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0+4\/robB5+ r.

t trirtci ci operlin m t ri Ior p erson alititli

/ d{.6n\l-
\ G*G*-h scic socicilogiccclc conrpctitir,,itate
iiite:Lrrare. Cci carc: au p'.rs prinrii in "schirnbarea
qi "acultr.rrafia piraiicir"prin care illclege
unci culturi diunitoare gi
u \Nrbq i tl itrnriirir fenor-rr:nclccic ,:cnt:rct iii Ce irtti-rnplitoar-c, 1,-rintr-una ncccsardqi
ipfit,ltliu,l
flI I i uti4;llimriclcrcaic ci.,'ii iza{ii I cr au frrst intr:nfionali".Abie in 1935, o cornisie
isturicii;c!eiistoriciisc leag?ide fi'rpte il nuriritl dc ,,SocialScicnce Rcsearch
ceeace au partii:uiar,ilird sd ajungirlrr Council" din S.U.A. - fonnatir din R.
Dinrensiunile.6z\culturafici,, conccptegencrale. Singurairr ruisuri sd Redfield,R, I-,inton, J. M. Herskou'its-
pcrmiti clabolarcaunor astfel de ccln- irsi propunc o definire exhaustivda
cepte gonerelecste nretoda conrpa- tcrmcnului.Aculhrralia,in accepJia lor,
rativir.Din pEcatc,sociologia,carear'fi estedefiniti prin eleurentealc patter-
putut sd furnizcze aceastd concep- nurilorde culturd.cn "cuprinzAncl accle
hralizare. se orientaatuucipe altc ciii; a fcnomcne care rczultZrcfrnd grupe de
g:li !" ci,re',rrn ii
t';; i::;i' ctnor,-
[:l::ll,i:lT,::,j:']'1.
i,',.""i.ii,',*,,i
trcbuit sd se agtcpteconstituirr-a rrnei indivizi cu culturi diferite, intrd in

";:,ltllil:lll'1,.1.^t:_r:j
aploplcrca) aYca larr u^l)l-Inli e t n o l o g igi t i i n l i f i c cp c n t l l lc a o t c o r i ca coutact intr-rrn mod direct gi in mod
5i snD6 t l i t c i - i r - r r
contactclor intrecivilizaiii clifrrrite sa sc corrtiuuu, zrjung6ndir-se astfelIa schint-
lil,,
::
P:l :i;,;;;';.:,,
ilil;:lll1i:;
A s r f b l i t i r r r : ; r , . i , .... . , = : . l t
*l'Ti
;l,lli :;
s o c r o l o g i l o r p, s i h o l o g i l u r ,
o largi utill-zarc.
nascd.Temrenul cle aculturalic a fclst blri in pattcrnuriic culturaleoriginalc,a
pcdagogilor, invcntattocmaipcntm a descnuraacest runeiasau a auibclor gnrpe". Aceasti
uiu.,,iqtir?,
i,, ansarnblude intcracliuni rcciproce in definifie dcvine "punctul cle plccarc"
5 l a l . e t n o l o g i l o rs a u c t r i o _
gralllor. Ccrcctirilc dezvoltirrilelor gi a efectelor pe care pcntruprccizdliulterioaregi clarificiri
tjnd si accstcale procluc.Dar, atunci,in 1880, carc sunt neccsareconceptuluigi carc,
se ollrcascz'iacurtr in
clolnc_ John W. Porvell, care cra rlircctor al cxtinzinCu-scAi la dorneniulrelaiiilcrr
r r i u- ,lr,a
- ' 'csu
r ri\rrur( rrri ir"t1; rz
t rn I1 r)llia l I t l l -
c ' i t t c .C r r V i n t L r l . , a C t t l t t r r a ia,r;l_ B i l o u l u i E , t n o l o g i c iA n r c r i c a n e ,n u oc inlcrvincrclet:i cu proccsuldc acultu-
. f r c . . a rost1 b s t oc.atticl
d c u l t l b l lIuat
rlotri qi , , r r c , , . .i t : r ^ _ : , .
d r ) r r : .scnsuri u a t iu ir: rcu$e;tesi defineasciiincd satis{Icitor raiic,desenrrrcazir: a) relatiaunci culturi
.jif.r;;;, :';tl:-(!
ssociali
o c i a l i c l .'r,,.".-.,i,.],-;
u:t ot o v P p:lrtc,
( r ^ t L ' rirrt r psilrologia
I i s l l l o l o q r a
d.:scmncaz p^roccsul acestcuvAntclc originc anglo:saxoni. primitivc cu civilizafii rnai crornplsxc.
c a r c c o i"r dc iu"'i1lrc piirr

!"."i;;;;,;:;;:;ill;"
:.l''; In accepfia sa, termenul dcscmna b) rclafiilcincrvciritein structurasocia-
rilrrl nr.j*r.,-r..
:Jfi,,;:l':1,.
l:i"r:' ;;:lilXi:l"i schimbdrilcefectuatein tratiiliileiodi- ld a unci comunitirJiprin schirnbarca
::*ll:::..:'''lT
socializare)-ii',,.;i;;"i
1 rttct-tlturarc"
pe ac ;ii;"t"'" .sttt gcncca urmarea influcnleicovirgitoare crrlturii ci originirrc.J.M. Hclskorvits
.crronrc'erc(lc
a" c.rrtee lntropologiaculturali, .-!<.
"o,,tn.tt e
rcrronrcrelc a civilizafici- ("difuziunc").Tcrmcnul aducc rectificiiri definilici din 1935,
"ii l.,1ll?=1"
i"i".,jr cl !<.::;crttticazi
iii,,ill,_?ry,
ff iii[1,li rll,,i:
I
"',:: cste prcluatclc Fr. Boas carc in 1889 ariitAndci aculturalianu se producc
vorbc;tc dc "domina{iaculturii". Por- doarprin coniactul"in nrocldircct gi in
I
-;L uind dc la Fr. Boas, apoi clc la gcoala mod continuu"irrtrcgrupc dc iudivizi,
I. Scnsuriistoricc ccrcurilorculturalcur1nlarc rol incepe argumcntiind cI "gi acliunile5i vizitc'le
Eiscnsuri tttro',1 ogicc si fic aoordat, in ctnologic,(qtiirrficarc s p o r a d i c ca l c u n u i n t i s i c l n a r 'i ,n t r - o
arc,,AcuI r,.,,;,t-:l:-" atunciabia sc nigtca),i-cnorrienclor clc anunriticulturi iudigeni,pot gcrncra o
"clilirziunc"aclici trcccriiortrnci trisd- a c u l t u r a f i cc . x t c n s i v i i "L. a i r r c e p u t u l
7tt'o-f.' un i v. d r p uuItt ('.1 turi culturalc(lorrnircle sirgcaii,tcnrc s c c o l u l u i X - X , t c r r n c u u l c a p i t i - r o
o tu.tt1tI i tte,tctt_,1toI ur u
p rof,, urti r,.t !r. Ib rg l l c : r n i t r r r i l o rc) l c l a o c u l t u r i l a a l t a . liispiiudirernpidlraiit in anllopologic
i I i tt Cot tsta i tI i ttes r,,,i_'
f;i,' i i, u i I.)rrpirinrpacl,<iifuziuncaconstatiiccca ciit gi i'rraltc ;tiirr1,o. Accastacrratit nrai
" c c r c z u l t i d i n s c h i r n l - ' L r r isl tu: l c l i t e . r n r r l tc u c i r t r r c L r l t r . r l l i rl iricr c p cs i f ; c
g c , r c r a la, c u l t u r n l i a
_ . - i n c-;t;,,i';:11:i]
stc stuciiril cipalc. C'ccltcc ir-li:it nrr cra luat in stritlirrr-:rau li;lcrsitirintcriiariie'tril cu noliurtilc dc
pt{rccsttluic" .c proc("sc.siucliurc au li;si cctc rtc
l,roctr',;; :l]119':
iirrrrrriscgiii;r;';, :;;:,:i:c,cr'irril dt'tri cci'rli tccnraiaccstr:sr:lrinrbiria5l crlnt sullt i l i f i r z i r r n ca. c o n r o ( l . l r ca,s i m i l a r,e i u i -
y,...
