y When Demosthenes was asked what was the first part of oratory, he answered, `action'; asked about the second, he replied, `action'; for the action third he still answered, `action'. This shows us that people tend to believe actions more than words. y Our actions are a means of communication, subject to interpretation by others. Even the failure to act is a way of communicating. Today, many researchers are concerned with the information sent through communication that is independent of and different from verbal of non-verbal cues information; namely, the non-verbal communication. y While verbal communication is organized by language non-verbal communication is not. In business organizations, understanding the messages of team members as well as those of anyone else with whom you are communicating often involves more than merely listening to the spoken words. Non-verbal cues, in fact, can speak louder than words.

y Your personal appearance, facial expressions, postures,

gestures, eye contact, voice, proximity, touch all of these non-verbal signals influence the way your message is interpreted or deciphered by your partners in a communication process. These silent messages communicate your y Feelings during any form of inter-personal communication that you have with your seniors, subordinates, or colleagues. Non-verbal communication includes all unwritten and unspoken messages, both intentional and unintentional. Though they have a profound impact on your receivers, it is difficult to interpret them accurately.

y Imagine that you are comfortably seated inside a movie hall and waiting for the movie to begin. y In person-to-person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously.y It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep. Now you sense a totally different mood in the auditorium. as you know that the movie is about to start in a few seconds. enjoying the music being played. chatting over cellular phones. The darkness and the silence in the hall communicated something to you. etc. . the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non-verbal cues he/she receives. The hall is noisy with people talking to each other. Right or wrong. If the non-verbal cues and the spoken message are incongruous. All of a sudden the hall becomes dark and the music stops. You and the others become silent. the flow of communication is hindered.

distance. your animated movements. y All the situations mentioned above convey a significant fact we communicate not only through words but also through means other than words. Reminisce that deafening roar of applause that you received at the end of an inaugural address delivered by you to a large audience in a huge conference hall of an organization.y Recall a conversation during which you raised your eyebrows to convey your disbelief at a statement made by your partner or a meeting in which you appreciated a member by patting his back. your furrowed brows. your firm or limpid handshake all communicate something to your listeners. your vibrant voice. . Your smiling or frowning face. your immaculate clothing.

we often talk about what we think we ought to feel. we find that we are illequipped to cope with contradiction between the verbal and non-verbal messages that we come across in our organizations. y The words we generally use convey objective information. the sixteenth century religious reformer.Don t watch a person s mouth but his fists was the advice of Martin Luther. y When we do words to talk about our emotions.Relevance of Non-verbal communication in organizations: y Belief in the importance of non-verbal communication is not new. y Once we become professionals. non verbal messages reveal our emotions and attitudes. . not what we really feel.

gesture has the additional advantage of indirectness as well as visibility.y The gestures may be used by people. Another study showed how patients used flamboyant gestures to attract the doctor's attention away from his medical notes. In this context. . It may sometimes be used as a substitute for speech where the words might be regarded as too explicit or indelicate. who are not actually talking. to comment on what is being said without breaking the flow of the speaker. y One study of a party showed how people used hand gestures as initial salutations to capture another's attention before entering into conversation. Body movement can be used without the mutual obligation or ritual conduct that seems to be required by conversation. A direct request for attention might be seen as a challenge to the doctor's authority.

Still.. politicians. lawyers. most of us are not fully aware of the ways that we communicate non-verbally. you should be aware of the different forms of non-verbal communication that you are likely to encounter during negotiation conferences. if you watch carefully. Consequently. Verbal exchanges account for only a fraction of the messages people send and receive. and corporate chief executive officers) are excellent non-verbal communicators. Research has shown that between 70 and 90% of the entire communication spectrum is nonverbal.y Communication is more than verbal.g. y Although we continually send and receive non-verbal messages. . doctors. Others call it style. Some people call it charisma. you will see that most leading professionals (e.

. non verbal communication may take place even against our own intention. Skills in interpreting non-verbal communications will help you glean useful information from others involved in the communication process. As a member of an audience. but be unable to suppress a yawn. An awareness of non-verbal communication may also prevent you from harming your own position by inadvertently sending non-verbal signals that disclose confidential information or a weaknesses in your position. The speaker may see that we are bored. we may try to look attentive. Being aware of both non-verbal and verbal messages will give you an important edge. we may not intend to do so.y If you are only aware of the sender's verbal message. you will likely miss the major portion of the overall communication. despite our best intention not to show it. y When we display non-verbal signs. Indeed.

