.,- ¸~ = .

Volume One Volume One Volume One Volume One





A Translation of

.· . · .·. ¸,.

popularly known as

.·· ¯ ·
Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume One Volume One Volume One Volume One

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Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah



All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.


Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic
Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.


Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume One Volume One Volume One Volume One

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Title

Arabic Tutor - Volume One


Author

Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān ( ·~ = )

Translated by

Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition

R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by

Madrasah In’aamiyyah
P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 31 785 1519

Fax +27 31 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com


Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor Arabic Tutor – –– – Volume One Volume One Volume One Volume One

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¸· ·,· = ¸. = .. .· .· .· · = ¸. ¸· ¸
· ·- ¸·' ··¯ · .¯ · . .·· .· .` -' .
.·. .· · ¸., ·


Àbdullāh Ibn Àbbās narrates that Rasūlullāh said,
“Love the Arabs for three things:

• because I am an Arab,
• the Qur’ān is in Arabic and
• the language of the people of Jannah is Arabic.”
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Contents of Each Volume


Volume One: Lesson 1 to Lesson 15


Volume Two: Lesson 16 to Lesson 25


Volume Three: Lesson 26 to Lesson 43


Volume Four: Lesson 44 to Lesson 75
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Contents

Transliteration........................................................................10
Introduction............................................................................13
Reviews of this Book.............................................................17
Indications ..............................................................................25
Notes........................................................................................25
Request....................................................................................26
Translator's Note ...................................................................26
Terminology...........................................................................28
Terminology...........................................................................28
Lesson 1.......................................................................................31
Words and the Types of Words...........................................31
The Types of Nouns ..........................................................32
The Types of Definite Nouns...........................................33
Lesson 2.......................................................................................35
The Particles of (.·) and (´).......................................35
Vocabulary List No. 1 .......................................................38
Exercise No. 1.....................................................................40
Test No. 1............................................................................42
Lesson 3.......................................................................................44
Compounds............................................................................44
The Adjectival Phrase .......................................................45
Vocabulary List No. 2 .......................................................47
Exercise No. 2.....................................................................49
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Lesson 4.......................................................................................50
Gender.....................................................................................50
Vocabulary List No. 3 .......................................................52
Exercise No. 3.....................................................................53
Lesson 5.......................................................................................55
Singular and Plural ...............................................................55
Vocabulary List No. 4 .......................................................59
Exercise No. 4.....................................................................61
Test No. 2............................................................................62
Lesson 6.......................................................................................64
Sentences with a Noun -·,-. ·- ....................................64
Vocabulary List No. 5 .......................................................69
The Nominative Detached Pronouns .............................71
Exercise No. 5.....................................................................73
Lesson 7.......................................................................................77
The Genitive of Possession...................................................77
Vocabulary List No. 6 .......................................................80
Exercise No. 6.....................................................................84
Test No. 3............................................................................86
Lesson 8.......................................................................................88
The Scales of Words ..............................................................88
Exercise No. 7.....................................................................93
Lesson 9.......................................................................................94
The Broken Plural..................................................................94
Vocabulary List No. 7 .....................................................101
Exercise No. 8...................................................................103
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Test No. 4..........................................................................106
Lesson 10...................................................................................108
The Cases of Nouns.............................................................108
The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns ...............109
Vocabulary List No. 8 .....................................................118
Exercise No. 9...................................................................119
Lesson 11...................................................................................123
The Genitive of Possession.................................................123
Vocabulary List No. 9 .....................................................133
Exercise No. 10.................................................................135
Test No. 5..........................................................................140
Lesson 12...................................................................................142
Indicative Pronouns ............................................................142
Vocabulary List No. 10 ...................................................147
Exercise No. 11.................................................................148
Test No. 6..........................................................................151
Lesson 13...................................................................................152
Interrogative Pronouns.......................................................152
Vocabulary List No. 11 ...................................................156
Exercise No. 12.................................................................157
Test No. 7..........................................................................164
Lesson 14...................................................................................166
The Verb................................................................................166
Vocabulary List No. 12 ...................................................173
Exercise No. 13.................................................................176
Lesson 15...................................................................................181
The Imperfect .......................................................................181
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Vocabulary List No. 13 ...................................................189
Exercise No. 14.................................................................191
An Arabic Letter ..............................................................195
Test No. 8..........................................................................196

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Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters
has been used in this book:


ā
.
b
.
t
.
th
-
j
-
h
-
kh
·
d
·
dh

r

z
¸
s
¸
sh
¸
s
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¸
d

t

z
-
á
-
í
` -
ú
-
gh

f
·
q
·
k
.
l
·
m
.
n

ū
·
h
.
ī, y


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Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:


(Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)
May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî

(Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets

(Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah

(Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh

(Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(= ·~) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

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.,- ¸~ = .

¸=. ¸ ··· ¸· ·· ¸¯ = -

Introduction

From the multitudes of letters which this humble writer has
received from every corner of India, there still seems to be a
fervent desire in this age to learn Arabic and to understand
the final message of Allāh , namely the Qur’ān.

However, no primary syllabus that conformed to the times
was presented to the seekers of Arabic – such a syllabus
that could increase the enthusiasm of the learners.

The ancient method of teaching Arabic and its syllabus
from the very outset made one lose courage. Even the
modern books have been deficient in creating an urge in the
student.

Experience shows that only a syllabus which has easy rules
coupled with teaching the language can increase the
enthusiasm of the student. The rules must assist the learner
in mastering the language. While learning the language, the
rules are refreshed.
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In reality, choosing such lessons and providing a sequence
for them is no ordinary task. This is merely the grace of the
Almighty Allāh who made this writer accomplish such
an enormous task.

= ¸.· :· . ¸· ·,.

“That is the grace of Allāh. He grants it to whoever He
desires.”

All thanks are due to Allāh that this book was found to
be extremely beneficial wherever it was read or taught.
Many seekers of Arabic have written that they had lost
hope after several attempts. If they had not obtained this
book, they would not have learnt Arabic.

This is the fourth edition of this book. Initially, this book
was written in two parts. Now it has been divided into four
parts so that it can serve as a proper syllabus for high
schools from the fourth class till matric.

This is the first part of the book. The lessons have been
decreased when compared to the previous editions.
However, the exercises have been increased to an extent
that they can serve the place of an Arabic reader.
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This part contains only fifteen lessons. But you will be
surprised to note how much Arabic is taught with such a
few lessons. The method of analysing sentences and
recognition has been so well explained, that one cannot
achieve this by learning several other prevalent Arabic
Grammar books.

The key to each part has also been published. Due to this,
many learners have learnt Arabic on their own.

A student doing self-study can complete this part in about
six weeks. However, due to the presence of several other
subjects in high schools, it will be appropriate to make it a
one year course in the fourth class. In Arabic seminaries
and Dārul Úlūms, where only Arabic is taught, all four
parts of this book can be easily taught in one year.

Nevertheless, this book is such that every text book
committee and those in charge of the syllabi in the
madrasahs should include it in their syllabus in order to
remove the difficulties of the students. They will be
rewarded by Allāh and thanked by the people.

The summary of the opinions of the Ulamā of every
province of India and the reviews of magazines and
newspapers is that this has been the most successful
attempt to simplify Arabic. This book is worth being
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introduced in government and non-govermental schools so
that the teaching of Arabic can be simplified.
This humble servant is grateful to all those who rendered
beneficial opinions. May Allāh reward them with the
best of rewards.

The following pages contain the valuable opinions of some
scholars. This should serve as a means of encouraging the
seekers of Arabic. Others will not have to waste their time
in looking for the merits of this book.

The servant of the students
(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān (= ·~)
Bindi Bazaar, Bombay, India

Muharram 1361 A.H.
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Reviews of this Book
by the Úlamā, professors of Arabic, authentic journals and
the lovers of Arabic

Àllāmah Shabbir Ahmad Úthmānī (= ·~)

This book is worth including in the syllabi of the madāris. It
is perhaps the best book written in this subject. The author
has done a tremendous favour to the seekers of Arabic.


Moulānā Manāzir Ahsan Gilānī (= ·~), teacher at Jāmiah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

May Allāh reward you. This is a tremendous task. You have
favoured the Muslims greatly. You have decreased a
burden from my shoulders.

Moulānā Khājah Àbdul Hayy (= ·~), professor at Jāmi’ah
Millīyah, Delhi

I taught the first part to the students as an experiment. I
have found this book to be the easiest from all the books
written on this subject.

Abul A’lā Maududi, editor of Tarjumanul Qur’ān, Lahore
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This is the most successful effort at explaining the language
of Arabic and its rules.


Moulānā Muhammad Nāzim Nadwī (= ·~), teacher at
Nadwatul Ulamā, Lucknow

Many books have been written in India to learn the Arabic
language in the shortest period possible. However, I have
not seen any book till now that concisely meets the needs of
the time. Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to the
gratitude and thanks of the Indian students and teachers for
having written a very beneficial, easy and concise textbook
to fulfil this need…

From my personal experience I know that this book is very
valuable in providing benefit. It is worthy of being included
in Arabic madrasahs and English schools so that the
students can learn the language in a short period.


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Moulānā Àbdul Qadīr Siddīqī (= ·~), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

If this book is included in the syllabus, it will be very
suitable. It is better than other books.


Moulānā Àbdul Wāsi’ (= ·~), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

I completely agree with the opinion of Moulānā Àbdul
Qadīr Sāhib.



Àllāmah Sheikh Àbdul Qādir (= ·~), professor at
Elphinstone College, Bombay

This is a successful endeavour. If this book is included in
the initial Arabic syllabus, it would be more beneficial than
other books.


Moulānā Ghulām Ahmad (= ·~), head teacher at Madrasah
Àrabīyah, Jāmi’ Musjid Bombay

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We have included this textbook in the syllabus of our
madrasah. Experience shows that it is very beneficial.


Moulānā Habībur Rahmān Sherwānī (= ·~), Hyderabad

I have studied the book, ‘Àrabī kā Mu’allim’. It seems to be
better than the previous books.


Moulānā Lutfur Rahmān (= ·~), Hyderabad

The success you have achieved in simplifying Arabic has
not been achieved by anyone, not even by the European
Orientalists. This book is not merely ‘dry’ Grammar but is
an excellent textbook of Grammar and an interesting
collection of literature.


Janāb Ghulām Àlī, advocate of the High Court, Bombay

Such an interesting and easy book of Arabic Grammar has
not been seen before. My children study it with great
interest.


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Moulānā Sayyid Muhammad Yahyāpūr (= ·~), Ilāhabād

There is no doubt that the author will long be remembered
for this book and in the hereafter it will be a means of great
reward for him.


Moulānā Muhammad Sa’īd (= ·~), Sultānpūr

The books of Punjab and U.P. and the book ‘Kalāme Àrabī’ of
Meerut are non-entities in front of your book.


Moulānā Muhammad Siddīq Kīrānwī (= ·~)

This humble servant has several books of this type e.g.
Raudatul Adab, Kalāme Àrabī etc. However, the excellent
manner in which you have presented the summary from
Mīzān till Kāfiyah cannot be found in the above-mentioned
books.


Moulānā Sa’īduddīn Khān (= ·~), Indor

Indeed Arabic has been simplified. Your effort is worth
congratulating.
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Zamīndār, a newspaper of Lahore

Without exaggeration, we can say that the learned author
has achieved extraordinary success. In our opinion this
book is worth including in the syllabi of all government and
non-government schools where Arabic is taught. We
specifically request the Punjab Text Book Committee to
grant the students the opportunity to benefit from it.


Al-Jam’īat, a newspaper of Delhi

“Arabī Kā Mu’allim” in reality conveys the meaning of its
name – that is, it is an Arabic tutor. My desire is that the
principals of Arabic institutes include it in their syllabi.


The Journal “Adabī Dunyā” of Delhī

Many books have been written till now in the modern trend
in order to simplify Arabic. I have seen practically all of
them. However, the manner in which Moulanā Àbdus
Sattār Khān has simplified a complex language such as
Arabic cannot be found anywhere.


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The newspaper “Zamzam” of Lahore

The manner of teaching and understanding adopted in this
book does not create any burden on the mind. Every fact is
thoroughly learnt like a known fact. In our opinion there is
no better series to promote Arabic.

The Journal “Balāgh” of Amritsar

Moulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to congratulations
for having converted this stone (Arabic Grammar) into
water. He has explained all the rules from Mīzān till Kāfiyah
in an easy-to-understand manner.


Ilāhī Bakhsh, Malaya

I have ordered many books of Arabic Grammar and
Morphology written in Urdu and English and have spent
much money on them. But by Allāh, these books have no
value in front of your book. I do not have sufficient
powerful words to describe the assistance I have received
from your book in learning Arabic. Even now, if a Muslim
finds Arabic to be difficult, he is unfortunate and lacks
courage.


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Janāb Muhammad Hanīf, Upper Primary School,
Hazārībāgh

I had a desire to study Arabic for a long time. I used many
books but it was futile. When I studied your book, I
mastered Arabic in a very short while. The surprising thing
was that I received no assistance from any teacher. Your
book in reality is a mirror of the Arabic language.


Muhammad Sharafud-dīn, Hyderabad

I thought that Arabic was so difficult that I could not even
imagine learning it. However, as soon as I saw your book,
my courage increased and I began studying it. I completed
the first part in a few days. Now send me the second part. I
do not think there is any book easier than this one.


Dr. Muhammad Àbdul Quddūs, Madras

I read the first part of your book. It helped me
tremendously to the extent that now I am able to write a
few sentences in Arabic. Undoubtedly your book will create
a great revolution.


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This amount of recommendation is sufficient for the one
who understands; otherwise so many reviews were
received that a separate book could be compiled for this
purpose.

Indications

1) The inverted comma (.) is used to indicate the plural of a
noun.
2) In order to refer to a particular lesson, the lesson number
and fact number will be mentioned in brackets thus: (5-2)
meaning lesson number 5, fact no. 2.
3) The (.) of the verb is mentioned in brackets after it.

Notes

1) Do not start a new lesson until you have mastered the
previous one.
2) Translate each exercise with particular care.
3) Sometimes you may not understand a point. Remain
steadfast and seek the assistance of someone. Perhaps later
on you will understand the point yourself.

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Request

A request is made to the teachers to study the book
thoroughly before teaching it. During your teaching stint,
you will be able to refer your students to previous lessons
easily. There is no need to memorize the rules parrot-
fashion. As you continuously repeat the examples, the rules
will become ingrained in your mind. You will also learn the
Arabic terms at the same time. It is appropriate to teach the
book twice. First teach it superfluously and then in detail
the second time.

Translator's Note

Translating is indeed a difficult task and I therefore do not
claim to have fulfilled the right of translating this book. I
ask the reader to overlook all shortcomings. Those
attempting to translate any work of this calibre, will realize
the great hurdles one has to overcome, especially where
there are many technical terms involved.

I have made an attempt to clarify the text as much as
possible and simplify the rules so that the beginner can
grasp them quickly. Where there was a need, I have added
explanatory footnotes.
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The original Urdu text of the book contains many errors,
especially in the Qur'ānic verses. I have corrected these in
the English version. In many cases, I have used tables to
enlist sentences or examples. This was done for the sake of
greater clarity although the original text does not have such
tables. Many new Arabic words used in the exercises have
not been mentioned in the vocabulary. I have enlisted these
as well. Many singular words did not have their plurals
listed. I have included these also for the benefit of the
students.

I have used the arrow sign ( ) to indicate the direction of
the text. In some cases, the text has to be read from left to
right as in English, while in other instances, it has to be read
from right to left as in Arabic.

I have provided the English equivalents of the Arabic
grammatical terminology for the sake of information. The
student need not learn the English terms. If one learns the
Arabic terms and understands them well, it is sufficient.
May Allāh accept this humble effort from me and make it
a means for my salvation, Āmīn.



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Terminology

Terms Meanings
- ¯ ·
the diacritical points namely fathah
(.), kasrah (.) and dammah (.).
` · - ` ·
a letter with a harakah
` ´ ` . . the diacritical point (.) also known
as jazm
· ` - · fathah (.)
¯ ` · kasrah (.)
. ` · dammah (.)
` . ` ¸ two fathahs (.), two kasrahs ( .) or
two dammas ( .)
` ` . . ¸` .`
the sound of the nūn created when
reading the tanwīn
· ` ` . - a letter having a fathah, eg. ( .)
· ´ ` ` . a letter having a kasrah, eg. ( .)
· ` . ` ` . · a letter having a dammah, eg. ( .)
¯ ¸ a letter having a sukūn, eg. (` -)
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` · ` · a letter having a tashdīd (.)
` · ` .
to make a noun definite
` ´ ` ,
to make a noun indefinite
. ` ·
` ` · ` .
the (.) attached to a noun
` · · ` `
· ·
the noun having (.)
-
singular
· , ·
dual
- ` ·
plural
` . ·` - a collective plural, e.g. (` ·` . ·) - nation
¯ ` , masculine – also known as ( ¯·)
' ` , . feminine – also known as (..·)
` - ` `
.. ` - ` ¸
the letters of the alphabet
` ` ` -
· ·
(), () and (.)
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` ` ` ` -
` . - ` , - ·
the letters besides the (·· -)
· ` · One hamzah is that of the ( -
¸-..). Another hamzah is an alif
that is mutaharrik ( ) or an alif
having jazm like the alif of (` ¸ ' )
· ` ·
. ` . ¸
The initial hamzah of a word which
is not pronounced when joined to the
preceding word, e.g. ( . ´ ` · )



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.,- ¸~ = .
Lesson 1
Words and the Types of Words

1. A word having a meaning is called ( · ¯). It is of three
types: (` .` ) – noun, ( ¸` · ·) - verb and (` ` -) - particle.

An (.) is independent of other words in indicating its
meaning. It also does not have any tense, e.g. ( ¸` - ) – man,
(` · -) – specific name, (` .` .) – to hit, (` .` , ~) – good, ( .` ·) –
he, ( ') – I.

A (¸··) is a word that indicates some action together with
one of the three tenses, e.g. ( . .) – he hit, ( . · ·) – he went,
(` . · ) – he is going or he will go.

A (-) is a word whose meaning cannot be understood
without an ( . ) or (¸··), e.g. (` ¸ ·) – from, (¸ ·) – on, (` ¸ ·) –
in, (¸ ) – till, ( ¸` -` . · · ¸ -` ) – The man went to the
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musjid.

The Types of Nouns

2. Nouns are of two types:
(1) (····) – definite and
(2) (·´) – indefinite.

An indefinite noun is a word which refers to a general
thing. The word ( ¸` - ) – a man, does not refer to any
specific person. It can refer to any person. The word (` .` , ~)
does not refer to any particular good thing. Every good
thing can be called (` .` , ~).

A definite noun refers to a specific thing. Zaid () is the
name of a particular person. Makkah (·´·) is the name of a
specific city. ( ¸` -` ) – the man - refers to a specific person.

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The Types of Definite Nouns

Definite Nouns are of seven categories:

1. ( ` ` . · . ) – proper nouns, e.g. (), (` · -).
2. ( ` ` . ` . ` , ) - pronouns, e.g. ( .` ·) – he, ( .` ) – you, ( ) - I.
3. ( · . ` .` ) - the demonstrative pronoun, e.g. ( ·) –
this, ( · · ) – that.
4. ( .` .` .` . ` .` . ) - the relative pronoun, e.g. (` . ) – who,
(` ¸ ) – who (feminine).
5. ( · ` . ) – vocative case, e.g. ( ¸` - ) – O man, ( ` )
– O boy.
6. ( ` ` ·` · · ) - the noun having ( . ), e.g. (` ¸ ) the
horse, ( ¸` -` ) – the man.
7. ( ` .` ¸ · · ` · · ) – a noun which is related to any of
the above-mentioned definite nouns, e.g. ( ` . ¯ ` ) –
Zaid’s book, ( ` . ¯ · ) – this person’s book, ( ` . ¯
¸` -` ) – the book of the man.

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Note: In these examples, the word (` . ¯) has become
definite.

Besides the above-mentioned definite nouns, all other
nouns are indefinite. They are also of several types, two of
the main categories being:

(1) ( . ` .` ) – a word that denotes the being of
something, living or non-living, e.g. ( . ` ) – man, (` ¸ ·) –
horse, (` - -) – stone.

(2) ( ` .` · ` . ) - a word that indicates the quality of
something, e.g. (` ¸ -) – beautiful, (` -` , ·) – ugly.
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Lesson 2
The Particles of (.·,-·) and (~´··)

1. The tanwīn
1
is generally attached to a word that is
indefinite. In this case, it is regarded as a particle that
renders a noun indefinite (´ -).
2
It is translated as ‘a’
or ‘an’ in English, e.g. ( ¸` - ) – a man, (` - ` ) – an apple, ( . ·)
– water. There is no need to translate it everywhere as in the
example of ( . ·) – water.

Note 1: Sometimes a proper noun also has tanwīn, e.g.
(` ` -` ·), (` ` ·), (` ` ). In such a case, the tanwīn is not
regarded as a (´ -).

2. The definite article of Arabic is ( . ).
3
It is also called ( ·.
.·). When ( . ) is prefixed to any indefinite word, it
becomes definite. Now the word is termed as (·· ` ··) –

1
See Terminology on page 22.
2
This is similar to the letter ‘a’ in English.
3
It is similar to the word ‘the’ in English.
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a word made definite by ( . ). Consequently, (` ¸ ·) – a horse,
is indefinite while (` ¸ ) – the horse, is definite.

3. When ( . ) is prefixed to a word having tanwīn, the
tanwīn falls off. Note the above example.

4. When any word precedes a word having ( . ), the first
word is joined to the lām of the second word and
pronounced (by joining). The hamzah of the ( . ) is known
as hamzatul wasl.
4
It is not pronounced, e.g. ( .` , ` . ) – the
door of the house. To read ( .` , ` . ) here is incorrect.

Note 2: If there is a sākin letter before the ( . ), the sākin
letter is normally read with a kasrah. However the word
(` ¸ ·) is read with a fathah. Therefore, ( ` ¸ · .` , ) is read as ( ¸ ·
.` , ) and ( .` , ` ¸ ·) is read as ( .` , ¸ ·).

5. When a word having tanwīn precedes the definite article,
the nūn of the tanwīn
5
is rendered a kasrah and joined to

4
See under terminology.
5
See under terminology.
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the lām. If after the word ( ` ` - .` ` ), the word (` . · )
appears, it will be read as ( ` `
.
` . · ).

Note 3: The alif of (` ¸` ), ( · ` ) and (` .` ) is also hamzatul wasl.
It is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word.

Examples: ( .` · ` ¸` ) is read as (` ¸` .` ·) – He is a son;
( · ` .` ) is read as ( · ` .` ) – This is a name;
( ` ` ` ¸` ) is read as ( ` `
.
` ¸` ) – Zaid is a son;
( ` · - ` .` ) is read as ( ` · -
.
` .` ) – Hāmid is a name.

When ( . ) is prefixed to (` ¸` ) and (` .` ), the lām of the ( . ) is
rendered a kasrah and joined to the (.) and (¸). Therefore
(` ¸` ) is read as ( ` ¸` - ` ¸` ) and ( ` .` ) is read as ( ` .` -
` .` ). This rule is overlooked in general conversation.

6. When ( . ) is prefixed to a word having one of the letters
of (·, -), the lām of the ( . ) is assimilated into the
harf shamsī, that is, at the time of pronunciation, instead of
reading the lām, the harf shamsī is pronounced. No jazm is
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written on the lām in such a case but a tashdīd is written on
the harf shamsī, e.g. (` ¸` ` ) – the sun, ( ¸` -` ) – the man,
etc.

The (·, -) are:
¸ ¸ ¸ · · . . . . ¸

Besides these letters, the other letters are called ( -
·), e.g. (` ) – the moon, ( ¸ - ) – camel.
Vocabulary List No. 1

Note 4: After prefixing the definite article to these words,
pronounce them.

Word Meaning
` .
man
` .` ,
house
` `
dates
`
fruit
¸ · -
ignorant
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` . ·
learned
` ¸ -
good, beautiful
` ` ` -
bread
` ¸` ·
lesson
` .` ·
sin
.` .`
messenger
· ¯
zakāh
¸` .
easy
¸` ,
thing
· .
prayer
.` . .
light
` .` , ~
good, clean
` . ~
oppressor
. · ·
just
` ` . ·
one who forgives
` , ·
transgressor
` -` , ·
ugly
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` .` ¯
noble, generous
` ¸
milk
. ·
water
` .
day
`
boy
¯ ·
cat
` ·` .
day

and
` '
or

Exercise No. 1

Note 5: When speaking, pause on the last letter, that is, do
not read any harakah on the final letter. Read the word
(` .` , ) as (` .` , ) and ( · ¯` ) as (` · ¯` ). If you are reading one
word, pause on its last letter and if you are reading several
words, pause on the last word, e.g. (` ¸ ` ` ` -).
(A) Read these words and translate them:

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, · . ` .` , , · . ` · , · . · ¯` · ` . , . . ` ¸ ` ` ` - , ~ . ` ' ` - .
` , · , · . ` -` , ` ¸ - , · . ` ` ` - . , . ` ¸ ` ` , - .
` . · ¸ · - , · . ` ¸ . ` , ·· . ` . ¯ ` ¸` · , ·· . . · ·
` . = ' , ·· . ` ¸ · ¸ -

(B) Translate the following words or phrases into Arabic.
Use the definite article ( . ) wherever the words are definite.

(1) a horse (2) a man (3) a man and a horse (4) bread and
water (5) a man and a fruit and a house (6) the salāh and the
learned man (7) the pious one and the transgressor (8) the
man or the horse (9) the milk and the bread (10) a man and
a horse (11) the ugly one and the beautiful one (12) a cat
and a boy (13) the moon and the sun (14) the camel or the
horse.

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Test No. 1

1. What is the definition of (·¯)?
2. How many types of words are there? Define each one
with examples.
3. What is the major difference between a noun and a verb?
4. How many tenses are there?
5. From the following words, state whether the words are
(.), (¸··) or (-).
. ` ¸ . ` . ` . · . . . . ` ¸ · . .` · ¸ ` ·` .
6. Define what is (····) and (·´) with examples.
7. How many types of (···· .) are there?
8. Say whether the following words are definite or
indefinite.
. ` -` , · . ` ¸ - . ` ¸ . ` ¸` - . ` .` , = . ¸` - . ` . · ´ · . ` ` ·
9. In the above-mentioned words, what type of (····) and
(·´) are they?
10. What is the hamzah of ( . ) called?
11. Join the word ( .` ·) to the words (` . ), (` .` ) and (` ¸` ) and
read them.
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12. When ( . ) is added to the words (` .` ) and (` ¸` ), how are
they read?
13. What is (¸. ..)?
14. How is a word having tanwīn joined to a word having
( . )?
15. What are the (·, -) and the (· -)?
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Lesson 3
Compounds

1. A combination of two or more words is called (. ¯ ` ·).
The relationship between them is called (.` , ¯` ).
2. Compounds are of two types: ( · ` ¸ ) incomplete and ( ¯ · )
complete.
(a) An incomplete compound (¸· .¯·) is a combination
of words from which no information, order or desire is
understood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g. (` ¸ - ¸` - ) –
a good man; ( ¸` - ` . ¯) a man’s book.
(b) A complete compound (· .¯·) is a combination of
words from which some information, command or wish is
understood, e.g. (` ¸ - ¸` -` ) - The man is good. This
statement provides us with the information that the man is
good.
( . ´ ` -) – Take the book. The order of taking the book is
understood from this sentence.
(` ¸ ·` ` ` . ) – O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. A
request is understood from this statement.
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A complete sentence is also called ( · ` ` -) or (` · · ¯).

3. Incomplete compounds are of several kinds, e.g. ( .¯·
` . . ` , ¯ ¸ ), ( .¯· . · ¯ ¸ ), ( · .¯· · ¯ . ), etc. Here we will
discuss (¸,.. .¯·). The other types will be discussed
later on, as will complete sentences.

The Adjectival Phrase
(¸,.. .¯·)

4. A (¸,.. .¯·) is a compound in which the second
word describes the first word, e.g. (` - . ¸` - ) – a pious
man. The word (` - .) describes the word ( ¸` - ) with the
quality of piety.

5. The first part of a (¸,.. .¯·) is ( . . ),
6
while the
second part is ( . ·. ). In the above example, the word
( ¸` - ) is ( . . ) while the word (` - .) is ( . ·. ).

6
See Lesson 1, fact no.4
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6. The first part of (¸,.. .¯·) is called ( · ` . ` . ` . ` )
7
while
the second part is called the ( . · )
8
. In the above example,
the word ( ¸` - ) is a (...·) while the word (` - .) is a
(·.).

7. If the (...·) is indefinite (·´), the (·.) will also be
(·´), otherwise it will be (····). In the compound ( ¸` -
` - .), both parts are (·´) - indefinite. In the phrase ( ¸` -`
` - ` .), both parts are (····) - definite.