1n,iln,i
l,;;;;,;;lil'j
ill*iilli lij:ili,';;:lll;,:i;lillii*t- , : ; r t ' ; l l i i i r l i " 1 : . :t : l r l c < l i l l l r r x r r i ' ' . i r r liitrrltrt i:i tiirrr:;fi:r.
tli!ii W. i\'1c.(icc. in luclrrca "Ari-rc- ncullrrriitici,
[)rl aclcpliitcorici
iitclcrilrl a iost ca clellnitd
ricart hliihr'opolr.tly",\ (rlbciitccl(:sl-rrcclc J.l"{. l{c;'sl:orvitr;. tcoric cart: evi-
Enciclopcdis nnrilor persottulitdli
56 En ci cI opedia mnri I or p erson alitirli
clcnfiazd nroclul cie ,roporirr ralic:a) trarrsrrritcrcra
"tir,]j,.,,,]iu' culirrriiciura o contactelor carosc stabilescintrercllrc- intre socictdtilecoloniale9i colonizatc,
doui caclrc: naru|argi socinlqi-a.pro- gcncr.,rlie qi dominatie'
t,,nii,rr,;-na.pin..u,,,,,,i
,r,.nr_ z c n t a n [ i i r ' .D u p d o l a z a d c d c z i n t e - ca rapon de depcndentl
l o
si depirEeascir ..orrt-qr.urr,,
viziu'ile t^r crrrrrr.-un d i n S . U . A c
. a r ea t rs t u d i a t
l'-rj:,"::r]l]il
lngustcce lc r)tcorporau h nrocrclclc rrc grale qi dc coriflictc.insolitadc clezor- A n t l o p o l o g i i
unclc conccptc colnportiil.llent ale,lniri .,in_group,, nottA aceste problerie, stlnt in general mai
trtilizatcautcrior:schiurba^rc, c) ganizarcasocialit, se irrodttce o
^rlnrlroii., iu",pnctut a't.r-itirfiiccntr.alc ';;,p.sau ii unel la dispaLifia ilult dcscriptivi dccit explicativi ceca
clifirziuuecult'rari, ctc.intr'-un raport irrtegrare, putind duce
.oirrt,n;tnqit,rba,.,";,; poate un prim stadiu. In
prezentatra al XII-rca con-rrrcsintcr'- ^rrarc, total6sauparliali a configura!iilorante- cc reprezinti
izor;rtc. i,i,ri.p",t.*r"r,iui" ro.iorogi", pirli din tot cazul ei ns frtnrizeazii o abundenti
nafional cregtiinfeistoricc clEra vcnr rioare gi la fuziunea unei
in 1955,G. p. I\4urdock elementelelor intr'-onoud configuratie. cloctrmentatie. Repcre Ire-atl dat (cei
din 29 august - 5 scptcrrrbricr96"5, f,,t,u"u, dcfi'ca
i.,,tturo1io'.r,."'u,r",'.ui.i,,d. Hersko-
AlphonseDuprontalita cir tcnrcnul de .,,it,,.i
pr.inpr.isnra contactujrii'trc Procesuldc aculturalicafecteaziinclivi- nrai nrari dintre ci, indcosebi
din ,,o wits, apoi ciliva latini, mai alcs R.
aculturalie s-a rispAnclitirr riteratura .iui_ dr,rlcare fonneazi substratuluman al
rizalicruai inaltiiqi niai complcxi,,. Pentru aceasta Bastide). De la Herskolvits, fenomenul
autropologicr"r anrcricani (',accultura_ ,,A i. civiliza{iilorin contact.
i;ictionarf ; U";i;iiy,,, editatdc aculturafieipopulatieidc origine africa-
t i o n " ) i n l g 2 g - a n t r lc c a n u n f a ' a f c a
G . D u n e a n t r 4 i t c h(cLl o l ndo'Ro'tlcdge 9i ardtAndtransfornrlrilccare se produc
crizd cconor.ici'rondiarii, clai cl n, a in personalitateaindividului c prefe- ni, a iicut obiectui unor importante
.t kgqn,i paril r96g) acurturaliaeste rabil termenuldc asimilarc.Etnologii9i lucrdri ale lui R. Bastidccat'c 5i
att o
fost acccptatin afara Astfci, a.nnit,i dr.cpt,,procesul dc
.Amcr"icii. inclivicrual constatd ci, in tinlp cc valoarc cotuparativi 9i metodologicl
e'glezii prcferi mai. mult expresia iigr.',p carecapiti caracteristici sau antropologii
Situafiile de crizl' de tensiu-
"culturecontAct"sau "culturc changc',, ..it.'p.i,, cultu_ cloui culturi intrd in contact, acfionin- prim rang.
la
rnai pufin inci|cati de varori cino-
co,rtactcrirectgi i'tcracfiure,,. du-se rcciproc, se produc in mare tret ne gi cle conflict care se observ[
ir,n pun.t clc 'cclcreinclivicrr.rar acesta - in prima populatia cca mai popoarele ntrmite arhaice, ca umlarc a
centt'icclegatcclccolotlizarc., situafii:
in tirrrpcc estcun pr.oces cauza-
franceziiprcfc|i "rcucontrc"..(inti|iire)
al studiuluisocralsirnilar l'ulnerabili cedeazd,sfArgindprin a sc introduceriicolonialismuluistttlt
cu cel ar sociarizhriinlature in cerre aga-zise azi te de factori politici, econornici, sociali
sau "intcrp6'6trationdes civilisations", prdbuqi(cazulsocietdJilor,
co,nunicn.culi'gvisticd joac. un r.r - a doua, sc ajunge la qi culturali, factori cale acum sur.rt bitre
iar spaniolii ccl dc transcultur.afi,.: primitive); in
cscplial.Dil punct cle vcderc social ales de
(ofliz)' l)cn(rtrA f)lrpt'tlrtr (1965),l,cul- acirituralra comprourisul"socio-cttltural";- in a c u n o s c ui .f E s t c v o r b a m a i
inrplicirrispi.clirca a.ur'i- treia, se opercazi o nouti luarc dc opresittnea politicd9i militarir,ocuparea
tura{ia csre 'ripcarei rrmri i'divid, .
tu,l r,.tuii tchiice qi ;,iriii"iir gi 'r<_rdi_| cultur.l la pimlnturilor gi exploatarca,dcsfiin-
untri grup, a trncisocietdfi,chiar a rrnci cunogtintl in trccereadc la o
fi.a,:ii."i"r'r,,UiitX,*"."Jii1ii. poarc Accstc fcnomcnc s-att nrani- larca triburilor, irnpunereaclc ttoLme,
cult.ri. Ilistcvo.ba crcci"crcu'diarog, cealaltd.