After winning a big business contract they started laughing and talking in their own language in such a way that the Japanese customer became confused about the commotion around him and suspected that something may have gone amiss during the negotiations. he may not have thought it necessary to change his business decision.Different Strokes for Different Folks y Non-verbal behaviors in different cultures can cause even greater problems than the ones related to language differences. y There is the story of the Indian sales team of a company who were in a meeting in Japan. The customer halted the negotiations and the business contract was lost. If the customer had understood the way of celebration as normal in another culture. The client had not signaled a culturally appropriate response to the successful bid and their celebration was misinterpreted. .

for at least two reasons: . and idiosyncratic makes It very difficult to study Indeed the scientific study of nonverbal communication became possible only with the development of sophisticated recording film or videotape which allows repeated viewing. the major disadvantage of videotape is that the human observer still has to transcribe the behavior into appropriate categories. y Since non-verbal cues are important in emotional communication. if necessary in slow motion. unconscious. they have also been regarded as central to inter-personal relationships. y Knowledge of non-verbal communication is important for managers who serve as leaders of organizational `teams'.y The fact that non-verbal communication can be unintentional. However.

. said with a loud. how something is expressed may carry more significance and weight than what is said. Accompanied by a smile or a frown. scolding voice or a gentle. and recognition. Nonverbal cues. y The team members project attitudes and feelings through non-verbal communication. to function effectively as a team leader the manager must interact with the other members successfully. provide the manager with one means to do so. such as approval. y Secondly. growth. achievement.y First . . the words themselves. the contents of our communications are framed by our holistic perceptions of their context.e. Some personal needs. easy one. may be met in effective teams. when interpreted correctly. i.

even though you may be unable to pinpoint why. y However. then his words and actions will remain in harmony with his underlying intentions and you will instinctively trust him. . greet you with a warm smile and a firm handshake. You will start feeling uncomfortable around him. However. a used-car salesman from a dubious franchise may have great. However. without internal mental and emotional 'posture'. even though you might not be able to identify the reason for such trust. body posture. if the same used-car salesman is genuinely interested in helping you find the right car and puts your needs before his own. your words will sound hollow to your audience. then sooner or later. His movements and gestures will start giving away his real intentions. For instance.Walking the Talk y A good body posture is usually an indicator of confidence and uprightness. if in his heart he sees you as just another customer whom he can take for a ride. his internal conflict between what he says and what he really thinks will cause him to 'trip up'.

Studies have also shown the importance of nonverbal clues in the processes of job interviews and advertising. . and how the executives communicate their leadership and decision-making style.y Silent language plays an important role in two areas directly related to management: how managers motivate their employees.

generally realizes that the message is a sign of friendship. For example. The receiver of a hug.Forms of Non-verbal Communication y Non-verbal communications can involve conscious or subliminal messages. Receivers of conscious nonverbal communication are aware of receiving a message and its intended meaning. Conscious Non-verbal Communication y Senders of conscious non-verbal communications are aware that they are sending a message and all also aware of the general meaning of that message. . the individuals extending a hug know that they are embracing someone and that the action is normally perceived as indicating affection. for example.

Gut reactions are frequently based upon your subconscious reading of subliminal non-verbal communications. A poor sense of dressing up transmits a message of failure and a lack of credibility. However. beautiful people are often seen in advertisements to communicate the sub-conscious message that the advertised product is associated with youth and beauty. Well-dressed executives project success and credibility. Police and military uniforms subliminally communicate the authority of those -caring them.Subliminal Non-verbal Communication y Subliminal messages are communicated to the subconscious mind of the receiver of subliminal messages are not consciously aware of the message. . these messages are important. Young.

