Textile Testing

Textile Testing
‡ Fabric testing plays a crucial role in gauging product quality, ensuring regulatory compliance and assessing the performance of textile materials. ‡ It provides information about the physical or structural, chemical and performance properties of the fabrics. ‡ Textile fabrics are manufactured for many different end uses, each of which has different performance requirements

The main reasons for testing of textiles
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ control of product, control of raw materials, process control and analytical information Final Product Shirt Fabrics

Sewing Thread

Why Textile Testing is important ?
‡ Testing is important, mainly for customer satisfaction of the textile product ‡ as well as to ensure product quality for the market in which the textile manufacturer competes ‡ Testing is also important in order to control the manufacturing process and cost.

Two main Aspects of Quality Control ‡ Testing ‡ Inspection ‡ Testing should be accomplished by some standard methods so that the test results can be compared. ‡ Inspection is visual examination with respect to the specifications .

sources for standard test methods for textiles. ‡ American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ‡ American Association for Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) ‡ International Standards Organization (ISO) ‡ Bureau of Indian Standards (BSI) .

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ‡ The purpose of this organization is to develop standards on characteristics and performance of materials. products. ‡ The standards developed by ASTM include ± test methods. systems and services. . ± specifications and ± definitions and ± usually deal with physical properties of materials.

± twist determination. ASTM writes primarily physicaltype tests such as methods for testing the ± tensile strength ± abrasion resistance. ± denier and yarn count. ± fibre maturity. among many others .Standards for Textiles ‡ For textiles.

‡ This organization works very closely with ASTM but writes chemical-type tests. ‡ AATCC sponsors scientific meetings and promotes textile education .American Association for Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) ‡ AATCC was founded to promote greater knowledge of textile dyes and chemicals and therefore is concerned specifically with textile products.

Switzerland is an organization that serves member organizations throughout the world ± ± ± ± ± ± American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standards Council of Canada (SCC). . based in Geneva. the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). British Standards Institution (BSI). Standards Australia (SAA). China State Bureau of Technical Supervision (CSBTS).International Standards Organization (ISO) ‡ The International Organization for standardization (ISO).

Bureau of Indian Standards (BSI) ‡ The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards). the national standards body of India. . product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. certification and quality. ‡ It resolves to be the leader in all matters concerning standardization.

‡ Accuracy is defined as the degree of agreement between the true value of the property being tested and the average of many observations. It is the measure of the scatter of the results when a test is repeated. .Precision and Accuracy of Test Methods ‡ Precision is the degree of agreement within a set of observations (or) test results obtained by using a test method. made according to the best method.

± 70 + 20F Temperature ‡ Before testing.Atmospheric Condition for Testing ‡ In order that reliable comparisons be made among different textile materials and products among different laboratories it is necessary to standardize the humidity and temperature. samples (fabrics or garments) should be kept in conditioning room with the above atmospheric condition for minimum of 4 hours. ‡ Conditions are ± 65 + 2 % RH (Relative humidity). .

Fabric Testing ‡ Fabric testing plays a crucial role in gauging product quality. the number of tests required for textile fabrics has grown ‡ ‡ . assuring regulatory compliance and assessing the performance of textile materials. Today more and more countries and markets have a stake in the treatment and testing of fabric. It provides information about the physical or structural properties and the performance properties of the fabrics. As consumers become more aware and more demanding of products.

The physical. physiological and biological influences on fabrics affect their end-use performance . chemical.Scope for fabric Testing ‡ The performance of a fabric is ultimately related to the end-use conditions of a material.

abrasion resistance.Physical Testing ‡ The first broad classes of factors that affect the performance of fabrics are physical gents and influences. shrinkage. and their response to heat. torsion or twisting. bending or flexing. frictional rubbing. ‡ These may be further subdivided into mechanical deformation and degradation. liquids and static charge. and shear. compression. ‡ They include tensile behavior. . tactile and associated visual properties of fabrics after their use and manufacture.

to acids. and/or to degradation of dyed and un-dyed fabrics. ‡ Textile fabrics have varying degrees of resistance to chemical agents such as water and other solvents. to fading of dyed fabrics.Chemical Testing ‡ Chemical and photochemical exposure of textiles may lead to yellowing or discoloration of un-dyed fabrics. to air pollutants and to the photochemical action of ultraviolet light. . bases and bleaches.

