Erosion | Turbulence | Erosion

# Tutorial: Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Introduction
The purpose of this tutorial is to demonstrate the erosion model for analyzing the erosion phenomenon due to particles impinging on a 3D elbow bend. The erosion phenomenon is quite common in many engineering applications, including rotary machines. This tutorial demostrates how to do the following: • Use the erosion model to analyze erosion in a 3D elbow bend. • Use the discrete phase model. • Set up and solve the case with appropriate solver settings. • Postprocess the resulting data.

Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the FLUENT interface and that you have a good understanding of the basic setup and solution procedures. Some of the basic steps in the setup and solution procedures will not be shown explicitly. You should be familiar with the discrete phase model. If you are not, you can refer to the FLUENT 6.3 User’s Guide.

Problem Description
The problem to be considered is shown in the Figure 1. The conﬁguration consists of a pipe with two 90 degree bends. Water ﬂow is conﬁned in the pipe from inlet to outlet. Water enters at the inlet with 10 m/s normal velocity and the outlet is assumed to be an outﬂow boundary. Turbulent, isothermal, and steady state conditions will be considered to solve the ﬂow ﬁeld. Particles of density 1500 kg/m3 are released from the inlet of the pipe with an initial velocity of 10 m/s. Diameter of the particles is 200 microns and the solid mass ﬂow rate is 1 kg/m3 . The normal and tangential reﬂection coeﬃcient for the wall boundary is a polynomial function of the particle impact angle. In the setup of the erosion model, the impact angle function is deﬁned to represent ductile erosion on the wall of the pipe (i.e. particles that impact the wall at a shallow angle will cause a higher erosion rate than particles that impact the wall at higher angles). 1

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

In this tutorial, the diameter function is deﬁned at a value of 1.8e−9 . The velocity exponent function is set to a constant value of 2.6, which is consistent with the value in the open literature for sand.

Figure 1: Problem Speciﬁcation

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Setup and Solution
Step 1: Preparation 1. Copy the mesh ﬁle, 3d-elbow.msh.gz to the working folder. 2. Start the 3D (3d) version of FLUENT. Step 2: Grid 1. Read the grid ﬁle 3d-elbow.msh. 2. Scale the grid to inches. Grid −→Scale... 3. Check the grid. Grid −→Check 4. Select all surfaces and display the grid (Figure 2). Display −→Grid...

Y X Z

Grid

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, lam)

Figure 2: Graphics Display of the Grid

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Step 3: Models 1. Select the standard k- turbulence model and retain the default values. Deﬁne −→ Model −→Viscous... 2. Deﬁne the discrete phase model. Deﬁne −→ Model −→Discrete Phase... (a) Enable Interaction with Continuous Phase. (b) Set the Number of Continuous Phase Iterations per DPM Iteration to 5. (c) Enter 10000 for Max. Number Of Steps in the Tracking Parameters group box. (d) Set the Step Length Factor to 5. (e) Click the Physical Models tab and enable Erosion/Accretion from the Options list. (f) Click OK to close the Discrete Phase Model panel. Step 4: Materials Deﬁne −→Materials... 1. Copy water-liquid (h2o<l>) from the Fluent Database. Note: As the discrete phase injection is yet to be deﬁned, the inert-particle material type will not be available under Material Type. Therefore, after you deﬁne the discrete phase injection, you will need to revisit the Materials panel to deﬁne the inert particle material. Step 5: Operating Conditions Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions... 1. Retain the default operating conditions.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Parameter Z-Velocity Diameter Total Flow Rate

Value 10 0.0002 1

Table 1: Point Properties Step 6: Injections Deﬁne −→Injections... Note: In this step, you will deﬁne a surface injection for discrete phase calculations. You will set up the initial conditions that deﬁne the starting velocities and other parameters for the particle stream. These initial conditions provide the starting values for all of the dependent discrete phase variables that describe the instantaneous conditions of an individual particle. 1. Click the Create... button to open the Set Injection Properties panel. (a) Select surface from the Injection Type drop-down list. (b) Select inlet from the Release From Surfaces selection list. (c) Specify the range of the initial conditions in the Point Properties tab for the parameters displayed in Table 1. (d) Click the Turbulent Dispersion tab and enable Discrete Random Walk Model in the Stochastic Tracking group box. (e) Set the Number of Tries to 10. (f) Click OK to close the Set Injection Properties panel. 2. Close the Injections panel. Step 7: Materials (Inert Particle) Deﬁne −→Materials... 1. Select inert-particle from the Material Type drop-down list. 2. Enter sand for Name. 3. Enter 1500 kg/m3 for Density. 4. Click Change/Create and close the Materials panel. 5. Open the Set Injection Properties panel again and make sure that sand is selected from the Material drop-down list.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Coeﬃcient 1 2 3 4

