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o Moter: 5 HP. nov, single-phase

o Table size: 20" x 25%"

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22 Ton Brooks: Working where 57 A Smail Box
art and function collide BY MICHAEL CULLEN
BY SCOTT GIBSON 60 The Best of the Old is New:
30 A Vvall Minor: Bent laminations SAPFM in Savannah
and hammer veneering BY MARK ARNOLD
BY JONATHAN BENSON 65 The Coped Mortise and Tenon
38 A Bowl of Wooden Fruit BY TON)' KUBALAK
BY CHRIS CHILD 72 Inspired by China: An Interview
43 Gallery with Clifton Monteith
50 Estimating for Furnituremakers 80 Index for Woodwork) Issues 1-100

jon Brooks shapes a curve 00 one of his sculptural furniture pieces. Phoro: Scott Gibson


Tradition and Inspiration

Many years ago I was commissioned by a local gallery to make a reproduction of a museum piece, a drop-front desk that had been part of a California Arts and Crafts exhibition at the Oakland Museum. It was the first reproduction J had been asked to do, and I was excited because the piece had caught my eye right away when I first saw the show .. On display, the desk stood inclosed position, denying any look at what lay inside. I returned to the museum a number of times to study it, to take in all its details.

It was a striking piece, with patinated, pounded copper hardware and a carved panel of eucalyptus leaves on its front, but what T came to realize was that there was something beyond the details thatrnade

bad inspired me, and hopefully, had that presence 1 bad first felt.

In this issue are articles concerning two major furniture exhibitions: a show featuring reproductions of American period furniture held.earlier this summer at the Telfair Museum in Savannah, Georgia, and another inspired by classical Chinese furniture opening later this fall at the Peabody

Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts. In both shows the focus is, on contemporary furnit ur e ill a ker smembers of the Society of American Period Furniture Makers a: t the Telfair" and a variety of studio furniturernakers (mostly from the U.S., but Canada, China and

~ Japan as well) at the ~ Peabody. Both

.. ~ shows reference '" traditional work.


~ The similarity

~ would seem to

end there, for the pieces at the

Telfair Were very recognizably period furniture forms .. , whereas the range of work that will be displayed at the PEM (as can be seen in the interviews with Michael Cullen and Yeung Chan previously published, and with Clifton Monteith in this issue l is unmistakably contem porary in its take an Chinese originals. But I'm struck by how much alike they sound when talking about the essence of making fu rniture, regardless of the style in which they work or their source of inspiration. Throughout their comments is a common understanding that what matters most is to give life, a real presence, to the next generation of work.

John Lavine, editor

Jon Brnoks' studio.

Ideasto inspire the work, posted on 3. wall in

the piece capti-

vating. There Was, for sure, a certain mystery about that hidden interior that both aroused my interest and fired my imagination. But besides that, the piece had a certain presence, a vitality that I couldn't exactly specify but that I could definitely feel all the same,

Me)' the show ended, I finally got a chance to see inside that desk, and I was thoroughly disappointed to find that the interior didn't live up to my expectations .. It didn't even live up to its own exterior .. At that point 1 understood fOT the first time that my reproduction of the piece couldn't bea simple copy of the original. What I had to do was create an interior of my own imagination, one that tried to live up to the ideal that


DECEMBER 2006 www ..


Art Director JOHN KlRlKOS

COlltribllting Editors


Illustrator MlKEBRAY


Advtrllsing Sales LAURA ENGEL

Advertising Coordinator HOLLY LUNDGREN

ProductionManager GrNNY GREENFIELD

Production TARAOKUMA

Controller ABBY TOLDRlAN

Circulation ANGELA CLARK

WOODWORK NUMUER 102 Woodwork (rSSN #/045·3040;, "pub/islred Ili·marullly by Ross Periodicals. tnc, 42 Digital Drive IS, N"""to. CA 94949; Ic/epi.'",," (415) 382-0580. fax (415) 382-0587. Peri"dii;Jll. p<1SlOE<' pllid o.! 1'111'1110, GA 94947 arid Mairimral ","ffices. Q,pyright C 2006 by RaSt P~riQdi. ",Is. Inc .. AII ,iglm ,e,"""ed. Rep.rilltiMg,ill whole or ;1' part. " expressly fu,bidd." =.j:JI by ",rit"m (nr",i:;sioll of'lre PI,bU,h"e,"


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Ali carpenter and Models

I'm writing to applaud you for the Art Carpenter coverage (and the rest of a fine magazine.) He was an early inspiration for me to use maquettes in my design process. 1 visited Art some years ago to talk to him about his models.I have some nice slides from that meeting. Anyway, I justcurated a show of rnaquettes by studio furniture makers at the Fuller Craft Museum in Brockton. Massachusetts [The Scale of Things to Cottle, Tuly I-November 19, 2006, features John EverdeU, Po Wilson, Judy McKie and others] and, asl was putting together the finishing touches, Art passed 00. Ifs serendipitous that I W&S able to dedicate the show to him.

I noticed that no one in your coverage of Art mentioned the models, so I thought I would write and share this with you.

Mark Del Guidice Norwood, Massachusetts mod els of furniture pieces by Art Carpenter. They were.normally set On ~hclves ih his showroom for clients to see.

Antiques and Refinishing

Thankyou so much fa! the article written by Bob Flemer on refinishing and conservation. The points he made were outstanding. Now when questioned by clients about antiques that Deed complete refinishing versus conservation, I hand Bob's article to them to read. This has made our job of informing so much easier!

Guy and Katie Bovie Alpha Restoration Studio Emeryville, California

Three cheers for Bob Flexner arid Woodwork! His article 0 . .11 The Antiques Roadshow vs. refinishing is well thought out, accurate and fair. We restore, repair and conserve fine antique dock cases. This issue h;1"5 caused us to think deeply so that we can develop a policy that keeps OUI customers happy and adds value toa piece, as opposed to hurting it. When we review a. prospective piece with a collector, our discussion hits all thesame points Bob's statement does. Obviously a rare clock that has survived in great shape should be conserved, not refinished . But what about the piece that wasn't so lucky? Now is the time to consider repair and refinishing. It is also the' time for me to state our credo. It is imperative that this work be done with correct materials and method .. This means that the piece is carefully studied and a plan is made. Choosing correct first and secondary woods, glue, fasteners and of course, finish. Now, to the best of your ability follow the methods of the original builder. It's a lot of work but om experience shows our customers always gain value on their original investment. In the antique world, the main reason refinishing has such a had reputation is that it is almost always done badly. In dosing 1 would Like to say that anybody that finishes wood. old or new, should read Bob's

'" book, Understanding Wood Fillishing. ~ Read it cover to cover, and when you're § done, wait a month and read it again.

~ Edward]. Schmidt

1;; Schmidt & Sohne

i via email

Enjoyed the article by Bob Plexner re:

Antiques Roadshowand what makes fer the deterioration of frnishes. on furniture. 1 have always wondered about the finishiug of interior of carcase work. Mth the humidity of indoor environments being prime movers In causing the expansion of wood in indoor environment, wouldn't it be wise to 'Seal the interior of carcase work? It seems to me that would serve to slow down the penetration of water via the interior route. It seems like we in the woodworking world often take great pains to protect the exterior of carcases with elaborate surface sealing, only to leave the interior virtually naked. I sel-


dam see the interiors of carcase work even touched by a finish.

Any thoughts or comments on this?

Should an interior at least be given the same sealer as the exterior!

John McGlynn

San Francisco, California

Bab Plexner replies:

Six thoughts.

First, interiors of catcase fum itu re look and feel better with &I finish applied. That is, &IS longas tilefinish is smooth-withoutdry spmy orexeessive dust. So there is a legiti~ mate reason rofmish irisi,les and rmdersides,

Second, a finish merely slows the exchcmge of moisture vapor in and out of wood; it doesn't stop the exchange. So ftrIish~ ing insides doem'tprevent warping incases where the wood hasn't been dried properly. It just' retards the warp.i~gfor a few weeks or months. Thicker finishes retard better.

Third, if you follow the widespread logic of trying to make moisture-va pOI' exchange equal 011 both sides of wood, YOIl would need to apply exactly the same amount of finish to both sides. Sealing one side with one coat of filrish while coating the other side with three coats wouldn't help much. One-thi.rd to be exact.

Fourth, if you follow this equaUzitlg logic, you would have to take inroaceoun» the effoctdoors and drawers have il'l reducing the extremes oflmmidity within carcase furniture compared to without. How would you do that? Would you apply fewer coat» to the interiors of dosed-case fumiture than to the interiors of open-case furnituret How would YOH determine the number of coats to apply to the Interior of Q chest-of-drawers '1'5 •. a kitchencabillet?

Fifth! look at the evidence.Insides of carcase [umiture and undersides of tabletops were rarely ifever fin.ished before the 19505. If warps have occurred in thisJl~miture (we'retalking abol~t a several-Illmdn::d"year span of time), they have almost always been the result ofexposure to excessive moisture on the outside or topside, as I descn'be in the article. How would finishing the insides or undersides have prevented this?

Sixth, keep in mind the rJ.iffenmce between the need to veneer both sides to prevent warpilfgand the myth offmishitlg

ccmtinue.d 011 pageS



Through a landmark cultural exchange, 21 internationally known studio furniture artists create

new works inspired by

stellar examples of historic

Chinese furniture. See these stunning new pieces on display among the exquisite works that inspired them.

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA October 28, 2006 - March 4, 2007

Cicada Cabinet, 2006, Brian NewelL


Peabody Essex Museum

East India Square I Salem, MA 01970 USA 1978-745-9500 I

both sides to prevent warping. It's the water-based adhesives we use that make veneering both sides necessary (it's not neeessary with contact cement). The water swells the veneer which then shrinks during drying and cups the wood. Nothing similar occurs wi th a finish

Discourse and Dead Mice

1 have admired the content and design of your magazine for many years, though I never gave much thought as to why. Upon reading yOUT 1 OOth issue commentary the reasons for my admiration became clear. In your editor's column you acknowledge "the breadth of OUI collective experience in wood." You also ask the poignant question "what do we do with wood, and why do it?"

I find such thinking encouraging and outright refreshing given the typical woodworking discourse, or lack thereof. Toshio Odate answers your editorial question quite forcefully and convincingly Mr. Odate seems to touch on "the breadth (If our ... " through exploring art and craft, at least relative to woodworking.

As a young self-employed woodworker, and during my years at Pollaro Custom Furniture, I felt compelled to debate the ideas of art and craft. I suppo e primarily for two reasons. Fir t, I was seeking a place/audience for my work. Secondly. and r admit this reluctantly, to achieve a certain status for my work.

I am a "self-taught" craftsman and artist, as are so many American artisans. This dynamic seems to elicit a trade off between great creative freedom in exchange for the dear definition and security a more traditional apprentice program might afford. Throw in the need to find a financial footing to follow our passion and the picture can get quite murky.

My woodworking career began hanging crown molding and building plastic laminate pieces just to make ends meet. Upon discovering marquetry my path has been driven toward the "decorative art" area of OUI medium, leading to my current stage, where most of my work includes wood but leans toward the non functional.

It eems to me thatto develop a further discus ion requires that each modern woodworker answer the question of "why do it" for themselves; a very indi-

Gord Peferan:s "Prosthetic:'

vidual process to be sure. Today, as I practice my various artistic rnediu rns and work as a woodworking instru ctor in a New Jersey high school, the issues seem a bit more transparent.

When 1 am teaching what matters is good, diligent work and strength of character in performing that work. As an artist, I know art when I see it, regardless of the medium. Additionally, I know good execution when I see it, and I know passion when I encounter it. What does remain elusive, and therefore more beautiful when found, is the harmonious balance of all these components.

Thus a discourse still seems essential.

If nothing else it is fun and enriching. Also it takes the solitary artisan out of the self imposed vacuum of thought and purpose. [would like to be a participant in your magazine's fine discourse and evolution. 1 remain an appreciative reader. Thank you for your thoughtful and quality filled approach.

Daniel Gordon via email

I subscribe to a number of magazines whose titles would uggest that their primary focus is woodworking. (Thirteen or more-I guess I am afraid I will miss


something') I have been engaged in thi pattern of reader hip far over 25 year - you know, I began so far back that there weren't that many magazines on the subject around. I have been with you folks for a long time.

All that just to say thanks for being the one magazine on the subject of woodworking that I most look forward to receiving. No compromises apparent here. A top quality magazine on the subject of woodworking with well-written articles and great photography. Always a fresh and interesting idea or two. You

3 don't look or read like the other magaE zines and you stay very close to the subg ject; woodworking. Great idea! Keep it

.,. >

!l up! Don't sci! out to Readers Digest or

~ anyone else! Thanks, Woodwork!

8 Kent A. Ryan

~ Cincinnati, Ohio


I read and enjoyed your column [Commentary, Woodwork#l00]verymucb,and I feel somewhat like a parishioner sometimes feel when he thinks the preacher is talking about him! I do understand and I accept the fact that this woodworking world is not just about making something functional (furniture, a house, etc) and pleasing to my eye. And J thankyou for the kind reference to my work in mentioning me 'wondering out loud" about Peteran's table.

[also read-reread and read againGlenn Adamson's comments on Pereran's "Prosthetic" with Peteran's comments about said piece; and the orily thing I really understood from either writer was the description of the dead mouse that fell out of the seat of the chair. The rest ofitmigbt as well have been written in Chinese! Which I well know is my loss.

I'm honestly not trying to start lip anything; 1 just do not understand a lot of things that are so widely accepted as "good" in this world today.

Thank yon for Woodwork; I just renewed for a couple more years even though normally at my age I don't even buy green bananas! It's got to be good for me (though 1 may not really Like it) to see what the rest of the woodworking world is doing.

John McAlister

Charlotte, North Carolina

continued on page 10

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Building a Tool Chest Revisited

1 am designing a tool chest and the article, "Building a To01 Chest" by Michael Cullen in the October 2006 issue was timely. However, I found the quality of this article fell short of your customary standard. The article was a difficult read because a couple critical steps were out of sequence and there were incomplete sentences. The drawings in particular had numerous labeling errors, when compared to the Bill of Material. I am considering incorporating features from his design and would be grateful if you could print the corrected drawings.

Toe Johnson via email

John Lavine repUes:

I apologize for the mistakes and the COI'lfusion it may have caused. The problem came from the fact that the illustrator and I were workingfrom fWo different versions of the Parts List-the version published in the article contained em entry labeled "DCart;:ase. B4ck" that was not OTI rile illustrator's list. Consequently, all of the ltJbeling in the drawings after the first three parts is off by one letter, e.g. <CD" should be "E'; etc. However, none oft/Ie double letters ("AA'; etc.) were affected. Also, all of the actual dimensioning for each part is correct. A revised version of the list appears here.


Very much enjoyed Peter Pierobon's profile, "The Language of Porm" [Woodwork #100].

I am interested in his ebonizing methods. Or anyone else's for that matter. Also interested in where I can purchase India Ink. Ibought a 1.2 ounce bottle for $8.00 and would be interested in where I can get it cheaper.


Wayne Reynolds

Wooden Horseshoe Design Nova Scotia, Canada

Peter Pierobon replies:

India ink is too expensive to use for ebonizing wood. 1 use black aniline dye in alcohal which Catl be bought at most good leather stores (Like TQ11dy Leather) for about $45 a gallon which lasts a long time. I apply two coats, letting the first one dry

because I've always considered it benign and suitable for general use. Some MSDSs provided nothing conclusive. I've been wondering about it ever since and hope that you will have time to send.a briefnetewith your opinion and suggestions.

Thank you for any assistance you can provide.

Barry Gordon Baldwinsville, New York


A-Carnise, Sides B-£arcase, Top

2@W')< 16" x 72' I @}£' x 16" x 42'

C-Carcase, Bottom I @3i" )( 17' x"l2'

Carcase, eack I @ ~ x "II' x 71Jl~

D-Shelr. above drawers (wedged) I @~' x 13U" x 12"

E-Shelf. below drawers (wedged) I @ W' x IIW x 42"

F-Shelf, support I @ J4" x 2" x 40W

G-Shelf. below cubl:1yholes (wedged) I @ X" x 13W x 42"

H-Shelves, adjustable 2@:}£' x 13~" x 40U,'

l-Drawer Dividers (vertical. wedged) 2 @ W')( 13W' x I 6"

J,Pial1i:! Divilller. Horizontal (dado) I @W' x ICM x 2M

K-Scraper Divider. Horizontal (dado) I @)1')( 10',( x 41'"

L-Dilliders, Vertical (wedged) 2 @ M" x I Olf' x lOW'

M-Dlvider.;.Vertical (pado) 3 @ W' x lOW x 9W

Rod Chelbe."g replies:

Isopropyl alcohol is still toxic; though not as toxic lU methanol. It is CONverted to acetone ill the liver and subsequently excreted in the-urine:

TIle toxic ejfocts a/Isopropanol are as fo{/ows: eNS depression, weakness, lethargy, headache, abdominal pain, stomach IIpset and cough.

These are the warning signs that you have toomudt expo~ure.lf you get enougll Q:posure, yo 141' kidneys will be severely damaged. The oltly way to do ,this is by drinking the stuff. That is why the mamifactures usually add blue dye. Exposure to skin is more likely to cause a dry burn.

Good washing will prevent this. Inhalation may make you cough and on occasion; cough up blood so it is best to be in (/ room with a lor of air flowing by.

I too add solvents to see the finished product; but J use Naphtha because it stays lVet longer on the 'wood thereby giving me more tittle to look at the figure. It dries quickly, but not as fast as an alcol101. I still use plenty of ventilation when I use Naphtha however.

For the most part. unless you are having symptoms of toxicity from the Isopropanol. you are probably fine.

I hope this answers your ouestions.

4@}l"x IOit' x 3)1" +

N-Divider.;. Honzontal (dado) O-Stile (center), Doors P-Stiles, Doors

Q-Rails (upper), Doors "-Rails Oower). Door.; S-Panel. Doors

T-Feet. Base

U, Rails. Pront and Back V-Ralls, Sides

W-CWVoirl. Sides X,Crown, Front and Back

1@)j,"d.v."x71X" 3@ifx3'x71*

2@;l' x 2W' X 19"

2@'lIi"x3"x 19'

2 @ M" x 16' x 66:4"

4@2Jf'xIif'x 6" 2.@ f" x 21>f' x 3aw

2.@W'x,2.l1' x 15)4" 2 @X' )< 2Ji" x 42M"

for about an hour and generally use a lacquer finish on top, which requires the dye to be fully dry (24 hours). If you apply an oil finish it will Hft some of the dye away cmd leave a less than perfectly black result, but this also has its merits and does not look bad. Always try a sample before committing to the real project!

Good luck.

More on Toxic Solvents

Thank you for your information in Woodwork regarding denatured alcohol. I've been familiar with it since selling it in my father's hardware store in the 19505. Aware of its toxicity I avoid it but I do use 91 % isopropyl alcohol, primarily splashing it on wood to mimic the light reflectance of a finish and temporarily accentuatefigure. Water would accomplish the same thing but the alcohol evaporates much faster. Exposure is through contact with my skin and breathing the fumes. The skin contact can be eliminated easier than doing away with the fumes.

A couple efyears ago a tudent noticed this use of isopropyl and reacted negatively saying it is highly toxic. This surprised me


We welcome and encourage your letters in response to anything you read in

the magazine. Please send them to:

Editor, Woodwork, 42 Digit;alDrive #5, Novato, CA 94949, or email them to


"I really love the process of thinking through how

a cabinet goes together ... " MikeM.cGlynn specializes in Arts & Crafts furniture and has built pieces that appear in the National Register of Historic Homes. He is truly passionate about woodworking. Whether selecting wood. hardware or the perfect finish •. he counts on Rockier

to provide quality tools and supplies.

Check out how we can help feed your passion for woodworking. Get your fREE catalog today!

Create wlth Confidence




The Wooden Bowl

by Robin Wood

Amman ford , Carrnarthenshire:

Stobart Davies, Ltd., 2005.

181 pages, including numerous color and b&w images, index.

lSBN 0854421300

Reviewed by Bdward S. Cooke, Jr.

While we currently have' a plethora of books 0.11 wood turning from the perspective ofconternporary practice, books OD historical tuened vessels are considerably harder to come by. For: many the seminal publication has been Edward Pinto's Treen and Other Wooden Bygones (1969). But the broad strokes and celebratory tone of Pinto and the few others who have written on treen have made. it difficult to recover a deeper, contextual history of turned wood. These existing works provided little sense of scales of production, change over time of materials and uses, or the specific Anglo context. Robin Wood's new publication The Wooden Bowl takes a great step in addressing the need for such a volume. Drawing upon documentary evidence, archaeological finds and field reports, museum collections, and his own experience at the lathe, the author has compiled an insightful and informative history of wooden bowls and dishes in Britain during the Medieval and Early Modern periods. Wood concludes that Britain was a "woodenware culture" from 500 to about 1600.

Wood begins his volume by addressing the characteristics of the two different classes oflathes: reciprocal (which include strap, bow; and pole lathes) and continuous lathes (which include great wheel, treadle, and water powered lathes), He explains deaclywhy the pole lathe was the ideal too] fOI British turners who made bowls, why the bow and treadle lathes were more suited to small work, and why the great wheel lathe was more suited fot pewter finishing and large work. After introducing the possible tools, Wood discusses the most common woods used in Britain. Based on his examination of written and artifactual records, he concludes that alder was the mostcommon wood for

bowls from 500-1100, and that ash and then beech replaced alder after that time. English sycamore (Ace.rpseudoplatallus. a type of field maple) became the preferred timber for the larger dairy bowls of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A special type of turned drinking vessel, referred to as mazer, was turned in a more refined manner from burl or figured crotch timber and was often ornamented with silver or gilt mounts and prints (a decorative silver roundel placed on the inside bottom of the bowl). The readily produced alder bowls, the more embellished mazers, and the evidence of loving repair of wooden bowls reveals that such wooden vessels were owned by all levels of society.

Within his history of wooden bowls, W.ood provides a basic chronology that demonstrates that most people drank from wooden bowls and ate from wooden plates or dishes during the century he identifies as the "Golden Age of Woodturning." What I found particularly refreshing was his awareness of the larger


world of household consumption; his perspective is not myopically focused upon the lathe-turned object. Instead he talks about the increased number of turned plates and dishes that became necessary when more people sat down and ate at a table rather than eating and drinking from hand-held bowls while on the go. The changing reliance on pottery also dramatically affected turned wares. Up until the end of the 15th century, pottery was used for storage and cooking, while wooden vessels and dishes were used fOT all drinking and eating, The introduction of German salt-glazed stoneware jugs began to encroach upon the monopoly of wooden bowls and by the mid-16th century the individual wooden drinking bowl was an object of the past The production of tin-glazed earthenware plates in the 17th century and then refined earthenwares in the 18th century further undermined the prevalence of wooden dishes and plates. But as bowl turning declined, turners found


ABOVE-Bobin Woodtll:rninga replica bowl.


Robin Wood 6tudyinga large bowl (c. 1545AD) from the Mnry Rase.

Repliea of a 'Iudor porringerturned by Robin Wood.

new outlets for their skills in the production of turned.elements for furniture or even turned chairs.

Wood is at his best when drawing inferences about the objects based on his technical knowledge. His discussion includes the conversion of timber (half log for bowls, splitting three dish blanks from a log in which the eventual base is towards the center of the log), the axed work necessary to prepare the stock to mount on the lathe (evident in the axe facets or bark spots on the exterior of many bowls), the premium placed on steady, efficient turning in which no motion is wasted, and the lack of fine abrasives on any bowls but mazers. He has grounded turning back in the necessity of making a living .. Wood marvels how a proficient turner using apole lathe and an apprentice axing out blanks could make sixteen dishes or platters a day, or even forty-eight saucers a day (p. 92). His chapters on mazers and the wooden bowls and dishes recovered from the

1545 sinking of the Mary Rose are particularly successful examples of his approach to the material.A final chapter on the survival of turning in rural areas of Wales also fleshes out the changed markets for wooden bowls, larger vessels being used more for dairy processing, chopping vegetables, or even washing silver. Pottery, then enamelware, and finally stainless steel bad replaced many of the traditional woodenware forms.

VIlhile 1 found Wood's volume enormouslysatisfying, I still found a few areas in which he could improve the volume. Keying illustrations to the text through figure numbers would make cross-referencing easier fbr the reader. I sometimes found myself wondering whether a certain object was illustrated or oat. A clear image of the pole lathe with all the parts marked would also have made his discussion about the location of the tool rest or the details of the appendix (a 1936 letter from the turner Ioseph Hughes that explains the pole lathe) more effective. I also found myself wanting greater detail about how he deduced the work of different turners when discussing some of the round boxes recovered from the Mary Rose (p, 122). Finally; while 1 find Wood's discussion about the decline of wood bowls convincing, lthink he could bave spent comparable effort exploring why woodtuming took off around 500 and subsumed a strong pottery tradition. Is there a link to the dearing of the woods, the development of tools, the limits or the costs of pottery, or a change in foodways? Some idea about why woodrurning took off at that lime should be explored.

r offer these suggestions because the overall quality of the research and writing is so strong and fresh, Robin Wood has certainly drawn artenticn to the cultural heritage and utilitarian beauty of the most quotidian object of Medieval and Early Modern Britain. I hope others follow his lead, both in the study of "woodenware culture" in other regions and in the making of simple bowls.

Edward S. Cookeir. is the Charles F. MontgoflUJry Professor of American Decorative Arts at the Departmen t of the History of Art, Yale University


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1 ~00-345-4447 2006 South Mazy, Fresno, CA 93721 books, videos, DVDs - free catalog. a.vailable

The Events section lists shows and calls forentries, Please send information to:

Woodwork, 42 Digital Drive #5, Novato, CA 94949 •. Next Deadlinec---9 October 2006.


RWcrt Brady; 5 Sepl.-3D Oci.; Museum, Fresno, (559) 441-4220; wwwmmoartmu.lCLlm.o'll

Pllilip ~",I Mill! MQI/ltllmp. 7 Oct.-4 No"'~ del MllI10 GaUery, Los Angeles; (310) 476·8508; "',,,w.delmwo,oom A Rlmai!slu1Ct CIIbintl/ RcdiJ'alvered; ongoing ""hibil; J- Paul Gelty Museum, Los An~tos; (~ l(}) 440-7300.

Artistry ill Wood, 22 My-3 Sep~: Sonoma County Museum, Sanl" R.osa; (707) 541-9767.

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P"brir. F"mihlf~, ,o"d Filrl/j$hil!g~ 4 AU,g.-17 Sept.; E1cnnot BLtss Cemer for t!'le Art$. StIa.amboA\ SpriugJJ; for lnformauon, call L')'!1nc BlISS (719) 4&l~4.


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!olm G,""'Shcrldan'."S B<lard"WiU ~ pan of II Maffi!TS flow 1'0." SII"" /1, tho Wharlon ESborkkMuscum'& annual mow, from Sept_ber 1 Uthrough o-ml>tr 31, 100!i.


100 you,I\IIIOO awi,.., All E.'II,ibirio" fJ{ It,e VitTI! DesIgn MUSI'1/m; 27 Maj'-"l act" Nevallii M.useum of Art, Reno; (775) 329-3333.


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Gon. Pozzesl_rofil.

Finish .Ild Stain Pen.lrndun \\findsorGhair ChroDai SY Simple: Side-Table roject P.". l'i!Ck-~u.'eer Veneer Seaming WIth a Router

lssue 4S Tune '$17 lud,Oil1n<t-Prolile Pllrl1~Rllut'" Mortising Jig

J ewe fry Box-Proj",,1 O1aJrriWi..-·, ~Proj..:t Sllrr.cmg with If.lId Plane.

r~h~ ;:x~~,;~<

Molting. g Picture FrilffiM '.u,soo-Profil.

Glenn ~Jf~~~'i':Nl.

1 sue 47 Oct '91

lohn Alexrur -Profile.

Moki ;r'rill ...

-::~ od ;iU~ by Hand

1"'" Work of Peter Be.ellSuII Rob Gart;olw ond K.1111ie JOhnoon

.... u.48 Dn:; "97 GrifO!cJ.,_Prordt

From Candleb". 10 Diok Box ~llJ_k; ng Ill'l:d Fitting .. Dri.1wer V:ui'ly in" Produ<llon Run


Issuo 49 F.b '98 I'trl.nllOlJIl':-I'mfilc Mnl:lns. "loinL .Staol

EdG!" Jomllng w1th I:Iond Elan .. Clog !lolls oO;m Bartz

The Sec:t.or: A LaYOUI Tool Michael Codp.,..:....profil,

Issue SO Apr:IJ '98

lohn Cederquist-Profile Bcd L'ro1·.ct

l'crspc<: i~ tnW"rndson; LutHicr', Tech niques


Issue 51 Tun. '98

Kristin. M.dsen-Proffit Dun.:'''n Pbff. ChOir, Port I F.bia"c Garcia-Prom. An trim ScuiRtor

(l.)ur Women Woodrum ...


Duncan Phvr. C1j;1ir, P.ft 2 lin Enslfh "Sh.ving Horse Sb.rPtmng Bench

Hiikory nark Ch"ir Seats

Issue 53 Oct '98

rolm RUrl-Profile

Blm 1" es d. Tabl.

Chloe se Furniture lixhibiti<l" 8uilding "S.olo, Kiln Shop·nud. Cab"'.t HlInIwu re lInn!omy of ~ Chinese I\rnl<lWr Sron N."ring~Prl.lm.

l$sueS4 Dec '98

David Esterly-Prom. Grinllng Gibbon< Carving> High 118ie(Rosetles

S.I"""1 &nding


160U. 55 J>",b '99

~Ih j">!(Ime S""d-Sh.d.d Laneue &ntllng 2ngin .. ring PriolO

Cotch es a n~ How 10 A\'oidThc'fl1

Quick lind boy Cift III cas JoAnn S<huclr-ProJil.

lssue S6 April '!lSI

1o. L<Qn.riI-Pmfil. Slave-BuUIT"bt.

J gili.C<ntury d,cst.R"'Ql'I\t!On Handsaw. rOT Dlmensicnin g Mom... oIid T"""" )pint>; Part J GIb"". Glllt ... F.ctoryTour

I .. ue 51 June '99

~I=d Was·nef-Prom.

"'l1I~r!""n Folk Mllrqll~try H,nd"m fo, lOin"), M~rti!< ",d Teno)fl ,,,int>;!'an 2 Art s ...,a CrlIfu Cabinet


OClld Inling

Buildin&" Ru>,i<: Windsor,PI I TI,. Rout.r PI.n.

n •• dinil Curves willi a Rourer l\;l:Iiluo,.!,,,,j~! CoIl1<:mpol"ry Wood Seulpnire I

is>u" 59 0", '99

J. B. BIIIllk-Profilt Buildi".lla 1l.~'Wi~, PI 2


W"r~bench fer the 90's 1, !';m ese Ma,king Gat_ge Cimlemp"r.Iry Wood Stulptu(e2

Issue 60 Dec 11)9

Mil .. Ka'1'ilow-Prq61. lntreductien II> Vencu

P rtf olio Stand

Pa.'lte Wu. Finish .. Tradition.1 Porl<lsese Toys Smoothing "J.,ft$'

Nc)"m =t Woodworking

1 ssu e 61 'Feb '00

nony Sco!pine>--Pmfik Sh.l«"r (N.l Bo_ VcneeL'ing'Sunbur.sts Swedish Rm-Oa!vIng 5<ro"""

~i'!t~~~:!; ~~r:~hing

Crilltnl DUalu",

Js:;u. 62 Apr '00

Pettr Maynard-Profile CondIe SCon«


SoI\'~nl.S and Thinn~rs


P.nol HOIdnO$> Test

l$$u<ll.l Jun. '00

Doug Adams--Profll<

Sh.kH Ij.ocket. PorI I"ro,y LidJl.d Sharpening Chi",I,."d PI,n« Annl\'",,,.ry RioB Box M'king Halvoo JOints


Issue64 Aug '00

ll~~ r;~:r;,~~~~

SlOnd·Up Mirror !l,opl.cmg Bobbit1 hop. MOde Rbnes

WOO<Itllming.' SOFA PlanLStand

Cetting Cnrnmillsio n.

Iss"" 65 Oct '1)(1

no" id Srng.I-Profll. Super-CircnlarTabl. Sh.kerRock.r, Part 3 Proto.ypiEa) Fumi~ure f9lkcrafts ar Sweden Co rviDS large Bowls