Everyday people unintentionally convey non-verbal signals by their facial expressions. gestures. y Body language is one area where the involuntary nature of non-verbal communication is particularly evident. many communicators are not aware that they communicate non-verbally. y Involuntary Non-verbal Communication Most non-verbal messages are involuntary. In fact. . The advertising world is replete with y Voluntary or Involuntary Messages Conscious and subliminal messages can e both transmitted voluntarily or involuntarily.y Subliminal messages are often more powerful than conscious messages. and body postures.

y James Vicary was the first to use a subliminal message n an

advertisement in 1957. His goal was to make people want popcorn and Coke by flashing 'Eat popcorn' and 'Drink Coke' briefly on a screen during movies. He claimed that popcorn sales rose by 57.5% and Coke sales by 18.1% Subliminal slogans have come a long way since then. One of the best-known examples of subliminal advertising slogans is Nike's `Just do it'. y This slogan could mean different things to different people depending on their personal experience or cultural background. To a murderer, it could mean just go out and kill whomever you want. To a teenager, on the other hand, it could mean do what you feel like doing, even if it means breaking some rules. y Closer home, Britannia (India) Ltd revamped its essential image of a biscuit company into a healthy eating, processed food company through its now famous 'Eat Healthy, Think Better' communication. Similarly, Bharat Petroleum Co. Ltd, a major retail arm of the oil industry, projects its image under the banner 'Pure for Sure' at its various fuel pumps around the country.

Arms and the Man
y An interesting example of an involuntary message is the position

of the arms during a negotiation. In general, an open arm position suggests that someone is receptive to the negotiation process. Watch for changes in this position. If your counterpart's arms are lying open on the table where both of you are sitting as you start the negotiation, and he/she takes his/her arms off the table and crosses them over his/ her chest when you mention that your company has a standard deposit of 50% on all first time orders, it is a fairly reliable signal that he/she is not particularly pleased with this information. At this point, you may want to clarify your words, or even better, ask your counterpart if he/she would like to express his/her concern about the deposit. y Another example would be that of people telling lies who often involuntarily send a telltale non-verbal message to listeners by frequently blinking their eyes.

y Since involuntary non-verbal communication

represents unplanned physical responses, this communication form tends to be particularly revealing and more honest than verbal communication. y Voluntary Non-verbal Communication: Non-verbal communication can also be controlled by a knowledgeable person. y A person who knows that people telling lies often blink their eyes can take special care not to blink when telling a lie. y A person who knows that a hug indicates friendship can consciously hug his/her worst enemy as trick to put the person off guard or as part of an effort to improve their relationship.

000 transactions. Calero. If you want to give the impression of being co-operative and trustworthy. after videotaping 2. feet flat on the floor and body tilted slightly towards the other party.To create impressions: we use non-verbal communication to . you know that this position can be extremely uncomfortable. sit with your legs uncrossed. in their book How to Read a Person Like a Book. If you have ever crossed your legs for a. Nierenberg and Henry H. This posture sends a positive signal. that no sales were made by people who had their legs crossed. but this is only partially true. Crossing your legs can be disastrous in business negotiations. Gerard I. y 1. Legs can Talk too y People often say they cross their legs for comfort.Functions of Non-verbal Communication create impressions. long period of time. describe a study in which they found.

To manage interactions: non-verbal communication is used to manage interaction. vocalics. but kinesics.y Physical appearance cues weigh heavily on this function. In addition. chronemics and other cues can contribute to how others form perceptions of competence and character. each cultural community has its own rules for display of emotions. In fact. y 2. Facial expressions. some experts have identified non-verbal expression to be part and parcel of emotional experience. and even proxemics are used to signal turns in conversations. . Expressing emotions: non-verbal communication is a primary means of expressing emotion. y 3.

We convey affection. y 6. respect.Send relational messages: non-verbal communication allows people to send relational messages. nonverbal communication also is used to send messages of power and persuasion. .y 4. To send messages of power and persuasion: Finally. but to observe what they do when they are saying it. y Kinesics The best way to access executives' managerial potential is not to listen to what they have to say. Body language is the unspoken communication that goes on in every face-to-face encounter with another human being. and dominance through nonverbal cues. y 5. To convey deception: deception is conveyed and detected via non-verbal cues. Leadership is conferred on the basis of non-verbal cues. power.

Paralinguisti Variations in pitch.Kinesics Oculesics Haptics Proxemics Appearance and Artifacts Facial expression. posture and gesture Eye contact The communication of touch The communication of space and proximity The physical characteristics. volume and plauses that convey cs / Vocalics meaning Chronemics The effects of time on communication . jewellery. the attire and the ac-cessories such as perfume. speed. make up.

