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Acronyms

Acronyms

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Acronyms & Definitions

1G First Generation wireless technology. Based on analog or AMPS technology, 1G wireless networks were designed to carry voice traffic only. 1X - a.k.a. 1xRTT, CDMA2000® 1X Third Generation (3G) wireless technology that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second generation wireless technologies. 1X is an evolution of cdmaOne™. 1X Advanced CDMA2000 1X Advanced. An evolution of CDMA2000 1X that quadruples the voice capacity of CDMA2000 1X networks and extends its coverage by 70% (if capacity remains the same). 1X Advanced increases voice capacity by incorporating an EVRC-B codec, Quasi-Linear interference cancellation (QLIC) and Quasi-Orthogonal Functions (QOF) within 1x Advanced devices. Plus, Downlink interference cancellation and mobile receive diversity. 2G Second Generation wireless technology. Based on digital technology, 2G wireless networks offer increased voice quality and capacity over 1G systems. 2G systems traditionally supported voice and circuit-switched data service. 2G systems are being replaced by 2.5G and 3G networks. 2.5G Based on digital technology, adding 2.5G wireless technology to a 2G network provides packet-data service and improved data rates. 2.5G technology has been implemented as GPRS. 3G Third Generation wireless technology. Based on digital technology, 3G wireless networks offer increased voice capacity and provide higher data rates than 2G and 2.5G networks. As defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), CDMA2000, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO, WCDMA/UMTS and HSDPA/HSUPA are 3G technologies. 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project, the standards body that oversees WCDMA.

3GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project 2, the standards body that oversees CDMA2000. 802.11 - a.k.a. WiFi 802.11 refers to the body of standards issued by the IEEE for WLANs (wireless local area networks). 802.11 technologies use an OFDM air interface to connect a device (for example, a Wi-Fi-enabled laptop) to an access point. The 802.11 family of technologies includes 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n.

A Access Point A network device, or communication hub, that connects wireless devices to a wired local area network (LAN). A-GPS Assisted-Global Positioning System. A technology used to determine an end-user’s position. Differs from traditional GPS by adding an assistance server, which shares tasks with the A-GPS receiver to expedite position location. Commonly associated with location-based services (LBS).

Air Interface The radio frequency portion of the circuit (“connection”) between the cellular handset or wireless modem and the active base station (cell tower).

AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone Service. The first analog cellular phone system commercially deployed in the 1980s. Analog In telecommunications, an early wireless network technology involving the modulation of radio signals, which transmit information as sound waves over radio signals allowing one call per channel. Most wireless transmission is now done digitally.

Android Android is an open mobile phone platform that was developed by Google and, later, by the Open Handset Alliance. The platform is based on the Linux operating system and its applications are written in Java.

ANSI The American National Standards Institute. A standards-setting, non-governmental organization that develops and publishes standards for transmission codes and protocols for use in the United States. ANSI serves as the official U.S. member body to the world’s leading standards bodies, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

API Application Programming Interface. A set of standard methods or functions that application programs can use to access a particular set of services or tools, such as network services and program-to-program commands.

ARPU Average Revenue Per User. The monthly revenue generated by a consumer’s wireless device usage. ARPU is commonly used by wireless network operators and telecommunications/wireless analysts to estimate ROI (return on investment) measures for investments in network infrastructure and end-user services.

Asymmetric Encryption - a.k.a. Public Key Encryption A method of securing data for transmission that equips each user with two keys, a private key and a public key. Each individual uses the reciepient’s public key to encrypt the data that is sent and then each individual uses their own private key to decrypt the data received. A trusted third party often provides keys.

Asynchronous Communication signals that do not rely on a shared timing mechanism to transmit and receive information. Examples are GSM and WCDMA networks.

Backhaul Refers to transporting data or voice between the wireless network and the PDSN (packed data serving node, in wireless communications), or between the wireless network and the Internet (in a wireless local area network implementation).

computers. bps Bits Per Second. Bluetooth supports both voice and data communications. transmission radios and radio controllers. A broadcast and multicast standard developed for third-generation (3G) cellular networks. BCMCS Broadcast Multicast Service. Bluetooth™ A short-range wireless technology that interconnects devices such as phones. DSL or cable modems and wireless Third Generation technologies. news. Base Station Often called a cell tower or a cell site. microphones and mice. sports or stock quotes. . such as wireline. such as CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. Examples of multicast content could include video and movie clips. Each geographic area in a cellular network requires a base station.Band In wireless communications. Bandwidth In wireless communications. The base station includes an antenna tower. a base station is a transmitter/receiver location that establishes radio links between the wireless system and the wireless device. the width or capacity of a communications channel. The standard for measuring the smallest unit of information in digital communications and data processing. Analog bandwidth is measured in hertz (Hz). a frequency or contiguous range of frequencies. Digital bandwidth is the volume of data that a channel can carry and is measured in bits per second (bps). keyboards. Provides transmission of multimedia data from a single source to all subscribers in a specific area. Broadband Generic term for high-speed digital Internet connections. HSDPA and WCDMA (UMTS ).