Octogollal Candle Stand Issue 78 Dec 102 M;;etk Switch es
TiLman Riemenschneider CIIorl.! R.diJ«-...Profil. M.l 'sJ;JJUld l'umi.w;, Surn:y
D.sigru\iBu Udil\g n Bed
I .. ue 66 D« '00 Sri"", """",tion on Wood I",". 90 0,,, '04
Wendtll CaotJ.-p",r,l. MlIIi,lu" B",,"Thmins, Joh. MlIcn;1h-Pm51e
Am 8< Cnlfu Book case ~b1!~~t~~~~J1f~n es Crnllsm,m Rot:k<r,1'art 1
Wood Spoonmai<ins ~t~r.;;,W; 8< Lodles
Me!<Jvil~ Making D."ku,ml"'rtm.n~
Makinn SmJ;lL B<>:ttS K·DUrying Rl1dr. HdfModeJs &~.-fureG.u~
Dado oinery, P.rl I 1 .. <ue1~ Fob '03 Cbssicol Caf\-.d M.n!clp«n
The Furniture TwnedTo~
Enhancing the Grain BI.i.. ..ton-Profil. Th. /rupiritl V_~
Issue 67 Pob '01 Serpentioe Cherrl.llow, I ss ue 91 feb '05
H~rold lonson---f'rafi.l. ri!;~~~~nltd· ~ M~Ue =cl-Prolil<
Sieigl\ Ikd P",j«l The Naruk< of Swan Wrighl Cmf= 'r,Pu111
Usin, Spr.~ Guns Workingwith Sqop' Al:r~maled DusleoilecM
Sma Orsp"f ea,., Sl<.dieo for the Lallie The I'orl< of Keimy Fish.".
Eurapean Buckthorn Studio furniture "fumed Ilr1!rbl O&k loinery, Part 2 1 ssue 80 April '03 Buildi!'l) a !'tonI Door
lnt'l Thrni~ Ilxclmnge Soondinavl." JkntmJoillloms
1 ... cbing Shop Terry Mailll>-Profil. Whipping Stick!
Cherra Cradic
I>lu.68 April '01 A&C ·b~Tohl. Issue 9"~ April 'OS
MarkB"rtul1ls-Proffl. Hidi~. <k '*"1,.MnfVI:l!;Prufi[;,
6~~&~~rD .. wers f-!·o;;.h' ::: Clrcu Spo
fml5. l\ij p'5I Gmln SlmkB: 'j'II'O·Drul,'" Sl;ll1d
Balin ese Ma.k ClrvinS )U~ln8 ood Utili Woodno mhM\,~!IOOmn
C,rving with Ajr CJ;ik1, S3w. In U re Woodlhop Ki 1<lIen C~tling T.' I.
Me(al.-I'pml"'" SlIws I ss ue 81 Iune '03 11mlfl1bo1 ~nIllgSJ:>lem
Wome" Woodwotk." ~J=~''S
Cre s-H>tch Adhosion T"'t V~i1Li V as illiQu--Profil.
AJU & Crafts Trestle 'I1I>L.
1 .... 69 lnee '01 Butlwood C..dl"lIold er I .. ue 93 lu!t.:'05
I~n~~~t~-Pmfi!< Rubbing OUI • I'hli$h l'etorl'o~ra.
Intnxluotion to Inlay g~~lI!.or~~~
Doubl, T Il<x;kc..e Picture
Ton l'lnlsbin~ .. Certifiod Wo<><l Tho Gibbet L.nn,Voo
Ap£.htchill1l . rrnakers A..rtisans·orthe New Forest O-mil I.a)'!!ut I
La· .·1bm,d Cl""'y Bex l .. ue 82 Aug '03 Carved- Ffandl. WalkiIlg Cono
llan<lSlOwn V'neering 111.0 New Haml,shi~ FUrniture
Rlly PI"". De<!< c.J-l. &Cbliiort-Profil. M!!.<1ers Assod;ltign
M.kin1,i Stool
Ecimomicol Dus. CoU.erion I'lDted "l~""mp 1ssu.9~5
Issue 70 Aug '01 ".Chitin; M\rl<S' file
Michael Hosaluk-P,olil. Ton~ Ari Nouveau Folding Thbl.
h.k er Document Ch"s< Structuralism "fuming a Cell
~:!!~tle~~nl~iie A SIC ne- T0S;od Table Carv~Clo.ssicol Bmckw
Po[tu~'U... untry fw:nituf< MOkif!l! ~ Own 1'Iaxe>
Hendurnn CaD"" urving Issue 83 Oct '03 SlO)"l,,' ,entrny OChool
Dust CoU«tiQn Cor l'tlW<1 Tools
Half -Blind Dovetails Ml<h ae 1 J'Dryear-P'rofiL .. TUrned Parts fot Fumilure
Power SlI"dus Bed with SIOfage
Iss ue 71 Oct '0] Plm Fool);lnol 1 ssue 95 Oct '05
Whill! ().:ik 8MI); ~K=kGMdGo-Pmm.
Garry Bennell-l'r"m. Shqpnl3dc MIuking Knife ,,,,,W,:un.Tab'"
pining Table and Choir StyJ es "fWw B"lIdi~ru!l1I!rioda'''1
Turnin~ a 53nd't,1 Tiimed Dolts ofN.niko Thur 0 . on PI"". Fot;'":?'
l>atdoi~ S Bridal inet Gl<JbeSlond [oinery Turn 3·T)I!r :;.rvingStan
lvI.king Knives Tmuble wilh H~ory AnilL~J. "furntn~ 100~
Pry 8ritihlnlllDir2:,Brushlng Co.(''W 'clnrion \Iall
Fumiture n(.ren« [ssu.84 Dec 'Ol FIrming versus Slllining
Issue n De" '01 Ridtard Ralfu,,-Prom.
~ & c",ru Oak Bo> 1 •• ",,96 ])"e'05
Tom l.oeser-ProfiL. mod Blo<:k and aal'e1 J<lhnMo~Ill.
A Poi, of c.ndl.micl<s H"jrloo", Tool Chest SaUd Plank Writing Ocl<
Patricia'. Brid;ll Cabin et Cl:unpinJj.HO .... for tbe Shop Sh"'1"'";ng· d PI.,,",
Boxes or Special Orolsions AIl.n-S Bench Savon""l. Fo •
Workbencli Cln"'~inG Jig Wood",orking ""Ill Childrcn Color with i'runL
Makin~' Key Co ~ I.pal sese \'<\>OO",ooollg School n;",,,..,nd Crownj~.l'lat"'
Woo<l umi!lll Center Shu,. SI"ryFumi~ Cho.irscrfC.R.zyJn ntosh
Issue 7J I'd> '02 b$u.~b·()oj Thrned Georgian Detail'
Robin \1'ood-proflL. S<<>11 ~ id.-l'ro6[e Issue 97 F.b '06
Arts & Crnlt.Sid<oo.rd A 1$' ee 1) A.nne H~boy ~l-hJrwi\f.-l'roJll.
P,lTid.. Bridal Cabin., AJJ· UTJ'O~Step tool 'n Dinner Tab'"
The l!lcmen", oflnluying CMtinj Olmpqnntl Mire" MaclrintO$h Dining Omirs
Turning. Rolling Pin ShOP:' uil! GOrtl",) G.IC ThmilIg,' Th'O-riaildled a..,,,,l
Cobin.t ScI:i1~" T~ Oirroin Rods & Rings Making q SheIla" I'.d
Tho SQ,oon$ of Zi"" Burloiu I>I'd>b veSPOOll5 S~u,g Curved Choir h<IS
·the \ orW orWood<>r:ving Rcsjnl'm .... 11 ikO N~, r..~uc< Arti<l
I ss ue 74 Apr '02 Ow.. u,ntohll""'" ry Pu mil"", R<sIruing ~ 'i:>odcil Plow 910 no
Prank'rofi!. CurDlinll1'.W<l An 1<$0098 Apr '06
f:~~~~:ir 1,,"0 86 Ap'r '()oj ~ LiMi-l'roLil.
James Schnber-Prol1lo Table ,.;th CUIW$
Shop-btlilt noning Jig Que.n Anne Highbov, Part 2 ~ JlQdcing Chai.-PMI<
CraC:ldt Pinil~" A Preeisien Route. l1ibk Mit. Mortise-ond·'JtnQn
MnkinS Marin,b as French Pol!sh'ng :~~~~J=trScraI"'"
~~~.!.!':rb~~f.lls Mold~ \\>oo<1.o-~
Melli rOt CUtting Ven ..... Milking -r.,y111lllinll T«!ls
OIlcinn.1U An·C,ni<l1'l.miture l'urnilU'" 1m", Tnsmaniil
Issue 75 lune '02 \kI,,,tlne'. Day Bi)r Issu"!19 June '06
Mcrryll S"~1'mm. Tur~er's Sandpaper Reck
Mapld!< \ vL Thbl. Nom, SortoriWl-ProliJ.
2"":k fr.nch l'1l)W.lng 1..,"087 rml. '04 ~~~ ~~I~'Pl!t?,:tl!r>ln.
~dTro<k Io:ut-~l!so:oolm-Profi).
1.t.n:Adarru School ~ .. n Arin. :l'I!lb;,'1; Part ~ A Box with Wooden Hin!: ...
M<tal PI."", rn...rung iiI.' i::\\; R'lbl<!ms Affordable Ilop:"uil. Kl n
The O!rt<!r of D,,';><I Po",,11 The Ullinw. Assem Iy'lbble (".1thering Your Own Timbor
Ebony Win. Coast<:!' O!Md Com.,-r.\>I. ThoISho~in~ ollay
Turned Bcswrod Shaker Terry M. n~ Si:Ulptum
11:1".76 Aug 'O~ Ttilditinnal.,-lot"d. Btncl1 Ih". 100 ".u~
Jl.kk ChuW;;;Pram. Ion •• nd" om. ... Seymour
ll<qJ;lod (lQd Desk itkfJ~. liank G~pin-- iii.
Lotler Trar fut..-l'lcrilbon-!>rom.
T .... chill\f!ll:h SelI",,1 Shop t,~~:gnT1.~f:
Jo;"er'. tl Building Uihing O,:urs
'rurnill¥,n N"orllt America Moki.::f n a..sle \Vod<bonch Restofin~1bob
'fum 1'urnitu", tilling> ~'r{d;U!$- _ show
g~~'I'O~&t The Sklyd ~I<m Bui. 'ugA Fin. 1= Box
¥:~ the GlUt" ·fr.IdltioMl Stea.dboor Ends
L .. DC 77 OCI '02 '\ir-dri~ or Kiln·driod1 l .. uol 0 I Ott '06
Ab1j~l! ~od-P'QIlI. Stuart Martlnu--l>mfili!
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R.dln.lshing. CoII.g!' Tabl. wlLe 89 OCI '04 lI<in£.]:lp~ll\o;I)lll:r
Frondt Thmin8 Kal5umiMuloJi-Pm~ EOO :it'TOOI Chts!
SbQpmarJe Woo,u,n Hardw",< Gm:n. £< Greelll: Uln!P Benbru.n 1b&
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New Director for NBSS

The North Bennet Sreet Scheel has named Miguel Gomez-Ibanez as its next Executive Director. A 1999 graduate of its famed Cabinet and Furniture Making program, his furniture is widely held in prominentcollections, including a gallery bench created for Boston's Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Burton M. Harris, NBSS Board president, says:

"Miguel brings great Leadership skills

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to the school, coupled with a deep understanding of excellent craftsmanship and the importance of educating the nation's future masters in the trades we teach. This is also the first time one of our own graduates has been elected to serve as Executive Director. Everyone at the school is excited for the future."

As a furniruremaker, hiswork is known for its traditional design combined with artistic flaisas seen in Escl'itorio, a writing



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Miguel Gomez-Ibanez's "Bscritorio/Botamst's Writing Desk" (2004);. walnut, ebony. mother-ofpew: 1, Garpathi urn elm,

~oak burl veneen t; 56",:1: 42" xl!!".


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~ desk created with ~ painter Joseph Reed .. ~ Inside the doors, inlaid ~ with a pa ttern of burl ,. veneer and mother-ofpearl inspired by a 17th-century formal garden, are a series of 26 drawers, each displaying-a miniature oil painting depicting a letter of the alphabet and a corresponding flower, from "Apple" to «Zephyr Lilly."

As an architect for 16 yearS? he was president of M[GA Architects, a Boston firm specializing in historic preservation and new buildings for educational institutions. He bas also served as a Warden of Kings Chapel ill Boston, and on the Collections


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Committee of the Fuller Craft Museum in Brockton, Massachusetts. Most recently, he just completed a two-year term as the President of the Furniture Society.

He was unanimously elected by the Board after a nationwide search conducted by a committee comprised of faculty, staff. Board and alumni members. "The final interview process, as well as tJ1C search process gave input to every constituency of the school and an opportunity to play a role:' adds Harris,

Founded in Boston's North End in 1885, NBSS is known internationally for excellence ill teaching traditional band skills. ull-time programs include Bookbinding, Carpentry. Cabinet and Furniture Making, Jewelry Making and Repair, Locksmithing, Piano Technology, Preservation Carpentry. and Violin Malting and Restoration. Workshops are also offered. For more details about the school, visit

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Creating a Drilling Template

The original. phenolic sub-base on my old router was distorted and theattachment holes in the base of the router are blind. To make a template for accurately drilling the holes in my Dew sub-base I used the following procedure:

1 .. I drilled a hole at the center of the template and at the approximate locations of the attachment screws that I traced from the original sub-base. The diameter of


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these holes is such that steel bushings (to serve as drilling guides) fit into these holes: the center bushingtigh~, while the attachment hole bushings with some play. The bushing in the center of the template has an inside diameter of 1/4" to fit a router bit (which also happens to be the diameter of the guide drill in my fly cutter).

2. r put a 1/4" router bit in the router collet. Using appropriate size machine screws, 1 fixed the attachment hole bush-

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ings to the router base. J smeared the walls of the holes in the template with epoxy glue, pressed the center bushing lnte the template, and slipped the assembly over the 1/4" router bit and the bushings. It is a good idea to Ugbrly wax the router base, the screws and the router bit prior to assembly so they do not get stuck The outside surface of the bushings, au the other band, should be cleaned with acetone.

3. After the epoxy hardened I removed the template. Since the epoxy fixed the bushings at the correct positions, the boles in the template (and consequently in any jig Or sub-base drilled with it) are perfectly centered. If necessary, I <;an use mylly cutter to enlarge the hole in the center of the jig and it is still centered. TIns is par ticulaxly important if the new sub-base is to be used with template guides.

The same trick with fixing bushings in slightly larger holes with epoxy can be used to make any drilling jigs which have to be accurately matched to existing holes.

Frank Penicka, Moun: Pem'l, Newfounaland, Canada

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Big Center

If you need to find the center of something bigger than can be reached with a normal center square, the method shown here can be used for any circle, such as a round table, a barrel, or even a plot of land

Puta board across the circle at a distance from the estimated center that can be reached by your largest try-square, Mark the places where the edge of the board touch the rude. Measure and.mark half this distance. Put the try-square on this mark and draw a line near its tip. This will pass through the center of the circle. Repeat the process from another position and the two lines will cross at the center. If you want to make sure, repeat a third time.

Percy Blandford, Stratford-on-Avon, England


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Working where art and function collide


Y QU' 10. n BrOOk .. 5' place a few miles outside a little New Hampshire town called New Boston. His studio a nd house are on the left, just as the gravel road starts to ascend a slight grade. And when you spot them, there's no mistaking them for anything else.

The shop comes first. Its asymmetrical face, uneven cladding of rough shingles, the big north-facing glass windows and its swooping, parabolic roofall say: This is where Jon Brooks works.

A few hundred feet farther up the road is the house, standing a t the edge of a broad, green field. Like the workshop, it is outwardly an amalgamation of irregularly shaped pieces with shaggy, shingled walls and a colorful, ceramic chimney. You rnay look at it for a few minutes before realizingthat there are virtually no square corners on the building.

Both structures, along with large pieces of sculpture dotting the lawns and fields nearby,

"Coat and Hat Rack" (1980); basswood, oak; 60" l!; 24" x 24".

"Matisse Chair" (1999); maple, Slain, oolored pencil, Iaeq L1 er; 72" x 27" )Ie 27".

are the result of more thana quarter-century ofhard work and artistic attention. Frequently photographed and by now well-known, the compound has become an iconic representation of Brooks' non-traditional, anything-butrectilinear furniture and sculpture.

Stepping inside the house that Brooks shares with his wife, Jami Boyle, you ascend a curving, open-tread staircase and enter the main living space, where you can begin to take in the rough plank floor burnished by use, the exposed framing, and parabolic roof .. Brooks built the house himself in the early 19805-00 a shoestring-not long after he returned from the West Coast with his first wife, Mona ..


The house seems stopped at a moment from a different time; its organic shapes and curves, its unpretentious building materials, even the books stored. neatly on shelves between studs, make a friendly refuge for an amiable non-traditionalist. It's enough to make you sit down and "dialogue" a while, as Brooks is fond of saying.

The furniture and sculpture filling the space span a career of building stretching back more than 30 years. Among the earliest pieces are functional objects made from big chunks of wood-found stumps and logs- which Brooks carved to create chairs, tables and even a coat and hat rack.

At the other end of the spectrum are the much more delicate pieces that characterize his present work. He still begins with found materials-primarily limbs of hard and soft maple that he gathers in the woods around his house-but the result is anything but rustic. Sticks are carefully joined [see sidebarj into beautifully sinuous ladders, tables and chairs, as well as more sculptural. pieces, then painted, stained, decorated with pastels and colored pencils, and finally dear-coated,

It's as if two people are responsible for the furniture: one person specializing in heavy, muscular forms made from undisguised blocks of wood, the other favoring sprightly, playful shapes that are usually decorated with paint.

How Brooks got from one place to another isa combination of upbringing, education, artistic outlook, and an unexpected opportunity that fell into his life during a time of personal upheaval.


Brooks grew up in Manchester, a small city in south-central New Hampshire. He was the middle of five children with two sisters and two brothers. His father was a pathologist who met his wife-to-be while she was enrolled in a nursing program.

In the.late ;405 or early '50s, Brooks' parents bough t four acres of land and a cabin without electricity or running water in the

town of New Boston, just west of Manchester. "It was just magical," Brooks says of the weekends and summer days roaming the woods in New Boston and the rest of the year exploring what wooded areas Manchester bad to offer. "In the forest, there was a sense of refuge that 1 never felt any place else. I could go into the forest and be completely alone and feel extremely safe, almost like being in a church.I fun this asa childa holy experience, very powerful-and it's still true today."

And encouraged especially by his mother, Brooks also found he liked carving. "I had seen the work of Constantine Brancusi, a sculptor, and really got charged up by what he was doing:' Brooks says. "I realized it was possible to communicate through working with your hands, working with wood and making things. He created archetypal forms that had a certain power in them that communicated deeply to me. It's like any spiri-

tual experience you have where a light comes on and you say, 'Yeah, I want to do that"

He copied Brancusi's work. His parents set aside space in the basement for a small workshop, and Brooks' mother bought him tools, found him anend cut of Honduras mahogany from a local . furniture manufacturer, and enrolled him in art classes at the Currier Museum of Art in Manchester.

What he really wanted was a mentor, someone he could apprentice with. That he could not find.

Bored by school, Brooks says he didn't enjoy an altogether smooth adolescence. Art had become a way out, but when hemetwith his high school guidance counselor, he was encouraged to think of art as an avocation, not a vocation. Brooks had other plans. He applied to both the Rhode Island School of Designand the Rochester Institute of''Ieehnology, and was accepted at both. He picked Rochester because it was farther from home.


"Franklin Chair" (1973); black waIn.ut; 48" x 56" x.24".

"BIm Landscape" (1.978); elm.Ieather, ~bon}'; 28" x 48" x 24".

Like hill fu:rni ture, the living room in Brooks' house (at left) as well as the house exterior (lower right )reflea. his search for something beyond cenvention.


In Rochester, Brooks was lucky enough to fall under the influence oftwo powerful woodworkers, the visionary studio furnlturernaker Wendell Castle, who had just started teaching at Rl'I, and Bill Kaiser, the consummate engineer and technician.

"Wendell kind of represented the right brain activity and Bill was extremely good with joinery and the physics of putting things together, and the combination was excellent," Brooks says. He worked in Castle's studio on weekends and during the summer at a time when Castle was working with laminations. Brooks liked the idea but saw a different path. "Why glue up boards when you've got trees that are already in one piece?" be asks.

After flailing in high school, Brooks became a regular on the dean's list, mainly because he loved what he was doing. He earned a BA and then a MFA degree and married Mona, a fellow RlT student, just as he was finishing. school.

They left almost immediately for San Francisco .. There, Brooks worked two days a week at whatever jobs he could find and Mona did secretarial work to help them make ends meet. But his focus was woodworking.

He started carving figures, working with the end cuts of industrial-sized wood beams.

It wasn't furnituremaking be was interested in as much a it was working with the material. It was the wood that kept his undivided attention.


Brooks might have stayed in San Francisco indefinitely. Although high land prices discouraged his urge to build a home, the Bay Area was an exciting place to live and he was having some success selling his work. There were also legal entanglements resulting from his refusal to be inducted into the military in 1967. The case dragged on and eventually Brooks was acquitted. He was free to go, and that's exactly what Mona wanted to do: Go home.

They moved in brie£lywith his parents, by now full-time residents in New BOStOJ1, and Brooks discovered to his surprise that he actually liked being around them. So they bought some land just down the road and began to work on their own house and studio.

It was not only the beginning of Brook's building campaign but also the start of his commitment to land conservation. His own

IS-acre parcel was the first to get a protective easement barring development. Eventually, more land followed, including the 150 acres his parents owned. Now the Brooks/Boyle compound is part of a 185- acre plot of conservation land.

All the while, Brooks continued working in his familiar "subtractive" style of furniture and sculpture, Among the pieces of furniture from the era is a huge seat carved from a pine root Brooks picked up at the Manchester dump. It's now parked in his living room-too big, he says, to be moved without disassembling the house.

He had a number of clients, some of whom had followed him from his San Francisco days. He was beginning to get some recognition from museums. His work had sold well enough to fund construction of house and shop. He had more work lined up. His marriage was a little shaky. but in. general his working life was looking up.

Then Tasmania struck.

It began with a visit from a Tasmanian named Kevin Perkins who was touring the U.S. and wanted to visit. Perkins was on the faculty at the University of Tasmania. Soon they were talking about a un iversity resi-

dency for Brooks. Brooks' daughter, Rebecca, wanted to go. Mona did not. And so in 1983, father and daughter caught a plane while Mona stayed behind. That was that.

In Tasmania, an exposure to aboriginal art and culture, an entirely new landscape to explore, the dissolution of his marriage, and being literally on the other side of the planet all helped Brooks make a major change in direction artistically.

"The combination of all the things that were happening to me:' he says, "made it necessary for me to change, metamorphose, in order to get through-still with a love of trees, love of landscape, love of nature, but just corning at them in a different way."

Until then, he bad what be calls a "sort of George Nakashima" sensibility and found the idea of paint on wood a sacrilege. But in Tasmania he began experimenting with construction using lighter materials, joining them together, rather than making pieces through a process of carving away material from the whole log. He began tinkering with color, and before long he was "throwing paint at everything."

It was an almost complete reversal in style, and Brooks jumped in all the way.


When he got back to the U.s", he found it impossible to return to his old ways.

"I had clients who I'd put on hold," he says. "I told them I was goingto Tasmania for a year, and they said, 'Oh, no problem, we'll get back to the project when you get back.' And then when I returned, I called them up and told them my designs had changed and I didn't feel I could go backwards, and as soon as I showed them my Dew work they said, 'See you around.' I lost a lot of my earlier clientele that was totally enamored with this early work.. I felt I needed to move on:'

It may have been a setback, but it was only temporary: & his work continued to evolve, so did the business side of his studio. That's been aided in no small measure by jami Boyle, Who Brooks met contra dancing at the local town hall i111991. They were married in 1993. In addition to working at her own spiritual counseling, Boyle has become Brooks' manager, lending a more organized approach to work and scheduling and overseeing an up-to-date website (

Brooks now has a lengthy resume and his work has been sought by many private collectors as well as numerous museums, including the Renwick Gallery of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the American Craft Museum in New York, and the Fuller Crafi.Museurn in Brockton.Massachusetts, He teaches regularly and he has held several residencies, including a second tour in Tasmania.


"Marooned on the River of Denial" (2002); walnut, maple. varnish; 50" x 70" x27".

"Music Stands" (1983); mixed hardwoods, acrylic, lacquer; 52" x 20" x20" each.

"Recenciliaricn" (L998); maple, curly maple, a.aylic, lacquer, aluminum, enamel; 70"x 54" x 36".

"Running on the Edge of Paradox" (2006); maple, colored.pencil, stain, varnish, acrylic, pastel, lacquer; 22" X 52" x20".

"Palen que and the Night Lightning" (1990); walnut, mahogany, aniline dye, brass, lacquer, 24" x 50" x 18".

"An.gel Dog" (20M); maple, walnut, acrylic, colored pencil, pastel,lacquer; 4S" xSS" x 34".

"Narcissus Chair" (1999); maple,pastel,stain, lacquer, 73" x35" x 25".


We are sitting in the living room in easy chairs and looking across the room at a table called'Angel Dog." It seems wholly in keeping with Brooks; style: the torso and head of the dog decorated with colored hieroglyphs on a black background and a table surface formed by two wings of wood that have been left their natural color.

It is beautifully executed but I feel lost in trying to understand what is going on. Why is the base of the table made 'to look like a dog? Is the dog trying to communicate something? What is the significance of "angel" dog? Turns out there's a story.

Brooks had taken a large extension ladder into the woods one winter day to reach ~ a branch high in a tree. The top of the lad- ~ der barely reached a limb nearby that ~ Brooks planned to use for support. He 10 climbed to the top gingerly and roped the ~ ladder to the limb so it would not faU. Then

he set about cutting the branch he was after.

Below, his dog Ayia waited in the snow.

"She looked very concerned:' Brooks says, "and she was thinking, 'You idiot. I'm worried about you.'" Acutely aware of the dog's feelings, Brooks climbs down the ladder.

"I'm kind of emotional," he continues, "and I put my hand on her back, a ge ture of'Thanks for looking after me,' and BAM!, just like that, that image came into my mind." He went back to the studio and did some sketches and eventually built the table.

"There's that non-verbal communication that takes place in the forest with the landscape, and there's a kind of non-verbal COO1- munication you have with your dog as well Do you have a dog?," he asks. "So you must have some understanding about what it is when you look deeply into a. dog's eyes and there is true love. You know there's a lot there:'

It all makes perfect sense. Now, I can almost hear the dog speak: "Boss, come down from that tree. You're making me nervous." But what if I didn't know the

story of Ayla waiting by the ladder? What does the table mean now?

"Well, I certainly don't feet that people need to see what I had .in mind. Absolutely not;' he says, "It's basically a transference of my own menta) and physical processes corning into some sort of visual poetry where they can .interpret any way they want. I don't feel compelled to think that the viewer has any responsibility 'to interpretsomething in the way T wan ted it to be seen.

"If you go into a museum and you're


looking at a work of art you get something nut of it. It's not through a verbal dialogue with the artist who made it. It's totallyindependent, a visual experience,"

Brooks goes through periods when he's more interested in sculpture than he is In making functional furniture, but he's also a pragmatist. "I'm surviving off my work," he says, "so. if adient comes to me and says, 'Make me a table: or 'Make me a chair,' I'm your guy: Unless they come up with a set of plans and I'm supposed to follow them; then I say, 'Sorry.' I've got to. have some freedom in design. Otherwise, I'm divorcing myself as an artist." Happily, "Angel Dog" was recently purchased by the New Hampshire Council of the Arts and will be on public display in one of the state buildings.


Although his work doesn't bear much resemblance to conventional furniture forms, Brooks is a member of the New Hampshire Fu.rniture Masters Association and thus regularly rubs elbows with more traditional woodworkers, including some

very good period fumituremakers. He's a great admirer of their skills and believes that tradition is necessary as a way of "informing us of where we are." But Shaker and Federal are just not his path ..

His studio reflects his working stylesimple, direct and low-key .. He has a big handsaw and a Jointer/planer rolled off in the corner, but there is no tablesaw, no. power miter saw, no. drillpress, shaper, no lots of things that most shops have. He does most of his work by hand, and his technical skills are considerable [see sidebar].

"As woodworkers, we tend to get really over-immersed in the process," Brooks says. "What kind of finish, what kind of wood, what kind of joinery, you know, all that kind of hogwash. But ultimately the piece has to stand on its own merits.

"I tend to align myself with the studio furniture movement and tend to have more interest in it;' he says. "If l'm flipping through [a magazine] an d see another Shaker table or some rectilinear chest of drawers that I've seen gazillions of versions of, I'm not necessarily going to stop there. But if I'm turning

the pages and see a bunch of eyeballs painted on the front of nne I might stop and ask, 'Okay, what's going on here?"

Brooks also sees his work as a way of documenting the time in which he lives.of speaking to. current events in the world. His work does not look overtly political, but Brooks is not an artist recluse. His fight to win conscientious objector status Oil ph ilosophical rather than religious grounds during the Vietnam War was followed by arrests in New Hampshire at protests directed against the Seabrook nuclear power plant. His environmental awareness was heightened by his experiences in Tasmania. And he was profoundly affected by the events of 9/11.

"Styx Iadderback Chairs" (2003); maple. pastel, lacquer; 88" x 24" x 24" each.

"Ranfred Dining Set" ( 1995); maple, walnut, color pencil, acrylic, lacquer, 84" x 120" x 60".

"Cutly Styx Ladderbax" [detnilJ (l99.8); maple, acrylic, lacquer; 84" J( 24" XU".


Improving on Nature's Curves

JON BROOKS' SCULPTUPAL STYLE of woodworking relies heavily on the crooks and bends tbat occur l1aturally in maple tree limbs and saplings;

But sometimes he can't find what he wants in a single piece of maple, Suppose, for example, he is assembling the sculptural midsection of a female figure and has Come to the delicate curve where hip meets leg. Ifhis storehouse of maple sticks can't produce the right nuance of motion, Brocks can graft two pieces of wood together to achieve It So, while his worl<; seems to be all smooth curves with nc real start and stop, it may actuaJly be a series of truncated sections joined together with hidden rnoruse-and-tencn jomts.

Once Brooks has decided roughly where the two sectiens of wood must be brought together. he cuts 0'11 both pieces so they are rou.ghly square. Then he drills €Jut the center of each piece with a spur bit, laYing out a rrosshair at each center with a straight edge and p.encil or simply drilling into the pith at the renter of the sti ck

The holes, which wilt accommodate tenons made frern Delrin plastic, must be deep enough to engage the bit after he has cut back the joint From square to 4So.Aftel-laying out the 45a angled cuts, Brooks cm both with a Japanese rip blade and extends the holes further into each piece (I).

In general, Brook keeps the diameter of the Delrin tenon to onehalf or less of the diameter of the stick Mortise depth depends on th e diameter 0 r the pieces+deeper m ortlses for I arge-darneter sticks and tenons-as well as the nalura:l curves of the wood.

Putting one of the pieces in a vise, Brooks uses a low-angle block plane to Hatten and smooth the cut He inserts a Delnn tenon into the piece and assembles the two pieces in the first of many test fits (2).

"For me, personally, I feel like T want to be alive, pay dose attention to what's going 00 in the world and try to stir that in with my emotional relationship with trees and nature and all of that and give back to society what I've digested and 'talk about what it's like to be alive today."


Brooks is now 62 and doesn't show any signs of stepping away from his studio. He normally works a lO-hour-plus day in the studio and begins every day with a walk on

The joint almost certainly won't fit precisely this first time. Brooks uses a block of chalk to help him identify the high points on the unplanned side of the joint applying chalk to the smooth side, assembling the joint. taking it apart and then looking to see what must be planed on the rough side (3). Slowly the two pieces come togetherchalking, scribing (4). assembling. disassemblrng. planing and re-assernbling-until the joint has become invisible.

Once the joint fits correctJy, he. can work the outside surfaces of the mating pieces until they blend smoothly (5).

Delrin is available In a varlety of diameters so it can be used on sticks of many sizes. ,It is very smooth, so Brooks mounts it on his lathe and cuts 11'1 a series of shallow grooves with a hacksaw blade togjve the glue something to grab. He follows that wrth iii good roughing up with very coarse sandpaper.

Slow-setting epoxy seals the joint but for good measure Breoks adds small-diameter OeJrin cross pins to lock we tenons in place. -SG

ope of the many trails he has cut through the woods .. The day I visited he was nursing a cracked rib, injured in a fall off his bike, but still feeling- spry enough to work,

He has, however, spent some time thinking about what will eventually become of his house, workshop and grounds .. The buildings on which he has worked for so long are indelibly Jon Brooks, very much like the Pennsylvania compound built over a. 40-year period by Wharton Esberick. Esherick's studio and house have now become a museum and Brooks wonders if some


similar arrangement might be made to preserve his holdings.

In the meantime, he keeps a close eye on events unfolding around him, finding reason for concern in the world at large but also a sense that he is on the right track.

"Am I going to get totally depressed? No.

I feel I've gotalot of joy and a lot to celebrate in my life," he says. "I believe I'm doing the work I'm supposed to be doing."

Scott Gibson is 4 freelance. writer and photographer who lives in southern Maine.

A Wall Mirror with Curves

Using bent laminations and hammer veneering to create bowed parts


When designing a piece of furniture I am often inspired by curves, which I feel add a unique energy and elegance to the work. Many of the pieces that I produce incorporate bent-lamination plywood panels covered with fine veneers. When constructing these panels, the problem of what to do with the edges must be addressed.

Simply painting the edges doesn't work, because the glue seams between the layers of the panel will telegraph through the paint, causing cracks to appear on the surface. A solid wood edge can work in some cases, but many of the panels that I create contain compound curves; tbis creates too many curves to measure, layout and apply


a solid edge in a practical way. Still, I want to create the illusion of a solid wood panel with a grain pattern that is consistent throughout, and T need to accomplish this quickly and on an infinite variety of curves.

Since I usually make up the panels with raw un-backed veneer, I always have some extra material available that exactly matches the veneer on the surface. To me the obvious solution is to apply some of the leftover veneer from each panel right on the edge. The best way to do this uses a technique borrowed from a time when veneer was applied without clamps: hammer veneering.

This process has many applications. In this article 1 will demonstrate hammer veneering on the edge of a curved frame for a mirror. To enable you to construct project, 1 will also describe in detail how to make the bent-laminated sides for the mirfor and put it all together. This project does not require any type of veneer press, vacuum bag or complicated equipment. All of the gluing and pressing can be accomplished using these two techniques and a handful of clamps.

The process of hammer veneering has been around for centuries, and the glue that was traditionally used was always an organic compound such as hide glue, made from the hide, bone and blood of animals. Hide glue has some desirable qualities that have kept it in limited use even in this age of modern adhesives. It can be melted and remelted even after it bas been applied, so it is a reversible process, important for furniture repair. The glue attains its full bonding strength quickly as it Goals, which allows for the application of veneer without clamps, using only an iron and a veneer hammer,

Early in my training, 1 learned the traditional method of hammer veneering with hide glue from Tage Frid, Once I got the knack of it, I found this method to work well when applying veneer to various curved shapes. I also found this method to be messy, smelly and time-consuming. Furthermore, hide glue bas several problems



SIDE VIFW AllE~""E I:'ty!:!Ol!_~OT~O~TING







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related to longevity: since it is organic, it eventually breaks down and decays, particularly when it is exposed to heat, sunlight or moisture. I liked the technique, but L wasn't satisfied with the adhesive.

One day while I was using hide glue to hammer veneer a curved panel, my hopmate suggested that I try yellow (PVA) glue instead. He had used yellow glue with success to hammer veneer the flat edges of shelves. Some experimentation revealed that after PYA glues are allowed to set, they can be softened and reset with heat using a household iron. I was quickly able to cover a variety of compound curved edges using this technique. When better quality PYA glues such as Titebond II came on the market, I found them to be just as easy to use and even more durable.

For most projects, I begin with a full-sized drawing. Since many of my pieces are symmetrical around a line through the center of the piece, 1 usually draw only one half-complex curves are hard enough to draw once, let alone twice. These curves can be drawn using a compass, a curved object such as a can or a bucket, a thin flexible stick, a French curve, or, as I often do, they can be drawn freehand and then refined. However you accomplish it, some type of accurate fullsized drawing is important since it will be used to trace the shape of the curve for the

bending form and to create a pattern piece used at various times during construction.

A bending form is usually made of vertical ribs spaced about 1" apart with blocking and framing to hold them in place. The ribs are spanned with a solid flexible material to create a smooth surface ("blanket") for the laminates to form to when they are glued together. Typically, two mating forms are used. [Note: If you intend to build this project using a vacuum press, you will only need to make the convex side of the form. The construction of that side will be the same as the process described below.] When determining the exact radius of the curves to be cut into the ribs, we need to add up the thickness of the finished workpiece and the thickness of both blankets. If this is not done, the radius of the top and bottom of the form will not match up, resulting in gaps within the finished panel.

I use 3/8" bending plywood for the blankets; alternatively, you can use several layers of 1/8" plywood or any other type of flexible material that won't crush under pressure. The panel thickness will be 3/4". Combined with a 3/8" upper blanket and a 3/S" lower blanket, this will create a total distance between the upper and lower forms of 1-1/2". This dimension should be transferred onto your drawing and will be necessary for generating the pattern piece.


I usually make a row of marks about 1.12" apart as shown in the drawing detail and then connect them with a freehand line.

Next the ribs need to be cut out. I first make a top and bottom pattern rib. Copy your curve from the drawing onto a sheet of tracing paper and attach it to some good quality plywood using either tape or contact adhesive. The ribs should be a minimum of 2"-3" at their narrowest point to prevent them from flexing during the clamping process. I make every laminated panel about 1" longer than it needs to be to allow for any slipping during the gluing process and so I can make a good clean cut at each end later. You will need to add thi extra length to the pattern rib when laying it out. For the width of my panels, I usually add at least 1/4" on each edge for the same reason. Cut the rib pattern using a bandsaw or a jigsaw, staying as close to the Line on the paper as possible. Any straight areas can be cut on the tablesaw (1). To finish the pattern, smooth out the cut using a file, spindle sander, disk sander, belt sander or sandpaper as needed. Since he rest of the ribs will match this pattern exactly, take the time to get it as smooth and fair as possible.

Now the pattern can be used to create the rest of the ribs. After tracing each rib using the pattern, cut them out 1/16"-1/8" oversize. The ribs are then finished using a flush trim

bit in a router or router table with the pattern rib as a guide. A climbing cut (2) might be necessary as you move around the curve.

To assemble tbe form, attach the ribs together with plywood (3). Place 1" thick spacer blocks between each rib, about 4"- 5" apart. Also make sure that there is material near each end of the form to preven t it from flexing at the ends. Finally, guide strips are needed to keep both sides of the form from sliding around during the clamping proce s. The guide strips need to be durable and wide enough that they don't split when they are screwed to the form. I usually make four sets of three strips, attached perpendicular to top and bottom of the form. For each set of three, attacb the two outer strips to the bottom of the jig and the center strip to the upper balf of the form. I place a removable piece of veneer between each strip as a spacer during construction. This allows just enough room to open and close the form without allowing the form to slip. Once the form is assembled, rub all the interior surfaces of the guides with paraffin or candle wax, both to lubricate the surfaces and to prevent any excess glue from bonding the form closed.