8. The same declension ( ` · ` . )
9
that applies to the (...·)
will apply to the (·.).

9. A (¸,.. .¯·) and all other incomplete compounds
form part of a sentence.

7
a word that is being described.
8
adjective.
9
This will be discussed in detail in Lesson 10.
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Vocabulary List No. 2

Word Meaning
. ` `
garden
` ` -
sea
` -` , =
melon
` ` , ¯
big, large
` ,` , ·
deep
¸` ·
bad
` - `
apple
.` ·`
pomegranate
` -
street
` ` . ·
palace
¸ - ·
place
` -` ·
mosque
` : ·
king
` ¸` ` -
cheese
` . ·
pen
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` ·`
rose
` ` , -
good
` . ` -
sweet
` ¸` ·
broad
` ` , ·
strong
` .` , =
clean
` ·` ,
wide
` .` , = ·
great
· ` , ·' ` - ` -
salty
` ` , · .
small
` ` -'
red

The above list contains many ( . . ) and ( . ·. ). By
combining them, you can form many compounds of ( .¯·
¸,..) – adjectival phrases.

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Exercise No. 2

(A) Translate the following phrases into English:

, · . ` .` , = · = , · . ` .` ´ .` .` ` , · . ` ` . · ` .` , = · , . . ` ` , ·` . ` .` ,
, ~ . ` .` , = . ` ` , · . ` . ` - ` ` , · . ` . ` - ` ` ` , . ` - . ` : · , - .
` ` - ` - , · . ` .` , ~ ¸` , , ·· . ` .` , = ¸` -` , ·· . ` ` -` ·
.
.` .` ` , ·· . ` ` . · ¯ . , ·. . · ` .` · ` .` , = , ·~ . ` -` , · ¸` - , ·· .
¸` ·` ` ¸` ` - , ·· . ` . ` - ` ` ` ` , - ` ` ` - , · . ` : ` - ` . ¸` -`
` .` ´ , ·- . ` - ` ` ` -' , · . ` . ` - ` -` , = , ·· . ` ` - ' ` ·` .

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) the strong place (2) the small house (3) a beautiful flower
(4) the ugly man (5) the broad street (6) a pious man (7) the
sweet milk (8) the just king (9) the great palace (10) the easy
lesson (11) a beautiful horse (12) a sweet fruit (13) the small
place (14) the good horse (15) the wide house (16) the good
bread or the good milk (17) a pious boy and a transgressing
boy (18) the large musjid and the small garden.
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Lesson 4
Gender

1. Arabic words are of two types with regards to gender: (1)
(` ¯ ` ·) – masculine and
(2) ( .` .` ·) – feminine, e.g. (` ¸` ) – son is masculine and ( · ` ) –
daughter is feminine.

2. When a tā ta’nīth
10
(·) is appended to the end of a
masculine noun, it becomes feminine, e.g. (` ¸` ) changes to
( · ` ). Similarly (` ¸ -) changes to ( · -) and (` : · - king)
changes to ( · ´ · - queen) etc. This rule applies more to
adjectives (·. .) and sometimes to (. .).

3. In some words, the alif maqsūrah (.) or the alif
mamdūdah (. .) is a sign of the word being feminine, e.g.
( ` ` - ¸ ) – a beautiful lady; ( . ` · ) – radiant.


10
The round tā which is a sign of feminine words.
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4. Some nouns are feminine without any sign of being
feminine. They are known as ( ` · . ` . · ¯ ¸ ) – as heard from
the Arabs. The details are as follows:

(a) any word referring to a woman, e.g. (¯ · ') – mother;
(` ¸` ` ·) – bride; (` ` ·) – a woman’s name, or India.
(b) the names of countries, e.g. (` ` . ·) – Egypt, (` ·` ) –
Syria, (` ·` ' ) – The Roman Empire.
(c) parts of the body in pairs, e.g. (` ) – hand, ( ¸` - ) –
foot, ( . · ') – ear, (` ¸` , ·) – eye.
(d) Besides the above-mentioned nouns, there are other
nouns which are used as feminine by the Arabs.
Some of them are:

` ¸` '
earth
` .` -
war
` ` -
wine
` ·
house
` -`
wind
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` ·` .`
market
` ¸`
sun
`
fire
` ¸
soul

Although some words have a (·) at the end, they are
masculine in usage because they refer to males, e.g.
( · · ~) – name of a poet, ( · ` , -) – the leader of the
Muslims, ( · · · ·) – a very learned scholar.
11


6. Just as an adjective corresponds to its noun in being
definite or indefinite, so does it correspond in gender.

Vocabulary List No. 3

Word Meaning
·
city
` .` , ´ -
wise
` `
severe

11
This word is used for females as well.
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` · · .
truthful
` · ~
rising
¸` . ~
tall, long
` . ·
setting
· .` ·
obligatory
· ~ ·
name of a woman
.¯`
the Qur’ān
` ` , . ·
short
` . ·
heart
¯ ¸ · =` ·
peaceful
` · · ·` .
ignited
` ` .
river

Exercise No. 3

(A) Translate these phrases into English

, · . ·` · =` ` ¸ ` , · . · ` . ~ · ` , , · . ` .` , ´ - .¯` , . . · ` ` -`
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, ~ . . · · · ` , - , · . ` ` . · ¯ . · ` , ~ · , · . · ` , = · ` · , . `
· ·` .` · , - . · - . · ` , · . ` ` ·
.
· · ·` . , ·· . ` ¸` ` · · - , ·· .
` . · ` · · = ` ¸` ` , ·· . · .` · ` . , ·. . ` ·` · ~ · .
, ·~ . ` ` - · ` , ¸ , ·· . · ` . ~ ` .` - , ·· . ` ·` · · ~ , · . ` ` ,
.
· · ·

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) a beautiful girl (2) the pious caliph (3) the wise man (4)
the obligatory zakāh (5) an obligatory salāh (6) a short night
(7) the big day (8) the good thing (9) the ugly bride (10) the
setting sun and the rising moon (11) the severe wind (12)
the long river (13) the long war (14) the short hand (15) the
peaceful heart (16) Muhammad, the pious (17) the very
learned Fātimah.
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Lesson 5
Singular and Plural

1. In Arabic, words are of three categories with regards to
number:
singular ( ` · ` · ` ' ` - ), indicating one, e.g. ( ¸` - ) – one
man.
dual ( · , · ), indicating two, e.g. ( . ·` - ) – two men.
plural (` ·` -), indicating more than two, e.g. ( . - ) – more
than two men.

2. The dual
12
is formed by adding ( . .) to (·· ·-) - the
nominative case
13
or ( ¸` .) to (- .. ·-) - the
accusative or genitive cases
14
.
Examples:
(` : ·) – one king, ( . ´ ·) or ( ¸` , ´ ·) – two kings

12
Although the author has referred the student to a future lesson, at this
point, it will be sufficient for him to remember that there are two forms of the
dual: one is with alif and nūn and the second with yā and nūn. Lesson 10 will
explain where to use which one.
13
·· ·- – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.
14
- .. ·- – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.
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( · ´ ·) – one queen, ( . ´ ·) or ( ¸` , ´ ·) – two queens.

Note 1: In the prevalent books of Arabic Grammar and
Morphology, the terms ( . ) and ( ¸` ) are not written.
Instead, these terms are expressed in detail as ( ' ` . · · ` .
· ` ` . - · ` ` . . · ´ ` ` . · ) and ( . · · ` . · ` ` . - · ` ` . . · ´ ` ` . · ). We
have chosen the former method for the sake of brevity.

Note 2: To pronounce ( . ) and ( ¸` ), one can read the
fathah with the sound of an alif and say ( .¯) and ( ¸` ). Such
signs will come frequently later on. Pronounce them in this
manner wherever one comes across them.

3. Plurals are of two types:
(a) (` . ` ` ·` - ) – the sound plural
(b) (` ` ´` ` ·` - ) – the broken plural

The sound plural is one in which the singular form of the
word remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end.
It is of two types:

(i) Masculine ( ` · ¯ ` ) – in which ( .` . .) in (·· ·-) - the
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nominative case
15
or ( ¸` , .) in the accusative and genitive
cases are appended, e.g. (` . ` ` ·) – one Muslim, ( .` .` ` ` ·) or
( ¸` , ` ` ·) – many Muslims.

(ii) Feminine ( ` · . ` . ) – in which (` . .) in the nominative
case or ( . .) in the accusative and genitive cases are
appended, e.g. ( · ` ` ·) – one (female) Muslim, (` . ` ` ·) or
( . ` ` ·) – many (female) Muslims.

The broken plural is one in which the form of the singular
word is broken, that is, changed. It has no fixed rule for
making it. Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted and
sometimes there is merely a change in the harakāt
16
.
Examples:
(` ` . ) (` ` .` '), ( ¸` - ) ( . - ), (` ` ) ( . ` ), (` . ¯) (` .` ¯),
(` . -) (` .` ` -). The broken plural will be discussed in
detail in Lesson 12.

Note 3: The (` . ` ` ·` - ) - sound plural of some feminine

15
This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.
16
Fathah, dammah, kasrah, etc.
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words is like the masculine plurals, e.g. the plural of ( · ) –
year, is ( .` .` ) or ( ¸` , ) and sometimes (` . . ).

Note 4: The (..) that appears at the end of the ( · , · ) - dual
form and the ( ` ·` - ` ¯ ` ` . ` ) - sound masculine plural is
called ( ` ` . . ` · ` , · )
17
. See Lesson 10.

4. Some nouns are singular in form but refer to a whole
group. There is no singular for them as well because they
are not plurals in reality. Such nouns are called ( ` ` . - ` · ).
Examples:
(` ·` . ·) – a nation, ( ` · ) – a group.
These words are generally used like plurals in sentences,
e.g. ( .` .` - . ` ·` . ·) – a pious nation.

5. You have learnt in lessons 3 and 4 that the adjective
corresponds with its noun in (.·), being definite or
indefinite and in gender. Now remember that the adjective
has to correspond with its noun in number as well.

17
Since the word ( ` ` . . ) is feminine in Arabic, the adjective also has to be
feminine, namely ( ` · ` , · ).
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However, when the noun being described is ( - ` ` · · ` , · · ¸ ) –
the plural of an unintelligent being
18
, whether masculine or
feminine, the adjective is generally singular feminine ( -
..·), although it is sometimes plural. One can say ( ` ·` '
··` ` ` · ·) as well as (` . ·` ` ` · · ` ·` ').

Vocabulary List No. 4

Word Meaning
` ¸ ¯
future
·¯
sign, verse of the Qur’ān
· ` ,
clear, manifest
` . -
current (present)
` ¸ .
past
· -
quarter, section of a city
` · · -
servant
` ` -
baker

18
Intelligent beings are humans, angels and jinn. All other creations fall in the
category of unintelligent beings ( · ` , ` · · ¸ ).
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` , -
tailor, seamstress
. ` ·
tired, exhausted
. ·` ·
displeased
` ` .
month
. ·` ¯
lazy
` . · .
playing
` · · .
shining
` ` · ` .
cheerful
` . ` -` ·
diligent
` ` ` ·
supported
.` .` ·` ·
busy, preoccupied
` . =` ·
dark
` . ·` ·
teacher
` ` , ` ·
bright
` ` -
carpenter


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Exercise No. 4

(A) Translate these phrases into English

, · . ` . ` . ·` ` - , · . . - ` . . ·` , · . .` .` - ` . .` .` ·`
, . . ` . . ` -` · ` . ·` · , ~ . · =` · ` , , · . ` ` , ` · ` · , · . ` ¸` `
· ` , ` , . . · · · . ` , · , - . · , . · ` , · . ` . - ` ` .`
, ·· . · - ` ` .` ' , ·· . · ` , = ` . - , ·· . · ·` ¯ · ~` , - , ·. .
. · · . ` , ·~ . . ` · . ` , ·· . . ·` · . ·` - , ·· .
· , ¯ .` .` ` , · . ·` . ` . . , - · ` , , ·- . .` .` ·` ´ .` ` ` -`
.` ` . ` -` .` .` · · - , · . ` `
.
. ·` ·` , ·· . ` ` ·
.
·-
` .` `
, ·· . ` . ` , ` .¯ , ·· . · ` ` · ` .` ` -

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic

(1) a shining eye (2) the two diligent men (3) the
preoccupied baker (4) the two tired carpenters (5) the bright
day (6) the beautiful seamstresses (7) the tired servants (8)
the lazy tailor (9) the flowing rivers (10) the large animals
(11) the current year (12) the past month (13) the past years

19
This is the name Àmr. The () differentiates it from ( ` · ` ` ).
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(14) the cheerful servant

Test No. 2

(1) What is a (. ¯·)?
(2) How many types of compounds are there? Define each
one and provide examples.
(3) What is (¸,.. . ¯·)? What is each part of it called?
(4) In which aspects does the adjective have to correspond
with the noun? What are the exceptions? Explain with
examples.
(5) What are the signs of feminine words?
(6) Which words are regarded as feminine without any
signs?
(7) In spite of having the signs of being feminine, which
words are masculine?
(8) What is the rule for making the dual and sound
masculine plural forms?
(9) What is (´' ·-) and what is the rule for forming it?
(10) What are the broken plurals of (` ` . ), ( ¸` - ) and (` . -)?
(11) What is the plural of ( · )?
(12) What is the difference between (·~) and (·~ .)?
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(13) Form as many (¸,.. . ¯·) as possible from the
following nouns and adjectives:


¸ ·
·
` ¸
··
` . ·
··
` ¸` ` ·
.` .` . - . ` ` ¸` ' ` .` -
` · · ` - . ` . ` - ` ·` ' ` .` ¯

· - · , . · ` ` ` ·
··
` ` , ` ·



20
honey
21
milk
22
grapes
23
round
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Lesson 6
Sentences with a Noun - -~Vا ^--=-ا ^-

1. You have read that a complete statement is called a
sentence (·~). See 3.2. Remember that sentences are of two
types: ( ·~ ·,- ) and ( ·~ ·,·· ).

A (·,- ·~) is one in which the first part is a noun (.), e.g.
(` ¸ - ` ` ) – Zaid is handsome.
A (·,·· ·~) is one in which the first part is a verb (¸··), e.g.
(` ` ¸` -) – Zaid became handsome.

Hereunder follow some rules of (·,- ·~) while the ( ·~
·,··) will be discussed in Lesson 14.

The first part of a (·,- ·~) is generally definite (····) while
the second part is indefinite (·´). In the above example,
the word (` ` ) is definite while (` ¸ -) is indefinite.

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Note 1: The difference between (·,- ·~) and ( . ¯·
¸,..) is that in the latter, both the parts are the same in
being definite or indefinite while in the former, the first part
is definite and the second part is indefinite. Consequently,
in the above-mentioned example, if an indefinite noun takes
the place of the word (` ` ) and you say (` ¸ - ¸` - ), or you
render the second word (` ¸ -) definite by adding ( . ) to it,
and say ( ` `
.
` ¸ - ), both these will become adjectival
phrases (¸,.. . ¯·).

However, when the second part of a (·,- ·~) is not a word
that can become an adjective of a noun
24
, it is permissible
for the second part also to be definite, e.g.
(` .` ` .` ') – I am Yūsuf.
It is also permissible to insert a separating pronoun ( . ` , )
between the subject (·) and the predicate (-).
Examples:
( ` . .` · ¸` -` ` - ) – The man is pious.
( .` .` - ` . ` .` · . -` ) – The men are pious.

24
For example, it is (.· .), (.) or (· .).
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If the pronoun is removed from here, these sentences will
become adjectival phrases (¸,.. . ¯·).

Note 2: In Arabic, there is no word for ‘is’ as in English.
This word is understood from the sentence. Therefore
(` . · ` ` ) means ‘Zaid is learned’ although the word ‘is’ is
not there.
25


3. The first part of a (·,- ·~) is called (·) - the subject
26
,
while the second part is called the (-) - the predicate
27
.
4. Generally the (·) and the (-) are in (·· ·-)
28
- the
nominative case.

5. The predicate conforms to the subject in number and
gender, as in the case of the adjective. However when the
subject is ( - ` ` · · ` , · · ¸ ) - the plural of a non-intelligent
being, the predicate is generally singular feminine.


25
However, the verb ( .` . ´) can provide the meaning of ‘is’.
26
In English, the subject of a sentence is a word or phrase that refers to the
person or thing that performs an action.
27
In English, the predicate refers to the word or words that say something
about the subject but are not part of it.
28
A detailed discussion on cases follows in Lesson 10.
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Examples:

Sentence Meaning
Type of Subject
` · · . ¸` -`
The man is
truthful.
singular,
masculine,
intelligent
. · · . . ` -`
The two men
are truthful.
dual, masculine,
intelligent
.` . · · . . -`
The men are
truthful.
plural,
masculine,
intelligent
· · · . · '`
The woman is
truthful.
singular,
feminine,
intelligent
. · · . . '`
The two women
are truthful.
dual, feminine,
intelligent
. . ` ` . · ·
The women are
truthful.
plural, feminine,
intelligent
· ` ` -``
The wind is
severe.
singular,
feminine, non-
intelligent
. ` . -``
The two winds
are severe.
dual, feminine,
non-intelligent
· ` ` -`
The winds are
severe.
plural, feminine,
non-intelligent
Note 3: In these examples, if the definite article ( . ) is added
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to the second part, or it is removed from the first part, all
these examples will become (¸,.. . ¯·) - adjectival
phrases.

6. If there are two subjects and they are of different types,
that is, one is masculine and one feminine, the predicate
will be masculine, e.g. ( . - · ` ` ¸` ) – The son and the
daughter are beautiful.

7. The subject and predicate are sometimes singular and
sometimes they are compounds (.¯·). The examples of
singular have passed. Hereunder follow the examples of
(.¯·):

Sentence Meaning Analysis
` . - ` .` , = ¸` -`
The good man is
present.
The subject is
(¸,.. . ¯·).
` ` ` .` , ~ ¸` -
Zaid is a good
man.
The predicate is
(¸,.. . ¯·).

8. By adding ( ·) or ( ¸` , ) to a (·,- ·~), it changes from
positive to negative. Most often a ( .) is added to the
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predicate which changes the case to the genitive (- ·-),
e.g. ( . · ` ` ·) – Zaid is not learned; ( -` , · ¸` - ` ` ¸` , ) –
Zaid is not a bad person.

9. Very often the word ( . ) is prefixed to a (·,- ·~). As a
result, the subject changes to (.. ·-) - the accusative
case while the predicate remains unchanged, e.g.
( · ` ` · ¸` ' . ) – Undoubtedly the earth is round.

Note 4: To create the meaning of interrogation in a sentence,
( ¸ ·) or ( ') is added to the beginning, e.g.
(` . · ` ` ') – Is Zaid learned?;
( ¸ · ` . · ¸` -` ) – Is the man learned?

Vocabulary List No. 5

Word Meaning
` · '
or (in a question)
`
cow
¸
certainly, why not
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` ` -
new
' -
very
` · · . ` ¸ -
sitting
` ¸ -
guard, sentry
·
sheep
¸` , ·
elephant
` . ·
standing
` .` ·
old
` . ¯
dog
` ` ` ` · · . ` ` .` .` ·
famous
` ¸ ·` .` ·
believer
` . ·
yes
` .` - .
thick

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The Nominative Detached Pronouns

( ` . ` ` · ` . · · ` ` . · )

Third Person ` . ·
singular
.` ·
he , it
dual
` ·
they
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

plural
` .` ·
they
singular
¸ ·
she, it
dual
` ·
they
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e
plural
` ¸` ·
they
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First Person (Speaker) ` . ´ ` ·

I
` ¸` -
We


Note 5: These pronouns are most often the subject of a
sentence. Hence they are regarded as (-.··) – in the
nominative case. See 6.4. They are called (¸ . ` ` ·) because
they are pronounced independently.

Second Person ` . -
singular
.`
you
dual
` `
you
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

plural
` .` `
you
singular
.`
you
dual
` `
you
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e
plural
` ¸` `
you
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Note 6: Also remember that ( ' ) is always pronounced ( . )
without the alif.

Exercise No. 5

Note 7: When speaking, pause (waqf) at the end of sentences
as mentioned in Exercise No. 1. However, initially, continue
writing all the harakāt.

(A) Translate the following into English

, · . ` . · ` . , · . · - · ` , · . ` . · .` · ` . · . ` . · ` . ¸ · , . .
· - ¸ · . . · · · ` ¸ · , ~ . ' · ¸` -` ` ` - ` · ' ` ` - . ` ` - .` ·
` - .` · · , · . ` ` ` ` · · ` · .` · ` . · . ` · · · ~' , · . ¸ · ` .` `
· .` . ~` , - .` .` ·` · ` ¸` - ¸ ¸` , ~ , - ` ¸` - · , . ` . · · ` . ·` · ` ¸` · ¸ ·
` . ·` · ` ¸` · ` . - . , - . · · · · ` .` ` .` .` ' ' ´ ` .` ` .` ' · ' · ` ¸
· · · · , · . · . ` -` · · ·` · ¸ · . · · ·` ¯ · ·` · ` . ` ¸ · , ·· . ¸ ·
· ` , = ` . - ¸ · ` . · · · ` , = ` . - , ·· . ¸` , ' · · · . . , - `
' - ` · · . . , - ` ¸ , ·· . . - . . , - . ´ . , ·. . · '` .
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· - · - ` . , ·~ . ¸` , - ` . ¸` , '` .
·-
. - , ·· . .
·` ¸` , ·` .
·
.` ` . ` -` ·

(B) Fill in the blanks which represent a subject or predicate
with suitable words that you have studied.

, · . ` `
, · . . - ` . . .
, · . . ¸` , ` .` ,
, . . · ·` ¯
, ~ . ` ` -` ¸ ·
, · . '
, · . ` · ` . · .
, . ` ·
, - . ¸ · . ·` ¯
, · . ` · ' · , ¸ ·
, ·· . . ` . ´ ¸` , '

29
See 5.2.
30
See 5.2.
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, ·· . ` . ´ ·
, ·· . ` ¸ - ¸
, ·. . · ~` , - ` , -
, ·~ . ` .` - . ¸` ,
, ·· . ' · ` . ` · '
, ·· . · · ·` . · '`
, · . ` . ` -` · .
, ·- . . ` ,
, · . . ·` ¯ .
, ·· . ` . . ` -` · .
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(C) Translate into Arabic

(1) Is the boy standing? No, he is sitting.
(2) Is the girl sitting? No, she is standing.
(3) Are the two boys present? Yes, they are present.
(4) Are the two girls honest? Yes, they are honest.
(5) Are the women truthful? Yes, they are truthful.
(6) Is the teacher absent? No, the teacher is present.
(7) Are they carpenters? No, they are tailors.
(8) Is that Yūsuf? Yes, that is Yūsuf.
(9) Are you Mahmūd? No, I am Hāmid.
(10) Is the house old? No, the house is new.
(11) Are they (plural feminine) seamstresses? No, they
are teachers.
(12) Are you (pl. m.) learned or ignorant? We are not
ignorant.
(13) Is not the elephant a great animal? Why not, the
elephant is a great animal.
(14) Is the dog standing or sitting? The dog is not
standing but it is sitting.
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Lesson 7
The Genitive of Possession
( - , · ` . · = ·· ¯¸ )

1. The compound in which both parts are nouns and the
first noun is related to the second noun is called ( ` . ¯ ` ·
¯ ¸ · . ). Examples:
( ` ` . ¯) – the book of Zaid or Zaid’s book
( ·` . · ` . -) – the ring of silver
( ` .` . ·) – the water of the river.

2. Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as
( · · . , ).

3. The first part of (·. .¯·) is called (` .` ·) while the
second part is called ( ` .` · ·` , ).

4. Neither does the definite article ( . ') precede the (` .` ·)
nor is the tanwīn appended to it. Look at the above
examples.
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5. The ( ` .` · ·` , ) is always (` ` ` ` - ·) - in the genitive case.

6. The (` .` ·) always precedes the ( ` .` · ·` , ).

7. The (·. .¯·), like (¸,.. .¯·)
31
, is not a complete
sentence but is part of a sentence, e.g. ( ` .` . · ` . · ) – The
water of the river is sweet. In this sentence, ( ` .` . ·) is the
subject while (` . ·) is the predicate.

8. Sometimes there are several ( ` .` · ·` , ) in one
construction, e.g. ( ` , · ' .` , ` . ) – the door of the house of
the leader; ( ` . ¸` .` , ` . ) - the door of the house of the
minister’s son.

The middle ( ` .` · ·` , ) becomes the (` .` ·) of the
succeeding words. Therefore ( . ') cannot precede it nor can
the tanwīn be appended to it.

9. You have learnt in the first lesson that when an indefinite

31
See 3.8.
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noun is related to a definite noun, it also becomes definite,
e.g. ( ` ` · · ·) – the slave of Zaid;
( ¸` -` ` · · ·) the slave of the man. The word (` · · ·) – slave –
has become definite in these sentences.

10. In Arabic, because the (` .` ·) precedes the ( ` .` · ·` , )
and no word can interpose between them, the adjective of
the (` .` ·) has to succeed the ( ` .` · ·` , ), e.g.
(` - ` . · '` ` · · ·) – the pious slave of the lady. In this
example, the word (` - ` .) is the adjective of the word
(` · · ·). Therefore it is (-.··),
32
singular, masculine and
definite.
Hereunder are more examples. Understand the differences
properly.

` - ` . ¸` -` `
The pious son of the
man
Adjective of the
(` .` ·)


32
in the nominative case. See Lesson 10.
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- ` . ¸` -` `
The son of the pious
man
Adjective of the
( ` .` · ·` , )

` .` - ` . ¸` -` ·
The pious daughter of
the man
Adjective of the
(` .` ·)

` .` · '` ` . - ·
The daughter of the
pious woman
Adjective of the
( ` .` · ·` , )

Note: More rules of ( · · . , ) are discussed in Lesson 11.

Vocabulary List No. 6

Word Meaning
` '
lion
· · ~
obedience
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·` .` · '
I seek refuge
. '
listen, beware
· ´ -
wisdom
` ` -
praise
` . · ·
going
` ¸ '
head
. ` -
very beneficent
` .` , -
very merciful
` .` , -
rejected one
` -`
husband
· -`
wife
- ' ` -`
anger
. = `
king, overpowering
.
sky
` . ~
to seek
` , ~ ` .
fragrance
¸ ~
shadow
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` ` ·
very powerful
¸ ¯
every, each
¸` , ¸ ¯
everything
` .` -
meat
· , ·...· .
whatever
· · - ·
fear
·¯` ·
mirror
` - ·
salt, salty
. ,`
to forget
.
parents
` · · . ` ` · ·
goat
· ·¯
calamity
. ,`
forgetfulness
. · ·
just
` · ` · ` ·` '
east
` . ` · · ` .` · '
west

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Hereunder are some ( ` - ` ` ` - ` · ) which appear before
nouns and convert them to (- ·-) - the genitive case.

Meaning Example Meaning Example
Meaning
Word
with
the pen
.
with a
man
¸` -
with,
in
.
in the
garden
` ¸ ·
. ` `
in a
house
.` , ` ¸ ·
in
` ¸ ·
on the
throne
· ¸
¸` ·
on a
mountain
· ¸ ¸ -
on
· ¸
from
the
musjid
¸ ·
-`
from
Zaid
` ` ¸ ·
from
` ¸ ·
till
Kufah
¸
· ·` . ´
to a city
¸
to, till
¸
I said
to Zaid
` . ·
`
for Zaid
`
for, to
.
similar
to the
lion
' ¯
like a
man
¸` - ¯
like,
similar
·

from
Zaid
` ` ¸ ·
from
` ¸ ·
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Exercise No. 6

(A) Translate the following into English:

, · . ` - . · , · . ` ¸ , · . · ` .` - , . . ¸ . · ' , ~ . · · ~
¸` . , · . = ` .` , , · . ¸` ` .` . . , . .` , ·` .' ` ¸ · , - . ¸
-` , · . ¯ ¸ , ·· . - . , ·· . ¸` ` · , ·· . ` ¸ ·
¸ ' , ·. . ` - · ` - . · , ·~ . ` ¸ . ` , ~ · ` .` - , ·· . ` .`
` ·` .` ` - · . , ·· . ¸` ` · ` .` , = , · . .` .` · · ` ¸` - ¸ · `
, ·- . ` ¸ - ` . ·` ¸ · ` ¸ ` ´ , · . . ` ` ·¯` · ` . ` ` , ·· .
¸` . ` -` ` ¸ · ` .` - , ·· . . ,` ` . · · ·¯ , ·· . ` ¸ '
= · · - · · ´ - , ·. . ¸ · = ¸ ~ . · · . = ' . ¸` ' , ·~ .
· .` · . · ` . ~ ¸ · · ` ` · . ` ` · ¸ ¯ , ·· . ' ¯ ` . ´ ¸` ,
, ·· . ` . ¸` , , · . · ~ · ` -` · ` .` ¸ · = .` .`
´ ¸ · · -` . . ` ` ¸` , ` - ` ¸ - ´ ¸ · , ·- . ¸ · = ·` .` · '
.` , -` . =` ,` , · . ` . = ` ` - ¸ ` - ` , . , ·· . ` . · ` ` -
¸` , · , ·· . ` . ` · ` · ` · , ·· . = . ¸ · ` ` · ¸` , ¸ ¯
, ·. . . . ' ¸` ' ¸ · · . ` ¸ · · · .
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(B) Translate the following into Arabic

(1) the goat’s milk
(2) the cow’s head
(3) the obedience of the mother
(4) Zaid’s wealth
(5) the elephant’s ear
(6) the light of the moon
(7) in the house
(8) till the market
(9) for Allāh and the Messenger
(10) on the head and the eye
(11) The boy’s name is Hāmid.
(12) They are going home.
(13) We are sitting in the musjid.
(14) The goat’s milk is for the girl.
(15) The obedience of Allāh is in the obedience of the
Messenger.
(16) Āishah , the daughter of Abū Bakr is the wife
of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allāh .
(17) He is the son of the leader.
(18) The anger of Allāh is on the oppressive king.
(19) The ignorant one is not like the learned one.
(20) The fragrance is not for the boy.
(21) She is the daughter of Hāmid’s son.