iiu'ngt.r. la conflict curturar.Diclio_ sisteme cconomicc;i rcligii
dc o invirfiturir,dc o confi'untarc, festatgi sc manifcsthprintr-trnproccs obicciuri,
crcuri a. sociologic al lui E'ririo cle tip occicicntal, diferenla de nivel
arlestccqi ccl mai adcsc.rclco prnbiicrc ".r,,r continuu de interacliuni, schimburi,
willcnrs (paris,Dio-_ ,,,i.pt.tiontiun_ gi tensiuni. irl scnsul celor econornic-social 9i in sfir';it intro-
f o r t i " . I l s t c i n t c r a c f i u n c a _ i 1 1 1 r r - c . c 1q < rczistenfe
r f.;u; pn, ] r A . C u v i l t i c r ) d e f i n c par ec u l r u - t'ca cconontiei lllorlctarc 9i prin
culturi sau doui civilizalrisaunrai lrinc mentiouate, JohnGillin vorbcadc doui cluce
r:a1ilprin ,,accrtc''e, carccrcscrn'caza ulmarc aparilia tendinfelor individualis-
zis "i'tcrpitruncJcrca",-(intcrp6'ctr.- tipuri diferitc dc acttlturalic:rclativ
ir,i,rrio,.,1rn'r...-r.-f,;i;.;, crviriza_ culttrralc
tior) potri'it titlr"rlui trn'i stLr<riJvcchi echilibratd gi rclativ ncechilibratS, tc. in unelclocuri,schimbdrilc
gi ii^ .io",i ,.,, ,,iuil r,ii. g,:ip., in sitre a
rclllarcabilal lui I{oger13,sticlc, " pirsc .ana .t. corcspunzindla douir tipuri dc asin.ri- gi ploccsul dc modcrni2arc
cflrcsc sunt ir contact.ti,"i-rl inclcpen-
rcfcr-i la clcscopcririlcltri Iicclll,:lcl, fi'.o,rriuuu.,, larc: fuzitrneagrupurilor 1i absorblra natiunilorcare5i-audobAndit
ii:"frri" sirbii'iarlirprulcii, rcl.[iilc clc cdtrc tttrul nrai larg' Itt dcnJa, produc clczcchilibrlri socio-
Linton gi I-Icrsko\,its. (Accst. clinurrnii n..rt n",.,,irnpricii unuiamai mic dc
nrcnlio-
'rai alcsa sttrtliatI'cnorrtcrttul in nroclgcncrirltrars- tipul echilibrat dc aculttrrafie,socic- culttrlalcftrartcgrave(aqacurn
"rcintcrpi- nrli.r.^ clcclc.rcntcv,lor.i-cc accste
truudcrii".). Ilcr-crinfcasrpra accstor. f rv;lizrliei trililealc ciirorctrltulisttntin contact'sc ncazi Balandicr).Exarninind
'ratcriarcsau ir'atcr.ialccrcrir o socrc_ cgali una falir fcnonrcnc dc dezcchilibm sau clc criz'{,
o p e r cc l cp i o ' i c r i c ,c l i n t r cc a r c ; ; i^ c c l c a afli intr-o rclafierelativ
t a t c l a a t t a .A c c r s t i rt r a n s r r i s rcc r o r r . L s l c.I stntctttratcrcttrt-
alc lui K' r'lru.nrvnrrr L iV l)ocb clealta.Sc producschirnbirriin arnbclc trcbrricsi adn-ritcnl
5i, f , r . . , r , , ' i d c . r :s i : r c r . I icc: r . cr ) 1 . \ . s r i l ) r r ( . nici
(1951) sc griscsct'r rn:r'^'r_.t1A. culturi, dlr rclalia c rcciprocir,do pc lui pc careaparnu esterlici statici,
.-...i,u..'', carorviicic.rcrrtc, r-cspirr- pozilii rchtiv cgalc,cfocttrfittcltt-sc a.1tts- rigidi. Dirnpotrivi, aga ctrnr W' F'
p r o n t ( 1 9 6 5 ) . [ ' r c : l r r i i r rcdo.r c c l l t r,r)u- r r r c g . r . l . r t u r , , .] ; . i r r l ca c r c . s c ,si .i c, r ' c ' r c r r : Wcrtlrc:int ts.J. Sicgel plccurn 9i l{'
a c u l t r u a J i cd,i f ' c r i t c l cq t i i ' 1 cs . c i a r ca L r tiiri corcspondcntc.'l'ipt l r r e c c h i l i b r a t 9i
i...1r,u," sc gl:rscsn tlc la
rurnriirit irrclcaprorpc oricntarc:r
c r o d i J i c a t cs. c clc acultulaliecstefolosit irr mod olli;- IJcirlsau sLrblilliatc[, plccAncl
autrol)o- obseivii f,.ecv."nt.i.ri,,,.g,.,..r.,, conflicte gi tcnsiuni potenfialc, (rituals
l ' g i g i s l l l l t r f x l cc' l c s c n t r t i tpt trli n r c u i t u - ,,,,,rr,, nLritin stLrdiilc clcantropologie cr'rlturaii
r . , t r r r i n r L r l r ocri v i l i z a l i si u b i n { l r r c i l l u gi politicir,lcgalc nlai alcs clc raportul o f r c b c l l i o n- N 4 .C l u c k n r l r t a ) t t tp t t t c ; t
tii tti(i
En ci cl opedi a nmri I or p erson ul i titli 58 JY
Iltr cicI opetli u tnuri kr p crson

- intoarcereala
infclegcanunritcaspcctcalc pr-ocesului clercfuz pe carc i-a juclt nraimul,,sau cei f,rrl lucru atrclicntirparticulard
mase,intrc sahriaJiSr
dinarnic calc acfioncazl in "socictirli mai pu{irrconsccvent colonizatul;con- { c i t e v a c l i n a c c s t c l b r m c a l c c r i s t a l i zformc
- i r i i s tclivcrsc
u s e : o iluph i e c a t crespectrve;
t t t ' o ploculile rcinviepcliodic';ia
dif'critc"(sau nrhrginitlcllr[i clc.socic- sccinlc lblmal contladictorii clar itr .ro..
icciale prefigureaza uiiion,:"i, exaltarea trccutirlui indigcn pur de
telilo industriale).Intr-aclu,ir,pcntr-ua realitate complernentarc, iiq'*'nti
o seric dc cares-atlformatastiizt)' 'ftt innutnfo cr'rrop.cand t^t.-1::11t"o'u t"
i n c e r c a s i i n f c l e g c m i n i n t r e g i n r c proccsedc iniitafic,de sripralicitrfic iirtrc difcritcle.,t."i", r"iti'"t*ii
Ai existir
proccscle dinarlice gcnelatoare dc de rcvolth se dezvoltl in lanf intr-o
crize, trebuicsi tincrn cont fie de ten- pcrfecta confuzie sau cel pulin apa-
tiii^i,
".""0;u;: :jl*f {:iil**i:: :nn:,1t',rul 1:
{:i"",fi:l}Jli;
a rnultiplelor
s i u n i l ep o t e n l i n l ci n d i g e n cs a u i n s t i t u - rentd. III. Dualismul care afecteazi Dar pr..ura;
,';::,.ff:":llonstr.a1iei,,. in
nuet.rea Africa
::llrlilli,
{ionalizate,ile dc factorii perhrrbanfi unitatca societilii tradi!ionale,adu- J e a n P o i r i e r s t r b i i r r i a z d cji6 f a p t e l c c ep.orunaa"a.
l c s c c t e ' r c lai g nr.r s c e x p r iaporturile
i o a acccpta rndaceastanevor
exogeni salr noi. Cercctirile nroclcrne cindu-i o veritabildmutilare De care anume:
mai itnportantcsunt uri.i.
an dcscopcritnentrnriratesitualii dc c s t c p o s i b i l a o s e s i z a s u b f o r r n c
c o n s e c i n t c l c i n f l u e n t c r i d c i l o r n o i , a Consccintetc'acestor
e x t c r i o n r l t r i ( i s l aclivergi r r s a u sttnt
r r - r i s lfactori 'creEtinistlr)
crizd, rccnnoscutcca fiind astfel din nrultiple: la nivelnl relafiilor politice
Dropasandci,o ,togtnu'illi'" "^r"iir"t
punct de vcdcre psihologic,sociaIsau existi opozi[ia, puterea erercitatir de
i * p u * o f i c i a l : u u f o ' i ' o ' L u m o d c r n i s - c dl
- u nd.zechitiuru
r u l a t i v c ' spennancnt,
ocictatcae des ttcnsittrte
eilltr-ostare
rcligios. Din ptrnct clc vcdcrc psiho- europeni chiar in cadrirl local gi su-
nului, schimbnr.o1r.ffidil;;;i^;-.
