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Statistical Inference Testing of Hypothesis
Type I Error:
Rejection of the null hypothesis when it is true is called a type I error.
Type II Error:
Acceptance of the null hypothesis when it is false is called a type II error. Decision of the test for the Null The Null Hypothesis is Hypothesis True False Accept Correct decision Incorrect decision
Type II Error
Reject Incorrect decision .Type I Error Correct decision
Test Concerning Mean
One and Two tailed Tests:
A test procedure is called a one tailed test procedure if the alternative hypothesis is one sided. The test will be two tailed if the alternative hypothesis is two sided.
Let a specified value of population mean is 45. Construct the null and alternative hypothesis for the following questions; a) Do the sample data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the population mean is greater than 45. H 0 : µ = 45 leads to one tailed test (or right tailed test) H A : µ > 45 b) Do the sample data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the population mean is less than 45. H 0 : µ = 45 leads to one tailed test (or left tailed test) H A : µ < 45 c) Do the sample data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the population mean is not equal to 45. H 0 : µ = 45 leads to two tailed test (or both tailed test) H A : µ ≠ 45
Level of Significance and Power of a Test:
iv) It is assumed that the sampling distribution of the test statistic is known. Incorrect decision P(type I error)= α. Step 2:Specify a level of significance ( α. iii) In testing hypotheses. are determined before the test is carried out. The alternative hypothesis decides whether the test is one tailed or two tailed. ). The Null Hypothesis is True Correct decision P(Correct decision)=1. It implies that H 0 may be true. Step 6:Decide if the null hypothesis is to be rejected and write the conclusion of the test. Step 3:Select an appropriate test – statistic (z or t-test) and compute the value of the test statistic using sample data assuming null hypothesis to be true. ii) Failing to reject H 0 does not prove that H 0 is true. the assumption is always made that the sample used in the test process is a random sample. The probability of making a type two error is denoted by β and (1 .β =Power of test.• • The probability of making type I error is called the level of significance of the test denoted by α. Step 4:Dtermine the critical values and the critical region of the test (using z or t table). Step 5:State a rule to reject the null hypothesis. = level of significance of the test False Incorrect decision Type two error P(type II error) = β Correct decision P(correct decision)=1.β ) is called the power of the test. v) Formal Testing Procedure: A hypothesis testing procedure involves the following six steps: Step 1:Set up the null and alternative hypothesis ( H 0 & H A ).α. H A and α. . H 0 . Decision of the test for the Null Hypothesis Accept Reject Rejection Rule and Conclusion: Points to Note i) Rejection of H 0 indicates that an extremely unlikely sample has been drawn which implies that H 0 is very likely to be false.
05 3.test None large sample n ≤small Z . f. (when σ is known) (when σ σ is unknown and n ≥ 30) (when is unknown and n < 30 The test statistic (z or t ) is decided according to the following table. The value find out by z or t table.01 or 0.test Z . Critical Region: The critical region shown in the curve of normal distribution (z table) or t-distribution. and the area right and left to that value according to the alternative hypothesis in the case of one tailed test and the area to either left or right according to the alternative hypothesis in one tailed test to be shaded.10 etc. These values taken by the table. Normal Population Non-Normal Population Sample Size σ known σ unknown σ known σ unknown (n) n>30 Z . = 0. Significance level: α.test t . .test None None sample Thus t-test is used only if i) The population is normal σ is unknown ( but s is known or can be computed) ii) iii) n < 30 4. = n-1) is the hypothesized value of µ ) (Two tailed test) (One tailed test) (One tailed test) or 0. Null Hypothesis: H 0 : µ = µ 0 ( µ 0 Alternative Hypothesis: H A : µ ≠ µ0 OR H A : µ > µ 0 H A : µ < µ0 OR 2.Testing the Mean of a Population: 1. Test Statistic: x − µ0 z= σ n x − µ0 z= s OR n x − µ0 t= s OR n with d.test Z .
Z tab and t tab are critical or tabulated values of the test statistic. 3rd paragraph.96 1.05 0.If the value of Z or t calculated lie in the shaded region or considered as critical region then null hypothesis will reject otherwise accept.645 1.33 2.10 1. 2 0. Conclusion: Reject or do not reject the null hypothesis on the basis of the above rejection rule.576 2.33 0.02 2. The test will be significant if H 0 is rejected otherwise the test will be insignificant. In testing concerning variance.645 0. Test Concerning Variance In testing hypothesis concerning Variance the basic six steps of hypothesis will remain same only the difference of distribution and critical region defining procedure. reject H 0 and accept H A If Z cal and t cal are calculated values of the test statistic. Write about critical region and rejection rule from page 320.01 2. Test Two tail One tail Zα α. Rejection Rule: If Z cal > Z tab . Walpole . reject H 0 and accept H A OR t cal > t tab . 6. 5.05 1. we use χ2 -distribution (Chi square distribution).28 Zε 0 Critical values of t for (n-1) degree of freedom are obtained from the t-table. For finding the value from table. the degree of freedom will be υ = n − 1 (n − 1) s 2 χ = σ2 2 Note: it is incomplete.