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Test No. 3

(1) What is the difference between (·,- ·~) and ( ·~
·,··)?
(2) What is the difference between (·,- ·~) and ( .¯·
¸,..)?
(3) How many parts does a (·,- ·~) have? What is each
part called?
(4) What is the (.·)
33
of the subject and the predicate?
(5) What is the Arabic term for the attaching word?
(6) In how many factors does the predicate correspond
to the subject?
(7) If there are two subjects of different kinds in a
sentence, which one is considered for the predicate?
(8) What effect does the word ( . ) have on the subject?
(9) Attach ( . ) to a dual word and a sound masculine
and feminine plural word and read it.
(10) How is a negative meaning and one of interrogation
created in a (·,- ·~)?
(11) What is the paradigm
34
of the detached nominative

33
desinential inflection – that is, inflection of the final radical.
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pronouns?
(12) In the paradigm of the pronoun, which words are
similar?
(13) How do you pronounce the word ( ')?
(14) Construct ten different kinds of (·,- ·~).
(15) Define (·. .¯·) and (··.).
(16) What cannot enter on the (.·)?
(17) What is the (.·) at the end of (·, .·)?
(18) What effect do the (·- -) have on the noun?


34
In grammar, a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (e.g. write,
writes, wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model for all other
words of the same type.
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Lesson 8
The Scales of Words

1. In Arabic, the original letters of nouns and verbs are not
less than three. The maximum number of letters in a noun is
five, and four in a verb. Together with the original letters,
extra letters can also be attached. At such a time, the noun
and the verb can have more than five letters.

Note 1: The original letter or root letter is the one that
remains in all the forms and derivations. Only in some
exceptions is it deleted or changed to another letter.
The extra letter is the one that is found in one word-form
but not in another, e.g. in the word (` ` -), all three letters
are root letters while in (` · -), the alif and in (` ·` .` ` - ·), the
first (·) and the () are extra letters.

2. Words having three root-letters are called (¯ ¸ · ), e.g.
(` ¸ ·) and ( . .).
If they have four root-letters, they are called (¯ ¸ · ` ), e.g.
( ¸ ·) and ( - ` - ·).
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If they have five root-letters, they are called (¯ ¸ ` -), e.g.
( ¸ -` ).

Words made up of only root-letters are called (` ·` -` ·) while
those having extra letters as well are called ( ·` , · ` ` ·), e.g.
(` ` ¯) is (` ·` -` · ¯ ¸ · ) – three root-letters without any extra
letters.
(` ' ´ ) is ( ·` , · ` ` · ¯ ¸ · ) - three root-letters with extra letters
because the (.) and (.) are extra.

Note 2 : To distinguish whether verbs (.··'), derived nouns
( ' . ` ` · ` · )
35
and verbal nouns ( · . · )
36
are (` ·` -` ·) or ( ` ` ·
·` , ·), the (.· ¯· -) word-form of the perfect tense
(¸.') has to be examined. If that word-form is free of extra
letters, then its derivatives and verbal noun will also be
regarded as (` ·` -` ·), e.g. ( . ) is (` ·` -` · ¯ ¸ · ). Hence, the

35
These are nouns that are derived from the verb, e.g. ( ¸ · ·) and ( .` .` · ·) are
derived from the verb ( ¸ · ·).
36
Plural of (` ` . ·), the infinitive.
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imperfect tense (-.') which is (` ` .` ), the (¸·· .) - ` . ,
the (..·· .) - ` ` .` .` · and the verbal noun ( ` .` · ) will also
be regarded as (` ·` -` · ¯ ¸ · ) although these forms have extra
letters.

Similarly, in a paradigm, extra letters appear in a (` ·` -` ·)
word which will still remain (` ·` -` ·). For example, the word
( ¸` - ) is (` ·` -` ·). Therefore, ( . ·` - ) and ( . - ) will also be
(` ·` -` ·).
However, ( ` ¯) and ( · ¯ ') are ( ·` , · ` ` · ¯ ¸ · ). The former has
one extra (.) while the latter has an extra alif.

3. In order to determine the scales of words and to
distinguish the root letters from the extra letters, the scale
(. ` , ·) of (. - ) is used. In triliteral words (words with 3
root letters), the () represents the first radical (letter) of
the word, the (-) represents the second radical of the word
and the (.) represents the third radical of the word.
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Examples:

· . . ` . ¯ . . ` . · . ` . . ` ` .. . ¯
¸. ·. · . · · ¸. . · ` · ¸. . · ` · ¸.

The letter that corresponds to the () of the (.,·) is called
the (· ´ . · ِ ), like the (·) of ( · ` . ), that which corresponds to
the (-) is called the (· ´ ` ¸` , · ِ ), like the (.) of (` . ·) while the
letter corresponding to the (.) is called the (· ´ ` · . ِ ), like
the (·) of (` . ·).

When intending to determine the scale of (¯ ¸ · ` ) -
quadriliteral (four letter) words, add two lāms instead of
one after () and (-). In words with five root letters, add
three lāms.
Examples:


` . .` ·. - ¸. -` . .
¸. .` ·. · ¸. . . ·. ·

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4. At the time of determining the scale, the alphabets (),
(-) and (.) will take the place of the original letters while
the other extra letters will remain as they are in their places.
Examples:


` .` . ¯ ` .` ,. . ¯ ` . . ¯ ' ` .` ,. . ´.
¸.` ·. · ¸.` ,. ·. · ¸. ·. · ' ¸.` ,. ·. .

However, when a letter is increased by repeating the ( ` ¸` , ·
· ´ ِ ) or the (· ´ ` · . ِ ), the (-) or the (.) is repeated in the
scale. For example, in the word ( ` ¯ - . ` .. ¯ ), the first
(.) is the (· ´ ` ¸` , · ِ ) while the second one is extra.
According to the rule, the scale should have been ( ¸ ` · ·).
Instead its scale is ( ¸` · ·). Similarly, in the word (` ` - ), the
final () is extra. Its scale will be regarded as ( ¸ · · ).

5. A great benefit of recognizing the scales of words is that
by knowing the meaning of the root letters of a word, it
becomes very easy to recognize the meanings of all its
paradigms and derivatives.
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Exercise No. 7

What are the scales of the following words:


, · . ` .` , · . ` , · . ¸` -
, · . ` ·` . ` · , ~ . ` : · , . . ` ` '
, - . . ` - , . ` .` , - , · . ` .` -
, ·· . ` · ¯ , ·· . ` .` ¯ , · . ` · ¯
, ·~ . . ` · , ·. . ` . · , ·· . ` . ·
, · . ` ` . · , ·· . ` . · , ·· . .` .` ·
, ·· . ` .` , ` · , · . . · , ·- . · · · ·
, ·. . ` · ¯ , ·· . ` ´ ` · ` , ·· . ` ' ´
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Lesson 9
The Broken Plural

1. It was mentioned previously that there is no rule to
construct the broken plural (` ´' ·-). It is totally based
on hearing the plural from the people of the language.
Hereunder we list some of the scales of the broken plural
which are used most often:

, . . · · ' · ` · .` ' , ` ·` - .
` ¸ · ' , ¸ · ` ·` - .
` ` ' , ` ·` - .` .
` =` · ' , = · ` ·` - .
` . ·` ' , . · ` ·` - .

, . . .` .` · · · ` ·` . ` · , : · ` ·` - .
' ` ·` .` , ' ` ·` - .
` ·` . ` - , ´ , - ` ·` - .
` ·` .` .` , · ` ·` - .
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` .` . · , . · ` ·` - .
` ·` .` ` - , ` ·` - ` ` - .
` ·` .` -` , ·` - ` ·` - .

, - . . · · · ` . · ¯ , . ¯ ` ·` - .
` . , , ` ·` - .` . .
` - · , -` ·` ` ·` - .
- . , ¸` - ` ·` - .
` ¯ , ` , ¯ ` ·` - .
` · . , ` , · . ` ·` - .
` · · , ` ·` - .

, · . ¸` · · · ` .` ¯ , . ¯ ` ·` - .
.` ` · , ` ·` - · ` · .
` ¸ ` , · ` , ` ·` - .
` .` -` . , · ` , - . ` ·` - .
` ·` ~ , · ` ~ ` ·` - .
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¸` ` , ` ·` - .` .` .

, · . ¸` · · ' · ` ` .` ' , ` . ` ·` - .
¸` -` ' , ¸` - ` ·` - .
` ` .` ' , ` . ` ·` - .
` ` -` ' , ` - ` ·` - .
` ¸ ` ' , ¸ ` ·` - .
` ¸` ,` · ' , ¸` , · ` ·` - .

, . . · · · · . ` , ` ` ·` - .
· ' . , ` , · ' ` ·` - .
. ·` , · ` ·` - .
. . ` , ·` , ` ·` - .
. · ' , ¸` , · ' ` ·` - .
. · ¯` , ¸` , ¯ ` ·` - .
. ' , ` , ' ` ·` - .

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, . . · · · '
This scale is generally used for the adjectives of intelligent
beings which are on the scale of ( ¸` , · ·) as in:

. · ` . ' , ,` . ` ·` - .
. , ` ' , ´ ¸ ` ·` - .
.` - '
··
, .` , - ` ·` - .
. · ' , .` · ` ·` - .
. , · ' , ´ ¸ · ` ·` - .
. , ` ' , ´ ¸ ` ·` - .

, - . . ·` · · · ` · . , ¸ · ` ·` - .
. ` , ` ·` - .
. ` . · , .` , . · ` ·` - .

, . ¸ · · · ` . · , ` .` ` · ` ·` - .

37
The original was ( . ` - '). The reason why it has changed into ( .` - ') will be
explained later.
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. . , · ` ·` - .
` . ¯ . ¯ , . ¯` . ¯ ` ·` - .
` · . - , ` ·` - ·` . - .

Note 1: The plural of five-letter words also comes on this
scale. However, the final letter has to be deleted, e.g. the
plural of ( ¸ -` ) is (` - ). The (.) has been deleted.

, . . ¸` , · · · ` ¸` , - · , . -` · ` ·` - .
` ,` · . , ·` ` ` ` . ` ·` - .
¸` · · , ` ·` - ¸` ` · .
` ` - , ` ` - ` ·` - .
` ¸` , , . ` ` ` ·` - .
` ¸` , ~ · , - . = ` ` ·` .

, · . · · · · · ' , · ` ' ` ·` - .
· · · , ` , ` ·` - .
· ´ · · , : · ` ·` - .

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This scale is specific with intelligent beings.

, . . ¸ · · ·
This scale is specific with those words that are on the scale
of ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸ · ·) or ( · · ·).

` . ¯ · , . ¯` · ` ·` - .
` - · , -` · ` ·` - .
` . ´ · , · ´ · ` ·` - .

, · . ¸` , · ·

This scale is used for those words that are on the scale of
( . · ·) or ( .` .` · ·).
` -` , · , ` - · ` ·` - .
` .` , ´ · , .` .` ´ · ` ·` - .

Note 2: The following plural scales are ( .` ` · ` ` , ·)
38
.

38
This is a certain class of nouns that is not fully declined. European
grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. This term is discussed in
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Tanwīn will not be read on them.

· · · . . · · · ' . . ¸` , · · . ¸ · · . ¸` , · · . ¸ · ·

2. Remember the plural of the following words in
particular:
The sound plural of (` ¸` ) is ( .` .` ) in (·· · -) - the
nominative case and ( ¸` , ) in (- .. · -) - the
accusative and genitive cases. Its broken plural is ( . ` ').
The plural of ( · ` ) is (` . ).
The plural of (` - ') is ( . .` - ) or ( · .` - ).
The plural of (` .` - ') is (` . . - ').
The plural of ( · ' ` · ) is ( . ) or ( · .` ).
The plural of (¯ · ') is (` . .` · ').

3. Some words have plurals on several scales. Hence the
plurals of (` ` - ) are (` - ), (` -` '), (` ` -` ') and (` ` .` -` ).

4. Some words have different scales of plurals rendering

Volume 4, Lesson 57.
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different meanings. For example, the word (` .` , ) means
house or verse (of a poem). Regarding the first meaning, the
plural is (` .` .` ,` ) while the plural (` . ,` ') is related to the
second meaning.
The word (` ` ·) means slave or servant. The respective
plurals are (` ` , ·) and (` · ·).
The word (` ¸` , ·) means eye or spring. The respective plurals
are (` ¸` ,` · ') and ( .` .` ,` ·).

Vocabulary List No. 7

The plurals of some words are provided next to them.

Word Meaning
`
scowling, frowning
` ¸` · ` ¸ ·` ' .
some, part of
` .
fixed, established
` - . ` , - .
neighbour
` ` -
iron
` ` , -
good
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` ` , . ` .
ambassador
` .` , ` ` .` ,` .
sword
` .
tea
` ` ` ` .
condition
` .` · . ` . · . .
difficult
¸` . ~ . . ~ .
long, tall
¯ ¸ · ' ·` , ·
Arabian
- ·
empty
` · ~ ·
cutting, sharp
· , · · `
high school
` ¸ ` `
pious
` ·` , =` ·
obedient
` ` . =` ·
pure, clean
· = ·` . · · . · .
advice
· .
fresh
· ~
looking
` ¸ . ` ¸` ,
precious
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` · ·
beneficial
` ·` ' . ` ·` .
a day
·` . ,
today
· ·` .
on that day
· `
beauty
` . , ·
remaining, permanent
` . - ` . ` . , ·
the good actions
` -` ·` ` - · .
spear, lance, javelin
` ¸` , - · . . -` ·
cup
` - . ¸ -`
quince

Exercise No. 8

(A) In the under-mentioned examples, the adjective or
predicate of unintelligent beings is used mostly as singular
feminine. Translate the following phrases or sentences into
English.

, · . ` . ~ ` · · · ' · , · . ·· ·` ` ·` . ` · , · . ` · . ` · .` , . . .` .` - . . -
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, ~ . · ` · . ` .` ´ , · . · ` ·` . ` ` ' , · . · ` . ` ·` ~ , . ` .` -` .
· ` . =` · , - . · · ` ·` . ` - , · . · ·` , . .` ` ¸ · , ·· . ·` . . = ` -
` - ¸ · , ·· . ` . ` ` · . , ·· . ` . .` · ' ` ¸` · , ·. . . .` - ,
.` .` - ` . . - ' , ·~ . .` .` ·` , =` · . ¸` , . , ·· . . '
·` . , .` ` . - , ·· . ¸` , · ` .` · · , · . ` ¸` · ¸` , - ` . ¸ · . ·'
¸` , · ·` . , ·- . · · · . · ` , ` ` · . - , · . · - · - . · ´ .
¸ · ` . , ·· . · · · · - · . , ·· . . ` , ` ` , · ` .` ·
` -` ` · · ` ¸` - . , ·· . · , · ¸ ¸ · ´ . ` · ¸ · .` .` ·` ·
, ·. . ` ,` · ` . .` ¸` , - · · , ·~ . ·` . ` - ¯ . ` , - ` ·` . ` -
. · ' , ·· . · . ` - ` - ¸` , ¸ · , ·· . ` , ` ` . .` - ¸ · ¸
.` .` ,` · , · . · . · ·` . ` ·` .` -` ¸ · ~ .` · · ·` . ` ·` .` -`
, ·- . :` ` · ` ` , - ` . - ` . ` . , · ,` ' · , - · ` .` .` .
.

(B) Reply to these questions in Arabic, e.g.

` . · · · · ` .` ¯ ` . ` · , · . · ` · · ` . ¯ · ` · ¸ ·

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, · . · ` · ~ · ` .` , · ` · ¸ ·
, · . · ¸` . ~ ` -` ·` · - ` · ¸ ·
, . . · ` - . ` ` , · ' ¸ ·
, ~ . · ` .` , = ` .` . · ` · ¸ ·
, · . ' . ¸ · · - · ` ·` ` `
, · . · ·` . , ` . - ` , ` ¸ ·
, . · . -` · · ` · ¸ ·
, - . · ¸ -` · ` · ¸ ·
, · . · ¯ ¸ · .` · ¸ ·
, ·· . · · - . · ` ¸ · ¸ ·
, ·· . · ` ¸` , ` ·` . - · ` · '
, ·· . ` ` ' . ` - · · ` · ' · ·`
, ·. . · · ` ' · ` ¸ · ¸ ·
, ·~ . · · ` , ¯ · ´ · ` ¸ ` ¸ · ¸ ·

(C) Translate the following phrases into Arabic

(1) the Muslim men
(2) the large ships
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(3) the clean clothes
(4) the flowing rivers
(5) The rivers are flowing.
(6) the past months
(7) They are truthful witnesses.
(8) The two tall mountains
(9) The spears are long and the swords are sharp.
(10) Are you (pl.) unhappy?
(11) No, we are cheerful.
(12) Some kings are just.
(13) The cups of the tea are empty.
(14) Are you (pl.) friends?
(15) Yes, and we are relatives.
(16) The students and the teachers are in the madrasah.
(17) Those girls are playing.
(18) The people of īmān are the friends of Allāh.
(19) the tall houses.
(20) the Arabian verses
(21) The Qur’ān has beneficial advice (plural).

Test No. 4

(1) What is a (¸.' -)?
(2) How many root letters are there in a noun and in a
verb?
(3) Besides the root letters found in a word, what are the
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other letters called?
(4) With regards to the root letters of words, how many
types of words are there?
(5) What are words which only have root letters called
and what are those words called which have extra
letters.
(6) Which of the following words are (·-) and which
are (·,· ·):

` . · · . ` . · . . · · . ` ¯ . ` ` , ´ . . ·` - . ¸` -
(7) How is the scale of a word determined? In other
words, how do you use the root letters (¸··) to
determine which letter is a root letter and which one
is extra?
(8) What is the benefit of knowing the scales of words?
(9) What are the well-known scales of the broken plural?
(10) Which scales of the plural are (.· ·)?
(11) Make the plurals of (` ` - ), ( · ' ` · '), ( · ), (` - '), (` ` ·),
( . -` ·) and (` ` , ').
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Lesson 10
The Cases of Nouns

1. The change in case of a noun due to the change in
vowelling of the final consonant is called (.·) -
declension.
Declension is of two types: one is ( .· - ¯ · ) which is
shown by fathah, dammah and kasrah. The other is
( .· ` - ` ` ) which is shown by means of some
(` ` ` -) – letters - as will be explained later on.

2. When a noun is:
(1) the doer of the verb (¸··), or the subject (·) or
predicate (-), it is said to be (·· ·-) - in the
nominative case. The examples of the subject and
predicate have passed in Lesson no. 6.
(2) an object (..··) or it indicates the condition (.-)
of the doer or the object, it is regarded to be in
(.. ·-) - the accusative case.
(3) (·, .·) or it comes after a ( - - ), it is
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regarded to be (` - ·-) - in the genitive case. The
examples will be mentioned shortly.

The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns

3. If a noun is singular or a broken plural, in (·· ·-) the
dammatain ( .)
39
will be read on it, in ( - .. · ) the
fathatain (.) will be read on it and in (` - ·-), the
kasratain ( .) will be read on it.

39
If the noun is indefinite, the dammatain will be read on the word. However,
if the noun is definite, only one dammah will be read on it.
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Examples:

Example no. 1

- ¸ ` .` ´ · ` ` ¸ ` '
Zaid sent a letter to Khālid
- -
-
..·· ¸·· ¸··
` - ·- ·-
..
·-
··


This is a (·,·· ·` -). All three nouns are singular.

Example no. 2

. ` ¸ , . -` ¸ ` '
The men sent clothing to the women.
- -
-
..·· ¸·· ¸··
` - ·- ·-
..
·-
··

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This is a ( ·` - ·,·· ). All three nouns are broken plurals.

Example no. 3

· - ¸ · ¸ · ¯ ` ` . -
Zaid came riding on Hāmid’s horse.

·,
.· -
-
.- ¸·· ¸··
-
` - ·- ·-
..
·-
··


This is a (·,·· ·` -). The word ( ¯ ) indicates the condition
of the doer. Therefore it is (...·).

Note 1: The adjective will be in the same case as the
preceding noun. If the noun is (-.··), the adjective will
also be (-.··). If it is (...·), the adjective will also be the
same and if it is (-), the adjective will follow suit.
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Example:

( ·` . ~ ` .` ´ · ` . · ¸` - ¸ ` ' ¸ . · · : · )

A learned man sent a long letter to a just king.

The words, (` . ·), ( ·` . ~) and ( . · ·) are adjectives and the
case of each one follows its preceding noun, namely ( ¸` - ),
( ` .` ´ ·) and ( . · ·) respectively.

4. If a noun is dual (·,·.), the suffix ( . .) will be
appended in (·· ·-) - the nominative case and ( ¸` .) in
(` - .. ·-) - the accusative and genitive cases, e.g.

( ¸` , ` .` ´ · . ·` -` . ¯ ¸ ¸` , '` )

The two men wrote two letters to the two women.

The (.·) of ( . ) and ( . ) meaning ‘two’ is the same as
the dual form.

The words ( · ¯) and ( ¯) meaning ‘both’ will be read (` ¸ ¯)
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and (` ¸ ¯) in (` - .. ·-) - the accusative and genitive
cases, e.g.

( ` · · ¯ . ·` - . -) – Both men came.
( ¸` , ` - ` .` ' .` , ¯ ) – I saw both men.
( ` . ` ' ¸ ` - ¸` , .` , ¯ ) – I sent to both men.

The words ( · ¯) and ( ¯) are used with a pronoun (.).

5. If a word is ( - · ' ¯ · ) – the sound masculine
plural, the suffix ( .` .) will be appended in (·· ·-) and
( ¸` .) in ( ·- ` - .. ), e.g.
( ¸` · -` .` .` ` ` ¸ ` ' ¸ ¸` , = )

The Muslims despatched the mujāhidīn to the oppressors.

The tens from ( .` ` ` ·) – 20 – till ( .` .` ·` ) – 90 - have the same
(.·). The form will be ( .` ` ` ·) in (·· ·-) and ( ¸` ` ·)
in (` - .. ·-).

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The word (` . ' – people of) in (·· ·-) and (` ¸ ') in ( ·-
` - ..) is like (· ¯' ·-) - the sound masculine
plural.

Examples:
( . ' . ' ` .` ·) - They are people of intelligence.

( ` .` ' . ' ¸ ' ` · . ' ¸ ' ) - I saw the people of
intelligence by the people of intelligence.

Note 2: The (.·) of the dual and sound masculine plural
is by means of letters (-). Therefore the nūn of both
these forms is called ( ,· .. · ). See 5.4.

6. The sound feminine plural ( - · ' .. · ) will be read
with ( .) in (·· ·-) and with ( .)
40
in (` - .. ·-).
See 5.2. Example:

( · ~ . ` . ` ` ¸ . · ) - The Muslim women

40
If the word has ( . ), only one dammah or kasrah will be read as is apparent
from the example.
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expelled the transgressing women to the deserts.

7. You have learnt that when ( . ) is prefixed to a word, the
tanwīn is deleted. See 2.3. Now remember that some words
do not accept the tanwīn from their inception.
Examples: ( · ´ ·), (` ` . ·), (` ` - '), ( . ·` ·), (` . ` ), ( · - ~), ( . ` -),
(` - ·).

Such nouns are called (.· · .). In (·· ·-), they
are pronounced with a (.) and in (` - .. ·-) with a
(.), e.g.

( ´ · ` ¸ · . ` . ·` · . ' · ) - Úthmān saw Zaynab in Makkah.

However, when an (.· · .) has ( . ) prefixed to it, or
it is (.·), then a kasrah will be rendered to it in (` - ·-).
Examples: ( - ¸ ·), ( ¸` , ` ` - · ` ¸ ·).

Note 3: Words which accept tanwīn are called (.·).
These nouns will be discussed in detail in Lesson 57.
8. No (.·) can be read on words like ( ` .` · ¸ ) and ( ` , · ¸ ).
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They will hence be read as they are in all three cases ( ·-
·· ` - .. ). Such nouns are called (` .` . · .).
Examples:
( ` .` · . - ¸ ), ( ` .` ' ` .` · ¸ ), ( ` · · · .` · ` .` · ¸ ).

9. Words with a yā sākin (` .) at the end like (` ¸ . ), (` ¸ · ),
(` . - ) and (` ¸ . ) are free of external (.·) in ( ·· ·-
` -) while in (.. ·-), a (..) will be rendered to
them.
Examples:


Sentence Meaning Case
` ¸ . . -
The judge
came
·· ·-
` ¸ . ` · · · . -
The slave of
the judge
came.
` - ·-
¸ . ` .` '
I saw the
judge.
.. ·-

If these words do not have ( . '), they will be read as ( ¸ ·),
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( . ·), etc. in (` - ·· ·-) and ( , . ·), ( , ·) etc. in ( ·-
..).

Their sound plurals ( - · · ) are: ( .` .` . ·), ( .` . ·) etc. in
(·· ·-) and ( ¸` , . ·), ( ` , · ¸ ) etc. in ( .. ·- ` - ).

Their dual forms are like normal words, namely, ( . , . ·),
( . , ·) etc. in (·· ·-) and ( ¸` , , . ·), ( ¸` , , ·) etc. in ( ·-
` - ..).

Nouns that can be declined by the changing of the final
vowels or letters are called ( . ·` ) and words whose final
vowels are static are called ( ¸ ` )
41
. There are few nouns
that are ( ¸ ` ). The (·. .-) indicative pronouns, ( .-.
·...') relative pronouns, (·.. .-) interrogative
pronouns, etc. are all (¸ ` ). They will be discussed later in
Lesson 57.


41
Because it is incorrect to say (¸ ` ·), the term (¸ ` ) has been used. If one
deletes the ( . ), the word becomes ( ¸` ·).
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Note 4: The (·.' ··.·' .) nominative detached
pronouns were listed in Lesson 6. The remaining pronouns
will be discussed in Lessons 11 and 15 and in detail in
Lesson 41.

Vocabulary List No. 8

Word Meaning
` .` .
doorkeeper
` ` ' .
fruit
¸ -
mountain
¸ -
camel
. . , - · ` -
zoo (lit. garden of animals)
` ¸` · . . .` ·
government office
` ¸` , ¯ ¯ · . . ¯` ·
shop
¯
mounted
` · .` ' . ` ·` .`
market, shopping mall
` . ` , . · ` ,
car, vehicle
` ` ,
leader, master
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· ` ,
queen, noble woman, wife
· . ·
distance
` · ·
agile, swift
·` ¯ .
guava
.` ·`
pomegranate
` ' ` .` ' . ` ·
lion
` ¸` ` ·
beautified
.` · ¸
place of salāh, ídgāh
` . · . ` ·` .` . · ·
she camel
· ·` `
walk, stroll
. ` , ·
field
· ` ·
admonition, lesson

Exercise No. 9

(A) Translate into English
Only those verbs which were used in the examples of the
previous lessons have been used in this exercise. Verbs will
be discussed in Lesson 14.
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, · . ` . - ` , ` , · . .` ` . - · · ·` , · . . ` · ` . · ` .` .
` ¸ - ` . ´ , . . ¯ ` . . . - - , ~ . ¸ · ` ·` .` ` - · . -
. · · · ` ¸ ··` . -` , · . · ` - ` ¸ · ' ` · - . '
. . , - , · . ` - ¸ ¯ ' ¸ ·` ¯ . ` ·` ` - , . . · · ` ` - ' . -
. ` ` -` · ´ - ¸` , , - . . · · . ` ¸ · ` ,` ¸ · . ¯ ` ¸ ` · · , · .
¸` , · · . ` ` ¸` , ` ` ` .` ' ¸ .` ¸ ` , · · . , ·· .
` . .` .` ` . · ¸ · ·` ` ` . · ` · . ` ` , ·· . ` · ¸ · ` ` . ·
· ` -` ` ` ` ` · · - , ·· . ·` - ¸ · . ` · ` , · ~ · , ·. . ¸ · . -
¯ . · · ¸ · ¸ , ·~ . . .`` ¸ · ¸` , - ¸` , · · ¸` , , . · ` .` '
, ·· . · .` .` ~ .` .` . · ` .` · ¸ · , ·· . .` . · · .` .` . · ` .` · ¸ . , · .
` · , . ` ` ` ` · · . · ¸ - ` . ¸ · , ·- . ¸` . · ¯ . · · ¸` , ` ¯
¸ · , · · ` , · . ` , ¸ · ¸` , · . .` , ¯ ` , · ·`, - ` .` ' .
, ·· . .` ' ¸ ' · ` · : · ` ¸ · .