logic, s-auconstatatfcnonrcncla fcl clc p r a v i e l u i r e ar a p o r t u r i l o rt r a d i l i o n a l c
revelatoarcca tcr.rsiunca
siunea gi demoralizarca,
psihici, dcprc- (acfiuncaanurnitorlideri, menfinerea
incrfia. auto- difcrcntelorde castd,inrportanfa justi-
lT*'"'^"'#^lmllti"lrum[:,1r"*:'iliti:
t e n s i u n i ) , i n s t a l a r c a n o i l o r z c i , , L d c v a : oiigint . . a i r r s t t r d i t r l seste
- p o i ' i . ' curopeani t d loi i c o l o n i a l
o c i ede
izolarca,etc.Din punctdc vcdercsocial jiei "paralcli"arbitragiului). a at 'carc
La nivelul ratii" zei veniJi clin Europa pcntrtl ar trebtri aplicatc mcto-
s-au relevat destrirmarcavalorilor, a faptelor econonice este vorba cle rnare 6osdtic
triumfa asupra"idolil";;;;;fJtigurilor' aetc-4"-inutitdpc care R' Bastide
le-a
raporturilortradifionalcAi a icrarhiilor, bipartilia intlc doud scctoareizolatc p.nir.,"u'..au"r*i"-
Totul sc conj*gd utihzii .r, t'''.."t irt Arnclica do Sud
pofta dc bani, pcrvcrsiuncamoral.i;i unul dc altul: un circuit ntoderncu
tatcacolonizateca infrietirl"iil,..i,. cont incruciqdrilc tle
scxuald, tcndinfa sprc alcoolisrn;;i a cchipamcnt puncttrl p:r''* a 1i'e ^cle
tchnologicirnportatdeschis distorsi''i interncfac ca adesca rz-uiit IatI cAtcva exet.rrple
ale
altor fonne de evaziunc.Din nunctcle cconornicipiefiigi un circuittradilionalt s[ se
de nrpturi sd fic atinsii socictatea "iu^if trisdturi - prezentatedc Jcan
vcdcre rcligios s-au plotlus cicsconsi- carerdnrinc ccntratpe autosubzistenfii. rtn
prdbugeascl;ccl nrat utlt'"n e tlttmai ltgtioi - carc
derarcarcligici tradilionale,saudinrpo- La nivclul rapolturilor sociale qi a ;; P-oiricrin stutliul tnentiouat $t
dezechilibnrn.'11'o""ni"ii;;"tti;;;; coloniale'
trivi cxaltarcaci artillciali, agr-avarca sistcr.nului cic-a
clc valori: o segregare aici insralcazdin echivol.'V. Cea ::tltj1ll,.
fanatisnrului(unuirirea vrijitorilor $i ruqinoasdclo sinc, dcaltrnintcrileeal ,-,otota"'d.':.o'n ilustrancl totodat[ cor.'plexitatea5t
poiri., "'"t-^tit"lfttt.
ci'cea tris[tura
"antivrdjitoria"),apariliamigcdrilorsin- afimrati, fonclatipc un rasisr.n togitlio t^'gociologicir:---
pc jurrie- corrstl in, impasurilcJitt-Uiotf'"ota ^rlccanismttl
crcticc,profcticc1;ia agtcpt.fii salvirrii. t a t c l o n r r u l a tc, a r c o p u n cc u r o p c n igi i din aceasti con.ticnsfii: Aceastd micro-socictate
toatd voin{a de icqire ;;ttii;;; sale
Acuu-run sfcrt dc sccol G. Ilalnndicr indigcniifirrdca vreodirtlbaricrasii llc J;i:" uta.i'J" tttattd in dinrcnsiunilc
sittralie.TeDtativcle
p!'opuscsc ull concept oper-alional mpti intr-o nianierddtrrabilir;un con-
irnportant- "sitr-ra1ia coloniali".F,tnoso- flict psihologic intr-adcvirrclrantatic
ciologia nu apucascsi arralizczcsufi- careacapareazzi
::'::'l;;''ffii":li"T:]:
:'.T,?':;':::ti:li:"i*"q:',,'ilil$fi lntcr-pcrsonale foattc dczvoltateqt o
pc ccl colonizat,slhgiat "evolitatttl"aclcrirlclla sistenul .ctrro- t-ittJttii li"''ontl"tnd"' prctutinderti
c i e n t- i n v i v o - c p o c ac o l o n i a l i .S u b l i - in falarrnciimpositrile alcgcri:fidclitatc pcan, so inu.,9u'''tu'a tont'u itltolo .- a viefii rcla-
r.riindaclcvir-ulcir situaliaacluali e irr fafi dc strirnroqi(pc care o sirtrtc g^i^"- intcnsir'Aceastdcxagcrare
siilor iustihc.,o^tt i""itt""*''n ttn fcrourcn tlc conr-
intrcgimcnorra,circi toatlicvoluliacstc dcpigiti dc cvcuinrcntc) sauacccptarca icze aicst ,irt."t iu'"ii';;; ; ?;;it lionl}ic 'arc a fi
i n t r - t r rsr c t r su l ' lc o r r t i r t r r r rJr n
ca, rP
r o i r . i c r noilor zci cafc sl-lutnclcspcclafidc t ' c l a r c l s c c x pcuropcttc
n a n t l ; p c d c a l t i r p a r t c , s o c i c t a t c a c o l o - 1 ' " n " "p"tifli,l?iletdfii lici;iprintr-o
n c p r c z i n t d t r i s i t u r i l e c s c n f i n l cc c Afi.ica;;i cicvalorilcvcclri.lV l:)terogc- ca rcfclinlirl'
niali, cum s-a retnarcat9i-l plripune cu socictatca colonizatl:
caractcrizcazit situalia colonialii, ncitatca socictitii rioi lriscutc dirr clc a-l in rapclrt
mocicl lrrir n ti,rni-r" ,oi.ilotul pr'rric
(inrpnrmutdnclrr-lc srrbslnrrtra dr: la ccl contactulcolonialcarc sc rnalchcazt'r ;:;'t:;;;t ^i; ttt' abscrriaadcvaratclorcontactc
;;i atinsc; asinrilarca irrtr-o poz'iliecate
carc a ficut tcoria:Ralandicr).Accstca c a l ) c n u n t c r o a s c 'n"lttlt"o europcanl
l t l a n r r r i-: d i s p a r i t i r l i l c p,tsi., tr. "p'calabil"<1arca nu cstc;i pe t'n alt Plarr ca cstcdiu
suut: l. Ilfcctul <l<luriniriipoliticc,cco- p r o f i u ) d c s e c r e c a z . iitn t r c c a t c g o l i i
in trtpt.- adez.iunoa r,,,,i..i.nrutpolitic0- "t"i .r""tttti.i cirre sc
norniccAiculturalccxcrcitatcclccoloni- socio-plofcsionalc, intrc clasc sociaic. catrc icl."i"giiri-*r",jii contri nlt pol clar clcsc.entrat
filozofic: flrga din socictatca
zatori.II. Joculconrplcxdc acceptarc qi irrtrc cci carc sc uulltcau cvolrrr.fisi ge'i'rcltr-;io Attttf"nzi clclibcrrt
. scclttccpc cAliva,liit*'i'^
Enci cl opedis nrurilor p ersonaIitdyi 61 E nci clopetliu nwi Itt, Pn!:!! t' liM

irr uccstdotnetritt. in consensctt tczclc


indigenir,a circi cxistcnlirc social_ dcciit in utirstrra "i,'Arliriquc Latinc. Dc L'lnd6pen- 'linia
in carc c,.ttr: rcsl)insii: (in l u i f l r o n i s l a r v l i n o r v s k i ,p c
M a
nrentctigiduitir. Altc contradictiianar o l i . s i s t c r t r r :cto l o r r i r r l A,,ncc L lr<is Jours") , aprociaz[ pot fi itr nliisuri s[
n-lr tbsi intr_ et priscs<ic ciiora antropologii
intre iclcalurilcafirntatclpozi1iiIctcorc- ader.ilrclirzaiciccat caoitolulX "lv{cntalitc6s valabilc 9i
clco Iraftea clitclor in<liceanumitc concluzii
tice) gi cor.nportaucntclc realc.Socicta_ calc ele singur.c,sc sinr[etrralicnatc. crrnscicncc";'c.1,in Lr'rmeaNor'ri acul- prin rapor{arc adaptarcla
ansamblu de i'eno- prclioasc ai
tea culopcanisc cxileaziiclesocictatca " D i u r p o t r i v i ,i n d t p . : i r c i , _ , r r 1 u turafiaroprozintitun considcrimcd pot ti
t j c c i t r Lo - contextele-noastre,
globali instabilii;ca tririegtcin provi- acl.rcesistcnnrl ,neneclivcrseEi complexcsolidarede-a cu stlccesla pro-
condonrcnialsuorinri illci de 1adescopcrtrea aplicatc dc ascmcni
zorat:- decal,.r.j intrc statuturisi rolru.i t o a t i p o s i b i l i t a t e ca l c s c d p a r c : lungulsccolelor,
noile priilc noastrcsocietili.