Value 0.993 -0.0307 4.75e-04 -2.61e-06

Table 2: Coeﬃcient Values Step 8: Boundary Conditions Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions... 1. Set the boundary conditions for the ﬂuid zone. (a) Select water-liquid in the Material Name drop-down list and retain the default values for the other parameters. (b) Click OK to close the Fluid panel. 2. Set the following boundary conditions for the inlet zone. (a) Enter 10 for Velocity Magnitude. (b) Select Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter from the Turbulence Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list. (c) Enter 5 % and 0.05 m for Turbulence Intensity and Hydraulic Diameter respectively. (d) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet panel. 3. Set the boundary conditions for the wall zone. (a) Click the DPM tab. (b) Click the Edit... button to the right of the Normal drop-down list in the Discrete Phase Reﬂection Coeﬃcients group box to open the Polynomial Proﬁle panel. i. Increase the number of Coeﬃcients to 4. ii. Set the values of the coeﬃcients as displayed in Table 2. iii. Click OK to close the Polynomial Proﬁle panel. (c) Click the Edit... button to the right of the Tangent drop-down list to open the Polynomial Proﬁle panel. i. Increase the number of Coeﬃcients to 4. ii. Set the values of the coeﬃcients as displayed in Table 3 for the coeﬃcients.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Coeﬃcient 1 2 3 4

Value 0.988 -0.029 6.43e-04 -3.56e-06

Table 3: Coeﬃcient Values iii. Click OK to close the Polynomial Proﬁle panel. (d) Select piecewise-linear from the Impact Angle Function drop-down list in the Erosion Model group box to open the Piecewise-Linear Proﬁle panel. i. Increase the number of Points to 5. ii. Set the values displayed in Table 4 for the points. Point 1 2 3 4 5 Angle 0 20 30 45 90 Value 0 0.8 1 0.5 0.4

Table 4: Point Values (e) Select constant from the Diameter Function drop-down list and enter a value of 1.8e-9. (f) Select constant from the Velocity Exponent Function drop-down list and enter a value of 2.6. (g) Click OK to close the Wall panel. 4. Change the boundary type for the outlet to outﬂow. 5. Close the Boundary Conditions panel. Step 9: Solution 1. Modify the solution parameters. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution... (a) Enter 0.7 for Pressure and 0.3 for Momentum in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. (b) Click OK to close the Solution Controls panel. 2. Enable the plotting of residuals during the calculation. Solve −→ Monitors −→Residual...

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

3. Deﬁne a surface monitor for static pressure at the outlet. Solve −→ Monitors −→Surface... (a) Increase the number of Surface Monitors to 1. (b) Enable Plot, Print, and Write. (c) Select Iteration from the When drop-down list and click Deﬁne... to open the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel. i. Select Pressure and Static Pressure from the Report of drop-down lists. ii. Select outlet from the Surfaces selection list. iii. Select Area-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. iv. Click OK to close the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel. (d) Click OK to close the Surface Monitors panel. 4. Initialize the solution. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize... (a) Select all-zones from the Compute From drop-down list. (b) Enter 1e+5 m2 /s3 for Turbulence Dissipation Rate. (c) Click Init and close the Solution Initialization panel. 5. Start the calculation by requesting 400 iterations. Solve −→Iterate... The solution will converge in approximately 300 iterations.