(B) Fill in the blanks where a verb, (¸··), (·), (-),
(- -) or (-) are missing with suitable
words that you have learnt.

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, · . · · ·` · ' '
, · . · - ¸ ·
, · . ¯ . - ¸ ·
, . . ' . . - -
, ~ . ` . ¸ · .` '
, · . · - ` . ¸ ·
, · . . · · ¸ · ¸ ·
, . ' ` ¸ · ·` , ·
, - . · ¯ ¸ ¸ ·
, · . ¸` , ¯
, ·· . ` . · ¸ ` . =
, ·· . · ` · ´ · · ' · ´ · . ·` ·

(C) Translate into Arabic:

(1) a tall mountain
(2) the past two months
(3) The gardens of the cities are wide.
(4) There is a long distance between Makkah and Egypt.
(5) I saw two flowing rivers today.
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(6) Ahmad’s son’s horses are agile.
(7) Úthmān came to Makkah on an agile camel.
(8) The two doorkeepers are standing by the door of the
leader.
(9) The shops of the markets of the cities are much
beautified.
(10) A just judge is in the governmental office.
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Lesson 11
The Genitive of Possession
( - ·· = · | · )
42


1. When the (·,·.) dual and (· ¯' ·-) sound
masculine plural forms are (.·), their ( ,· .. · ) at the
end is deleted.
Examples:

·· ·- .. ·- - ·-
` , ` · ¸` - ¸` - ` ¸ ` , ` .` ' ¸` - ` ¸ ` , ` . .` '
They are the
two houses of
a man.
I saw the two
houses of a
man.
the doors of
the two
houses of a
man.
originally was
( . ` , )
originally was
( ¸` , ` , )
originally was
( ¸` , ` , )


42
This lesson is related to lesson no. 7.
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·- ·· .. ·- - ·-
` · ` . .` ·` · . ` .` ' ¸ ·` ·
.
` .` , . ¸ ·` ·
They are the
teachers of the
boy.
I saw the
teachers of the
boy.
the house of
the teachers of
the boy..
originally was
( .` .` ·` ·)
originally was
( ¸` , ·` ·)
originally was
( ¸` , ·` ·)

2. When the words (` . ' - father)
43
, (` - ' - brother)
44
and (` . · -
mouth)
45
are related to any other word besides the pronoun
of the singular first person (.´· - .), their forms
46

will be as follows:


43
The dual of (` . ') is ( . . '), ( ¸` . ') and the plural is ( . ¯).
44
The dual of (` - ') is ( ' - . . ), ( ' - ¸` . ) and the plural is ( . .` - ).
45
The dual of (` . ·) is ( · . ), ( · ¸` , ) and the plural is (` · . · ').
46
Besides these three words, there are another three words which follow the
same pattern. They are (` . -), (` ¸ ·) and (` ·). These six words are known as ( . -'
·´· ·).
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·· ·- .. ·- - ·-
` .` ' ' ` ¸ '
` .` - ' - ' ` ¸ - '
` . · · ` ¸ ·

Note 1: The word (` ·) meaning person, owner, etc. has the
same three forms. However, it is only related to a visible
noun (·~ .) and not to a pronoun.
Examples:

·· ·- .. ·- - ·-
. · ` · · . · · ` . . ·

The feminine form of (` ·) is (` . ·).
The dual of (` ·) is ( . ·), ( ¸` ·) and the plural is ( .` ` ·).
The dual of (` . ·) is ( · . ), ( · ¸` , ) and the plural is
( · ` . ). The (.·) of these words is like other general
nouns.
Examples:
( . · ·) – two people of wealth,
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( ` ` · . · ) – many people of wealth,
( · . - ` . ) – one of beauty,
( · . - ) – two women of beauty,
( · . - ` . ) – women of beauty.

Note 2: When the words (` . '), (` - ') and (` . ·) are related to the
singular first person pronoun (.´· - .), they will be
read as follows in all three cases: (` ¸ ') – my father, (` ¸ - ') –
my brother, (` ¸ ·) – my mouth.

3. If you intend to relate two or more words to one word,
the first word will be mentioned as normally before the
(·, .·), but the second one will be mentioned after the
(·, .·) and a pronoun referring to the (·, .·) must
be appended to it, e.g. ( ` ·` ` ` ` . ` .` , ) – the minister’s
house and his garden, ( ` , . · ' ` .` .` ,` ` .` ` . ) – the ministers’
houses and their gardens.

4. When nouns are related to pronouns, these are the forms
they will assume:

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Attached Pronouns in the Genitive Case
(·- ·.' .)
Third Person (. ·)
` ¯ ` ·
singular
` ¯ ` .
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ¯ ` .` .
plural
` ¯ .
singular
` ¯ ` .
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¯ ` ¸` .
plural

Second Person ( . -)
` ¯ :
singular
` ¯ ´
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ¯ ` . ´
plural
` ¯ :
singular
` ¯ ´
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¯ ` ¸ ´
plural
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First Person ( ´ ` · . )
` ¸ ¯
singular
` ¯
dual, plural

After alif, the ( . ´ ` · . ) must be read with a fathah and the
third person singular masculine pronoun must be read with
a dammah.
Examples: ( . . ·) – my staff, (` · . ·) – his staff, ( . ) – my
two hands.
A pronoun can also be attached to the (·` - -). Such a
pronoun is known as ( ' - . - ¸. ) – the
pronoun attached to a particle in the genitive case. The
paradigm of these pronouns will be as follows:


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Third Person (. ·)
` ·
singular
` .
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` .` .
plural
.
singular
` .
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¸` .
plural


Second Person ( . -)
:
singular
´
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

´ ` .
plural
:
singular
´
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ¸ ´
plural

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First Person ( ´ ` · . )
` ¸
singular

dual, plural

In the same way, one can attach the particle ( .), (` ¸ ·), (¸ ·),
(¸ ), etc. and form a similar paradigm.

Hereunder follow examples of the particles ( .), (` ¸ ·), (¸ ·)
and (¸ ) attached to the pronouns:
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· ` ·` · · , · ` , ·
. ` .` · · ` , . ` , .
` . . ` .` .` · · ` , ` . . ` , ` . .
. ` · . · ` , . ` , .
. ` .` · · ` , . .` ,
` ¸ . ` ¸` .` · · ` , ` ¸ . .` , ` ¸
: ` · : · ` , : ` , :
´ ` · ´ · ` , ´ ` , ´
` . ´ ` · ` . ´ · ` , ` . ´ ` , ` . ´
: ` · : · ` , : ` , :
´ ` · ´ · ` , ´ ` , ´
` ¸ ´ ` · ` ¸ ´ · ` , ` ¸ ´ ` , ` ¸ ´
` ¸ ` ¸` · · ¸ ¸
` · · ` , ` ,

Note 1: The particle ( .) which is from the (·` - -) is
read ( .) with a fathah when attached to the pronouns
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except for the singular first person. The word (` ¸ ) can be
read as ( ¸ ) as in the verse: ( ¸` · ¸ ` . ´` ` · ` . ´ ).

When the word (` ¸ ·) is attached to the first person singular
pronoun, it is read as (` ¸` ·), while (¸ ), (¸ ·) and (` ¸ ·) are
read as (` ¸ ), (` ¸ ·) and (` ¸ ·) respectively.

If there is a word with the definite article ( . ) after (` .` ·) and
(` . ¯), a dammah will be read on the (·) of both these words
and attached to the ( .), e.g. ( ` .` . . ´ ` . . ).

5. When the vocative particle ( - ` ` ` . ) is used before
(·. .¯·), the (.·) will be read with a fathah, e.g.
( ¸` ` , ), ( . ` -` ` · ).

Note 2: The ( . ` ` ` -) - vocative particles are several of
which () is the most commonly used one. The word to
which the vocative particle is prefixed, is called ( · ` . ).

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If the ( · ` . ) is singular and not (.·), a dammah will be
read on the final letter, e.g. (` ` ) – O Zaid, ( ¸` - ) – O
man.

If the ( · ` . ) is (.·), a fathah will be read on the final
letter of the (.·), e.g. ( ¸` ` , ).

If the ( · ` . ) has (.), the particle ( .' ') for masculine and
( .` .` ') for feminine should be attached to it, e.g.
( ¸` -` .' ' ) – O man, ( · ` .` .` ' ) – O girl.

Sometimes these two words enter ( · ` . ) without the
particle (), e.g. ( ¸` -` .' ') – O man, ( · ` ,` .` .` ') – O noble
lady.

Vocabulary List No. 9

Word Meaning
´ ` .` '
Bakr’s father, name of a
person
· · '
in front
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.` . `
undoubtedly we
. · ` .`
the children of Hāshim,
name of a tribe
` ¸ -
son-in-law
` . -
behind
` . ·` · ` . · · .
dirham, silver coin
` ` · ` ` , · .
dīnār, gold coin
` . · ·
gold
` · -
returning
` ` ,
rational
· ·
hour, time, Qiyāmah,
watch
¯ ¸ . ` ' .
tooth
` ` . . ` .` . ' .
in-laws
¸ · . · ` , ·
tribe
` ·
by
. · ' .
tongue, language
,` - ·
life
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· ·
death
` :` `
worship, sacrifice
` -
dirty

Exercise No. 10

(A) Take special note of the (.·) of each word in the
following sentences:

, · . ` : ` ` · ` ¸ ` ¸ . · .` ´ ` ` · :` ` ¸ · = .` .` '
· ` ,` .
, · . . · ` ¸ ` ¸ · .` ' ¸ · = ` · ` .` ` ¸` - ` ¸ ` , ` . · ·
. · .
, · . ' · ` . · · . ` -` ` · :` ¯ · · ` ' .' ' ` ¸ ¯ .
, . . ¸ · · . · : ·` ` .` , ¸` , · ` ` , ¸ ` .` .` ` , .
, ~ . ` , ' ¸ · ¸ · :` , - ' ` . ¯ ` ¸ - ' ` . ¯ .` ·
, · . . . - ' ` ¸ ` . · ` ' ` . · · ¸` , - ` - ' : ¸ · .
, · . · ` , ·` . ` ¸ ` - ' ¸ · ` . · · · ` , ·` . :`` - ' ¸ · ¸ · .
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, . ' · · ` -` · ` .` - ' . ` -` ` · ` .` - ' .` · . .
, - . · ` ¸ · ` ,` , · ` ¸ ` -` · ` .` - ' ` . · · ` -` · - ' .` ' ' .
, · . ¸ · · ` . ¯ ·` , - ' ` . ¯ .` · ` . · · ` -` · ` ¸ - ' .
, ·· . ¸ · · - ` ¸ ` .` ' ` . · . - . · · ` · ` .
, ·· . ¸ · . ` , = . ` . · · . ` , = · .
, ·· . ¸ · · ` , ` .` .` , ` . · · · ` , ` . ´` , ·` · ` . , .
, ·. . ¸ · . · ¸ · · · ` ¸` · ' ` · ` . · · ·`. · · · · ` · .
, ·~ . ¸ · · ` , ` · :

` . · · ` . · · ¸ · ` . · · ` · ` ` , · ·` , · ` ¸ .
, ·· . ¸ · ` ·` ` : ` ¸` . · · ¸ · ` . · · ` · ¸ . · ¸
· ¯ ` , - .
, ·· . ` .` .` · · - ·` . ` ` , .
, · . ` , · ` ¸ · , · ` ¸ · ` ' . . ` ' . .
, ·- . ¯ . ` · ` ¯ ¸ · ` . ´` .
, · . ` ¸` ´ ` ¸ '
.
= ` ` · ` ` , ´ .
, ·· . = ¸ . = .` .` ` . . ` · ` ` · ´ ` .` ' ·` , · .
` · - ¯ ¸ · . ·` · .

47
The phrase, (` · :` , ·) means “You owe him,” while (` · ` ¸ ·) means “I owe him.”
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, ·· . ' ` .` .` - . ` · ` ¸ - ¸ .
, ·· . ´ . ` · ¸ · . - ¸` , ` ` · ` · ` .` ·` · .
, ·. . ` . ´ ` · ' ` . ´ ` · ' .
, ·~ . · ` , ¸` - ` . ´` · ¸` , '
, ·· . · ` -` · ` ` . · :' .
, ·· . ` ¸ . . ¸` , · ` . · ` ¸ · . ,` - · ` ¸ ´` ` .

(B) Insert the correct (.·) in the following sentences and
indicate the reason for doing so:

, · . .-. .··· · .
, · . ··· · .
, · . ..·· .· .
, . . ·' .·· .· .
, ~ . .- ··- .,= ¸- . .
, · . . ·· · .·· .-. . . .
, · . . ¸ ··· ¸· · .
, . .· ··· ·'' .
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, - . . ·' ··' ¸- ¸·· ·'' ¸ .
, · . ·,~ ·-. ¸- . .
, ·· . - ·- · ´ . .'' · ..,
, ·· . · .·· ¸· .· ¸·
, ·· . · .·· ¸. .''
, ·. . · ·· ¸· ¯ .·· ¸. .·· ¸·
, ·~ . ·- ' - .' .. .
, ·· . · · . .' .·· ~ · .
, ·· . · · ¸·· .' ¸· <´ ·

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Is your name Àbdur Rahmān? Yes, my name is
Àbdur Rahmān.
(2) O Àbdur Rahmān, is this your book? No, it is
Àbdullāh’s book.
(3) Do you have a golden watch (watch of gold)? No, I
have a silver watch.
(4) Is that your big brother? Yes, he is my big brother.
(5) Is this the house of the minister’s son? No, it is the
king’s son’s house.
(6) Are the two hands of your small brother clean? Yes,
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but his two feet are dirty.
(7) Have you seen Hāmid’s brother? Yes, Hāmid’s
brother is a good boy.
(8) Have you seen Mahmūd’s two sisters? Yes, his two
sisters are sitting by my mother.
(9) Are your teachers sitting in the madrasah? Yes, our
teachers are sitting in the madrasah.


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Test No. 5

(1) What is (.·)?
(2) How many cases does a noun have?
(3) How many types of (.·) are there?
(4) When will a noun be regarded to be in (·· ·-),
(.. ·-) and (- ·-)?
(5) What is the (.·) of the dual form?
(6) What is the (.·) of the sound masculine and
feminine plurals?
(7) What is the (.·) of (.· · .)?
(8) How will words like (¸.) etc. be read in all three
cases?
(9) If the definite article is removed from words like
(¸.) etc. how will they be read in all three cases.
(10) Form the dual and plural of (·).
(11) What is ( . . ' ¸ ) and describe some types of it.
(12) What changes take place in (·,·.) and ( ¯· ·~
·) when they are (.·)?
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(13) How will the words (` . '), (` - ') and (` . ·) be read in all
three cases when they are related, that is, they are
(.·) to a word other than the singular first person
pronoun (.´· - .)? And if they are related to
the singular first person pronoun (.´· - .),
how will they be read?
(14) If you want to describe the (.·), will the
adjective be adjacent to the (.·) or will it be at a
distance from it?
(15) What is the (.·) of (` ·) and the (.·) of its dual
and plural form?
(16) How do you make two nouns (.·) towards one
word?
(17) What is the (.·) of the (.·) when a vocative
particle (. -) is inserted before it?
(18) When pronouns are (·, .·), what are they
called?
(19) Add a pronoun to the word (¸ ·) and form its
paradigm.
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Lesson 12
Indicative Pronouns
( · · = · |· ·· « = | )

1. Words which are used to point out to something are
called ( · , . ` '). They are of two types:

(a) words that indicate something nearby. The
following forms are the most commonly used
ones:

Gender Singular Dual Plural Case
Masc.
· · . · . .` . ··
Masc.
· · ¸` · . .` . ` - ..
Fem.
· · · . · . .` . ··
Fem.
· · · ¸` , · . .` . ` - ..

(b) words that indicate something at a distance.
The more commonly used forms are the
following:


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Gender Singular Dual Plural Case
Masc.
· · · ' : : · : . '
.
··
Masc.
· · : ` · : . ' ` - ..
Fem.
: ' · : : . ' ··
Fem.
: : ` , : . ' .. ` -

Note 1: The original Indicative Pronouns are ( ·), ( . ·) etc.
without the ( ·) but these are seldom used.

Note 2: The words ( : ¯ - similarly) – and ( · ´ – in this
way) – are very often used.

Note 3: The ( ·) appended to the end of ( ,· · . ) is
sometimes changed like the (- .~- .)
49
according
to the second person. It has no effect on the meaning. This
change occurs more often in ( · : ).
( · : · ´ · ` . ´ · : · ´ · ` ¸ ´ )

48
Note that the () is not pronounced.
49
The second person pronoun in the genitive case.
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The meaning of all these words is the same.

Example: ( · ´' ´ ) – That is the Lord of you two.

( · ` . ´' = ` . ´ ) – That Allāh is your Lord.

Note 4: Besides the dual form, all the remaining ( . ` '
· , ) are ( ` . ` ¸ ) - indeclinable.

2. The object pointed to is called the ( ` ` · ·` , ). The ( .
. · ) together with the ( ` ` · ·` , ) form part of a sentence,
namely the subject, doer or object, just as in (¸,.. .¯·)
and (·. .¯·).

3. The ( ` ` · ·` , ) will always have ( . ) or be (.·).

4. If the ( ` ` · ·` , ) has (.) attached to it, the ( . ·. )
must be mentioned first, e.g. ( · ` . ´ ) – this book.

If it is (.·) towards another noun, the ( . ·. ) will
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succeed the ( .· ·, ), e.g. ( ` . ´` ¯ · ) – this book of yours,
( · : ` ¸` ) – this son of the king.

In the above-mentioned phrases, if the ( . ·. ) is
brought first, and it is said, ( · ` . ´` ¯ ), the meaning will be,
‘This is your book.’ In this case, the word ( ¯ ` . ´` ) is no more
the ( ` ` · ·` , ) but will become the predicate. It will now be a
complete sentence.

5. If the ( . ·. ) occurs as the subject of a sentence
without the ( ` ` · ·` , ), then:
(a) if the predicate has (.), insert a pronoun (.) between
the ( . ·. ) and the (-). This pronoun will correspond
in word-form to the ( . ·. ) as you learnt in Lesson 6.
Examples: ( · ` . ´ .` · ) – This is the book.
( .` .` - ` ` .` · : . ') – Those people are the successful ones.

In these examples, the ( ` ` · ·` , ) is implied (` ` ·). The actual
sentences are ( · ` . ´ .` · ¸` ,` ) and ( ` .` · ` ¸` : . '
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.` .` - ` ).

(b) If the predicate does not have (.), a pronoun will not be
inserted, e.g. ( · ` . ¯ ) – this is a book. The ( ` ` · ·` , ) is
implied in this example as well.

(c) If it is (.·), then too there is no need for a pronoun,
e.g. ( · : ` ¸` ) – This is the king’s son.
( · ` . ´` ¯ ) – This is your book.
However, if you want to create emphasis in your speech,
insert a pronoun, e.g.
( · ` . ´` ¯ .` · ) – This is your book.
( : ` ¸` .` · · ·) - That is the king’s son.

Note 5: Understand well the difference between
( : ` ¸` · ) and ( · : ` ¸` ).

Note 6: The words ( · ` . ), - here, ( ` ·) – here, and ( · ` ·) –
there, are also indicative pronouns. There are no particular
rules for their usage.
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Vocabulary List No. 10

Word Meaning
` ¸` ,
fig
· ` ` -
redness
. .` - ' . . -
maternal uncle
` . - . · -
maternal aunt
` .`
doubt
.` .
no doubt
` · ` · ' . ¯ . ·
paternal uncle
` .` · . ·` ·
paternal aunt
` ¸ ` `
pious
` .` . = ·
aim
` ~ · . ` =` ·
scenery
` · .
guidance
` ·` .` -` . ` ·` -
face
. ·
he said
` . ·
she said
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. ' ¯
as if, like
. ·` `
proof
.` ~ ' . ` .` , ~
doctor

Exercise No. 11

(A) Translate the following sentences into English:

, · . · ` ¸ ` . = · .` ·
, · . · · - · ' ` · ·
, · . · . . - ' . ·` -` .
, . . · . .` - ` ¸ -` ' . .` .
, ~ . ` . ¯ ¯ ` .` , = . · ` ·` .` - :
, · . ` . ¯ · . ` -
, · . ` .` · ` . ` .` ·
, . · - ` ~ :
, - . , . · . . ` , =
, · . ' · · · ` · ' ·` .` - '
, ·· . · · ` ¸` · · ` ¸` · ` ¸`
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, ·· . · ` ¸ - · '` : ` ¸ - ¸` -` · ` ¸ ` · ·
, ·· . ` ·` - · · -` , ¸` , · ` ,
, ·. . · : . ` - ' · ·` · · ' .
, ·~ . · ·` ´ · : ¯ ' - · . ` - . · ` ¸` ,`
, ·· . ¸` , ` -` : ` ` .` .` ,` :
, ·· . ¸` , · :` ` ¸ · · ` ` -
, · . ·` , · .` . ` . ´ : ·
, ·- . : . ' ¸ · · . ` · .` .` - ` ` .` · : . ' ` . .` ` ¸
, · . ¸` , · ' · :` ` · ´
, ·· . .` · ` ·` ' ¯ ` . ·
, ·· . ` · .` ` · · ` .
, ·· . :` ` ¸ · . ·` ` : · ¸ .` . ·` ·
, ·. . :' . · : ¯ . ·

(B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) This doctor is learned.
(2) This friend of mine is wealthy.
(3) Those friends are wealthy.
(4) This son of the king is generous.
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(5) These two are brothers.
(6) That she-camel is beautiful.
(7) This handsome boy is pious.
(8) O Àbdullāh, is this your son?
(9) Those boys are standing in front of their father.
(10) This is a good man and those two are transgressors.
(11) That girl is pious and so is her mother.

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Test No. 6

(1) What are the commonly used forms of the indicative
pronouns?
(2) Which of the indicative pronouns are declinable
(.··)?
(3) What is the object that is pointed to called?
(4) How is the ( ` ` · ·` , ) always used?
(5) Where should the ( . ·. ) be placed when the
( ` ` · ·` , ) has (.)?
(6) When the ( . ·. ) is used without the ( ` ` · ·` , )
in a sentence, what are the ways in which it is used?
(7) What is the difference in meaning and analysis
between ( ` . ´` ¯ · ) and ( · ` . ´` ¯ )?
(8) Is there any difference in meaning in the following
words: ( · ´ · : · ` . ´ · ´ · : · ´ ` ¸ )
(9) When does the (·) of ( · : ) or ( : ) change in the
above-mentioned manner. Explain with examples.
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Lesson 13
Interrogative Pronouns
( -·.«·=v· ··r| )

1. Some of the interrogative pronouns are:

Word Meaning
` ¸ ·
who
·
what
· ·
what
¸` '
what
¯ . '
which (m)
·` '
which (f)
` . ¯
how much, how many
.` , ¯
how
¸` '
where
· ¸
when

why
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·
why
` ' ¸
from where, how

Note 1: Besides (¯ . ') and ( ·` '), all the interrogative pronouns
are ( ` . ` ¸ ). See 10.9.

Note 2: You have read in Lesson 6 Note 4 that the particles
( ¸ ·) and ( ') create the interrogative meaning in the sentence.
They are both particles (-) of interrogation. That is,
they cannot form the subject or doer of a sentence. On the
other hand, the interrogative pronouns can become the
subject or doer or object of a sentence.

2. The (·.. .-') - interrogative pronouns – are used at
the beginning of sentences, e.g.
(· ·` .` ' ` ¸ ·) – Who is your father?
However, when they are ( .· ·, ), they will follow the
(.·) according to the normal rule, e.g. (` ¸ · ` . ¯) – whose
book.
The particle ( .) can be inserted before the (·.. .-') and
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brought at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. (` . ´ ¸ ) –
Whose book is it? (Literally: For whom is this book?)
( ·` . , ` : ` ¸ ) – Whose kingdom is it today?

3. The (·- -)
50
can be attached to the beginning of the
(·.. .-').
Examples:
Word Meaning
` ¸
whose

why
` . ´
how much
¸ ¸` '
till where
¸` ' ` ¸ ·
from where
¸ · ¸
till when
` · , · ` ¸ · .
from what
` ¸` · , ` ¸ · ` ¸ · .
from whom
` · , · ` ¸ · .
from what,
regarding what

50
See Vocabulary List No. 6.
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` , ·
in what

4. Sometimes the word ( ·) is joined to the (·- -)
without the alif. Therefore ( ) becomes ( . ), (` ·) becomes
(` . ·) and ( ` , ·) becomes ( .` , ·).

5. The words (¯ . ') and ( ·` ') are (.·) to the succeeding
words, e.g. ( ¸` - ' . ') – which man, ( . -` ' . ') – which of the
men, ( ·' ` · ·` ') - which woman, ( . ` ·` ') which of the
women. If the word after (¯ . ') is indefinite, it will be
singular and if it is definite, it will be plural.
6. The word succeeding (` . ¯) is (...·) - in the accusative
case and it is singular, e.g. ( ·` · ` . ¯ · ` · ) – How many
dirhams do you have?
( ·` ` ` · · ` . ¯) – What is your age? (Literally: How many
years is your age?”)

7. Sometimes the word (` . ¯) is not used for interrogation but
for providing information. It is called ( - .¯ ` · ). Its
meaning in that case will be ‘several’ or ‘many’.
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The noun succeeding (·- .¯) is (-). Sometimes it is
singular and sometimes plural, e.g. (` . ` · ' ` · ` . ¯) or ( ` . ¯
` . ` · ' ` , ·) – I have freed many slaves.

The particle (` ¸ ·) is sometimes used after (·,·. .¯) and
often after (·- .¯).
Examples: ( ` . ¯ · ` · ·` , ` ` ¸ · ) – How many rupees do you
have?
( ` . ¯ ` ¸ · .` · . ` , · ` ' ` · ¸ · . ) – I spent many gold
coins on the poor.

Vocabulary List No. 11

Word Meaning
` ` · '
matter, command
¸` ,
between
` ` -
ink
· ` -
five
·` , `
rupee
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` ¸ . ` ¸` ,
fat
¯ . ` ` .
necessary
· , · ·
comfort
. ·
stick
` - ` . ·
fountain pen
¸ .` ` . ·
pencil
· ·
ink bottle
` ` . ·
powerful
` -
one
` ¸` ,
right, right-hand side
`
left, left-hand side
· · ·
agile, lively

Exercise No. 12

(A) Translate into English:

· ¸ .` ` . · , · . · · ·
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` - ` . · · · , · . · · · ·
· · · · , · . · · · ·
` ` - · ` ¸ · , . . · · ` ¸ · · ·
· ` ¸ - ` ¸` · . , ~ . ` ¸ · · · . ·` -` .
· ` , ` · ` , ·` . ` ¸ ` - ' : , · . ` . ` , ` .` : ` ¸ ·
` ` , ´ ` ¸ - ' · · ` · - , · . : - ` ¸ - ¸` - ' . '
. .` .· · ` · ' , . ` ¸ · . .` .· · . -`
· ` · ` ¸ · ` . ·` · ` ¸` ·
.
, - . · ` ¸ · · . ` . .` .
. · · .` · ¸ · ` , · . ` ` , ·` . ·` .` - ' ¸` ' ·
¸` , · ¸` · . · · , ·· . ¸ · · . · ·
· ` ¸ ¯ .` · , ·· . ` ¸ · · ` . ´
` ¸` = ' , ·· . · :' ` ¸ ·
` , = .` .` ` ` -` · ` ¸ , ·. . · :' , ` ¸ ·
` ¸ ` · ` · ·` , , ·~ . · :` ` · ·

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(B) Note the use of the interrogative pronouns in the
following sentences:

· . ` . ` , = ` ` · ` ¸ ` · ` :` ` · .
· . ` -` · ` ¸` ` ` - ' ` ·` ` · = ` · :` , ' ` .` ·
· . · ´ · ` ¸ · ` ¸` - · ` .` ` ' ¸` ' ` ¸ · .
. . ¸ ¸` ' .` .` · · ` ¸` - · ` .` ` ' .` .` · · ¸ ` . .
~ . · , · · ` ¸` - = ` ` - · ` . ´ - .`, ¯ .
· . ¯ ` . ` , · .` ' · ` - ` ¸ · ` - : ` .
· . ` .` ` - ` . ` , · · ` ¸ · · . - ` ` . ¯ · . - ` .
· ` ¸ · ·` . , .
. ` - ` - ' . ` - ' ` ¸ · . . - ' ..` - , ¸ · : ` . ¯ .
- . ·` , ` ¸` ` · · · · · · ` ,` · · · ` . ´
· . ` ¸ - ' · ` . · .` ' ` ¸ - . ´ . ` ` . ` · '
·· . . . · ¸ · · ¸ ` .` · : ` , , : · .
·· . : ¸` ' . · · = ` · ` ¸ · .` · ` . · · .
·· . ` . - . · · ·` . , ` : ` ¸ .
·. . · ¸ ` .` · = ` . . . ' · = ` ` . .
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(C) Answer these questions in Arabic using the words you
have learnt.
, · . · · ·
, · . · · · ` ¸ ·
, · . · · · ·
, . . · : ·
, ~ . ` ¸ · · ·
, · . ` ¸ · · · .
, · . ` ¸ · . .` .· ·
, . · :` ` ¸` '
, - . · ` ` - ' ·` .` - ' ¸` '
, · . · :` , - ' ` .` ·
, ·· . · · - ' . . ` ¸ ·
, ·· . · ` ¸ - ' . . ` ¸ ·
, ·· . · . .` - , ¸ · : ` . ¯
, ·. . · ` .` · · · ` ¸
, ·~ . · ·` .` ' ¸` '
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, ·· . · · ' .` ' '
, ·· . · .` , ' .` , .` ' '
, · . · :` · ' ` · · - . ` ·` '
, ·- . .` , ¯ · · ` .` · . ` · ' ¸` . · ` . ´
, · . · ¸ ` .` ' . · · · ¸ · ` ¸ `

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Who are you? Sir, I am Hāmid.
(2) What is your father’s name? My father’s name
is Hasan Ibn Àlī.
(3) How many sons and daughters does Àbdur
Rahmān have? He has one son and two
daughters.
(4) Who is the woman standing in front of you?
She is my brother’s wife.
(5) What is in her hand? There are clothes in her
hand.
(6) How many people are standing there? Five
people are standing there.
(7) How many boys are present today? Sir, thirty
boys are present.
(8) O Mahmūd, why are you standing here? I am
standing here for some necessary work.
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(9) How much is this book? It costs five rupees
(Lit. It is for five rupees).
(10) O Khālid, how many brothers do you have?
Sir, I have two brothers.
(11) To whom does this small dog belong? It is
my maternal uncle’s dog.
(12) Where are you going to now? Sir, we are
going to the madrasah.
(13) When did your brother go? He went one
hour ago.