c a r c p r i n t r - r n r f e n o m c n c l c l t r h r i r c n a l i u n is u n tc o n d a u r n a t c Anr'ericii,dar cu thzc cscnlialc in sec'
a li clcinsclcl prilnelor contacte cu aibii' a
situcazl frccarc rncrnbrual socictitii o l i i6, .po.u
l t c l r t n re l c n i n r i c r r L rc r l n i r l i l r c i l evanehcliTnLii niasivc 9i a organiz'drii
c o l o n i a l c I u n i v c l s r r p c r i o rc c l r r i p c decAta-gi asuntn
respousabilitatea. De coioriialc- in scc.i9 si 20 nrarcatcdc o lI.
Conscnsuri9i "disensuri"in
c a r c - l o c u p a i n n r o d n o r r n a l ;- a n r b i _ aici aparcalienarea utilizareai:oncePtului
nu numai intr_un
g u i t a t c aa l i t t r d i n i l o rc s t c l o a r t c f i . c c - cerc rcstrAns, nltnrndcrcputt'nricia celci dc-a dotta
ci larg rlspindit in ,lna_ lcgati dc "conrunicirt
vent6:colonialulintre{inccu coloniza_ se". Existi qi algi nrodenritagi-albc
factori carc nu fac
tul un raport clialccticirnprcgnatclc decit sh agraveze in masd" (sau a prirnclor manifestiiri)'
situaIia:lLrar.ca Aculturatie - accst cot.tccptstrAns
anrbivalcnfi.Itcmarcim aici coritributia cunorstin[.i
dc Dun[ cum s-a vizut, cca carc l$l la ln
progrcsivia masclor,eleva_ legat clc"asitlilare"9i "adaptarc".a-fost
I u i J c a r rI ) o i r i c r n r a i a l c s p l . i n i r r t r : o _ r e i rr n s t n r c l i c i , ,or.ine inci de la inceptrtstudiul lapte-
s r r c c c s c al cn u r n i t opr .r o _ alltropologla folosit in acccpiiunivariate Ralphl 'in-
d u c e r c at r n t r i t c r r n c n n o r r 5 i a n L l n r c p a g a n d c ,c o n t r i b u i c lor dc aculturalieestc
avcasd acluciin antropologiacultu-
terrnenul "condon-rcltialc"
si scrrsibilizczc culnrrali tiar valorizalrdnolitrneadc ton
clctlnit dc opinia.Trccerea dc la situa{iacoloniald rald americandnn punct dc vederc
unndtoarclccaractcri.stici: l) clualismul la situa;iacondonlcnialicste nrarcati cultuririu detrinrcntirlcelei de "socic- cultr"rral al
de lirni- osihologist. in "Fuudamentul
s t n r c t u r a l n; t I i u r r c uq i s o c i c t a t c sau n t plintr-o scrie dc tate".Dc aici, rur anurnitnurndr cr'rlturilc ca
sclrirnbiri: - Trecerea dcfinind
"duale".Existiio diliotontica nutcrii.a de la donrinafiaunivoci tc: abscnlacomparafieiintrc datcicisto- p.rtonu1itA1li", i'sistcrncde rispunsurircpetabilc,co-
d c c i z i c ic c o n o n r i c ca, c u l t u r . i i . ' 2n )r n b i _ l c r r o r u c n c ldc c d o n r i n a r c
la clualisnr; rici qi ccle aic etnografiei- ;i in accst
au dcvcnit ultini clotneniutendinfasi rcduci faptc- rtttnc tnetubrilor unei socictiii" satl
v a l c r r { c l es a r r c o n t r . a c l i c f i i li cn t c r . n c : runivocc; impirfircase situeazdla doul <lcviafi aic unci socictdfi" $i
c o r n p o r t a l n c n t c l c; ; i i c l e a l u r i l cs u n t niveluriale putcrii.- le sociale la sirnple tldsirttrri culturale "nrocluti
dcsprc "standardclcdc colllpor-
fundamentalanrbigLrc;
Cristalizarca nro- careoot fi schirnbatc,ca 9i tcluricilc 9i vorbincl
arnbivalenta sc g r c s i v i a a n r b i v a l c n { c l oi n r. .u,itrn- talltcllt ca modcle cttlturalc"' antropo-
polarizcaziqi rczulli'iclin cc in cc nrai dicIie;atitudinilc mitu;ilc in loc dc a cotlsideraacestc
ambi_quc pcrsistd,dal faptcsocialcpcntrtlcccacc slrtltclc itt li'."ontin,n,n,t,t'i", o s u l a l n e r i c a nc o n s i d c r 6 ,c u l t u r i l e
multe contradiclii.3) alicnarcr.socic_ tcnclinfacstc c.ilrc carc' in cursttIistorici
aparilia tcrntcnilor rcalitatc:catlrcin intcriorul cirora se
tilii carc sc simtc stririni dc sine.nu antagonici.- Gcneralizarca lor', sc pot modifica 5i cvoltra,clirl.rinind
stirii ([e producdifcritc schirnburi'Prin ttmrarc
n u n r a i d c p c n d c r r tcui , s i t r a u n r r t i z a t i r .alicnarc:nllntaio paftc anunriic clctnentc ;i incluzAnclaltclc
fl elitci cpocii ir trcbui dcpd;itcconclttziile alltropo-
mutilat;igi calc ia rrncoriinilligihr.i cari_ c < l l o r r i asl ec s i n r l c lr c r r ln l i c n a t i ,l i p t r r l al nccsttri l)roccs'sptlllc
caturalc.4) inauicnticitatca, loeici cLrlttlialc. Dar aqtcptirltlaccastit noi. Clr rczttltat
accstclc_ llou cstctrnn.slorrnlr.cl la nivclul nrisc- l,inttlrt, "ele pot trccc printr-o schirnba-
nrcnt cstc lcgat clc ccl ltrcccdcntcarc lor ir complcxulLri dJpisit. trctruicl'cctlllosctttci pornincl prin nrocliliclri
clcdcpcrrclcrr[ir intr-rrn dc obscrvalii rc tottii a coulinutultri,
estcnlarcatdc un nou acccnt:socictatca conrplcxclc alicnurc; clela o n.rasiconsiclcrabilir daci rcspec-
accasti aiienarc qi c1cnlonogralri,asupraciviliz-a[iilor prottrrtcle alc structttrilor,
in cauzi nu c rnrutaiaclrrltcri,ca sc p a r c i r r o c h i i c c l o r . iivclc socicteli durcazir clcstul de rutrlt9i
i n t c r c s a fci a a v i u d incligenilor,isupraasir.nilir i i popula{ ici
sinrtcaltificiaIir,"ftrr.flti"aprorycficti- u n c a r a c t c rd c f i n i t i v , sulicicntc vicisituclini"' Vorbind
n e l i r s i n c li o c r r l colonizate,asr'tpra socictiilii pltlrtlistc' .u,.,or.
vd. 5) aspectclcludicc carcDarsii con_ u n c i s i h r a f i ip r o , i z i b i l c ntobilitatclr cxistcrrtii in catlnrl
s t i t u i cu u a d i n l b r r n c l ct b l l i c o r i r i n a l c t e r r l t c nI r t r r g-: L u r r c u
n i c i c l r i r i rp t asrtnracfcctclordc intcr:'rltrclt tttitt0- clr'-*plc i'stnrcttrriirjc clas.i" a ultci stlcictirli'
lr crrrro5tirrli;r ritir'1iloL ettriccin na{iunilcpc calc tlc
a l c c o n r p o r l a n r c n t r rdl uci h r t l s i r r c l c i r r i r r r t e r r l i c i lal Ilitii,t l l r t i rcfcrir 1a arttttttitc"lchrrici
a s c u n z i g".' f r c c c r c ar l c l a s i t r i r t i ac o l o _ n r a i p u t i n c o r r c c p t u a l i z a-t i \ .