When constructing a curve with a veneered surface.I almost always glue the curve up in two steps. The first step is to glue the surface veneer to one laminate laid flat. Many types of flexible material can be used for the interior laminates, including most species of 118" plywood, 1/8" MDF, bender board, or a combination of these. I usually use 1/8" MDF for this outer layer, which provides a firm, sturdy, void-free surface just under the veneer. In the case of sharper curves where MDF may not bend enough, you can use 1/8" plywood or even 1/16" veneer, with the grain direction opposed to the surface veneer, to create this outer skin. The second step is to combine all of the layers together in the curved form and glue them together. Any defects caused by slight irregularities in the form, uneven damping pressure, or shifting of the layers during clamping are buried in the center of the panel and hidden from view.

Por step one, I make three cauls of 3/4" particleboard or plywood that are slightly larger than the laminates.I use two pieces of thick stock to distribute the pressure between each clamp {4}. I use Titebond or Titebond II for gluing most veneers. In rare cases when r use a particularly oily veneer, such as the

Brazilian rosewood in this project, I first wipe the surfaces to be glued with a rag slightly moistened with acetone. The acetone will remove the oils and then evaporate quickly, and will not.interfere with adhesion the way paint thinner or lacquer thinner can. Alternatively, urea-based glues can be used without removing the oil from the surface. Urea-based glues, however, are not suitable for hammer veneering, and should only be used for the laminating process.

To lay- up and glue the veneered laminate "skins" for the curve, spread glue on one side of the 1/8" material using a paint roller or a notched trowel with 1/16" notches. r often file the tops of the notches down to half their original height; this creates lines of glue that are 1/16" wide by 1/32" high, a perfect amount when pressed with the veneer. Too much glue will cause ripples under the surface, while too little glue will created bubbles of lifted veneer where there wasn't enough glue present. Apply glue only to the laminate and never to the veneer, which would cause it to curl up even before it could be pressed down. I usually spray a little water on the top surface of the veneer just prior to placing it on the glue so both sides of the veneer have a little moisture on them; this also helps reduce curling when I'm getting things lined up and ready to clamp. I usually apply the glue to both laminates before laying down any veneer, just to shorten the time thattbe veneer is in contact with the glue but not under pressW"e. When laying down the veneer, secure it along the center of each edge with a small piece of masking tape, so when pressure is

applied the veneer and excess gl ue can be worked out from the center toward each end. Masking tape is nearly impossible to remove from a veneered surface after it has been under pressure, so be sure to keep the tape in the waste area.

Stack the two veneered laminates together, with MDF cauls below, between a d above the laminates. Place waxed paper or newsprint (not newspaper, which will stain the veneer with ink) under and above each laminate. This will prevent your panel from bonding to the cauls. Once the stack is completed. place the thicker boards on the top and bottom of the stack and apply pressure with the clamps, starting with the center clamps. This allows the veneer to flatten out as the glue and wrinkles gradually work their way toward each end of the veneer. Wait one or two minutes, then tighten the outer damps.

After the laminates have dried, remove the clamps. Now all of the laminates can be combined in the curved form. Place the appropriate blankets on the bottom balf of the form with a piece of newsprint to protect everything. Spread the glue, this time applying it to both sides of each laminate. Once the stack is completed I like to put a 3/4" screw in the waste area near the center of each panel, which keeps the laminates from sliding around. Place newsprint and blankets on top and put the form together. Next, place the thick boards on the top and bottom of the form and clamp as before (5). Again. apply press ure in the center fustthis will force any irregularities, imperfections and excess glue out towards the ends.


When gluing up most small- to mediumsized projects, I use Titebond Extend glue; this allows ample time (at least 10 minutes) to get everything lined up and clamped. The stack sbould be left damped overnight to cure if you want little or no springback, Urea-based glues allow for more working time before they set and set harder, a good property for sharper bends that tend to relax or spring back more than the gentle curve in this project.

Once they are dried, the bent-laminated sides can be cut and shaped for hammer veneering. First, use a flexible straightedge to draw a line along the length of the workpiece in the waste area on the side that will later be cut to a curve, Cut to this line with a bandsaw, jigsaw or a hand saw, followed by clean- up with a band plane. Finally, run this edge along the fence of the tablesaw to cut the finished straight edge (6). If you are not comfortable making this cut on the tablesaw, or if the radius of your curve is too large to fit on the tablesaw, then just use the first two steps to create thefinished straight edge.

When building a one-off project, I make a tracing paper pattern that can be taped directly to the workpiece. If I am making multiples of a design, I will make a pattern piece from 1/8" MDF, which can bend as needed when I'm tracing around it. With the curve transferred to each panel, use a bandsaw or jigsaw to cut as close to the line as possible. Smooth out any irregularities using a fine rasp, coarse file, or sandpaper. Do not cut the ends to length at this time. The hammer veneering process is difficult right at the end of a curve, and the extra material at each end allows you to get the ends veneered as best you can, then trim the ends clean afterwards.

If you want a flat 90° edge on your finished piece, skip this next step and go directly to the hammer veneering step. I like to create a bullnosed edge, which nicely compliments the other curves within the design. This edge can be formed using a router or router table along much of the edge, but there are certain areas that can't be reached, especially on the convex side of a compound curve. I round these edges using a spoke-

wo 0 DWOR K 34 DECEM BER 2006

shave, rasp or Surf arm (7), then finish with sandpaper. This provides a smooth, even surface that is uitable for hammer veneering.

The sides (8) are now ready to be covered witb veneer. For this project I had an extra sheet of veneer from the same flitch that exactly matched the veneer I applied to the surface. If you plan to paint the edge I would recommend using poplar or some other more flexible veneer to cover the edge. If this is your first attempt at hammer veneering, you might want to consider painting your veneered edge, as a little filler and paint will cover any early "lessons" that may oceu r. If YOIl want a natural wood edge, I would recommend first practicing on a few scraps of plywood using the same veneer that you plan to use for your project

Stand the curve on edge on the veneer to be used for the edge, and trace a line about 1/2" wider than the curve on all sides (9). Using a sharp knife, carefully cut out the veneer (10). Once the piece of veneer is cut out, spread a thin layer of PYA glue on the underside, then spray a little water on the top side to prevent it from curling up, I have found tbat spraying the top surface with a little commercially-available veneer softener instead of water belps the veneer conform to a curve, particularly when working with brittle veneers. Spread a thin layer of glue on the edge of the workpiece at this time as well. Allow the glue to dry long enough for a "skin" to form; the time will vary in various weather conditions. The glue is ready and at its most flexible when the color turns from a creamy white to dark yellow. Your finger should slide over the surface of the glue without sticking. At this point the glue is dry enough to re-melt easily without a lot of messy liquid, yet it is still moist enough to aid in bending the veneer around the curves.

With a hot iron and a veneer hammer ready, the veneer can now be applied. Securely damp the panel on edge in a vise or to your bencbtop. Place the veneer glueside-down all top of the edge to be covered. Make sure it is centered with an even amount of veneer overhanging on each side. If not properly centered, there will not be enough material to fully cover both sides of the bullnose curve. Always start at one end of the panel by applying heat with the iron to the veneer at the top or crown of the bullnose, Heat an area about 6" -8" until the glue starts to bubble (11). It's okay if the veneer starts to brown or even burn just a little as

this can be scraped or sanded offlater. Once this area is heated, quickly remove the iron and apply pressure with the veneer hammer (12). Move the hammer back and forth over the heated area, applying as much pressure as possible until the glue has cooled significantly. Hold the veneer hammer with one hand and hold the veneer in place with the other hand. There now should be a bond between the veneer and the workpiece. It is very important to have a good bond in each area before moving on to the next area. If the veneer still slides around on the surface, apply more heat and try again.

If the veneer is tiding around on the surface and won't adhere, there are a couple of possible reasons for this problem. Make sure that enough glue was applied and that it is sufficiently dry. he glue can actually sit on the surfaces for days or weeks before it is bonded, but as mentioned earlier, the veneer is at its most flexible just as the glue reaches the proper dryness. A little glue can be applied under the surface in spots where the glue may have boiled away, by placing a little glue on a strip of veneer, then pushing the veneer under the surface, which will deposit a small amount of glue to the dried-out area. You can also force a little glue into the area with your fingertip. Once this glue is allowed to dry, the area can be heated and pressed down with the hammer again. Be careful not to heat up the adjacent area, as the glue can re-melt and loosen up again.

Once you have achieved a proper bond along the CroWD of the bullnose, start to round over ODe side of the veneer along the same distance you just covered (13, 14). I usually do this in two steps by first working about half way down from the top of the curve, getting that bonded, and then hammer veneering the outer edge of the bullnose, Don't worry about the last little bit at the very edge, as that will be finished later when the excess veneer is trimmed. You call go back over that whole face of the curve with the iron and the hammer just to smooth it out and secure any small loose spots that may have been missed. A good. way to check for loose spots is to tap the surface of the veneer with your fingernail. If you hear the deep sound of solid wood, there is a good bond. If you hear more of a hollow scratching sound, go back over that spot again with the iron and then the veneer hammer, Again. when touching up small spots, carefully use just the tip ofthe iron on that spot.

At this point you should have the crown and one face of the bullnose curve glued down tight along the first 6"_8" of the panel. Next hammer veneer the other face of the bullnose curve. The veneer should be flexible enough to conform to the curve. In most cases the heat from the iron and the moisture from tbe glue as it re-melts is enough to stretch the veneer around the curve. If the veneer won't conform, there are several reasons and solutions for this problem. Some veneers are just too brittle to conform to any curve without breaking apart. [This is a good reason for pre-testing any new species of veneer that you haven't worked with before on the edge of a scrap of curved wood before committing it to a project.] Also, in some areas of a curve the veneer needs to stretch or compress to conform to a shape. If this is the case~ make a few cuts into the waste area of the veneer to relievethe stress (15). Be careful not to cut into the area of the veneer that will remain. This method has allowed me to cover many types and sizes of curves.

Once the entire radius of the bullnose curve is covered for 6"_8", repeat the process


as you move down the length of the curve (16, 17). As you are working 011 the two faces of the curve, notice how the veneer seems to pull away at the far end of tile workpiece, When working all one face it seems to pull far away from the center of the crown in that direction, and when working on the other face it pulls away from the center in the other direction. Keep an eye on this as you progress along the curve. I usually keep testing the position of the veneer, forming it over the curve just ahead of where I am hammer veneering. If it looks like it is going off too far in one direction, I will hammer veneer the face of the bullnose on the opposite side, which pulls the veneer back in the right direction. Continue working 6"_8" areas until you reach the end of the curve. Reposition the workpiece in the vise as needed so you can continue to apply maximum hammer pressure at the point where you are working.

When the veneer is completely applied, I seal up any small gaps near the edge right away before the glue gets too dried out. There are then several ways to trim the excess veneer. 1 like to use a chisel with its heel riding all the panel (18). A thin flexi-

hie knife also works well for this process. Either way, work along the length of the curve and trim all but about 1/16" of the excess veneer fromeach edge. Follow the grain of the veneer; you might have to change directions several times along the length of the curve as the grain direction of the veneer and the shape of the curve change. I usually trim about 10" at a time. 1 stop and look for ga'ps in the glue line right at the edge where the face veneer and the edge veneer come together .. I then hammer veneer just that small area where they join to create a nice tight seam.

After the entire length of both sides of the curve is finished, the last 1/16" of waste veneer can be trimmed, Before doing tills,

however, the ends of the panel need to be cut to their final size and shape and then they need. to be hammer veneered. FOI this design, I decided to make the ends of the panel in the shape of a gentle curve with a flat profile for two reasons. First, I think that tills effect helps give the appearance of a solid board. Also, it is much more difficult to hammer veneer a corner where two bullnose edges come together .. In (act, it is even difficult to hammer veneer right out to the end of any edge that has a bullnose curve. Since I left the panel a little long on each end, it can now be cut to finished size. It is then easier to cover the fiat profiled end with veneer because the veneer won't have to conform to a compound curve.


Once all of the edges are covered and trimmed, I use a scraper to trim the rest of the excess veneer from the surface side of the panel. I also remove any glue residue left on the panel to get it prepared for finish sanding. When sanding a veneered panel, I use a random orbit sander with 220-grit sandpaper. If I am using a very soft or thin veneer, 1 will just hand-sand the panel. I like to sand the panel before fitting it to anything. 1 can go over the veneered surfaces, sanding lightly by hand with 220~grit sandpaper, just prior to finishing in order to dean everything up.

Now that the side panels are completed, we can move on to making the top and bottom of the frame .. If you don't have a. fullsized drawing to work from, simply place the parts on a piece of 114" plywaod and, once everything is properly set, trace around them. You can then get the exact measurements and angles you need.

I cut out the top frame with a bandsaw and finished the can vex curve with a disc sander-the ends of this member join the sides of the frame along a curved area. To fasten the top to the sides, I decided to use butt joints with screws. The screw heads on the outside surface of the sides are countersunk. and plugged, but any type of decorative cap that covers the screw heads will work fine for this purpose. The 114" plywood back will also add strength and stability to the frame once it is has been attached.

1 made the bottom frame into a Little shelffor keys, sunglasses, makeup, etc, This shelf joins the side frame members at a point where they curve, but since this isa gentle curve and the area of contact is small, the shelf end was simply cut to an angle with a miter saw. The shelf can be joined to the sides using screws, biscuits, or dowels. I chose biscuits so there would be nothing visible on the outside of the frame. When all of the pieces were cut, I dryclamped across the top and bottom of the frame .. I then added corner blocks, making sure everything fit tight and square (I9).

If everything looks goad, turn the entire frame over and mark the rabbets for the mirror and the back. Always plan on using 1/4"~thick mirror glass; 1/8" mirror glass is just too thin, and bends and distorts when placed in a frame. I use 1/4" plywood for the back. Layout the rabbets with two steps as shown (20). The mirror rabbet will be 112" deep, to allow for the thickness of both the mirror and the plywood, The plywood rab-

bet will be 3/8" wider on each side to allow enough room to anchor the screws that hold the back in place (21).

When the rabbets are laid alit on the back of the frame, remove the clamps. I cut the rabbets into the straight top and bottom members on the tablesaw. Then I set up a router table with a 1/2" straight bit and cut the rabbets into the side frames. The curves should not be an issue since the mirror fits along the straight portion of the frame. Clearly mark the frame so you know where to start and stop your cut. You may have to make a climbing cut to prevent the veneered surface from tearing out. Note that the rnir[Or rabbet in the sides must be cut deeper by one thickness of veneer than the mirror rabbet in the solid wood top and bottom pieces, and you will need to hammer veneer the bottom of this rabbet. This is because once the mirror is in place you will see the reflection of this little surface in the mirror right at the edge (22). If you are painting the edges of your frame, you can paint this edge as well The back of the mirror frame sides can be left uncovered, hammer-veneered, or painted.

Once all the rabbets are cut, dry-clamp the frame once more with all of the screws, dowels or biscuits in place. Make sure everything is square and that the rabbets all match up. Clean up all the corners with a sharp chisel Again, make sure that the mirror rabbets in the side frames are deep enough to allow for a layer of veneer. Now disassemble the frame and hammer veneer the bottom of the mirror rabbet on the side frames.

Finally, there needs to be a way to hang the rnirror.Lllke to use a mortise and cleat, as shown in the drawing. This method is very sturdy and straightforward to construct. It also makes it easy for the end user to hang, level and adjust the piece.

The mortise in this mirror is 1-1/4" x 3- 1/4" x 1/2", and can be made either on the router table or with a plunge router. I will describe the router table method in detail, but if you bave a plunge TOuter, then you can clamp the workpiece to your bench, set stop blocks in place, and use the router with its fence to make the mortise in a similar way.

First, layout the mortise on the back of the upper frame piece. Then set up the router table with a 1/2" straight cutting bit raised about 1/8" above the table. The straight edge of the mirror frame top member will run against the router table fence. Measure the distance from the straight edge

of the frame to the edge of the mortise and set the fence the same distance from the edge of the bit. To set the length of the mortise, clamp a block of wood on the leading end of the router table fence, which will determine where the cut will begin, and clamp a block of wood on the other end of the fence to determine where the cut will stop. Turn on the router and place the top of the frame front face up, slightly raised above the bit with the right hand side against the block and the straight length of the frame against the fence. Carefully lower the piece onto the bit and pass it along the fence until it reaches the stop block on the left side of the fence. Repeat this process, raising the bit in 118" increments until the mortise is 1/2" deep. To finish cutting the mortise to width, move the fence away from the bit in 1/8" increments and make repeating cuts.

To create an angle that will act as a hook for the mirror to hang on, use a dovetail bit set 1/2" deep to make a cut along the top of the mortise. Keep the same set-up for the stop blocks and adjust the fence to take just enough of a cut to create the angle. Tum on the router, lower the workpiece onto the bit in the open part of the mortise, push it to the fence to engage the bit, and make your final cut.

To make the cleat that attaches to the wall, mill some hardwood stock to 7116" in thickness-the cleat should always be slightly thinner than the depth of the mortise. Set the tablesaw blade to the same angle as the dovetail cutter; in my case, the angle was ISO. Rip the stock for the cleat lIT wide. I try to make my frame mortise wide enough so I can use a cleat that is at least I" wide. This allows for MO screws to be placed. into the wall, one above the other, which helps prevent the mirror from rotating out of position. Cut the length of the cleat sligh tty shorter than the mortise ill order to make the mirror easier to hang (in this case 3"). For some projects, I will make the.mortise and cleat longer than 16" so the cleat can be attached to two studs within the wall.


Another option is to use a keyhole router bit and crew or some other mechanical means to hang your mirror. Whichever method you chose, it is best to clothe necessary work to the back of the frame before the mirror is assembled. Once everything is completed and sanded, the.mirror frame is ready to glue up. For this project, I glued up and sanded everything before applying the finish. If I had decided to mask and paint the edges, I would probably do most of the finishing before gluing up the piece.

After the frame is finished. set the mirror in its rabbets. Before attaching the back with screws, place newspaper between the back of the mirror and the plywood back. This will protect the reflective surface all the back of the mirror from scratching.

This project is a good way for anyone who wishes to learn the basics of creating a curved panel and finishing off the edge. Onceyou get used to working with curves, it can give your work a new sense of freedom and. create design possibilities that you might never have imagined.

Jonathan Benson has been working wood for over 30 years, e.;"Chibiting and selling his furniture and sculpture across the country. This article contains excerpts from his forthcoming book, Veneering: A Comprehensive Guide, to be published by Cambium Books in the spring of 2007. His website is

A Bowl of Wooden Fruit


On the face of it, turning a bowl of wooden apples and _pears would seem a rather straightforward affair .. There are no complicated shapes or intricate moldings to produce, just simple organic forms which are fashioned more by good eye judgement than careful measuremen t, If there is a problem in turning fruit, it is that of holding the workpiece on the lathe so that the ends can be finished off satisfactorily. This is usually solved by first making a screw chuck with a concave face which is cushioned to protect the polished

surface. The near-completed fruit are screwed onto the chuck and held at one end while the other end is smoothed off and polished. The screw holes made by the chuck are hidden by imitation stalks which are turned out of contrasting wood. This cautious method may suit some people, but I preferred a more direct approach when making my wooden fruit, where the block of wood is held betweenthe centers of the lathe and turned like a spindle,

You can use any wood to make your fruit. These peats were made out of cherry

and the apple was made out of some very pale walnut. To make the pears you wiU need blocks of wood .3" x 3" X 6" and to make the apple a block 3" x 3'" x 4-114". These dimensions include the extra 3/4" at each end of the block to provide a working space for parting off the finished fruit.


Set the lathe speed to about BOO rpm and make sure your block of wood is firmly held on the lathe before switching on. Your roughing gouge needs to be well




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sharpened so that it cuts freely through the spinning corners without dislodging the workpiece. Once you have formed a smooth cylinder, change over to a gouge witha smaller radius, such as a 1/4" or 3/8" bowl gouge. Sbape the block into the outline of the pear by working the gouge around and inat each end of the block, always working in the direction away from the widest diameter of the pear shape so that the tool cuts with the grain (1). When you are satisfied with the overall shape, Change the angle of the tool to perform a fine slicing cut (2). This will improve the finish and reduce the amount of sanding required. You can do a lot of the shaping work at each end of the the pear with the small 114 "bowl gouge, which is a very stable tool to use, but eventually you will need to change over to a tool with a sharper point and more acute bevel angle, such as the spindle gouge. This tool is used in the same way as the bowl gouge, on its side following the line of the curve, and its long point, known as a "lady's fingernail," reaching around the end of the top of the pear to do the cutting (3). Of course, the long pain t of the toolcan be a.liabili ty if the angle of approach. has been incorrectly Judged. This can result in it digging in to the side of the work and spiralling backwards out of control. Keep the bevel flat against the work surface and slice no more then 1/64" off with each pass. When it comes to forming the concave shape at the base of the pear, I use a vertical tool rest fashioned out of a slip of wood which is

clamped to the tool rest to support the back of the gouge (4). Slice in on one side and then work the gouge, mirror fashion, on the other to open out the "V" cut so that the waste wood can be freely removed.

At this stage, while there is still a strong spindle of wood holding the workpiece at each end, it's a good idea to get as much of the sanding done as possible. To sand the pea.r smooth, start offwith lOO-grit abrasive and work through the grades to 400-grit, finishing off with 600-grit. Only change to a finer grade after all the marks of the tools or the previous abrasive have been removed .. To undercut the base of the pear even further, you can part in with a thin-bladed parting tool (5). The amount you leave to hold the work in place will depend on the strength and grain structure of the piece of timber. A straight-grained piece of medium density wood like cherry can be reduced to a 1/4" diameter without it breaking, but you may need to leave a wider holding projection at each end of the work if you use figured wood, due to the inherent weakness caused by the short crossgrain. To sand the inside curve at the end of the pear, fold the abra-

WO 0 DWOR K 40 DIlCI.lM B E!~ 2006

sive into a stiff pad and push this in so that it jams into the "v~' cut (6).

When the surface is perfectly smooth and free from any marks, it can be sealed with some polish. I use traditional shellac, wiped on using a piece of cotton towel (7) while the lathe is stationary. Be sure to work this well into the gap between the waste and the bottom of the pear. This is followed by a stick of pure carnauba wax, which when applied to the surface of the revolvingwork causes a thin deposit of molten wax to spread over the work, Work this vigorously into the grain and then apply a second layer and burnish with a fresh piece of soft cotton cloth, using less pressuxe this time, until a smooth even shine is achieved (8).

Parting off the finished pear is performed by reducing each end of the work as much as possible using the thin parting tool at the base of the pear and the spindle gouge (or skew chisel, if you prefer) at the top of the pear. Work into the center of the cut with the spindle gouge in one direction (9) and then slice down the top of the fruit in the other .. The finaJ parting is carried out by parting all the way through, holding the

tool in one hand and cradling the work in the other (10).

I made the stems out of some scraps of East Indian tulipwood, These were held on

he lathe using a simple hollow cone chuck.

This had tapered sides and a hollow cone ell t into its end (11) which positioned the square corners of the wooden blank centrally and securely when pressed in by winding up the tailstock center. It was a very quick method of mounting the work and provided good access for the tools by projecting the spindle away from any obstacle near to the lathe's headstock. Each smaU block was reduced to a tapered.cylinder with a small gouge (12). They were then sanded and some carnauba wax applied. After being sliced through with the point of the skew chisel (13), they were then glued into holes which were drilled in the end of the fruit.


This fruit bowl was made out of an 8" x 3" disc of goncalo alves, Fix the faceplate to the blank disc securely with at least four screws. The next thing to do is select a suitable lathe speed. I found the speed of 800 rpm worked very well for all the turning, sanding and polishing of this mediumsized bowl.

[Safety note: Wear a face shield! This is especially important when turning widediameter work, since the speed generated at the rim of the disc is much faster than on spindle work.]

I used the two-stage method to turn this bowl, which involved shaping the bottom and outside of the bowl first, and then reversing the blank and hollowing out the cavity with the bowl held on a chuck. The main advantage of turning the bowl in two stages is that when turning the sides of the bowl, the cut is directed with the grain, leaving the grain fibers smooth.

Round off the corners of the disc with a bowl gouge ground with the 40° bevel angle. This bevel has to be ground flat and free from secondary facets since it performs similarly to the sole of a plane, gliding on the surface of the work, while the cutting edge cuts a predetermined section of waste away (14). Even though I am naturally right- handed, holding the gouge in a left-handed mode to cut the bowl's base and side shape offers a number of advantages. It enables you to sight down the back of the tool and judge the angle of the bevel

in relation to the work surface. It also allows you to see the precise point at which the cutting edge of the tool comes in contact with the work. Because the left hand anchors the tool handle against the body and the right hand is positioned between the back of the tool and the work, most of the pressure on the tool is exerted downward onto the tool rest. This helps you avoid the tendency to press the bevel too much against the work surface, which can cause uneven cutting, leading to the telltale rippled or wave effect. It also enables you to stand more safely to one side of the rotating disc, and if an open finger-tip grip is adopted to hold the tool, it permits the flow of the shavings straight onto the floor.

Use the stronger overhand-fist grip only when you have to cut through troublesome grain or at the start of the job, bu t once yOll


are confident of the terrain, change to holding the tool underhand with your fingers. This allows- a greater, smoother movement of the tooL More importantly, you can control the depth of cut more easily because you can see the end of the tool, whereas with the overhand grip the shavings get trapped at the back of the hand, hiding the cutting point from view. As the work proceeds you will need to move the tool Test nearer to the workpiece to maintain control over the cut.

To form the curved sides of the bowl with one continuous cut, slowly swing the gouge in an arc so that the bevel of the tool always stays parallel with the curve. Subsequent cuts to improve and modify the shape can be made by slicing off fine fillets. Start with the bevel flat on the surface and feather the edgeof the gouge into the surface so that DO entry sign is visible, and do the same in reverse at

the completion of the cut. The best finish is achieved with a freshly-sharpened gouge. Perform this in the same way as the continuous shaping cut, only cut much more finely with a slower rate of feed. Once you have shaped the sides of the bowl, flatten the base and dish it in slightly.


I used the Masterchuck to hold my bow!.

Cut the recess in the base of the bowl with the 3/8" beading and paning tool. The dovetail is then cui with a specially ground scraper which forms the same profile cut as


the chuck jaws (15). Test that the chuck fits properly by band-tightening it into the recess (16) and rotate the lathe to make sure that it is centering correctly.


Fit the chuck onto !he lathe first, and then fit the bowl to the chuck. At this stage the bowl is at its most vulnerable and can easily be dislodge from the chuck by a heavy cut or loss of tool control I divide the hollowing out of the bowl into three separate stages. The first stage fixes the depth of the bowl's hollow, leaving a floor thickness of about 3/4". To commence the cut, the gouge is positioned on its side with its bevel at a 45° lateral angle to the work surface, I perform a small cut which I then repeat again and agai 11 (I 7) .. This produces a conical cavity that you can test for depth with a simple depth gauge made from a dowel fed through a hole in a cross bar section.

The next stage is to fix the thickness of the lip of the bowl. Take hollowing cuts until you have produced the desired thickness of the rim. I use a vertical tool post, in the form of a piece of waste wood damped to the tool rest (18), as an aid when cutting the inside rim of the bowl. This helps prevent the gouge from biting into the rim edge when commencing the cut.

Form a smooth curved floor for the bowl using a large round-nosed scraper (19). This is held horizontally and flat all the tool rest. Porrn a shallow camber on the rim of the bowl with the gouge by gently rocking it from side to side, cutting only with the bottom of the flute (20).


After sanding smooth, seal the bowl with some shellac, wiped on with the lathe stationary using a piece of clean, cotton flannel shirt. One or two coats are applied and then left to dry for ten minutes before a soft fast-drying paste wax is rubbed all over and burnished up 10a soft even shine. This f1Dish is not resistant to water or heat like most of the modern plastic finishes that are popular today, but with further waxing it will mature and improve with age, becoming translucent and taking on a patina just like a piece of antique furniture.

Chris Child is .a contributing editor for Woodwork magazine.


The majority of my past work has been bighly functional and done primarily On commission. Lately I have been working on more decorative artistic pieces in an attempt to push beyond purely functional work. To this end I have recently studied marquetry with both Paul Schurch and Patrick Edwards. 1 see the use of marquetry as a doorway into unique and exiting visual forms and more expressive freedom.

The "Display Table" with its swirling vines of Cambion flowers is my first incursion into this new form.


"Kl tch e n TaJJSu" (2005) Cherry, maple, granite 72" x 42" J( 17"


"Coffee Table" (2005)

Bubinga, jatoba, mahogany, wenge 17" x 42" x 35"



"Conference Table #2" (2006) Teak, walnut

H: 29" x D:60"


''Display Table" (2006)

Pau Ferro, satinwood, bolly, ebony, poplar, dyed poplar, silver, aluminum H: 1.7" x D: 26:.!"



I draw inspiration for my work from a variety of sources: songs, movies, sculpture, other pieces of furniture--virtually anything is ripe for use. My goal is to use common human experience to give the work a universal identity and appeal. I borrow from different design styles and periods to ground the work within this universal identity but recontextualize them to make the overall expression uniquely mine. r also pay particular attention to details because I feel that is what differentiates the commonplace from the truly spectacular. My work is currently shown and sold thorough Blue Sky Galleries in Minneapolis.



"Ellipsoid TabLe" (2006) Wili!.Ut, maple, bubinga veneer, ebony, red oak, brass

36" x 44" x 30"


"Ellipsoi d Table" [detail] (2006) WaLnut, maple, bubinga veneer, ebony, red oak, brass

36" x 44" x 30"


"Impossible Buffet" (2001) Maple, mahogany, maple veneer, birch plywood, ebony, glass

60" x46" x20"

4 ...

"Impossible Buffet" I detail] (2001) Maple, mahogany, maple veneer, birch plywood, ebony, glass

60" x 46" x20"




5. 6. 7. 8.
"3 Surprises" (2003) "3 Surprises" [detail] (2003) "Coreolis" (2005) "Laura's Vessel" (2003)
Maple, maple veneer, ebony, Maple, maple veneer, ebony, Ancient kauri, ebony, maple, Elm, maple
neoprene rubber, bras neoprene rubber, brass nickel-plated brass, rubber llux7"x7"
60" x 30" x 30" 60" x 30" x 30" 10" 10"x4" WOODWORK 45 DECEMBER 2006


BRIAN McEVOY Edrnonron, Alberta, Canada "Pagoda" (2005)

Alaska yellow cedar, gold leaf, copper leaf H: 43" x D: 22"


STEVE YOUNGWVE Brimfield, Illinois

"Jewelry Cabinet" (2005) Maple, quilted maple.Iacewood 42" x 21~" x 17"





San Francisco, California "TableH (2005)

Maple, cherry

17'A" x 58" x 29"


JEREMY COMINS Brooklyn, New York "Growth" (1980) Walnut

42" x 13" x9"


The work featured here was made during an artist residency at the NORCAL transfer facility (dump) in San Francisco. Chosen artists are given complete access to all trash that passes through the facility to make work. When 1 first arrived it took two weeks for the shock to wear off; 1 was overwhelmed by the shear amount and variety of waste that passed through the transfer station. I began to realize that my approach should be more like improvisational theater-forcing an idea just wasn't the best way to approach working at the dump, The birdhouses grew out of that process. I had only built one or two birdhouses before this, nor really thinking milch beyond the standard birdhouse form and function. But in the last few years my son has become interested in birding, so we have taken many trips around northern California for bird watching. My growing interest in birds seems to have contributed to the process in which these pieces were made, connecting to the forms I was seeing within the materials I was collecting,

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.. 1.

"'In Flight" (2006)

Desk drawer, branches, paper, ink 31" x 80" x24"


"Robin" (2006)

Tree stump. branches, paper 27" x 24" x 45"


"Notes and Songs" (2006) Musical instrument, branches, paper, ink

34"x9" x2"


4 .•

"Skyscraper House" (2006) Small drawer, branches, pape.r 42"x II" x6l{"

International Turning Exchange PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA

Every year, several lathe artists from around the world come together in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for the International Turning Exchange. Sponsored and organized by the Wood Throing Center, this eight-week summer residency program has just concluded its twelfth consecutive year. The residents for 2006 included Marilyn Campbell, Kincardine, Ontario, Canada; Liarn Flynn, artist, Limerick, Ireland; Hilary Pfeifer, Portland, Oregon, US;

and Neil Scobie, Lower Bucca, Australia. Tile grand finale to the ITE is the annual exhibit, allTURNatilles: Form + Spirit, on view at the Wood

Turning Center from August 4 through October 21,2006 .. Some of the artists' work, both pre-I'l'E and from the residency, is pictured here.

2 4 e,
'" 1

1. 2. 3. 4.
"Erosion Poems" (2006) "Split Form" (pre-ITE) "Untitled" (pre-ITE) "Sandpaper Bowl" (2006)
Walnut Ro ewood Wood, paint Plywood, sandpaper.paint
3 pieces: 9", 8", 6" high H: .2~" x D: 9" assorted sizes assorted sizes WOODWORK 48 DECEMllER 2006



MARIlYN CAMPBELL "To The Top" (2006) BoUy, resin, paint 8"x.3"x7"



Ebonized oak. resin.nalls

3 pieces: 4".53<1", 8!h"long




"Inner Rimmed Vessel" (pre-I'TEl Ebonized oak



"Still Life with Holly" (2006) HoUy, cherry

SIS" x 6" x 13"


Estimating for Furnituremakers



How much timber is needed to make a solid oak and sycamore veneered paneled corner cabinet? How long will the joinery take? What about doing those lamina ted rails?