In ways that body language works in non-verbal acts.y Kinesics is articulation of the body. It is also the anthropological term for body language. Body language. and other body movements. This includes all actions. your subordinate's confused expression indicates the need to continue with an explanation. but it is certainly the most confusing and difficult to understand. facial expressions. automatic reflexes. accompany it. organ language. or they may be emotive or empathic movements. y The face seems to be the most obvious component of body language. or movement resulting from muscular and skeletal shift. posture. y Facial Expression Your boss's smile makes you feel happy while his frown leaves you discomfited. Modern studies of facial . Kinetic acts may be lexical or informative and directive in nature. gestures. Kinetic acts may substitute language. body language parallels paralanguage. and kinetic acts are just some terms used to depict kinesics. body idiom. physical or physiological. your customer's smile and nodding signal the time to close a sale. or modify it. gesture language.

they are infinite in variety. the droopy. suffering. anxiety. rage. Charles Darwin's The Expressions of Emotions in Man and Animals was apparently influenced by Bell's earlier work. The neutral expression could result in various expressions. and droopy. Finally.y Chares Bell in 1806 published Essays on the Anatomy and y y y y y Philosophy of Expression: As Connected Fine Arts. . The tense expression could result in fear. determination. in distress. contempt. There are five basic physical descriptions of facial expressions: neutral. thoughtful. Facial expressions are like sentences in human language. relaxed. grief. love and attention. uplifted. surprise. The uplifted expression could result in happiness. such as pleasure. and shock. The relaxed expression could result in love. and submission. mask. and quiet attention. dismay. pleasure. extreme interest.

or the reliability of this information. one could judge the confidence of the communicator in the information being given. Facial expressions also serve as a source of positive or negative feedback from the receiver. The over face can reveal happiness or surprise. and even surprise. The upper y Facial expressions also provide information about a communicator's thought process. the eyes fiend to reveal happiness or sadness. Facial expressions tell the etudes of the communicator. The face has the capability to produce messages of very high quality. can communicate friendliness and co-operation. for example. Researchers have discovered that certain facial areas our emotional state fetter than others. me smile. we effectively exploit facial expressions and gestures as social entertainment. For example. in which the meanings . y The face can be used to communicate emotional meaning more accurately that other medium in inter-personal communication. For example.y Facial expressions may portray the artists and clowns .

indicating attention to the speaker. and disgust. fear. sadness. anger.y Facial expressions that indicate an emotion that a person is communicating without actually feeling it are called facial emblems. . y There are six categories of facial expressions that are generally agreed upon by researchers: happiness. surprise. y These emblems serve as a kind of short hand that is widely understood Facial expressions also serve as listener responses.

The overall facial expression is important to a receiver's perception of credibility. and be swept along by their words and enthusiasm? Watch them carefully and you will note that they do not stand rigidly in one spot. y Posture: Have you ever watched great presenters in action men and women who are alone on the stage yet make us laugh. cry. A speaker's face must show interest and attention. . An expression of dullness detracts from an image of dynamism. This helps considerably in the credibility rating.y The human face is the most complex and versatile of all species. serving many different functions.

Head position is a great one to play around with. As part of man's genetic heritage.y They bounce and run and stroll and glide all around the stage because they know that human beings are drawn to movement. y The right posture: Get your posture right and you will automatically start feeling better. The next time you notice that you are feeling a bit down. We instantly notice it. whether we want to or not. we are programmed to pay attention to movement. take a look at how you are standing or sitting. assessing the movement for any hint of threat to us. with yourself and others .

especially at interviews or work meetings . y So the best strategy is to keep them as still as possible in most situations.y When you want to feel confident and self-assured keep your head level both horizontally and vertically upright. y Legs are the furthest point away from the brain. . or being deceptive. y They tend to move around a lot more than normal when we are nervous. y You can also use this straight head position when you want to be taken as authoritative and serious. stressed. consequently they are the hardest bits of our bodies to consciously control.