Biological Testing ‡ Textile fabrics may be adversely affected by various microorganisms and insects. . ‡ These tests would be useful for rapid screening of various modified and unmodified fabrics for their ability to withstand biological attack.

weave patterns. construction particulars. ‡ Visual examination of fabrics includes evaluating ± ± ± ± ± ± ± the texture. design details. etc. pilling assessment. dye shade variations. . surface characteristics.Visual Examination ‡ Fabrics can be evaluated for a variety of attributes to assess their performance by visual assessment either manually (subjective assessment) or by objective evaluation techniques.

psychology and textile technology. physiology. ‡ The psychological properties include mainly the aesthetics of the fabric such as color. fabric finish etc. moisture transport and air permeability. suitability for an occasion. fashion. ‡ It covers the areas of physics. prejudice. ‡ Three important physical parameters that are instrumental in the physiological processes of fabrics are heat transmission. performance and health of the wearer. chemistry.Physiological testing ‡ Fabric physiology deals with the physiological characteristics of fabrics that are expressed in the wellbeing. garment style. . medicine.

‡ The testing programmes must include the testing of these fabrics to meet the ever growing demand for hi-tech fabrics and garments. transportation. research and development in smart/intelligent materials and structures have led to the birth of a wide range of novel smart products in aerospace. telecommunications. .Intelligence Testing ‡ In the last decade. homes. buildings and infrastructures.

. ‡ The physical and mechanical properties of these fabrics are affected by the fibre type. as well as any treatment that may have been applied to the materials. yarn construction and fabric structure. decoration and industrial applications.Physical and Mechanical Testing of Fabrics ‡ Fabrics made from both natural and manufactured fibres have been extensively used for clothing.

Tests come under Physical and Mechanical Testing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Weight and thickness Tensile strength Tear strength Seam strength and seam slippage Burst strength Stretch properties Abrasion resistance Drape Bending. Shearing Compression .

± seam and burst strength. ± tear. garment manufacturers.Fabric Strength Tests ‡ The strength tests include ± tensile. . designers and customers. ‡ These mechanical properties are important for all textile users including fabric processors.

‡ Fabric samples are clamped in the jaws of a tensile tester and pulled apart until they break.Fabric Tensile Strength Testing ‡ Measurement of tensile stress strain properties is the most common mechanical measurement on fabrics. ‡ BS 2543 states that tensile strength should be as follows for the different grades of intended duty. it is equal to the amount of net force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second per second . ‡ Three samples are tested across the warp and three across the weft and the average breaking strength established is expressed in Newtons. The newton is the unit of force derived in the SI system.

Methods for testing tensile strength ‡ Three methods have been commonly used to measure tensile strength: ‡ Grab test ‡ Modified grab test ‡ Strip test .

‡ The grab method is used whenever it is desired to determine the effective strength of the fabric in use. the width of the jaws is less than the width of the specimen.Grab test ‡ In the grab test. ‡ This method is used for woven high-density fabrics and those fabrics with threads not easy to remove from the edges. . ‡ An example would be for a 100 mm wide specimen where the centrally mounted jaws are only 25 mm wide.

Modified grab test. . however. ‡ This method is desirable for high-strength fabrics. ‡ The mounting geometry is the same as for the grab test. reducing to a minimum the fabric resistance inherent in the grab method. lateral slits are made in the specimen to severe all yarns bordering the portion to be strength tested.

‡ The test specimens are prepared by accurately cutting to size. non-woven. In both tests the entire width of the specimen is gripped in both the upper and lower jaws. ‡ The raveled strip test is only used for woven fabric and specimens are prepared by removing threads from either side of the test piece until it is the correct width. ‡ There are two types of strip test: ± the raveled strip test and the cut strip test. ‡ .Strip test. ‡ The cut strip test is used for fabrics that cannot have threads removed from their sides such as knits. felts and coated fabrics.