What time should be allowed to construct and install a zebrano and maple built-in uni: out of mostly veneered board materials? How long will it take to deliver and il1stall it in a 17th floor apartment?

In both examples how do I go about calculating tile time required for finish preparation and fin'isliing?

In this article I describe an estimating method that's given me remarkably accurate job times for many years. I hope others will be able to use the information as a basis f01' their estimating method or to perhaps refine their existing pricing system.


While woodworking may be for many a leisure activity, or even a romantic one, making a business of it can be hard and stressful. Ln. the rush to gain and put to use our skills and abilities as a. designer and maker, it's easy to forget that going into business is just that-a business, Businesses need cash flow like lungs need oxygen, and require profit much like the body needs food. Some furnituremakers act as if they're afraid of cash flow and profit, perhaps intimidated by the low cost expectations of potential clients.

One key to success is accurate job estimating, because consistently undercharging leads onJy to financial disaster. There are numerous approaches for estimating your charges. One method commonly espoused is to take materials costs, multiply by a figure, and add the two together. Multipliers ranging from 3x to 20x the cost of materials are quite common. While uncomplicated and sometimes useful for a "quick and dirty"estimate, it's a blunt

woo DWO It K 50 DECEM BER 1006

instrument. A traditional band-dovetailed drawer of solid wood takes ill uch longer to produce than a plywood drawer box glued and nailed together. A single materials multiplication calculation makes little allowance for such big differences.

Businesses must take into account their true overhead, fixed costs, labor costs (over and above wages), required profit, and so on before deciding at what level to set mark-ups and labor charges. These costs will come to a specific figure for the year's trading. This yearly cost can be divided by 52 to establish the co ts per week, or figured for the working hours per year: 40 hours x 52 ; 2,080, assuming only a 40 hour week is worked. Howeveryou calculate this number, you need to arrive at a realistic number of billable hours in your work year and an hourly Tate based on your costs. Its quite normal for the owner of a small one-person business to spend a quarter of his/her working life on non-billable activities-sales, design work, cu tamer relations, strategic and financial planning, bookkeeping, advertising, holidays, illness, maintenance work, business meetings, and so on. Your billable hourly rate needs to cover these costs somehow.

Estimating custom work is not easy, even for experienced furnituremakers; for the beginner it's daunting. Without experience it's hard to know how long all the different processes and jobs take andwhat a fair rate per hour is. Without initial guidance it takes years to accumulate the experience and raw data needed to do the job.

The method of estimating presented here is primarily for furnituremakers who do specialized work incorporating a high percentage of traditional hand crafting skills. The procedure has its roots in a three-page estimating guide I was given as a furniture student in the early 1980s. Over the last twenty or so yeats I've kept accurate work records, which I've analyzed periodically. I've refined my rates based upon the results of my analysis. Changes in work practices brought about by advances in tool technology, improved ability, or new skills have been incorporated into my method as required.

Times I suggest for a process or item should be modified according to your ability, the equipment available to you, and your mix of hand and machine methods. Techniques not detailed here should be added to your own list, along with a time allowance allocated according to your records.


A unit can be any process. piece. linear or area measurement, etc. TIle method presented in this article relies on sening a time allowance for each unit (job, item or process), followed by discounting for multiples of that unit: a 5% charge reduction for each repetition of a unit up to a maximum discount of30%.

All forms of length or area are units: board feetoflumber, linear feel of molding, square footage of panels, etc.

AlI types of joints are a unit. Multiples of the same joint-8 mortise and tenons produced for II four-legged table-are calculated as eight units before a reduction is givenfor multiples.

Multiples of the same or similar items are uni : for example. 6 drawers, dissimilar in size, but all of the. same construction.

Sets of furniture are units-a set of 8 chairs, II pair of cabinets the same, or matching end tables. These lUI' marked down after

they have already been subjected to discounted prices accrued during the rnanufacturing process.

In explanation of the above, if you price a single chair and simply multiply by the number of chairs in a set this doesn't take into account economies of manufacture achievable through the production of batches. Shaping 32 identical chair legs on II shaper using a pattern, jig, or fixture requires making only one pattern and one set-up procedure. The proportion of time required to make jig, et up the router or the shaper diminishes as the number of units produced increase.

For example. if the rune estimated to make a chair is 50 hours, then a 4-chair set gets a discount of 20% (4 x 5%). Therefore, 50 hours minus 20% = 40 hours. 4 chairs x 40 hours = 160 billable hours. An 8-chair set would be calculatedat the maximum discount of 30%: 8 x 35 hours == 280 hours.

Timber Buying

Waste allowance varies from pedes to species, and the form in which the timber is sold is also a factor. Waneyedged boards are always more wasteful than square-edged stock, and there are always defects in timber that can't be used. It's also nec.essary to cut pieces about s" longer than required to allow for planer snipe and other machining faults at the beginning and end of each board.

I usually calculate the volume of timber required for a jab as fallows.

Estimate the roughsawn board requirement that will yield the finished dimensions. Por example, ten pieces at a finished size of 3/4" x 1-

3/4" x 31-1/2" ",iU come out of ten pieces of rough timber 4/4 x 2" x 36" == 112 BF (board foot). Using this method you allow an additional waste factor even though you've calculated using roughsawn board sizes. Waneyedged English ak bas an additional waste factor of about 100%, so price for 1 BE As examples of typical

addltinnal waste factors, use 50% for walnut, cherry 30%, and poplar 20%.

A second method people use is to calculate exact finished sizes With a. percentage added for waste, bUI it can be seen that the waste factor allowance must be b.igherin my experience about double tile factors 8uggest ed in the fust method.


Materials Charges

ALL MATERIALS SHOULD BE charged at cost plus a mriup .of at least 25%. This mafk"Up applies to solid ~rriber. pi, vvood.MDF. veneers. plasticlaminates, nails. screws. polish. thinner~, dyes, stains, glue, etc The 25% mark-up suggested is a rninimum.A I 00% mark-up over cost is not uncommon.

Glue, screws, nails. sandpaper. etc .. that are not bought asa direct expenses for a speci11(:job have to be~ted as indirect costs, Allow forlhem as fqll~,Work cutthe cost ofdirect expenses: wood"board materials, polish, hardware, pulls. plastic laminates, etc, Charge indirect expenses at I 0% of direct expenses as in theexample below. If tax has to be added after this caku lsuon don't forget10 de so,

Material, mark-up example:

Dfren materials (wood, hardware, polish. etc.)~ $500 + 25% ($125) -= $625,00

Indirect materials (glue, fasteners. sandpaper): 10% of direct materials'" $6250

TOTAL: $687.50

The materials mark-up allows an element f0r wastage. the cost of storage at your premises, maintenance of machinery, tooling costs, and to cernpensate time spent negotiating with suppllers. etc. It also covers costs incurred in selecting timber at the sawmill or yard and its collection 'Using a business vehicle,

The 25% mark-up suggested may not be sufliciertt to cover overhead. Only a careful ana~lsc of your costs and expenses within your business model will cletermir:le what this figure should be. but in the first instance a 2596 markup should at least emu re that goods aren't resold at a 1055,


This is the squaring and truing of solid timber on all four sides using typical hand-fed woodworking equipment such as saws, Join tars, and thickness planers, and the cutting of sheet goods to ready them for other operations, e.g.,. final edge preparation before gluing-up solid wood into a wider panel, or framing parts ready for cutting to final length, joints marked and cut, etc.

There are seldom discounts applied to initial machining operations except in special circumstances, e,g" cutting lip timber and sheet goods for a hig run of kitchen cabinets OJ similar projects reqaire machines set up for long runs. Power feeders also speed the job along. MOl;e material processed per hour can lead to a price reduction.


Generally speaking, estimate every joint in a carcase, frame or structure at 2 hours per joint. (Variations to this blanket two-hour charge are detailed below.) This includes all formsof mortise and tenon. halving joint, rail dovetail, dowel joint, sliding dovetail, biscuit joint, dado, etc, It also includes all edge-to-edge joints in solid timber, whether clIey are tongued and grooved, doweled, biscuited, or rubbed joints.

'The two-hour allowance iii enough to lay out the joint (or joint sample), cur it, test the fit, make adjustments to the machinery settingsand processes jf machine-cut, and provides time for the final assembly with glue and damps. Also built in are allowance for such often forgotten neeessitiesas sharpening tools, tidying up, and getting tools out of their cabinets and putting them away afterwards, This single rate allows for the fact tbat some joints take. longer than thi s and some take less. In an Hverag.e cabinet, frame or structure a mixture of joinery is used so two hours per joint is a safe median time that <rovers most eventualities,

Por every repetition of the same or similar joint,givca discount QfS% up to a maximum of 30%, For exampic, four mortise and tenons in a frameanracts a 20% discount; thus, 4 x 2 hours = 8 hours minus 20% = 65 hours to the nearest half hour. 10 mortise and tenons in a door frame gets the maximum ~O% discount, i.e. I 0 x:2 hours = 20 hours minus 30% = 14 hours,

Solid Timber: Charge J hour per 15 Bf.

Sheet Goods: Charge 20 minutes per sheet for all sheet goods whether they be 4' x 8' or 5' l< 5',

These basic machining charges are good for high qual ity and/or intricate work where dclic.ate veneers. and edges on hoard materials must not be damaged, and solid timber requirements are persnickety. This allows you to get the material out of storage, pick through it, select what. is most suitable, make calculations, and do primary dimensioning (truing, squaring, and thkknessing solid wood), Additionally, you have to move the stuff around the workshop, change blades or cutters in saws, jointers and planeTS, and finany tidy up.

Hand carcase-dovetailingshonld be estimated at 2 hours per foot, rounded up to the nearest foot. 'The minimum charge is 2 hours, Thus, a 6"-longdovttajl =: 2 hours, A 17" length =::4hours prior to. calculating a multiples discount as follows: 2 x 1 footx2 hours/foot:4 heurs.minus 10% (2 x .5%) =: 0.4 hOUTS, giving 3.5 hours to the nearest half hour.

Similarly, estimate hand-Gut secret miter dovetailing or secret lap dovetailing at 2,5 hours per foot, or part length, with a minimum charge of 2.5 hours, The same calculations should be made for discounting multiples asabove.

Certain very demanding joints may require even higher rares.J also find that i ncreasi ng the length of a joint compounds the difficulty of execution and assembly,

Machine urease dovetailing. Charge 2.5 hours to machine dovetails irtall four corners of a smgle large carcase using a router and Jig, Charge each additional carcase at l hour ea.en with no other discounts, A large carcase is one dun is glen ter than 14" deep.

Dovetail guides vary in their complexity and ease of set-up, and in their ability to produce dovetails of different patterns, Some users have a router dedicated to the job and therefore always ready to go with the correct guide hush and router bit set-at the necessary depth, so the set LIp time is minimal, The times suggested axe a good place to start 10 avoid under pricing.



Traditionally; molding was accomplished with hand-held planes, SO it was worthwhile calculating this process in detail for short runs of a couple feet. ln modern work most plain moldings are produced with hand-held or inverted routers. Larger shops usually have a shaper as well. In esdmaring for molding, a large setup time is required to run even a hort length. However, once a

machine is set it will quickly run long lengths of the required 1'[0- file. Another important element of doing this job is the time spent moving material around and cleaning up at the end of the job.

Some moldings, particularly those done with routers that require multiple set -ups using different bit profiles, need to be priced

as a series of distinct profiles.

Price molding in three separate tages for either the router or


• set-up time

• running the molding

• preparing the molding for.finish (removing the curter marks).

Some work, such as architecrural moldings, typically omits this last process.

The following uggested times have the discount element worked

Additional Molding Notes

Wide plain moldings are sometimes built up of small moldings glued t!!>ge1her to achieve the width. Each molding is priced Individually.Add to this the cost incurred in gluing the parts together. Price the assembly part of the job at 2 hours per joint. subjecl to the 5% reductions as outlined above.

Curved and compound curved moldihg, e.g,. arched doors. cabinet and chair legs. Th tscype of work varies in its complexity. tt usually req uires pattems. jigs or fixtures with special safety hold-downs.These additional elements must be accounted for as well as all the normal charges for doing the molding. Perhaps all that is required is a template taking I hour te make pnor to setting up the router with a pattern-cutting bit and running the molding. Once these patterns are made they are re-usable, Most business


For hand-dovetailed drawers, e timate at 8 hours per drawer for a Ingle premium-quality traditional drawer. This means making the drawer complete starting with random lengths of squared timber. Apart from cutting the timber to length and pre-fitting, the dovetails must be marked and executed. The charge includes time for making and installing a solid wood bottom. This is fitted to slips molded <U1d joined to the drawer

sides. The drawer is finally installed by trinnningwith a hand plane to fit the opening. Attaching pulls is extra and depends upon the pull. Carving or turning and installing wooden pulls lakes longer than screwing on storebought hardware, Lesser quality drawers don't take so long to make and should be priced accordingly.

Pitting cockbeads to drawers are estimated at 0.5 hour/foot, plus 0.5 hOtHS per scarf joint or corner miter.

Producing eparate moldings

into them with the exception of given example .

Molding with a hand held or table-mounted router: Pit router bit and. set up touter. Remove bit and tidy up at U1C end of the run--O.S hours. Run 6 feet of molding-O.5 hours. The minimum charge is 1 hour. Per each additional linear foot worked with a hand held router, charge at 40'/hour. For each additional linear foot with a router table, charge at 4S'fhour.

Shaping: Standard set-up charge to fit the knives to the molding head and install it on the machine, run test cuts, and finetune the fence, guards, etc .• and clean up at the end of the job-l hour,

Hand feeding. Charge 0.5 hours for each )0' run. The minimum charge is therefore l.5 how'S (including set up time).

Power feeding. Charge 0.5 hours per 150' run. The minimum charge is ].5 hours (including setup time).

Chaq~;e2 hours per pair of cutters to grind and sharpen for custom profiles.

Cutter manufacturers offer II bespoke or custom grinding service for unusual profiles. This is usually a direct cost to the job and should be marked up 25% and billed to the client.

store ftequently used patterns therefore the full cost of making these Jigs should only be charged to customers commissioning a one-off job.

Cutters ground for a speciJic profile are usually kept in storage or f1Jtt.lre use and modification. This is a means by which savings can sometimes be achieved.

Carved Moldings. Estimate the molding portion of carved work as plain molding. For-the hand Glfving charge 2 hours for each I foot length of material up to 2" wide. For each additional 2" width add I hour.

For example to carve a 12:' long x 3· I 12" wide molding, the basic calculation is 2 hours for the length. plus I hour for the additional width == 3 hours. I(the piece to be carved is 24" x 3-1/2". the basic time allowance is 6 hours.Then. discount carving In 5% increments up to the maximum 30%, meaning that the charge would be 5-112 hours to the nearest half hour.

for later planting on to drawer fronts are estimated as for moldings, plus 0.5 hours per joint and 0.5 hours each for installing each foot of length as with cockbeads.

AU the drawer.making operations described are discounted in 5% increments up to 30%. A nest of 5 hand-cut graduated drawers ill a cabinet can be calculated: 5 x 8 (hours) minus 259,(, = 30 hours.

To set up and CLlI aile machinedovetailed (or finger-jointed) drawer box, charge 1.5 hours, after which charge 1 hour per drawer.



Estimate at 1 hour/foot for diameters up to 2", The minimum charge is 1 hour.

For reeds, flutes and other moldings, on turnings, estimate as for moldings takingthe circumference at the greatest diameter as the width of rhe molding,

Add 1 hour/foet for each additiooal2" of diameter. Discount turning in the, usual 5% increments, A pair of turned dining chair front legs at.somethlng less tban24" IODgjs charged at 2 hours each (= 4 hours) less 20% '" 3 hOUIS. For a set of twelve chairs, multiply the 3 hours per set by 12 '" 36 hours, and apply the 30% multiples discount ~ 25 hours,

Making and Hanging Doors

Estimate at 4 hours per door for hanging and fitrin,g" including notching out and anaching brass butt hinges and locks. FHting handles or pulls is extra and should be charged in the same way as drawer pulls as described above.

Making the doors-for example, frame and raised panel doors-are estimated using charges as outlined in other sections for joinery,

rnoldi ngs, etc.

Estimate glazed doors with wooden. tracery at 2; hours per glass pane in addition to door frame joinery.

For doors constructed using matched cutters on a shaper or ranter table, such as for kitchens cabinets, the following estimates apply:

... Set up cutters and machine first set of door parts, i.e., one with four cornerjo.ints-l.5 how-so Time

allowed covers the set-up time, test-fitting, and then funning the stiles and rails.

• Gluing and assembling the door with its separatelypriced panel or gla.zing follows.

· lncrease the charge accordingly if there are additional rails, mullions or muotins.

• Charge 1- hour for each additional door with. no reductions for multiples,



Estimate at 1.5 hours per square foot, discounting at 5% per additional foot. The tasks include preparing the ground, arranging the veneer pattern, and hand preparing with knives and veneer saws.The edges must be taped with veneer tape, glue applied. and the veneer pressed. Lastly. there is trimming overhanging edges, removing tape and tidying, up after the job, Planing, scraping and san dlng in rea din ess fo r .finishing are a separate charge.

Crossbanding and inlaid Jines are charg'ed at 0.5 hours pQf linear foot and use the 5% per foot unit discount calculation. Charge 0.5 hours per jeint (miter or scarf).

Veneer work for very hu:ge projects such 11& conference tables, large custom built cabinetry, wall paneling, etc., are often best subcontracted to panel product and veneering special ists, With their specialized equipment, skills and concentration in a niche market they beat the small workshop on price every time. While subcontracting veneer work often means making compromises in the desigp: work and adjustments have to be madein thewQd~!!hop schedule, savings to the client are usually substantial.

Leather and baize tops should beestimatedas for veneering,

Bending Wood: Steam Bending and Laminates

For laminated structures. every square foot is charged at 8 hours. Apply the 5% discount to each additional square foot up to the 30% maximum, e.g., 5 sq. ft.. equals 40 hours less 25% '= 30 hours, and 10 sq. ft. = 56 hours, which includes the maximum 300/0 discount,

The times suggested don't make adjustments for uch factors as the complexity of the mold or form that must be made. nor: for the method of bending-cold bag press, heated bag press, cauls, cold damping. male only Or male/female 11101<:4, etc. No allowance is made for the number of laminates required to create the necessary thickness. The figures also don't account for time needed to prepare

Miscellaneous Work

Carcase Backs: Framed backs using fuH mortise and tenons should be estimated using numbers and discounts described in other sections.

For installation of backs charge 2 hOUTS. The time includes an allowance to work the necessary grooves or rabbets in the carcase sides and top.

Adju table shelves: Estimate all hour per shelffor fitting and fucingonshelf standard. pins, etc.

1bps: Attaching tops 1"0 carcases and table frames usually takes I hour per top using mechanical fasteners. Where the top rails bave to be mortised to accommodate fastener • estimate at 2 hours.

rf tops are attached with wooden buttons or traditionally

the bending material-this might be the simple cutting ply into strips, rectangles or squares compared to producing bandsa:wn veneers in the workshop, The suggested 8 hours/square foot rate is a good base figure to work around that should keep you out of trouble. The job entails producing the bending form or jig, which sometime requires modification, or even a completely new form made to compensate for unexpectedly large springback, Preparing the laminates, spreading glue, applying damping pressure, and tidying up after the job follows this.

For steam-bending wood, use the same numbers and discounts as laminate bending:

formed pocket screws, allow 3.5 hours to cover forming the p eke! or for button fabrication and instillation into the channels which must be worked.

Be a little flexible with these figUTes te account for the size of the top, your work methods, and the number of plates, buttons, pockets. etc., to be made and installed.

Leg: Cabriole legs take 4 hOUTS per leg, complete with wings. Estimate cabriole Legs with carved feel such as claw and ball at 8 hours per leg complete with wings. Charge knee carvings, e.g. acanthus leaf or shell at 4 hours and price carved scrolls at 1 hour each. Ali work on cabriole legs is subject to the 5% reductions up to the maximum 30% discount

Preparation for Polishing and Polishing

The preparanon needs of premium-q~ality craftWork will normally include planing, scraping and hand sanding, which is often augmented by some power sanding. Commercial-qualrt.y work relies a great deal Oil power 5<lnding (wide-belt sanders. drum sanders, stroke sanders, spindle sanders. horizontal belt sanders and handheld random orbital sanders) and limits the use of traditional hand tools.

The quality of finish and the work required

8 hours per square foot.

A 5% reduction should be given for each matching shape up re a maximum of 30%; for example, 4 drawer fronts of the same radius but of different widths need just one bending form.

Estimate molded legs the same as moldings as previously detailed, e.g, 1 hour/foal or part length. For example, turned fluted or reeded legs are. priced as turning plus molding.

Corner Blocks: Estimate four corner blocks fully jointed into chair frames at 4 hours per cl13U frame.

Corner blocks simply mitered and glued into the comer estimate at 1 hour per chair, If you add two Or more screws to the blocks charge 1.75 hours per chair.

Knuckle Joints: Estimate at 2 hours per joint up to a foot of length. Knuckle joints rarely exceed 8" long.

will vary according to circumstances. High quality furniture demands meticulous preparation on show wood and veneers. less work on such [terns as drawer sides and backs, Bnd little or no work on ridden structural parts. It is quite common to see architectUral or commercial woodwork finished or painted straight off the machine. On the other hand. there are circumstances where the client will demand better preparation and finishing for these Items and


is willing to pay fbr it.

preparation using mostly hand methods (hand planes. scrapers, etc.}---charge 0.5 hours per square foot

Preparing surfaees uSing mostly power sanding or osdllabng thickness sanders, etc., charge at 15 It per hour.

Scraping and sanding moldings up to 2" wide, charge 1 hour for 6 lihear feet le, I 0 minutes perfect, No discounts for finish preparation are applicable.

Dyeing, Staining, Grain Filling

Matching dyes and stains can be tro u blesom e. Dyei Ilga nd staining should be charged at 1.5 squlIl'e feet per hour. This allows for mixing dyes or stains, raising the grainand sanding back if using water-based products, applying the coloring agent by spray gun, cloth or brush, wiping off, and cleaning up afterwards,

Grain filling is charged at J hour per 5 square f(let (12 minutes per foot.)


Good quality finishingwhether a sprayed-on Jacque" a brushed-on finish, wiped-on varnishes, or traditional French polishingare all fussy jebs reqniring more time and skill than most people new to the business of fu ru hu rem akin g realize. Perhaps the easiest and lowesr-tech fmishes to apply are the: oil finishes, but just because they are relatively easy to apply doesn't mean that th~y OJn be done properly if enough time isn't set aside.

The SOl all workshop does not have production line fa cililies to s peed finishi og processes a Ion g,ccSpeGiaily on large jobs, Weather conditions can throw the schedule out of kilter. Things are constantly moved around to make space to finish the next batch, With large finishing jobs, all other work usually grinds to a.halt because of it. It's not unusual to find that the preparation for and actual finishing worK CODsumes 20%-30% of the entire time for a project.

Times given here apply to spraying Lacquers and shellac. Adjustments should

be made for all other techniques: brush-on and wipeon finishes, French polishing, etc. For spraying, use an area of to SqU3Hl feet 3S the basis for calculating and chargeD.S hours per coat. Three coats sprayed on LO square feet takes 1.5 hours, I've never given discounts for finishing and found these figures to be reliable.

I've not listed other finishing techniques that are often employed. GJazing between coats bas been omitted, and so too have specialized techniques such as dealing with blotching in woods


Finally; it shouldn't be Forgotten 1ilat a new piece of furniture doesn't get out of your wonkshop and Into the client's house all on its: O\NT1. It ha:; to be delivered. and if it's a bujlt-in pise!' It has to be installed. Add to 'this the number of man hours reqUired to pack. wrap and load the piece and work out a price,

For example. if the delivery address is within 25 miles or your' place of business and requires two people for half a day; charge 8 hours at your rate per hour plus a mileage charge for yourvehide. Using a mileage rate similar to those used by ~ck rental companies is a good baseline for this you must rem: a truck to get all the items deliwred in one joumey. then you should pass on the vehicle rental (including your mark-up). hourly labor rates and mileage charge to the client

Installation of bullt -in fumiture can ta~ anything from a day ortwo up to a week or more, This time should be charged at your rrormal workshop rates-your workshop overhead and other business costs still have to be paid fpr:

prone to it (e.g., cherry and maple). Applying thin barrier coats between dyeing. stain i ng, and gra in filling have no suggested charges" nor have dyeing using spray techniques or staining using gel stains, etc. These and other processes need to be understood and practiced before they can be priced successfully. Skilled finishers develop the necessary knowledge and expertise. for accurate. estimating .. The times given for spray finishing provide a good comparison point for other finish methods you use.

Richard tones designs and builds fine custom furniture. He is flOW back in .Ellgland, where he teaches [urniture at Leeds College of Art and Design.

This article was excerpted from teaching material prepared for students. A detailed chart which accompanied that material is available from the author for a small fee. Anyone interested can contact Woodwork, either by letter or by email, and YOUT request will be forwarded.


A Small Box


There is always time to make a box. In fact, 1 often take a break to design and make a box while contemplating the many detail of a big project-it revives my creative spirit. Typically, boxes are simple and relatively quick to make. And from the standpoint of craft, a box is a perfect object-a true balance of form and function. Beyond all that, the result can be a beautiful expression of what working in wood is 211 about. Of all the things to be made, no other object holds as much mystery or evokes as much curiosity as a box: when seen from across the room, it beckons

the observer to come over, to look inside, and to partake in the magic of its little world.


The design for this box started as a gift: 1 wanted to make my wife, Barbara, a CODtainer to hold some of her favorite pens. My design began with the idea of a slid ing top, which was inspired by the memory of the simple pencil box I had used as a child. The choice of material was easy-l had a small leftover piece of cocobolo that I knew would be perfect for the project.

The parts in this box are both mall and


thin, so it is important to take the utmost care in the preparation of the stock. Double and even triple milling the stock is crucial to prevent any twisting or cupping. That thin lid must stay flat over time so that it will slide freely and function without binding. After the stock is prepared, the first step is to make the grooves for the top and the bottom. I set up the router table with a liS" straight bit and cut in the groove for both the top and the bottom of the box (1). After com pleting this step, I turn rny attention to mitering the corner of the box. This is the most critical step in the making and,

requires good set-up so that the joints will glue-up square and flawless. To ensure a true 45° cut, I practice the cut on a couple of straight and square scraps. I check the overall mitered joint, held together with a spring clamp, with an accurate framing square; adjusting the angle of cut until the square shows a perfect 900 corner (2). This method is very accurate, since it doubles any enol' of cut, making it easier to detect. Once the angle is waled-in, I can proceed to miter all the sides. To fully support the workpiece, I place an auxiliary "tray" on my crosscutting fixture (3).1£ 1 were using the saw's miter gauge I would likewise make a small tray to carry the parts as they pass by

the blade. Using tape that is burnished in place where the cut will be ensures that the fibers stay put and no chip-out occurs at the trailing edge of the cut. The parts are small and can move easily while cuttingmake sure that you have a secure grip and that your fingers are at a safe distance from the blade .. A sharp blade is essential for clean and accurate work on small pieces.

The next step in the process is :fitting the bottom into the groove that runs on the inside ofthe box This is always tricky because there is so Little difference between tight and loose. My rule is to go slowly and to check often as I send the piece through the planer. Leave just enough extra from planing the bot-


tom down to thickness so that when it is hand-sanded it will slide effortlessly into each and all of the grooves. When this step is cornplete, I cut the bottom to size, leaving just a little extra, room side-to-side so that the panel can expand and contract seasonally. Before gluing-up, I finish-sand the entire interior and apply a. very thin coat of shellac, followed by a coat of wax and a good buffing.

At this point, the parts are ready for glueup. Since the thickness and size of the sides is so small, 1 use stretched tape across each of the joints to "clamp" the parts together. Layout the box sides end-to-end in the correct sequence; stretch tape across the joint;. flip over the assembly and apply the glue (4). Working




quickly, set in the bottom (5) and wrap the sides around it (6). Check for square and et the box aside until the glue is thoroughly dry.

Next. cut in the splines at the comers of the box. This can be done at the router table using a 3/32" spline cutter, which leaves a very dean cut that is square at the bottom, making it a perfect fit for the spline. I prefer the narrower width and the subtleness of a matching wood spline in this instance because it appears finer and more elegant to my eye. The easiest way to cut this joint is to use a block of wood (7) with a v-ent in it that will hold the workpiece at the appropriate angle (45°) and back up the cut where the bit exits the comer of the box. The next step is to glue in the splines; make sure that they bottom out in the joint (8). After the glue has dried, the splines can be trimmed back with a chisel, followed by a plane (9, 10).

The last steps in constructing the box are to make and fit the top. Here again it takes a careful touch to ensure a good fit. with just enough thickness so that the top stays shut if the box is picked up or moved, and only slight friction as the top is slid open or closed. I also make allowance for movement in the top-the width should be




slightly narrower than that of the box. The finger hold on the top is drawn with an ellipse template (11) and then ca:rved in with a gouge (12). I try to create a depression that has an even and fine tooled texture that arcs inward from all angles. After completing this step, the entire box is fin-

ish-sanded and a nne coat of shellac is applied. Lastly. the tab for the top is glued on and fitted so that, when it closes over the side, the seam is almost invisible.

Michael Cullen is a contributing editor for Woodwork magazine.

WOODWO R K 59 DeCEM HI< 2006

Contemporary Classics: Selections from the Society of American Period Furniture Makers, which ran at the

Telfair Museum of Art in Savannah, Georgia from April12-May 28, 2006, was the first exhibition of its kind in the United States. While there have been previous exhibitions of contemporary period furniture) the venues have generaly been galleries, small musemn of regional interest, or weekend arts and crafts festivals. The festivals, including those geared toward a period-friendly audience, often include other "old world" trades such a candle-making, weaving, and coopering rather than serving as a venue focused exclusively on the craft of furnituremakin g.

Other exhibitions of contemporarily made period furniture have been sponsored by craft schools, such as those in which I participated while a student at North Bennet Street School. The goals of these exhibits are primarily to give students experience in marketing their work as well as to highlight the achievements of the schools themselves, and due to the limited resources of craft schools, these exhibitions may not be well publicized as professional shows.

Museums have also served as venues for exhibitions of period furniture. Colonial Williamsburg, through the contemporary practice of historic trades like cabinetmaking, is unique in that it is a living history


museum, displaying the pieces made in the Anthony Hay shop with the intent ofeducating apprentices as well as the public. At the same time, priceless original pieces are displayed-and appropriately so-as decorative art a.t its DeWitt Wallace Gallery. The Museum of fine Art in Boston hosted the 1989 exhibition New American Furniture, which was inspired by pieces in its extensive collection of early American furniture. However, the pieces in that show, made by a handfnl of well-known contemporary furniture designers, were not reproductions, but modern interpretations that were influenced more by the artist's vision than by an adherence to arty particular period style. Contem-

purmy Classics: Selections from the Society of American Period Furniture Makers was unique when compared to the types of exhibitions described here because it was the first major American show of juried original work by period furnituremakers to be held at a. well-known and respected art museum for the purpose of djsplaying period furniture as a contemporary art form.

When approached with the idea of doing a show of entirely new reproductions, Telfair's Curator of Fine Arts and Exhibitions Holly Koons McCullough was very receptive. She notes that furniture, from the Telfair's perspective, "is an important part of OUI collection, specifically early

19th century neo-classical style." McCulLough saw the exhibition as the perfect opportunity to "highlight artistry in craftsmanshipand in furniture design:'

The Telfair proved to be the ideal venue for Contemporary Classics for a variety of reasons. Situated in the heart of Savannah's Historic District, the Telfair is the oldest art museum in the South. It plays an important role in a city that embraces a vibrant contemporary artscommunity while preserving its ricb history and its antebellum pre-eminence as Georgia's first state capital. The Telfair recently expanded its exhibit space with the addition of the modernist Jepson Center designed by architect Moshe


Safdie. The Telfair's main building, the Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a stately 1819 Greek Revival structure which houses the museum's permanent collections, including several roams furnished in the Empire style. The museum also owns and operates several house museums within the Historic District. Whether it is undertaking a modern addition like the Iepson Center or planning an exhibit of period furniture, McCullaugh sees both endeavors as part of the Telfair's mission to serve its community.

The Contemporary Classics exhibit was displayed in the sculpture gallery of the Telfair. At the opening event, a keynote address entit1ed"Bverything Old is New Again," presented by Architectu.ral Digest columnist Jeffrey Simpson. provideda historical context for the exhibition. Simpson traced the history of revivals in American decorative arts from the Civil War to present. He credits the watershed 1929 Girl Scouts Loan Exhibition with helping to channel nostalgia of the past into the institutions and major museums that today canduct scholarly research in period furniture.

The Society of American Period Furniture Makers (SAPFM) is a non-profit organization whose mission, in part, is to promote education in and appreciation of American period furniture, to conduct

~ public exhibitions far the recognition of :< members' work, and to offer membership ~

S to all with an interest in period furniture ..

~ For SAPFM, the event was a chance to pro~ file some of the finest work of its members, ~ including five recipients of the organize; tion's Cartoucbe Award, which is presented ~. each year to a nominee who bas consis- 5 tently contributed to the field of period i!;

fumiturernaking. The first award went to

Harold Jonson, followed by John McAlister, Robert Whitley, Gene Landon, Mack Headley, Phillip C. Lowe, and most recently, Fred L. Stanley; Since its inception in 1999, the organization bas grown to well over 700 members who benefit from annual and mid-yeat conferences, the annual publication of the organization's respected journal American Period Purnit~!re,as well as from an active website ( featuring a member gallery and discussion forum. SAPFM has six regional chapters, each holding its own semi -annu aI meetings where flliniture-· makers gather to' discuss ideas, attend presentations, and share their work.

'he exhibition of work by contemporary period fumituremakers has been one of the goals of SAP EM since it was founded. "Tills fuIiills a long-time goal for me, personally, and for the Society as a whole," says SAPFM co-founder and president Steve Lasb, who added that he worked on the exhibit for over a year before .it came to fruition. Two separate panels, one comprised of members of SAPFM's Executive Council and the other assembled by the Telfair Museum of Art, were involved in the jury process for the exhibition. The pieces were chosen based on several criteria. When making its selections, the museum staff looked specifically at the overall level of craftsmanship and then at objects that showed a variety of furniture types, periods and methods of construction. All exhibitors were required to be members of SAPFM.