channel or radio wave transmitted at a steady base frequency. decreasing potential interference while achieving privacy. CDMA uses spread-spectrum technology. BTS Base Transceiver Station. The CDMA2000 standards include CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. CDMA technology is the basis for third generation (3G) wireless technologies which offer increased voice capacity and provide higher data rates than 2G and 2. CDMA Code Division Multiple Access. which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. A digital wireless technology that converts analog information. the BSC supervises the functioning and control of multiple base transceiver stations and acts as a small switch.5G networks. CDMA2000 is a direct evolution of the cdmaOne standard. property or buildings. Used to transmit radio signals to a radio receiver. into digital information.BSC Base Station Controller. CAPEX Capital Expenditure. .a.a. a term commonly used to refer to a wireless network operator or service provider that provides mobile telecommunications services. such as speech. second generation wireless standards. An expenditure connected to acquiring or upgrading physical assets such as equipment. IS-2000 CDMA2000 is a family of third generation (3G) wireless standards that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous. an electromagnetic pulse. Carrier In wireless communications. A component of a base station. CDMA2000® . Also.k. Includes the electronic equipment and the antenna that comprise a radio transceiver facility or single base station.

Third Generation wireless technology that was proposed to support high-speed voice and data on the same channel to enable Internet connectivity for cellular phones. 2. video downloads and large file transfers. 1X. PDAs and other mobile devices. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO is a direct evolution of CDMA2000 1X.25 MHz radio channel. CDMA2000 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 1X Evolution Data and Voice.6 kbps in a single (1X) 1. DO CDMA2000 1X Evolution . CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data.a. Cell The geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station.a. This technology will not be commercialized. 1xRTT. cdmaOne was the term coined to describe the original CDMA systems based on the IS-95A and IS-95B standards.Data Optimized.k. cdmaOne™ A brand name. EV-DO.a.25 MHz channels to deliver voice and data. CDMA2000 CDMA2000 1X is an IMT-2000 (3G) wireless technology that enables high-quality voice and high-speed data communications.CDMA2000 1X . trademarked and reserved for the exclusive use of the CDMA Development Group (CDG) member companies.k. Third Generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access. Wireless networks are comprised of many overlapping cells to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO . An add-on technology that enabled first-generation (1G) analog systems to provide packet data. . which made use of 1.a.5G and 3G systems are replacing CDPD. It is the most efficient wireless technology for circuit-switched voice communications and it supports packet data speeds of up to 153.

also known as a base station or a cell site. In contrast. there is a transmit side and a receive side.” eliminating the need to initiate a connection for data transfer. For cellular communications. Enterprises can wirelessly extend their CRM solutions. The cell site includes an antenna tower. using a total of 10 MHz of wireless spectrum. transmission radios and radio controllers. Cell Tower A fixed transmitter/receiver location. which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell tower includes an antenna tower. CRM Customer Relationship Management. Circuit-Switched Network Networks that temporarily establish a physical circuit “connection” and keep that circuit reserved for the user until a disconnect signal is received. Channel The amount of wireless spectrum occupied by a specific technology implementation. Coverage Area Geographic area served by a cellular system in which service is available to wireless users.and post-sales activities within an organization to improve customer tracking and communication. a packet-switched network is connectionless or “always on. An integrated information management system that is used to plan.Cell Site A fixed transmitter/receiver location. A dial-up modem is an example of a circuit-switched connection. which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. a 5 MHz channel uses 5 MHz to transmit and 5 MHz to receive. For example. enabling sales . The transmitter’s coverage area is called a cell. also known as a base station or a cell tower. transmission radios and radio controllers. schedule and control the pre. Cellular Analog or digital communications that provide a consumer with a wireless connection from the mobile device to a relatively nearby transmitter (base station).

music. issued as a Federal Information Processing Standard. across 5 MHz of bandwidth. This numerical data is then converted into various forms depending on the type of network. Technology for copyright protection of digital media. wireless local area networks (WLAN) and some personal communications .k. secure transmission and more bandwidth than analog lines. also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver.4 Mbps and 32 Mbps. DO Advanced Data Optimized Advanced. Protects unclassified computer data using a 56-bit. symmetric cryptographic algorithm. DES Data Encryption Standard.professionals to remotely access timely customer data for increased productivity and improved customer service. such as radio waves for wireless transmission. 64 QAM in the DL and 16 QAM in the UL. private key. graphics and video. device enhancements. Downlink . B that increases the peak data rate on the reverse and forward links to 12. electronic pulses for a wired network or optical light waves for fiber optics. Digital A form of transmission that transforms analog signals.a. DRM Digital Rights Management. Developed to prevent the illegal distribution of purchased content over the Internet. DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum.a. such as voice. In satellite communications. such as CDMA. into a series of electrical or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. 2x2 MIMO support. Forward Link The connection from the network to the end-user communications device. including ringtones. Digital networks offer superior Quality of Service (QoS). respectively. An evolution of EV-DO Rev. A spread spectrum technique used in radio transmission systems. DO Advanced includes smart network techniques.