r l t r i r r r r r lsr n i r dczvoltarc,accastitatltrol)ologlocLll- I-intorr sc
- d c l r ' : t r l l u r a l i cl t" p c i s t t i t n c l o L
n i a l i l a s i t u a l i a" t : o n r l o r l c r r i a l c s' ,t c u r r c i a t : t i v i t a l i
Aturitia turalii- ntai alcsinccpirlcldr: h l!)3() rt s p c c i l r l c la
dc jrrc tl,-'r'uIlirilirr i g t i u t s i i p t r n i i r l l t r l r l i n l ' it l t l i u r \ l l l l l t t l t l l l l i l r c,uolig.incinlcrioarirciirc sc raliazit
pcntru o rnnrc partc trcccrca clc Ia r c a l i t a t c q i n r L r l t i p l i c i i n c l nrotl.tiilc clasci clorlritrlntr:' Clci cc cxa-
o i . r r l rioar- , ,t. .oui.ptc, clc ipolczc, dc ntr-'tcrdc dc
depcnclcnlir la alicnarc.',.Jcanpoiricrsc t n c r r I c llcu c l i c c- .T r l n s fo r r r tttittt:azli ct itic lrccst c()nccl)t
sctlt
r . r . ct a
r : r r r il ,i i lu.-ru, caic constittric irrca 1i az.i,[rrzit' .itl
r c l ' c r ia i c i l u u n a s p c cct r r n o s c usli a r r r r - s i r t r r c a [ , s c l]sttrllc
J c l o r r c a c f i o n a l cc l c l u n c c c l r t l r c l a ! tcoi'cticir5i llracticira ortci'tl'':iccrcciiit't rvitle:ttlrt colt{irttttr.tl
r n c a c c l ac i r , t l c p c r r d c r rl r; r. rn l i c n c a z i I c f t r z . F r i l r r q : r t i (sl l r c v a l i c r .
( i r t c : i l 1 . . . ;sl l l
Enciclopedia nrurilor personnlitit(i
6s E n ci t:I opedi a il rsr i I or trtcrs on alititli
in carc e fblosit. Escnfialcstc ci el
rnul aculturalici",sc ret'er.ila r.aportul
designeazir relafii intrc rcalitili cultura_ dintlccrr.l(ru'l sar pentrucI "cxprirrrimai bine dilc- entitatcistoriciigi autonorli. Lantemari
l c i b a r t e c l i f c r . i t cq i i n e g a l c . i n s c f i "globalligi integraroare,, a
societ:igiigi subcultur:i,alciitu;teAin ritcle fazealc proccsuluidc tranzilicdc socote$tcca tlcbuic clistins(sprea se
modalitifilc de contactreflectiro..r.ii l i i o c u l i u r d l a a l t a , p c n t r L ic i - n u frutcaprugirtitercnulpentnlun "control
sistcurelc-dc valori ale indiviziloi
starerde inegalitate.Astfel, clupdJean consisti doar in achizitionarcaaitci activ al proccsultride aculturaliedin
di1bLi1i.in acest proces are loc
Cazeneuvc,fcnorneur.rl de aculturatie soclallzarc o culturi (irnplicatdc cuvfintr,ri errgle2cle paltcaacelcracarerispund de aceasta,
a indivizilorcareprin limbd,
este un caz particularal "schimbuir.ri acultura{ie)ci qi procesul la i'el de cu scopulde a evita cfectcleccle mai
propaganclir,nrobX
cultural" qi se referi (in cercctdrilc 1d1ca1ic, 9i otli necesarcare implicd picrcicreaunei rcbclegi rr ai pcrturbante")intre cazu-
llrctori,tinclsi asiurilczcrnodclecultu-
ctnologilor)in primul rArxlla aga_zisclc culturi anterioare,proces care poatc fi r i l c i n c a r e d c z i n t c g r a r c ac s t e n r a i
riilc ale societdliiglobale.Societatca le
populafii printitive, care trcbuic numit "dccnlturalie". Aceastirconceplic acccntuatd, durabili gi distnrctiva(pc
s d oferi.n.rodclc, dar.giexercitdo presiune
tcattze,zemarea aculturaiic prin coir_ curenti carc disiingc gi "monaclizeazii" de o parte)5i cazurilein carc ea cste
sociali, cc oonduccla asirnilaiea sub_
frurrtarecu civilizagianrodcrria.Rczrrl_ in procesulaculturalicimornentclcrnai abiaperceptibiligi careducela cazurile
ctrlturilor,intr-o culturriglobald,asimi-
tatulcstcadcscaprrrgi sirnpluun proccs sus menfionatceste respinsi dc cdtrc limita de acr.rlturalizarc fTrriconflict (dc
lare diferenfiati cc line i. pn.ii.utuii
clL-(llstrugcrccultLrraligi clriur fizici. Michel dc Costcrcarc consideriica de altd parte);9i in acceptiasa, dczinte-
talile gi sistcmelcde valori alc fiecdrei
Gcorgcs Balandicr foloieglc t.rn.,",r,,i fapt rncrriblii unei societirliimplicafi grarcaculturalacstc un aspcctinrpor'-
grlpelri sociale.Vorbind cieaccstraport
in.dirccfiasitualicicoloniaic a .apoi_ intr-un procesrlorrr-tal de acultulalizare tant al aculturaliei.Iiste de fapt sensul
;;i intre cultura"globald"gi "integratoare,,
tuLri intrc societililc colonialcgi nu se dczicde arlietipurilclor culturalc, sutl carc intAlnin-rla l,antcrnari feno-
icle a socictirfiigi sLrbculturile (pozltivesau
colonizatece ducc la contactulintr.e
o rrcgative,confonriistesati deviante), c i i n t e g r c a z i d o a r n o i l c e l c m e n t c mcnulacultulalic- luat in studiu.Putcm
'civilizalic iurplumutateclc la noua culturii gi lc pr:ccizaci dczintegrarcaculturald ca
r l c . t i pt e l r n i c g
" i o c i v i l i z a l i c Jannearati cd
dc trp prinritiv ..prcrnagirrist',. acestcolitactsesolcleazd
1 ' b t cu socializar.ca reintegrcazdin lnmina unui Wcltan- aspcctal aculturalizdriin-a fost sufi-
rntr-un sens asenrin.itor,dar pLrrtAncl inclivizilor,prin accastd sciraungpropliu,carc,ce-i dlcpt, se aflii cientstudiat,in ciuclasugcstiilorpelti-
a c r r l t u r a { i ci n l e l c a s dc a i n t c g r . a r ca
accentulpc contactulintrc oalncni *Acultu_ intr-o dinarnicicontinui". In scnsulin ncnte flicutc de P.M. Keesing,in unna
ca s u b c t r l t u r ini c u l t u r ag l o b a l d .