Although less than half of those who submitted an application were chosen, an extremely diverse exhibition was assembled. There were pieces representing a span of over 150 years of American fumituremaking, from a William and Mary dressing table by John McAlister to a Victorian chest of drawers by Frank Guarnieri. The exhibit also showcased

"Victorian Chest" by Frank Guarnieri.

"Baltimore Card Table" by Stephen Lana, "Queen Anne Side Chair" by Mack Headley, "Architectural Looking Glass" by Terry Lutz.

the highest achievements of the major centers of furnituremaking in colonial America such as Boston, Newport, and Philadelphia as well as their vernacular cousins in rural areas. A wide variety of furniture forms was also selected for Contemporary Classics, .including chests, secretaries, desks, chairs, card tables, tea tables, tall case clocks, looking glasses, and a spinet harpsichord. In all, 29 pieces from 24 artists were cho en for the exhibition, representing years spent in the shop and lifetimes devoted to a passion.

Due to the time required to build a reproduction using handcut joinery and other period techniques, furnituremakers are unique in the traditional decorative arts. The sheer number of hours, days, and weeks spent on a single piece demands intense focus and a high level of commitment. W. Patrick Edwards spent over 650 hours making his marquetry cabinet; the Philadelphia chest-en-chest by Dennis Bork took more


than three month to complete. Any advantage in expediency gained through the use of modern woodworking equipment to prepare stock or dimension lumber is offset by the necessity of performing virtually every required task alone. Oftentimes this means learning a new aspect of the craft. The contemporary furnitnremaker must simultaneously be designer, draftsman, pattemmaker, joiner, carver, marqueteur and finisher. This degree of versatility would have been nearly impossible centuries ago due, in part, to a secretive guild system. It was precisely this aspect of SAPfM members' work however, that sold McCullougb on the idea of doing Contemporary Classics. She saw the exhibit as an opportunity to show that "fine fnrnituremaking as a matter of craftsmanship was still ongoing; that there were still artists able to produce very fine pieces [using] the same somewhat limited means as artists 200 years ago. We live in a world of ready- made goods, fast food, everything mechanically reproduced. People are comforted and delighted to see objects that have required hours and bours of meticulous detailed work."

SAPFM also saw the exhibit as an opportunity to educate the public. COIIUI1I-

porary Classics was the perfect venue to highlight the high standards to which SAPFM adheres. There are significant differences indeed, not only in construction but in overall appearance, between a piece painstakingly researched and reproduced by an individual and a mass-produced piece that is advertised as its equivalent. "There is something about the element of craftsmanship; the time involved, the knowledge and skill involved in these pieces of furniture" states McCullough, "that does differentiate it quite heavily in my mind from other types of reproductions."

In addition to the element of craftsmanship evident in Contemporary Classics, there

is also the elemen t of originality, a word not often mentioned when talking about reproductions. Although one might ask if there is if room for individuality in crafting a repro- ~ duction, Lash would aIgue that there is @ indeed. He thinks of period forms more as a § common language shared by the members .. ~ .. of SAPFM. The contemporary period furni- - turemaker, whether making an exact reproduction or a piece that is "in the style of," works within the framework of a given design vocabulary. As Lash explains, "the reproduction of a fine example of period furniture calls for more than the mechanical ability of a copyist. It requires a talented craftsperson that has the ability to interpret, design, and express the character and finesse of the original" Approximately half of the pieces in the Contemporary Classics exhibition are reproductions. The rest are described

as interpretations or amalgams of originals. While acknowledging that "sorn e SAPFM members do make pieces that are original designs," McCullough notes that the pieces that are exact reproductions are appreciated "because they are highly-crafted objects that are inspired by an earlier example!'

Regardless of their approach, they call aU be seen as playing a role in the evolution of the craft. The deliberate use of age-old design elements offers contemporary craftspeople a tangible link to previous generations. The elements of style act as a creative force that has traveled throughout human

CLOCKWISE FROM UPPER LEFT"Knife Cases" by Steven Lash.

"Pennsylvania Dressing Table" by Brook Smith.

"Southern Hunt Board" by Ed Willer.

history. Contemporary furniturernakers embrace it and respond to it by producing a new form. To say that a reproduction is merely the retelling of a story that has already been told fails to acknowledge the rigorous process of synthesis and which all artists engage. The culling of design inspiration from the past is as old as civilization itself. The popular klismos chair of the Empire period, for example, was based

on an ancient Greek design from around lOa B.C. Thomas Chippendale's ubiquitous Gothick [sic] chair splats were rooted in the tracery of cathedrals completed 250 years before his Gentleman and Cabinetmaker's Director was published. Historical artifact has always been fertile ground for designers and artists in all media, and the craftsmen in Contemporary Classics are DO exception.

The expression of certain period details,


like the curve of a cabriole leg or the placement of a c-scroll, is subjective. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder, it is said, yet details CRn also serve as instruments of good design and speak to the nature of beauty itself. The pursuit of perfect proportion, through the use of the Golden section and its related constructs (Golden rectangle, Phi, and Fibonacci sequence), for example, can be seen in the finest period pieces. In addition, the study and understanding of the five orders of architecture is as relevant to a student of period style today as it was to a cabinetmaker in the 18th century.

Whileitsmo t lasting effects may not be known for some time, the Contemporary

Classics exhibition has been an affirming experience for SAPFM. Like the furniture that its members reproduce, history will have the final say in how it is interpreted. Drawing a comparison to the Girl Scouts Loan Exhibition that generated a wave of collecting and renewed interest in antique American decorative arts, Steve Lash is optimistic about the future of contemporary period furnituremakers. "No one knew what was going to happen then," he says of the 1929 antiques exhibition. As for the outcome of this exhibit, Lash says confidently, "we'll be sure to build on it." The organization has already experienced immediate gains as a result of the exhibition by wel-


"BombeChest of Drawers" by Robert Wbitley.

AT BOTIOM. LEFT TO RlGHT"Chippendale Arm Chair" by Bret Headley.

"Federal Tambour Desk" by John Gush.

"Sheraton Demilune'tby MarkArnold.

coming a number of new members and seeing the event prominently covered in the press. With the realization of Contemporary Classics, the organization has achieved its stated objective of conducting public exhibitions for the recognition of its members' work, but will continue to seek new venues

" for future opportunities.

~ As for the Telfair, it too is quite pleased a with the exhibit and the public's reaction to ~ it. McCLillough sees it as part of a larger trend 8 within the museum community to downplay ~ the alleged divide between art and craft. a:

"More and more, museums are moving away

from concepts like 'this is fine art ... this is decorative art. .. this is craft'. The lines are more and more blurry," she says. Hearing phrases like "Beautiful. .. Stunning ... Wow" helps to confirm that the exhibit had the intended impact. "We bad no idea how popular it was going to prove. People have been absolutely delighted by the show," says McCullough. "There is something hopeful about it that people pick up on."

Mark Arnold is a grad uate of North Ben nes Street School, a member of the Society of American Period Furniture Makers, and teaches [urnituremaking in his shop ill Sunbury,


------- ---- ---

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The Coped Mortise and Tenon

The anatomy and construction of a frame and raised panel door

A solid wood frame and raised panel door provides a classic and timeless look. I t can be made in a wide variety of shapes or sizes to fit numerous situations. It ran be made small as a prospect door in a desk or it can he made large to fit a bookcase top, a kas, or armoire. The frame of a door is put together with mortise. and tenon Joints-the stiles are mortised and the rails are tenoned --with a thumbnail molding along the inside perimeter where the frame meets the panel. The corners of the molding meet at what looks like a 45° angle. However, the stile molding is actually straight and the rail molding is coped to fit around it.

In tcday's dependence on machines there are specific shaper and router cutters that take most of the skill out of building this style of door, So if having a finished product is your only goal what ram about to describe is not for you. However, if you are interested in understanding the anatomy of this joint, and acquiring the skills needed to construct it by band tools, then the following discussion should lead you through the various details.

Before ,any layout or cutting can begin the door and pane! size have to be determined. In large part this is a matter of personal taste. However, there are a few things to consider independent of one's sense of good proportion. First, is the door going to be a lip door, or is it going to be flush fitting? If it is to be a lip door; will it have a lip on all sides or not? For every side that is going to have a lip, the size of that Jip needs to be figured into the lengths of both the rails and stiles. For purposes of this article I am going to describe how to make a join t and door that will have a lip on all four sides. In addition, i am going to build the door for a cabinet that has only one doorthe simplest case. Once you understand how to construct this style of door it is a small step to making two doors where one overlaps the other or two doors that are hinged together to form a bifold door.

Some other things to consider from a


design standpoint are the relative size of rails and stiles. Since I am a period furniture builder, I am biased towards what was done on period pieces. However, the same techniques can be used on this type of door independent of the design inspiration. On period pieces it is my experience that the visible part of the two stiles are the same width. Both the top and bottom rails are wider than the stiles and the bottom fail is wider than the top one. Thus the dimensions that I will use in this example will reflect the period design.

The opening that r am going to cover is 15" high by 12-5/8" wide, a size 1 need for one of my current projects .. There will be a 1/4" lip on all four sides, sothe finished Length of the stiles will be 15-1/2" and finished length of the rails will be 13-1/8". When rough cutting the rail and stile blanks make each one slightly longer than the finished dimension. 1/8"-114" on each end is plenty. As for the thickness of the stock I prefer thicker to thinner. Thus I will. take 4/4 rough cut lumber and surface plane it to get as much dean stock as pos-


sible, Sometimes this is 7/8", on a good day I can get 15/16". The point here is that the thickness is not that important.

For my door the stiles are 2-]/4" wide, the top rail i 2-1/2" wide and the bottom rail is 3" wide. I will use a 5/16" thumbnail decoration along the inside edges of the frame. For discussion in this article I am going to describe cutting the joint in the lower left corner. All the other corners are accomplished with the same steps, taking into account the differences between the left and right stiles and the top and bottom rails.

Although the thrust of the article is how to con truct the frame. the door is not complete W1tiJ a panel is inserted, the door cut to final dimensions, a lip made, and an outside perimeter thumbnail added. After I have described the frame construction in

detail, I will describe how to shape the panel and, briefly, the finishing touches.

Tony Kubalak specializes in handcrafted reproductions ofperiodfurtJiture. To see more o/his work, go to


1. Determine th e orien tali On 0 f the ralls, Mark th e top and bottom rail to indicate which direction is up. On the top tail the lower edge will get the thumbnail and on the bottom rail the upper edge will. It is important to keep mindful of the selected orientation because none of the parts are interchangeable.

2. Set II mortising gauge for a 5/16" mortise and a 5/1 6" wall (A mortising gauge has two scribe points and a marking gauge has one.) The reference faces


will be the front surfaces in all cases. With the gauge set, usc the front face of the lower rail to scribe two lines along' the entire perimeter of the rail. On the ends of the rail these two lines define the tenon and in me middle they define the panel channel.

3. Layout the tenon houlder lines. These will be different on the front and the back. Ifthe tenon goes all the way through the stile leave it a little longer so tha t it can be cut flush after glue up. If it doesn't go through it C8JI. be cut to length now or later. On the front faa' the tenon shoulders arc 9- 1/4" apart; on the back face they are 8-5/8" (I), The distance on the front face is twice the thumbnail width wider than on the 'back to allow for the coped overlap of the thumbnail on each end. 1 first pencil the shoulder lines, then go over them with a knife and square. This provides a positive guide for the saw or chisel,

4. Finally, scribe a line for the thumbnail molding. Set a marking gaugeto 5/16" and scribe the top edge of the front face and the two ends. Continue onto the back side, stopping at the tenon shoulder lines (2). In the portion of the rail that will become the tenons, this lin e will be used as a sm .. cut guide.

four of these cuts to be made (5).

bench chisel to remove the ridges left by the gouge. Next cut down the length of the channel on both sides with a wider bench chisel and repeat the gouge and small chisel cuts. You may want to switch to a smaller gouge, say a #9 5mm because me edges of the 7 mm will catch. me sides when mer are below me top. Do this until me channel' close to its final depth. Watch for changes in grain direction. Finish up with a band router plane set to a Sf16" depth (8). The extra sandwich b oards tha t were used to support the ra1l sides also provide a better base on

which to run the router plane.

8. Remove the narrow piece of the tenon defined by the final rip cut. Cut this flush with the shoulder from the front fila: (6). Before going to the next step make the same cuts on the other end of the rail

5. Myfirst cuts are me tenon cheek cuts. I use me rip 9. Next, plow out the channel for the raised panel

teeth of a Japanese ryoba saw. Hold the piece ID a vise Start by placingthe rail to be cut.flush between two

at IIJl angle and sanulraneously cut the end and a boards and clamp it in a vise (7). The .reascn for this

side, then work your way to the other side (3). Cm all is to support the relatively thin shoulders, which arc

four cheeks before going to the next step. easily broken as the channel cuts are made.

6. Make another rip cut along the thumbnail llne 10. My method is a bit unconventional, but goes

down to the first tenon houlder lin e. This defines pretty fast.Pirst, carefully score wi th a knife along

one end of the tenon (4). the length of the channel's two sides. A couple of lighter cuts is safer than one heavy-one. Now chisel out the center with a #9 7rum carving gouge. This removes a lot of material quickly. Then use al/4"

II. The thumbnail molding is made in two parts: forminga fillet and rounding the corner. Sel a different marktng gauge to 1/16"-)f)2".Wim the front

face as the reference, score a line along the edge (9). . Remove the 5/16" x 1/16" strip to form the fillet. I use a chisel and a shoulder plane [or this (10).

7. Next make the tenon shoulder cuts. This time, I

use-the crosscut teeth of the ryoba saw. There are


12. To round over the corner, first make II pencil line down the center of the top face and the side of the comer 10 be rounded, usingyour eye to find the centerand your finger as" fence (II). Bevel the ccrner between the two lines (12). Next bevel between cen ters of the three remaining faces. Finally rasp, file and sand (13) until the thumbnail ls formed (14).

13 .. The oope ends of the thumbnail are made with two cuts. first, draw averti cal line 5/16" mfr·o m the end of the thumbnail to define the limit of the. coped cud Make the bevel cut with a. bench chisel (IS).

14. Finally we come to the cope cut.I use a #8 to rnm carving go uge fortbjs ( 16). Again IlSC a. series of thin cuts an d sneak up Oil. the final shape. The-vertical pencil line fro mthe previ a us step defines where the cope cut should end (l7).

IS. The Tail is almost complete except for the fi.nal width of me tenon, which will be marked and Cut from the corresponding mortise later,

MARKlNG AND CUTTING THE STILE MORTISE I. The. first step is to m ark the orientation of the stiles .. Remember that neither the rails or the stiles are interchangea ble, As mention ed eadi er this article will focuson the J ower left band join t.

2. My stiles are sl igh tly J onger than the finished size so I first mark the actual ends of the stiles. Then, with the front fuel' a fthe stile as the guide, and us ing the mortising g<,!uge previously set up for the rails, I scribe two lines a1ung me entire edge perimeter (l8). On the inside edge these lines define the mortise placement and width and the panel channel, On the ends they are cutting guides, and, on the outside edge they will define th e rab bet used for tile dour lip, The


mortise starts 112" from the end of each stile, so on me inside edge mark II line 112" in from the line drawn previouslyThis defines one end of the mortise.Thewidth ef the bottom rail is 3" so the other endof the mortise will be (3-5/16) '" 2-II/16" from the bottom line. Mark this line with a square and pencil The mortise is 5/16" back from the edge .of the rail because that is the width of the thumbnail. Since this will be a through mortise (typiClJ for this type of door), I transfer these lines to the other edge 3S weU, then go O"VCr the mortise Iin~~ wi tha kni fe ..

3. The finallayout step is to mark me thumbnail on the inside front fare. Use themarkingga..ugeset to 5/16" and scribe. this line on the frontface using the inside edge as the guide. Carry this line onto end. Do not scribe thls Line on the back face ( 19).

4. Now cut our the mortises. For this S116" mortise 1

use a 114" the drillpress to hog out the middle (20). Since this is a through mortise I drill from both sides, then finish up with a chisel. The knifed mortise marks help create a clean and straight line (21). The other mortise should be cut before continuing to the next step (22).

5. Next plow out the panel channel, using the same method 8S for the rail (23).

6. On the front face the mortise wall will be removed up to the thumbnail line, from the bottom of the stile to the inside mortise wall. With a square and knife scribe the line on the front face that follows the inner wail of the mortise. CroSSCU! the upper mortise waIl down to the thumbnail line. This cut needs to be at an angle so that back mortise wall is not damaged (24).A chisel will finish up the cut. Now rip saw along the th umbnalllln e, anotherpartial cut (25). Saw

along the back mortisewall, Finally, clean lip with a chisel (26). The other end should be removed in the samemanner before going to the next step.

7. Making the thumbnail on the front face is done exactly the same way as it was on the rail (27). is now time to make the final tenon sizing cut on the rail. Fi_rst extend the mortise wall line (28), then place the rail tenon so that the the inner edge is in line with the mortise wall, make a tick mark on the tenon where the other mortise wall is. Use the extended Line for this (29). Make rlp cut (30), then a crcsscurto remove the WlI te (31).

8. The joint should now fit together as shown in (32). More often than not some tweaking is needed. Check that the tenon shoulder cuts are square (33); pare as needed.l undercut these just a bit to improve the

WOO DWO R K 69 DECEMB Ell. 2006

chances of getting a tight tit. Make sure the mortise walls and ends are square {34}. Check to see that the cope on the rail is not hitting too early. If this is a problem and the mpe is getting too 'thin, try pacing the end. of the'thumbnall on the stile (35). The portion that is pared is underneath the rail so it will not be seen. Check that the mortise edge on the £ront face of the stile is square (36). Pinally check that the two tenon shoulders meet the tile at the same time. If they do not meet at the same time, pare the approprlare tenon shoulder until there is a good fit on both front and badt.I1thi needs to be done 1 fust undercut the tenon shoulder (37). then use a #50 pattern maker's rasp to trim the edge (38). I find that I have more control with this than a chisel or a plane ..

9. The joint is now complete, When the two rails and : two stiles have been cut and fitted as just described the frame is ready to accept a panel (39).

FORMING A RECfANGULAR RAISED PANEL Now it. IS time to shape a panel, There are differem shapes for panels, the most common being rectangular, which I will use for this door. It's first necessary 10 d eclde on the size 0 f the raised section and the angled perimeter surrounding it. I am going to leave a 1-1/4" wide visible section between the raised portion and the frame (40). I will use approximately the same thickness for the panel as for the frame. It is not critk'aI, bUI the thicker the panel blame the more proud the raised section stands from the frame and the more pronounced is the angular transition, To my eye the greater the difference in height the more dra-

m atic the effect.

1. To size tbe panel blank take the visible dimensions of the panel and add SIS" for the final length and width. The 5/6" comes from the 5/16" depth of the channel on each end of the pan el, Thus, the panel blank dimensions are (8-5i6" + 5i8" '" 9-1/4" wide) by (10" + 5/8" = 1O-5!8" long).

2. Find the centerlines both.horizontally and verticellyl work from centerlines because if and when WIY errors occur they can be balanced across the center and will be virtually undetectable. Since the raised center portion will be 1-1/4" in from the sides of the frame, the raised section will be (9-li4" ~ 5i8"- 2-1/2" = 6-Il6") wide by (l0-S/8" -SIS" -2-1l2" = 7· 1/2") 100g(41).1 draw theselines ln pendl first, then score them with a knife across the grain and with a marking ga uge alongthe grain.

3. The panelsides have to be Sfl6" thick at the.point where they enter rh e channels in the rails and stiles, This point is 5116" in from each end, On the ends draw perpendicular lines 5116" in from each edge and up 5li6" from the bottom. This is one of the porn IS, A, that will determine the angle that defines the raisedsection,

4 .. The raised portion will stand 5132" proud of the fest of the field. 1/6" is also fine; however, I like a


little bolder offset than thai. On the lop and bOItom edges draw perpendicular llnesfrom the front face to the back face that extend the sides of the raised section. Measure down from the front face 5132" {or whatever the panel offset is). This is the outer point, D, that will define the angle leading up to the raised portion. With a straight edge connect A and B and extend it to the edge of the panel blank (42). This is the angle of incline leading up to the raised panel, Do this on both ends of top and bottom edges. The point where these lines run off the end of the blank is the thickness of th e blank at the edges. Set a marking gallg'e to this height and with the back face as the reference scribe 3. lin e aro und the en tire perirn eter of the blank edge (43) ..

5. Now remove the material delineated by the layout lines, working first along the graln .. I use II #4- 1/2 plane (44); YOII can be quite aggressive until you gel close 10 yOUI lines. When the guide lines

are do e I use II chisel to remove the first little bit along the panel wall (45). This gives me II small surface to guide a shoulder plane (46). Use the shoulder plane [0 make a plateau down to the final depth-of the ralsedsection (47).1 go back to the #4--1/2 'plane and remove as mud'! as possible, then finish up with the shoulder plane. Do the other long grain side before moving to the crossgrain edges (48).

6. Next.raise the panel 011 the cross grain edges. The process is pretty much the same as in the previous step. Plane towards the center from both directions to minimize tear out. As one gets dose to completion draw II diagonal line from the corner of the panel to the corner of the blank. The angled cuts should meet at this line (49).

7. The panel should now 6t into the frame and all the frame members should meet in nice tight joints. If the panel does not fit properly, some

things to look for are:

A. The frame member should fit over the panel edge and the end of the panel blank should touch the bottom of the channel at or before the thumbnail touches the angled portion. II the panel is

too thick, fix this by sufflcientlyplaning the

angle portion.

B. Wbcn in place in the frame, the vertical dimension panel edges should be in line with the tenon shoulders of the rails and the horizontal edge should be in line with the inner mortise end of the stiles. (50). 1£ either or b oth of these need to be trimmed a very little amount, it can be removed from one end. However, if it is even 1116" I will remove a little from each side to keep things as symmetric as possible.

8. The frame and panel should now fit together and are almost ready for glue up. The completed but unglued and untrimmed door should look like (51). To accommodate wood movement, the width of the



panel blank can be reduced by a little from each side. 'Ihe framejoints are glued, bur the panel is not. After the door is glued and dried the final trimming and detailing can be done:

A. Trim the stile ends flush with the rails and trim the rail tenons flush with the stiles.

B. Cut a rabbet on the backside along the entire perimeter for the lip. Thewidth of the rabbet will be 114" and the depth will be such that 5/16" islcft. Thus the depth will depend on.the thickness of the frame stock used,

C. There will be a. thumbnail detail along the en lire perimeter on the front face. Por this door that thumbnail will be the same dimensions as the one surrounding the panel, that is 5/l6"x5f16". Cut this thumbnail in the same manner as described earlier. D. Because this is a period style dOGT I pin the joints. A 114" pin is typical This is certamlyoptional but r think that it adds 3 nice visual detail.

E. The dooris now ready for installation and whatever hardware is 10' be used (52).

Inspired by China



On October 28 2006, Inspired by China: Contemporary Furnituremaksrs Explore Chinese Traditions, will open at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts. The exhibition brings together 29 examples of historic Chinese furniture and 28 new works designed by 22 furnituremakers from around the world, who responded to China's rich and varied furniture traditions. Recently T spoke with Michigan furnituremaker Clifton Monteith about the table he made for the show.

/L: Prior to being invited to participate in the show, you'd been a student of urushi fOI" a while. Had you been thinking about Chinese furniture as well?

eM: Well, not recently, but when I was very young=-between the time I wa born until I was five years old, my family lived in my grandmother's house, which wa-s a huge, beautiful Arts and Crafts bouse that my grandfather, who died before I was born and I never knew, had built. And he collected Chinese and Japanese antiques, so 1 remember sleeping in a cradle with a Chinese cherry-blossom carved rosewood incen e burner at the end of my cradle.

I remember that-it's like the first image-and over on the wall next to me wa a Japanese ukiyo-e print. And, you know, early things are formative. J think we see things and pick them up as important long

before we have language, and even when I was live I kept looking at this incense burner, which was a bea u tiful, beautiful thing, and I was never told not to touch it, either, because it was never viewed as an important thing. The weird thing was, these were precious to my grandfather, but no one else in my family cared about them at all We had two Ming vases that they used as umbrella stands. They were just some old things in a culture that was valuing new things. So the idea of using a Ming vase as an umbrella stand-I didn't know that there was anything queer about that until much later.

Then, when we moved from my grandmother's house to the house that my father had built-my grandmother was older and she needed to come with us--her house was sold and all of the antiques went to auction.

I got thinking about that, and it's like the Cultural Revolution. In China, many things were lost. In my family, it was 1954 modern that threw out the wonderful Chinese antiques, and I've always had a feeling that it was something I was deprived of, that they were removed from my experience before I could ever understand them in an intellectual way. vVhich is how I understand things anyway, in a sort of non-intellectual way.

[l; At what point did you decide which piece in the museum's collection you would work with?


eM: 1 walked through the study room that the museum had set up, and I just loved this table right off. This piece was completely coated with traditional urushi lacq ner, which I have been working with. It was made of very low-class wood, and it was the lacquer that was put on it to enhance its status.

r also really like the stretcher that lies on the floor, because, of course, the house where it was may have had a stone floor, and the floor might not have been even close to flat, and that wo uld have pu t stress on this construction from poor-quality wood that the lacquer is applied to.

So I decided to work with this piece-I liked the idea that it was an altar table, and I also liked-the most important thing for me was that-the boxed section above where the two drawers go in is totally enclosed. There's no way to get in that space. The space's only pmpose is to get higher ... to be the altar top. And so 1 thought, well, we really had to open that dosed, locked space, look inside and below the worship surface to see the heart of the matter.

JL: YOt4 mentioned that it attracted you because it was an altar table. Do you want to say anything more about that?

eM: Yes. A Chinese altar table in the home is a place where you might worship


the gods and the ancestors. And not too long ago I lost both of my parents and my wife's parents, all in the course of three years, and no matter how much you think you're prepared for that, it makes you think about where you came from and what these people contributed, and after they're gone what they've left behind. The Chinese family altar is an institutionalized way of bringing that question up, not just through a period of grief, but through a continual remembrance. I like that idea. And so I thought, "This is perfect!" A family altar table made out of really pedestrian materials in a very elegant way-at least from my point of view. And of course, my materials are very pedestrian. The lacquer, which many people think of as a very high-class surface, is really just sap from a poison sumac tree. And my willow trees are just collected from the ditch next to the road, so they're pretty pedestrian too.

But it's how you bring those things together to make an appropriate focus for a worshipful experience. And that was my idea. So thus the title for my piece-Alter Altar.

IL: So this altar table attracted you for all these reasons ...

eM: Mm-hmm, But there was another reason: because it was in bad condition, and 1 love things that have deteriorated. When lacquer deteriorates, its structure shows. Pieces chip off from use, from the expanding and contracting of the wood underneath, and you get to see the little bits of fabtic that are buried ill the lacquer. You get to see the different colors of the stages as they're built up. Not just the shiny new surface that it once had. I like the idea that it was wellworn, and that maybe in the act of an altar's use it could be worn out-it had been used so well, or so much. I thought that was really an exciting idea, too. Of course, I couldn't do that with my new piece, but I could allow the fabric to show in places,

One of the other things about, let's say, farmer lacquer work, would be that the fabric wouldn't be completely filled with lacquer. The hemp cloth is a layer tha t is sandwiched in amongst the lacquer to give it strength and to support a thick surface of lacquer. In

pedestrian objects that fabric might be left to show, or it was very close to the surface, so when it's worn the doth will show through. And so I let it show by actually grinding down the surface. The hemp cloth actually shows through the lacquer. And there are 17 layers of lacquer to begin a base coat, and I think about 37 layers by the time ...

JL: 37 layers with color?

eM: Yeah. in fact, it may be more than that. I was keeping a journal of the step as I went along, and I got more and more panicked toward the end, and I just stopped writing things down and just doing them as they had to be done.

And that's real vermilion, by the way, so all 3 7 times I sanded it down, we're dealing with mercury in the air and on your hands and up your nose and so you have to be a little bit careful with it. It's mostly done wet, polished and sanded wet to keep the bad stuff in there.

JL: Do you wear a respirator?


eM: I did when I did this, I don't when I work with regular urushl, because I'm immune now, and the organic substance doesn't hurt you when you have that immunity, But it's difficult for other people.

/L: Not too long ago I took a workshop with urushi master Nagatoslli Onishi. Somewhere in the middle ofhis talk he said something like, "Ifyotl're pure enough, just eat it. No problem."

eM: "No problem?" I have heard of people eating it in order to get over a reaction that wouldn't go away. You know, they kept having reaction, kept having reaction, kept having reaction, and they weren't getting enough of an immersion. And so I don't know if this is apocryphal or not, but the antidote is to take a rice ball, put a little wad of it in there, and swallow it The idea ofhaving the rash on the inside of your stomach makes me dizzy,

/L: Now, the original has got a frame and parlei top with a solid plank.

CM: Yes, solid. In my piece the actual top frame is oak, and it's not lacquered-it's just aniline dyed black. And then there is a grille in the middle, and the grille is also a small frame of oak with the willow grid.

/L: This grille is fairly dense?

eM: There is actually plen ty of space to see through it. The willow is placed just close enough together to be functional, and as you look through the top of the table, through that grid, the bottom of the inside is the bright vermilion, just like the band around the first layer. Even though in the original the only red is in the center of those little ovals, I knew I had to do something red. Red, you know, is a royal color. It's blood color. It's all those things that are pregnant with meaning. So, looking down into mine you get to see inside the heart of the matter-with the bloody guts of the bottom showing red.

JL: The urushi's just applied to that band and then the top surface?

eM: Right. The case and the drawers are all poplar. The drawers are all lacquered inside and out, except for the rails. And the rails are just stained.

It's all from trees I knew personally-I mean, that were cut down in the town where I live. run through the local sawmill, air-dried, And of course my willow that I use=-I know those plants very particularly, and I know where they grow. I go and visit them all the time and see how they're doing,

My case work is usually covered with twig mosaic, like the stretcher and the legs of the altar table. Those pieces are all dried, and I have a big collection of dried willows, because each plant dries a different color, and then I know what color it's going to be and that it's not going to shrink, you know, and open up and see the case work underneath.

Now. the original legs formed a skirt, and I took those forms and bent them in on themselves, as if their purpose was to hold. up a heavy interior-it was this bidden heart that we're trying to expose in here that was heavy, It was like the soul of the table was being held up by these legs going inward


instead of just skirting the edge. And then all of this is mosaic-ed with willow twigs.

JL: it's so much like looking Lip into the eaves of a lapanese [armhouse or templethat's all the structure that you see.

CM: Right. And then the lines of the bent willow come back and form the curves on the structure that are those mosaic -covered eaves, you might say. You can see the pieces around the top rim that are made heavier and geometric and completely covered with twig rno aic. And then those are the pieces that supportthe bent edges of the scallop, because on the original table the scallop was carved, There you can see the spacing of the twigs. So they're all alternate: it's a chubby end here, skinny end here, chubby-back and forth. And so it comes out even. And the underneath casework, as you can see, is red over black lacquer.and above is 'black over red, and then rubbed through. And then you can see the bent scallops coming around the twigs.

JL: What allows you to keep this curve?

Are they pinned?

eM: Yes, they're all pinned with little tiny wooden dowels. Bend it, and put tension on

that I could actually measure from the model to keep my piece at least in proportion with the original work.

JL: Do you usually lIot work from models?

CM: I don't even work from a drawing!

jL: Would you say tnatthis was more daborare than most of the furniture that you make?

CM: In a way, yes, but in another way it's nornearly as elaborate. When I build a chair, for example, the structure .is elaborate, whereas here I was working from something

s that had a very simple structure, but had an ~ elaborate surface, So I was trying to take an ~ elaborate surface and translate that to



::< z

~ a i;


something that was, in my mind, a work-

ing structure.

JL: One of the things I find interesting is ~IOW different artists find thar balance point between their own work and the object that they're referencing. Yes, there is a long injluence ~ of classical Asian furniture on Westem furni~ -~-- .... -e ture traditions, but the specifics for each of the 24 artists participating is quite different.

The Chinese altar table in the study room set up by the Peabody Essex Museum that inspired Clifton Monteith's Aller Allar.

it or pressure on it, and doweJ those pieces in place. Some are pinned to each other and orne are pinned to these frameworks.

Those little faces on the frameworksthose have little pieces of white birch bark on the end, like the nodes on the carved ends of the old table.

And then the drawer handles are lacquer mixed with vermiculite-expanded micaand filled acorns. An acorn cap is such a beautiful shape and it feels so good, but it's way too fragile to use in a structural piece. But by filling it with the lacquer and vermiculite, it becomes like stone and you can drill and dowel them. And these are all like little breasts on the end of each one of these points that are actually an acorn cap pegged in place ..

And of course the original piece had a carved dimple at the bottom of the leg, so 1 took that carved detail at the leg bottom and put the acorn in its place.

So there are a lot of pieces-a lot of pal1s to my table very directly referencing the piece from the collection we studied.

r preserved the proportions of the original piece; I ended up building a model so


CM: I saw it more that there was a recognition by the museum that studio furniture was where personal inspiration regarding furniture exists today. And given that that is our job, could we please come and take a look at this collection and give them our take on it.

IL: You were being very careji,1 about referencing the scale, the form, the proportions; 50 much of this piece is about your materials and your process ... that's where the transformation comes into it, plus the narrative layer of what this all means for you.

