N P R T U V AVu W area. m/sec. angle. J/(kg) temperature. ft/sec component and exit. in tangential rotor inlet ft/sec flow rate. work J/kg. lb/ft defined by by eqs. specific specific discharge diameter. (12-5) from axial pressure to or (12-6) deg heat sea-level at measured at constant total direction. rad/sec. 8. factor. °R speed.17 based Btuflb work. N/m S. lb-ft Y F 5' compressibility absolute torque. annulus critical condition (at Mach 1) eq in std t 0 388 equivalent meter inlet standard meter sea-level throat station at turbine inlet condition measuring . gas constant. pressure. (ft) (lbf)/(lbm) K. flow N-m. ratio of specific heat constant volume ratio of turbine-inlet pressure defined velocity velocity pressure function of specific-heatratio. velocity speed. J/kg. eq. Subscripts" an cr by eq. lb/sec defined by eq. squared sea-level blade-jet density. (12-12) based based (12-10) (12-14) on turbine-inlet on and standard (12-13) ratio of to critical critical defined 3 temperature speed kg/m temperature.

EXPERIMENTALDETERMINATION OF 1 2 Superscript: ' absolute total state measuring measuring station station at stator at turbine AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE outlet outlet 389 .


Such apublicaLion can serve as a foundation for an introductory turbine course. 12a. (216) / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b._ .. organic fluids._ '_.S... trains. The course was somewhat rewsed and again presented in 1_72-73... _r-_ . Airbreathing engines provide jet and turboshaft propulsion. fundamental turbine concepts. AUTHOR(S) A. other asDect 1215 Ot ]. Any consistent set of units will satisfy the equations presented. automobile 400 16. PRICE CODE A17 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 19. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Unlinlited Standard _rescrloed by Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Unclassified Unclassified For sale bythe NASACenter for AeroSpace Information. :c._n :_f. Closed-cycle turbine using inert gases..r_+. Propellantturbines provide rocket propulsion and auxiliary power for space craft.t. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT lB.t .r r_ducln] _ncl _6 _t. blade cooling._. TITLE AND SUBTITLE I SDecial Publication 5. engines. losses. o7o4-o188 Form Approved eslrmate ODeratlon% Wa%hington.'_tq.t_n_.¢. and performance._r. SPONSORING/MONITORINGAGENCYNAME(S) AND AODRESS(ES) National Aeronautics and Washington. cooling 17.. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER NASA-SP-290 11. DC 2050]. 800 Elkridge Landing Road. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED I" AGENCY USEONLY(Leaveb/ank) 12" REPORT ATEjune 1994 D 4. blade aerodynamic design.rTrOn J'_h_n_on PAGE Of .Unlimited .: . customary units and defimn 8 as unity tho_o not required for the ST units. Various aspects of turbine technology were covered including thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic concepts._n.. . .S._c. Ol S T"iB U TI--'0-_0 D E' Unclassified Subject . turbine engines. customary units._t?.7 Category 13.. organization code 2760.._r.. DC 20546 Space Administration 10. aircraft engines. r._. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Lewis Research OH Center 44135 8.'_. r_.j*_. SUBJECT TERMS 15. DISTRIBUTION person. oll_ct4_f_ i..._r_r. ABqTRACT (Maxmnum 200 words) NASA turbine driven engines electric trucks. NUMBER OF PA_GES engine design._. In view of the turbine-s_stem interest and efforts at Lewis Research Center._ i T_. etc. _.r_. The notes written and used for the course have been revised and edited for publication. Unthicum Heights. a means f-or self-study. :... _f _'_ _h_ 2._ _.r_'.nl._t_._rmat_on qr% Ser_ S_'nd cP. Kestutis C. and metal fluids have been studied forproviding long-duration power for spacecraft.r_ . as well as auxiliary power for aircraft. operation.c.. DOCUMENTATION ._._ . rmpl_llnq _. _. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Cleveland.l_. buses._._. _r.v!. Glassman 7. MD 21090-2934 Form _INSI 29B _td (Rev Z39-_8 2-B9) 298 !02 . or and .Jny _epott_.) propulsion power and ground-based electrical power. a course entitled "Turbine Design and Application was presented during ]968-69 as part of the ]n-house Graduate Study Program. has an interest in turbines relatedprJrnarily to aeronautics and space applications._.. A single set of equations covers both sets of units by including all constants required for the U. Other applications of interest for turbine engines include land-vehicle (cars. comment_ Directorate Reducteon regarding _ot Prolect the% Information (0104-018B). FUNDING NUMBERS Turbine Design and Application 6._. R-5666 9. 14.REPORT r_.l_._ t_l_. J._fferson thi% _r_f. _. _h.in_ _.1_02.r_ . Two commonly used cons!stent sets of units and constant values are given after the symbol definitions. burden oMs _o._ment ` Paperwork 3.. mechanical design. Civinskas. velocity diagrams.t ] _TI "_e'_...._. or a reference for selected topics. These are the ST units and the U.. !2C. _teadquar ind Budeet 22202.. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES N Responsible 433-5890. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT 20...

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