The goal of the FCC’s wireless E911 rules is to improve the effectiveness of wireless 911 services by providing emergency dispatchers with location information to within 50 to 300 meters of the caller’s exact location. Dual Band Functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in two frequencies for wider coverage area. DVB-H Digital Video Broadcasting . For example. a mobile phone may be equipped to support both CDMA2000 and WCDMA standards to send and receive calls. which are then transmitted over a wide range of frequencies using a “scattering” approach.S. .Handhelds. A U. DSSS converts a data stream into a stream of packets. a mobile phone may be equipped to use both the 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to send and receive calls. A multicast technology standard specified by the DVB Project for the multicast delivery of TV-like programming to wireless devices.services (PCS) systems. With DVB-H. For example. E E911 Enhanced 911. Government-mandated capability that automatically provides the caller’s geographic location and wireless phone number to the 911 call center. one signal is sent from the base station and received by all subscribing devices within range. Dual Mode Functionality that allows a mobile phone to operate in two different modes for greater roaming capabilities.

that increases the peak data rate on the reverse and forward links to 1. A business management system that integrates all major facets of a business. Encryption In security. ERP software typically incorporates heavy use of telecommunications.a. 0. video downloads and large file transfers. Symmetric and Public Key.Data Optimized Revision A (Rev. Types include Asymmetric. End-to-End Security In wireless communications. See “CDMA2000 1xEV-DO”. A Evolution . EV-DO Third Generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access. EV-DO Revision A .a. finance. including providing wireless access to these systems to enable real-time information requests. safeguarding information in a network by encryption to ensure secure data transmission from the point of origin to the point of destination. respectively. such as manufacturing.1 Mbps. A. encryption is the ciphering of data by applying an algorithm to plain text. used to describe capabilities. EV-DO Rev. Rev.8 Mbps and 3. sales and human resources functions. ERP software links together various back-office computer systems. A software/hardware enhancement for GSM networks designed to provide higher data rates for the delivery of multimedia and other broadband applications for wireless devices.25 MHz of . An evolution of 1xEV-DO Rel. including SFA (sales force automation) and CRM (customer relationship management) applications. that are contained within a device. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning. Embedded In wireless communications.k.EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution. across 1. such as Internet access. A).

EVRC uses Relaxed Code Excited Linear Prediction (RCELP) technology to compress 20 milliseconds of 8000 Hz.a. EV-DO Rev. finalize service calls. quarter rate – 40 bits (2. FHSS converts a data stream into a stream of . A speech codec used in CDMA networks to improve speech quality with lower bit rates. It also incorporates Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technology to enable multimedia broadcast and multicasting services (MBMS) or one-to-many content delivery. An evolution of 1xEV-DO Rev.4 Mbps and 14.0 kbps) or eighth rate – 16 bits (0. 16-bit sampled speech input into output frames of one of three different sizes: full-rate – 171 bits (8.bandwidth.k. An enhancement to EVRC that compresses each 20 milliseconds of 8000 Hz. B Evolution .0 kbps). Rev.7 Mbps.8 kbps). B’s peak data rates are proportional to the number of carriers aggregated.5 Mbps in the forward link.55 kbps). When 15 channels are combined in 20 MHz bandwidth. EVRC-B Enhanced Variable Rate Codec Revision B. B). 16-bit sampled speech input into output frames of one of four different sizes: full-rate – 171 bits (8.8 kbps). A technique used in radio transmission systems. respectively.a. EVRC Enhanced Variable Rate Codec.Data Optimized Revision B (Rev. EV-DO Revision B . across 5 MHz of bandwidth. The Rev. half rate – 80 bits (4. It also incorporates Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technology to enable multimedia broadcast and multicasting services (MBMS) or one-to-many content delivery. B standard allows up to 15 carriers to be aggregated even if they are in non-adjacent or non-contiguous blocks of spectrum. half rate – 80 bits (4. update time/expense reports and schedule appointments. such as wireless local area networks (WLAN) and select mobile networks. A that increases the peak data rate on the reverse and forward links to 5. FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. B delivers peak data rates of up to 27 Mbps in the reverse link and 46. FFA Field Force Automation. Information technology solutions that help companies improve communication with employees in the field. Wireless FFA solutions increase productivity by enabling mobile employees to remotely access centralized databases.0 kbps) or eighth rate – 16 bits (0. Rev.55 kbps).

such as Memory Sticks or Secure Digital (SD) Cards. Gateway A network point that acts as an entrance to another network. A frame relay network is able to accommodate data packets of various sizes associated with virtually any native data protocol.a. Commonly used in mobile phones. Firewall A combination of hardware and software that protects a computer or group of computers from access by an outside network or computer user.k. Usually measured in hertz (Hz) or megahertz (MHz). digital cameras. Flash Memory A type of memory that can be erased and reprogrammed (rewritten).a. FPS In video. Frame Relay Uses a form of packet-switching and multiplexes data. In satellite communications. frames per second.packets which are then sent in short bursts via transmitters and receivers that move or “hop” from one frequency to another. Downlink The connection from the network to the end-user communications device. Frequency The rate at which an electromagnetic waveform alternates. audio players and removable memory cards. Forward Link . . A firewall enforces a boundary between two or more networks. also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver. An access standard defined by the ITU.