CM: Right. And, of course, that's something that somebody mayor may not be interested in. The piece, I think, speaks for itself, whetber you know the story or not, but as a way of working, that's sort of where this piece came from. r mean, I knew about Chinese altar tables, but I really hadn't thought about them. 1 certainly hadn't thought about them in reference to my experience until I went and saw the pieces in the museum's collection. And they were the ones that spoke to me because of where I was in my life right at that time.



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On the following pages you will find a comprehensive index for the first 100 issues of Woodwork magazine. This index was compiled for the benefit of all our readers who save their copies of the magazine and use them as a resource and a reference. The material indexed incl udes everything covered in our feature articles and Gallery section, as well as "Tips and 'Iechniques,?" Book and Video Reviews," "Questions and Answers;'''Shoptalk;' and "Looking Back." A listing in bold type indicates pictured work, either in the gallery or in an article. The index is organized according to subject matter, not by author. For example, under "Fortune, Michael" you will find listings for Gallery work by Michael Fortune, but not any article written by him.


Aarsvold, Jack H., l5:64 Abell, William, Ir., 27:67

Academy of Art College (CA): Story Furniture class, 84:59-{i3

Adams, Doug, 63:22-28

adhesives: applicators, 4:24, 31: 12, 44: 10, 52:6; Balcotan, 100:86; bot-

tle stoppers" 16:20, 27:22; for door joints, 1:66-67; dyeing glue for easy detection, 65:8; epoxies, 10:82-84,38:72-73; freshness dating, 43:24; homemade water-soluble, 16:39; ho -rnelt glue, 13:20; plastic resin,38:73-74; polyurethane, 38:71-72; polyvinyl acetate (white and yellow), 38:70, 40:50-56; pop-top bottles, 97:14; pouring, 50:8; quick- etting, 87:10-12; selecting, 38:68---74, 40:54; spreaders, J 7: 10, 21: 14; storage, 18:18,30; 18, 32: 16,37:10; surface splotching, 38:74, 40:50-52; temporary containers, 62:6; and wood movement, 40:55; see also glues and gluing; hide glue

African seats, 95:80

Afseth, Laurie, 55:46

Afseth, Sarah, 55:46

Agee, Philip 97:52-53 Agress, Gene, 2:58, 13:32-38

air compressors: anti-vibration mat, 80:14; empty glue bottle, 45:6 airplanes, wooden: building your own, 12:56-58; Wright brothers model, 14,:66-67

Akroyd, Robert, 70:50

Alaska Creative Woodworkers Association, 6:72-73

Alberti, Jack, 2:61, 5:70, 7:65, 13:66, 15:61, 17:63, 22:68

Alden, lars, 65:57

Alden lee Co. (CA), 52:72-76,


Aldrich, Joseph R., 47:75 Alexander, John, 47:22-29 Alien, Ray, 8:76, 21:62

Almon, Rene, 36:53, 54 American Association of Wood-

turners: 1989 Symposium, 6:78-80; 1999 East Meets West Exhibition, 64:22-23; Fifth

Annual Symposium, 9:59; San Diego chapter show, 4:69 American Craft Council, 1:46-47 American Craft Museum (NY):

"Explorations If: The New Furniture", 11 :68; Garry Knox Bennett show, 71 :31 ; international tour exhibition, 3:68-69; Wendell Castle show, 9:57

American Craftsman Woodworking Exhibitions, 41:56-59, 60:26-27 American Institute of Architecture: landmark models for 1982 centennial, 8:53

The American Marquerarian.Jnc., 49:18

American School of Lutherie (CA), 59:19

American Society of Furniture Artists, 9:70, 11:72 American Society of Furniture Designers: Pinnacle Design Achievement Awards, 80:20 Ames, Peter, 17:64

Anand, Om. 77:41

Anchorage Museum of History and

Art (AK), 6:72~73 Ander, Katelyn, 87:46

Anderson, Jennifer, 68:33, 100:42 Anderson, Tim, 34:60

Anderson, Joyce, 68:69

Anderson Ranch Arts Center (CO),

45:70-75,82:48--49 Anderson. Ted, 76:59 Andersson, Frans, 65:56 Andrews, Bill, 84:38

angled CLltS: saw guide for, 10:20 Anthony, Paul, 15:60, 20:66

antique furniture: Antique Furniture and Decorative Accessories (Strange), 70:14; "Antiques Roadshow", [00:54-57; when to refinish, 43:56; see also restoration

antique tools: 1870 lathe, 7:79; Afltiqlle and Collectible StlU'tley Tools (Walter), 52: 14; hand planes, 2:64-67,32:66-69; Tile Handplane Book (Hack), 52: 14; A Price Gtlide to Al1tique Tools (Kean and Pollack l, 17:24; razor hones, 25:54-55; restoration, 100:48-53: ridding of worms, 7:20; Selections [rom the Chronicle: Tire Fascinat-

;'lg World of Early Tools and Trades (Pollack), 13:26; Tools: Working Wood in Eighteel1th-Celltury America (Gaynor and Hagedorn). 28:32

Antonsen, Beth, 6:73 aprons: improving, 43:14

arbor saws, tilting: angle accuracy,


Archimedic body, 54:47-54, 56: 16 a res: see curves

Arenskov, J., 5:75

Argento, Tom, 4:69

Arms, Isaac, 96:38

Arnold, Mark, 58:22-30, 85:65 Arntzen, Arnt, 81 :50

Arques School of Traditional Wooden Boatbuilding (CA), 47:48-53

Arrowmont School of Arts and Crafts (TN), 9:68

art: versus craft, 39:72-75; marriage to craft, 62:47--49: mounting, 62:4.9: or furniture, 47:66-72; telling stories with wood, 43:60; workmanship as, 42:53-57

Art Academy of Cincinnati (OH), 86:80

Arts-and-Crafts style: bookcase, 66:34-41 i English, 78:80: mailbox, 58:64-67; sideboard, 73:64-68: trestle table, 81:35-41, 82:6: white oak cabinet, 57:72-76

Asian Art Museum of San Francisco (CA), 65:48---49

Association of Wood. working and Furnishings Suppliers: 1999 Woodworking Fair, 62:50-5 L:

Fresh Wood, 87:22; student design competition, 87:46-47

auger, hollow, 35:29 Avisera, EJ.i, 86:50,51

awls: shop-made, 53:4; square, 63: 68-{i9

Ayers, Jim, 61:44-51, 62:18


Bachelder, John, 14:58 back saws, 57:65 Baillargeon, Patrick, 82:43 Balderson, Herbert, 82:49 Baldewicz, Bill, 1 :52


Baldon, Russell, 79:70

Bali: mask carving, 68:48-55 Balkenhol, tephan, 59:66-{)8 balustrades, 71:54-55, 75:76 bamboo: masterworks exhibition,


Banaker Gallery (CAl, 17:67 21:64, 25:71

banding inlays: Alexandre and Eugene Buffard, 2.9:68-7 J; design, manufacture, and II e,22:4Q-46, 23:6; lunette, 55:37-41; hopmade, 39:46-49

handsaws: allen wrench bolder, 29:20: arc cutting jig, 26:3H3; auxiliary table for, 12:60-61; Band Saw Basics (Duginskc), 9:30; The Band Saw Book, Wirh 20 Projects (De Cristoforo), 5:26; Baud 511w HAndbook (Duginske), 5:26; blades, 31:28, 70:12; Cool Blocks guide blocks, 27: 1 0; crosscutting with, 77:9; cutting small stock. 100: 10; cutting veneer, 43:28---29, 69:59-63; dust collection, 6:24, 43:12; jigs, 44: 12,59:6; magnetic stopblock, 19:22; portable mill, 33:41-43; preventing shaft collar damage, 46: 12; safe use of. 6:6, 73:6; small parts holder, 35; J 0; tire replacements, 24: 18

Barbaro, Cosmo, 77:42--43. 96:45 Barclay, John, 80:48

Bard Graduate Center (NY), 68:75 Barker.D, Scott, 17:66

Barker, lame, 87:55, 80

Barnard, Elizabeth, 39:36

Barnes, Craig, 60:27

Barnum, Andrew, 11 :60

barrel stave trays, 92: I 0

Barrett, Fred, 83:45

Barrett, Seth, 96:41

bars (restaurant), 19:32-38 Bartell, Michael, 5:70, 10:72, 13:67 Barth, David, 4:66

Barty. Taimj, 86:47,89:56 Bartz, lim, 49:50-57

baskets: bamboo masterworks exhibirion, 65:48-49; British trug, 76:70-72; Mnking Boxes, Baskets & Bowls (Asa), 24:33; white oak, 83:54-61

basswood, staining, 30:26

bat houses, 13:30 balch sawing, 13: 14 Batty, Alan, 92:50 Batty. Stuart, 92:50

Bauline Craft Guild (CA): "California Design", 16:66, 75:! 8, 77:40-41. 9l :46-47; "Design '89", L:48-53; history of, 66:68-71

Beals, Dan, 90:55

Bearce, Bud, 29:67 bearings, babbitt, 64:66-72 Beauchamp, Robert, 27:64,


Becker, James, 95:50 Becksvoort, Christian. 82:22-28 Bedgood, Kevin, 83:48

beds: convertible day-, 17:36-41; design to finished product, 77:64-(;8, 78:33-41; platform, 50:30-33,83:30--35: sled, 63: 14, 64-67; sleigh. 67:40-45; see also cradles

Behrens, Brenda. 7:67,18:67.23:71.,

26:54-56, 82:50 Behrens, Peter, 58:68 Bellm, Dan, 41 :57

belt sanders: adjusting Hacking, 17:14: cleaning tick, 59:4; cord safety, 93: 14; flattening a panel, 70:40-41; jig to make stationary, 50:6; types of, 70:39-40

belts: recycling gum rubber soles for cleaner, 4:24

bench dogs: clamping jig for, 72:62-64; improved, 58:4 bench hooks: adjustable, 15:20; improved. 41: 12, 53:4; three chock,59:4

benches: beginner's, 84:64-67; carving, 76:8; portable, 67:8; Shaker de ign,9:74-75

Bencomo, Derek, 45:48,61 :57 bending wood: angled kerfs. 6:22; lamination. curves, 90:62-65; steam fired hot pipe, 54:44-45; using form, 34:39; water methods, 27:54-55, 6J :36; see also team bending

Benenson, Peter, 47:54-59 Bennen.David W., 10:71

Bennett, Garry Knox, 3:69,50:52, 69:22, 70:52, 71: 14, 24-35. 80:40-4],95:45

Berger, Wayne, 25:73, 37:65 Bergman, Robert, 82:48

Berkeley Mill Work & Furniture Co. (CA), 13:32-38,22:69,95:44 Berkeley Public Library (CA),


Bertoia, Harry, 82:62 Betcher, Ron, 39:39,46:67 Bewe rni tz, B arb ala, 81:43 Beyer, Sue, 9:73

Bianchini, Richard, 4J :57 Sickel, John, 44:37

Bidou, Gerard., 77:48 Biederman, Charles, 82:62

Biedermeier style, 79:80 Biehler, Paul, 35:65, 39:58 billiards, 76:24-30,77:6 Biltz, Steve, 71 :71

Bird, Lonnie, 4:66 birdhouses, 11 :60 Birmingharn, Maggie, 94:46

biscuit joiners: modified, 84: 14; slot cuning jig for small parts, 73:8; using upside down, 33:16

biscuit joinery: Biscuit Ioiner Handbook (Foster), 4:28; reinforcing corner blocks, 31: 10; strength of, 32:24; using plate joiner, 1:74-77

biscuits: as clamp blocks, 15:22; resizing swelled, 28: 14; hrunken joints, 41:21; storage, 24:14 Bishop, Mark, 67:53

Bissell, Richard, 95:51

Simler, Eric, 14:59

Blachly, Ted, 93:69

bla ksrnithing: Tool Makillg for Woodworkers (Larsen), 64: 18; see also Yataiki

Blauers, Nancy, 12:54-55 bleaching: wenge, 15:12-14 Blixt, Nils, 65:56--57 blotching, stain, 50:60 Blouin, Stephan. 87:50

Blue Room Ga.llery (CA), 94:46-47 Blunk, J.B., 59:21-31. 65:47.


Blytbe, James S., 1:47

board lines: machine defect in lumber, 11 :51

Boase, Tony, 83:21

boats: Arques School, 47:48-53; can oe carvin g, 70: 54--{) 1, 71 :6; Delaware River oars, 20:52-57; Greek, 73: 18, half-full models, 90:66--70; Tire Norwegiall Sailing. Pram: A Completc Building Manulll (Watts). 12:32; Ultralight Boatbuitding. Willi Thomas 1. Hill (video), 10:30; Woodell Boat Bui/dillg Made Simple (Bonner), 16:72

Bodendorf Robert, 89:44 Bodenhorst, Cynthia, 60:57 Bodkin, Daniel, 74:53 Bogart, Ronnie, 39:59

Boggs Brian, 12:41-43,37:4,44:39,


Bollinger, Dan, 10:73,17:64,21:60 Bonham, Vern, 90;55

Bonvin, Alfrede, 25:67

book reviews: see finder specific topics

bookcases: Arts-and-Crafts-style, 66:34-4.1; double trapezoidal, 69:34-40; hand tool construction, 20:58-63; PI' pysian glass- fro n t, 42:45-52; radius, 40:36-40,49:18

bookmarching: panels. 26:69; veneer, 44:65

books: lamentable addiction, 7:77: readi ns I isr, 89:80, 98:72-76:

sources of, 57: 18 Borsan i, Osvaldo, 58:71 Bosch, Trent, 76:59 Bosley, Ed. 7:66

130 ton Furniture Symposium,


Boudreau, Joseph W., 7:67

bow saws, 8:22, 56:59,57:61-62 Bowie; James, 60:56

bowl turning: by Bob Stocksdale,

I: 16--21; centering, 8:28, 20: 15' chunk tool for, 3:33; English yew, 97:32-36; forging hook tools, 73:30-31; green stock, 28:36-37, 42:42-44.93:35-39; laminated scrap, 23:75; Let s Make a Bowl Lathe 6- Mobile Base (Tirnby), 22:24; mesquite, 17:48-53; practice on bargain bowls, 38:12; segmented, 48:73-'74; serpentine in cherry, 79:32-37; start co finish, 44:32-33; three-legged, .100:74-75; utility and fit, 84:80; wlo faceplate, 21:20

Bowland, Lynne, 5.5:48, 49

bowls: carving, 26:54-56, 65:58-65; Making' Boxes, Baskets 6- Bowls (Asa), 24:33; Making Wood Bowls with a Router 6- Scroll Saw (Spielman and Roehl), 20:24: utility and fit, 84:80: see also bowl turning

Bowman, Alton, 100:64 Bowman, wuus, 61 :68-71

bows, Northcoast Indian. J.6:36-42 box joints: see finger joints

boxes: angled slip feathers,

72;58-61, 74:6; The Art of Making Elegant Wood Boxes: Award Winnirlg Designs (Lydgate), 23:26; Arts-and-Crafts-style mailbox, 58:64-67; collector's, 32:64-65: compartmentalizing, 31 :62; computer disk, 48:31-36; desk, 22:57-62; "John Ruskin" 84:29-32; lathe-turned cherry, 69:54--58; Making Boxes, Baskets e- Bowls (Asa), 24:33; museumquality, j 7:30-- 5; pencil, 66:62-66; presentation, 63:29-33, 79:38-41; repairing broken lid, 26:26; rustic style, 99:60-64; from scrap wood, 79:61-63; Shakerstyle, 61:31-37, 62:20-21 63:14, 89:30-34; simple ewing, 42:35-41; slide viewer, 19:70-72; tackle, 5-sided. 21 :66-71, 25:6. 26:12; tiners, 91 :72-76; tongue and groove jewelry, 26:74--76; traditional pine, 18:56-60; Valentine, 86:42-45; wood carrier, 55:62-63; see also chests; jewelry boxes

Boyle, Brian, 21 :65 brackets, classical, 94:66--71 brads: holder for, 55:4

Brady, Robert, 5:36-39, 13:67 Brady, Robert, 100:38-39

brass: inlay, 17:42-47; turnings.



Braun, Scott, 68:34 Braverman, 1:52 brazilwood,62:75 breadboard, .100:43--47 Bressler, Mark, 76:59 Breton, Lynette, 61:74 Breznick, Joe, 95:51

Bridge City Tool Works (OR),


Bright, [oel, 52:54-55

Broernel, Amanda, 90:57, 98:45 Brolly, Michael, 38:62, 59: 71, 67:52,


Brookfield Craft Center (CT), 12:63 Brooklyn Museum, 16:67

Brooks, Jon. 89:59, 93:70

Brooks, Kingsley, 63:25--28

brooms: bench brush Irorn old,

18:20; self-standing push, 32: 16 Brower, Josh, 96:42

Brewing, Gordon, 21:37-39

Br wn, William, 67:36

Brt, Caryl, 51:70-76,81 :43 Brunelleschi, Pilippo: Santa Maria

del Piore dome design, 65:18-19 Brunner, Steve and Sherry, 52:68-71 brushes (applicator): disposable,

80: 14, 88: 12; keeping handy,

33: 18; recycling handles of disposable, 50: 10; removing dried glue, 37:6

brushes (cleaning): bench brush from old broom, 18:20; from veggil' scrubber, 45: I 0

Bryant, Anthony, 48:44, 50:40 Buchanan, Curtis, 38:61

Buck, Andy, 70:53, 78:42, 45. 79:69 buckets. coopering, 12:72-75 buckth rn, European, 67:46-49 Budlong, Jim. 60:55

Buechelle, Jessica R., 98:44 Buffard, Alexandre and Eugene,


Bullock, Neldon, 12:65 Bunnell, Henry, 9J:57

Burak. Edward Predrick, 3:69 Burch, Devore, 8:79, 14:57 Burchard, Christian. 15:63,37:62,

50:52, 76:59, 60, 67 bureaus: see dressers Burgoyne, Michael, 19:66 Burhans, Mark, 68:22-27 Burkett, Dan, 71 :70

burls, 92:60-63

Burma: preserving teak, 4:30,32,34, 36

burn-in sticks, 45:21

bum marks: machine defect in lum-

ber, 11:50

burnishers, 11 :.55-57 Burns, Brian, 11:73

BUTnS, Michael, 7:64 BUHus, Kevin, 86:50, 51 Burt.John, 48:62,53:20-30 Bushee, Pattie, 86:48

Bush ley, Nan, 4:69

b usiness SI ra tegi es: art Q f sellin g your art, 33:73-75; career paths, 72:35-40;costomers, 1 [:36-37; furniture collectors, 58:68-71; pricing decisions, 85:8; production run variety, 48:65-67; shop space rental, 28:28; Simplified Woodworking I: A Busmess Guide for Woodworkers (Benitez), 1.3:26, 14.:24; specializing, 47:.76; woodcarver's, 73:72-76; Warking at Woodworking: How 10 Organize \:'iJur Shop and Your Business (Tolpin), 11:24; working with a gallery, 45:60-63; working \ . vith the client, 64:73~75

Butler, Steve, 94:49 burt joints, 17:56-58

butterfly keys, I. j :64M15, 53:32-36 buttons: all-wood, 77:8-9; cutting,

12:25; maki 11[1 a better, 13:20 Buzek, Anthony, 15:60

Byers, John Eric, 78:45., 82:44


Cabaniss, Michael, 10:72

GI bi nets: Arts- and - Cra fts- s ryle white oak, 57:72-76; Cabinetry Brlsics (Alien), 14: 19; Cabinetry (Yoder), 15:28; chest of 8 drawers, 68: 18, 4()-47; child-proof VCR caddy, 55:65; Tile Complere J1IIIStra ted GIl ide to FII rnitu re and Cabillet Co ustruaion (Rae), 80: I 0; contemporary standing, 1:22-29: design development, 2:44-52; display case, 54:63-66; door rub blocks, 41: 10: drawer repair, 5: 16; eighteen th century TV chest,

3.1 :48-50; fluted half-columns on, 29:46-49; glass-front collector's, 43:47-5]; glazed credenza, 6:62-69: hangi ng wall, 36:26-29; hardware for Chinese-style, 53:62-65; The lmpractical Cabinetmaker (Krenov), 25:30: Japanese, 45:36-39, 71 :58-60, 71:41-48, 73:35-43: layout, 29:72-74: medicine chest, 12:68--70: necklace, 39:50-53; Oriental-style, 23:44-50; prototypical, 65:40; seethrough doors, 15:22; Shaker counter/stereo cabinet, 32:42-51: southwest style, 24:62-67; Spanish trasrero, 10:74--79; 111£ Victorian Cabinet-maker's AssislfIl'lt, 49:20; see a lSI) dressers: sid e b 03 rds

Calhoun, Tom,80:44

California Carver's Guild, 45:68--69 California. College of Arts and

Crafts- Worn ick Scholarship winners' 60:24--25,62: 18 (correc[ion), 67:38-39, 72:54--55, 78:46-47,85:48-49,91:50-52, 97:50-51

California. Contemporary Craft,


calipers: color-coding, 33:11 Callahan, W. Mickey, 59.: 18 Calleja, Stephen, 79:.48

Cam ere n, J ohn, 36: 54

Camp, Theresa,71:70

Campbell, Graham, 87:5] Campbell, Rochelle, 18:65,30:57 can crusher, 11 :76

candle holders: burlwood, 8] :30-34; from laminated scrap, 23:73-75; multi-axis, 94:30; sconces, 62.:32-35;. tapered bit for drilling, 26:20; turned oak,72:49-53

candle stands: octagonal, 65:66-71;

Windsor, 18:38-43 cane, bird-head, 93:56-58 caning; see weaving

Cantwell, Christopher, ] 2:62,

81:44-45 Capcy, Tom, 5:71

capitals, Scamozzi, 90:71-75 Capotosto, Ichn, 83:45 Carls, Bob, 43:64

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, 28:4, 30:4 Carpenter, Art, 1:51, 12:34-40,

57:16,89:59 Carpenter, Gale, 25.:71 Carr, AI, 100:65 Carrigy, Peler,64:45 Carroll, Michael, 36:51

carrousel horses, 2:28-33, 22:23-24,


Carter, Dave, 18:64

carts: mobile storage for shop, 57:6 carving: air chisel, 68;56-59; bench,

76:8; business strategies, 73:72-76; California Carver's Guild, 45:68-69; CarviHg a Carousel Horse: A Step-By-Step Guide will! Master Carver Darrell Williams, 22:23-24, Carving Clowns & Circus Wagons (Smith), 27:33; Cllrvil1g IIII' Liltle Sailors (Randich), 31:33: It\fildlife ill Wood (Lehman), 1.5:31;. chipcarving, 15:59; Cincinnati movement, 86:54-57; damping irregular objects, 51: 10; essential reference books, 73:76; glazing for 3-D effect, 29:28, 31:24;. green wood, 5:61, 26:54--56; Grinling Gibbons, 54:2S-31; i ntaglio, 51 :26-27:

Nature hi Wood (Lehman), 15:31; netsuke, 79:54--59; Northwest coast traditional, 9:50-53: running, 5:62-69;. SWHchil1g the Surface: An.CI!1t/ Conun: iT! Contempor(JIY Wood (Hosaluk), 78:42-45; Sculptor II! Wood: The Collecred Woodcarving5 of Fred Coge/ow, 13:28; surface, 100:76-81; lips,

92: j 4; sec al50 sculpture; whittling

carving projects: animals,8:.64-65, 12:54-55, 14:69, 23:54-55; ball and claw fool, 6:81-84, 31:38-39; birds, 12:54-55,. 14:69,23:54--55,

61 :44-51; "bowling pin" mallet, 63:8; bowls, 26:54--56, 65:58-65; canoes, 70:54-61,71 :6; carrousel horses, 2:28-33, 56:28-29; classical brackets, 94:66-71; on a cradle, 3:76-78; decoys, 46:70-75; images of first postage stamps, 82:6-7; jewelry box, J 00;32-37; knee shell cabriole leg, 36:35; Jove spoons, 85:5~59; masks, 68:48-55; mother figures. 51:54--57; pulls, 77:56-58; rosettes, 54:32-36; SCam07.7j capitals, 90:71-75; Spanish feet, 30:68-69; Victorian wall pocket, 95:39-43

carving tools: overview, 51:58: sharpening, 5:64-65, 10: 16, 96:57; tray for, 88:64M15

Caspar, Tom, 39:35, 38,41 :49-50 Castle, Wendell,9:57, 58:52, 65:45,

66:24-33,7.1:74,89:56,74,92:22 castors: simple locking, 34:16 catches (turning). 55:58-61

caulk: storage, 20: 15

cedar, 79:4·9-53

Cederquist, fohn, 5:72, 50:20-29 Center for Furniture Craftsmanship

(M E), 47:74--75, 83:6

centers: cylinders, 42:4; finding on boards, 7:22,97: L4; punching accurately, 43.: 14; shop-made locator, 48:4; steel square for finding,81:12

chai n saw mills: portable, 33:47-48 chair projects: cane, 82:52--60; children's pet-shaped, 15;46-51; dining, 71 :36-44, 88:32-41, 97:54--61; Duncan Phyfe, 51:28--31, 52:30-35; Enfield, 39:64--71; folding Savonarola, 96:72-76; Glastonbury, 21 :37-39; from green wood, 37:3(}-36, 47:24-28; ladderback, J 2;41-43,44--53; log, 22:54--55; Mackintosh, 97:54-61; Ming Dynasry arm, 53:48-54; Queen Anne side, 9:37--44; recliners, 21 :34~35; sewing,82:72-76; Shaker-style, 34:36-4 I; twig and willow, 30:72-74; Welsh stick, 37:37-43; see also rocking chairs; settees: weaving chair seats; Windsor chairs

chairs: African, 95:80; Appalachian makers, 69:48-53, 70:6; damping rungs, 29:20: Jack Hill's Coulltry Chair Makillg (Hill), 25:33; by Ieffrey Dale, 16:30-35;. ",fake 11 C/Jair from a Tree (Alexander) (video), 63: 18; Milwaukee Art Museum Chair Park, 91:53-59; modular templates, 16:34-35: repairing, .19:20, 43:55; resizing tenons,

38: 16; rung mortises, 47:.8- J 0, 63:51-56; Samuel Gragg, 97:80, 98: 1 0; scraper for maker, 45:51-59; tilting feet, 47:30-35;


see also rocking chairs; Windsor chairs

chalice, greenwood, 76:73~77 Chalmers, Richard, 11 :68 Chamblin, Doug, 70:51. Chappelow, William V" 66:56 Charlot, Gerard, 74:64--69 Chartier, Tyler, 94:50

Chase, John, 24:73

Chase, Sam, 93:67

Chatelain, Robert, 13.:69, 31:54 chatter marks: machine defect in

lumber, ! 1 :51

cherry: lightening, 24:8,26:6; splotching from tung oil, 29:30

chests: bachelor, 13:58--62, !4:24; bow ITonl,99:34-41; campaign, 49:64-68; display, 67:68'-71: nat and bonnet reps, 85:80; heirloom blanket, 7:70-78, 8:6,.9:8; jewelry, 80:.49-51; machinist's, 33:64-65; medicine, 12:68-70; Shaker document, 70:34-38,72;8; six-board, 35:42-45; small period, 95:58-64: storage, 8:56-63; tool, 84:46-50; see (J lso boxes: dressers

Chicago Design Show, 58:50-55 Chikebesai, Maeda, H,65.:49 Chikuun, 65:49

Chilcote, Dennis, 76:45,90:5.2 Chilcott, Scott, 84.:38, 94:50 children: starting woodworking

young, 84:6-7; woodworking with,84:51-55,98:8

Chinn, Tina, 40:64, 76:47 chip-carving, 15:59

chip indentaricns: machine defect in lumber, II. :51

Chipstone Foundation; history of, 83:80; "Skin Deep: Three Masters of American Inlaid Furniture'; 83:66-71

chisels: air, 3:41, 68:56-59: grinding angles for, 39:4.2; guards, 53:6; handle replacement, 56:4; rack for, 91 :.12; sharpening, 40:33, 50:63-67, 63.:34-38, 39--41, 96:53-57; sharpening jig, 25:56--57; shop-made,6o.:4

Chism, Arthur 0_, 56:48 Chitwood, Bri,111, 45:50

Chong Partners Architects, 95:44 chontaquiro, 52:28-29

chopping blocks, 89:.12 chopsticks as all-purpose tools,


Chris, Rowe, 100:.41

Ch ristensen, Kip, 59:49 Christenson, Kip, 92:50

CIl ris rmas trees: recycl i ng in to table, 61 :68-71

chuck keys: storage.Tl: 12,16: 18,


Chudy, Rick, 76:24--30, 77:6 Churchill, Ray, 97:48 Cincinnati carving movement,


c i rcles: see curves

circular saws: cut-spacers for, 12:25; overview. 80:71-73; Porter Cable 314,81:6; shooter board, 33:16; tsquare jig for wide stock, 7:26; using Guidice's system. 82:6

Cizek, Les, 12:66,60:56

clamp blocks: deep throated. 26:20; for edge gluing, 9: 1 0; Hornasore, 66:6; for long board. 65:8; taping, 32:18

damp pads: for band clamps. 19:24; biscuits as, 15:22; carpeting,

16:20; garage door weatherseal, 42:6; leather. 26:22, 32:18; magnetic sheets, II: 12,23: 14; nonstick polyethylene, 68:8; plastic milk jugs, 100: 10; pressure pads, 46: 10; replacing deformed, 25: 18: for roundover edge, 37:6: for vise. 40:8; wooden, 25:12,27:16; wrapping with foil, 66:4

tamping: chair rungs. 29:20; circular pieces, 83: 14: duration or, 44:22-25: edge-glued veneer, 32:36-37; horses, 84:4~5: irregular objects, 51:10; pie-shaped pieces. 95: 14; third hand holder. 35:14; weights for, 22:14

damping jig: for small pieces, 93:72-73; workbench, 72:62-64

damps: adjustable-mount toggle, 36:6; band, 19:24,98:13; bar. 43:10,84: 12; binder clips, 79: 12; for delicate projects, 49:8; for edge gluing, 12:16, 14:12. 16:15,28:14: elastic band, 40:8, 95:J 4; extending, 27:20; grip improvement, 85:14; guide for comer, 14:12; hand screws, 67:4, 92: t2; homemade surface, 2:24; hutchiks, 12:16,16:15; peg lamp, 41:72-73; picture frame miter, 50:8.: pi nch, 28: 14; quick-release hose, 28: 16, 8]: 10; rope for mitered frames, 39:6; hop-made. 9:76-77, 14: 12; specialized and unusual. 4:48-54; storage, 12:24,51:6; threaded wooden, 24:56; see also pipe damps

Clancy. Bob, 81 :72, 86:48 Clark, BilJ, 75:35

Clark Gallery (MA): "Carved and Painted Surface': 78:42-45; Judy McKie, 80:42-43

Clark, lames, 59:69-70

Clark. Timothy, 95:51 larke, Albert, 28:56 Clarty, raig.60:57

cleaners: all purpo e, 100: 10; hand, 5:20

Clear Spring School: comrn unity woodworking project, 86:42-45

clocks and clockcases: freestanding wooden, 35:72-75; history of timepieces, 91:80; marquetry, 27:72-75; pillar and scroll.

13:40-46; Roxbury-style.

55:3 7~J; sandglass, 71 :54--57, 72:25. 73:6: tall. 19:62-63; turned bracket, 91:60-63, 92:6, 93:6; turned finial, 88:28

clog dolls, 49:50-57

coaster, wine bottle, 75:72-76,78: 13 coated abrasives: see sandpaper Cobb, Charles, 6:74, 16:54-55.

17 :65, 61 :58-59 Cobb, Landes. 84:61 Cochran, Dylan, 87:50 Cochran, Randy, 99:43

cocobolo wood: treatment before varnishing, 23: I 0

coffee tables: butler's tray table, 28:48-52,33:6; contemporary, I :60-63; convertible, 70:68-71; with drawers, 19:58-60; "tribal ': 87:62--67

Cogelow, Fred: Sculptor in Wood; Tile Collected Waodcarvillgs of Freel Cage/DIY, 13:28

Coleman, Timothy, 93:67 College of the Redwoods (CA):

James Krenov, 11 :74-75; student S]10W, 7:64,12:66,36:50-54. 60:56-57; value of program, 84:6; "Wood Fair': 25:74-76, 4.6:32-34

Colliau, Jennifer, 91:50

color: adjustment with toner, 82:35; Baushaus education, 92:80, 93:6; dcrnystifying, 92:32; matching, 64:76 77:32-34

columns: fluted half-, 29:4.(j-49;

veneered,62:43-46 Colwell, David, J 00:61 Combs, Don, 66:58

Comins, Jerem.y, 27:67. )·4:6l. 39:61, 43:64.71 :52,74:55,83:47,92:46 compound angle: see splayed joints compressors, air: anti-vibration mat, 80: 14; empty glue bottle.


Condran, Brian, 36:51

cones: Lamil1atinK the Conic Frustrum (Nisbet), 11:8 Contemporary Jewish Museum (CA),95:44--45

COI1(raCI Design Center (CA),

J6:66 75;18

Cook. Billy S., 7:67

Cook, ick, 5:71,15:65 Cook. Randy. 15:65

Cooper, Jeffrey, 93:70 Cooper, Michael, 49:69-76 coopering buckets, 12:72-75

oping aws, 56:59 Corbin, Marjorie, 14:58 Corp, Trevor, 62:37 Corrow. Jim, 90:53 Cosman, Robin G., 10:72 counterboring, 25:20 countersinking, 96: 19

ountry Workshops (NC), 74·:56--61

Cousins. Vernon, 22:67

cove detail: cutting with tab I esaw, 1:61

Covello, Cristina, 100:41

cradles: carved mortise and tenon, 3:74-78; herry, 80:30-33; rontemporary, 14:48-53; traditional, 20:42-47

craft: versus art, 39:72-75; combined with art, 62:47-49

Craft and Folk Art Museum (CA). 14:61

Craftsman style: dining table, 97:37--44; front door, 91 :66-71; rocking chair. 90:38-46, 91:34-40, 96:10

Cramer, Dan, 4J :51-52 Cramer, David, 19:61

ranfield, Elias, 21 :65 creativity,34:74-75 credenza, 6:62-69 Crist, Frederic, 55:46

Croatia: Mundus Furniture Factory.


Crocirto, Nick, 14:60 Cronan, [erry, 19:64

crosscutting: accurate, 32; 12: with bandsaw, 77:9; box for tablesaw, 38:4,39: 12; boxes. 35:38-39 Crossfield. Ted, 55:49

Crossman. Randy, 24:74 Crowder, Keith, 1:47 Cruce, Gary, 26:66 cubbies, 78:68-72

cue sticks, 76:24--30, 77:6 Cullen, Michael, 17:67,20:67,

35:30-39,48:63,61 :40,75:71. 76:46,84:39,91 :47,93:54, 99:70-71

Cumberland Furniture Guild (TN), 87:50-5].99:42-43

Cummings, Prank E., 111.25:74-75,


cupping: minimizing effects of, 3:78 curing, pressure, 42:42-44

Curle, And rew, 55:46, 49

curling ir n stand, 20:74-75

curtain fixtures, 85:53-57

Curtis, Daniel. 36:53

Curtis, [onn, 2:53-57

curves: arcs, 26:39-43, 27: 14, 89:J 2; with battens and trammels, 26:51; beading with router. 58;60-63; circle-cutting jigs, 26:38, 59:6, 60:8, 72: 10; ci rcle marker, 46:8; drawing with steel square, 82:!O; hand-shaping for furniture, 97:62--66; large radius gauge, 88:8; ovolo, 41:42; templates for drawing, 13:12,23:18,30: IQ; works by Michael Puryear, 40:46--49; see also bending wood

Cutler. Newt, 5:73 Cutler, Robert J •• 67:22 cutting, batch, J 3: 14

cutting gauge. 16:43-45,39:10 cylinders: boring holes in. 34:24-29;

pocket cen ter finder, 42:4;


smoothing, 20: 16 Cypiot, Priscilla, 77:40 Czuk, Peter. 12:62


Dabelstein, Mark, 81:71

dado head cutters: shim for, 17:18 dado joints: grooving small parts.

68:4; with hand tools, 20:60-{) I; hiding on shelves, 21:20; making, 67:65--67: t-square guide, 71 :8; types of, 66:72-75

Daggett, Barry; 75:46

DaYd~, Rene and Pierre, 25:58--66, 27:4

Dairy Bam Southeastern Ohio Cul-

tural Arts Center, 3:70-71 Dale, Jeffrey, 16:30-35, 20:66 Dali, Salvador, 65:46 Dallorso, Joe, 68:37

Daniell, Stephen, 44:40 D·Anjole.1l. Chris, 98:44 Darby, Joyce A., 8:79 D'Avella, Matthew, 52:57 David, Ron, 72:73

Davidson. Josh, 73:55

Davis, Andel, 78:50-5 1,94:51 Davis. Deni e, 50:52

Davis, Richard, 4:69

De Mooy, Petra, 71:46

De Stijl movement, 82:80 Dean, Peter S .. 3:69

DeCarlo. Paul, 28:59

decoys: carving, 46:70-75 Del Guidice, Mark, 73:58

Del Mano Gallery (CA), 11:70,

37:62-63, 48:44~6 Dclhon, Christian. 77:52 Delthcny, David, 98:46--47 DeMott, john, 64:27 Dennis, Michael, 58:55 dent repair, 89: LO

depth gauges: long, 64:6

design: Appearance (IUd Reulity: A Visual H(:wrlbaok jor Artists, Designers and Makers (Hogbin), 66:22; Archirnedic body,

54:47-54; aspects of structure, 82:61-65; big picture, 90: 18; chalk drawing on floor, 34: 14; client presentation. 30:~8; Creative Designs ill Furniture, 17:26; creativity, 34:74-75; development of, 2:44-52,51 :32-38; finishes as part of, 51 ;39-42; form. 90:80, 100:92; half-full models. 90:66-70; history of style, 83:72-76; icosahedrons, 56:J6; joys of the simple, 64:63--65; Laminating the Conic Frustrum (Nisbet), 11:8; ovals/ellipses, 62:20-21,63: 14; from paper to fum iture,

99:46--48; portable drawing set, 89:41; Principle of omplementary Angles, 79:8-10; process, 85:30; proportions, 72:80; proto-

typical furniture. 65:39-47; Santa Maria del Fiore dome by Brunelleschi, 65: 18-19; Shaping Wood (Hackett), 19:29; steps in, 24:49-51, 26:4,46:39-41; supercircles. 65:33; uperegg, 65:18-19; trapezoidal. 69:34-40; understanding, 28:53-55; Warren May all, 36:36-37: see also Golden Mean: plans

de ks: box, 22:57-62; comparrrnents, 78:68-72; dust panels,

j 7:68; frame and panel, 33:49-51; pencil holder, paperweight set, 7:60-63; planning a design, 24:49-51; portable drawing set, 89:41; Ray Plane, 69:64-69: from recycled wood, 76:31-35; secretary, 4:70-78; Shaker-style dropfront. 36:38-46; single plank. 96:32-37; split rail writing, 3:44-49; combination, 5:40-43; trapezoidal. 69:39

D'Esposiro, hris, 90:56 DeWolf, John T., 12:65

Di ataldo, Luigi. 43:52-56 Di Novi, Victor, 3:34-41 dial indicator holder, 20: 14 Dickerman. Wally, 92:50 Diemert, Robert. 66:68 Dilcher, r, 80:45

Dimon, Carl. II :73, 15:62 Dininny, Richard, 67:36 Dinovi, Victor, 77:41 Discce, Paul, 2:58

discs: recycling gum rubber sales for cleaner. 4:24

disk sanders: adapting lathe as, 31:20; adjustable circle jig, 72;10: balancing, 52:6; circle-cutting jig. 60:8; extending life of discs, 6;20

display ca es, 67:68-71 display rack, wall, 55;67 distressing, 75:8, 76:6 Ditmer, Judy, 45:22-31 Docking, William, 4:68 Dodd, John, 44:4] Dodge, Robert, 2:59

dogs. bench: clamping jig for, 72:62-64: improved, 58:4

dollies: furniture. 35;71; for moving plywood, 11 :20, 38: 10; timberbuilt hand truck, 75:50-51. 80:6 dolls: dog, 49:50-57; traditional

Naruko, 83:50-53

Donahue, Brian, 39:60

Donovan, Neil, 14:61,72:76 doors; Craftsman-style, 91 :66-71;

exterior finishes, 46:66; flattening, 54:45-46; frame and panel, 1:64-69: glazed, 6:70-71; jack for planing, 25: 16; Japanese temple. 60:74-76; see-through for cabinets. 15:22; setting hinges, 36: 14, 48:68-71; varnishing shortcut, 4:4,6

Dorsch, Carl, 39:61

Dotson, Virginia, 13:68,72:73, 76:66,85:62

dovetail saws: from Independence Tool, 57:62; selecting, 38:29: sliding, 57:63-65

dovetails: basics of, 7:52-59; for carcasses, 7:56-57; cleaning corners. 84: .12; The Complete Dovetail (Kirby), 74:8; decorative, 7:59; design and proportions, 35:43-44: double, 18:74, 19:47,20:8; Dovefail a Drawer (Klausz) (video), 74:8; Dovetails Made Simple (Kingshott) (video), 52: 14, 74:8; drawer slides, 48:26-27: halfblind. 32:43-46, 48:54-56, 70:44-45; half pins or half tails, 72:8,74:6; hand-cut, 48:31-36; Hand-CIII Dovetails (Cosman), 74:8; hidden lapped, 7:55-56; housed, 7:57-58; Klausz workshop 011, 74:32-36: lapped, 7:55: laying out, 7:54-55, 36:12; marking gauges, 37:71, 61:6; miter combo, 98:61; paring jig, 20:40; rou ter table-cu t, 3:49; secret miter, 42:50-51; sliding, 23:45-48, 24:44-45, 27:36-37,32:46-48, 38:64-67; sliding bolder, 3:49; slot, 7:57; splayed, 17:61; ternplate, 93:74-76; th tee-way, 28:70-C71; through, 7:54-55, 47:37-42

dowel jigs: for holding, 93: 10, 94:6; product review, 8:43-49: for staves 92: I 0

dowel joinery: drawbacks of, 40:63; baker ide table, 30:49-53

dowels: center remover, 25: 14; cutter for lathe. 13: 16, finding center, 53:6; grooving, 8:1.8, 25:20, 92:14; holder for working on, 28: 16: pocket center finder. 42:4; from recycled foam brush handles,

50: 1 0; slotted for dry assembly, 68:8; steel cross, 32:40-41; threading, 24:52-57; turning with router, 12:24: see also cylinders

Downs, Paul, 40:65

dozuki (Japanese razor saw),


Draper, Addie, 72:75 drawer pulls: see pulls

drawers: ball bearing guides, 33: 12; construction, 32:49-5 J; design history, 10:48-53; desk, 78.:68-72; Dovetail a Drawer (Klausz) (video), 74:8; dovetail slides, 48:26-27; dust panels. 17:68; making and fitting, 48:47-57: movable divider, 51 :4; repairing worn rides, 5: 18; router-cut joint. II: I 0; ide tack from scrap wood, 13:8; under-sink roll-out, 31: 12. 34: 18; see oiso pulls

drawing holder. 10: 14 drawing set. porta ble, 89:41

drawknives: basics of, 20:74, 53:66-71; mi ro, 48:20; shaping legs, 8:8; sharpening, 65:] 0; sources for. 53:71

dressers: 314- cale highboy, 46: 14; antique-style vanity, 41 :74-76; drawer repair, 5:16; dust panels, 17:68; lowboys. 24:4l-48, 26:8, 31:40-41; Queen Anne highboy, 85:33-39,86:29-37,87:31-39; restoring 19th century chest, 56:42-47; haker cupboard over drawers, 38:34-39; see also chest

drill bits: brad point, 84; 13-14; making tapered, 50:8; storage, 14:8,39:4; tapering, 26:20

drill brace: as toolbox handle, 7:20 drilling: angled borings. 39:6; pilot for enlarging holes, 7: 25, 11: 12

drillpress: checking for square,

97: 12; fence, 24:57, 70:73; homemade wood pliers for, 33: 10; mortise and tenon joints with, 5:56-58; mounting jig for handheld tools, 21:73-75; preventing dust buildup, 23:20; sanding jig 64:8; speed 0 ,45: 1 0; support for irregular pieces, 97;12; tables,

24: 16. 54:4, 70:8. 72, 82: II; tapping guide for, 90: 18; v-block mounted on reverse side, 43: 12; vertical boring jig, 51:8

drills: base for, 94: 12; recydi ng chucks for pin vises, 2:68-69; tighter chucks, 85: 14; see also hand drills

drive belts; guards for, 64:60-62 drive bi IS: usi ng in ratchets. 6: 12 Driver, Armin, 60:57, 65:50--53 drum sanders: adapting lathe as,

16:16,31:20; dust collection,

17: 12, 26:22; sanding box for dust reduction, 40:6; from ten-penny nail,14:8

dryi ng wood: ESP '90 process, 15:70-73; green wood, 26:54--56; kiln-drying versus air-drying. 27:28, 33:45, 88:62-63, 89;57; kilns 53:55--61,99;55-59: knockdown rack for, 78:73; microwave oven, 10:60; pressure curing, 42:42-44; reconstituting, 54:46; in sealed bags, 36:63: stacking technique, 33:44-45; sun-dried. 53:55-61

Dunkley, Dave, 55:48

Dunnigan, John, 70:23

Dupon r, Brad, 10:68

Dupont, Don, 1 :42-45

Durfey, Virginia Leigh,42:59 DOring, Stefan, 32:52-57,100:60--61 du t collection: adapter for lathe.

9: L8i air filtration units, 28:27-28; automation, 91 :41-4-5,92:6-8, 93:6-8.94:8; bag straps, 53:4; handsaws, 43: 12; blast gate controls, 98:72-76; box for, 4:22, 40:6;


carpet-top bench, 97: 18; cyclone eparator, 71:12-13; filter, 40:12; or hand-held devices, 94:61-64, 99:10; magnetic starters, 91:6; More Wood Dusr SOII/NOIlS (Timbv), 26:33: Oneida Cyclone, 27:29-30; plastic container adaptor. 52:4; PVC pipe for, 95: 19; replacement bags, 53:4; sanding fixture, 93: 1.4; six small systems reviewed, 13:50-54, 14;4,24; small shops solutions, 69:70-76, 70: 1 0-12; system accessories. 13:55-57; vacuum for drum sander. 17: 12. 26:22; vacuum sweep, 87:8; water pans, 45: 1 0; A WoodDllst Solutioll (Timby), 26:33

dust masks: and eyeglass fogging,


dust panels, 17:68 Dustin, Dan, 66:57

DweLling School of Wood (Australia),74:52-53

dyes: see stains

Dykens, Elmer A., 4:64


easel: artist's, 27:46-50; saw blade display; 37: 10

Eason, Allene, 93:68

East Tennessee Woodworkers'

Gulld, 90:54-55

Eastman, Frank, 28:58, 30:62, 96:41 ebonizing wood, 26:24

Eckert. COlt, 71 :47

Eckert, Tom. 71 :70

Economaki, John, 42:68-72

edge banding. 48:37-42

edge joinery, 1;6; basics of, 22:58; clam p align men t, t 7: 16; clamp blocks, 9: 10; doweled, 35:42-43; five ways. 8:58;. hand planing, 49:42-45; hutchik damps, 12:16, 16:15; shop made damps for,

l4: L2; testing, adj usting board for, 9:61; veneer, 13: 10,43:31

edge trimming: inside corners, 99:12~13; jigs, 98: [4-15

education: Baushaus, 92:80, 93:6; career paths, 72:35-40; Sloyd system, 88:66-71, 80, 90:6, 94:52-55, 96:8~1O: teaching woodworking, 76:39-43,94:6,96:8,1.2.97: 10; value of, 84:56-58, 87:6; woodshop, 67:60-64, 98:8-10: see also schools

Edwards, W. Patrick, 20:28-33, 67:35

Eifert, D.G., 19:69

Eileen Krernen Gallery (CA), 12;62, 15:65,23:71

electricity: safety and, 18:75; transformers, 99: 1 0; transient voltage. 94:65,97:10,98:10-12; wiring safety, 18:75

Elkan, Michael, 45:63

Elliott. Dennis, 3:71, 5:71, 6:74 (attributed to Bill Hunter), Il:70, 27:66,30:59, 76:62, 80:46, 96:44 Ell ison, Susan, 16:65 28:61

Ellsworth, David, 45:47,48, 67:20,


elm, 39:62-63

Elvig, Glenn, 13:69 Emerson, Robert, 68:37

Emma Lake, Saskatchewan: "Breaking Barriers" 55:44-50

enamel, oil, 97:31

end tables: contemporary, 5:44-46; drop-leaf, 34:48-52; Span ish style, 4:46-47

endgrain: avoid showing on shelves, 33:14; gluing, i 1:64-65; hand

p I ani n g, 11:1 0; screwing in to. 8: 14 Endo, Miyano B,li, 81 :19

England, Keith, 21 :63

English Arts and Crafts movement,


engraving, wood, 57:22-31 Engstrom, Brad, 72:36, 79:67 epoxy: see adhesi VI'S; fillers ergonomics: Carpal Tunnel Syn-

drome, 28:4, 30:4 Erickson, Robert, 1:53, 8:78,

21 :30--36,48:6'1, 59:20, 63:46 Eriksmoen, Ashley, 62:40--41, 75:47,


Brlandson.Axel, 100:59 Erlandson, Hakan, 12:67 Eroyan, Gary, 11:64

Escoulen, lean-Francois, 55:48. 49,

67:52,72;72,77:47,87:24-30 Esherick, Wllarl'on, 89:72,100:60 Esterly, David, 54:22-27 Bsworthy. Iames, 21:60 eucalyptus, 18:61-63

European buckthorn, 7:46-4·9 exhibits, creating, 81 :76

Exton, Peter, 44:36

eyeglasses: anti-fogging, 12:14, L6: L5; anti- tatic,44:8


Faegre, Tor, 67:49

Fagella, George, 39:26--31 Fahey, Crystal, 26:66 Faison, David, 54: 14, 16

fan tops (partem), 61:38-43 Farrell, K. W., 1:48 Farruggia, Mike, 94:46 Fasnacht, Heide, 16:67

Fay, David, 48:60

featherboards: kickback and, 56:4, self-adjusting. 12:22; springloaded, 72: 12, 75:6

Fechin, Nicolai Ivanovich, 44:70-75 feet: ball and claw, 6:81-84,76:96; faucet washers for, 64:6; Spanish, 30:68-69; tilting, 47:30-35; see also legs

fence slop: aluminum, 22:56

Fennell, ]. Paul, 45:49 Fcrola, lee, 6:76,12:63

Ferrari, Roy and Teresa, 35:72-75 Ferrazzutri, Adrian, 100:60 Ferrier, Michael, 13:71

files: cleaning, 17:14,62:6; safe edging, 62:6; sharpeni og, 92:12; storage, 53:4, 91 :14

fillers: epoxy, 27:28-29, 28:4, 29:4; lye-stained cherry, 21: 16; pastewood, 47:4H7; resin, 85:45; shop-made, 25:14, 38:6; Super Glue, 51:10

Finch, Steven, 22:66

finger joints: hand-cut. 60:6; jig for long boards, 6:14; measurement jig, t5: 18; presentation box, 79:38--41; radial arm saw-cut,

L8: 1.6; with tablesaw, 55:62-63; tablcsaw-cui, 2:39-40

fingerboards, 88:12, 90: 12

finishes: bonding, 44:46; choos-ing, 14:70--75: color matching, 64:76, 77:32-34; coloring water-based, 67:8; crackled, 74:62-63; crosshatch adhesion test, 68:76; curing of film, 8:80--84, 9:45--49; for curting board, 29:33; differing

results, 44:25; gesso,78:76; gilding, 58:32-37; gouache. 97:3 J;

Hut Wood Pinish, 11 :6; Kelzer's test kitchen, 51:59-60; for kitchen table, 29:33,45: 19; Manual of Millwork, 31:3 J; mixi ng aids, 26:14; mixing containers, 90:12; moisture vapor excl usicn of, 40:61; no-drip can lid, 71:) 3; nontoxic, 48:20; as part of furniture design, 51:39-42; pencil hardness lest, 62:76, 63: 15; penetration for decoration. 44:42--46; primers, 50:61-62; pr tection qualities, 44:46; rejuvenating, 100:57; removing, 24:8, 26:6: rubbing, 27:41 5; sealers, 23:40--41, 31 :26, 50:58-59; storage, 37: 10; toners for color adjustment, 82:35; Understanding Wood Finishing (Flexner), 26:32; walnut oil, 50:19; water-based, 33:24, 34:58,35:22; water-based gloss, 33:8; wipe-on, 6:52-56, 31 :28, 34:53-59; wood bleach, 42:22-24; "Wrap It Up'; 51:60--61; see also names oJ 5pecific types of finishes: solvents; thinners

finishing; application defects, 87:57-61; darkening wood, 10:42; distressing, 75:8; ecologically correct, 1 6: 68--{)9; exterior wood, 46:62-66; flat sheen, 53: 1.4; opengrained wood, 80:59-63; plugging dowel holes before, 63:6; repairing color damage, 59:38-41; sanding between coars, 27:30; on. slow turning lathe, 22: 16; supports for, 20:16,27;20.35: 14,64:6; surface prepara tion, II :52-53; top ten

rules for 69:41-43,71:6; two sides simultaneously, 4:4, 12:12; Under- 5te11/ding WI!ad Finishing (Plexner), 26:32; Wood Repair; Fillishi',g, Refillislriflg (Fitchett), 3:80; see also polishing; Staining

Finkel, Douglas. 59:44, 67:53, 54 fire hardening wood, 27:76

f re prevention: see safety Firmager, Melvyn, 30:63, 50:45,


f rst aid: eye kit, 35:6; hand nicks,


Fisher, Kenneth, 91:53-59 Fisher, Ray, 81:72

fishing net, 7:80--8J

Firz, John, L9:61

fixtures: SCI' jigs

Flanagan, Mike, 34:65,38:42-47 Flannery, Eddy, 12:63 Fleishman, Gregg, 9:70

Fleming, Peter, 65:44, 7L :47,81 :50 Fleming, ROil, 11:70,28:57,64:48,

76:61, 85:61

Flexner, Bob, 49:20

floor mats, 83:14,87:10 floor-vent cover, 18:54-55 fluting jig, 82:40

Flynn, D. Leo, 10:69 Fobes, David, 90:58 Fogarty, Bridget, 90:57

Fojut, Bob, 4:64, 8:79 (incorrectly