(E) Note how the following sentences have been analysed.
An indication was made in Lesson 6 and 10 to (·,- ·~) and
(·,·· ·~) respectively. Here a simple analysis of some
straightforward sentences is made. If any sentence provides
information of some type, term it (·-) and if there is a
question, term it (·,·.) or (·,).
(1)
` ¸ |· - ` = -· -
- ·
·- ·,- ·~

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(2)

¯¸ ¬ = ¸ - ¯¸ · -
·. ...· ·
. . -

·- ·,- ·~

(3)

`¸ = , ´ |· ¸ · - ` ¸ |· - ¸ -
-.· ` - - .- ·. .
·
,·· - .

·,·. ·,- ·~

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(4)

= |· - ¸ | · · , · ´ - · ` = · . · · ¸ ·
- -
` -
..·· ¸·· ¸·· -
·.
,·· ¸·

·,·. ·,·· ·~

Test No. 7

(1) Which words constitute the ( .- . ·. ) and the
( - ·.. ). What is the difference between the
two?
(2) Where should the ( .- ·.. ) be placed in a
sentence?
(3) From the ( .- ·.. ), which word is (.··)?
(4) How many types of (` . ¯) are there? What is the
(.·) of the noun succeeding each type?
(5) How are (¯ . ') and ( ·` ') used? Explain with examples.
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(6) What were the words (` . ·) and ( .` , ·) originally?

Insert the (.·) in the following sentences:
, · . · .,· .¯ ¸· ·· ·· ·· ¸'
, · . · :· .· ¸·
, · . · ·' ·· . · ·· ·'· ·'
, . . · .,· ¸· ¸·
, ~ . · ´ · .· ¸·
, · . .· ¸· : .¯ · . ¸· : .¯ -.
, · . · · .¯ ·- ·· · .¯
, . · ·, .´· ·.- ¸' ¸·
, - . ..- .- · ¸´ ·, ·.- ¸ ..´· .¯ ., .·
·· ¸· .
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Lesson 14
The Verb

1. Verbs are of two types: (1) one is (¸.') which indicates
that an action has been completed, e.g. ( . ¯) – he wrote. (2)
the second is (-.') which indicates that an action has not
been completed but is being done or will be done, e.g.
(` .` ´) – he is writing or he will write.

Some morphologists
51
regard the imperative (·') as a third
category of verbs.
Generally a verb has three root letters (¸ · ), e.g. ( . ¯) – he
wrote. Some verbs have four root letters (¸ · ` ), e.g. ( . -` ) –
he translated.

Note 1: The root letters of a word are called ( · ·` · ). In verbs,
the (.· ¯· -) third person singular word-form
contains only the root letters to the extent that recognizing

51
Scholars of ( ` ` . ` .·).
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the root letters of the verbal noun (.·) and all the
derivatives (.·) are based on this word-form. In order
to indicate the meaning of the verbal noun, it is appropriate
to write this word-form - (.· ¯· -) - so that the
student can apprize himself of the root letters. Hence we
can say that ( . ¯) means to write although originally its
meaning is, ‘he wrote’. However, if you want to speak of
the meaning expressed by the verbal noun, you should use
the verbal noun, e.g. ( · . · ´ .` · ) – Learn writing
and reading. The word ( · ´ ) is the (.·) -verbal noun of
( . ¯) while ( · . ) is the verbal noun of ( ' ·).

3. The (.· ¯· -) third person singular word-form of
(¸.') - the past tense (or perfect tense) comes on the scales
of ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸ · ·) and ( ¸` · ·). Examples: ( . .) – he hit, ( · ) – he
heard and ( ·` ¯) – he was noble. Details of this will be
provided in Lesson 16 while the quadriliteral verb (¸·)
will be discussed in Lesson 25.
All the word forms of the past tense are as follows:
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.,·'· =,,-'· ¸=·'· ¸-«|·

Meaning
Person Gender Word-Form
Verb
He wrote singular
. ¯
They 2
wrote
dual
¯
They wrote
masc.
plural
` ¯ ` .
She wrote singular
¯ ` .
They 2 f.
wrote
dual
¯
They f.
wrote
3
rd

person
fem.
plural
` ¯ ¸
You wrote singular
` ¯ .
You 2 wrote dual
` ¯ `
You wrote
masc.
plural
` ¯ ` .`
You f. wrote singular
` ¯ .
You 2 f.
wrote
dual
` ¯ `
You f. wrote
2
nd

person
fem.
plural
` ¯ ` ¸`
I wrote m/f singular
` .` ¯
We wrote
1
st

person
m/f dual/
plural
` ¯
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Note 2: The total number of word forms are 18 but only 14
are mentioned because the meanings of all are included in
these 14 forms. Then there is no need to repeat one word
several times. However, among the 14 word-forms, the verb
( ` ` ¯) is repeated. There was no need for it but due to a
certain expediency, the custom of repeating it has been
formed.

Note 3: Every word-form of the verb has a pronoun of the
(¸··) – doer. These pronouns are called
(·.· ··.·· .) – attached pronouns in the nominative
case.

Note 4: When joining the verb (` . ¯) to the succeeding
word, delete the final sukūn (jazm) and replace it with a
kasrah, e.g. ( . ¯ .` .` ´ · ·` ) – The teacher wrote the
letter.
The alif and () of those words which have them at the end
will not be pronounced when joining them to the
succeeding word, e.g. ( ¯ . ·` -` .` .` ´ ) – The two men
wrote the letter. ( ¯ . -` ` . .` .` ´ ) – The men wrote the
letter.

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5. The verbs on the scales of ( ¸ · ·) and ( ¸` · ·) will also be
conjugated like the above:

¸` . . ` . . ` .` . . . ... `
·` ¯ . . ¸` ·` ¯. ·` ¯ . ` . ·` ¯ . ` .` ·` ¯ . ·` ¯ ... ` ·` ¯

6. The scales of ( ¸ · ·), ( ¸ · ·) and ( ¸` · ·) are of (·' ¸.') –
the past active tense. The (...-) passive tense
52
of all these
forms appears on the scale of ( ¸ · ·).
Examples: from ( . ¯) – ( . ¯), ( . ) – ( . ` ), ( ·` ¯) – ( · ¯).

No (¸··) is mentioned with the ( - ... ) - passive verb. Only
the (..·· – object) which is now called the (¸ .) –
representative of the doer - is mentioned. Like the (¸··), it
is rendered (··), e.g. (` ¸ . ` ) – The milk was drunk. This
sentence does not indicate who drank the milk.


52
When one wants to indicate the person/item on which the action is done
without mentioning the doer, the passive verb is used, e.g. The book was
taken.
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7. By inserting ( ·) before (¸.') - the perfect tense, it
becomes negative, e.g. ( . ¯ ·) – He did not write. ( . ·)
– He did not drink.

8. Very often the word (` ·) or (` ) – undoubtedly – is added
to (¸.') - the perfect tense to create emphasis in the
meaning. However, there is no need to translate it always,
e.g. ( ` · ` ` . . ` ·) – Undoubtedly Zaid hit Bakr or Zaid
hit Bakr.

9. You read in the sixth lesson that a sentence beginning
with a verb is called ( ` - ·,·· · ). In a (·,·· ·` -), the (¸··)
which is in (·· ·-) - the nominative case - generally
follows the verb, e.g. (` ` ¸ -) – Zaid sat. If it is a ( ¸·
` .` · ` ) transitive verb
53
, the third part of the sentence is the
(..··) – the object - which is in (.. ·-) - the accusative
case. See Lesson 10.
Example: ( ` ` - ` ` ¸ ¯ ') – Zaid ate bread.


53
A transitive verb is one that requires an object to form a complete sentence.
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Besides these, the other parts of the sentence are called the
(. · ` ·), e.g. ( .` - · ·) – with the meat, ( .` , ¸ ·) - in the
house, ( ·` . , ) – today etc.

Sometimes the (..··) – object – precedes the (¸··) and
sometimes it even precedes the verb. Similarly, the (. · ` ·)
can also precede the (¸··), the (..··) and the verb, e.g.
( ` . ¯ ' ·` . , ` . ´ ` · ` . ´ )
Today I have perfected your religion for you.

The words ( ·` . , ) and (` . ´ ) are the (. · ` ·) in this sentence.
The former preceded the verb while the latter preceded the
(..··).

10. In a (·,·· ·` -), the verb always remains singular
whether the doer of the action is dual or plural. However
for a masculine doer, the verb will be masculine and for a
feminine doer, the verb will be feminine.
Examples:
(` . ¯) - A boy wrote.
( . . ¯) - Two boys wrote.
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(` · .` ' . ¯) - Many boys wrote.
( · ` ` . ¯) - A girl wrote.
( . ` ` . ¯) - Two girls wrote.
(` . ` . ¯) - Many girls wrote.

However, if the (¸··) comes first, then the verb must
correspond to the (¸··). The details of this rule will be
mentioned in Lesson 18.

Vocabulary List No. 12

Note: In the list below, each verb is written with both the
(¸.') - perfect and (-.') - imperfect tenses.
Conjugate each verb according to the previously mentioned
paradigm. Then construct the (...-) passive tense of each
verb and conjugate it. The beloved students of seminaries
should certainly take this much trouble to do this.

Word Meaning
¸ ¯ ' ¸ ¯ '
to eat
. ·` . ·
to send
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` ·` ` ·
to leave
` -` ` - - -
to go out
¸` -` ¸ - ·
to enter
` . = . ~
to seek
` · = · ~
to rise
` .` ` · . ·
to set
` . ` · . ·
to overcome
` - - ·
to open
` - - ·
to be happy
` . . . . ·
to understand
¸` ¸ ·
to kill
- - ` - -`
to succeed
.` .` · '
relatives
¸`
those, who
.¯ '
now
¸ .¯
till now
` ¸` `
to nurse
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·` -
garden
` ·` , -
all
` -` ` -` ` ` .
crop
` ·
thief
· · .
evidence, testimony
` · · ~
food
` · ·
year, this year
` · · ·
boy, servant
` -` ·
happiness
· · ·
group
. . · ' . .` . ·
statement
` ' ¯
as if
¯
like
. '
because
` ` ` ¸
hospital
.` · . ` ¸` · ¸
sick person
.
except
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then, because
.` ` -
part, section

Exercise No. 13

(A) Note the use of the active and passive tenses in the
following sentences and translate them:

.,.=· ¸=·'· =,,-'· ¸=·'·
.` · , .¯` . ' · .` · , ` ` , . .¯` ' ·
.¯` ' · ` ` , ' ·
.
¯` .
` · , . ·` - . ~ ` · , . ·` - . ¯ . ·
` .` · , . -` . ` .` ~ ` .` · , . -` . .¯` . ·
¸ · , ` .` . ` . ~ ¸ · , ` .` . ` .` ´ · ` . ¯
` · , . ` . ~ ` · , . ` . ` .` ´ · ¯ ¸` ,
` ¸` · , ` . . ¸` ~ ` ¸` · , ` . . .` , ´ · ¸` ¯
. · ·` .` ' ¸ ` .` · . - ` . ¯ ' .` '
` · ·` ` ` ' ¸ ` ¸ ¯ ` ·` ` ¯ ' ` ` '
` .` · ·` ` .` ` ' ¸ · ´ · ¯ ' ` .` ` ' -` , = ` .`
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. · ·` .` ' ¸ · ` . · .` ~ .` '
` · ·` ` ` ' ¸ .` , . · ` ` ~ ` ` '
` ¸` ` ' ` ¸` · ·` ¸ ` ` ` ¸ . · ` ¸` ` ~ ` ¸` ` '
` . · ·` ' ¸ ` · · ` ¸ . · ` .` '
· ·` ` ¸` - ¸ ·` ´ ¯ ` ` ¸` -

(B) Translate the following questions and answers:

Answer Question
` ·` · .` ` - ` . ' · ` . ` , ` . · .¯` . ' · ¸ · ` ` , ·
` ¯ ` . · ` ` · · - .` .` ´ .` ¯ ¸ · ¸
:` , ' ·
` ¸` ` . · ~ · ¸ .¯ ¸ · · ` ¸` ` . · ~
· · ¸` · ` . · ` . · · ` . · ¸ ·
· · ` ` - ` . ¯ ' ` . ` ,
¸
. ¯ ' · · · ` .` · ·` . ,
` ¸ ' . ·` ¸ · ¯ . ¸ · ·` .` ' . ·` ¸` '
` . - · ` ¸` · ' ¸ · · ` ¸ - · ` ¸ ·
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¸ · - - ` · . . - ' ` ·
`
· .` · - - ` ¸ ·
` ¸` · ' ` .` . ` . - ' . . ` ¸ · · :
- · · . ¸ .¯ · · ` ` . - · ¸ ·
. - ` · , ¸ · - - ` .` ' · . · ` ` , ` ` -` · -
` ¸ · .` .` ` - - - ·
· ·
¯ . - ` · , ¸ · - - ` .
· ` . . `
. · · ` . ´ ` . · ` · ` . · ` .` ` . · ¸ ·
¯ . ` · ` . ´ . · ` ¸ · · ¯ ` .` ` . · · .
· · .` ` .` ~ · . .`` ¸ · .` ~ .
` ` . · ·` ¸` ` , · ·` -
.` ¸ .
. · ·` . ¸ ` ` ` ¸
' · ` ¸ ` -

(C) Note the use of the verbs in the following verses of the
Qur’ān:

, · . = . · , · ` , · ¯ · · · ` . · · ` , · · · · ` ¸ · ` . ¯ .
, · . ¸ · ¸ · ` , · ¸ ` ' · · ¸ · ¸` . ` ' ´ · ¸ · ¸`
·, - .
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, · . ¯ ` . . ¯ ¸ · .` - ..` ,` · -` ` · · < ¯ .
, . . . -` ` . ,. ` ` · · . . ..` · . . ` ` ., . ` ` ·
· . . ..` · . .
, ~ . ¸ · . ` ·` · ¸` , · ¸` · .
, · . .` · ` · ` · . ·, · ` .` .` ` · .
, · . . ¯
~.
´` , · ` . ` · ,` . ¯ . ¯ ¸ · ¸ ¸ · ` . ´ ` · .
, . · · ·` ` .
55
` . ·` ` . ' . · ` . · .

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Did Hāmid eat the food? No, he did not eat the
food till now.
(2) Did you drink the water? Yes, I ate the food and
drank the water.
(3) What did you eat today? I ate bread and meat.
(4) Did your sister go to the madrasah? Yes, she went
one hour ago.
(5) When did the sun rise? The sun rose now.
(6) Who entered the musjid? They are the teachers of
the madrasah.

54
Here the word ( . ¯) means, “to make binding – to make compulsory”.
55
A girl buried alive.
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(7) Who is that who came out of the house? That is
my small brother.
(8) Did you (f) understand my statement? We did not
understand your speech.
(9) Why did you (pl. f.) not understand my
statement? Because your language is Arabic.
(10) O Khālid, was any lion killed? Yes, a large lion
was killed.
(11) Who killed the lion? Sir, I killed the lion.
(12) Where was your servant sent? He was sent to the
market.
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Lesson 15
The Imperfect
(-·='· ¸-«|·)

1. The verb which indicates the present and future tense is
known as (-.' ¸·) – the imperfect, e.g. (` . ` .) – he is
hitting or he will hit.

2. The letters ('), (.), (.) and (.) are the signs of ( ¸·
-.') known as the ( ··· . -.' ). By inserting one of
these letters before (.· ¯· -) - the singular
masculine third person - of (¸.') - the perfect tense,
making the first letter sākin and adding (··) at the end, the
(-.· ¸··) is formed, e.g. from ( - ·) we get (` - ), (` - ),
(` - · ') and (` - ).

The paradigm of (-.' ¸·) is as follows:

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¸-«|· -·='· .,·'· =,,-'·

Meaning
Person Gender Word-
Form
Verb
He is opening or he
will open
singular
` -
They 2 are opening or
they will open
dual
. -
They are opening or
they will open
masc.
plural
.` .` -
She is opening or she
will open
singular
` -
They 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
. -
They f. are opening or
will open
3
rd

person
fem.
plural
¸` -
You are are opening
or will open
singular
` -
You 2 are opening or
will open
dual
. -
You (all) are opening
or will open
masc.
plural
.` .` -
You f. are opening or
will open
singular
¸` , -
You 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
. -
You (all f.) are
opening or will open
2
nd

person
fem.
plural
¸` -
I am are opening or
will open
m/f
singular
` - · '
We are are opening or
will open
1
st

person
m/f
dual/
plural
` -
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3. Like the (¸.') - perfect tense, the (-.' ¸·) -
imperfect also comes on three scales: ( ¸ · ), ( ¸ · ) and ( ¸` · ).
The (-.') - imperfect of ( - ·) is (` - ), of ( . .) is (` . ` .)
and of ( ·` ¯) is (` ·` ´). The details will follow in Lesson 16.

Note 1: The words (` - ) and ( . - ) appear several times in
the paradigm. Understand them well. One has to see the
context to determine the meaning.

Note 2: As in (¸.') - the perfect tense, the (-.' ¸·) -
imperfect also has fourteen word-forms.

4. To construct the (...-) - passive of (-.' ¸·), render
a dammah to the (-.' .···), and a fathah to the
penultimate letter, e.g. (` . ` .) becomes (` . ` .`) – he is being
hit or he will be hit, (` - ) becomes (` - `) – it is being opened
or it will be opened, (` ·` ´) becomes (` · ´`) – he is being
honoured or he will be honoured.
5. In order to construct the (¸' -.') - imperfect
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negative, the word ( .) is most often inserted before ( -.'
.·') - the imperfect positive. Sometimes ( ·) is inserted,
e.g. ( . ` . · ) – He is not going or he will not go. (` . ` · ·) –
He does not know or he will not know.

Note 4: In order to make (-.' ¸·) specific with the
future tense, the particles ( ¸) or ( ` . ) are prefixed to it,
e.g. (` - , ) – He will soon open. ( .` .` ` · ` . ) – You will
come to know.

6. You know that (.) - pronouns are used in place of the
(..··) - object. In Arabic, there are two types of pronouns:
(a) (¸ .` ` ·) - those pronouns which are attached to the verb,
(b) ( ` · ¸ . ` ) - those pronouns which are independent and
separate from other words.
Because these pronouns are in (.. ·-) – the accusative
case – they are referred to as (·..' .).

7. The pronouns of (·.' ·..' . - attached
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pronouns of the accusative case) are the same as the ( .
·.' ·-) - attached pronouns of the genitive case. See
Lesson 11. The only difference is in the (.´' ··,.) - first
person word-form where (` ¸ ) is used in place of (` . .).
The paradigm is as follows:
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Third Person (. ·)
. ` ·
singular
. ` .
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

. ` .` .
plural
. .
singular
. ` .
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

. ` ¸` .
plural

Second Person ( . -)
. :
singular
. ´
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

. ` . ´
plural
. :
singular
. ´
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

. ` ¸ ´
plural

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First Person ( ´ ` · . )
` ¸ .
singular (m/f)
.
dual, plural (m/f)

The same pronouns can be attached to the (-.·) -
imperfect tense, e.g. (` ·` ` .), ( ` .` ` .), (` .` .` ` .) … till ( ` ` . ).

In a similar manner, the above-mentioned pronouns can be
attached to every word-form of every verb.

However, when attaching a pronoun to the (.- ¯· ·~)
- plural masculine second person verb, the (·) is rendered a
dammah and a (` ) is inserted before the pronoun, e.g.
(` .` ·` .` ` ` .) – You (all) hit them. ( ` ·` .` ` ` .) – You (all) hit the
two of them.

8. The ( .' . ' ·. ·. ) – detached pronouns in the
accusative case are as follows:

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Third Person (. ·)
` ` ·
singular
` ` ·
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ` · ` .
plural
` ·
singular
` ` ·
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ` ¸` ·
plural

Second Person ( . -)
` ·
singular
` ¯
dual
M
a
s
c
u
l
i
n
e

` ` . ¯
plural
` ·
singular
` ¯
dual
F
e
m
i
n
i
n
e

` ` ¸ ¯
plural

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First Person ( ´ ` · . )
` .
singular (m/f)
`
dual, plural (m/f)

These pronouns are used to create stress or limitation in the
sentence especially when they precede the verb, e.g. ( ` ·
` ` ` · ) – We worship You alone.

Vocabulary List No. 13

Take special note of the harakah of the (·´ ·) in the
perfect (¸.') and the imperfect (-.').

Word Meaning
` , ` - , -
to create
` · ·` · ·
to raise
¸ ·` ¸ ·
to ask
` . = . ~
to oppress
` ` ` · ·
to worship
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¸ ` · ¸ ·
to work, act
` = = ·
to create
¸ · ¸ · ·
to do
` : ` : ·
to own
` =` =
to look
¸
camel
' . · '
more/most important
`
only
¸`
innocent
` ¸ = .` . =` .
stomach
` - . · ` -
newspaper
` · · - ` -` ` ' ` · · -
jāmi’ musjid
` .` ·
radio
¸` · '
yesterday
·
tomorrow
- .
morning
. ·
evening
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¯ .
harm
· `
worshipper
· .` . ·
coffee
= · · ·
May Allāh grant refuge
.` . = ` .
By Allāh
` ·` -
pain
· . ` .` , ¸
orphan
` · ` ·
to benefit

Exercise No. 14

(A) Note the use of the (-.') - imperfect tense and
translate the following sentences:

, · . · ` ¸ · . ` . . ¸ · ·` , · ` ·` . · ' ` . · .
, · . ` .` ´ ` ¸ · · ` .` · ` ¸ ` - ' ` ·` ` ´ · . ´ .
, · . = . · : ` .` ´ . .` ' ` , - ` .` ´ ¸ · . . ' ` . ` ,
¯ ' ` ·` - ` . ` ¸ · . ' ` . .
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, . . ¸ · ` ` - ' ` . · ¸` ' ` . · · ' ' ¸ ·` .'
, ~ . · ¸ · - · · ` ¸ · .` · ` · -` ' · ·` .' ¸ · ` · -` .
, · . ' . ¯ ` . ' ` · .` ' ` , · .` ' ¸` , .` . · ' .
, · . · .` . . .` ` . ` . ` ¸` - · .` .` .` ` ¸ · .
, . ` .` · ·` ¸ · ¸ ` . = ` · · . ·` ` ¸ . · ·` . , . ¯ - .
, - . ` . ´ ~ ` ¸ · ¸ ` .` ' ~ · ` ¸ ` ¸ ` ¸ `
, · . · ` . ´ - ` ¸ · .` .` ` · ¸ , - ` ¸ - = · ` . ´`
` . .
, ·· . · · · · ` · ¸` , = · ` ¸ ` · ` ¯ ` . ´` · ` . ~ ' ` .
, ·· . · · · - ¸ · ¸` · ' ` .` ` ` ' ¸ · ` ' · = . · ` · ` . ¯ .
, ·· . · ` .` ·` ¸ · .` - ` - ' ` · ` ¸ · = ` . - . ` · ` '
. · .
, ·. . ' ¸ · ` .` · ' ` . · ' ` ¸ · ¸ · · ' · ' . .` ,¯ · - .
, ·~ . · · ` , = · .` - · · ¸ · ` . ` · ·· · = · · .` , · ·` ` ¸ ·
.` · ·` ` . - ' ` ¸ · ·` .` = ` .

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(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

, · . · ·` · · .` ·` .` ` ¸ ´ · ` ..` ` · .
, · . ` ¸ ¸ · ` . ´ ` . ´ · ` .` ' .. · ` · ¸ ` · ' ' .. ` ` ·
.. ` · .
, · . . · . ` . = ¸` ·` , ` ¸ ´. ¸` ` .` . ' ..` = .
, . . ¸ · . ` : ` · ' ¸ ' . . · .
, ~ . ¸ .. ¯ ' . .` · ' · , ¸ ~ ` .. ¯ ' ¸ · ` . . . =` .
, · . · ¸ . ` ` ` · ' ` . ` ¸ = · .
, · . · ' .` = ¸ ¸ , .` , ¯ ` . ` - ¸ . ` .` , ¯ ` . · ·` .
, . ¸ · .' ' ` · ´ . ` ` ` · ' · .` ` ` · ` .` ' .` · · ` ` ` · '
' ` · ` · ` .' · ` .` ' .` · · ` ` ` · ' ` . ´ ` . ´` ·
¸ ¸ · .
, - . ¸ · ` · ¸ ·` ` . .` . ·` ` ` .` · .

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(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) What are you reading in the madrasah? I am reading
Tashīlul Adab.
(2) Do you recognize my brother? Yes, I recognize him.
(3) Will the door of the garden be opened today? Today
the door of the garden will not be opened.
(4) Where did the doorkeeper go? I do not know where
he went.
(5) Will you go for a stroll today? No brother, I will go to
the madrasah.
(6) Did Mahmūd eat the food? Till now he has not eaten.
Now he will eat.
(7) Who do you worship? We do not worship anyone
besides Allāh.
(8) What are you asking of us? We are only asking for a
book.
(9) Which book are you seeking from us? We are seeking
the book ‘Sīratun Nabī’ from you.
(10) Do you read the Qur’ān every day? We read one
part from it every day.
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An Arabic Letter

Read the following letter and note how a letter is written in
Arabic.

' ' ` .` ´ · ·` . , ` . ` ¸ ·` , · ` .` ¯ ` , ·` . ` ¸ - ' ·

` ` · ` - ' .' '
` · ·` ´` , · ` ·` ¯ = · ` - ` .

` - · .` .` - ` . ´` ·` , - ` .` ` ' ` . ' · ` ¸` ' .` .` ` · ` ' ` ¸ ·`
` ¸ · ·` , · ` . . .¯ · ` , · ·` ` · ` ¸ · . · ' ¸` , .` . ¯ ` ¸ · .` ' .`` -
. · . . ` ¸ · ¸ · ` .` ´ · ·` . , ` .` ¯ ' ` = . . '
· ` ¸ · ` ¸ · .` ` - ¸` , ·` . ` · ¸ · . ´ .

' . . ` ¸ - ' · .` ´ ¸ · · .` · . ¸` , ' - ¸` . ` ·` , · · . ´
` · ` ·` , · ¸ ¸ · · - . ·` . ` · ` - . · ` · ' · ` ¸` - .
. ' · .` ' ` . ` · · .` · . ¸` , ` ¸ · . ' . ´ ` ·` ` - ¯
.` .` = .
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· ·` . · · , · · ¸ · = ¸· ` . ~ ' - ` . ¸ · ·` , - ` . ´ ` ¸
¸` , ` ` . ` · ·` ¸` , ·¯ .

` . ~ · ` , -
. ` -` ` ` ·

Test No. 8

(1) What is a verb and how many types are there?
(2) How many root letters are there generally in a verb?
(3) What is the (·` ··) of a word?
(4) From among the verbs, which word-form contains
only the root letters?
(5) How do you recognize the root letters of verbs,
derived nouns and verbal nouns?
(6) On what scale does the triliteral verb in the perfect
tense come? What are the scales of the imperfect
tense?
(7) How many word-forms are there in the perfect and
imperfect tenses in reality, how many are
customarily in vogue and why?
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(8) In which part of the sentence does a verb normally
come in an Arabic sentence? Where do the doer and
object come?
(9) Due to the number and gender of the doer, what
changes occur in the verb?
(10) What is the (.·) of the doer and the object?
(11) In the word (` · .), what is the pronoun (` ·) called?
(12) What word is ( ·` )?
(13) How do you construct the passive of the perfect
and imperfect tenses and the negative?
(14) What is the noun called towards which a passive
verb is related?
(15) What are the signs of the imperfect tense?
(16) What meanings can the word (` .` ´ ) have and how
many word-forms can ( . ` ´ ) be?
(17) How many tenses are found in the imperfect tense?
(18) What effect takes place on the imperfect by
introducing the particles ( ¸) and ( ` . )?