741. gpsOne® An assisted-GPS (A-GPS) position-location technology that integrates data from both wireless network base stations and GPS satellites for a highly-accurate location description. air or sea.073. to-do lists and contact information. GPS works via radio signals sent from orbiting satellites to receivers on the ground. A 2. Measured as approximately a billion bytes or 1. A worldwide radio-navigation system developed by the U. Department of Defense to enable users to determine their exact location anywhere on the globe from land. Examples include Microsoft® Exchange/Microsoft Outlook® and Lotus® Domino/Lotus Notes. Adds packet data to the existing voice network. GPS receivers are used in a wide range of commercial applications from fleet management to rural navigation. GHz Gigahertz. A measure of computer data storage capacity. and allows employees to share data.5G technology standard that is an upgrade to a GSM network. .S. Enables location-based services for wireless devices that work in all types of terrains and dense metropolitan areas. Groupware includes email and PIM (personal information management) functionality such as calendar. GPS Global Positioning System.GB Gigabyte. Gigahertz is often used to measure UHF (ultra-high frequency) or to express microprocessor clock speed in some computers. Groupware A category of enterprise software that allows employees to work more collaboratively.824 in decimal notation. GPRS General Packet Radio Service. A measure of frequency equal to a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz (MHz).

iconic images.a. H. digital video standard that offers greater compression than previous standards.a. scroll bars. The interface that allows the user to interact with a particular device. Handoff The process. of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. Elements include pull-down menus. such as a wireless phone or personal computer. buttons. Considered an option for transmitting full-motion video over wireless and Internet connections. such as mobile networks. the audio portion is handled separately. Sometimes pronounced “gooey”.k. GSM is based on TDMA technology and provides circuit-switched data connections. H H. windows and help wizards.263 A video compression standard developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for transmitting video over limited bandwidth connections. A second-generation wireless telecommunications standard for digital cellular services first deployed in Europe.264 . MPEG-4 AVC A high-compression. invisible to the user.GSM Global System for Mobile Communications. . Jointly developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the ISO Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). There are two types of handoffs: hard and soft. Supports only the visual portion of the video stream. GUI Graphical User Interface.

Hard handoffs require that the connection of a cellular phone call be broken in the original base station before the connection can be made in the next base station. Hot Spot A location. video downloads and large file transfers. Hot spots provide a wireless access point for the user and limited coverage (approximately 100 feet). equivalent to cycles per second. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the downlink to support applications such as VPN access. Hard Handoff A handoff is the process.Handset A wireless device that contains a transmitter and receiver. airport or bookstore. One gigahertz (GHz) is one billion hertz. such as a coffee shop. A hard handoff may result in a dropped call. Hertz The international unit for measuring frequency. invisible to the user. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the uplink to support applications such as VPN access and large file transfers. Also known as a cellphone or mobile phone. One megahertz (MHz) is one million mertz. where a consumer can establish a WLAN (wireless local area network) or Wi-Fi connection. of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. depending on the location. . HSUPA High-Speed Uplink Packet Access.

. The IEEE developed 802.11 standards for WLANs (wireless local area networks). A proprietary cell phone service based on cHTML technology developed by Japan’s NTT DoCoMo.I iDEN® Integrated Dispatch Enhance Network. i-mode Internet Mode. A standards body responsible for developing computing and electronics standards. paging and data from one wireless device. IM Instant Messaging. IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem. two-way radio transmissions. i-mode supports Web content and services. An open industry standard for voice and multimedia communications over packet-based IP networks. IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. VoIP (voice over Internet protocol). email and news reporting for cellular phones. Supports technologies such as IM (instant messaging). A proprietary technology from Motorola based on the TDMA standard that allows users to access phone calls. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. push to talk (PTT) and video calling. Instant. The body that defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP. such as mobile banking. text-based communication between two or more people over a network such as the Internet. real-time.

a.a. Also commonly used as an abbreviation for Intellectual Property. The method of sending data from one computer to another on the Internet. IP Internet Protocol.a.a.k.IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications for the Year 2000. IS-95 A/B . ANSI 95 A/B Interim Standard 95. IS-41 . and can also include IP-based content such as games or video and audio files. IP is part of the TCP/IP protocol and is an integral component of the Internet.a. IP Datacasting Simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to a large number of wireless subscribers.k. CDMA and TDMA networks. The basis of the core network for CDMA2000.a. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices.k. IS-2000 . Internet Protocol . A collection of protocols for secure exchange of packets at the Internet protocol (IP) layer. Tunnel mode encrypts the data portion and header of each packet. A set of ITU specifications for thirdgeneration wireless networks comprised of five wireless standards including CDMA2000 and WCDMA. The interim standard for CDMA-based cellular networks. IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport mode encrypts only the data portion of each packet. ANSI 41 The network standard used by AMPS. IPsec Internet Protocol Security.