y The angle of the body in relation to others gives an indication of our attitudes and feelings towards them. We angle towards people we find attractive. and interesting. When a remark results in pulling back. They will notice a forward-leaning position as an indication that their remarks are being well received and will capitalize upon the point that led to this action. friendly. . and angle ourselves away from those we do not y Good communicators are sensitive to small cues like these and tailor their behaviour accordingly. a smart communicator will uncover the damage and try to rectify it.

group meetings. the more relaxed person in a given situation. y Body relaxation and tension is a strong indicator of who has the power in one-to-one relationships. Standing up tall can help you appear more authoritative. Height also affects perceptions of power: tallness usually equates with dominance. and one-to-one interactions. presentations.y Awareness of such subtle messages can make the difference between success and failure in a variety of business settings: interviews. . whereas a slumped posture or slouched shoulders create an appearance of submissive or passive demeanor. has the higher status. As a rule.

and the degree to which another person is liked. The difference between gesture and posture is that a gesture conveys a message by using one part of the body. involvement.y Perceived Competence: Posture also can influence perceived competence. relative status between persons. Posture can also reveal the intensity of emotional states and is almost always studied in conjunction with other kinds of non-verbal communication behaviours. posture is indicative of attention.In a nutshell. . whereas a postural shift involves the movement of the body as a whole.

.Gestures are observed actions.A list of some postures and the message they communicate is given below: Slumped posture = low spirits Erect posture = high spirits. energy. By moving parts of your body. and confidence Lean forward = open and interested Lean away = defensive or disinterested Crossed arms = defensive Uncrossed arms = willingness to listen Gestures . some voluntary and some spontaneous. you can express both specific and general messages.

Point at water and then point to your mouth. . This is an example of an unambiguous gesture. y Another person watching you is almost certain to understand that you want to drink water. when you observe some listeners nodding their head to what you have just said. you are confused whether they agree or disagree with you.y Ambiguous or unambiguous: Gestures can be either ambiguous or unambiguous. y On the other hand. There is hardly any chance of misinterpretation here.

arms. y Beneficial gestures: Beneficial gestures are usually performed with the hands. y Leg and foot movements also are known to represent discomfort and should be avoided. are detrimental to the conveyance of the message and hurt credibility. . liplicking. and smiling too often are tentative gestures that show lack of confidence. Finger-tapping. such as touching the body and playing with objects like clothing or pens.y Unnatural gestures: Unnatural gestures. These gestures do not enhance the communicator's message and should not be used. These should be used to emphasize a point. and head.

y Communicators should keep their hands and elbows away from their bodies to avoid the appearance of nervousness. y If someone says something that you disagree with. In short. then by all means show your disapproval by crossing them. . gestures that show participation and dynamism are beneficial to anyone who wishes to establish his/her credibility.

y Hand gestures are so numerous it is hard to give a brief guide. and possibly aggressive. y Palms slightly up and outward are seen as open and friendly. One of the most frequently observed. y This palm up. which should convey equality. especially when there is no movement or bending between the wrist and the forearm. but least understood. cues is a hand movement. emphasizing. y Palm down gestures are generally seen as dominant. palm down gesture is very important when it comes to handshaking and where appropriate we suggest you always offer a handshake upright and vertical. .

Hand gestures are ubiquitous in face-to-face communication.y Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. and appear to be integral to the production and comprehension of language in face-to-face contexts.g. While some gestures (e. listeners take into account the information conveyed by gesture. In fact. a clenched fist) have universal meanings.. most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic. y Gestures can be broadly classified into two categories: conscious and spontaneous. . even when this information is not related to the information conveyed in speech.

y The American `V-for-victory' gesture can be made either with the palm or the back of the hand towards the listener. y For example. however. In Britain.y Conscious Gestures: When we reflect on what kinds of gestures we have seen in our environment. y Some emblems communicate specific messages only within certain cultures or subcultures. he/she may flash an emblem such as a hand movement to signal you to sit down and wait. . a `V' gesture made with the back of the hand towards the listener is inappropriate in polite society. when you enter an office and the receptionist is on the phone. we often come up with a type of gesture known as emblematic.