This test measures the force required to continue a tear which has already been started in the fabric. Again. the other tongue in the lower jaw. One tongue is then placed in the upper jaw of a tensile tester. Severe contract = 25N ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . BS 2543 specifies minimum tear strength for different uses: Occasional domestic/Light domestic = 15N. General domestic/Severe domestic = 20N. A cut is made in a rectangular sample to form two "tongues" and reference lines are marked to indicate the point the tear is to be continued to. and the two jaws opened to continue the tear to the reference line.Fabric Tear Strength Testing ‡ Tearing of a fabric can occur in a wide range of products and is involved in fatigue and abrasion processes as well as the catastrophic growth of a cut on application of a force. The average tear strength is then calculated.

Ball burst testing is used as an alternative to tensile testing for materials that are not easily prepared for tensile testing or have poor reproducibility when tensile tested. lace.Fabric Bursting Strength Testing ‡ Burst strength testing is the application of a perpendicular force to a fabric until it ruptures. . ‡ The force is normally applied using either a ball or a hydraulically expanded diaphragm. non-woven and felts. ‡ The fabric is clamped in place around the device that applies the force by a circular ring. ‡ The material is stressed in all directions at the same time regardless of the fabric construction. ‡ These fabrics include knits.

Hydraulic diaphragm method ‡ The hydraulic diaphragm test method uses a diaphragm inflated by hydraulic pressure to apply the perpendicular force to the fabric. . The aperture size is normally different from that used for ball burst tests.

‡ However. such as ± ± ± ± structure. dimensional change and luster. wrinkling. ‡ These kinds of typical attributes are always happening and observed during the daily wearing or washing of fabric products. fabric appearance can be described separately in terms of different attributes: ‡ pilling. which is related to many factors. fuzziness. material properties. it is a general term including the visible properties of fabric material universally. surface morphology and reflectance properties ‡ Usually.Fabric Appearance Testing ‡ Fabric appearance is always considered to be one of the most important aspects of fabric quality. . seam puckering. the definition of fabric appearance is quite complicated.

The development of pilling could be divided into four stages: fuzz formation. . growth. entanglement. which is usually happening on the fabric surface during abrasion and wear.Fabric Pilling Testing ‡ Pilling is a phenomenon of fiber movement or slipping out of yarns. and wear-off.

Dense surface fuzzing and/or severe pilling. Pills of varying size and density partially covering the specimen surface. Pills of varying size and density covering a large proportion of the specimen surface. 2 1 . Distinct surface fuzzing and/or distinct pilling. Pills of varying size and density covering the whole of the specimen surface.Visual assessment of pilling Grade Description 5 4 3 No change Slight surface fuzzing and/or partially formed pills Moderate surface fuzzing and/or moderate pilling.

IWS. BIS.. the machines are supplied with a standard reference consisting of photographs of samples tory using specific machines by generating pilling on the fabric by simulating wear. AATCC. JIS.Fabric Pilling Standards ‡ Fabric pilling or related surface change is commonly tested in the laboratories simulated by the action of abrasive materials. ‡ Generally. etc. ‡ The abraded fabric is then compared with standard photographs that have been developed by the standards institutions such as ASTM. S ‡ ample of the original fabric is fixed in the machine and wear with different degrees of pilling. . and a degree of pilling is assigned accordingly.

The specimen is placed in a cylindrical chamber and tumbled around within the chamber which is lined with mildly abrasive materials to brush the specimens to free fiber ends. . ‡ Martindale tester:-. The instrument subjects specimens to a rubbing motion in a straight line that widens into an ellipse and gradually changes into a straight line in the opposite direction. ‡ Random tumble pilling tester:-. This pattern of rubbing is repeated until fabric threads are broken or until a shade change occurs in the fabric being tested.Fabric pilling: instruments ‡ ICI pilling box tester:-. Specimens are mounted on the polyurethane tubes and tumbled randomly in a cork-lined box for a certain time.Flat abrasion as specified in the ASTM D4970 pilling test.