End of Part One
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3



Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

Page 2

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Title

Arabic Tutor - Volume One

Author

Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (

)

Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad First Edition Published by R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007 Madrasah In’aamiyyah P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South Africa +27 31 785 1519 +27 31 785 1091 al_inaam@yahoo.com

Tel Fax email

Page 3

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Àbdullāh Ibn Àbbās narrates that Rasūlullāh “Love the Arabs for three things: • because I am an Arab, • the Qur’ān is in Arabic and • the language of the people of Jannah is Arabic.”

said,

Page 4

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Contents of Each Volume Volume One: Lesson 1 to Lesson 15 Volume Two: Lesson 16 to Lesson 25 Volume Three: Lesson 26 to Lesson 43 Volume Four: Lesson 44 to Lesson 75 Page 5 .

...............32 The Types of Definite Nouns........................................................................49 Page 6 ............................................................................... 1.45 Vocabulary List No................................................................................................25 Request.........................................................................................................33 Lesson 2.........35 Vocabulary List No..........................................................10 Introduction.........31 Words and the Types of Words...42 Lesson 3...........44 The Adjectival Phrase ....38 Exercise No....................................................................................31 The Types of Nouns ..........................................................................................................47 Exercise No..........................................................................................................................................................28 Lesson 1..........Arabic Tutor – Volume One Contents Transliteration..... 2..................40 Test No..................................13 Reviews of this Book ...................................................................................................................................26 Translator's Note .........................................................35 The Particles of ( ) and ( )..............................................................................................25 Notes.....................................................44 Compounds .................................................................. 2 .......................................28 Terminology .................................................... 1 ................. 1 ..................................................................................................................17 Indications ..............26 Terminology .......................................................................

................77 The Genitive of Possession................................................................71 Exercise No......................................................................................................................................93 Lesson 9... 4..Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 4..................................................................................................................52 Exercise No...................................................55 Singular and Plural ...........................................88 Exercise No.............................................................. 3 .................. 6.......103 Page 7 .........................................................53 Lesson 5........59 Exercise No....... 3 .........61 Test No...............94 The Broken Plural..50 Vocabulary List No................................................................................................................................. 5.......................50 Gender............................................... 6 ...........................................................................................................................................................................64 Sentences with a Noun ..73 Lesson 7.....................................64 Vocabulary List No.................94 Vocabulary List No......................................................................... 7 ...................................80 Exercise No..................................... 2 .........................69 The Nominative Detached Pronouns ............................62 Lesson 6.88 The Scales of Words .... 5 ..............77 Vocabulary List No........................................ 7........................ 3...........................................................................101 Exercise No........................................................................................................ 4 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................86 Lesson 8....................55 Vocabulary List No............................................ 8.....84 Test No............

........................................... 6 ............173 Exercise No..............................................................................................142 Vocabulary List No........................................ 12......................................................................................156 Exercise No.............................................................176 Lesson 15....108 The Cases of Nouns.........................................................................119 Lesson 11........................................... 9...118 Exercise No...... 4 ................................................. 11 ...................................152 Interrogative Pronouns.........133 Exercise No.......... 10................................................................................. 12 ..........................................................................................................181 Page 8 ..................................................................................................... 11.............108 The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns ...... 10 .............................................................................................166 Vocabulary List No............................................................................................164 Lesson 14...............................135 Test No....152 Vocabulary List No...............................................166 The Verb....................Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No..................142 Indicative Pronouns ............................................... 9 .........157 Test No................................................106 Lesson 10...................................... 7 ........................................................................148 Test No...................123 Vocabulary List No......................151 Lesson 13.............................140 Lesson 12........................................... 8 ......................147 Exercise No...........................181 The Imperfect ......................109 Vocabulary List No.......................................................................... 5 ...................... 13........................................................................123 The Genitive of Possession........................................

..........................................Arabic Tutor – Volume One Vocabulary List No.........................191 An Arabic Letter ........196 Page 9 ..........................................................................195 Test No......................... 14..............189 Exercise No............. 13 .................. 8 .....................................

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Transliteration The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters has been used in this book: ā b t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s Page 10 .

y Page 11 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One d t z á í ú gh f q k l m n ū h ī.

used for Nabî (Àlaihis salām) Salutations upon him – used for all prophets (Radiallāhu ‘anhu) May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the Sahâbah (Jalla Jalāluhū) The Sublime – used for Allâh (Àzza wa jall) Allāh is full of glory and sublimity (Rahimahullāh) May Allâh have mercy on him – used for deceased saints and scholars ( ) Page 12 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows: (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon him .

there still seems to be a fervent desire in this age to learn Arabic and to understand the final message of Allāh . namely the Qur’ān. no primary syllabus that conformed to the times was presented to the seekers of Arabic – such a syllabus that could increase the enthusiasm of the learners. The rules must assist the learner in mastering the language. While learning the language. Experience shows that only a syllabus which has easy rules coupled with teaching the language can increase the enthusiasm of the student. However. Page 13 . the rules are refreshed.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Introduction From the multitudes of letters which this humble writer has received from every corner of India. The ancient method of teaching Arabic and its syllabus from the very outset made one lose courage. Even the modern books have been deficient in creating an urge in the student.

The lessons have been decreased when compared to the previous editions. they would not have learnt Arabic. Page 14 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One In reality. However. Now it has been divided into four parts so that it can serve as a proper syllabus for high schools from the fourth class till matric. “That is the grace of Allāh. this book was written in two parts. choosing such lessons and providing a sequence for them is no ordinary task. Many seekers of Arabic have written that they had lost hope after several attempts. This is the fourth edition of this book. the exercises have been increased to an extent that they can serve the place of an Arabic reader. If they had not obtained this book. Initially.” All thanks are due to Allāh that this book was found to be extremely beneficial wherever it was read or taught. He grants it to whoever He desires. This is the first part of the book. This is merely the grace of the Almighty Allāh who made this writer accomplish such an enormous task.

In Arabic seminaries and Dārul Úlūms. The summary of the opinions of the Ulamā of every province of India and the reviews of magazines and newspapers is that this has been the most successful attempt to simplify Arabic. They will be rewarded by Allāh and thanked by the people. A student doing self-study can complete this part in about six weeks. that one cannot achieve this by learning several other prevalent Arabic Grammar books. The key to each part has also been published. Due to this. it will be appropriate to make it a one year course in the fourth class. due to the presence of several other subjects in high schools. But you will be surprised to note how much Arabic is taught with such a few lessons. many learners have learnt Arabic on their own.Arabic Tutor – Volume One This part contains only fifteen lessons. all four parts of this book can be easily taught in one year. However. this book is such that every text book committee and those in charge of the syllabi in the madrasahs should include it in their syllabus in order to remove the difficulties of the students. This book is worth being Page 15 . where only Arabic is taught. The method of analysing sentences and recognition has been so well explained. Nevertheless.

The servant of the students (Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān ( Bindi Bazaar. Bombay. This should serve as a means of encouraging the seekers of Arabic. India Muharram 1361 A. ) Page 16 . Others will not have to waste their time in looking for the merits of this book. May Allāh reward them with the best of rewards.H.Arabic Tutor – Volume One introduced in government and non-govermental schools so that the teaching of Arabic can be simplified. The following pages contain the valuable opinions of some scholars. This humble servant is grateful to all those who rendered beneficial opinions.

Hyderabad ). The author has done a tremendous favour to the seekers of Arabic. Moulānā Manāzir Ahsan Gilānī ( Uthmāniah. I have found this book to be the easiest from all the books written on this subject. Abul A’lā Maududi. authentic journals and the lovers of Arabic Àllāmah Shabbir Ahmad Úthmānī ( ) This book is worth including in the syllabi of the madāris. Lahore Page 17 ). It is perhaps the best book written in this subject. editor of Tarjumanul Qur’ān. Moulānā Khājah Àbdul Hayy ( Millīyah. professor at Jāmi’ah . professors of Arabic. teacher at Jāmiah May Allāh reward you.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Reviews of this Book by the Úlamā. Delhi I taught the first part to the students as an experiment. You have favoured the Muslims greatly. This is a tremendous task. You have decreased a burden from my shoulders.

Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to the gratitude and thanks of the Indian students and teachers for having written a very beneficial. It is worthy of being included in Arabic madrasahs and English schools so that the students can learn the language in a short period. Lucknow ). teacher at Many books have been written in India to learn the Arabic language in the shortest period possible. However. easy and concise textbook to fulfil this need… From my personal experience I know that this book is very valuable in providing benefit.Arabic Tutor – Volume One This is the most successful effort at explaining the language of Arabic and its rules. I have not seen any book till now that concisely meets the needs of the time. Page 18 . Moulānā Muhammad Nāzim Nadwī ( Nadwatul Ulamā.

It is better than other books. Hyderabad I completely agree with the opinion of Moulānā Àbdul Qadīr Sāhib. Jāmi’ Musjid Bombay ). teacher at Jāmi’ah Moulānā Àbdul Wāsi’ ( ). head teacher at Madrasah Page 19 . If this book is included in the initial Arabic syllabus. it will be very suitable. Bombay ). ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One Moulānā Àbdul Qadīr Siddīqī ( Uthmāniah. it would be more beneficial than other books. teacher at Jāmi’ah Uthmāniah. Moulānā Ghulām Ahmad ( Àrabīyah. Àllāmah Sheikh Àbdul Qādir ( Elphinstone College. professor at This is a successful endeavour. Hyderabad If this book is included in the syllabus.

My children study it with great interest. This book is not merely ‘dry’ Grammar but is an excellent textbook of Grammar and an interesting collection of literature. not even by the European Orientalists.Arabic Tutor – Volume One We have included this textbook in the syllabus of our madrasah. Hyderabad The success you have achieved in simplifying Arabic has not been achieved by anyone. Janāb Ghulām Àlī. Hyderabad I have studied the book. Moulānā Habībur Rahmān Sherwānī ( ). advocate of the High Court. Page 20 . ‘Àrabī kā Mu’allim’. It seems to be better than the previous books. Moulānā Lutfur Rahmān ( ). Experience shows that it is very beneficial. Bombay Such an interesting and easy book of Arabic Grammar has not been seen before.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Moulānā Sayyid Muhammad Yahyāpūr ( ), Ilāhabād

There is no doubt that the author will long be remembered for this book and in the hereafter it will be a means of great reward for him.

Moulānā Muhammad Sa’īd (

), Sultānpūr

The books of Punjab and U.P. and the book ‘Kalāme Àrabī’ of Meerut are non-entities in front of your book.

Moulānā Muhammad Siddīq Kīrānwī (

)

This humble servant has several books of this type e.g. Raudatul Adab, Kalāme Àrabī etc. However, the excellent manner in which you have presented the summary from Mīzān till Kāfiyah cannot be found in the above-mentioned books.

Moulānā Sa’īduddīn Khān (

), Indor

Indeed Arabic has been simplified. Your effort is worth congratulating.

Page 21

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Zamīndār, a newspaper of Lahore Without exaggeration, we can say that the learned author has achieved extraordinary success. In our opinion this book is worth including in the syllabi of all government and non-government schools where Arabic is taught. We specifically request the Punjab Text Book Committee to grant the students the opportunity to benefit from it.

Al-Jam’īat, a newspaper of Delhi “Arabī Kā Mu’allim” in reality conveys the meaning of its name – that is, it is an Arabic tutor. My desire is that the principals of Arabic institutes include it in their syllabi.

The Journal “Adabī Dunyā” of Delhī Many books have been written till now in the modern trend in order to simplify Arabic. I have seen practically all of them. However, the manner in which Moulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān has simplified a complex language such as Arabic cannot be found anywhere.

Page 22

Arabic Tutor – Volume One The newspaper “Zamzam” of Lahore The manner of teaching and understanding adopted in this book does not create any burden on the mind. Every fact is thoroughly learnt like a known fact. In our opinion there is no better series to promote Arabic. The Journal “Balāgh” of Amritsar Moulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to congratulations for having converted this stone (Arabic Grammar) into water. He has explained all the rules from Mīzān till Kāfiyah in an easy-to-understand manner.

Ilāhī Bakhsh, Malaya I have ordered many books of Arabic Grammar and Morphology written in Urdu and English and have spent much money on them. But by Allāh, these books have no value in front of your book. I do not have sufficient powerful words to describe the assistance I have received from your book in learning Arabic. Even now, if a Muslim finds Arabic to be difficult, he is unfortunate and lacks courage.

Page 23

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Janāb Muhammad Hazārībāgh Hanīf, Upper Primary School,

I had a desire to study Arabic for a long time. I used many books but it was futile. When I studied your book, I mastered Arabic in a very short while. The surprising thing was that I received no assistance from any teacher. Your book in reality is a mirror of the Arabic language.

Muhammad Sharafud-dīn, Hyderabad I thought that Arabic was so difficult that I could not even imagine learning it. However, as soon as I saw your book, my courage increased and I began studying it. I completed the first part in a few days. Now send me the second part. I do not think there is any book easier than this one.

Dr. Muhammad Àbdul Quddūs, Madras I read the first part of your book. It helped me tremendously to the extent that now I am able to write a few sentences in Arabic. Undoubtedly your book will create a great revolution.

Page 24

3) The ( ) of the verb is mentioned in brackets after it. 3) Sometimes you may not understand a point. the lesson number and fact number will be mentioned in brackets thus: (5-2) meaning lesson number 5. Remain steadfast and seek the assistance of someone. Page 25 . Notes 1) Do not start a new lesson until you have mastered the previous one.Arabic Tutor – Volume One This amount of recommendation is sufficient for the one who understands. fact no. Indications 1) The inverted comma ( ) is used to indicate the plural of a noun. otherwise so many reviews were received that a separate book could be compiled for this purpose. 2) Translate each exercise with particular care. Perhaps later on you will understand the point yourself. 2. 2) In order to refer to a particular lesson.

There is no need to memorize the rules parrotfashion. As you continuously repeat the examples. especially where there are many technical terms involved. Those attempting to translate any work of this calibre. the rules will become ingrained in your mind. Translator's Note Translating is indeed a difficult task and I therefore do not claim to have fulfilled the right of translating this book. I have added explanatory footnotes.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Request A request is made to the teachers to study the book thoroughly before teaching it. First teach it superfluously and then in detail the second time. During your teaching stint. Page 26 . I ask the reader to overlook all shortcomings. will realize the great hurdles one has to overcome. I have made an attempt to clarify the text as much as possible and simplify the rules so that the beginner can grasp them quickly. you will be able to refer your students to previous lessons easily. You will also learn the Arabic terms at the same time. It is appropriate to teach the book twice. Where there was a need.

I have included these also for the benefit of the students. while in other instances. I have used tables to enlist sentences or examples. The student need not learn the English terms. I have used the arrow sign ( ) to indicate the direction of the text. Many new Arabic words used in the exercises have not been mentioned in the vocabulary. it is sufficient. I have provided the English equivalents of the Arabic grammatical terminology for the sake of information. In some cases. I have enlisted these as well. it has to be read from right to left as in Arabic. especially in the Qur'ānic verses. I have corrected these in the English version. the text has to be read from left to right as in English.Arabic Tutor – Volume One The original Urdu text of the book contains many errors. Page 27 . In many cases. Many singular words did not have their plurals listed. If one learns the Arabic terms and understands them well. This was done for the sake of greater clarity although the original text does not have such tables. Āmīn. May Allāh accept this humble effort from me and make it a means for my salvation.

eg. a letter with a harakah the diacritical point ( as jazm fathah ( kasrah ( dammah ( two fathahs ( ) ) ) ) also known ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One Terminology Terms Meanings the diacritical points namely fathah ( ). ( ) a letter having a dammah. eg. ( ) a letter having a sukūn. ( ) a letter having a kasrah. eg. two kasrahs ( ) or two dammas ( ) the sound of the nūn created when reading the tanwīn a letter having a fathah. ( ) Page 28 . eg. kasrah ( ) and dammah ( ).

( ) . ( ) and ( ) Page 29 .g.nation ) ) masculine – also known as ( feminine – also known as ( the letters of the alphabet ( ). e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One a letter having a tashdīd ( to make a noun definite to make a noun indefinite the ( ) attached to a noun ) the noun having ( ) singular dual plural a collective plural.

g.Arabic Tutor – Volume One the letters besides the ( ) One hamzah is that of the ( ). ( ) Page 30 . Another hamzah is an alif that is mutaharrik ( ) or an alif ) having jazm like the alif of ( The initial hamzah of a word which is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word. e.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Lesson 1 Words and the Types of Words
1. A word having a meaning is called ( types: ( An ( ) – noun, ( ) - verb and ( ). It is of three ) - particle.

) is independent of other words in indicating its ) – man, )–

meaning. It also does not have any tense, e.g. ( ( ) – specific name, ( ) – to hit, (

) – good, (

he, ( ) – I. A( ) is a word that indicates some action together with ) – he hit, ( ) – he went,

one of the three tenses, e.g. ( ( A(

) – he is going or he will go. ) is a word whose meaning cannot be understood ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) – from, ( ) – on, ( ) –

without an ( in, ( ) – till, (

) – The man went to the Page 31

Arabic Tutor – Volume One musjid.

The Types of Nouns
2. Nouns are of two types: (1) ( (2) ( ) – definite and ) – indefinite.

An indefinite noun is a word which refers to a general thing. The word ( ) – a man, does not refer to any )

specific person. It can refer to any person. The word ( thing can be called ( ).

does not refer to any particular good thing. Every good

A definite noun refers to a specific thing. Zaid ( name of a particular person. Makkah ( specific city. (

) is the

) is the name of a

) – the man - refers to a specific person.

Page 32

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

The Types of Definite Nouns
Definite Nouns are of seven categories: 1. ( 2. ( 3. (
this, (

) – proper nouns, e.g. (
) - pronouns, e.g. (

), (

).
) – you, ( ) - I. ) –

) – he, (

) - the demonstrative pronoun, e.g. ( ) – that.

4. (
(

) - the relative pronoun, e.g. (
) – who (feminine). ) – vocative case, e.g. (

) – who,

5. ( – O boy. 6. ( horse, ( 7. (

) – O man, (

)

) - the noun having ( ), e.g. (

) the

) – the man.
) – a noun which is related to any of )–

the above-mentioned definite nouns, e.g. ( Zaid’s book, ( ) – this person’s book, (

) – the book of the man.

Page 33

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Note: In these examples, the word ( definite.

) has become

Besides the above-mentioned definite nouns, all other nouns are indefinite. They are also of several types, two of the main categories being: (1) ( ) – a word that denotes the being of ) – man, ( )–

something, living or non-living, e.g. ( horse, ( (2) ( ) – stone. ) -

a word that indicates the quality of ) – beautiful, ( ) – ugly.

something, e.g. (

Page 34

). 3 It is similar to the word ‘the’ in English. ( example of ( ) – water.3 It is also called ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 2 The Particles of ( ) and ( ) 1. Page 35 . ( ) – water. When ( ) is prefixed to any indefinite word. Now the word is termed as ( )– 1 2 See Terminology on page 22. the tanwīn is not ). The definite article of Arabic is ( ). In this case. In such a case. e. There is no need to translate it everywhere as in the Note 1: Sometimes a proper noun also has tanwīn.g. ( ).2 It is translated as ‘a’ ) – a man. it is regarded as a particle that renders a noun indefinite ( or ‘an’ in English. regarded as a ( 2. it becomes definite. ( ) – an apple. ( ). This is similar to the letter ‘a’ in English.g. The tanwīn1 is generally attached to a word that is indefinite. ( ). e.

Note the above example. ( door of the house. However the word ( ) is read with a fathah. ) – the Note 2: If there is a sākin letter before the ( ). e. the tanwīn falls off.4 It is not pronounced. See under terminology. the nūn of the tanwīn5 is rendered a kasrah and joined to 4 5 See under terminology. Therefore. ) – a horse. ( is indefinite while ( ) – the horse. When any word precedes a word having ( ). 4. is definite. the sākin letter is normally read with a kasrah. the first word is joined to the lām of the second word and pronounced (by joining).g. ( ) and ( ) is read as ( ). To read ( ) here is incorrect. Consequently. Page 36 . 3.Arabic Tutor – Volume One a word made definite by ( ). When a word having tanwīn precedes the definite article. The hamzah of the ( ) is known as hamzatul wasl. ) is read as ( 5. When ( ) is prefixed to a word having tanwīn.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One the lām. it will be read as ( Note 3: The alif of ( ). the harf shamsī is pronounced. Examples: ( ( ( ( ) is read as ( ) – He is a son. instead of reading the lām. at the time of pronunciation. ( ) and ( = ). ) and ( ). ) is read as ( ) is read as ( ) is read as ( ) – This is a name. If after the word ( appears. that is. ) – Hāmid is a name. No jazm is Page 37 . When ( ) is prefixed to a word having one of the letters of ( ). the lām of the ( ) is assimilated into the harf shamsī. 6. the word ( ) ) is also hamzatul wasl. the lām of the ( ) is When ( ) is prefixed to ( rendered a kasrah and joined to the ( ) and ( ). ) – Zaid is a son. Therefore ( ) is read as ( = ) and ( ) is read as ( = ). ). This rule is overlooked in general conversation. It is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word.

the other letters are called ( ). ( ) – the moon. e. ( ) – camel.Arabic Tutor – Volume One written on the lām in such a case but a tashdīd is written on the harf shamsī. pronounce them.g. Word Meaning man house dates fruit ignorant Page 38 . The ( ) are: ) – the sun. Vocabulary List No. ( etc. 1 Note 4: After prefixing the definite article to these words.g. ( ) – the man. Besides these letters. e.

beautiful bread lesson sin messenger zakāh easy thing prayer light good.Arabic Tutor – Volume One learned good. clean oppressor just one who forgives transgressor ugly Page 39 .

e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One noble. generous milk water day boy cat day and or Exercise No. ( (A) Read these words and translate them: Page 40 . Read the word ( ) as ( ) and ( ) as ( ).g. pause on the last letter. do not read any harakah on the final letter. 1 Note 5: When speaking. If you are reading one ). pause on its last letter and if you are reading several words. word. that is. pause on the last word.

Page 41 . Use the definite article ( ) wherever the words are definite. (1) a horse (2) a man (3) a man and a horse (4) bread and water (5) a man and a fruit and a house (6) the salāh and the learned man (7) the pious one and the transgressor (8) the man or the horse (9) the milk and the bread (10) a man and a horse (11) the ugly one and the beautiful one (12) a cat and a boy (13) the moon and the sun (14) the camel or the horse.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate the following words or phrases into Arabic.

what type of ( ( ) are they? ) and 10. 9. 1 1. What is the definition of ( )? 2. ) to the words ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No. How many types of ( 8. How many tenses are there? 5. Define what is ( ) and ( ) with examples. Say whether the following words are definite or indefinite. ) are there? 7. state whether the words are ( ). In the above-mentioned words. ( ) or ( ). How many types of words are there? Define each one with examples. What is the major difference between a noun and a verb? 4. 6. 3. From the following words. Join the word ( read them. What is the hamzah of ( ) called? 11. ( ) and ( ) and Page 42 .

How is a word having tanwīn joined to a word having ) and the ( )? Page 43 . how are 14. When ( ) is added to the words ( they read? 13.Arabic Tutor – Volume One 12. What are the ( )? ) and ( ). What is ( ( )? 15.

A understood from this sentence. ) is a combination of ) . ( words from which some information. ( ) a man’s book. Compounds are of two types: ( complete. command or wish is statement provides us with the information that the man is good. This ). A combination of two or more words is called ( The relationship between them is called ( 2.g. (a) An incomplete compound ( ) is a combination )– of words from which no information.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 3 Compounds 1.g. Page 44 . e. request is understood from this statement. ). ) incomplete and ( ) (b) A complete compound ( understood. The order of taking the book is ) – O my Sustainer. grant me sustenance. order or desire is understood.The man is good. ( a good man. ( ( ) – Take the book. e. It is an incomplete statement.

( man. Incomplete compounds are of several kinds. fact no. e. Here we will ). A ( ) ) is a compound in which the second ) – a pious ) with the word describes the first word. In the above example. ( discuss ( ).4 Page 45 . e. the word ) while the word ( ) is ( ).g. 3. ( ). The other types will be discussed later on. 6 See Lesson 1.6 while the ). as will complete sentences. The first part of a ( second part is ( ( ) is ( ) is ( ) describes the word ( ). The Adjectival Phrase ( 4.g. 5. The word ( quality of piety.Arabic Tutor – Volume One A complete sentence is also called ( ) or ( ). ( ). etc.

otherwise it will be ( ). both parts are ( ). The first part of ( the second part is called the ( the word ( ( ). ) and all other incomplete compounds form part of a sentence. 9 This will be discussed in detail in Lesson 10. In the compound ( ) . If the ( ( ). both parts are ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One 6. A ( ). a word that is being described. ) is indefinite ( ) is a ( ) is called ( )7 while )8. )9 that applies to the ( ) 8. In the phrase ( ) .indefinite. In the above example. ) is a ) while the word ( 7. adjective. the ( ) will also be ). 7 8 Page 46 .definite. The same declension ( will apply to the ( 9.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Vocabulary List No. large deep bad apple pomegranate street palace place mosque king cheese pen Page 47 . 2 Word Meaning garden sea melon big.

you can form many compounds of ( ) – adjectival phrases. By combining them.Arabic Tutor – Volume One rose good sweet broad strong clean wide great salty small red The above list contains many ( ) and ( ). Page 48 .

2 (A) Translate the following phrases into English: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate these phrases into Arabic: (1) the strong place (2) the small house (3) a beautiful flower (4) the ugly man (5) the broad street (6) a pious man (7) the sweet milk (8) the just king (9) the great palace (10) the easy lesson (11) a beautiful horse (12) a sweet fruit (13) the small place (14) the good horse (15) the wide house (16) the good bread or the good milk (17) a pious boy and a transgressing boy (18) the large musjid and the small garden.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Exercise No. Page 49 .

g. the alif maqsūrah ( ) or the alif mamdūdah ( ( ) is a sign of the word being feminine. e.king) ) and ( changes to ( adjectives ( . e. ( ( ).queen) etc. ( 10 The round tā which is a sign of feminine words. Similarly ( ) changes to ( ) changes to . When a tā ta’nīth10 ( ) is appended to the end of a masculine noun. 2. Page 50 . This rule applies more to ) and sometimes to ( ). e. In some words. Arabic words are of two types with regards to gender: (1) ( (2) ( ) – masculine and ) – feminine.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 4 Gender 1. 3. ) – a beautiful lady. it becomes feminine. ( ) – son is masculine and ( )– daughter is feminine.g. ) – radiant.g.

g.Arabic Tutor – Volume One 4. ( ) – eye. Some nouns are feminine without any sign of being feminine. ( ) – ear. The details are as follows: (a) any word referring to a woman. ( foot. They are known as ( the Arabs. ) – Egypt. ( )– ) – as heard from (b) the names of countries. ( ) – hand. e. e. there are other nouns which are used as feminine by the Arabs. ( ) – The Roman Empire. ( ) – a woman’s name. Some of them are: earth war wine house wind Page 51 . ( Syria. (d) Besides the above-mentioned nouns. )– (c) parts of the body in pairs.g. ( ) – mother. ( ) – bride. or India. e.g.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One market sun fire soul Although some words have a ( ) at the end.g. ( ) – a very learned scholar. e.11 6. Page 52 . Just as an adjective corresponds to its noun in being definite or indefinite. 3 Word Meaning city wise severe 11 This word is used for females as well. Vocabulary List No. ( ) – name of a poet. so does it correspond in gender. they are masculine in usage because they refer to males. ( ) – the leader of the Muslims.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One truthful rising tall. 3 (A) Translate these phrases into English ( ) ( ) Page 53 ( ) ( ) . long setting obligatory name of a woman the Qur’ān short heart peaceful ignited river Exercise No.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate these phrases into Arabic: (1) a beautiful girl (2) the pious caliph (3) the wise man (4) the obligatory zakāh (5) an obligatory salāh (6) a short night (7) the big day (8) the good thing (9) the ugly bride (10) the setting sun and the rising moon (11) the severe wind (12) the long river (13) the long war (14) the short hand (15) the peaceful heart (16) Muhammad. the pious (17) the very learned Fātimah. Page 54 .

words are of three categories with regards to number: singular ( man. ) – more ). 13 – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.g. Lesson 10 will explain where to use which one. it will be sufficient for him to remember that there are two forms of the dual: one is with alif and nūn and the second with yā and nūn. ( ) – two men. ( ) or ( ) – two kings ) to ( ) to ( ) .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 5 Singular and Plural 1.g. indicating one. at this point. ( ) – one ). 12 14 – This will be discussed in Lesson 10. dual ( plural ( ). Page 55 .the Although the author has referred the student to a future lesson. ( than two men.g.2.the ) . indicating more than two.2. Examples: ( ) – one king. In Arabic. e. 2. e. The dual12 is formed by adding ( nominative case13 or ( accusative or genitive cases14. indicating two. e.