Liuritori ai civilizalici gi nu inrrc ;ivi_ care M. WachtclLrtilizcaziconceptul, rcmarcclor Seminaruluidin 1953 al
rrfia, inlclcasidc cl in perspectivd
Irzaftr-proptiu_zisc,vorbc.ltc Ro-r1cr aculturalianu se lasir firimilata in "SocialScicnccRcsearchCouncil"gi in
rsi nonnativ-cducafionali,apars ca un
Ilastide, rcfcrinclu_scla cazut'negrii-o, graclesauetapc,cici ca prccedccr.rltur.i ciudr <lbsclvirliilorfoartc iruportantc
proccsmasiv,fiind vorbade asirnilarca
rlin Ilrazilia. Folosincl .on..pt,it globalcqi clinamisrnul ei "sc conlirndir fTrcuteclc G. Balandier.Sociologiigi
J. totalirilii subcrrltur.ilo g ri n u a u n e i
aculturafie in sensulamintit,ctuologica srngurc cu acliunea c r e a t o n racu r r u ip r a x i sc a r c ctnologiiau vorbit mai alcs dc "disno-
subcultur-i. S_au stabilit chiar
R. Bastideau contribuitta cxpli.ire. reorientcazitllsdtulilc acloptatc".M. mic" (dysnornic):(A. lt. Radcliffe-
gradc gi nivcle ale aculturatici n
crcclinlclorrcligioascsincrcticc_ Alio_ Wachtclrccunoa$tctotugiin acultulaiic Brorvn)saudc "anor'uic" (R. K. Wcrton,
populafiiqi culturidate,dc la coirtactul
Anrcricane- dczriclijcinate din |ar.alor inilial pini Ia posibilaasirnilarc. d o u l u i v c l ec e l p r r l i n :u n u l d i n " v i a f a Durkhoim),dc "dczclrgauizarc sociald"
dc origine dc citre ncgri. Alphonsc a unui nratclialir"(transcultLrra{ie), cclilalt din (8. H. Suthcrlancl;I'. Mercicr, G.
glrrp dc citrc altul. Unii autorinurr
D u p r o n t f a c c a p r e c i c r c ac A s t u d i i l c "r'iaia rncntalir". l-ranslbnnirrile, spr.rnc lialandicr).lnccrcind un stridiuistoric
acccntulpc o anumiti:rsclectivitatca
asuprafcnomcnclorde acultur.uf ic irrtrc tllrrsfcnrlrricultural,printr._o e1, sunt clin cc in cc lnai slabc - noi Eicomllaratival clczintcglrirrii, pc carco
socictdfigi grupuri ulnanccolltra^slalltc intenfio_ ziccm din cc in cc rnailcntc- pc nriisurir considcrir in nrportcrrdil-critele rispun-
n a l r t u t ca a s i n r i l i i r i ci u l t L r r a l cA.s t f c l .
i3 rnod prinrcjdio.s,cur.opoccn_ c e s c t r e c cc l c l a u n d o m c n i ul a a l t u l . suri claboratcdc culturilc indigcncin
:ln.t, t c ^ r ' r n c nnuclu I t u r . a lpi co a t cd c s c r n n ai n,
trrstc poarli o anrprcrrtir virclillrco_ r r f t r l id c c o r r t a c t rcrul l L r r r a( cl a W a c h t e vl c c l cl a I n c l i c r r ci i i i ns c c . l 6 o n r o r r . r c n ct ui ol c n i r i il o r c u a g c n l i ic o l o -
.q;i o caiizi)
c o t o n r a l r s l i .L n r i i r r d t r ls i r r rl ; r l r n g c r i s "clcculturalizare nrcrltalir"consccutivi niziirii gi cr.rcclrrtactirl cultulal,Lantcr'-
, s { ; u ' cluc z u l t a t i ( s c h i r n l r a r ccau l r u _
Chevalicr,vorb.iucldcspre"rnai nrultc ; r I t ' a t r u r a t i s r r r ci rrl ruci c - r ' i5r i i l i r r r l l u r r c r i i nali (cirlcAi cl <listirrgc
lazc alc procc-
ralii,ca cfcct).M.J. IIcr.skou,its vor.bcs-
valuri clcacultur-alic irr Arncrica,,prcci_ t c < l c . s 1 lrlccr r l t u r l l i c r.rrtei no) clcclinlc.in acorclcu Ci.Ilahn- s u l u i d c a c u l t u r a l i cc)o n s t a t ic i r a v c u r
zcaz.Acit trcllric llicutc cl'orturi,,si c a f i i n c l" s t u t j i u l c l i c r ' ,V . [ . a n l c r n a r iv o r b c q t c d c s y r r c dc-a fhcc cu dour'rsitun{ii clianretral
rrrr I r ' a r r s r r i s iccLi r l t u r a licn
iltrinr in "curopoccrr(r.isnr,,, lrroccsrralitatcn dczechiIi brlri lc sooir-.-cu Il"ulrl c irr cnzuI o p r r s c l:) O s i t r r a l i cd c v u l n c r a b i l i t a t c
tr.,a.rr',Iui" rsi r.l disliugcdc "clilirziurrc',
lrccyentobscrvatirr accstucn clcccr.cc_ ciirc r r a l i u r , i l c (' r: rc $ i - i i u c l o b i n < l iitn c l c p c n - cultrrrrrli'r (t:orc:sPrurclc
cu ccL-ucc P.Illan
c s t c " s t u c l i uui n c i t r a r r s r n i sci ir r l t u r , r l r :
t i r i " . D i r r a l t d p c r s l l c c t i v i sr ,o c i o l o g r r l clcnlir. l)cgcrrcliircil (dcgct)crr'riccil1il) luunrc$tc "tlubilitatc").Avcnr rlc-slhcc
a c h i z i l i o n a t c " . , A u l o r .Jubl l o s c , s t e
I t c n r rJ i l l l r ) cv, o r b i r r rdl c s p r .,c, r n c c i r r i i s _ Si estc corr:;itlcratica rl crizli gcncrrlir curc aici cu o slribiLcc:xtr.cnrira grupuriloL
c ( ) l r c c p l udlc " t r - a n s lct r r r . t r l i cc"a, r r c c c _
p t c g i t c ; t c c x i i n ( l c r c ) i rl r r r c i c u l t r ui c a indigcnc lrrlli rk: pt-rliticaclc cotrstrirn-
E n ci clop edi s ntsrilor p ers
ortaI i tdli
65 E n ci cl op edi crm uri Ior p err^on al itdI i

ff::"l#il:ti'ifii'occiclcntalc.l-antcr-raIi.intr.lrnnttirli]rclcsocictiiJicIczirt-
a rncri,or ;il;,;:i,:jil.f:*i::": :,Hxijtii;.y:l.]iii
;.$:il:ll
natura,sitr"rcazl
realitailiinstnrntcntrlo,
cultura1;etenrrriul
con.stituind-o
unci Iulia accslcia,raportntirrrnci socictiifi
ca . anuurc.l)acr'ircLr;c;tcinsi ca,sd clca

Iiifttri}i ilil.,i:'ii
*t$"*;: :: :l:r':,q; ;i'J,i.n'i.. qi,nai :
irn alttilat cerc ltct'rtritesatisfacerea ralspuusullor ctlt"lzecarc gcncrcazri
nevoilor' fundarncntalc,adaptareala translbnrrhri, funclionalisrnulse dove-
mAnr cirre rbrnrerc.a.. iunclio-i rnediul incoltjulirtor', prin organizarea degteincapabilde a infclegeun gir dc
"rr**a-u..j ;:t}l,Ho,l:X",,,,],.o"rvedcre
ii::?ri'
propriei
::fi ,,,;:1ffi
,l ;;illj ;;;; ;;",i;il;'il:fl:'".f1
",;s,;i"."il; i
cale insrarnrrirclc fttpt tradifia colnpc- lurouleutedisfirnclionale in culturd,
tenlelor,a cuuna;tcrii gi a valorilor. prezcntein proccselede schimbarein
rorcirrturi r*ai1io1.r.
d,,r^t*^
,+,ji:'ii:]:#,.1iJ:fiil:1,;1"ll"t- i Abordarea func;ionalisti a studiului sfcra culturii, dc a explica aparigiagi
transro""" i;i''; 'or. ,,,,'tdercrminnre comparatival cultLrrilor(Malinorvski pelpctuarcaculturilor contradictorii
in
::1:ii?"'liJ:'*;;,;c pccareo satisracc,ii de ccrcetctzi relafiilerasialc in Africa si istoria umanititii. N,{ultcdin linritcle
inritd,refuziin,lin nicuropcne ,,noi,i"""f,,.,,1rff1.].i,lifi: influcnlaErn'opciasuplalor) postulcazir accstciconcepliiau fost dcpdgitcde
i

iliil$il?f*T:ffi$i
Aliica,
r-".)i"",
;
fi;rffi.ffiid$ii
Is;;:i:i,1i"il::"J#i,,r,'.,i:,
j Li:i1,Jr:il;
;,::J,h;
icleeaci sisterncledc producfie,dc punctclc dc vcdcre cxprirnatc de
distribuilcai clcconsurntrebuieanaliza- R a d c l i f f c B r o r v r r ,R . I - i n t o n q i
te in socictate,stabilindconceptecuur Hcrskorvits,
a r f i : p r o p l i c t a t c ud,i v i z i u n c ar n u u c i i . clifuzionistc funcIionaliste.Teoria
ca o reacJicfafirde tcoriile
9i
M.