y Another conscious gesture that has been the subject of some study in the interface community is the so-called propositional gesture'. therefore. easier to remember.y Examples of emblems in American culture are the thumb-and-index-finger gesture that signals `okay' or the `thumbs up' gesture. Emblematic gestures are consciously produced and are. An example is the use of the hands to measure the size of a symbolic space while the speaker says it was this big. .

and in most cultures (despite the common belief to the contrary). unselfconscious) gestures accompany speech in most communicative situations. by the form of the gesture. People even gesture while they are speaking on the telephone. Iconic gestures may specify manner in which an action is to be carried out. such as the gesture of holding a tube with a handle that accompanies `Press the [handle of the caulking gun slowly as you move nozzle across the window ledge that needs caulk]'.y Spontaneous Gestures: Spontaneous (unplanned. y The spontaneous common gestures are of four types: Iconic Gestures: Iconic gesture depict. . even if this information is not given in the accompanying speech. some feature of the action or event being described.

.. instead the form of the gesture comes from a common metaphor. Rekha was looking at Tina across the table.y Metaphoric Gestures: Metaphoric gestures are also representational.. concept they represent has no physical form . An example is `the meeting went on and on' accompanied by a hand indicating rolling motion. or locate in the physical space in front of the narrator. aspects of the discourse. such as the tube of caulk that the narrator pointed to on the workbench. `well. An example of the latter might be pointing left and then right while saying. these can be discourse entities that have a physical existence. or nonphysical discourse entities. y Deictics: Deictics spatialize.'.

. occurring with comments on one's own linguistic contribution. They serve a pragmatic function. and reported speech. An example is. y Beat Gestures: Beat gestures are small baton-like movements that do not change in form with the content of the accompanying speech. but is an evaluative or orienting comment. One can also use the whole hand to represent entities or ideas or events in space. y Beat gestures may signal that the information conveyed in the accompanying speech does not advance the `plot' of the discourse.y Deictics do not have to be pointing index fingers. speech repairs. `she talked first. I mean second' accompanied by a hand flicking down and then up.

such as looking at other body parts of the other person. y Eye contact is a direct and powerful form of non-verbal communication. This may include eye contact or the avoidance of eye contact. It may also include all other eye movements.y Oculesics: Oculesics is the way eyes are used during a communication exchange. The direct stare of the sender of a message conveys candour and openness. Oculesic movements are frequently associated with kinesics. . The superiors in an organization generally maintain eye contact longer than the subordinate.

Eyes rolled upward are associated with fatigue.y It elicits a feeling of trust. and. and trust worthiness. Looking away contributes to maintaining psychological distance. y Studies on eye contact and its effect on communication and credibility have found that maintaining your gaze while communicating is beneficial to credibility. Eye contact studies have produced information about the effect of eye contact on the three components of credibility dynamism competence. averting eye contact is detrimental to credibility. conversely. . Downward glances are generally associated with modesty. y The avoidance of eye contact also signals something meaningful.

. Gazing serves four functions: regulatory. monitoring. y Wise business communicators make a point of attempting to engage every member they are talking to by looking at him/her because they consider the eyes to c the most accurate predictor of be speaker's true feelings and attitudes. cognitive and expressive. gaze and mutual gaze y Mutual gazing is present when two individuals interact and look at each other.y Eye Behaviour is usually divided into two categories. You should remember that maintaining good eye contact with those you meet or with whom you interact would enhance effectiveness of your communication.

scripts or anything that causes you tilt your head away from the receiver. When speaking to a group look at everyone. Do not look at the floor. Look at reactive listeners. . look at something else on their face. Do not look at bad listeners who may distract you. Look at people who are key decision makers or hold power.y The following can serve as effective guidenlines on eye contact: If you have trouble staring someone in the eye.

Primates often groom each other. Touch helps the group form bonds and stay peaceful. to establish dominance. and to establish bonds. y . Touch is used to comfort.Haptics y Haptics or tactile communication or touch is an important form of communication for many primate species. Primates are social animals. Humans are no exception. chimpanzees groom each other. Mother tigers lick and nuzzle their babies. and bear cubs wrestle with each other. They live in large groups. Female primates often hold and frequently cuddle and comfort their young.

y Although used most frequently during greetings and departures.y We feel loved. appreciated. touching someone's feet to show respect. This form of nonverbal communication also exists in-other communication activities. a kiss. and emotionally supported with touch. such as a handshake. while people from societies in which touching is limited may feel uncomfortable in such a situation. touching may occur in a variety of circumstances. respected. or a hug. an arm around the shoulder. . cared for. Some cultures place great emphasis on physical contact between people during a conversation. including a conversation.