identified as Paul)

folk art, wed ish, 65:54-57 Pollansbee, Peter, 89:45, 93:26-34 Pollen, Ed, 42:59

Pong, Sammy, 81 :42

footstools, 83:39--43, 92:74-76 Forbes, Brian, 9:69

Ford, Dale C., 100:64

Ford, Richard, 55:48

forest fires, 81:70-76

crest Heritage Center (Australia), 74:52-53

forest industry: Conservation by Design (Landis), 28: 0; exotic woods, 89:6-7; Fe rest Stewardship Council, 81 :52-57, 80; gap forestry project in Peru, 2:53-57:

"Good Wood" movement, 32:70--74; Healthy Forests Initiative, 83:8; overview, 48: 18; preserving teak in Burma, 4:30, 32, 34, 36; wood S u.fces,44:20-22

Forster, Charles, 8:75, 14:61 Fortescue, Donald. 73:60-61, 76:47 Fortune, Michael, 49:47,66:69,70,


Poster, Clay, 64:49

4th Street Guild (MN), 41:46--54 Fox, Henry, 44:36--37

Fox. ] ohn Reed, 4:67, 44:40, 46:22-31

frame and panel construction: squaring jig, 33:14; using shaper, 26:61,33:49-51

frame and panel design, 6:64-67,



frames: assembly fixture, 43:8; clamping mitered, 39:6; see also minors; picture frames Francis, JOIl, 37:65, 55:52-53 rank, Edgar B., 5:74

Fredell, Gail, 45:70--75, 68:73-74,


Frederick, Sandra, 86:48 Freedman, Tom, 7:65, 8:75 Freeman, Sumner, 24:72 fret saws, 56:59

Prey, Ibm, 1.6:65

Fry, Miles, 16:64

Fuetsch, Anton, 2:28-]3 Punatsu, Yoko, 84:61

urniture: American painted, 96:80; art-carved, 86:54-57; aspects of structure, 82:61-65; care of, 25:50-53,26:10; classical Chinese, 53:43--47; collecting, 58:68-71; computer, 6:41-43: edge protection, 63:8; h istory of style, 83:72-76; language or, 89:76; log, 22:52-56,24:4; or art, 47:66-72; Portuguese country, 82:72-76; prototypical, 65:39-47; researching historical, 93:80; rustic style, 76:68-69; shipping, 42:62-67; "story': 84;59-63; studio,

79:66-7 J, 89:7 L-75, 98:52-56; twig and willow, 30:72-74; see also antique furniture; names of specific 'ypes mul styles of Jllmitllre

furniture books: Art Nouveau, 1890- /914 (Greenhalgh), 66:14-22; Tim Book of haker Furniture (Kassay), 30:30; Buildi"g a House/III of Fllrniture (Watts), 75:20; Tire Complete Book ofSlwker Furniture (Rieman and Burks), 30:33; TIII~ Complete Illustrated Guide to Furniture and Cabinet Omstructioll (Rae), 80:10; ContemporaryStudio Case furniture: Tire Jnside Story, 79:19; Creative Designs in Furuiture, 17~26; Furniture Projects (Wales), 21:27; Furniture Studio:

Tile Heart of 1I1e Punctiona! ArlS (Kelsey and Mastelli), 61 :20; FII(niture Studio: Tradition hi COIItempomry Furniture (MasleUi and Kelsey), 79:19, 66--71; Muki/lg Rustic Furniture (Mack), t 7:29; Repairing fwd Restoring Furniture (Taylor), 23:28; Two-by-Four FUfniture (Henderson), 23:26

The Furniture Collective ( ntario):

Stool Show, 71 :46--47

furniture shows: curating, 85:67 The Furniture Society, 49:46--47, 78:48-49; « A Cultural dys ey': 71 :68-76; "East Meets West:

Visions Beyond the Horizon", 54:55-62; "Old and New Cornmunities" 66:67-71; "The ircle Unbroken; Continuity and lnno-

varion in tudio Furniture", 61:72-76


Gabo, Naum, 82:62

Gadway, Kenneth, 62:38, 76:48,

83:48, 89:60

Gallegos, Roberto, 81 :73

Gallery NAGA (MAl. 80:42-43 Gallery of Pine Woodworking (CA).

26:62-63, 33:66-71

GalLis, john, 75:48-49, 80:47 game table, 95:32-38, 96:8, 97:8 Garbarino, Paula, 51:43

Garcia, Fahiane, 51:48-53, 55:47,


garden gate, 85:72-76 Gardner, Mark, 66:57

Garrett, Dewey, 15:63, 18:68,32:63,


Gartzka, Rob, 47:66-72, 85:67 Gasperetti, Bob, 95:S1 Gaston, Ben, 28:58

Gaston, Blaise, 79:22-31

Ga ton, Jeff, 28:58

gate, garden, 85:72-76

Gauthey Preres (Prance), 22:40-46,


Gauthier, Robert, 63:46

gavel, block and, 84:33--36 Geddes, Stephen, 38:63 Gembar, Rick, 56:69-70 generators: shop made steam,


Genin.Je ,e,17:66 Gerard, Ethan, 23:66 erard, Richard G" 22:70 Gerber, Michael, 19:66

Germany: sculptors in Middle Ages,


Gernandt, John. 92:44 gesso, 78:76

Gibbons" Grinling, 54:22-27, 28-31 Gibson Guitars (TN), 56:68-76 Gidron, Michael, 7:64

Gidron, hannon, 12:66

Gie e, Bill. 40:74. 48:72-75 Gilbertson, Graham, 60:55

gilding: basics of, 58:32-37 Gillespie, Sean, 86:49

Gillis, Stan and Judy. 45:60-63 Gilpin, Hank, 100:22-28, back


Gittoes, Andrew, 50:41, 67:53 Gladwell, Brian, 55:48 Glasbreuner, Will, 32:61

Glas, Peter, 41:56,57,59,83:68--69 glazing: basics of, 57:36--39; carv-

ings for 3-D effect, 29:28,31:24; doors, 6:70-71; oak, 62:22 Gleasner, Stephen, 91 :49

Glenn dinning, John. 92:45 Glennon, Virginia, J 4:58

globe stand, 83:62-65

gloves: for lathe work, 31: 16, 32:6 glues and gluing: blowing out dow-

els holes prior to. 29: 10; edge joints, 2:34--36, 9:10,12:16,14: 12, 32:36-37; endgrain, 1 L:64-65; grain orientation and. 40:59, 62; pipe clamp frame, 21:18; press for, 17: LO; roller for, 32:12; squeezeout, 34: 18, 40:52,71 :8; station for, 31: L4; veneer, 32:36-37; wedges, 23: L6; weights for, 68:6; see also adhesives

GoGO, Jane, 9:71 Godfrey, Rich A" 74:50 Godwin, E, W" 82:62

oebel, Martin. 92:48

Goehring, Rick, 85:65

Goetschiu .Stephan, 82:49 goggles: anti -static, 44:8 Goldberg. [enna, 78:43,44 Goldberg, Joshua, 3:71,49:48 Golden Mean, 14:43, 15:10, 18:6,

77:61-63,80.78:6,79:6 Goldenberg, David, 94:46 Gonczar, [ohn, 52:56

Good Wood Alliance, 52:36-43 oodrnan, Rebecca, 67:38 ordon, Barry, 66:59, 92:60--63 Gordon, Glenn, 89:49

Gordon, Kerry, 9:73

Gordon, Mark, 74:20-21, 86:52 Corman, Rick, 72:57

Gorman, Timothy, 90:52, 96:42 Gorman, Tom, 98:49 Gotschall, Keith, 40:66 Gotrbrath, Joey. 79;44

GoIZ, Richard J" 33:59, 57:47, 63:44 gouges: grinding angles for, 39:42;

sharpening, 96:53--57 Gould, James, 81:75, 86:49

Gragg, amuel, 87:53, 97:80, 98: J 0 Graham Foundation (IL). 45:36-39 Graham, Joe, 30:34-43, 85:64 Graham, Michael N" 72:73

grain: determining direction nf,

90:14; enhancing, 66:76; machine defects in lumber, 1 L:SO; open, 80:59-63; see also end grain

Grant, Eric, 93:68 Gray, Bradley, 85:67 Gray. Bruce. 24:70 Greef, Jeff. 94:51 Green, Jason, 100:41

green woodworking: carving, 5:61, 26:54--56; chair making, 37:30-43, 47:24-28: chalice, 76:73-77: curing turned bowls, 42:42-44; Greenwood Furniture Project, 52:36-43: hand tools. 93:30--31; magazines for smooth sliding. 57:6: riving. 47:26--27,80:64-70; veneer, 69:65-66; why we do it, 52.:67

reene, harles, 89:35-40 Greene, Henry, 89:35-40 Greene, Jeffrey, 2:60, II :69 Greenwood Furniture Project

(Honduras),52:36-43 Greer, Wayne, 22:66

Gregory, Molly, 68:68-69

Grenier, Daniel, 36:52 Grew-Sheridan, Carolyn, 1:40-41,

51,40:64,43:57--61,49:18,48 Crew-Sheridan, John, 1:40-41,51.

43:57--6l, 49: 18,48, 71:50 Griffith, Roger, 36:52 Grigar, Vladimir, 22:7.1

grin d ers: cast wh eels, I 9: 8; han d powered, 33:24; tool rest accessory, 12:20

grinding: angles for lathe tools, 39:42: keeping tools cool, 65:4 grips: rubb t finger. 88: 10; tool,


Groll, Henri, 67:55, 56 Gromoll, Carl, 44:35, 58:53 Gronborg, Erik, 12:62, 68:38 groove joinery: see longue and

groove joinery Gropius, Walter, 92:80 Groth, David, 45:46 Grove, Tony, 81:50 gruks (verse), 65:33 Guatemala, 81:52-57

Guild of Verrnonr Furniture Mak-

ers, 95:50-51

Gllillol, Laurent. 77:52 GuilJoux, Daniel, 67:54.77:51 Gumicio, Kathleen, 16:62 Guthridge, Ian, 82:63, 64 Gutterrnaun, Christoff 50:40


Hackett, jason, 100:40

Hagen, Susan, 51:44, 83:46 Halenar, Robert, 36:58

hall tree, 16:70--74

Hallan, Jerome S., 83:46

Hamada, Robert, 99:back cover hammers: dual purpose, 34: 14; for

lifting, 62:8; marks made by, 7:25. 43:6

Hammond, Jay, 12:64 Han, [ae Iiu, 84:62 Hancock, Dick, 90:54 Hancock, Mark, 86:50, 51 hand cleaners. 5:20

hand drills: plug-cutting guide, 55:6 hand planes: antique, 2:64-67,

32:66-69; block. 83: 12; bullnose, 78:65; Clifton, 95:65-69; crowning and dressing plates, 96:58-61; cutting geometry, 75:31-32; dovetail, 78:63-64; a father's legacy, 28:75; fillister, 78:62-63, 80:8; fore plane, 45:66; grooving sole of,

7: 14; handle repair, 20:65; Til!! Handplane Book (Hack), 52:14; jack plane, 45:66; Iapanese- lyle, 15:33-45; jointer plane, 5:66-67; large metal. 75:59, 77:6; maintenance and use, 31 :65-71, 32:6, 33:6: making, 38:31-33, 55:34--36: modified block, 64:56-57; overview, 78:60--65; palm, 86:8;

WOO D W 0 R K 86 0 Jl C ~ M BE R 2 006

parts ource, 35:4; Patented Tr(HIsitional & Metallic Planes ill AmeriCII, Volume Ii (Smith), 18:28; Planes fI"d Plnnillg (Kingshort) (video), 52:14; plow, 97:72-76,

98: 12, 99:8; rabbet, 10:80, 78:64, 65; repair, 93: 12; replaci ng tote, 46: 3 5--38: resto ring Stan] ey bedrock, 39:54; rounder plane, 37:43; router, 19:54--57,58:56-59, 64:58-59; saddle for, 71:10; crapers, 33:38-39, 34:8,35:4; scrub, 45:65-66; sharpening, 25:56-57, 63:34--38; shoulder, 78:64-65; smoothing. 60:68-73; tale of a Buck Rogers. 48:76; tightening mouth, 96:18; wood versus metal, 33:14--31; Tile Woodell Plane: Its History. Porm, and Function (Whelan),24:30

hand planing: basics of, 11:38-43; competition, 67:76; edge joints, 49:42-45; endgrain, L 1:10; hinge mortises, 28:52; with large metal planes, 75:59-61, 77:6; shooting fence for. 24:68-69; surfaces, 45:64-67,75:32-36

hand router: see router planes

hand saws: depth guides for, 10:22: for dimensioning, 56:.54-59; Hand Saw Slwpening (Polillc) (video), 59:21; handle repair, 7:18.20:65:

Japanese, 23:60----65, 57:62--63, 64: 1 9, 68:60--67,69: 18; for jointmaking, 57:60-65; Lynx, 84:10; re [uvenating, 64: 19; for shaping, 56:54--59; sharpening. 77:69-73, 82:6, 87:6; shop-made. 62:4; SOUICes for, 56:58, 57:65; storage, 30: 12; technique. 80:74--75; teeth protector for, 10:22; veneer. 87:6; Z-saws, 77:74--76, 78:6, 80:6

hand truck. timber-built, 75:50-51. 80:6

handles: copper endcap for split, 69:6; ferrules from copper, brass tubing, 73:8; French manufacturer, 70:64-67; improving grip, 37: 14; for jigs, 46: 10; knife, 71 :66; long, 86:8; repair, 7: 18,20:65; replacing chisel, 56:4; ring, 88:75; strengthening. 20: L5, 21:14

hangers and hanging: boards for refinishing, 12: 12; bolts, 64:55, 88: 1 0; flush wall mounting, 49:8 Hanoch, Craig. 75:47

Hansen, David W" 16:62 hardening wood. 27:76

Hardin, Ruth, 13:68

Harding. Matthew, 82:61, 65 hardness: test for metal, 5:53 hardware: ladder caddy for, 62: ;

leather washers, 17:8; Manllal of Millwork, 31 :31; quick-release skewer, 32:16; shop-madc,10:79: sorting, 55:4; storage, 17:8,24:2.2. 31 :14,34: 12, 48:6; threaded

wooden, 24:52-57; wooden, 77:53--58,78:6; see "Iso hangers and hanging; hinges; knobs; nails; pulls; screws; threaded inserts

hardware, decorative: fabricating for cabinet, 53:62-65; historically

co rrect, 56:47

hardwood: lumber grades, 33:46;

native, 100;28

Harnwell, Robert G., 13;66 Harr,lulian.16:65 Harrington, B.A., 38;60 Harris, Bibi, 51;70-76. 81:43 Harrison-Off, Joel, 91:48

H arri son , Tim, 4:68

Harvey, Charles, 34:30--4J. Hashimoto, Yutaka, 81:42 Hatch, Howard. 93:71 Hatcher, Cb ris, 64:25 Hauanio, Sandi, 45:45

Hawai'i crest Industry Association: Wood bow, 74:50-51, 80:44-45; «Woods ofHawai'i '97", 52:54-57

Hay, Greg, 20:66, 27:34-40, 68:35 Hayzeu, Anthony, 100:63

Heagle, George E., 98:48

Healey, Matthew, 61:75

Healy, Sandra, J4:69

Heartwood Custom Woodwork


hearers: workshops, 37:4

Hein, Piet; of super-circles and

gruks, 65:33; Superegg, 65: 18-19 Hein, Wilfried, 96:43

Heine, Richard, 21:60

Heitzman, Roger, 1:53,8:78,16:66, 63:47,71:52

Helgeson, Richard, 39:37, 63:44, 70:46,82:43

Heller. Katherine, 26:63, 28:63,


Henderson, Joe, 66:56

Henshaw, Nicola, 74:48-49 Hernandez, Gabriel Hugo, 87:46 Herres, Michael, 20:70

Herzog, Joanne and Robert, 6:74 Hess, L. Jerry, 76:48

Hibbert, Louise, 50:41

hide glue: basics of. 20:38-40, 35:46--52; on furniture, 40:24; hot versus cold, 23:4; veneering with, 38:70-71

highboy, Queen Anne, 85:33-39,


Highlight Gallery lCA), 36:50-54 Highly, Frank, 16:64

Hill, David, 76:44

Hill, Erich, 41;58

Hills, Jeffrey M., 6:77, 13:66, 18:65, 24:7]

Hilton, Ashley Nicholl', 87:47 hinges: alignment, 13:10,36:4; allwood, 21 :70-71, 72:65-69, 74:6; butler's tray table, 28:50, 33:6; butt, 48:68-71, 70:42-43; cup,

36: [4; double-jointed, 61:8; knife,

89:68-70; lids, 42:41; setting, 34:49,48:68-7 1,70:37; shopmade box, 43:6; slot, 66:62-66

Hinternan, Brian and Harry, 83:44,


Hintz, Tim, 99:42 Hinz, Tom, 19:32-38

historic preserve ion: Witness Tree, Lancaster, PA, 33:72 Hjorth-Westh, Ejler, 33:32-40,

48:59,84:39,97:49 HKH, lnc., 64:24-25 Ho, Ivan, 84:61 Hodges, Greg, 40:75 Hodinka, Tyler, 98:44 Hoedema, L.A., 40:67 Hoffman, Josef, 58:69 Hofmann, An, 93:54

Hogbin, Stephen, 8:54-55, 72:71,

76:57,85:60 Hogeback, Darryl, 41 :59 hold-downs, 87:6

Holden, Robert, 52:55, 74:51, 80:45 Holder, Chuck, 98:48

Hollenbeck, Eric, 25:75--76 Hollister, Dave, 63:46

Holman, Steve, 95:50

Holmen, Jock, 96:42

Holz, Stephen, 62:39,65:53 Holzapfel, David, 74:20 (correc-

tion), 93:5().....51, 94:8,96:10-12 Holzapfel, Michelle, 44:68-69, 51:69,59:70-71,65:42,72:74, 73:59,74:20.76:63.91:26-33 Homestead Heritage Furniture (TX),42:28-34

Honduras: canoe carving, 70:54-6l, 71 ;6: Greenwood Furniture Project, 52:36-43

honing: see sharpening

Hooper, Richard, 50:45, 67:51

Hom, Robyn, 9:68, 43:67, 45:49,


Home, James, 64:24, 87:51, 99:43 Horner, Ken, 76:49

Hosaluk, Michael, 50:42, 55:47, 49, 70:26--31,52,71:71,72:73,81:50, 85:50,92:50,98:21

Houghton. Terry, 37:73-75

Houk, Kenny, 61:74 Houston, Rod, 4:66

Hoyer, Todd, 45:48, 64:47, 72:76,


Hoyt, Dennis A.. J 3:70 Huat, Koh, 82:52-60

Hubbard, Pfife and Crawford, 67:35 Hucker, Thomas, 69:24-33, 89:73 Hudson, AI, 83:49, 90:54

Hudspeth, Mickey, 15:59

Hufft, Terry Dale, 47:73

Hughes, Glenn, 11 :73

Hughes, tephen. 43:67, 72:71 Huling, James, 99:42

Hull, Lynne, 52:58, 55:48 Humboldt Woodworking Society:

"Pacific Coast Woods': 13:71; "Wood De ign 1995",40:73-75

humidity: effects on wood, 40:56-63

humor and sentiment: addiction to how- to books, 15:77; ancient plane, 28:75; bat house, 13:30; elusive perfect miter joint, 5:34; going to the lumberyard, 30:75; great hand drill purchase, 12:71; let there be light, 16:49; my. tique of drawing paper, 40:76; new wood diseases, 17:55; pocketknife, 3] :51; rewiring the shop, 18:75; tool uprising, 20:64; trains and planes, 48:76; traveling woodcrafter, 38:75; what to build?, 47:76; why we work wood, 38:4-6; woodcrafter as inventor, 42:58; woodworking class president, 14:68

Huneck, Stephen, 43:68-75 Hunt, Jeff. 25:73. 71:49 Hunt, Liz, 85:67

Hunter, Lawrence, 91:54

Hunter, William, 6:75 (attributed to Dennis Elliot), 17:67, 37:62, 64:46,67:18,76:67,85:62,90:59 Hurt, Rus, 7:66

Hurwitz, Michael, 97:24-31, back


Huspen, Dean A., 24:71 Hutchison, Jack, 100:65 Hutton, Matt, 85:52


Ingham, George, 82:63,64 Ingram, Bob, 75:71

inlay: 12 easy teps, 55:74-76; Tile Arf of Til lay (Robinson), 34:22; bras, 17:42-47; creating with veneer, 35:68-70; epoxy, 73:50-52; with hand scraper 73:44-54; mosaic on guitars, 22:72-73; router inlay sets, 31 :64; sandshaded fan, 58:30-31; segmented star, 81:62-67; "Skin Deep: Three Masters of American Inlaid Furniture", 83:66-71; wire, 70:62-63, 73:49-50; see also banding inlays; stringing inlay

Inoue, Tersushi, 72:55 International Turning Exchange, 67:50-57

International Wood Collector So i-

ety, 20:48-51

Intuitive Design (CO), 39:58 Ionson, Harold, 67:24-31 lrby, Orner, 18;65

ltten, Johannes, 92:80, 93:6 lves, Karen, 72:37


jack-shaft speed-reducer, 14:39-4l Jackman, Bob, 21:61

Jackson, Daniel, 89:73

Jacobs, Laura Ann, 13:70


Jacobson, Andrew, 1 :50, 38:42-47 Jacobson, Linda, 86:49

James, Bill, 52:20-27

Jamieson, Lyle, 50:44

Ianofsky, Seth, 36:54,55:22-33 Japanese woodworking: bridal cabi-

net, 71 :58-60,72:41-48,73:35-43; TIle Genius ofJaplmese Carpentry (Brown), 11:24; Katsumi Mukai, 89:24--29; metate (hand saw sharpening, alignment), 68:60-67; Misugi Designs (CA), 48:58-64; net uke, 79:54-59; Peter Benenson, 47:54--59; Shinrin Takumi lyuku (japan), 84:68-76; ransu, 45:36-39; tall5ll, 53:40-42; temple doors, 60:74-76; traditional Naruko dolls, 83:50-53; versus Wester.n woodworking, 46:59; woodblock prints, 57:32-35

jar opener, 55:64

Jentz, Craig, 39:39

lew, Jennifer, 91 :46 jewelry: earrings, 45:30-31

jewelry boxes: amaranth and ebony, 45:4()'-44; carved, 100:32-37; cherry, 31 :58--64; hinged shelf, 2:37-43; with necklace cabinet, 39:50-53

jigs: edge trimming, 98: 14-1 5; edgewise support, 78: 10; for holding small pieces, 93: 1 D, 94:6,96: 12, 19; making and designing, 47: 18-21; "one-of-a-kind ~ 62:30-31; for square assembly, 78: 12; see 111511 under flames oJ specific power tools

jigsaw tables: adjusting height, 17:12 jigsaws: cut- pacers for, 12:25; lucile base for, 21: 16; minimizing tearout, 53 :6, 65:8; mounting jig for hand-held tools, 21:72-73; as scribing tool, 59:8

) in, Morigam.i, 92:25

fohn EJder Gallery (NY), 77:44-45 lohnson, c.s. "Skip'; 72:71 Johnson, Gary, 28:61, 36:58 Johnson, Karl D., 57:47

Johnson, Kathie, 47:66-72, 85:67 Johnson, Nina Childs, 57:49, 63:44 Johnson, Patty, 71:47

Johnson, RoUle, 10:69

Johnson, SUUlnna,9D:56, 98:45 Johnson, Tim, 33:58, 34:62, 39:35,


Johnson, W_ Curtis, 20:71

join cry: see also n <l Illes of specific types of joinery

The Joinery, 34:64, 65

joinery: chalking for perfect, 78:66-67, 79: 12; Class«: joints with Power Tools (Chan), 80:10; as design in cabinets, 2:50-51; Encyclopedia afWood [oints (Craubner), 16:72; halved, 62:62-67, 63:58--63; Joinery Basics (Allen), 19:31; layout, 29:72-74; locking groove, 2:43; offset for style, 46:4;

splayed, 17:56-61, 19:6, 10; splined joint for window sash, 4:22: table for, 87:71-76

jointers: choosing, 26:26; drawbacks of, 7.5:58-59; fine-tuning blades, 49: 1 0; guiding stock through, 10:20; sharpening small, 24: 16: waxing beds, 7:20

jointing: edge, 11 :46--47,27: 18. 75:60--61; face, 11:46; srraightline ripping, 81.:8; technique for large [umber, 67:6

JoUy, Dennis )., 18:64 Jones, Arthur, 64:45. 76:60 lcnes, Bill, 92:51

Jones, lan, 55:48

Jones, Ray, 5:74

Jordan. Carl, 41 :56 Jordan, [ohn, 55:48 luettner, Pat, 46:68 Jurgens, Ruth, 74:52

Just, John, 23.:69

Justis, E. Jeff, 67:37, 71:53


Kadokawa, Kelli Kiyorui, 72:38 Kahn, Anthony, 40:74,45:62-63 Kakizawa, Yoshlnobu, 64:23 kaleidoscopes, 8:52

Kamila, T.,31:55

Kammerzell, Kay, 8:74

Kangas, Gene, 55:51

Karol, R.H., 10:71

Karpilow, Nilles, 48:59,60:2&-37,


Kasek, Melanie, 40:75 Kassan, Craig, 95:48 Kassay, John, 94:20--21

Kauffman, Steven, 30:60, 50:47-51 Kaufman, Rodger A., \6:64

Kaye, Tobias, 48:46

Kean, John, 83:45, 93:52

Kea ring, Marilyn, 59:70

Keeler, RaIf, 12:64, 14:56

Keen, James, 7:68

Keller, John, 93:55

Kelley, Michael and Pat, 5:75

Kelzer, Kim, 1.1:72,21 :59,51 :59-60,

55:48.76:47,78:43,86:46,95:45 Kendrick, Mel, 16:67

Kennedy, Laura, 98:4.5

Kenny, Doug, 2:62

Kent, Dave, 13:33-34

Kent, Ron, 3:68, 7:66, 9:69, 52:57, 76:58, 65,85:63

Kentucky Artand Craft Gallery, 29:63

kerfs: angling, 6:22; 10 prevent glue squeeze om. 3.4.: 1.8

Kernan, Grant, 55:46,48

Kerr Arts and Cui III raj Center (TX),


key cache, 72:65--69, 74:6 keyhole saws, 56:59 Kieffer, Bruce, 39:.35

kilns: home-built, 99:55-59.; solar

energy, 53:55-6] Kirnmerling, George, 83:49 King, Don, 30:72-74,40:65

King, Iohn, 46:33, 34, 64:25, 87:50 Kingsley, Chelsey, 55:49

Kinsey, Paul, 40:75

kitchen projects: breadboards, 100:43-47; green ash salad, 93:35-39; making .. J 5:56--58; napkin rings, 100:29-31: rolling pin, 73:32-34: turned, 90:47-5\; whipping Slick, 91 ;64-65; work table, 92:54--59; see also spoons

Kitkas, Ed, 12:63

Klausz, Frank. 74:24--3) . .32-36 Klein, BOll nle, 55;49

Klepper, Howard Michael, 90:60 Kline, Heather, 55:48

knife marks: machine defect in lumber, II :50, 51

knives: crooked, 98:70--71, tOO:6; marking, 40:68-72, 50;4. 83:36-38; shop-made, 71 :62-66, 83:36-38; Sloyd, 94:80

knobs: keeping tight, 16: 18; shopmade, 34: 14; turned, 77:53-56, 78:6,88:72-76; "turned" on router table, 77:59-60; see also pulls

knock-out bars: for lathes, 26:J 4 Knowlton, John, 61:73

Knutsen, David, 87:50

Koehler, Ron, 23:70

Koehnen, An neue. 97:48

Kond ra, Don, 55:48

Kopec, Bob, 6:77

Kopf, Silas, 9:71, 79:68, 83:69-70 Kornblum, Mike, 33.:60

Kosnik, Karol, 100:40

Koyama, Toru, 12:67

Kramer. Pat,94:51

Kramer, Peter, 9:70

Krase, William, 60:55

Krauss. Bob, 36:62-68, 92::51 Krenov.James, 11:74--75,78:24-29,


Krivda, Joe, 67:63

Krueger, George, 20:69 Kubalak, Tony, 90:53.96:42,


Kuipers, George, 5:70 Kukheh n, Michael". 13:71 Kundtz, Kirk, 33:61 Kuroiwa, Kaycko, 48:58-64 Kurorsu, Emiko, 67:63 Kutch, Keil.h,. 11:72

Kvitka, Dan, 28:56, 45:46, 95:44 kwila,.52:28-29


labeling parts, 5:24,47: 10 Laberge, William, 95:50 Lacer, Alan, 46:68

lacquer: applying over stain, 51: 18: cashew. 97:31: characteristics of, 14:71;. curing of, 8:80--82,9:45-46; durability of, 60: 18: and glaze,

57:39; sticks, 45:21 i terminology, 8:84; Toshiko Noda, 97:67-71 ladders: caddy on, 62:8

Lake, Tai, 74:51, 80:45

Lakin, Gaelyn, 94:48

Lamar, Stoney, 50:43, 72:72, 85:.61, 92:51

Lamb, David, 93:67

laminate: plastic. 12:.]4, 61: uses for S3.1l1 pie chips, 52:4

laminating: shop-made rollers. 57:4 laminations: curved table skin, 29:40-42: curves, 90:62-65: gluing up scrap, 23 :72-'75; stacked, 25:60--6.1

Lamm, Marc, 59:46 lamps: see lighting

Landa, Fabrice, 77:41, 91:47 Lane, Robert C., 18:66 Langsner, Drew, 61 :76 Larso II, D ale, 92; 51

Lash, Steven, 4:65, 58:16 Lassen, Morgans, 58:71

lathe tools: bowl "chuck" 97:]8: custom made, 36:68; for delicate work, 98:66--69: forging hook tools, 73:30-31; grinding angles, 39:42; tray for, 49:6

lathes; adapting as sander, 16:16,

31 :20: antique 1870, 7:79; belt sanding on, 13: 16; cradle for biscuit joiner, 51:6, 54:6: dowel- CUller for, 13:63-65; dust collection, 9:18; end vise pole, 63.:70--76, faceplates, 2.1:20, 28:26, 52:6; foot switch, 22:12; Hili (1/ tile Lathe (Tirnby) (video), 18:31; homemade for large turnings, 15:36-37. 16:4; indexingsystems, 30;14,

34 :66-69, 35,12; large-capacity. 46:14; lengthening bed, 29:59; Let's Make a Bowl Lathe & Mobile Base (Timhy), 22:24; pole, 73:26-29, slowing speed, 22:16; spur center removal, 26: 14; steadies, 79:.72-76; tool rests, 36: 14,

37: 12, 40: 10; usinggloves with, 31: 16.32:6; varitum, 46:14:

Vaufrey system, 35:55-56; see also turning

Latini, Elsa, 33:66-71 La n, Arron, 68: 36

Latven, Bud, 24:72,72:72, 76:62, 66 Laub, Mark, 90:52,96:43

Laufer, Richard, 72:56

Laughton, Scot, 71:47

Lavine, John, 40:64, 48:64, 70:53,

76:.46,95:45 layout: see patterns Le, Luong. 13:35 Lee, Chan, 84:61

Lee, Chong Bok, 67:61 Lee, Evan, 62:42

Lee, Michael, 92:52

Lee, Paul, 39:35, 37,41 :46,50--51 Lee, Richard, 52:72--76

Lee, Thomas, 91:57


Leeds Design Workshops (MAJ,


Leete, William, 50:42, 55:47 l.efkowi tz, Sam, 25;72 Lefner, Larry, 60.:26 l.egassieke, Ryan, 73:57

legs: baluster, 40:34--35; cabriole, 9:43,36:35,46:39-48, 71 :80; lathe jig for, 51 :6, 54 :6: mortising, 42;36-37; shaping, 42:3&-39; tapered, 34:52, 44:56-57; turned,

J 2:.24, 49:38-41, 77:27-31. 80:6-8; see also feet

Leier, Ray, 64:45

Leighton. Anthony, 60:56. 68:35 Leitgeb, Ed and Plo, 83:44, 93:53 Lentz, Raben, 7:66,18:66,31:57 Leonard, Joe, 56:20--28,57: IS Leong, Po Shun, 5:74,8:38-42,

20:70,78:48-49,91:46 letter opener, 79:6.1-65 letter tray, 76:36-38

Levin, Mark. 71:48, 94:49 Levine, Ray, 9:50--53, II:Tl Levine, Steve, 2.5:70,40:67 Levy, BUrl, 82:42. 90:53 Lewin, Howard, 31:55,. 90:61

Lewis, Dale, 14:56,59, 26:65,29:64,


Lewis, Hade)', 89:48

Lewis, John, 32:61

Lewis, Kevin, 67:63

Lewis, Todd,97:49

Lewis. Tom, 17:63 Lidstrom, Bengt, 65:55-56 Lie-Nielsen, Tom, 39:55-57 Liestman.Art, 92:52

lighting: dining room overhead, 89:35-40; fixture mount, 56:6; fluted table, 82:36-41: gibbet lamp, 93:59-63; handy shop lamp, 28:46-47; mobile task, 68:8; progress in, 16:49; source of mica for lamps, 28:2.6; tripod mounted, 25:20; working after dark, 86:76

Lincoln, Clive, 23:67 Lindholm, Tim, 81:71

Lindquist .. Mark, 58:74--75,76:57 Lindquist, Mel, 76:57,65,92:52 Linhart, Judy, 27:65

linseed oil: basics, 6:52-56; for exte-

rior wood, 46:66

Lipton, Irving and Mari, 85:60--63 Little, Thomas, 59:50-57

Livi ngston, William, 5:75

Lear, Steve, 65:42

Locke, Willia In, 38:60,62:36, 71:51 Lockhart, Andy, 98:49

Loeser, Thomas, 39:72,75,

72:26--34, 89:46-47 Lofvenberg, Carina, 84:62 Lombard, Nathan, 83:67-68 Lomond, Ben, 31:52-53

Long Island Woodworkers' Club, 83:44-49, 93:52-53

Long, Rich, 39:59

Longanecker. Del, 5:83-86

Lorn, Man, 75:71

Los Angeles County Museum of Art (CA.): "Artful Wood: Selections from the Mari and Irving Lipton Collection" 85:60-63

l.os.Angeles Municipal Gallery {CAl: "The Inspired Vessel.", 90:58-6 L

Lossing, Craig, 14:57, .50:54, 63:45, 70;47

lowboy, scalloped. top, 24:41-48,


Lowe, Peter. 50~44 tuce, Bitt, 92:52

Luckenbach Mill Gallery (PA), 8:76, 11:69

lumber: alternative sources, 17:54-55, 18: 1 0, 20:4; C!mserva· tion by Design (Landis), 28:30.; dimensioning stock, II :38-47;. The Good Wood Ham:lbook (lackson and Day), 23:2B:gradiIl.g, 33:46: humor, 17:55; inventory, 95: IB: lengt hening, 39.:22-24.; Matllml of Millwork, 31 :31; a morning at the lumberyard, 30:75; quality of, 1 L:48-49; saw board varieties, 21 :44-45; seasoning, 15:70-73:. selling scraps, 59:8; shipping, 42:67; see also milling lumber

Lunde, John, 82:42 Lutz, Tim, 41:55 Lyell, Lanny, 20:69 Lynch, Dave, 2:62

Lynch, Paul, 50:53, 60;56, 57, 75:18 Lytle, Luci, 91 :.46


Macdonald, Andrew, 10:70 MacDonald, .Barry, 11 :70, 14:54-55,


MacEwen, Maryl, 9:72, 51 :70-76 Macfarlane, David, 15:65, 33.:63 machine tools: adjusting, 5:24;

replacing babbitt bearings, 64:66-72; Vintage WQodworkil1g Macilillef), (Batory), 64:18

Mack, Daniel, 11:68 Mackintosh, Charles Rennie,


Mackintosh squares, '64:50-53 Macnab, John, 90:26-3·7

Macrae, Rich, 83:44,93:53 Madsen, Kristina, .lO:38~2, 49:46,

51 :20-26,68:70, 75:7l, 79:67 magazines: rack for, 23:5 I-53: recyding as work pads, 31:10 Magnani, Debra, 67:39

magnets: for clean-up, 96: 18; retrievers, 18: 18; small hardware holder, 20:1·4

Mahaffey, David, 31:64

Mahar, Michael, 65:52, 74:5.5 Maharishi University of Manage-

ment (lA), 63:22-28

Mahoney, Michael, 19:67,56:4,8,


Mailland, Alain, 55:48, 67:54, 77:49 Major, Robert, 53:26

Majorelle, Louis, 66:14

Makepeace, John,66:69

Malavolta, Steve, 1.8:32-37 Malaysia: cane chairs, 82:52-60 Malcolm, Dean, 50:40 Malcolrnson, Kathleen, 40:.66 mallets: Joiner's, 76:50-55, 77:6;

from turned bowling pin, 12: J 2 Maloof, Sam, 2:70-72,. 65:46, 89:56 Marner, Joseph, 63:45,.76:45 Manesa-Burlciu, Zina, 55:50,


manuals, owners: photocopying to preserve, 29: \0

maple: detecting bird's-eye, 25:4: staining dark, 45:21

Marc Adams School of Woodwork-

ing (I N), 75:52-57

Marcoux, fohn, 20:70 Marcoux, Wayne, 93:71 marking compound, 44:4 marking tools: adjrutable,42:4,

48:8,80: 14,;.cirde maker, 46:8;, dovetail gauge, 37:71,61 :6; Japanese gallge, 59:72":76, 60:22; knife/pencil combo, 94:14; knives, 40:68-72, 50:4, 83:36-38, large radius gauge, 88:8: mortise and tenon gauges, 37:72, 74.:70-76; notched gauges, 44:6; pencil gauge, 42:6, 49:34.-35; push pin for accuracy, 87:8: shop-made gauges, 41:8, 49:34-35; tuning up, 49:31-36; witness marks,

98: 14-15: see ats» scribing tools Marks, David, 1:49, 49:48, 68:34,

91:47,93:55 Marks, )./.,90:56 Marlowe, lack, 84:58

marquetry: The American Marqueraeian, Inc., 49: 18; Americanization of, 57:50-59; clocks, 27:72-75; of Dave Peck, 44:58-62; of Oren Thornhill, 34:70-72; organizations, 46: 14; of Rene Darde, 25:58-66, 27:4; techniques, 20;30-31

Marschak, Anthony David, 94:47 Marsden, Guy, 70:48,83:.48 Marsh, Bert, 48:44

Marston, Thomas, 8:76, 13:66 Martel, Andre, 55;49

Martenon, Thierry, 77:50, 86:50,51 Martin, Chris, 75:44-45

Marlin Guitar Co. (PAl, 37:66-69,


Marrin, Loy, 11:73

Martin, Mike, 12:56-58 Martin, Terry, 55:48, 67:56,

80:22-29, 99:65-69 Martinez, Rita, 48:63

Maruyama, Wendy, 1:39-40, Il:68, 39:73,74,65:47,68:72-73,.89:71,


musks: carving Balinese, 68:4.8-5.5:

C(lrvillg Tatem Pales & Mash (Bridgewater), 16:26

masks, dust: as strainers, 23:20 Mast, Gareth, 25:.68, 30:59,

42:42-44,62:38, 71 :52 mating templates, 38:55-.57 mats, floor, 83: 14, 87: 10 Matsumoto, Hafu,92:24 Mattia, Alphonse, 39:73, 75 May, Warren. 36:30-37 Maynard, Peter, 62:2-4-30 Mays, Bob, 86:48

McAdams, Ioyce, .36:59,40:67 MeAlevey, John, 44:38, 88:44-45 McAlister, john, 85:46-47 McArthur, William, 36:51, 52 McCabe, Patrick J., 9:73

McCaffery, Lloyd, 9:58

McCall, Gene, 10:68

McClure, Frank, 80:45

McCollum, Sarah, 25:34-41 McCormack, John, 1 0:73, 26:34-40 McCormick, Richard, 60:27 McCrea, Sarah, 5 1:70-76 McCrohon, Sean, 27:69

McDonald, John, 30:57

McDowell, William, 67:49, 71 :52 McElhinny, Cb.ris,S,69-73 McPadd~n, Tom, 10:68, 29:34-42 McGuire, Mike, 56:70-7!

McKay, Hugh, 30:58, 37:63,

4 L:4H5, 67:52, 76:67 Md<eown ,. Robert G., 9:71 McKichan, Laurie, 96:43

McKie, Judy Kensley, 5:72, 68:7U,

70.:22, 80:42-43, 89:75,95:24-3 J McKinnon, John, 71:46 Mclaughlin. Tom, 93:69 Mclennan, Emily, 58:53 McLuckie, rim, 16:66

McMahon, Patrick, 96:43 McMaster, Alan, 6:76

McMickcn School of Design (OH),


McMurdo, Glenn, 46:70-75 McNamee, Jackie, 51 :54-58 McNaughton, John, 38:63, 91 :54 Mc.Nulty, Christopher, 72:39 Mckoberts, Jim, 77:45

Mead, Charlie, 90:54

Meade, Barbara r, 18:66 measurements: accurate, 28: 14;

dealing with fractions, 77: 10; diagonal, 21 :16; handy conversions, 96:14: inside dimensions, 3:24,26,40: 10; Measure TIl'ice, Cut Once (Tolpin), 27:32; metric, 68: 18, 77:2.5; of odd-shaped pieces, 54:4; "roadorneter" 77:38-39; scaling with sector, 49:58-63; shortcuts, 37:8; tramme] points, 23 :20; trundle stick, 77:35-37;. see nlso centers

measuring tapes: handy holder, 35: 12; use for broken, 15: 16: see


also rules (rneasu ring) mechanical devices: Makirlg Mechanical Marvels ill Wood (levy), 14:20

Meier Brothers, 32:58,35:64,70:49,

79:45, 89:42--43, 95:49 Mellick, lames, 23:54-55, 38:62 Mellon, Michael" 85:48

Mendocino Coast Furniture Makers Association, 60:54-56

Mendocino Woodworker's Associa-

tion, 60:54-.56 Merikallio, Bi.lI, 48:62 Merrill, Claude, 12:65 mersawa, 52:28-29

mesquite: character all its own, 66:42",,47; turning, 17:48-53: uses for, 20:6: working with, 25:42-45, 27:8,29:4

metal in wood, detecting, 76:34 metare (hand saw sharpening,

alignment), 68:60-67

Meuser, William, 3:70

Meyer, Daniel, 18:69

Micba, Fabrice, 55:50, 77:4.8 Michelsen, Johannes, 28:57,64;22 Miconi, Michael J., 8:77 Middleditch, Brian, 4:67

Millard, Rob, 67:37

Miller, Don, 84:42--43

Miller, Mike, ] 4:.60

milling lumber: portable sawmills, 33:41-48

MilJs, Bryan, j 9:62-63 Milwaukee Art Museum (Wl):

Chair Park, 91:53-59; "Skin Deep:

Three Masters of American Inlaid Furniture': 83:66-71

Mines, Stephen, 24:74 miniatures: Turning Miuiat1.resil1 Wood (Sainesbury), 21:28

Mill nesota Woodworkers' Guild:

"Northernwoods Exhibition" 34:60,62,.39:34.-39,46:67-69, 50:54-55, 57:46-49,63:44--45, 70:.46-47, 76:44-45, 90:52-53, 96:42-43

Mint Museum (NC): "Art That Works': 9:71

mirrors: antique-style vanity dresser, 41:74-76; Chippendalestyle, 22:35-39; circular wail, 99:29-33; in hall tree, 16:70-71; for high shelving, 19; 18; for inspection, 74: 10; porthole, 36:4-7-49; small decorative, 75:62~63; stand-up, 64:50-55

Mississippi, Connie, 14:57,51:67 Misugi Designs (CA), 48:58-64 Mitchell, Bruce, 31 :55, 99:44-45 Mitchell, james, 17:62

Mirchell, Kevin, 12:66

miter gauges: adjustable stop block, 35:60-61; adjustment stick, 32:18; set-up,85: 12; shop-made for narrow stock, 65:6; snuggi ng fit, 7: 18; squaring for rablesaw, 5:14

miter joints: compound. 85:68-71; display ca e, 54:63--66; dovetail combo. 98:61; fitting, 8:62. 23:18; loose-tenoned, 66:62--66; mortiseand-tenon combo, 98:57--61; planing jig, 89:10; Principle of Complementary Angles, 79:8-10; radial arm saw-cut, 7:12; small moldings, 30: 10; splayed, 17:60, 21:66-7],25:6; splined, 22:37-38; stack cutting, 5:34; tablesaw-cut, 7:62,11:63,26:16; tighter, 85;10; tongued. 43:62-63

miter saws: filler block jig. 26:52-53; Lion Miter Trimmer, 64:18; precision cutting, 94: 14: stock holder, 27:20

mixing aids, 26:14 Mize, J. Russel, 8:78

models: architectural landmarks, 8:53; carriages, 22:28-34: for design presentation. 30:44-48; half-full, 90:66-70; locomotives, 6:58-61, 59: 16; ships, 9:58; Windsor chairs. 9:56; Yerly's, 64;29-35

Moeller, Warren. 66:58

moldings: brass, 17:42-47: cutting miters. I I: J 4. 14: 10, 30: 10; gluing, 34: I OJ routing picture frames.

35: 14; scraping with sharpen spoons, 65:6

Moldovan, John, 81:74

Molimar, Elisabeth, 77:50 Mombrinie, Bruno, 93:54

Monroe, George. 13:71

Monteith, lifron 49:47 Montgomerie, Gael, 11:70, 67:54 Montgomery, Jeff, 55:48 Montoya-Lewis, Colin. 59;45, 65:53.


Moore, Jan Alan, 5:73

Moore, William, 85:62

Moran, Sean. 10:70

Morel. Iohn, 98:49

Morgan, Bob, 63:47

Morgan, Eugene T., 87:47 Morgenstern, Michael J., 19:65 Moro, Craig, 48:63

Morris, John, 96:24--31

mortise and tenon joints: basics of, 56:60-67,57:66-71; cradle made with, 3:74--78; drillpress-cur, 5:56-58; hand-cut, 4:55-61, 42:36-39,4.3:35-41; marking gauges, 37:72; miter combo, 98:57-61; Morrise fwd Teno/ls Made Simple (KingshOI ) (video), 52: 14; post-and- rung. 47:25, 63:51-56,64:41-42; router-cut, 5:58-59, 7:8; shaper-cut, 5;59-60; simplified, 17:36-41; spline. through, 24:38; tablesaw-cut, 5:54--56; in turned posts, rungs, 29;54-57; variations of, 3:57-65

mortise pins, 1 :63

mortises: draw bored, 41 :66-71: drillpress-cut, 5:56-57; flush-

trimming through-, 20: 16; locating in chair posts, 47:8-10; router-cut. 5:58-59, 9:54--55, 45:32-35

Mosser, Judd, 14:57, 17:62,20:68,

31 :56, 36:58

Moulthrop, Philip. 85:63 Mouser, Yvonne, 97:51 Moyer, Bob, 84:38 Mueller, Dennis, 37:63 Mukai, Katsumi, 89:24-29 Mulvey, Mike, 98:48 Mundt, Phil, 19:68

Mundus urniture Factory (Croa-


Munkittri k, David A .• 46:69 Munley, Christopher, 8:78 Munro, Rolly, 64:20 Munson, Beatrice, 27:65 Murray, Pippa, 78:46 Murray, Stephen, 100:64

Mu eum of Fine Arts (MAJ,

5:72-73; "The Maker's Hand:American Studio Furniture, 1940-1990':89:71-75,76

Museum ofWoodwork:ing Tools:

"Woodworking in Vietnam': 65:2(}-21

music stands: Baroque-style, 6:47-51; bent laminate, 60:58-59

musical instrumen ts: dog dolls, 49:50-57; conductor's baton, 70:74-76; guitars, 22:72-73, 37:66-69, 50:47-51, 56:68-76, 72:24; harps, 41 :24,89:61-67, 91:8; Making Guitar Orle (Fort) (video), 10:30; marimbas. 74:64-69; sources for parts. materials, 28:26; tambourine, 22:63-65; violin bow, 62:68-75, 63:14: violins, 23:32-39, 27:8. 54:68-76

Muscke, Andrew, 67:62 Muzzin, Bob, 7:68

Myrtlewood Gallery (OR). 25:68


nails: brad holder, 55:4; clinched,

63:6; no- plit, 82: I 0, 85: 12 Najarian, Donna, 26;34-40 Nakamoto, Gary, 42:60, 60-61 Nakashima, George, 89:55 Namba, Shigeru, 48:60

Nancey, Christophe, 67:53, 77:50 napkin rings, 100:29-31

Narita, Hire, 97:49

narra (PNG rosewood), 52:28-29 Nash, David. 58:73-74

National Association of Home

Workshop Writers: Golden Hammer Awards, 85:23

Navigator Systems (CA), 47:60-65 Navy Pier (II.): Chicago Design Show, 58:50-55; "New Art Forms", 24:72

Neander, Christoph, 81 :74

edwidek, hester, 76:49 eel, George E., 29:63 ehring, Scott, 53:72--76 clson, Brad Reed, 82:48 Nelson, Larry. 6:77

Nelson, Robert, 68:35, 93:54, 97:48 Nesser, John, 34.:60,43:65,46:67,

57:48, 70:46, 89:49 netsuke, 79:54-59 Nevelson, Louise, 16:67

New Hampshire Furniture Masters

Association, 93:64-71 Newell, Brian, 71:23 Newman, Dan, 55:49

Nexu Woodshop (CA), 26:34--40,


Nguyen, Nancy, 84:62 NICHE Awards, 1996.40:67 Nicholson, Paul, 67:48 Nicosia, Thomas. 76:66 Nimmo, Iabian, 86:49

Nish, Dale, 92:49-53

Noda, Tcshiko, 97;67-71,100:72-75 nolaJgiri (Japanese band saw),


Noll, Terrie, 7:38-42, 15;60 Nonaka, Toshihiro, 84:74 Nopola, Joe, 39:36 Nordstrom. David. 60:27 Norman. Tanya, 55:46, 49

Nortb Columbia Schoolhouse Cultural Center (CAl. 50:52-53 Northern New Mexico Woodworker's Guild, 81;70-76

Northwest Gallery of Fine Woodworking (WA), 20:70-71

utmeg Woodrurner's League

( n. 12:63

nuts and bolts: threaded, 24:52-57 Nutt, Craig, 49;46,71:71


Oakland Museum (CA): "Expressions in Wood: Masterworks from the Wornick Collection" 45:46-49 oars, Delaware River, 20:52-57 O'Banion, Nance, 95;44

O'Brien, Tim, 26:64, 32:61,41 :58.


octagons, planing. 91: 18 Ddate,lbsilio,100:67-71 O'Day, Kirk,45;45

odometer for covered wagon,


O'Donnell, Liz and Michael, 48:45 Oglov, Stan, 81 :50

Ohio Craft MlIseUJ]], 38:62-63 Ohio Decorative Arts Center: "Ohio

Furniture by Contemporary Masters", 85:6~7

Ohira, Minoru, 90:61

oil-based finishes: basics of. 6:52-56; bleeding, 30:28j enamel,

97:31: versus oil-soluble dye, 41:28; storage, 54:4; strippi ng, 63:20; versus varnish, 34:55-58:


waxing, 38:29

Okie, Grif,ll:69, 37:64, 48:22-30 Oliver, Scott, 91:52, 94:47 O'Loughlin, Patrick, 41:52-53 Olsen, Helge, 63;47

Dison, Dave. 41:53-54

O'Malley, Tony, 86:53

Ornuro, Takeo, 15:32-37

Onishi, Nagatoshi, 60:16, 18 Orange County Woodworking

A sociation (CA), 5:74--75 orbital sanders: finishing tool,

70:41; modify for polishing, 46:8 organ, pipe, 64:21

organizers: clothes pin. 27:22 Orr, Mark> 55:49

Orth, David. 78;52-53

Osgood, Jere, 69:24-33.79:69,93:66 0501oik, Rude, 64.:22, 72:72, 76:57>


Otis, Roger W., 7:69, 8:64--65, ]3:69,

17:66,27:69 Oubre, Stephen, 1:46 Outlaw, Gay, 95:45 outline tracer, Ll :67 Owen, Erick, 48:63

Ow ton, Bill, 18:52-53,66


Page, David, 8:76 Page, Geoff, 82:43

paint: for exterior wood. 46:64--65, maintaining lid seal, 27: 14; Michael Hurwitz on, 97:31; milkbased, 24:58-61,96:46-52,97: I 0, 3 J; preventing oxidation, 2:24; spray. 87: 12; strippers, 36:69-75

painting: dry and dirty brushing, 71 :67: P&lilllil1g Walerjow/ with J.D. Sprankle (Badger and Sprankle), 19:29; Sera/chitlg the Surface:

Art and Content ill COlltempomry Wood (Hosaluk), 78:42-45

Palomar College Woodworking

(CAl: Kezurou-kai, 80:20

panel saw: shop-made, J 3:47-49 panels. raised: see raised panels paper folding, 88:80 paperweights: compound angled,

7:60-63; turned, 3:72-73 parallel lines: shop-made tool for

drawing, 45:8

Parkiet, Eddie, 77:51

Parle, David, 36 :60, 61 Parnham School (England).


parquetry, 20:30 Partridge, Jim, 45:47 Partridge, Todd, 96:40 Pa ,Gerard, 65:47 paste wax, 60:46--53 Pataky, Endre, 98:48

patina: for 1602 reproduction, 24:60; creating w/rnilk-based paint. 24:58--61

Patrasso, Jerry, 2:63

Patrick, Dianne, 99:42

Patrick, Rollin W .. [r, 9:68 patterns: layout, 29:50--53,72-74,

30:4: making reverse, 39:8; reinforcing, 30:1 S, 32:29; white pencil on dark wood, 65:8; see also plans; templates

pau (brazilwood), 62:75 Paulsen, Stephen Mark,85:63 Payne, Phil, 66:60

Peabody Essex Museum (MAl: history of, 87:80; "Lost Lives and Vanishing Worlds'; 87:52-56 Peart, Darrell, 15:64

Peck, Dave, 6:76, 44:58-62 pegs, bamboo skewer, 66:6 Peklo, Andrew, lll, 38:61, 63:19 Pelham, Wayne, 13:67

Pell, Clark E., 93:53

p encil hardn ess test, 62: 76, 63: 15 pencils: compound angled holder,

7:60-63; white for marking dark wood,65:8

Penczer, John, 46:33

Percifield, John, 88:42-43

PI'I'CZ, Lauren, 67:63

Perina, Pajda, 74:52

Perkins, James Dean, 48:43 pernambuco (brazilwood), 62:75 Perry, David, 7:68

perspective (visual): in Windsor

chairs, 50:34-38 Persson, Ingmar, 16:66

Peru; sustainable forestry, 2:53-57 Peteran, Gord, 50:46,65:41,66:70,

71:46,72,79:71,83:47,84:7, 85:6-8,86:6-7,100:62 Peterman, Doug, 93:49 Peterson, George, 76:61 Peterson, Michael, 6:75, 37:63,

76:61, 65, 85:62, 92:52

Peterson, Ross, 34:63, 39:39, 50:54,

55,57:49, 61 :72, 63:44, 70:47 Peterson, Stan, 50:56-57, 69:44 Petrov, Rhonda, 84:62

Pew, Scott, 13:34, 36

Phelps, Roger, 29:66

Philadelphia Purniture Show: High chool Design Program,

67:58-59; third annual, 44;.34-41 Phillips, Lane, 6:75

Pho, Binh, 76:61, 98:back cover photography: record jigs and set-

ups, 38:14

Phyfe, Duncan, 51:28-31, 52:30--35 Picasso, Pablo, 82:62

Pickron, John. 60:26

picture frames: efficient, 80:13; furniture-quality,46:49-53; installing backing. 3J :12; knockdown, 81:58-61; r uting molding for, 35: 14; see also frames

Pierbon, Peter. 81:50, 82:51 Pierce, Cecil, 38:30--33 Pierce, Jim, 31:34--42

Pierce, Kerry, 49:20, 55:56, 75:6 Pierobon, Peter, 100:87-92

Pierschalla, Michael, 78:22-23,


pies (partern),61: 8-43 pigment powders, 7l:67 Pioroban, Peter, 55:48

pipe damps: adjustable gluing frame, 21: 18; alignment for edge gluing, 17: 16; aluminum, 55:4; cleaning, J 7: 16; crutch tips for, 35:6; extending, 40:]0; holder, 17: 18; preventing stains from,

14: 1 0; securing heads, 36: 12: storage, l8:18, 20:18, 36:10; supports, 13:12

pipe organ, 64:21 Pitman, George R., 14:59 Pitschka, Chuck, 33:59

planers: cart for, 4:62-63; choosing, 26:26: drawbacks of, 75:58-59; knife sharpening jig, 82: 12; Makita tune-up, 34:29; repetitive accu racy, 33: 18; roller table for, 59:64-65; verifying measurement marks, 17:14

planes: see hand planes

planing: accurate thickness measurements, 40:14; eliminating roller marks, 22:18; large lumber, 67:6; machine defects in lumber, 11:48-51; miters, 89:10; octagons. 91: J 8; short boards. 13:8, 22: 18i surfaces, l 1 :52; tapers, 5:22, 34:52; thin stock, 4:22,24; warped stock. 30:14; see also hand planing

plans: 101 Gift Projects from Wood (Jacobson), 20:22; 40 More Wood~ working Plans clIId Projects, 23:30; 50 torage Projects for tire Home (Armpriester and Favorite). 7:34; 52 Weekemf Woodworking Projects (Nelson). 15:31; engineering prints, 55:42-43; understanding furniture drawings, 40:41-45,

41: 22; see als« design; pa tterns

plant stand, 64:63-65

plastic laminate: applying, 12:61;

tablesaw cutting aid, 12:14

plate joiners: tool profile, 1:74-77 Plewe , Caitlin, 100:40

pliers: shop-made wood for drillpress, 33: 10