3. Plurals are of two types: (a) ( (b) ( ) – the sound plural ) – the broken plural The sound plural is one in which the singular form of the word remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end. Such fathah with the sound of an alif and say ( ) and ( signs will come frequently later on. Pronounce them in this manner wherever one comes across them. We Instead.the .Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) – one queen. Note 2: To pronounce ( _ ) and ( _ ). one can read the ). the terms ( _ ) and ( _ ) are not written. ( ) or ( ) – two queens. It is of two types: (i) Masculine ( ) – in which ( Page 56 ) in ( ) . ). Note 1: In the prevalent books of Arabic Grammar and Morphology. these terms are expressed in detail as ( ) and ( have chosen the former method for the sake of brevity.

sound plural of some feminine 15 16 This will be discussed in Lesson 10.g. Fathah.g. e. dammah. ( ( ) ( ). e. etc. kasrah. ). ( ) or appended. The broken plural is one in which the form of the singular word is broken. changed. ( ( ) – many (female) Muslims.Arabic Tutor – Volume One nominative case15 or ( cases are appended. ( ( ) – many Muslims. ( ) or (ii) Feminine ( case or ( ) – in which ( ) in the nominative ) in the accusative and genitive cases are ) – one (female) Muslim. Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted and sometimes there is merely a change in the harakāt16.2. Page 57 . ) in the accusative and genitive ) – one Muslim. It has no fixed rule for making it. Note 3: The ( ) . Examples: ( ( ) ) ( ). that is. ( ) ( ). The broken plural will be discussed in detail in Lesson 12. ( ) ( ).

Some nouns are singular in form but refer to a whole group. See Lesson 10. 4. the adjective also has to be ). is ( ) or ( ) and sometimes ( ). feminine. namely ( Page 58 .dual ) . ( ) – a pious nation. e. There is no singular for them as well because they are not plurals in reality. 17 Since the word ( ) is feminine in Arabic. the plural of ( year.g. Such nouns are called ( Examples: ( ) – a nation. These words are generally used like plurals in sentences.Arabic Tutor – Volume One words is like the masculine plurals.sound masculine plural is )17. )– Note 4: The ( form and the ( called ( ) that appears at the end of the ( ) . Now remember that the adjective has to correspond with its noun in number as well. You have learnt in lessons 3 and 4 that the adjective corresponds with its noun in ( ). ( ) – a group. being definite or indefinite and in gender. ).g. e. 5.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One However. All other creations fall in the category of unintelligent beings ( ). the adjective is generally singular feminine ( ). 4 Word Meaning future sign. when the noun being described is ( feminine. verse of the Qur’ān clear. )– the plural of an unintelligent being18. section of a city servant baker Intelligent beings are humans. manifest current (present) past quarter. 18 Page 59 . although it is sometimes plural. angels and jinn. whether masculine or Vocabulary List No. One can say ( ) as well as ( ).

Arabic Tutor – Volume One tailor. preoccupied dark teacher bright carpenter Page 60 . exhausted displeased month lazy playing shining cheerful diligent supported busy. seamstress tired.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Exercise No. 4 (A) Translate these phrases into English ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Translate these phrases into Arabic (1) a shining eye (2) the two diligent men (3) the preoccupied baker (4) the two tired carpenters (5) the bright day (6) the beautiful seamstresses (7) the tired servants (8) the lazy tailor (9) the flowing rivers (10) the large animals (11) the current year (12) the past month (13) the past years 19 This is the name Àmr. Page 61 . The ( ) differentiates it from ( ).

(5) What are the signs of feminine words? (6) Which words are regarded as feminine without any signs? (7) In spite of having the signs of being feminine. which words are masculine? (8) What is the rule for making the dual and sound masculine plural forms? (9) What is ( ) and what is the rule for forming it? ). 2 (1) What is a ( )? (2) How many types of compounds are there? Define each one and provide examples. (3) What is ( )? What is each part of it called? (4) In which aspects does the adjective have to correspond with the noun? What are the exceptions? Explain with examples.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (14) the cheerful servant Test No. ( ) and ( )? (10) What are the broken plurals of ( (11) What is the plural of ( )? (12) What is the difference between ( ) and ( )? Page 62 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One (13) Form as many ( following nouns and adjectives: ) as possible from the honey milk 22 grapes 23 round 20 21 Page 63 .

) is one in which the first part is a noun ( ) – Zaid is handsome. ). In the above example. ) is one in which the first part is a verb ( ) – Zaid became handsome.g. Hereunder follow some rules of ( ) will be discussed in Lesson 14. e.2. See 3. ). e. ) is indefinite.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 6 Sentences with a Noun - ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ 1. Page 64 . The first part of a ( ) while the ( ) is generally definite ( ) while the second part is indefinite ( the word ( ) is definite while ( ). You have read that a complete statement is called a sentence ( types: ( A( ( A( ( ).g. Remember that sentences are of two ) and ( ).

if an indefinite noun takes the place of the word ( render the second word ( and say ( phrases ( ) and you say ( ). ) – The man is pious. e. Consequently. ( ) or ( ). ( ) – I am Yūsuf.g. For example. the first part is definite and the second part is indefinite. ) It is also permissible to insert a separating pronoun ( between the subject ( Examples: ( ( 24 ) and the predicate ( ). when the second part of a ( that can become an adjective of a noun24. in the above-mentioned example. it is permissible for the second part also to be definite. ) – The men are pious. Page 65 . both these will become adjectival ). ) is not a word However. or you ) definite by adding ( ) to it.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Note 1: The difference between ( ) and ( ) is that in the latter. it is ( ). both the parts are the same in being definite or indefinite while in the former. ).

However when the subject is ( ) .the predicate27. The first part of a ( ) is called ( ) . Generally the ( nominative case.25 3. )28 . 27 In English. 25 26 However. This word is understood from the sentence. the predicate is generally singular feminine. there is no word for ‘is’ as in English. the verb ( ) can provide the meaning of ‘is’.the ) are in ( 5.the plural of a non-intelligent being. Page 66 . while the second part is called the ( 4. the predicate refers to the word or words that say something about the subject but are not part of it. Therefore ( ) means ‘Zaid is learned’ although the word ‘is’ is not there.the subject26. these sentences will become adjectival phrases ( ). In English. ) and the ( ) . as in the case of the adjective.Arabic Tutor – Volume One If the pronoun is removed from here. the subject of a sentence is a word or phrase that refers to the person or thing that performs an action. The predicate conforms to the subject in number and gender. Note 2: In Arabic. 28 A detailed discussion on cases follows in Lesson 10.

nonintelligent dual. masculine. intelligent plural. intelligent plural. The men are truthful. non-intelligent Note 3: In these examples. intelligent dual. The two women are truthful. The winds are severe. feminine. masculine. intelligent singular.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Examples: Sentence Meaning The man is truthful. The two men are truthful. intelligent singular. feminine. masculine. feminine. The woman is truthful. feminine. feminine. Type of Subject singular. if the definite article ( ) is added Page 67 . intelligent dual. The two winds are severe. feminine. non-intelligent plural. The wind is severe. The women are truthful.

or it is removed from the first part.g. 7. Zaid is a good man. ( daughter are beautiful. all these examples will become ( phrases. that is. Hereunder follow the examples of ) – The son and the ) . ). one is masculine and one feminine. The subject and predicate are sometimes singular and sometimes they are compounds ( ( ): Sentence Meaning The good man is present. the predicate will be masculine. it changes from positive to negative. The predicate is ). Analysis The subject is ( ( ). If there are two subjects and they are of different types. e. 6. By adding ( ) or ( ) to a ( ). The examples of singular have passed.Arabic Tutor – Volume One to the second part. Most often a ( ) is added to the Page 68 .adjectival 8.

5 Word Meaning or (in a question) cow certainly. e. Very often the word ( ) is prefixed to a ( result. e. As a ) . 9. )– Zaid is not a bad person. the subject changes to ( ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One predicate which changes the case to the genitive ( e. ) – Is Zaid learned?. ( ) – Zaid is not learned. ( ( ( ) or ( ) is added to the beginning. why not Page 69 . ( ). ) – Is the man learned? Vocabulary List No.g.g.the accusative case while the predicate remains unchanged.g. Note 4: To create the meaning of interrogation in a sentence. ) – Undoubtedly the earth is round.

sentry sheep elephant standing old dog famous believer yes thick Page 70 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One new very sitting guard.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One The Nominative Detached Pronouns ( ) Third Person singular dual plural singular dual plural he . it they they Masculine Feminine Page 71 . it they they she.

They are called ( they are pronounced independently. Hence they are regarded as ( nominative case.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Second Person singular dual plural singular dual plural you you you you you you Note 5: These pronouns are most often the subject of a sentence. ) – in the ) because Masculine Feminine First Person (Speaker) I We Page 72 .4. See 6.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Note 6: Also remember that ( ) is always pronounced ( ) without the alif.

Exercise No. 5
Note 7: When speaking, pause (waqf) at the end of sentences as mentioned in Exercise No. 1. However, initially, continue writing all the harakāt. (A) Translate the following into English

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

Page 73

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

( )

( )

(B) Fill in the blanks which represent a subject or predicate with suitable words that you have studied.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
29 30

See 5.2. See 5.2.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Page 75

Arabic Tutor – Volume One (C) Translate into Arabic (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Is the boy standing? No, he is sitting. Is the girl sitting? No, she is standing. Are the two boys present? Yes, they are present. Are the two girls honest? Yes, they are honest. Are the women truthful? Yes, they are truthful. Is the teacher absent? No, the teacher is present. Are they carpenters? No, they are tailors. Is that Yūsuf? Yes, that is Yūsuf. Are you Mahmūd? No, I am Hāmid. Is the house old? No, the house is new. Are they (plural feminine) seamstresses? No, they are teachers. Are you (pl. m.) learned or ignorant? We are not ignorant. Is not the elephant a great animal? Why not, the elephant is a great animal. Is the dog standing or sitting? The dog is not standing but it is sitting.

Page 76

Look at the above examples. Page 77 . Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as ( ). Neither does the definite article ( ) precede the ( nor is the tanwīn appended to it. ) ) while the 3. 2. The compound in which both parts are nouns and the first noun is related to the second noun is called ( ). The first part of ( second part is called ( 4.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 7 The Genitive of Possession ( ) 1. Examples: ( ( ( ) – the book of Zaid or Zaid’s book ) – the ring of silver ) – the water of the river. ) is called ( ).

the door of the house of the ) of the succeeding words. e. ). ( the leader. The ( 7.g. 9. You have learnt in the first lesson that when an indefinite 31 See 3. e. ( subject while ( ) is the predicate. Therefore ( ) cannot precede it nor can the tanwīn be appended to it. In this sentence. The ( 6. is not a complete ) – The ) is the ) always precedes the ( ). The middle ( ) becomes the ( ) in one ) – the door of the house of ) .Arabic Tutor – Volume One 5. Sometimes there are several ( construction. Page 78 . 8. like ( sentence but is part of a sentence. The ( ) is always ( ) .8.in the genitive case.g. ( minister’s son. ( water of the river is sweet. )31.

32 singular. The pious son of the man Adjective of the ( ) 32 in the nominative case. Page 79 . Understand the differences properly.g. ) and no word can interpose between them. In Arabic. the word ( ( ). the adjective of ) – the pious slave of the lady. Therefore it is ( definite. because the ( the ( ( ) has to succeed the ( ) precedes the ( ). See Lesson 10.Arabic Tutor – Volume One noun is related to a definite noun. ( ( ) – the slave of Zaid. The word ( ) – slave – has become definite in these sentences. e. 10.g. it also becomes definite. ) the slave of the man. e. Hereunder are more examples. In this ) is the adjective of the word ). masculine and example.

6 Word Meaning lion obedience Page 80 . Vocabulary List No.Arabic Tutor – Volume One The son of the pious man Adjective of the ( ) The pious daughter of the man Adjective of the ( ) The daughter of the pious woman Adjective of the ( Note: More rules of ( ) ) are discussed in Lesson 11.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One I seek refuge listen. beware wisdom praise going head very beneficent very merciful rejected one husband wife anger king. overpowering sky to seek fragrance shadow Page 81 .

each everything meat ( ) whatever fear mirror salt. salty to forget parents goat calamity forgetfulness just east west Page 82 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One very powerful every.

till for. similar like a man from Zaid Page 83 from . Meaning Example Meaning Example with.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Hereunder are some ( nouns and convert them to ( Word Meaning ) which appear before ) .the genitive case. in in with a man in a house on a mountain from Zaid to a city with the pen in the garden on the throne from the musjid till Kufah I said to Zaid similar to the lion on from to. to for Zaid like.

6 (A) Translate the following into English: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 84 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Exercise No.

(19) The ignorant one is not like the learned one. (14) The goat’s milk is for the girl.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (B) Translate the following into Arabic (1) the goat’s milk (2) the cow’s head (3) the obedience of the mother (4) Zaid’s wealth (5) the elephant’s ear (6) the light of the moon (7) in the house (8) till the market (9) for Allāh and the Messenger (10) on the head and the eye (11) The boy’s name is Hāmid. (16) Āishah . (20) The fragrance is not for the boy. (18) The anger of Allāh is on the oppressive king. (13) We are sitting in the musjid. (21) She is the daughter of Hāmid’s son. the daughter of Abū Bakr is the wife of Muhammad. (15) The obedience of Allāh is in the obedience of the Messenger. (17) He is the son of the leader. Page 85 . (12) They are going home. the Messenger of Allāh .

Page 86 . (10) How is a negative meaning and one of interrogation created in a ( )? (11) What is the paradigm34 of the detached nominative ) have? What is each ) and ( ) and ( 33 desinential inflection – that is. inflection of the final radical. 3 (1) What is the difference between ( )? (2) What is the difference between ( )? (3) How many parts does a ( part called? (4) What is the ( )33 of the subject and the predicate? (5) What is the Arabic term for the attaching word? (6) In how many factors does the predicate correspond to the subject? (7) If there are two subjects of different kinds in a sentence.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No. which one is considered for the predicate? (8) What effect does the word ( ) have on the subject? (9) Attach ( ) to a dual word and a sound masculine and feminine plural word and read it.

written).Arabic Tutor – Volume One pronouns? (12) In the paradigm of the pronoun. writes. (16) What cannot enter on the ( (17) What is the ( ) at the end of ( (18) What effect do the ( ) have on the noun? In grammar. which words are similar? (13) How do you pronounce the word ( )? (14) Construct ten different kinds of ( (15) Define ( ) and ( ). wrote. a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (e.g. especially when used as a model for all other words of the same type. writing. write. )? )? ). 34 Page 87 .

Words having three root-letters are called ( ( ) and ( ). In Arabic. extra letters can also be attached.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 8 The Scales of Words 1. Page 88 . the alif and in ( first ( ) and the ( ) are extra letters. Only in some exceptions is it deleted or changed to another letter.g. all three letters ). Together with the original letters. 2. If they have four root-letters. ). e.g. they are called ( ( ) and ( ). e. e. Note 1: The original letter or root letter is the one that remains in all the forms and derivations. and four in a verb. The extra letter is the one that is found in one word-form but not in another. in the word ( are root letters while in ( ). ). The maximum number of letters in a noun is five.g. At such a time. the noun and the verb can have more than five letters. the original letters of nouns and verbs are not less than three. the ).

three root-letters with extra letters letters. If that word-form is free of extra ). e. e. 36 Page 89 . e. they are called ( ( ). then its derivatives and verbal noun will also be regarded as ( 35 These are nouns that are derived from the verb.g. the letters. derived nouns ) or ( )36 are ( ) word-form of the perfect tense ) has to be examined. e. the ( ( )35 and verbal nouns ( ). Hence. Words made up of only root-letters are called ( those having extra letters as well are called ( ( ( ) is ( ) is ( ) while ).g.g. ).g. ) – three root-letters without any extra ) . ( ) is ( ). because the ( ) and ( ) are extra. Note 2 : To distinguish whether verbs ( ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One If they have five root-letters. ) and ( ) are derived from the verb ( ). ( Plural of ( ). the infinitive.

( ) ). Page 90 . in a paradigm. the ( the word. the scale ( ) of ( ) is used. Therefore. In order to determine the scales of words and to distinguish the root letters from the extra letters. In triliteral words (words with 3 ) represents the first radical (letter) of root letters). extra letters appear in a ( word which will still remain ( ( ( ) is ( ). ) and ( ) are ( ). ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One imperfect tense ( the ( )- ) which is ( ). 3. For example. and the verbal noun ( ) will also be regarded as ( letters. the ( ) represents the second radical of the word and the ( ) represents the third radical of the word. The former has one extra ( ) while the latter has an extra alif. the word ) and ( ) will also be However. the ( )- . ) although these forms have extra Similarly.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Examples: The letter that corresponds to the ( the (ِ ). add Page 91 . that which corresponds to ). When intending to determine the scale of ( one after ( three lāms. add two lāms instead of ) and ( ). Examples: ) - quadriliteral (four letter) words. like the ( ) is called the (ِ letter corresponding to the ( ) is called the (ِ the ( ) of ( ). like the ( ) of ( ) of the ( ) is called ). In words with five root letters. like the ( ) of ( ) while the ).

Similarly. Its scale will be regarded as ( 5.Arabic Tutor – Volume One 4. in the word ( ( ) is the (ِ = ). it becomes very easy to recognize the meanings of all its paradigms and derivatives. At the time of determining the scale. when a letter is increased by repeating the ( ِ ) or the (ِ ). in the word ( ). A great benefit of recognizing the scales of words is that by knowing the meaning of the root letters of a word. the ( ) or the ( ) is repeated in the scale. According to the rule. ). ( ) and ( ) will take the place of the original letters while the other extra letters will remain as they are in their places. Page 92 . the scale should have been ( Instead its scale is ( ). ). the final ( ) is extra. the alphabets ( ). Examples: However. For example. the first ) while the second one is extra.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Exercise No. 7 What are the scales of the following words: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 93 .

It was mentioned previously that there is no rule to construct the broken plural ( ). Hereunder we list some of the scales of the broken plural which are used most often: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Page 94 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : () : ( ) .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 9 The Broken Plural 1. It is totally based on hearing the plural from the people of the language.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Page 95 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : () : ( ) .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : () : () Page 96 .

The reason why it has changed into ( explained later. Page 97 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One () This scale is generally used for the adjectives of intelligent beings which are on the scale of ( ) as in: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 37 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : ( ) ) will be : ( ) The original was ( ).

The ( ) has been deleted.g. the plural of ( ) is ( ). the final letter has to be deleted.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ( ( ) ) ) Note 1: The plural of five-letter words also comes on this scale. ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : ( ) : ( ) Page 98 . e. However.

This term is discussed in 38 Page 99 . ( ( ) ) Note 2: The following plural scales are ( )38. : of ( ). European grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes.Arabic Tutor – Volume One This scale is specific with intelligent beings. ( ) This scale is specific with those words that are on the scale ( ( ( ) ) ) () This scale is used for those words that are on the scale of ( ) or ( ). ( ) or ( ). This is a certain class of nouns that is not fully declined.

) or ( ). Page 100 . ( ) and ( ). ) or ( ). Remember the plural of the following words in particular: The sound plural of ( nominative case and ( ) is ( ) in ( ) in ( ) . Its broken plural is ( The plural of ( ) is ( ). ). Some words have plurals on several scales. ( ). accusative and genitive cases. The plural of ( ) is ( The plural of ( The plural of ( ) is ( ) is ( The plural of ( ) is ( 3. ).the ) . Some words have different scales of plurals rendering Volume 4.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Tanwīn will not be read on them. 2. Lesson 57. Hence the plurals of ( ) are ( ).the ). 4.

) and ( Vocabulary List No. The respective plurals ). the word ( plural is ( The word ( plurals are ( The word ( are ( ) while the plural ( ) means house or verse (of a poem).Arabic Tutor – Volume One different meanings. ) means slave or servant. the ) is related to the second meaning. The respective ) and ( ). For example. Regarding the first meaning. ) means eye or spring. frowning some. 7 The plurals of some words are provided next to them. part of fixed. Word Meaning scowling. established neighbour iron good Page 101 .

tall Arabian empty cutting. sharp high school pious obedient pure.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ambassador sword tea condition difficult long. clean advice fresh looking precious Page 102 .

javelin cup quince Exercise No. permanent the good actions spear. the adjective or predicate of unintelligent beings is used mostly as singular feminine. lance. Translate the following phrases or sentences into English. ( ) ( ) Page 103 ( ) ( ) . 8 (A) In the under-mentioned examples.Arabic Tutor – Volume One beneficial a day today on that day beauty remaining.

e.g. ( ) Page 104 . (B) Reply to these questions in Arabic.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (C) Translate the following phrases into Arabic (1) the Muslim men (2) the large ships ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Page 105 .

) friends? (15) Yes. (17) Those girls are playing. (14) Are you (pl. 4 (1) What is a ( )? (2) How many root letters are there in a noun and in a verb? (3) Besides the root letters found in a word.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (3) the clean clothes (4) the flowing rivers (5) The rivers are flowing.) unhappy? (11) No. (10) Are you (pl. (13) The cups of the tea are empty. (20) the Arabian verses (21) The Qur’ān has beneficial advice (plural). (6) the past months (7) They are truthful witnesses. (19) the tall houses. (18) The people of īmān are the friends of Allāh. Test No. we are cheerful. and we are relatives. what are the Page 106 . (16) The students and the teachers are in the madrasah. (8) The two tall mountains (9) The spears are long and the swords are sharp. (12) Some kings are just.

( ). ( )? ). (6) Which of the following words are ( are ( ): ) and which (7) How is the scale of a word determined? In other words. Page 107 . how many types of words are there? (5) What are words which only have root letters called and what are those words called which have extra letters. how do you use the root letters ( ) to determine which letter is a root letter and which one is extra? (8) What is the benefit of knowing the scales of words? (9) What are the well-known scales of the broken plural? (10) Which scales of the plural are ( (11) Make the plurals of ( ( ) and ( ). ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One other letters called? (4) With regards to the root letters of words. ). ( ).

Declension is of two types: one is ( ( ( ) which is shown by fathah.as will be explained later on. ) - 2.the accusative case. The other is ) which is shown by means of some ) – letters . it is ) of the doer or the object. The change in case of a noun due to the change in vowelling of the final consonant is called ( declension. dammah and kasrah.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 10 The Cases of Nouns 1. or the subject ( ) or ). ) or it comes after a ( ). When a noun is: (1) the doer of the verb ( predicate ( ).in the nominative case. (2) an object ( ( (3) ( ) or it indicates the condition ( ) . it is regarded to be in Page 108 . it is said to be ( ) . 6. The examples of the subject and predicate have passed in Lesson no.

39 Page 109 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One regarded to be ( ) . only one dammah will be read on it. in ( fathatain ( ) will be read on it and in ( ) the ) the ). If the noun is indefinite. in ( dammatain ( )39 will be read on it.in the genitive case. if the noun is definite. If a noun is singular or a broken plural. the dammatain will be read on the word. The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns 3. However. The examples will be mentioned shortly. the kasratain ( ) will be read on it.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Examples: Example no. 1

Zaid sent a letter to Khālid

This is a ( Example no. 2

). All three nouns are singular.

The men sent clothing to the women.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This is a ( Example no. 3

). All three nouns are broken plurals.

Zaid came riding on Hāmid’s horse.

This is a (

). The word ( ).

) indicates the condition

of the doer. Therefore it is (

Note 1: The adjective will be in the same case as the preceding noun. If the noun is ( also be ( ). If it is ( ), the adjective will

), the adjective will also be the

same and if it is (

), the adjective will follow suit.

Page 111

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Example: ( A learned man sent a long letter to a just king. The words, ( ), ( ) and ( ) are adjectives and the ), )

case of each one follows its preceding noun, namely ( ( ) and ( ) respectively. ), the suffix (

4. If a noun is dual ( appended in ( ( (

) will be ) in

) - the nominative case and ( ) - the accusative and genitive cases, e.g. )

The two men wrote two letters to the two women. The ( ) of ( ) and ( ) meaning ‘two’ is the same as

the dual form. The words ( ) and ( ) meaning ‘both’ will be read ( Page 112 )

Arabic Tutor – Volume One

and (

) in (

) - the accusative and genitive

cases, e.g. ( ( ( The words ( ) and ( ) – Both men came. ) – I saw both men. ) – I sent to both men. ) are used with a pronoun ( ).

5. If a word is ( plural, the suffix ( ( ( ) in (

) – the sound masculine ) will be appended in ( ), e.g. ) ) and

The Muslims despatched the mujāhidīn to the oppressors. The tens from ( ( in ( ) – 20 – till ( ) in ( ) – 90 - have the same ) and ( )

). The form will be ( ).

Page 113

Arabic Tutor – Volume One The word ( – people of) in ( ) and ( ) in ( ) is like ( plural. Examples: ( ( ) .4. Therefore the nūn of both ). See 5. ) will be read ).the sound masculine ) . only one dammah or kasrah will be read as is apparent from the example. is by means of letters ( these forms is called ( 6.They are people of intelligence. ) .I saw the people of intelligence by the people of intelligence.The Muslim women 40 If the word has ( ). Page 114 . Note 2: The ( ) of the dual and sound masculine plural ).2. The sound feminine plural ( with ( ) in ( See 5. Example: ( ) and with ( )40 in ( ) .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One expelled the transgressing women to the deserts. Now remember that some words do not accept the tanwīn from their inception. or ). ( ).3. ( ). 8. ( ). ) has ( ) prefixed to it. ). when an ( it is ( ). the tanwīn is deleted. ( ). You have learnt that when ( ) is prefixed to a word. Such nouns are called ( are pronounced with a ( ( ( However. No ( ) can be read on words like ( Page 115 ) and ( ). See 2. Examples: ( Note 3: Words which accept tanwīn are called ( These nouns will be discussed in detail in Lesson 57.Úthmān saw Zaynab in Makkah. 7. they ) with a ). ) . then a kasrah will be rendered to it in ( ). .g. ( ). ( ). ). In ( ) and in ( ). ( ). e. ). Examples: ( ( ).

I saw the judge. ( ). a ( ) will be rendered to Sentence Meaning The judge came The slave of the judge came.Arabic Tutor – Volume One They will hence be read as they are in all three cases ( ). they will be read as ( ). Such nouns are called ( Examples: ( ). ( ). 9. ( ) in ( ). Page 116 . Case If these words do not have ( ). ). ). Words with a yā sākin ( ) at the end like ( ( ) and ( ) while in ( them. Examples: ) are free of external ( ).

the term ( ) has been used. ( ). ) etc. If one deletes the ( ). in ( ). ( ) etc. The ( ) and words whose final )41. They will be discussed later in 41 Because it is incorrect to say ( ). ( ) are: ( ) etc. Nouns that can be declined by the changing of the final vowels or letters are called ( vowels are static are called ( that are ( ). ) and ( ). ). in ( Their sound plurals ( ( ) and ( ). namely. in ( ). Page 117 . ( ) interrogative ) relative pronouns. ( ) etc. in ( ). etc. There are few nouns ) indicative pronouns.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ). in ( ). ( pronouns. ( ( ) etc. in Their dual forms are like normal words. are all ( Lesson 57. ) and ( ). etc. the word becomes ( ).

8 Word Meaning doorkeeper fruit mountain camel zoo (lit. master Page 118 . shopping mall car. The remaining pronouns will be discussed in Lessons 11 and 15 and in detail in Lesson 41. garden of animals) government office shop mounted market. Vocabulary List No. vehicle leader.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Note 4: The ( ) nominative detached pronouns were listed in Lesson 6.

noble woman. ídgāh she camel walk. wife distance agile. lesson Exercise No.Arabic Tutor – Volume One queen. Page 119 . Verbs will be discussed in Lesson 14. 9 (A) Translate into English Only those verbs which were used in the examples of the previous lessons have been used in this exercise. swift guava pomegranate lion beautified place of salāh. stroll field admonition.

( ). ( ( ) or ( ). Page 120 . ( ). ) are missing with suitable words that you have learnt.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (B) Fill in the blanks where a verb.

Page 121 . (4) There is a long distance between Makkah and Egypt.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (C) Translate into Arabic: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (1) a tall mountain (2) the past two months (3) The gardens of the cities are wide. (5) I saw two flowing rivers today.

(10) A just judge is in the governmental office.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (6) Ahmad’s son’s horses are agile. (8) The two doorkeepers are standing by the door of the leader. (7) Úthmān came to Makkah on an agile camel. (9) The shops of the markets of the cities are much beautified. Page 122 .

originally was ( ) I saw the two houses of a man. Page 123 . Examples: They are the two houses of a man. originally was ( ) the doors of the two houses of a man. 7. originally was ( ) 42 This lesson is related to lesson no.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 11 The Genitive of Possession ( 1. their ( ) at the ) dual and ( masculine plural forms are ( end is deleted. When the ( )42 ) sound ).