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‡ Abrasion resistance of fabrics is measured in terms of visual appearance. The twist level. There are several tests for abrasion resistance: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Inflated Diaphragm Test (ASTM D3886) Flexing and Abrasion Method (ASTM D3885) Oscillatory Cylinder Method (ASTM D4157) Rotary Platform Double Head Method (ASTM D3884) Uniform Abrasion Method (ASTM D4158) The Accelerator (AATCC 93) Martindale Abrasion Tester (ASTM D4966) Special Webbing Abrader . The amount of fiber and yarn surface that is in contact with the abradant is important.Fabric Abrasion Resistance Testing ‡ Both the fiber material and fabric geometry affect the abrasion resistance of a fabric. yarn crimp and weave design affect the abrasion resistance of the fabric. number of cycles to open a hole in the fabric and residual strength of the fabric. Some polymers are intrinsically better abrasion resistant than others.

Wrinkle Recovery & Crease Recovery Testing ‡ Wrinkles are three-dimensional versions of creases. dressing. which result in some degree of permanent in-plane and out-of-plane deformations. ± For example. ‡ These wrinkles seriously compromise the cloth s acceptability. for most customers it is an unpleasant feeling to be wearing a wrinkled shirt while attending some social activities. . ‡ Most fabric will generate some wrinkles after laundering. and form when fabrics are forced to develop high levels of double curvature. and folding.

.The photographs in Figure show standard wrinkling images of fabrics from grade 1 to grade 5.

Crease Recovery ‡ The ability of textiles to recover from creases is determined by measurement of its creases recovery angle. .

Drape can be defined as the ability of a fabric to bend under its own weight to form folds. ‡ Drape and hand are extremely important for apparel fabrics.Drape and Hand ‡ Drape is the term used to describe the way a fabric hangs under its own weight. Hand or handle is a subjective property that can be related to the comfort perception of the fabric . ‡ The draping qualities required from a fabric will garments made from them will tend to follow the body contours.

± In general. Reed marks also run in the warp direction.WOVEN FABRIC IDENTIFICATION ‡ Determination of Warp Direction ± If one set of yarns have ply in the fabric. the warp density (ends/unit length) is more than the filling density (fillings/unit length). ± The selvage of the fabric runs parallel to the warp direction. ± Prominent stripes or marks are usually in the warp direction. it is usually the warp yarns. warp yarns are usually straighter than filling yarns since filling yarns may have more tendencies for bow and skewness. ± Warp yarn needs to be stronger than the filling yarn due to heavy forces acting upon them. . ± In the fabric.

the face has better finish quality. in a twill fabric. ‡ Ribs are more visible on the face in a ribbed fabric. twill lines are more prominent on the face. ‡ In printed fabrics. ‡ Satins are smoother on the face than the back. ‡ Slub yarn fabrics are more distinct on the face.Determination of face and back side ‡ In general. ‡ The face of the napped fabrics is fuzzier and softer. the fabric design is more visible on the face. ‡ The face is usually finer and more lustrous on double fabrics. ‡ The face would have less reed marks than the back. ‡ In finished fabrics. ‡ For example. . the prints on the face are clearer and the colors predominate.

Determination of the Order of Interlacing (Weave) ‡ Order of interlacing can be determined with the naked eye for coarse fabrics or using a magnifying glass or a microscope for fine fabrics. However. . ‡ Warp yarns are numbered from left to right and filling yarns are counted from bottom to top. ‡ The selvage design is determined in a similar way. ‡ It is important that an undistorted sample that is larger than the repeat unit (by estimation) is examined from the main body of the fabric for this purpose. ‡ Starting at a randomly selected point on the lower left side of the fabric. it is usually drastically different than the rest of the fabric. the interlacing pattern of the warp and filling yarns is determined until a repeat is found in both directions.

The next step would be to determine the hand properties of fabrics such as stiffness. . etc. smoothness. If necessary. the sample can be observed under a microscope.Determination of the Presence of Size and Finish ‡ Sometimes observation by the naked eye is enough to detect the size or finish on the fabric.