jpeg. Java programs are portable and can be run anywhere in a network that has a Java virtual machine (JVM). Chartered by the United Nations. the third-generation (3G ) wireless mobile standard for CDMA2000-based cellular networks. The interim standard for CDMA2000. Commonly used to store and transmit photographs over the Internet. ISO International Organization for Standardization. An agency of the United Nations with the goal of establishing telecommunication standards.jpg or . The most common file extensions for this format are . JPEG A standard file format for image compression.Interim Standard 2000. such as the Internet. typically for photographic images. JVM . ISO was formed to define and promote the development of various international standards. J Java™ A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems for creating and running software programs on a single computer and in networked environments. ITU International Telecommunications Union.

LAN .Java™ Virtual Machine. Interprets compiled Java code for a computer’s processor so it can execute a Java program’s instructions. A tunneling protocol that enables the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the Internet.024 bytes in decimal notation. Kilohertz (KHz) One thousand hertz. A measurement often used to reference radio frequencies. Kbps Kilobits per second. L L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol. Commonly used as a speed for data transmission.000 bits per second. Measured as 1. K KB Kilobyte. A measure of computer memory or storage. Measured as 1.

Examples of LBS include regional map information for real estate agents and asset tracking solutions for service representatives at logistics and transportation companies. M MB . Last Mile Commonly used in telecommunications to refer to the final delivery of communications connectivity between the network and the end user’s point of access (home or business). and Multimedia services. and advanced antenna techniques (MIMO. Enables operators to offer personalized services based on the user’s location.Local Area Network. LBS Location Based Services. voice (VoIP). A thin. A highly optimized mobile broadband OFDMA solution designed from the ground up to deliver high-speed broadband data. LTE Long Term Evolution. A small communication network covering a limited area. such as within a building or group of buildings. SDMA and Beam forming). flat display screen consisting of numerous color or monochrome pixels arranged in front of a light source. LCDs are used in many mobile and other battery-powered electronic devices because of relatively low energy requirements and easy readability. LCD Liquid Crystal Display. LTE complements existing 3G solutions by leveraging wider bandwidths (up to 20 MHz).

MBMS Multimedia Broadcasting Multicasting Service. Mbps Megabits per second. Measured as 1.048. Microbrowser A Web browser specialized for a wireless phone. A measurement often used to describe the speed of digital and analog signals. Middleware A type of software that connects or “glues together” two or more otherwise separate types of software and translates information between them. MHz Megahertz. MIMO .576 bytes in decimal notation. Measured as one million bits per second.Megabyte. middleware is used to allow access between two different databases on a network. Enables one source to simultaneously send data. smartphone or PDA optimized to run in the lowmemory and small-screen environment of a handheld device. A measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory. to multiple users who subscribe to the service. For example. Mediacast Occasionally used to refer to the multicast delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices. such as video or audio programming. One million hertz or cycles per second. A measurement of the amount of data transferred in one second between two telecommunication points.

Multicast Simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to large numbers of wireless subscribers. A sophisticated telephone exchange that provides mobility management services. an antenna technology that uses multiple antennas at the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver).25 MHz carriers across wider frequency blocks to provide higher network capacity and increased user data rates. Used for the transmission and storage of images and video clips.Multiple Input. and coordination between base stations (cell towers). MPEG-4 .a. Antennas at each end are combined to reduce errors and improve data speed. is a software-upgrade to EV-DO Rev. B standard. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices. A standard for compressing video into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. MP3 Moving Picture Experts Group-3. Multicarrier EV-DO Multicarrier EV-DO. Used for the mobile transmission and storage of audio files. A that dynamically aggregates multiple 1. In wireless communications.a. Allows wireless device users to send multimedia.a. . from one device to another. MMS Multimedia Messaging Service. such as circuit-switched calling.a.k. Can be used in conjunction with OFDM. A standard for compressing audio into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. Multiple Output.k. MP4 Moving Picture Experts Group-4. MSC Mobile Switching Center. MPEG-3 . networks and mobile users within a network. such as video or digital photos. which is part of the EV-DO Rev.