In other words a person of higher status is more likely to touch a person of lower status. In business situations. Touch is especially go imparting a sense of empathy. .y Haptic behaviour may be divided into the following degrees of intimacy: functional/professional social/polite friendship/warmth love/intimacy Successful persuaders often touch those they are seeking to persuade. touching suggests dominance. or communication in in which the meaning is less obvious. The skin's use for communication is highly related to subliminal perception.

someone standing very close to us makes us uncomfortable. or in a classroom with our coat. As a species. paper. etc. man is highly territorial. but we are rarely aware of it unless our space is somehow violated .Proxemics y For most of us. pen. We feel our `space' has been invaded. This invisible boundary becomes apparent only when someone bumps or tries to enter your bubble. y Personal space is your `bubble' the space you place between yourself and others. People seek to extend their territory in many ways to attain power and intimacy. We like to protect and control our territory. We tend to mark our territory either with permanent walls.

It defines regions around people and the acceptable social behaviours in those zones. distance. y Space. Proxemics is the study of the nature. degree. and effect of the spatial separation individuals naturally maintain. culminating in physical contact. As the distance between two people decreases the degree of intimacy is increased. .y Spatial relationships and territorial boundaries directly influence our daily encounters. y Decades of psychological and anthropological research have formulated the concept of proxemics. and territory are factors related to proxemic communication.

while semi-fixed feature space is defined by fixed boundaries such as furniture.T. y He investigated man's use of personal space in contrast with `fixed' and `semi-fixed 'feature space Fixed feature space is characterized by unmovable boundaries (divisions y in office building). .y The term 'proxemics' was coined by a researcher E. Hall in 1963.

and public distance used for public speaking . personal distance for conversations among close friends.y The study of spatial territory for the purpose of communication uses four categories of space intimate distance for embracing or whispering. social distance for conversations among acquaintances.

and the easier it will be to invade the territory of lowerstatus personnel. y There are three basic principles that summarize the use of personal space in an organization: The higher your position (status) in the organization. .y In organizations. more and better space you will have. most people use space and distance to communicate important information about themselves. the better protected your territory will be.

attire. and colleagues are usually impressed by people who are trim. . One's physical appearance creates an image of the person in the same way that other nonverbal messages do. and they have generally successful careers.y Appearance and Artifacts: Potential employers. y They are also found to be credible more often than less attractive people. This channel of non-verbal communication confers a meaning that is transmitted by physical characteristics of the body. skin colour. muscular. body shape. customers. deformities. body odour. physical characteristics of the body include facial shape. etc. and good in shape. People who look attractive are considered to be likable and persuasive. and the accessories. hair. These three. height.

. handkerchief. flowers.y Attire refers to clothing and accessories refer to other appendages or manipulable objects in the environment that may reflect messages from the designer or the user. cosmetics. personality. Clothing and other artifacts are especially powerful signifiers and convey a great deal of detailed information about someone's job. and lifestyle. the purpose of clothing has changed from merely fulfilling a need to expressing oneself. such as fragrance. For example) uniforms of one sort or another are a feature in many. and so on. art. pets. furniture. y In today's society. if not most. values. fields. jewellery. or other possessions such as glasses. helmet.

which consist of a clearly defined range of regular clothing that are acceptable. there is an unspoken dress code in many organizations. In other words. and some colleges. y Most of the other occupations and organizations have more subtle uniforms. the police. and even hospitals.y Some uniforms are obvious the army. the navy. schools. The importance of clothing is a central aspect of impression management as prescribed by writers for the business market. . or the air force.

people are treated the basis the social status their dress indicates. you can dress down. poorly-dressed people are treated poorly and the well-dressed ones are regarded favourably and treated well. that is to say. you should wear styles that fit the environment and make you feel comfortable. if you are aware that discussions are hard to get going if you appear in a business suit and tie when you are among the shop floor employees. .y Generally. y To establish credibility. For example. Your dress should flatter your body type. The kind of clothing you wear can influence how people react to you. rather than exposing your weaknesses.