u,-o"oilo'ri" J'"' nc,11e1 sgcietiii pozilin-iuncsionaristd motivaliile,bog;iliilegi valor.ile.Deci, acultula;icinranifc.stiscriolrscrczcrvc


ll,lllii[?i'T']1 i prirrul aspectal cultur-iicstc sistcniul fafi dc curopocentrisnl:sc pl-csupulle
cu.ostentafic"",,".J''"i,1.l!:il:'ii;:::ffii,iH,:,;t*,"lr**ji:i economic,caracteristicdturivcrsali a prin acultulaficdetenlinarcareciprocf,
tur,ndu-sc 'b'riclor spccifice intregii vicfi urnaneorganizate.Un alt inlrc sistcrnclcculturalcintlatcin rcla-
.uln"ii .Ja,.utturii ,,-unit,i1ii.
ii"eli?l;\l.l;,,,[',1.,'ilfil,;1lr
*l li :itp;ii?:*:f,'***:' i
atitea exprcsiiale accleio,r
Fenornenele i aspcct,dcrivat,dar universal,estc cel 1 i c
nonnativ:omul se raporteazd
a i n u c l o a ru n s c n s u n i v o c d e
la rncdiul inf'lucn;ireuropeani asupra cclorlaltc
inconjuritor; viafa in colnurl prcsupunc culturidc contact.in accepliapc carc
sit,,otii). I'cutturitor:impactulcir o
o curturamai ; existenfa legilor.autoritnfii9i alc con- dr-rh. Bertrand,aculturaliase rcfcrirla
;;ffi::l':,'i,'i.?,?ill''.i',.."i,ii..j.i'."o'uccpoateproclucecorrflict,coo-
vedcm pcra.e sau pcrmite sh'Angerii. Inrpcrativulpcdagogicprc- "schinrblirilc in culturircar.crczulti din
ceva'rai 'rult clccat.1]:*l:
Dsenfa -|u un conrpr.onris, supunc{hlltulci inleglarcitestoinso{iti c o n t a c t u l p r e l L r n g i t a 1 i n d i v i z i l o r ,
unci crize, cscn[avicJiiii,aij.ii.
adici o intiir.zicrc nr,,pr..ir.lo .rt" : de o fornrarcai dr: invilimiint. in fine. qnrptrrilorsau socictirfilor.intr.cgiou
acurruralic
'r" s"ir"n*,i;;i;;;i,;;; ',
li Lli:llll'n..tur tunall.irnirelativ,al pntrulcir,cslc orga- pulliitolii saLlcu continutr.rl
"e,"..L,j',ffi::::;
de ficcar.c ,rr,,i.-".1"
"vurn*r,il;;iil":r,i,T:'tiXl,l,':',irT:ri*.,rpr*r.,i
d.ti <lctcr.lrrir'|"r" i:::,j,,r,,:
rczuttatclirtreacliaintrcccle
n j z a r c al b r { c i5 i a c o r r . s l r . i n g eFr iri r. n c - turi", ariici la rqzLrltatclccontactului
altor cul-
r*atca
c'rtur,,r,i,,
.ru""i,l1r.. : fionalisrnul
verata
aczi,ircfd"illil":l_9:.ilii
lj;"iJ.T,',:'iiffi1#?,
cluccIircurol.rocJrrrr.isnr cnrc ctrltural.ln cc-nsens cu .lolu Gillin ('Ihc
i n c v i t a b i l c o n c h r c cl a " p r o v i n c i a l i s r r rW a y so l ' M c n ) , B c r t l l n t l t l i s t i n g c
:m*;l':,mii tioui

i,fi:ll0,i,;.,:':'Jfl1,?j;":!:Tni;;;
n;jl*rffftr,,11,ff! '.;;;il_
i ehric" (l{. Borcdicth) gi la abordarca t i p u r i r l c a c u l t u r a l i c :l ) c c l c r c l a t i v
ierarhic difcrcnliati a cultur.ilor(1v1. " c c l t i l i b r a t c "2 ) c c l e " n c c c h i l i b r a t c " .
*'l'i''"'.,
gf:FJlffjli:i:,,1fiiil-:1"-11[l:pi'cc iciarlric
sr;:"J-llli;:f H c r s k o w i t s )c, x p r i n r i r r d{ i r p t u lc i r i n Scnsulclifcrcrrficrii lTrcrrtccstc analog
i lutneautoclcrLriai'c loc un proccscle c u c el a l t i p u r i l o < r l ca s i m i l a r c( f u z i u n e a
i"i,-il'"Jil'T.:i'il'J,'J,
iJ',#'lill':iJii:J,lly*r.'rn T.::ffi,[:lll:i o c c i d c u t a l i z a ra. c c u l t u r . i iu n t a n i t i r l i j . gruprrrilor'
T c o l i al i r r r c l i o r r t r l i cs ot i r r s i d c rc. iar l r . l n - ci-ttrc
gi absorbirca grupuluinricclc
carc, fo,',,.,orJ, ccl nrarc).As;acurrraratiii.lcr.trancl,
noi.Un .f i ,r.r1*.ir,,'d':..:]::ntribufiilc F.i. irt',r""ti.r. rtt:corrr- i sfollnaLca ctritululi,contnctclccLrltLrra-(crutoatccll plocc.sr:I
acurrtrratia
rr,ip,",i,,ir'r][Jii:J:;li::] i t'al,rc,r
,r.-,'"'l,,nl'i;;;;;;i-
l I c n r r i r r { i r 1 i ; a l rul rl ) u i p r o c c sr r r r i v o c , irnplica ncccsanncirtc
clc aculturaLic nu
"aspcct
rrcsrur
crcco,Dun, ff'.:i'..' rncr.sulci(r.c o
a"acurtr,rar
;;,i;:.,tHlIii,:'i-ui;J:iJli:ili;i,":: prin carcpopoalclccolonlzatoarc occl- stalc indcplinitir),tcrrncrrulc.stcuzitat
a. pi,,.ii,", ;;;;;:;,, ;
n,,,po,,rc r.idcrc,,,i,ar
d c n t a l ct l a n s r r i i;ti i r r r p L r vr ra l o r . i l cl < l r "r'rurruri pufin" la "gl'aclcic rlc curroa;tcrc
l.,l-,T::,,f,'l;:,':il:;l': n.,,1.,i, c u l t r r r : r lucl t o r I ) o l ) ( ) t r racl l a t c i n s t a c l i i q i c l c a c c c p t a r ea c u l t r r r i i
Keesing,L,i""I.,,,.ii'.i.{"!il"i;Y;l::,:ti,'1;:n:.i:lHl':}ltji: dc dezvoitlrlcirrnltoilla-r. l)cci, o clctcr.- tlorninantc".Astltl (c.rplicitcaziilrrtorLrl
socictrilii
i'si'i u'l.cto'clc clcza-{rcgarc t t r i n i l ' cc x t c r i o a l il i c u l t r r r i ic, a r . ien n i c i t t t c r r l i o r rral a
c u r t u - , r n l r n , , , , r i<, .r c i ' d i v i c r t i s r r s )s, c l t o a t cs: l t u n cc i
i n r c r , r t i i r cc , L r Lln cir;tnu poilte (.\l)li(.il tlcl)\'zl
iii cv0_ n c g r i i c l i r rS . U . A .s L r n t" a c u l t t r r a l i z a l i "