Node B Denotes the base transceiver station (BTS) in WCDMA technology. O OEM . In packet-switched networks. Multipath Fading Interference during wireless signal reception caused by the deflection of a radio signal off obstacles such as buildings. In cellular communications. refers to a radio signal reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. N Node A point of connection into a network. a node is one of the many packet switches that form the network’s backbone. mountains and other large obstructions. The transmitter(s) and receiver(s) used to communicate directly with wireless devices.Multipath The multiple paths a radio wave may follow between transmitter and receiver.

a. which provides mobile telecommunication services.a. sales and marketing. A wireless communications technology and modulation technique that divides available spectrum into multiple radio frequency (RF) channels. In OFDM.k. Palm OS and Mac OS X. video downloads and large file transfers. a single transmitter transmits on many different. Operating System .and reverse-link communications and broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access. Windows. An expenditure connected to operating a business. Operator A wireless network operator. A standards body that develops open standards for wireless information and telephony services on digital mobile phones and other wireless terminals. also often referred to as a carrier or service provider. OS Software that manages the basic operations of a computer system. Examples include UNIX. . and administrative costs. OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. OpEx Operational Expenditure. which typically results in a signal with high resistance to interference. The manufacture of a device (often a consumer electronics product) that is sold to another company which in turn sells the device to the end consumer under its own name.Original Equipment Manufacturer. OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access. Wireless technology based on OFDM that offers forward. including R&D. OMA Open Mobile Alliance. independent frequencies.

PC Card A wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device to connect to the Internet. P Packet A digital “package” of data that enables efficient use of radio spectrum and routing over a network. PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. for the duration of the data transmission. PCS . Packet-switched networks are connectionless or “always on. Each packet is numbered separately and includes the Internet address of the destination.OSI Open Systems Interconnection. A reference model established by the ISO to provide a network design framework that allows equipment from different vendors to be able to communicate. circuitswitched networks require a dedicated circuit. In contrast. or connection. Synonymous with PCMCIA card and WWAN (wireless wide area network) card. Packet-Switched Network Networks that transfer digital packets of data. An international association that standardizes credit-card sized wireless modems which can be inserted into laptops or other mobile computing devices to connect to the Internet.” eliminating the need to connect to a network to send or receive data. such as the Internet or wireless networks. A Type II PC card is the most common PCMCIA card.

email. physical cabling or a wireless connection. PHY Physical Layer. PIC Pilot Interference Cancellation. PIM Personalized Information Manager.Personal Communications Services. Software for keeping track of contact addresses and phone numbers. Refers to the routers used in CDMA2000 wireless networks that comprise the backbone of the network. PDC Personal Digital Cellular. Sometimes called a contact manager. A portable personal computing device used for text messaging. Transmits raw bits of data by establishing and terminating connections to a networked communications resource. . Considered layer one of the seven-layer OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model of data communications. contacts and a wide range of other applications. PDSN Packet Data Serving Node. Refers to network hardware. PDC is incompatible with other wireless networks. project schedules and task lists. calendar. Refers to digital communication services offered within the 1900 MHz cellular frequency band in the Americas. appointments. The second-generation TDMA-based wireless technology used in Japan. PDA Personal Digital Assistant. Increases the reverse link capacity of CDMA-based technologies by removing interference from the pilot signal.

The basic wired telephone line that supports standard single-line telephones. Refers to total population coverage according to a wireless service provider’s license. In contrast to flat rates offered by operators for monthly service under a contract. A file format for image compression. POP Persons of Population. single image when displayed on paper or a computer monitor. POP means Point of Presence. telephone lines and access to the PSTN (public switched telephone network). Also a commonly used abbreviation for the Pocket PC. In contrast. A protocol for communication that allows two devices to transport packets over a data connection. which maintains all image information (such as number of pixels) when the image is viewed. such as a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.Pixel One of the many tiny dots that represent a picture in a computer’s memory. glossy formats such as JPEG may lose image information when decompressed for viewing. they appear as a smooth. Pixels vary in color and intensity. which is defined as the connectivity point between two networks. A lossless format. PNG Portable Network Graphics. PPTP . In wireline communications. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. PPC Pay Per Call. Because pixels are so small and so numerous. POTS Plain Old Telephone Service.

In the United States. PTT is an instant connection made between two cell phones. PTT works like a “walkie-talkie” and requires transmitters to use the same frequency. QoS is commonly used by network operators to indicate a higher level of service guarantee to customers. A measure of a network’s transmission reliability and efficiency. PTT Push-To-Talk®. Refers to the local. Protocols set standard procedures that enable different types of data devices to recognize and communicate with each other. long-distance and international phone system. A protocol for communication that facilitates virtual private networking to enable secure remote access to corporate networks via the Internet.Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. a specific set of rules related to data transmission between two devices. PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network. In two-way radio communications. Q QoS Quality of Service. Protocol Within the context of data communications. R . PSTN refers to the entire collection of interconnected phone companies.