these artifacts often communicate information about you. Appearance communicates how we feel and how we want to be viewed. from the clothing you wear. the jewellery you wear. your artifacts will speak for you. Be aware that bad breath. y The most influential artifacts you own are your clothes. body odour. y Your appearance says a lot about you. to your to your hairstyle. Overall appearance is the non-verbal factor that people are most aware of and manipulate the most. Before you even speak.y Appearance also takes into account personal grooming. and overpowering cologne or perfume will also speak for you. .

hair style. polished shoes. clunky jewellery. weight. people make inferences based on this `superficial' data.y Personal physical appearance usually provides the first available data about a stranger. skin colour. garish makeup. . Invest in professional-looking clothing and accessories Avoid flashy garments. and overpowering perfume. body hygiene. and any other physical attribute and artifact. and clean nails. y You must always keep the following in mind: Pay attention to good grooming. clothing. Inferences are made based on others' height. including a neat hairstyle. Right or wrong.

you might have heard two of your colleagues talking to each other in a different language other than yours. though you could not understand the contents. delight. their emotions and the fact that they were arguing were explicit from the sound and tone of their voices.y Ensure that you feel comfortable in your attire and that your accessories suit you before embarking on your business day y Paralanguage/Vocalics: You may have overheard two people arguing in the adjoining room. Likewise. even though you could not make out their words. you would have had some idea about their talk or at least their feelings excitement. boredom. frustration. exhaustion. . or grief from the tone of their voice and other non-verbal means.

emotional state. When we speak. native birth. All these clues (and many more) are contained in small fragments of speech. our voice reveals our gender. and other people can `read' our voices with remarkable accuracy. y Every time we speak. we `encode' important information about ourselves. level of education. These effects are referred to by impressionistic descriptions. and our relationship with the person being spoken to. when we listen to others. we can `decode' important information about them. manner of speaking. geographic background.y The voice is an extraordinary human instrument. age. . such as tone of voice. People from different walks of life recognize that the human voice communicates something beyond language. or `the way they said it'. voice quality.

This `non-lexical' vocal communication may be considered a type of non-verbal communication. This category includes a number of sub-categories: .y Paralanguage refers to all vocally-produced sound that is not a direct form of linguistic communication. in its broadest sense. paralanguage includes utterance that may have strong signifying traits but no semantic meaning. Thus. as it can suggest many emotional nuances.

) Inflection (spread narrow) Pitch (high low) Intensity (loud-soft) Articulation (precise-imprecise) Rhythm (smooth jerky) Quality y Dysfluencies/Pauses (silence-vocalized) Tempo/Pacing (rapid slow) . derisive. scheming. loud. comforting. sharp. wheedling. pleasing. commanding. boisterous.Tone (direct. harsh. rage. soft. gentle. disguised. volatile. nasal. etc.

This may be done consciously or unconsciously. Tone is used to convey an attitude. is a feature of non-verbal communication. tone is either taken for granted. could be said that there is no such thing as a text or verbal utterance without a :one. `tone' means the quality of sound produced the voice in uttering words. It is the physical level at which the sound of the human voice is transmitted. or perceived unconsciously. To a linguist (or speech therapist). `tone' is the attitude of the speaker revealed in the choice of vocabulary or the intonation of speech.y Tone Tone. taken in its most literal meaning. Ina general sense. . In most cases.

Linguists and speech therapists chart intonation patterns by a system of marks on a page to suggest the rise and fall of the tone. You can vary your voice by stressing a word or phrase. or pausing before a word or phrase. We sometimes use the term `monotone' to imply an absence of intonation. . This usually suggests some negative state of mind on the part of the speaker. Voice Inflection: Voice inflection is the way we change the tone of our voice to emphasize key words. Intonation is the term by which we refer to the patterns of sound that are evident in every utterance. stretching a word or phrase.

. and the lower the pitch. the faster the rate of vibration. the slower the rate of vibration. Pitch: Pitch is a measure of how high or low a voice is. the higher the pitch. . Pausing I've got. .a big project.Stressing I've got a BIG project Stretching I've got a b i g project. and is mainly determined by the speed of vibration of the vocal folds.

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