( ). ( . ( ). ( ).father)43. When the words ( . Page 124 . originally was ( ) I saw the the house of teachers of the the teachers of boy. their forms46 43 44 45 46 The dual of ( ) is ( ). originally was originally was ( ) ( ) - 2. ( ) and the plural is ( ) and the plural is ( ) and the plural is ( ). the boy. They are ( ). ). there are another three words which follow the ) and ( ). )..Arabic Tutor – Volume One They are the teachers of the boy. The dual of ( ) is ( The dual of ( ) is ( Besides these three words.brother)44 and ( mouth)45 are related to any other word besides the pronoun of the singular first person ( will be as follows: ). These six words are known as ( same pattern.

) and the plural is ( ). The ( ) is ( ). Examples: ( ) – two people of wealth.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Note 1: The word ( ) meaning person. etc. ). owner. ( ). ( ) and the plural is ) of these words is like other general nouns. has the same three forms. it is only related to a visible noun ( Examples: ) and not to a pronoun. Page 125 . However. The feminine form of ( ) is ( The dual of ( ) is ( The dual of ( ( ).

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ( ( ( ) – many people of wealth. 3. ( house and his garden. ( ) – my mouth. When nouns are related to pronouns. but the second one will be mentioned after the ) and a pronoun referring to the ( ) must be appended to it. ). ( ) and ( ) are related to the ). e. ( )– Note 2: When the words ( singular first person pronoun ( read as follows in all three cases: ( my brother. ( houses and their gardens. ) – women of beauty. these are the forms they will assume: Page 126 . If you intend to relate two or more words to one word. the first word will be mentioned as normally before the ( ( ).g. ) – two women of beauty. ) – the minister’s ) – the ministers’ 4. they will be ) – my father. ) – one of beauty.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Attached Pronouns in the Genitive Case ( ) Third Person ( Masculine Feminine Second Person ( Masculine Feminine Page 127 ) singular dual plural singular dual plural ) singular dual plural singular dual plural .

( ) – my pronoun attached to a particle in the genitive case. Examples: ( two hands. The paradigm of these pronouns will be as follows: Page 128 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One First Person ( ) singular dual. plural After alif. the ( ) must be read with a fathah and the third person singular masculine pronoun must be read with a dammah. Such a ) – the ) – my staff. ( ) – his staff. A pronoun can also be attached to the ( pronoun is known as ( ).

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Third Person ( Masculine Feminine Second Person ( Masculine Feminine Page 129 ) singular dual plural singular dual plural ) singular dual plural singular dual plural .

( ( ). Hereunder follow examples of the particles ( ). ). one can attach the particle ( ). ( ) Page 130 . plural In the same way. ( and ( ) attached to the pronouns: ). and form a similar paradigm.Arabic Tutor – Volume One First Person ( ) singular dual. ( ). etc.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Note 1: The particle ( ) which is from the ( ) is read ( ) with a fathah when attached to the pronouns Page 131 .

( ) and ( ) respectively. e. it is read as ( read as ( ). the ( ). ) is attached to the first person singular ). The word ( ) can be read as ( ) as in the verse: ( When the word ( ). ). When the vocative particle ( ( ( ). e. Page 132 . ( 5. ) and If there is a word with the definite article ( ) after ( ( ).vocative particles are several of Note 2: The ( which ( ) is the most commonly used one. ) is used before and attached to the ( ). while ( ). ) .g. a dammah will be read on the ( ) of both these words ).g. ( ) and ( ) are pronoun. ( ) will be read with a fathah. The word to which the vocative particle is prefixed. is called ( ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One except for the singular first person.

e. a fathah will be read on the final ). e. ) – O man. the particle ( ) for feminine should be attached to it. ( man. ) for masculine and ) has ( ). e. ) without the ) – O noble Sometimes these two words enter ( particle ( ). ( ).g.g. ( Vocabulary List No. name of a person in front Page 133 .g. ( )–O read on the final letter. If the ( letter of the ( If the ( ( ( ) is ( ). ( lady. ( ) – O girl. ) – O man.Arabic Tutor – Volume One If the ( ) is singular and not ( ). 9 Word Meaning Bakr’s father. e.g. a dammah will be ) – O Zaid.

gold coin gold returning rational hour. Qiyāmah. watch tooth in-laws tribe by tongue. time. silver coin dīnār. name of a tribe son-in-law behind dirham. language life Page 134 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One undoubtedly we the children of Hāshim.

. . . .Arabic Tutor – Volume One death worship. sacrifice dirty Exercise No. . 10 (A) Take special note of the ( following sentences: ) of each word in the ! . Page 135 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) .

. . . . . . . 47 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( The phrase. . ( ) means “You owe him.” while ( ) means “I owe him. . . .Arabic Tutor – Volume One . . .” Page 136 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One . . . . Page 137 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) . . . . . . . . (B) Insert the correct ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ) in the following sentences and indicate the reason for doing so: . .

I have a silver watch.Arabic Tutor – Volume One . (5) Is this the house of the minister’s son? No. (3) Do you have a golden watch (watch of gold)? No. it is Àbdullāh’s book. (6) Are the two hands of your small brother clean? Yes. (2) O Àbdur Rahmān. it is the king’s son’s house. (4) Is that your big brother? Yes. he is my big brother. . ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) . (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) Is your name Àbdur Rahmān? Yes. . Page 138 . my name is Àbdur Rahmān. is this your book? No.

our teachers are sitting in the madrasah. (9) Are your teachers sitting in the madrasah? Yes. Page 139 . (8) Have you seen Mahmūd’s two sisters? Yes.Arabic Tutor – Volume One but his two feet are dirty. (7) Have you seen Hāmid’s brother? Yes. Hāmid’s brother is a good boy. his two sisters are sitting by my mother.

) and ( (12) What changes take place in ( ) when they are ( )? Page 140 . ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No. how will they be read in all three cases. (2) How many cases does a noun have? (3) How many types of ( (4) When will a noun be regarded to be in ( ( ) and ( )? ) of the dual form? (5) What is the ( (6) What is the ( feminine plurals? (7) What is the ( ) of the sound masculine and ) of ( )? ) etc. 5 (1) What is ( )? ) are there? ). be read in all three (8) How will words like ( cases? (9) If the definite article is removed from words like ( ) etc. (10) Form the dual and plural of ( (11) What is ( ) and describe some types of it.

). they are ) to a word other than the singular first person )? And if they are related to ). Page 141 . what are they ) and form its (18) When pronouns are ( called? (19) Add a pronoun to the word ( paradigm. ( ) and ( ) be read in all three cases when they are related. will the pronoun ( the singular first person pronoun ( how will they be read? (14) If you want to describe the ( adjective be adjacent to the ( distance from it? (15) What is the ( and plural form? (16) How do you make two nouns ( word? (17) What is the ( particle ( ) of the ( ) of ( ) and the ( ) or will it be at a ) of its dual ) towards one ) when a vocative ) is inserted before it? ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One (13) How will the words ( ( ). that is.

Words which are used to point out to something are called ( ). Fem. The following forms are the most commonly used ones: Gender Masc. They are of two types: (a) words that indicate something nearby. The more commonly used forms are the following: Page 142 . Fem. Masc. Singular Dual Plural Case (b) words that indicate something at a distance.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 12 Indicative Pronouns ( ) 1.

Note 3: The ( ) appended to the end of ( sometimes changed like the ( change occurs more often in ( ( ) ). Fem. Page 143 . Fem. It has no effect on the meaning.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Gender Masc. – in this ) is )49 according to the second person. Note 2: The words ( way) – are very often used.similarly) – and ( ) etc. ( without the ( ) but these are seldom used. Singular Dual Plural Case Note 1: The original Indicative Pronouns are ( ). Masc. This 48 49 Note that the ( ) is not pronounced. The second person pronoun in the genitive case. .

) will always have ( ) or be ( ) has ( ) attached to it. ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One The meaning of all these words is the same. ) – That Allāh is your Lord. Note 4: Besides the dual form. The ( 4. all the remaining ( ) are ( ) . doer or object. Example: ( ( ) – That is the Lord of you two. the ( ) will Page 144 . ( If it is ( ) towards another noun. If the ( ). The ( 2. ). ) must be mentioned first.indeclinable. e. ) namely the subject. the ( ) – this book.g. just as in ( and ( 3. The object pointed to is called the ( ) together with the ( ) form part of a sentence.

insert a pronoun ( the ( ) and the ( ). the word ( the ( ) but will become the predicate. the ( sentences are ( . It will now be a complete sentence.Arabic Tutor – Volume One succeed the ( ( ).g. ) – this son of the king. The actual In these examples. ) is no more ‘This is your book. This pronoun will correspond ) as you learnt in Lesson 6. ) is implied ( ) and ( Page 145 ). in word-form to the ( Examples: ( ( ) – This is the book. ) – Those people are the successful ones. 5. ) is In the above-mentioned phrases. e.’ In this case. if the ( brought first. then: ) between (a) if the predicate has ( ). the meaning will be. ( ) – this book of yours. If the ( without the ( ) occurs as the subject of a sentence ). and it is said. ( ).

(b) If the predicate does not have ( ). e. ( ) – here. (c) If it is ( e. ( ( ). Page 146 . insert a pronoun. ) – This is your book. are also indicative pronouns. ) – This is the king’s son. Note 5: Understand well the difference between ( ) and ( ). ). then too there is no need for a pronoun.here. e.g. ( ) – this is a book. ( ( ) – This is your book. ) . . and ( ) – Note 6: The words ( there.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ). There are no particular rules for their usage.g. The ( ) is implied in this example as well. if you want to create emphasis in your speech. a pronoun will not be inserted. However.That is the king’s son.g.

10 Word Meaning fig redness maternal uncle maternal aunt doubt no doubt paternal uncle paternal aunt pious aim scenery guidance face he said she said Page 147 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Vocabulary List No.

11 (A) Translate the following sentences into English: ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ) ( ) Page 148 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( . like proof doctor Exercise No.Arabic Tutor – Volume One as if.

(3) Those friends are wealthy. (4) This son of the king is generous. (2) This friend of mine is wealthy. Page 149 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) .Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) This doctor is learned.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One (5) These two are brothers. (7) This handsome boy is pious. (10) This is a good man and those two are transgressors. (11) That girl is pious and so is her mother. (6) That she-camel is beautiful. (8) O Àbdullāh. Page 150 . is this your son? (9) Those boys are standing in front of their father.

what are the ways in which it is used? (7) What is the difference in meaning and analysis between ( words: ( (9) When does the ( ) of ( ) or ( ) and ( )? ) ) change in the (8) Is there any difference in meaning in the following above-mentioned manner.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No. Explain with examples. 6 (1) What are the commonly used forms of the indicative pronouns? (2) Which of the indicative pronouns are declinable ( )? ) always used? ) be placed when the (3) What is the object that is pointed to called? (4) How is the ( (5) Where should the ( ( ) has ( )? (6) When the ( ) is used without the ( ) in a sentence. Page 151 .

Some of the interrogative pronouns are: Word Meaning who what what what which (m) which (f) how much. how many how where when why Page 152 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 13 Interrogative Pronouns ( ) 1.

2.interrogative pronouns – are used at ) – Who is your father? ). ( The particle ( ) can be inserted before the ( Page 153 . That is. However. the interrogative pronouns can become the subject or doer or object of a sentence.g. On the other hand. ) according to the normal rule. The ( ( ) .g. e. they will follow the ) – whose ) and the beginning of sentences.9. Note 2: You have read in Lesson 6 Note 4 that the particles ( ) and ( ) create the interrogative meaning in the sentence. See 10. how Note 1: Besides ( are ( ) and ( ). They are both particles ( they cannot form the subject or doer of a sentence. all the interrogative pronouns ). ) of interrogation. e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One why from where. when they are ( ( book.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One brought at the beginning of a sentence. The ( ( Examples: Word Meaning whose why how much till where from where till when ). regarding what 50 See Vocabulary List No. Page 154 . ) – Whose kingdom is it today? ) – )50 can be attached to the beginning of the ( ( ( ) ) ) from what from whom from what. 6. ( Whose book is it? (Literally: For whom is this book?) ( 3.g. e.

it will be plural. Sometimes the word ( ) is not used for interrogation but ). Sometimes the word ( ) is joined to the ( without the alif. ) becomes ( ). ( ) and ( ) are ( ) – which man. ( dirhams do you have? ( ) – What is your age? (Literally: How many years is your age?”) 7. The word succeeding ( ) is indefinite. ) is ( case and it is singular. ( ) to the succeeding ) – which of the ) which of the ) . Therefore ( ( ) and ( ) becomes ( ). Its for providing information.g. e.g. Page 155 . ( ) ) becomes 5. ( women.Arabic Tutor – Volume One in what 4. it will be ) . If the word after ( 6. The words ( words. It is called ( meaning in that case will be ‘several’ or ‘many’. e.which woman.in the accusative ) – How many singular and if it is definite. ( men.

( ) – I have freed many slaves. The particle ( often after ( Examples: ( have? ( coins on the poor. command between ink five rupee Page 156 . Sometimes it is ) or ( singular and sometimes plural. e. ) and ) – How many rupees do you ) – I spent many gold Vocabulary List No. ) is sometimes used after ( ).g. 11 Word Meaning matter.Arabic Tutor – Volume One The noun succeeding ( ) is ( ).

right-hand side left.Arabic Tutor – Volume One fat necessary comfort stick fountain pen pencil ink bottle powerful one right. 12 (A) Translate into English: ( ) Page 157 . lively Exercise No. left-hand side agile.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 158 .

( . . . .Arabic Tutor – Volume One (B) Note the use of the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences: . ( ( ( ( ( ( ( . . . Page 159 ( ( ( ( ( ( . . .

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 160 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One (C) Answer these questions in Arabic using the words you have learnt.

thirty boys are present. I am Hāmid. why are you standing here? I am standing here for some necessary work. (4) Who is the woman standing in front of you? She is my brother’s wife. (3) How many sons and daughters does Àbdur Rahmān have? He has one son and two daughters. (8) O Mahmūd. (5) What is in her hand? There are clothes in her hand. (7) How many boys are present today? Sir.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) Who are you? Sir. Page 161 . (2) What is your father’s name? My father’s name is Hasan Ibn Àlī. (6) How many people are standing there? Five people are standing there.

we are going to the madrasah. (13) When did your brother go? He went one hour ago. (10) O Khālid. If any sentence provides information of some type. how many brothers do you have? Sir. I have two brothers. It is for five rupees). An indication was made in Lesson 6 and 10 to ( ( ) and ) respectively. (12) Where are you going to now? Sir. (11) To whom does this small dog belong? It is my maternal uncle’s dog. (E) Note how the following sentences have been analysed. term it ( (1) ) or ( ). term it ( question.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (9) How much is this book? It costs five rupees (Lit. Here a simple analysis of some ) and if there is a straightforward sentences is made. Page 162 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One (2) (3) Page 163 .

7 (1) Which words constitute the ( ( two? (2) Where should the ( sentence? (3) From the ( ). (5) How are ( Page 164 . What is the difference between the (4) How many types of ( ( ) are there? What is the ) of the noun succeeding each type? ) and ( ) used? Explain with examples. which word is ( )? ) be placed in a ) and the ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One (4) Test No.

) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Page 165 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One (6) What were the words ( Insert the ( ) and ( ) originally? ) in the following sentences: ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( .

Note 1: The root letters of a word are called ( the ( ). ( ). ) third person singular word-form contains only the root letters to the extent that recognizing 51 Scholars of ( ). e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 14 The Verb 1.g. Generally a verb has three root letters ( wrote.g.g. (2) ) which indicates that an action has not been completed but is being done or will be done. ( the second is ( ( ) which indicates ) – he wrote. ) – he is writing or he will write. ) as a third ) – he )– Some morphologists51 regard the imperative ( category of verbs. Verbs are of two types: (1) one is ( that an action has been completed. Page 166 . Some verbs have four root letters ( he translated. e. In verbs.g. e. ( ). e.

it is appropriate to write this word-form . ) third person singular word-form of 3. if you want to speak of the meaning expressed by the verbal noun.Arabic Tutor – Volume One the root letters of the verbal noun ( derivatives ( ) and all the ) are based on this word-form. you should use the verbal noun.the past tense (or perfect tense) comes on the scales ). ‘he wrote’.( can say that ( student can apprize himself of the root letters.g. Hence we ) means to write although originally its meaning is. However. ( ) and ( ). ( and reading. ( ) – he heard and ( ) – he was noble. All the word forms of the past tense are as follows: Page 167 . The ( ( of ( ) . Details of this will be ) provided in Lesson 16 while the quadriliteral verb ( will be discussed in Lesson 25. Examples: ( ) – he hit. The word ( ( ) while ( ) is the ( ) – Learn writing ) -verbal noun of ) is the verbal noun of ( ). e.so that the to indicate the meaning of the verbal noun. In order ) .

singular dual plural 1st person m/f m/f singular dual/ plural Page 168 . singular dual plural fem. wrote I wrote We wrote Person Gender Word-Form Verb 3rd person masc. wrote You f. wrote You 2 f. wrote You wrote You 2 wrote You wrote You f. singular dual plural fem. singular dual plural 2nd person masc.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Meaning He wrote They 2 wrote They wrote She wrote They 2 f. wrote They f.

The alif and ( ) of those words which have them at the end will not be pronounced when joining them to the succeeding word. among the 14 word-forms. Note 4: When joining the verb ( kasrah. delete the final sukūn (jazm) and replace it with a ) – The teacher wrote the Page 169 . ( letter. the custom of repeating it has been formed. Note 3: Every word-form of the verb has a pronoun of the ( ( case. ( letter. There was no need for it but due to a certain expediency.g.g.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Note 2: The total number of word forms are 18 but only 14 are mentioned because the meanings of all are included in these 14 forms. These pronouns are called ) – attached pronouns in the nominative word. e. However. ) – The two men ) – The men wrote the ) to the succeeding ) – doer. the verb ( ) is repeated. e. Then there is no need to repeat one word several times. ( wrote the letter.

. ) is mentioned with the ( ) ..is mentioned. Only ) – ). ( ) and ( ) are of ( )– the past active tense. The ( forms appears on the scale of ( Examples: from ( No ( the ( )–( ). ( )–( ).. 6. When one wants to indicate the person/item on which the action is done without mentioning the doer. ( ) – The milk was drunk.passive verb. 52 Page 170 . The verbs on the scales of ( conjugated like the above: ) and ( ) will also be . The scales of ( ). e. .. )–( ). it – object) which is now called the ( representative of the doer . e. Like the ( is rendered ( ).g. This sentence does not indicate who drank the milk.g. ( ) passive tense52 of all these ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One 5. the passive verb is used. The book was taken.

Example: ( 53 A transitive verb is one that requires an object to form a complete sentence. ( – He did not drink.g. ) . the ( ) ) . Page 171 .the perfect tense. If it is a ( follows the verb. However. ( ) ) – undoubtedly – is added ) . ( ) transitive verb53. e. See Lesson 10.the perfect tense to create emphasis in the ) – Undoubtedly Zaid hit Bakr or Zaid meaning. ( hit Bakr. e.which is in ( ) – Zaid ate bread. the third part of the sentence is the ( ) – the object . Very often the word ( ) or ( to ( e. ) .generally ) – Zaid sat.g. You read in the sixth lesson that a sentence beginning with a verb is called ( which is in ( ). In a ( ). By inserting ( ) before ( becomes negative. 8.the accusative case.the nominative case .Arabic Tutor – Volume One 7. 9.g. it ) – He did not write. there is no need to translate it always.

e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Besides these. Page 172 . the other parts of the sentence are called the ( ). The words ( ( ).A boy wrote. Similarly. Today I have perfected your religion for you.g. e. the ( ) and the verb. The former preceded the verb while the latter preceded the 10.g. ( ) – with the meat. ( ) – today etc. However for a masculine doer.in the house. ). In a ( whether the doer of the action is dual or plural. ) . ) – object – precedes the ( ) and ) Sometimes the ( sometimes it even precedes the verb. the verb will be feminine. the verb will be masculine and for a feminine doer. the ( can also precede the ( ( ) ). the verb always remains singular ) and ( ) are the ( ) in this sentence.Two boys wrote. ( ) . Examples: ( ( ) .

each verb is written with both the ( ) .Two girls wrote.perfect and ( ) . Word Meaning to eat to send Page 173 . The details of this rule will be However. ) . then the verb must ).Many boys wrote. ) passive tense of each Conjugate each verb according to the previously mentioned paradigm. Then construct the ( verb and conjugate it.A girl wrote. ) .Many girls wrote. Vocabulary List No. ) comes first. The beloved students of seminaries should certainly take this much trouble to do this. 12 Note: In the list below.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ( ( ( ) . ) . if the ( correspond to the ( mentioned in Lesson 18.imperfect tenses.

who now till now to nurse Page 174 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One to leave to go out to enter to seek to rise to set to overcome to open to be happy to understand to kill to succeed relatives those.

testimony food year. this year boy. servant happiness group statement as if like because hospital sick person except Page 175 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One garden all crop thief evidence.

13 (A) Note the use of the active and passive tenses in the following sentences and translate them: ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) Page 176 . because part.Arabic Tutor – Volume One then. section Exercise No.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One (B) Translate the following questions and answers: Answer Question Page 177 .

. Page 178 ( ) ( ) .Arabic Tutor – Volume One ) ( (C) Note the use of the verbs in the following verses of the Qur’ān: .

55 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Did Hāmid eat the food? No. When did the sun rise? The sun rose now. she went one hour ago. “to make binding – to make compulsory”.Arabic Tutor – Volume One . . Did your sister go to the madrasah? Yes. . . . I ate the food and drank the water. What did you eat today? I ate bread and meat. 54 55 Here the word ( A girl buried alive. Page 179 . . he did not eat the food till now. Did you drink the water? Yes. Who entered the musjid? They are the teachers of the madrasah. ) means.

Page 180 . Why did you (pl. O Khālid. f.) not understand my statement? Because your language is Arabic. a large lion was killed.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Who is that who came out of the house? That is my small brother. Did you (f) understand my statement? We did not understand your speech. I killed the lion. was any lion killed? Yes. Where was your servant sent? He was sent to the market. Who killed the lion? Sir.

( ) and ( ) are the signs of ( ) known as the ( these letters before ( masculine third person . the ). e.Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 15 The Imperfect ( ) 1. from ( ). ( ) – he is making the first letter sākin and adding ( ( ( ) and ( ) is formed. e. ( ).the singular ) . ) at the end. ) is as follows: ) we get ( The paradigm of ( Page 181 . By inserting one of ) .g. The letters ( ). ( ).g.the perfect tense.of ( ). 2. ) – the imperfect. The verb which indicates the present and future tense is known as ( hitting or he will hit.

are opening or will open You (all f. singular dual plural 1st person m/f m/f singular dual/ plural Page 182 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One Meaning He is opening or he will open They 2 are opening or they will open They are opening or they will open She is opening or she will open They 2 f. are opening or will open You 2 f. singular dual plural 2nd person masc. are opening or will open You are are opening or will open You 2 are opening or will open You (all) are opening or will open You f. singular dual plural fem.) are opening or will open I am are opening or will open We are are opening or will open Person 3rd person Gender masc. WordForm Verb singular dual plural fem. are opening or will open They f.

the perfect tense.passive of ( ). ) imperfect also comes on three scales: ( The ( and of ( ) . To construct the ( a dammah to the ( penultimate letter. 4. 5. ( ) . of ( ) and ( ) is ( ) ). In order to construct the ( ) . Note 2: As in ( ) . e. ( hit or he will be hit.imperfect Page 183 .Arabic Tutor – Volume One 3. the ( )- imperfect also has fourteen word-forms. Like the ( ) . and a fathah to the ) becomes ( ) becomes ( ) – he is being ) – it is being opened ) – he is being ) becomes ( honoured or he will be honoured. ) and ( ) appear several times in Note 1: The words ( the paradigm. render ). Understand them well. ( or it will be opened. One has to see the context to determine the meaning. ( ).g.perfect tense.imperfect of ( ) is ( ) is ( ). The details will follow in Lesson 16. the ( ).

there are two types of pronouns: ) . ) – You will come to know.g. In Arabic.attached separate from other words. ( ) – He will soon open. ( )– He does not know or he will not know.Arabic Tutor – Volume One negative.g. 6.pronouns are used in place of the ) . ( ) – He is not going or he will not go. Note 4: In order to make ( future tense. You know that ( ( (a) ( (b) ( ) .those pronouns which are attached to the verb.object. Sometimes ( ) is inserted. e.those pronouns which are independent and ) – the accusative ).the imperfect positive. the particles ( ) or ( e. ( ) specific with the ) are prefixed to it. Because these pronouns are in ( case – they are referred to as ( 7. the word ( ) is most often inserted before ( ) . . The pronouns of ( Page 184 . ) .

See Lesson 11. Page 185 .first ). The only difference is in the ( person word-form where ( ) is used in place of ( The paradigm is as follows: ) .attached pronouns of the genitive case.Arabic Tutor – Volume One pronouns of the accusative case) are the same as the ( ) .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Third Person ( Masculine Feminine Second Person ( Masculine Feminine Page 186 ) singular dual plural singular dual plural ) singular dual plural singular dual plural .

The ( ) – detached pronouns in the accusative case are as follows: Page 187 . In a similar manner.Arabic Tutor – Volume One First Person ( ) singular (m/f) dual. ( ).g. 8. ( ) … till ( ) ). plural (m/f) The same pronouns can be attached to the ( imperfect tense. e. when attaching a pronoun to the ( ) . the ( ) is rendered a dammah and a ( ) is inserted before the pronoun.g. However.plural masculine second person verb. ( ) – You (all) hit the two of them. e. ( ) – You (all) hit them. ( ). the above-mentioned pronouns can be attached to every word-form of every verb.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Third Person ( Masculine Feminine Second Person ( Masculine Feminine Page 188 ) singular dual plural singular dual plural ) singular dual plural singular dual plural .

13 Take special note of the harakah of the ( perfect ( ) and the imperfect ( Word ) in the ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One First Person ( ) singular (m/f) dual.g. e. Vocabulary List No. Meaning to create to raise to ask to oppress to worship Page 189 . ( ) – We worship You alone. plural (m/f) These pronouns are used to create stress or limitation in the sentence especially when they precede the verb.

Arabic Tutor – Volume One to work. act to create to do to own to look camel more/most important only innocent stomach newspaper jāmi’ musjid radio yesterday tomorrow morning evening Page 190 .

.imperfect tense and .Arabic Tutor – Volume One harm worshipper coffee May Allāh grant refuge By Allāh pain orphan to benefit Exercise No. . . 14 (A) Note the use of the ( translate the following sentences: ) . Page 191 ( ) ( ) ! ( ) .

.Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) . . . . . . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 192 . . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . .

. . ( ) Page 193 . .Arabic Tutor – Volume One (B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: . . . ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . . .

(10) Do you read the Qur’ān every day? We read one part from it every day. Page 194 . (8) What are you asking of us? We are only asking for a book. (4) Where did the doorkeeper go? I do not know where he went. Now he will eat. (7) Who do you worship? We do not worship anyone besides Allāh. (9) Which book are you seeking from us? We are seeking the book ‘Sīratun Nabī’ from you. (6) Did Mahmūd eat the food? Till now he has not eaten. I will go to the madrasah. (5) Will you go for a stroll today? No brother. (3) Will the door of the garden be opened today? Today the door of the garden will not be opened. I recognize him. (2) Do you recognize my brother? Yes.Arabic Tutor – Volume One (C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic: (1) What are you reading in the madrasah? I am reading Tashīlul Adab.

: . . .Arabic Tutor – Volume One An Arabic Letter Read the following letter and note how a letter is written in Arabic. . Page 195 .

8 (1) What is a verb and how many types are there? (2) How many root letters are there generally in a verb? (3) What is the ( ) of a word? (4) From among the verbs.Arabic Tutor – Volume One . derived nouns and verbal nouns? (6) On what scale does the triliteral verb in the perfect tense come? What are the scales of the imperfect tense? (7) How many word-forms are there in the perfect and imperfect tenses in reality. . Test No. how many are customarily in vogue and why? Page 196 . which word-form contains only the root letters? (5) How do you recognize the root letters of verbs.

what changes occur in the verb? (10) What is the ( (11) In the word ( (12) What word is ( ) of the doer and the object? ).Arabic Tutor – Volume One (8) In which part of the sentence does a verb normally come in an Arabic sentence? Where do the doer and object come? (9) Due to the number and gender of the doer. what is the pronoun ( ) called? )? (13) How do you construct the passive of the perfect and imperfect tenses and the negative? (14) What is the noun called towards which a passive verb is related? (15) What are the signs of the imperfect tense? (16) What meanings can the word ( many word-forms can ( ) be? ) have and how (17) How many tenses are found in the imperfect tense? (18) What effect takes place on the imperfect by introducing the particles ( ) and ( End of Part One )? Page 197 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Page 198 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One Page 199 .

Arabic Tutor – Volume One 3 Page 200 .

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