R-UIM .a.a. commonly used in devices such as mobile phones. radio and television broadcast stations. Measured in Hertz. and can also store data. Reverse Link . to tune into the individual paths a radio wave follows (multipaths). also refers to the connection from a terrestrial transmitter to a satellite. . such as GPS for location-based services and CDMA for voice and data transmission. Receive Diversity A method of using two separate handset-based antennas to improve signal reception. high-volume digital process technology. satellite communications systems and two-way radio services all operate using radio frequencies. A low-cost.k. A removable card that is inserted into certain CDMA2000 phones. telephone numbers and addresses. Each component is combined to effectively strengthen the signal.a. Uses several sub-receivers. such as handset number and wireless features. such as the radio frequency (RF) and baseband components. each slightly delayed.a. increase data rates and improve network capacity. to be integrated into a single chip. megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz).k. The R-UIM card identifies the user’s subscriber information. RF Radio Frequency. Wireless and cordless telephones. RF CMOS Radio Frequency Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. including roaming lists. May also be used when a single device supports two different services. CDMA SIM card Removable User Interface Module. CMOS-based devices use minimal power and don’t produce as much heat as other processing technologies. Uplink The connection from the end-user communications device to the network. Rake Receiver A radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading. In satellite communications. Allows more functions.

A small radio frequency device used to identify and track people. ROI is typically measured in dollars but can also be measured by less quantifiable benefits such as increased customer satisfaction. A financial performance measure to determine the relative attractiveness of a proposed investment. Requires an RFID tag which contains an antenna to enable the tag to send and receive queries from an RFID transceiver.RFID Radio Frequency Identification. WAP. people. calendar. . commercial products or corporate assets. ROI Return On Investment. products or equipment. RIM OS Research in Motion Operating System. animals. RNC Radio Network Controller. The OS supports Java. RFID Tag Radio Frequency Identification Tag. as well as Lotus Notes and Novell GroupWise. tasks and notes. A proprietary multi-tasking operating system (OS) used by Research in Motion’s (RIM’s) Blackberry devices. Roaming Refers to a cellular subscriber using mobile phone service while outside of his/her service provider's coverage area. and performs mobility functions. synchronization with Exchange email. controls the radio transmitters and receivers in Node Bs. A method of remotely retrieving data from and storing data associated with animals. Equipment in third-generation (3G) wireless networks that interfaces with the core network.

SIM . The communications link between a company and its suppliers. send form letters and schedule future activities. distributors and customers. Wireless SFA solutions provide mobile employees with access to Web-based SFA databases via the Internet. SDK Software Development Kit. In telecommunications. Service Provider In wireless communications. the simultaneous operation of GPS location capabilities and CDMA2000 voice calls. a “carrier” or “network operator” that provides mobile telecommunication services. SFA Sales Force Automation. Wireless SCM solutions are deployed to allow mobile access to the Internet and private corporate intranets to more efficiently manage inventory. which enables software developers to write programs that will work on the target operating system.S S-GPS Simultaneous-Global Positioning System. A set of software tools. A system that allows salespeople to record account and contact information. SCM Supply Chain Management. usually designed for use with a particular operating system.

invisible to the user. SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. and can also store data. The SIM identifies the user’s subscriber information. such as handset number and wireless features. . SIP Session Initiation Protocol. for Internet usage. of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. such as video. CDMA technology is based on spread spectrum. sound and still images. including operating systems such as Palm OS and Windows Mobile. features on a smartphone might include email. A removable card inserted into mobile devices. Used to initiate an interactive multimedia user session such as chat. Spread Spectrum A method of transmitting a radio frequency (RF) signal by “spreading” it over a broad range of frequencies. This facilitates reduced interference and increased capacity within a particular radio frequency band. Soft handoffs do not require the original connection to be broken when transferring to an adjacent base station. There are two types of handoffs: hard and soft. Soft Handoff The process. voice or gaming. SMS Short Messaging Service. including telephone numbers and addresses. Smartphone A category of mobile phones that supports both wireless data and voice capabilities. A programming language used to easily define and synchronize multimedia elements. In addition to telephone functionality. A store-and-forward message service available on many second-generation and all third-generation wireless networks that allows users to send and receive short text messages over wireless devices.Subscriber Identity Module. video. A standard protocol defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Smartphones have enhanced software and applications. Pronounced smile. Internet access and remote access to corporate databases.

caller ID and number portability. or “key. SSL Secure Sockets Layer. “TCP” provides transport functions. A communications protocol that has become the de facto standard for the Internet. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. software and training. Subscriber In wireless. Ericsson. A financial measure commonly used by enterprises to calculate total relevant costs of a particular project. by the Symbian Foundation. maintenance. The protocol used in public-switched telephone systems for establishing calls and providing services such as 800 numbers.SS7 Signaling System 7. Symbian Symbian is an open mobile operating system that was originally developed by Nokia. such as real-time voice. between a Web server and a Web browser. The OS supports Java. Synchronous Communication transmissions that are timed by a clocking signal and occur with equal time intervals between them. TCO Total Cost of Ownership. A protocol for managing the security of message transmission on the Internet. support. Motorola and Psion and. Symmetric Encryption A secure method of converting data for transmission that uses the same cipher.” to encrypt and decrypt the message. ensuring that the total amount of . PC synchronization and PIM functionality. TCO includes the actual purchase price or cost of implementation plus relevant costs such as administration. a user of a fixed or mobile wireless telecommunication service. later. An example is the constant transmission of time-sensitive data. for example. call forwarding.