Residuals continuity x-velocity y-velocity z-velocity k epsilon

1e+05 1e+04 1e+03 1e+02 1e+01 1e+00 1e-01 1e-02 1e-03 1e-04 0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Y Z X

Iterations

Scaled Residuals

FLUENT 6.3 (3d, pbns, ske)

Figure 3: Scaled Residuals

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Figure 4: Convergence History of Static Pressure on Outlet

Step 10: Postprocessing 1. Display particle-tracks (Figure 5). Display −→Particle Tracks... (a) Enable Draw Grid from the Options list to open the Grid Display panel. i. Select inlet and outlet from the Surfaces selection list. ii. Close the Grid Display panel. (b) Select injection-0 from the Release from Injections selection list and click Display. 2. Display ﬁlled contours of DPM erosion (Figure 6). (a) Enable Filled and disable Node Values from the Options list. (b) Select Discrete Phase Model... and DPM Erosion from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select wall from the Surfaces selection list and click Display.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Figure 5: Particle Tracks

Figure 6: Contours of DPM Erosion

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

3. Clip a surface from the wall surface for displaying results in a speciﬁed range (i.e., the lower elbow bend). Surface −→Iso-clip... (a) Select Grid and Z-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. (b) Select wall from the Clip Surface selection list and click Compute. (c) Enter 0.17 for Min and click Clip. A new surface, clip-z-coordinate-4, will be displayed in the Clip Surface list. (d) Select Grid and Y-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. (e) Select the new surface, clip-z-coordinate-4 from the Clip Surface selection list and click Compute. (f) Enter 0.08 for Max and click Clip. A new surface, clip-y-coordinate-5, will be displayed in the Clip Surface list. (g) Click Manage... to open the Surfaces panel. i. Delete clip-z-coordinate-4 from the Surfaces selection list. ii. Rename clip-y-coordinate-5 to elbow-1. iii. Close the Surfaces panel. (h) Close the Iso-Clip panel. 4. Display ﬁlled contours of DPM erosion for elbow-1 (Figure 7). Display −→Contours... (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled and Node Values is disabled from the Options list. (b) Select Discrete Phase Model... and DPM Erosion from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select elbow-1 from the Surfaces selection list and click Display.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Figure 7: Contours of DPM Erosion for elbow-1 Surface 5. Compute the average erosion rate for elbow-1. Report −→Surface Integrals... (a) Select Area-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Select Discrete Phase Model... and DPM Erosion from the Field Variable drop-down lists. (c) Select elbow-1 from the Surfaces selection list. (d) Click Compute. (e) Close the Surface Integrals panel. FLUENTwill report the Area-Weighted Average DPM Erosion for elbow-1 in the Surface Integrals panel as well as the console.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

6. Clip a surface from the wall surface for displaying results in a speciﬁed range (i.e., the upper elbow bend). (a) Select Grid and Y-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. (b) Select wall from the Clip Surface selection list and click Compute. (c) Change the value for Min from -0.0254 to 0.17 and click Clip. A new surface, clip-y-coordinate-5, will be displayed in the Clip Surface list. (d) Select Grid and X-Coordinate from the Clip to Values of drop-down lists. (e) Select the new surface, clip-y-coordinate-5 from the Clip Surface selection list and click Compute. (f) Enter 0.08 for Max and click Clip. A new surface, clip-x-coordinate-6, will be displayed in the Clip Surface list. (g) Click Manage... to open the Surfaces panel. i. Delete clip-y-coordinate-5 from the Surfaces selection list. ii. Rename clip-x-coordinate-6 to elbow-2. iii. Close the Surfaces panel. (h) Close the Iso-Clip panel. 7. Display ﬁlled contours of DPM erosion for elbow-2 (Figure 8). (a) Make sure that Filled is enabled and Node Values is disbaled from the Options list. (b) Select Discrete Phase Model... and DPM Erosion from the Contours of drop-down lists. (c) Select elbow-2 from the Surfaces selection list and click Display.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Figure 8: Contours of DPM Erosion for elbow-2 Surface 8. Compute the average erosion rate for elbow-2. Report −→Surface Integrals... (a) Select Area-Weighted Average from the Report Type drop-down list. (b) Select Discrete Phase Model... and DPM Erosion from the Field Variable drop-down lists. (c) Select elbow-2 from the Surfaces selection list. (d) Click Compute. FLUENTreports the Area-Weighted Average DPM Erosion for elbow-2 is in the Surface Integrals panel as well as the console. (e) Close the Surface Integrals panel.

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Using FLUENT’s Erosion Model to Investigate Erosion in a 90 degree Elbow Bend

Results
Postprocessing the erosion results from FLUENT will help determine, how geometry changes, changes to the ﬂuid properties, or boundary condition changes to the erosion model will impact the DPM erosion in your model.

Summary
In this tutorial, the postprocessing capabilities of FLUENT were demonstrated for analyzing erosion phenomenon due to particles impinging on a 3D elbow bend.

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