plinths, 8:61

plugs, wooden: cutting guide for hand drill, 55:6; decorative, 38:4S~54, 39:44-49; keeping track of,47:6

Plummer, Jon, 87:46

plywood: banding, 8:26; dolly,

11 :20,38: 10; minimizing tearout, 21: 1 6; quality of, 38:22-26; sawhorse lifter, 22:14; storage, 11: 18; trimming gauge, 39:10

PoW, Clive, 8:74

polish, furniture, 25:51-53 polishing: French technique,

75:38--41,86:38-41; modify orbital sander for, 46:8; with

pumice and rottenstone, 81:68-69 Polster, Laurie, 51:47

polyurethane: curing of, S;82~83; for exterior wood, 46:65-66; keeping clean, 16: 15

pool cues, 76:22, 24-30, 77:6 Porembski, Alice, 63:46 Porter, Marianetta, 51:46 portfolio stand, 60:38--41 Portugal: country furniture,


Post, Joe, 93:53

Potter, Bob, 42:73~75 Porter, John, 97:49 Pound, We ,55:48 Poussin, Pierre, 100:40 Powder, Flour, 78:47

Powell, David, 75:20, 64--70, 76:6 Powell, Mark, 47:75

power tools: adjusting machine tools, 5:24: belt guards, 64:60-62; cords, 21:18,43:4; deciphering model, erial numbers, 33: 18; magnetic starters, 89:50--54, 90:6-8,91:6,94: J 0; Mastering Woodworking Mac/lines (Dug'inske}, 20:22

Pozel, Gary, 16:63

Pozzesi, Gene, 9:69, 26;62,28:56, 37;62,44:26-3], 79:20--21 Pressler; Jonathan, 14:60 pressure curing: green wood,


Prestini, lames, 76:56, 64 Priddle, Graeme, 92:53

Pritam and Eames Gallery (NY), 70:22-23, 100:96

Proctor, tephen, 70:52, 76:46 production runs, variety in,


Profeta, Peter, 93:52 Pros in cs, Mike, 12:63

Prowell, Charles, 4:38-42, 19;61 Pryke, Nicholas. 8:77

Pryor, Fred, 82:49

Pulliam, Chad, 25:69

pulls: carved, 77:56-58; carved sea shell, 29:43-45; shop-built for contemporary furniture, 6: 14; turned, 39:.39-43; see also knobs

Pulver, Dean, 75:20 pumice, 81 :68-69 Puryear, Martin, 58:75

Puryear, Michael, 40:46-49, 44:40,

69:20, 83:21-29

push brooms: self-standing, 32: 16 push drills, 12:71

push sticks: double, 66:4; improved. 37:12,45:4,68:76; repair, 78:8; tablesaw, 78:74-75; two-handed, 55:66

puzzles: architectural whimsy, 11:61; baby's first, 1:42; Chinese block, 2.3:56-59; circle. square, triangle, 71:45; double-axis dovetail, 16:51; of Steve Malavolta, 18:32-37; techniques for making,



Pye, David,42:53-57


Queen Anne style: furniture, 74:80; highboy, 85:33-39. 86:29-37, 87:31-39; Queen Anne tea table s , 77:27-31. 80;6--8; side chair, 9:37-44

quirk router, 19:57


Raab, V{ayne and Belinda, 81 :42 rabbets: corner joints, 8;60; in small stock,56:4

racks: chisel, 91: 12; sandpaper, 86:70-71

Radeschi, George, 15:63

radial arm saws: accurate cuts, 64:4; avoiding sawdust buildup, 7:22; backstop, 34:18; cut-off stop, 3:22, 24,9:14; miter joints on, 7:12:

Radial Ann Saw Basics (Cliffe), ] 4: 19; stock holder, 27:20

Radtke, Charley, 78:24-29, 30-31, 79:6.80:6

Raffan, Richard, 84:22-28

raised panels: handmade, 10:81; routing, 24:62-67; tablesaw-cur, 7:7.3

Rakower, Joel, 93:52

random-orbit sanders: i nterchange-

able pads, 83: 12-13 Rantala, lim, 38:60 Rapp, Travis, 98:44 Rasche. Mack, 88:24-31

rasps: care and use of, 10:67; cleaning, 17: 14; made from recycled back saw blades, 32; 14; manufacture of, ]0:65-67; sharpening, 92:12; tip sleeve, 24: 14

ratchets: drive bits in, 6: 12 rattan, 82:58

Ray, Tom, 55:49

razor saws, 57:62-63

The Real Mother Goose (OR),


reamer, tapered, 52:45-47. 53:16 Reed, Abijah, 77;22-26

Reesor, Andrew, 100:41

references: Illustrated Dictionary fit Building Materials and Techniques (Bianchina), 27:31; Woodftrui; A Computerized Index of Woodworkers' Magllzirle;, 8:36; Tile Woodworker's DictiQ/Iary (Taylor), 16:72

Rehmar, Mark, 13:.67

Reiber, Paul, 1:50, 10;69,27:64, 29:64. 50:68-76, 60:56, 68:34, 91:46

Reid, Brian. 82:48. 94:45

Reid, Colin. 1:49, 16:66.21:64, 49:49

Rein, Owen. 33:62 Reitveld, Gerrit, 82:62

Renk, Wyatt, 1:51 reproductions: appropriateness. 73:80

respirators, 22:74-75

re toration: 19th century chest, 56;42--47; Conservation community responds, 61 :62-67; Repairing Imd Restoring Furniture (Taylor). 23:28; repairing color damage, 59:38--41; veneered panels, 14,:30-33

Reynolds, Sansom, 83:6 Rezendes, Geo., 1:49

Ribbeke, 10m, 30:60

Ribotto, Peter. 39:37

Rice .• Robert R .• 81:71 Richardson, Daryl. 55:46 Richardson. Sam, 95:44

Ricourr, Marc, 77:52

Rieber, Johannes. 92:53 Riemenschneider, Tilman, 20;41,

22:4,65:72-7 Riemerschrnid, Richard. 66:20 Rietveld, Gerrit, 58:70, 82:80 rifflers: see rasps

Rigolet, Jackie, 70:64-67 Riley, Cheryl, 51 :32-38, 68:75 Ring, Don. 9:72,11:32-37

rip fences: aligning, 11:14; improve-

ments to, 7:49-51, 9: 12 Ripley, Iohn S., 4:64

ripping. straightline, 6: 12, 81:8 Rissmeyer, Walter, 2:60

Ri ttenhouse, La ura, 60:25, 62: 18 (correction)

riving green wood, 47:26--27,


Ril:l:udi, Ed, 10:73

Robertson, Henry, 9:72 Robertson, Jamie, 3:71, 6] :39, 40,


Robertson, Rich, 15:56--58 Robinson, Cory, 73:56 Robinson, David, 36:59,40:67 Robinson. Walter. 59:42-43 Robe-sander: manual for, 27:8 Roby, Diane. 51:45

Rochester Institute of Technology:

School for American Craftsmen, 14:60

rocking chairs: 19th-century country, 98:29-33; child's walnut, 74:42--47; Craftsman-style, 90:38--46, 91 :34-40, 96: 10; dynamics of, 91 :8-10; ladderback, 12:44-53; Shaker-style, 63:48-57. 64:36--43, 65:34-38, 75:80; splintback, 29:50-61: wensson's, 46:58

rocking horse: curved laminated, 3:50-56;srylizecl, 19:39--41; with upholstered seat, 10:61-64 Roeper, Florian, 84:41 Rocsberry.Alan, 84:62

Rogers. David, 67:55

roll marks: machine defect in lurnber, 11:51

roller stand and table: snap made.

15:66-69, 17:6

Rollin, Patrick, 55:49 rolling pin, 34:73

Rose, John, 87:4.8-49 Rosen, Carol, 91:55 Rosenblatt. Daryl, 94:5 L rosettes, 54: 3 2-36

rosewood, PNG (narra), 52:28-29 Ross, Craig, 40:66

Ross, Robert, 23:68-69

Rosson, Martha Rising, 89:72 Rost, Martin, 83:45

rot, wood, 46:63

rottenstone, 81:68-69

Rouleau, Dale, 7:67

TOuter bits: deaning,lJ:14; Limitations of, 62:54-55; maintenance, 42:24-26; pilot for trimming, 66:4; selecting, 41:24-28, 48:20; storage, 22:16, 33: 12, 4J: 14; types of, 10:56-59; waxing shank, 14:6

router planes. 19;54-57.58:56-59 router tables: 360·degree, 10:24; adjusting height, 17:12; cart, 4:62-63; cope cut sled, 51: I 0; fences, 19:73,28:4.1-45, 3():4; height adjuster, 54:4; miter gauge slot, 37:8; shop made work station, 19:48-53,21:4; table and fence system, 86:58-64, 87:6

routers: design and construction, 5:78-82; endrnill cutters. 57:8; hand, 19:54-57; inlay sets. 31:64; jigs, 7:26, 26:38,38: 12.45:32-35. 82:40; limitations of, 62:52-56; Making Wood Bowls with II Router 6- Scroll Saw (Spielman and Roehl), 20:24; matching to task, 35:24-29; overview of, 19:42--47; pads. 39:14; plunge routers in router table, 48:10; problems with. 5:76-82; Router Basics (Spielman), 9:30; securing template guides, 35:8; selecting, 52:18-19; shop-made guide for, 5:'16; using safely, 30:24, 31:8, 33:22,44;4.62:56,74:6: vibration of trim router, 16:20

rou ing: beaded curves, 58:60-63; depth adjustment, 29:28, 37:26-28,39: 12; dowels, 12:24; drawer joints, 11:10; End Fixture, 31 :43--47; fluted half-column, 29:46--49; guide for parallel, 28:20; guides for grooves. 12:10; improving multiple pass accuracy, 16:18; minimizing tearout, 19:24, 21:16,24:22,50: 16--19; with mirror to view cutter, 34: 12; mortise and tenon joints, 5:58-59, 7:8; mortises, 9:54-55; picture frame molding, 35: 14; in reverse, 19:24; rings, 30: 16; small stock, 7: 14, 31:]0; tapers, 12:.24; tenons, 16:56-58; thin stock, 27:18; "turned" Shaker knobs, 77:59-60; wide stock, 7:26

Roux, Prancois, I L:61

[lib blocks (door), 41:10 rubber wood, 52:74-76 rubbing compound, 33:14

rules (measuring): dimpling metal for trammels, 3]: l6; recycling worn folding, 30:16

Rupert, Farrell, 96:41

Ruskin, jon, 75;6

Russell, Jamie, 55:48, 6) :75,68:38,


Russell, jason, 76:61 Rust, Keith, 68:39

rust prevention: camphor ill tool box, 14:6; 011 cold tools, 16: 16; oilsaturated fabric squares, 35:12 Ryerson, Mitch, 44:38, 49:49, 78:44


saber saws: sharpening blades, 36: 14 safety; avoiding trips and falls,

30:7 L, 31 :6,32:6; in Clear Spring School shop, 90:10j defogging eye glasses, 12: 14, 16:15; of finishes, 14:73-74, 34:56-57: fire prevention, 18:51, 34:59, 39:76; general, 16;6.26:50; litter-free shop, 44:14; magnetic tarters, 89:50-54. 90:6-8,91:6,94:10; maintaining concentration, 47:36: paint strippers, 36:73: power tools, 32:39; reminder board, 48:6; respirators, 22;74-75; rubber finger grips,

88: to; shaper, 26:60; slippery floors, 38: 12,43:8; tablesaw, 19:22, 83:8: transient voltage, 94:65; woodworking with children, 84;51-55; see also ergonomics; first aid; push sticks; routers

Sage, Michael, 9:69. 22:71,27:68,


Sainsbury, john, 8;66--68 Saint Exupery, Alain de, 18:50 Sakwa, Hap, 45:49, 72;7'1 Salchow, William, 63: 14

salt and pepper shakers. 3:42--43,


Salwasser, MMk, 50:46 Samson, Pete, 84:38

sanders: see nantes of specific types of

so nders

Sanders, Jan, 51:62-63

Sanderson, Brian M., 87:47 sandglass, 71:54-57, 72:25, 73:6 sanding: cove-shaped pieces, 83: 13:

cylinders. 20; 16; dc-fuzzing, 85:14: dust collection fixture,

93: 14; edges, 84: 14; with the grain?, 91:14; increasing efficiency, L 1 :59; jigs, 57:8,64:8, 80;12; preventing sheet tears, 7: 14: small places, a5: 12; surfaces,

II :53; thin stock, 53;6; lips for, 37:6D--61; turnings, 13: 16. L8; Vaufrey system, 35:57-59

sanding blocks: beveled, 96: 18; for

WOODWORK 92 DECEM!!·11. 2006

contours, 12:18; curved, 40:12; custom made. 48:8: dual use, curved, 78: I 0; for edge. 50: 10; flexible from old caulk rubes, 43: LO; hand sanding belt, 88: 10; for mitered comers, 12: 18; old magazines, 90: 1 B; Super Blocks, 39: 14; for surfaces, 23:12.25: 11, 27:51

sanding drums: multiple grit, 83: 14 sandpaper: accurate application of disks, 90: J 4; better use of, 49:8; cleaner, 23:14. 59:4; cutting, .10:26, 29:12,44: 10; dull causes splotchy staining, 24:4; extending life of, 29: 12, 31 :6, 48:8; extending life of discs, 6:20; for lapping metal,

45: 19; mouse pads as backing,

51 :6; overview. 37:58-59, 78:56-59; storage. 13: 16,52:4, 86:70-71; uses at sharpening station, 32:14

Sandstrom, Roger B., 66:61 Santa Fe Community College


San tapa u, Ioseph, 41:55

Santner, Dean, 6:38--46, 47:60-65 Sargent, William E., 22:67 Sartorius, orm, 24:72,27:68,

64:48, 66:60. 99:22-28 Saskatchewan Craft Council,


Satake, Yashuhiro, 50:41

Sato, Tateo, 64:23

Satterlee, Craig, 47:74 Sauder, John, 22:28-34 Sauer, Jon, 5:73, 17:67,21 :63,

43:66--67, 85:60

Sauve, Stephen, 14:28-33

saw blades: cleaning, 17: 14, 19: 1 0, 21 :6, 35: I 0.52:6; ease of changing, 46:6; protectors, 41 :6; recycling hacksaw blades for rasp, 32: l4: recycling into shop-made saws, 62;4; rorage, 13:14,37:10; seen/so sharpening

sawhorses: fil'e-piec(',44:8 sawing, batch. 13:14

sawmills: Arbaz, Switzerland, 25:67; portable, 33:47--48

saws: Grimsilflw 011 Snws (Grimshaw), II :6, 12:33; see also hand aws; names of specific Iypes of snws

Saylan, MerryU, 50:43. 51:66, 55:48, 63:47,65:44,70:52.75:22-29 Sayre. Bill, 75:71

scaling (mea urernent): sector (tool),49:58-63

Scarpino, Betty, 51:68, 55:46,47,

61 :24-30,67:56

Scates, Stan, 35:66. 37:4

Schaar, Stanley, 3:70

Schenk. Candace, 67:61 Schindler, Rudolph, 58:71 Schmidt, Robert. 90:52 Schmidt, Scott, 63;42. 85:24-32,


Schmitt, Terry, 77:40, 78:50-5 I, 94:51

schools: American School of Lutherie (CA), 59: 19; Anderson Ranch Arts Center (CO), 45:70-75; Arques School ofTraditional Wooden Boarbuilding (CA), 47:48--53; Art Academy of Cincinnati, 86:80; Center for Furniture Craftsmanship (MEl, 83:6; Clear Spring School, 86:42-45:

Country Workshops (NC), 74:56---61; Leeds Design Workshops (MAl, 75:64-71: Marc Adams School of Woodworking (IN), 75:52-57; McMicken School of Design (OH), 86:80; Palomar College Woodwockiog (CA), 80;20; Parnham School (England), 28:72-74; Shinrin Takurni Iyuku (Japan), 84:68-76; University of Cincinnati's School of Design (01-1),86:80; see also College of the Redwoods (CA); education

Schriber, lame ,86:22-28 Schrunk, Thomas, 50:55, 70:46,


Schuch, JoAnn, 55:68-73 Schultz, Michael, 56:49 Schwalenberg, Jennifer, 81 :73 Schwarting, Klaus. 29:67 Schwartz, Brad, 11:7 L Schwartz, Dan, 47:74 Schwartz, Jennifer, 20:7l Schwartzkopf. John, 4:65 scoop, carved, 16:46-48

cort, Joe, 25:69 Scott, Mike, 48:45

scrapers and scraping: burnishing, 11 :57-58,78: 13,79: 1.2; chairmaker's, 45:51-59; edge protection, 18:22; ergonomic, 65:4; No. 80,43:42-46; overview, 98:62-65; scraper plane ,33:38-39, 34:8, 35:4,61:55-56; sharpening, 23: 12, 61:53,73:62-63,75:6; shop-made, 1.9:74-75,22:20; spoons for rounded urfaces, 65:6; surface, 11:52-53; types of, 61 :52-53; uses of, 11 :54-55, 58

screwdrivers: modifying bits fOT square drive, 36:4; recycling worn into lack puller, 6:]8

screws: aligning, 24:20; easier driving, 33: I 0; q uick sizing, 62:6; removing stripped, 16:20,17:8 scribing tools: jigsaw, 59:8; pizza wheel,67:6

scroll saw: backache free operation, 83: 13; blade tune-up, 50: 10; blades for puzzle making, 7;84; cutting comic characters, 10:18; cutting twists, J 5:74-76; dust blower, 6:24; extending life of

blade, 15:16; improving cut,

96: 14; Making Wood Bowls with a Router & Scroll Saw (Spielman and Roehl), 20:24; minimizing splintering, 62:8; Scroll Saw Holiday Patterns (Spielman), 16:29

scrolled panels, 22:36-37 Sculptural Objects Functional Art (SOFA), 58:50-55, 64:44-49

sculpture: contemporary wood, 58:72-76,59:66--7 J; The Fir-Tree Lyre (France), 71 :22; Terry Martin. 99:65-69: John Morris. 96:24-31; spoons, love, 99:22-28; see also carving

sealers: see finishes Seaton, Jeffrey, 17:30-35 Seccombe, Cli nton, 12:67

secret compartments, 78:68-72,


sector (tool), 49:58-63 Seiho, Kibe, 92:24 Seitzman, Lincoln, 9:68 Seller, Paul, 42:31-33 Sellery, David, 92:47 Sengel, David, 65:22-28

settees: repairing antique, 38:58-59; Shaker-style, 27:52-59

Seymour, John, 87:54, 55, 56 Seymour, Thomas, 87:52, 53, 54,55, 56,80

Sfirri, Mark, 2:59, 50:4.2, 55:48, 49, 64:49,69:47, 76:46, 85:51, 63, 94:26-32

Shackelford, 101', 90:55

haeffer, Jim, 57:18

Shaker style: bench. 9:7<1-75; boxes, 6] :31-37. 62:20-21,63; 14, 89:30-34; chair, 34:36--41; counter/stereo cabinet, 32:42--5 l ; cupboard over drawers, 38:34-39; document chest, 70:34-38. 72(8; drop-front desk, 36:38-46; rocking chairs, 63:48-57, 64:36-4.3, 65:34-38, 75:80; settee, 27:52-59; side table, 30:49-53; stool, 9:74-75

shapers: frame and panel desk project, 33:49-5 l ; glue-joint cutter for, 13:6; mortise and tenon joints with, 5:59-60; tool review. 26:57-61

Shapiro, Marty, 13:39

Sharp, Al{, 61 :72, 87:51, 99:43 sharpen: ng: carving tools, 5:64-65,

10:16: chisels, 40:33,50:63-67, 63:34-38.39-41,96:53-57; dedicated station, 23:42-43,27:60-63, 52:59-61j drawknives, 65: 10; edge tools, 37:52-57, 40:33; files, 92: 12; gouges, 96:53-57; Hand Smv

harpening (Polillo) (video), 59:21; hand saws, 77:69-73, 78:6; Japanese saws, 23:60-65, 68:60,-67; mail order service, 27:30,28:1'1; Nehring system,

53:74-75; plane blades, 63:.34-38; rasps, 92: 12; resaw blades, 70: 12; saber saw blade, 36: 14_; scrapers, 23: 12, 43:45, 73:62-63; small jointers, 24:16; temperature indicator for; 60,:4; using sandpaper, 32: 14

sharpening, tools for: dell ning with WD-40, 16:15; guide, 56:.8; hones, 25:54-55,52:4,6.: Jigs, 25:56--57, 52:6,82:12,99; 13; preventing edge wear. 12:16; preventing slippage. 38; 14; selecting, 38:40-41; stones, 71:13,92:64-68

shaving; tools and techniques. 53:66--71

shaving horses: all-wood, 52:53; English-style, 52:48-52; twin arm, 43:35-41

shavi ngs: uses for, 67:4 Shaw, Pru, 82:63

Shaw, Zach, 67:63

shellac: applicator, 97:45-47: characteristics of, 14:71; curing of, 8:80-82, 9:46--47; denatured alcohol toxicity, 99:8; evaluating as furniture finish, 34;6, 33:52-57; problems as washcoat, 26:24; as sealer, 50:60; sticks, 45:21; rerminolcgy, 8:84

shelving: adjustable wood supports, 11:22; hiding dado" 22:20; hiding end grain, 33: 14; bole-drilling jig, 6:24, 54:4; mirrored, 19: 18; Shelving and Storage (Snyder), 17:29; simple kitchen, 38:64--67; see also bookcases

Shepard, Peter, 44:34

heremera, Richard, 17:65,24:72 Sheridan College (Canada),


Sheridan, John Grew, 96:41 Sheriff, Ed, 28:62, 30:62 Sherman, Rick, 15:62 Shim, lee Hyun, 67:63

Slci rnizu, Yuko, ] 7:67, 68:75 shims: from aluminum cans, 4:24,

24:22; slats from blinds, 64:4 Shinrin Takumi [yuku (Japan),


Shipman. Wayne, 55:49 shipping (delivery), 42:62-67 ships, model, 9:58

Shirk. Helen, 55:47

Shoji, Osamu, 84:74, 75 Shokosai, Hayakawa, V, 65:48 shooter boards: for circular saw,


shooting: traditional stock prep, 18:57-58

shooting fence; or sq uare planing,


shop vacuums: see vacuums, shop Shoun ai, SMno, 65:48 Shuldiner, Joseph, 90;59

Shuler, Michael, 3:68, 76:66

Shull, Randy,78:44


Shumaker, Karl, 20:67 Shutan, Anne, 56:50-51

side table: art n uveau fold-down, 94:38-44; Shaker-style, 30:49-53' simple, 44:52-57; stone-topped

J] ightstand, 82:66-71; walnut side, 17:69-75

sideboards: ArtS-3 rid-Crafts/ Asianstyle, 73:64--68; serpentine front, 7:43-48; ilver storage, 93:40-48; William and Mary, 14:42-47

Siegel, Kathran, 61 :76

iernen ,Bill, 6:72

silicone oil: problems with, 26:10 Simp all, Martin, 42:59 Simpson, Tommy, 5;72, 65:43,

79:68, 89:74, IOO;12~13 Singer, Michael, 91:47,100:66 Singh, Jay, .86:48

Siskin, Sharon, 95:45

Skansen (folk museum) (Sweden), 65:55

Skidmore, Brent, 49:46 konieczny, Steve, 84:37 Skott, Courtney, 94:47, 97:50 lentz, Tack. 64:47, 67:54

lide viewer, 19:70-72 sliding t-bevel, 40:68-72 Small, Ted, 47:74

Smet, Ed, 4:68

Sminkey •. Maddy V., 98:45 Smith, Brendan, 90:57 Smith, Gail Fredell, 1:37-39 Smith, Greg, 26:63, 84:39

Smith, Hayley, 48:44, 67:51, 72:76, 76:62

mith, Michael, 80:44 mith, Robbin, 66:58

Smith, Roderick,49:49 Smith, Ron, 22:52-56 Smithart, Les, 23:32-38 Snider, Maxine, 58:55

snipe: machine defect in lumber,


Snyderman Gallery (PA), 82:44 Sobel, Elena, 84:60

soccer ball, wooden, 54:47-54, 56:16 Society of American Period urni-

ture Makers: inaugural meeting, 67:32; website changes. 77:6j "WorkillgWood in the 18th entury", 58: 14-16, 59: 18

Society of Arts and Crafts (MA),


solar energy kilns, 53: 18, 55-6l solvents: overview of, 62:57-61 Sornerson, Rosanne, 65:40,


ornogyi, Ervin, 22:72-73, 30:61, 48:63

Sonday, Robert, 38:61,55:48

Sonoma County Museum ( ),


Sonoma County Woodworkers Association (CA), 68:34-35, 84:38--39,93:54-55, 97:48-49

Sorenson, Tommy, 92;53

Sotelo, Kim, 72;40

Soutenberg, Neil, 55:48 Southern Alberta Woodworkers

Society, 98:48-49

Southern Highland Craft Guild,

38:60.-61,49:48-49 Spady, Jerry, 90:55 Spalding, Ben, 14:68 spalred wood, 76:73-74

speed reducer, jack-shaft, 14:39-41 Speerjens, r, 35:62, 79:42-43, 89:49 Speh, Dwight, 46:67, 57:48 Spencer, Katie, 67:64

Spicer, Todd, 69:45

spindles: miniature drive center for lathe, 46:6; repairing, 19:20 splayed joints: calculating, 21:68, 25:6, 26: 12; overview, 17:56.-6 J, 19:6,10

spline weights: shop-made, 55:4; yachtsman's ducks. 33:40

splines: comer, 46:52-53; feathered, 72:58-61,74:6; increasing strength, 74: I 0

spokeshave routers. 19:56-57 spokeshaves, 93:8; basics of, 20:75; circular, 92:33-37; Japanese versus Western, 46:57; SOurce' for, 53:70-71; use of, 53:68

spoons: carved, 92:60-63; love, 85:58-59,99:22-28; making wooden, 66:48-55; as scrapers for rounded surfaces, 65:6; traditional Rumanian, 73:69-71

Spradlin, Paul, 8:79

Spragins, Dolly, 56:52-53 spray guns, 67:72-75 Springfield High chool (PA),

90:56-57,98:44-45 spruce, 12:59 Spurlin, Heidi, 27:69

square; carcasses, 8:61, 27:70-71, 48: 10; maintaining while gluing, 12:24

squaring tools: cabinet jig, 78: 12; centerline square. 44: 14; corner braces, 48: 1 0; frame and panel door jig, 33: 14; framing squares, 100:8; modified carpenter's square, 49:4; synthetic cord, 93:10; transparent drafting triangle, 45:6

St. John, Adam. 9:70 Stadshaug, Gaylord, 52:56 Staiger-White, Linda and Dale,


taining: avoiding splotching, 22:47-51,24:4,26:24; basswood evenly. 30:26; dry and dirty brushing, 71 :67; ebonizing wood, 26:24; matching replacement pieces, 31 :20; methods of, 26:47-49; oak evenly. 62:22: small parts, 31:18

stains: aniline dyes. 28:64-69,46: 16: blotching, 50:60; coloring with,

95:70-71; dispensers, 46: 12; mixing container, 52:6; non-grainraising dyes, 28:68; penetration for decoration, 44:42-46; for repairing color damage, 59:39-40; types of, 26:4.5-47; understanding, 50:60-61; water-based dyes, 51 :63.-64

staircase, spiral: for Sisters of

Loretta in anta Fe, 63:21, 64:18 Stalzer, Dan, 60:55, 81 :48-49 stamps, identification, 37: 10 stands: globe, 83:62-65; three-tier,

95:72-76; two-draw pedestal, 92:38-43

Stanley, Nathan, 76:45 Stanley, Walt, 95:50 Stanton, Brad, 90:57

Staples, Robbi, 35:63, 55:54-55 starters, magnetic, 89:50-54. 90:6-8.

91 :6,94: 10 staving, 92:69-73

steam bending: bowback Windsor armchair, 27:38; chair parts, 49:28-30,64:40-41; rocker slats, 12:45; Scandinavian tiners,

91 :72-76; tambourine, 22:64

steam generator: shop-made.


steaming to darken, 89:58 Stearns, John, 88:46

Steckler, Robert, 10:70, 77:45

steel: production for rools, 5:48~53, 6:6; tempering, 68:59, 71 :61

steel banding: as hold-in on table-

saw, 14:8

Steele. Joe, 41 :56, 60~27

Stein, Brenda, 98:43

Stender, Thomas, 58:51 Stenstrom, Steven, 58:14 Stephan. t.a, 3:67

Sterling, Michael, 3;66 Stevens, Craig Vandall, 40:65,

43:26-34,48:61,85:66 Stevens, Guy, 90:60 Stevenson, Bob. 67:34 Stickley, Gustav, 80:34-39, 80 Stirt, Alan, 50:44, 67:49, 76:67 Stcckner, Ted, 7:64

Stocksdale, Bob, I: 16-21,21:64, 45:47.69:18,72:74,76:57,58, 78:48-49. 81 :6-7,85:62 Stockton, Kelly, 57:44-45

Stockton, Tom, 38:42-47 Stokes, Ti mothy, 67:51 Stolle, Sa ndy. 6:72

Stone, 10, 55:49

stools: African, 95:80; bar, 3:38-41; foot, 83:39-43, 92:74-76; joint stool, 49:37-41; kitchen step, 37:44-46; light and strong, 82:29-34; "Scoot", 85:40-44; Shaker-style, 9:74-75; rurned garden, 5:47

top blocks: spring-loaded, 42: 12 stop gauges: shop-made adjustable.


storage: 50 Storage Projects for th« Home (Armpriester and favorite). 7:34; bins from produce boxes.

31: 16; computer disk case, 13:72-75; corner seal with, 26:68-73; lidded containers, 36:62.-68; magazine rack wfnighr light, 23:51-53: mobile shop cart, 57:6; Shelving and Storage ( nyder), 17:29; for small tool ,13:14, 14:6; under-sink roll-out, 31: 12, 34: 18; see a/50 cabinets: chests; shelving

Stowe, William E., 1 :46 strainers: dust masks as, 23:20 Straka, Jack, 52:55 Strangeland, Thomas, 20:71 straw bale construction, 53:60 Strazza, frank, 100:65 Strefezza, Joseph. 59:48 string: storage, 31.: 12

stringing inlays, 22:40-46, 23:6,


Stroud, Larry, 68:35, 93:55, 97:48 Stubbs. 01'1,55:48, 49

Stuckey, Ed, 67:33

Srumbras, Jon, 82:42

Sugano, Maiko, 85:49, 94:46 Sugiyama, Yosh, 64:22

Suhr, Bill, 8:75

Suilmann, Dale, 46:69

Sullenger, David Lee, 19:64 Sullivan, Rich, 9:68

sunbursts (pattern), 61:38-43 Sunday, Robert, 3:70

support blocks: for cutting large stock, 15:20; for, 20: 16, 27~20, 35: 14, 64:6; stable, 74:11. surface textures, 9] :33

Surls, Tim, 59:68-69 sustainable forestry: see forest


Suyama, Yoshie, 84:61 Swanson, Noel, 39:38, 76:44 Sweden: folk crafts, 65:54-57;

Skansen (museum), 65:55 Sweet, Lynn, 29:63

Swensson, Carl, 46:54.-61,64:28 switches: foot operated for lathe,


Syfert, Anita, 11:71

yfert, Jerry, 11 :71, 28:60, 39:60


t-bevel, sliding. 40:68-72

tables: assembly and layout, 87:68-70,88;6: chess/checkers game, 95:32-38, 96:8, 97:8; cottage, 77:32-34; Craftsman-style, 97:37-44; curio, 25;46-49; curved skirt for, 29:40-42; Idesk combination, 5:40-43; dining, 71:36-44, 97:37-44; edge jointing, 1:6; fini h for kitchen, 43:22-24,45: 19; glass-topped ginkgo, 39:32-33:

woo D W 0 R K 94 DEC Il M B Il R 2 0 0 6

Gustav Stickley library. 80:34-39; kitchen work, 92;54-59; legends of. 89:7; neo-classical, 11:62-66; occasional, 100:82-86; Parson's, 21:40-45; pedestal tand, 92:38-43; presidential, 25:75-76; prolotypical,65:·44; Queen Anne tea, 77:27-31 , 80:6-8; recrcl ed

Cb ristmas tree, 61 :68-71; heraron-style. 41:38-42; spalted maple and walnut, 75;30-37; Spanish foot tavern, 30:64-70; stave-built pedestal, 56:30-41; story furnilure, 84:59.-63; super-circular, 65:29-32' "tree for two», 98:34-42; trestle, 4:38-45, 9:60-65, 53:31-39,81 :35-41, 82:6; turned tripod in yew, 74:37-41; see also coffee tables; end tables; legs; side tables: sideboa rds

tablesaw jigs: bevel-rippi ng, 61:4; board -straightening, 35:8; cutting thin sto k, 30: 12; leg tapering, 44:56-57; miter, 11 :63, 26: 16: tenoning. ]6:59.-61, 19: I 0,20:18

tablesaws: angled cut guide, I 0:20; blade centering, 6J :8; cleaning, 49:6; crosscutting box for, 35:38-39,38:4, 39: 12; cut off guide, 24:56: dial indicator holder, 20: 14; easy blade change. 46:6; equipment storage, 25: 16; extension table, 24:57; hold-downs, 28:6; inserts DIY, 93: 12; mortise and tenon joints with, 5:54-56; preventing tear-out, 38: 16; push sticks, 78:74-75; safety, 19:22, 83:8; sliding crosscut table, 32: 12; squaring miter gauge, 5:14, 68:6; "super" rip fence, 7:49-51, 9:12; tabletop over, 36:4; waxing table, 7:20

tabletops: all-wood fastener, 77:8-9; determin ing height for, 11 :22; finding center. 44:6: over tablesaw, 36:4; Principle of Complementary Angles, 79:8; refinishing, 100:58; slot-screwing, 8:24, 25:41; stone, 82:66-71; veneer patterns for, 10:)0; see also buttons

tack doth: storage, 38: J 0 Tang, Andy, 96:40 Tanioka, Shigeo, 92;24, 2S Tannen, Rich. 11:72

/miSII (In panese cabinetry); kaidau (step), 53:40-42; overview of, 45:36-39

tape, adhesive: reviving stickiness, 16:16

tape, measuring: see measuring


tapping guides, 90: I 8 Tasmania, 98;52-56 Tattersall, Jules, 48:45. 46 Tavianini, Armond. 87:46 Taylor, Albert, 96:40 Taylor, Chad, 16:62.21:64

Taylor, Don, 33:60, 34:61 Taylor, Doug, 55:49

teak, 52:70

Tedrowe, R. Thomas, lr., 58:55 templates.angles, 34:] 6: curves,

[3:12,23:18; mating, 38:55-57; from scrap vinyl siding, 65:6; sheet-metal, 14; 1.0

Tennant, Phil, 49:47

tenons: apron, 41:39: cutting round, 37:43: draw bored, 41:66--71; resizing chair, 38: 16; 'round, 82:31.; router-cut, 16:56-58: shaper-cur, 5:59-60: shop-made gauge, 74:70-76; tablesaw-cut, 4:72-73, 5:54-56,11:12, 16:59-61, 19: I 0; ,eealw mortise and tenon joints

'Iercera Gallery (CAl, 70:52-53,

76:46-47, 85:50-51 Terpening, David, 29:65 Terry, Patrick J" 16:63 Tese, Carl, 61:75

Texas Furniture Makers, 100:64-65 Theiss, Robert P., 3:67

thinners: overview of, 62:57-61;

recyciing.16:69, 63:6 Thode, Paul, 9:56

Thomas, Iournel, 81:4.2-43 Thomas, William, 93:66 Thompson, Fred, '100:65 Thompson, J. Scott, 99:42 Thomson, Michael, 74:53 Thornhill, Oren, 34:70-72 Thouin-Stubhs, Mary, 55:48, 49, 50 threaded inserts: driving, 53: 1.3,

HelicoiJs, 46: .12; installing, 38:6, 57:4; jig, 28: I 0

th reads: cu tti n g. 33: I 5; wooden,


Tiercy, Alain,53:44 til tel's, 4.7:30-35

tilting arbor saws: engle accuracy,


'Iornashek, Steve, 50:55 'Iomoya, Bndo, 68:64-65, 1S9:18 Tompkins, Keith, 95:46-47

tongue and groove joinery: locking, 2::43; radius bookcase, 40:36-40;. for small bU1(, 26:74-76; thickness gluing, 30:54-55

tool grips: string, 37: 14

tool making: Bridge City Thai Works (OR), 42:68-72; Makillg 0- Modifyillg Woodworking Tools (Kingshott), 20:2 tj Tool Making for WOQdwork~rs (Larsen), 64:1 S

tool storage: chest, 84:46-50; pegboard alternative, 89: 10; tip-out trays, 83: 1 0; see (I/SQ !1m ties £If specific IQols

toolboxes: drill brace as handle, 7:20 tools: Choosil1g and Us/ug Hand TOQls (Rae), 80: I 0; conspirators, 20:64; don't buy cheap, 12:71; cHay, 99:72-76; keep it simple, 47:29: photocopying manuals,

29: 1 0; steel in cutting edges, 5:48-5.3,6:6; storage, 41 :14, 63:4; top-ten tips, 42::n; see also antique tools: machine tools; power tools

tops: Celts (rattlebacks), 94:72-76, 95:8,96:.8: old-fashioned spinning, 35:40-4.1; small hand-spun, 90:76; stick spinner, 86:72-75

Tomallyay, Steve, 94:47 Tornheim, Holly, 50:53, 66:61 torsion boxes, [:70-73

totem poles: American Association of Woodturners 5th annual symposium, 9:59;. Carving Totem Pules & Mash (Bridgewater), 16:26

towel holders, 21:20

toys; alligator, 6:.4.6; building blocks, 18:70-74; castle, 1:43-45; chess set, 68:27,28-32: doU crib, 8:50-51: horse, J :42-43; koa-constricror, 6:44-45: lighter side of woodworking, 16:50-53; Makillg FQlk Toy,s & W(Ultli«r Valle;;; (Pierce). 16:2.9: marble coli, 37:47-51; pull toys,. 20:72-73: robot, 21 :46-53: ship, 1 :45: rraclor, 20:34-35, 23:4, 6:. traditional Portuguese, 60:60-67; wheels, 94:18; wobbly wheels, 61 :8;. yoyos, 10:54-55: see also models; nmncs of SpcGifiC types of TOYS; puzzles; tops

tracing: outl i ue tracer, 11 :67: paper, 19:18

Tracy, James, 32:62

trammels: dimpling, metal rule for reference point, 3-1: 16; hints for making curves, 26:51

trays: barrel slllve,92: 10;, for carving too I s, 88: 64-65: d ave tailed letter, 76:36-38; Hawaiian koa, 2:34-36: three-tier stand, 95:72-76; tip-out fur tools, 83: 10

tree farms: tropical, 52:68-71

I rees: redwood, 89:6: scul p ture 0 f Terry Martin, 99:65-69 rrembleurs, 57:40-43

Tropical American Tree Farms,


Trotman, Bob, 3:68, 69:46, 79:66 'Ircut, George, 76:39-43 'Irubrldge, David, 66:71 Truman, Jay,. 21 ;61

trundle sticks, 77:35-37 Trupperbaumer, Ben, 45:46 Tullis, Bud, 75:19, 77:41

tung oil: basics, 6:52-56; splotching

Oil cherry, 29;30 Tunnard, Ken, 55:56 Turcanik, Mel, 63:45 Turk, ltick, 40:74, 99:53 Turner, Peter S., 63:20

turning: 1997 World Turning Conference, 50:39-46; adaptin g tools for consistency, 6:20; aligning,

4:24, 19: 18; avoiding catches, 55:58-6J; defective wood, 2]:54--59; on II dowel, 3:72-73; French, 77:46-52; International Turning Exchange, 67:50-57; Ia minated scrap, 23:72-75; matching hal f-turni ngo , 13: 18; Morse taper collets, 3 J :20; multi-axis, 70:80; preventing radial cracks, 55:4; segmented, 10:43-47; slicer for, 3:33; 1001 design and prep, 95:52-57: wire inlay in, 70.:62-63; see also American Association of Woodturners; bowl turning; lathes; legs: spindles; Wood Turning Center (PA)

turning, books about; Bowl Tumi11g Tec/'I1liquf> Masterclass (Boase), 83:2[; Contemporary Turned WQod:' New Pilrspel;tives in a Rich Tradition (Leier, Peters and Wallace), 67: 18-22; The Craftsman W(lodt!lrncr (Child), 21:28; TIlrtrillgMilliatures ill Wooll (Sainesbury], 21 :28; Woodturning: A Foundnrion Couts« CRowley), 22:23; Woodtrlrningfor Cabinetmakers (Dunbar), 9:.30; Woodturning M(lsterdas.s (Boase), 53:21

turning projects: block and gavel, 84:33-36; bracket, clock, 91:60-63, 92:6,93:6; candle holders, 72:49-53,81:30-34; chessmen, 68:27, 28-32,circular wall mirror. 99:29-33; dock finial, 88:28; dock frames, 27:75;. connected vessels,

4 J ;43--45; curtain fixtures, 85:53-57; disks for earrings, 45:30-31; drawer pulls, 39:4. 1--43: for furniture, 88:72.-76, 94:33-37; Georgian details, 96:67-71; greenwood chalice, 76:73-77; knobs, 77:5.3-56,78:6: lidded containers, 36:62-68, 6!l:54-5S; miniature brass, 78:54-55; napkin rings, 100:29-3!; paperweights, 3:.72-73; rolling pin, 73:32-34; salt and pepper shakers, 87:40-45; scoops, spoons and ladles, 90:47-51; Shaker-style container, 89:30-34; three-tier stand, 95:72-76; tops, 35:40-41, 86:72..;75, 90:76; trernbleurs, 57:40-43; wine coaster, 75:.72...:76, 78: 13:. see allO bowl turning; legs

twists: inside-outside from fruitwood, 15:74-76


University of Cincinnati's School of Design (OH),86:80

Upfill-Brown, Duvid,82:63

Upton, Gary, 15:63, 24;34-40, 70;53, 75:42-43

Urciuoli, Michael, [0:1'1

Utah Woodturning Symposium,



utensils, kitchen: see kitchen projects


v-block, 43: 12

vacuum pumps: as custom holder, 10: 18; uses for in the shop, 9:66-67

vacuums. shop: converting standard hose to mini-vac, 29:14; pre filter. 37:6

Van Binsbergen, Tom, 50:54, 57:46 Van Kesteren, Maria, 72:74

Vance, Chris, 76.:47, 79:70

varnish: characteristics, 14;70-7 L;

curing, 8:82-83,9:47-48; for exterior wood, 46:65-66; versus oil, 34:55-58; storage. 2:24,28:10; terminology, 8:84

varnishing: basics of, 6:52-56:

shortcut for, 4:6

Vasari, Giorgio, 65~18-19 Vasilliou, Vasilli, 81 :22-29 Vaufrey, Georges, 35:53-59 veneer: air bubbling, 43:22; basics

of. 60:42-47; on columns, 62:43-46; cutting, 43:28-29, 60:44-45, 69:59-63, 86:.65-69; edge gluing, 32:36-37; edge-joining, 13: 10, 43:31; fan tops, 61:38--43; flatrening, 54:44; green wood, 69:65-66; hammer veneering, 35:51: manufacture of, 18:44-50:. press, 13:44; restoring antique, 14:30-33; seaming, 44:63-67; sources for, 60:20: techniques, ]4:34-38, 15:7-8, 16:4: thick, 50:26-28; trimming. 39:8: see also inlay;. marquetry

Verchot,Remi, 55:47,67:56,77:48, 49

Verhoeven, Arno, 65:43, 45 Versatile Gallery (British Colum-

bia), 8] :50 verse: gruks,65:33

Vesper, Kerry, 74:54-55,76:4.8 vessels: connected, 41 :'43-45;

French, 70:.32-33; "The Inspired Vessel'; 90:58-61

Victorian style: The Vicl1J~ian Cab!net-maker's Assistant, 49;20; wall pocket, 95:39-43

vi deo reviews: see Ilnder sped fit; topiC5

Vietnamese woodworkers, 65:20--21 Vilkman, Iarri-Pekka, 60:54,57, 61:74

VirginiaBrier Gallery (CA), 74:48-49

vises: damp pads, 40:8; jaw pads, 38:10; pin, 2:68-69;. removable soft jaws, 74:.1 2; screw lubricatien, 40:6; tail, 41 :.64--65

Visick, Matthew, 60:24,62:]8 (correction)

Voltas, Joe, 59:49 Volz, Bruce. 75:7 J

Von Ryclingsvard, Ursula, 58:75-76 Vortex Design (IL), 58:54


Wadmicki, Dave. 67:49 Waddington, Andrew, 67:63 Wagener, Richard, 57:22-31 Wagenvoord, Case, 55:57 Wahl. Dave, 55:50

Walborn, Iohn, 32:60 Walker, Bart, 38:61

wall p cket, Vi rorian, 95:39-43 Wallace, Don, 19:32-38

walnut wood, 89:55--60, 90:8-10 Walton, Bill, 58:75

Wank, Kenny, 84:62

Ward, James, 13:71

Ward, Lewis, 65:52

Warner, Bryan, 99:43

Warner, Pal, 59:47

Waru1er, Ernest, 31:72-75 washers: leather, 17:8

Wa s, Chd ropher D., 62:39 water-borne Eini 'he : characteristics

of. 14:72; chipping. 26:24

wax: characteristics of, 14:70; commercial, 94:60; furniture care and, 25:51-52. make your own, 94:56--60; paste, 60:46-53; rernoving,20:16

waxi ng: machine tables, 7:20; ail finish,38:29

weather vanes: Making Folk Toys 6- Wendler Vnrles (Pierce), 16:29 weathering of wood, 46:63-64 weaving chair seats: fixture for, 34:38; hickory bark, 52:62-66; Peeling. and Weavillg-a Hickory Bark Chair &11/ (Rein) (video), 52:16; rattan splint, 29:60-61, 65:34-38,.82:52-60

Weber, Doo, 37:30-36 Weber, PhiJ, 50:53

wedges: cutting 00 bandsaw, 58:6;

gluing, 23:16

Weiland, Christopher, 72:75 Weinberger, Ed, 63:42

Weise, Charles, 46:69

Weiss, Barry,ll:72

Weiss, Hershel, 63:43 Wcisstlog, Hans, 50:43, 72:74,

98:back cover Weitzma n, Lee, 58:53 Wells, Bud, 19:68 Wells, Portia, 91:51

wenge, bleaching, 15:12-14 Werner, Matthew, 96:39 Westermann, Horace Clifford,


We tern, Nick, ]00:40 Wharton, Bayley. 38:60

wheels. wooden; cutting, 39:4; wobbly,6(:8

whirligigs: construction techniques,

14:62-65; Whirligigs for Childrell Young & Old (Lunde). 18:28 White, Don, 48:46

White. John G" 19:67,23:70 White. Rex, 100:64

\II/hite, Steven, 32:59, 48:64, 82:45 White, Tim, 81:74

Whitley. "Robert. 41 :30-37,67:34 Whitlock, Roger, 55:56

Whllney, Stephen, 75:71 Whittlesey, Stephen, 9:32-36; 77:44 whittling: Carving the Little Guys

(Randi 11), 14:22; Chinese block puzzle, 23:56-59; introduction to, 15:52-55; knife selection. 23:56; memories of, 31 :51

Whitworth, Jack. 98:49 Whyte, Jay, 79:46-47

Wiggers Custom Pumiture, Ltd.

(Ontario). 58:53 Wiggers, John, 64: 14 Wiktor,1bmasz, L2:64

wildlife: Painting Waterfowl with J.D. Sprankle (Badger and Sprankle), 19:29

Wilkey, Bill, 90:54

Wilkinson, Alan, 52:57, 74:50,


Willard, Aaron, 87:56 Willemsen, Andrew, 44:36-37 Williams, Larry, 75:35

Williamson, Prederick, 24:72,26:67 Williamson, Laura, 87:47

Wilson, Brian, 79:69

winding sticks: from framing

squares, II: 16

windows: splined joint for sash, 4:22 Windsor chairs: chronology of, 44:47-51; continuous arm, 40:31-35; design of, 50:34-38: by Joe Graham, 30:39--43; models, 9:56; overview of, 69:80; for research, 88:6: rustic, 58:38-49, S9:32~37;Welsh stick chair, 37:30-43

Winter, Helga. 20:71, 28:34-40 wire cutters: improving, 34:16 wiring: see electricity

Wisshack, Tom. 3:66, 26:66 Witness Tree, Lancaster, PA, 33:72 Wolf, Charlie, 23:32-38

Wolf, Michael, 11:69

well, Kerry Glenn, 7:69

wo men as woodworkers, 51 :65-69, 68:68-74, 75

Wong, Ted, lr., 33:58, 34:63

wood: aromatic, 79:49-53; burled, 92:60--63; certification, 81 :80; darkening to match exposed, 58:18; ebonizing, 26:24; exotic, 52:68-7 1,89:6; fire hardening, 27:76; "free'; 88:60---61; fruit tree, 15:74-76; gathering/harvesting your own, 81:51, 99:49-54; Good Wood Handbook (Jackson and Day), 29:75; green, 82:6; LKS

(lesser-known species), 52:28-29 44; locating metal in, 76:34; movement of, 3:78, 11:42-43, 40:56--63; native hardwood, (00:28; nature of fibers, 88:56-59; Oak:' Tire Frame o!Civilizatioll (Logan), 99:14; open-grained, 80:59-63; patterns as design element, 2:4.6-48; recycled, 76:32-33; repairing cracked, 26:26; salvaged after forest fires, 81:70-76; scrap, 79:60--65,80:6; source for slabs, 53:19; palred, 76:73-74; sustainable sources, 44:20---22; telling stories with, 43:60; TIle Wood Stllsh Project Book (Pierce), 79:19, 60--65; see also drying wood; forest industry; lurn ber: nllmes of specific types of wood

wood filler: see fill e [5 Wood, Greg, 46:68

Wood, Robin, 50:42. 73:24-29. 76:59

Wood Turning Center (PA), 78:48-49; "Breaking Barriers'; 55:44-50; history of, 6750---57; selections from the collection, 72:70-76; summer residency program. 86:50---51; "Wood Turning in North America Since 1930'; 76:56-63, 64-67

woodblock printing, Japanese, 57:32-35

Woodlanders, 76:68-69 Woodworkers' Guild of Colorado Springs ( A),40:66

woodworking: The Artistry ofWoodworking, 19:29; with children, 84:6-7,51-55,98:8; community project, 86:42-45. human nuance in, 78:32; importance of invention, 42:58; networking with others, 38:75; reasons for, 38:4-6; role of women, 51 :65-69, 68:68-74; Tage Frid Teaches Wooe/working (Frid). 31 :79; "the real thi ng'~ 99:80; tradition and appropriation, 84: I 0; "unplugged'; 84·: I 0, 86:6; Workirlg with Wood (Korn), 26:32; see (1150 business strategies; education; green woodworking

work benches: for the 90's, 59:58--63; carvi ng, 76:8; castors for, 29: 14; for elementary schools, 94:55; interchangeable surfaces for, I :6; joiner's, 87:71-76; to last a lifetime, 88:4,8-55; leveling, 74: 13; portable, 4:20; sharpening stations, 23:42-43,27:60-63, 52:59-61; simple sturdy,

34:42-47; softwood, 95:18; surface protectors, 29: 16,34: 12; torsion box, 41:60-625; weekend project, 41 :60---65

Working, Susan, 77:40, 82:49 Workman, Clay, 35:63


WORKS allery (CA), 40:64

work hops: The Best of Fine WoodlVorkiPlg on The Small Wood Irop, 28:31; designing, 12:41-43, 30: 18; one-man layout, 88:31; safe heating, 37:4; slick. finish hardboard walls, 30: I 0: The Workshop Book (Landis), 12;31,14:24

World Turn ing Conference (l997), 50:39--46

Wornjck Scholarship: see California

College of Arts and rafts Wraight, Susan, 7954-59 Wright, Bruce, 75:47

Wright, David. 29:63, 40:26-35,


Wright, Fran k, 66:59 Wrigley, Rick, 44:39, 61 :73 Wunderlich, Rolf, 54:68-76 \lIhlrz, Albert H., 19:68

Wykes, Peter, 70:47,76:44,82:43 Wynn, Scott, 1:51,8:77


Xylos Gallery ervIN), 82:42-43


Yale University Art Gallery (CT):

"Wood Turning ill North.America SiJ1Ce 1930'; 76:56--63,64--67 Yamada, Hidekazu, 84:75 Yan1ada,RJe, 84:74

Yanagi, Scri, 58:70, 71:74 Yarborough, Mary Eljzabeth, 72:54 Yasuda, Marion, 9:69,74:51,94:50 Yataiki, 68:64-65, 69: 18,81: 19 Yates, Jim, 40:75

Yavener, Barry, 7:65, 16:63

Yeakel, Willard, 17:64, 29:66, 32:60 YerJy, Marcel, 64:29-35

Yoe, Beth, 7:65

Yoshimura, Pumio, 58:76

Young, Bruce, 74;50

Younglove, Steve, 7 J :53 Youngquist, Craig, 6:72

Yow!, Burnell, 32:61


Zaccarelli, Joe, 90:56

Zakurdayev, Leonid, 63:45, 70:47,

76:44, 82:42

Zakurdaycv, Svetlana, 76:44, 82:42 Zau, Greg, 26:62, 84:39,93:55 Zarmanov, Gurgen, 24:70

Zbik, Ed. 56:48, 62:38, 65:52, 72:57,

74"55, 80:47 Zehnder, Kirk, 68:39

Zercher, D. Lowell, 6:73, 55:46 Zimmer, Patty, 68:34 Zimmerman, Arnold, 61:60-61 Zimmerman, Thomas, 83:49

Zito, Debcy, 77:40, 78:50---51, 88:47. 94:51

Zylstra, Elisa, 38:63 Zytowski, Carl, 82:47


y.eung Chan's tiny cabinet is a study in the beauty of small things. Chan made the chest simply to challenge himself using solid wood throughout. The case is built using frame-and-panel construction joined with dadoes, tenons and mitered tenons. The mitered, frame-and-panel doors swing on integral dowels carved into the door stiles and carefully fit into holes cut in the case, an ingenious design Chan has seen in old furniture during visits to his native China. You may need a magnifying glass to see them, but the mitered, solid-wood banding around the quartered cherry top reveals through-tenons, each

te;'_on less than 1/16" tI~ick. Even the ebony pulls sport tiny tenons that fit into miniature mortises cut into the doors and drawers.The drawer fronts are cherry, the sides and backs quartersawn sycamore, and the bottoms are from quartered Sitka spruce. Pulling out a drawer, you quickly realize the fit is exceptional, with the back of the drawer slowing slightly as it exits the case. TIle comer joints are traditional half-blind in front and through-dovetails in back. On a scale of 1-1 0, this tiny cabinet deserves its own special decimal point for its precise and amazing craftsmanship. No small feat-indeed .. -Andy Rae

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