One of the three international CDMA technology-based standards accepted by the ITU for third-generation wireless communications. trade association representing the communications and information technology industry. For example. ensuring the information reaches the correct destination. Functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in three modes for wider coverage area. 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to make and receive calls. used to access a network. “IP” provides the routing mechanism. Wireless standards that use TDMA technology include GSM. TDMA Time Division Multiple Access. PDC and iDEN. Triple Mode Triple Mode. (3G) wireless standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous second generation wireless standards. A U. TIA Telecommunications Industry Association.S. A second-generation. digital wireless communication technology that increases the amount of data that can be delivered by dividing each cellular channel into time slots. The application of time-division multiple access (TDMA) to separate inbound and outbound signals. Tri-Mode .a. Terminal A device. a mobile phone may be equipped to use analog. TD-SCDMA Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access.data sent is correctly received. such as a laptop or cellphone. TDD Time Division Duplexing. Responsible for certain technical standards covering both wireless and wireline phone technology. Allows devices to transmit and receive on a single frequency at different time intervals. A third-generation.k.a. .

k.k. The Node Bs and radio network controllers that make up a UMTS network.a.a. . CDMA-based wireless communication standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous. A third-generation (3G). UWB Ultra Wideband. Interactive Paging The ability to send and receive data via the Internet by way of a paging network. Unicast The transmission of content from a single source to a single receiver over a network. In satellite communications. also refers to the connection from a terrestrial transmitter to a satellite.k. Enables connectivity between the user equipment and the core network. Reverse Link The connection from the end-user communications device to the network. watch video or play games. Used to view images. second generation wireless technologies.a.a. such as a television or computer. UMTS . Unified Content Delivery System A rich-media content delivery system that enables operators to consolidate content services for mobile devices under a single service delivery system.TV-Out Standard TV interface used to connect a mobile device to a compatible external device.a. WCDMA Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Uplink . A wireless technology for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a wide spectrum of frequency bands across relatively short distances. Two-Way Paging . UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network.a.

VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol.a. WAP Wireless Application Protocol. UMTS Wideband CDMA. A set of standards that enables a wireless device to browse content from specially coded Web pages over wireless devices such as mobile phones.Voice Recognition The technology found on some wireless phones. A WAN may be privately owned or rented. VPN Virtual Private Network. VPNs use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure network access only to authorized users. second-generation wireless technologies. PCs and other communication devices that enables the device to respond to spoken commands. sent as digital packets of data. VPNs are an essential component of secure wireless computing for an enterprise. A geographically dispersed telecommunications network. WCDMA . WAN Wide Area Network. but the term usually refers to a public network. The routing of voice conversations. A third-generation (3G). over the Internet or other IP network.k.a. WEP . CDMA-based wireless communication technology that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous. A network that is constructed using public wires to connect remote offices or individual users to their organizations’ network.

universities. coffee shops.11b that offers privacy by using an encryption algorithm that scrambles data before any data is transmitted. Applications include “last mile” broadband connections and hot spots. office campuses and private residences. WLAN Wireless Local Area Network. Allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection.16 Working Group.Wired Equivalency Privacy. WirelessMAN™ Wireless Metropolitan Area Network. Wi-Fi Short for “Wireless Fidelity” and another name for WLAN (wireless local area network). bookstores. Developed by the IEEE 802. An optional feature for Wi-Fi and 802. WiMAX Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access. An alternative to fixed-line networks. bookstores. Trade name for a family of IEEE 802. Enables broadband network access with exterior antennas that communicate with base stations that are connected to a core network. . Allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. Wi-Fi has been deployed in locations such as airports. WLANs have been deployed in locations such as airports. office campuses and private residences.16 wireless standards. universities. Wireless Node A device equipped with wireless network interface capability. A group of proposed wireless standards for highthroughput broadband connections over long distances. coffee shops. Wireless Spectrum A band of frequencies in which wireless signals travel carrying voice and data.

but typically covers an entire metropolitan or nationwide area. such as phone numbers or addresses. Z ZIF . . For example. XML may be used to share data between desktop computers and wireless devices. resulting in smaller-sized wireless devices. Bluetooth is a WPAN technology. A WWAN is similar to a WLAN (wireless local area network).k. A computer network that wirelessly connects devices in a short range (about 30 feet). A computer language developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) designed to improve the functionality of the Internet by providing a more flexible way to share basic data. A radio frequency architecture that eliminates the entire intermediate frequency section of the cellular phone.a. such as a mobile phone to a wireless mouse or keyboard. WWAN Wireless Wide Area Network. XML eXtensible Markup Language.a.WPAN Wireless Personal Area Network. Direct Conversion Zero Intermediate Frequency. Geographically separate computer networks joined through a wireless connection.

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