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Cornell University Library

MT 40.W84

1887

Guide to musical composition,for tliose

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V«POSIlfG THE EASIER KINDS OF MUSICAL PIECBi BY HEINRICH WOHT. by Olitbb Ditsok & Co. ( THEM WITH SniTABLE ACCOMPANIMBNTB ^BPECIALLT OP . BWIGHT. in the Clerk's OflBce of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. Copyright. TRAi^SLATED BY J. & Healy. Haynes & Co. Owight.GUIDE KUSIGAL COMPOSITION. WITHOUT THE AID OF A TEACHEa. TO AUIJDIKE THE POWIR OP |nte% Um Of PROVIDING pCtkMts. Ditson & Co. EOSTOIT: C H. BOSTON: OLIVER DITSON COMPANY. by John S. DT A SHORT TIME. E.FAHllT. . Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1850. S. 1SS7. lolm C. NBWTOKK: OHICAGO: Lyon PHIIiA: J. Biison & Co. FOE THOSE WHO WISH.

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that a piece of music coa sists for the most part of a string of wholly new thoughts To prove the contrary.PIIEFA. notion of me by word which leads me of of mouth. namely. For the study of a School of Thorough Bass I have no time moreover. without the special guidance of a teacher. first commonly am add new stopped short after the four measures.'isd to letter of a friend. ones. they will not fit If to the first thoughts together rightly. but if I them down and make a musical whole of them. have the same- fnquiry made asked of me. It is Then I wonder at the composers of larger works. incompre- hensible to me. in the most obvious and striking 1* man . or most for good friends. it once there. and information to infer the quite erron&oua many dilettanti. Besides. as to enable trifles at times to write musical at the for my own satisfaction. to be sure. not at . comes up again. in order to compose a little piece try of music to write I Pretty thoughts often float little before me . " How ? does one begin. but as were in a new dress." These words are taken from the tur.CE. and fit how one can them all think out such innumerable together into one consistent whole. I remark. all my me purpose to form myself into a composer proper I only wish to have just so much light in this matter. such a work. thoughts. that in such works many a thought. I often who me in this predicament. where T my fancy leaves me in the lurch. would probably remain a book with seven it is seals for me.

it 1 Gently. let us go to it. how whole periods are developed out of a few notes.'polkas. and then dangerous. and partly writing them down withThis excited great astonish- out the aid of the instrument. is But a knowledge of the theory of Harmony presupposed. or further development. and lead to the fountain. Before we reach we must first go over a small mountain. from which the greatest masters fructifies had drawn. out of which I have forthwith dev sloped various little pieces. which so the inventive fancy of those find who drink from Quick.fV PREFACE ) aer. called Thematic Treatment. Of course I could not make the matter wholly clear and com'^ prehensible to such inquirers all at once but I promised them to lead them to a in the art spring. Thus did this " Guide May many it find friendly reception in wider circles. W . in larger cofnpo-Bitions. " originate. for that is The name of the magic fountain it is I can give be- forehand . ment . partly playing them over first on the piano. waltzes. &c. it Whoever wants this knowledge can easily obtain through thia my * " Introduction to the ' Theory of Harmony. H. that they one musical thought continually crowding out another. or only couple of tones.. we must not drink too hastily. I have made them give me a single measure. a real magic fountain. is Where friends I this fountain ? it." of which Guide is a sort of second part. and quite as much so when I pointed out.

Augmentation Diminution Repetition • Omission 12 • 8. 6.- 15 18 Periods of the Scholar's own formation • 22 23 27 VL Harmonic Accompaniment of Melodies Figural Voices Harmonic Accompaniment of the Scholar's own ! 44 4S Melodies as Exercises for Harmonic Accompaniment . 6. ment Exercises .. Inversion IV. L IL Pattern Melodies for Imitation Structure of Musical Pieces . Theme 9 Transposition 9 • F. i € 7 Periods^and their Members r III The Theme 8 Principal ways of Transforming a 1 .CON"TJE:NrTS. Combinatian of several Modes of Transformation Consideration of some Periods with regard to their Thematic Treat- V.xpansion 3. Changing the Order of Tones Reversing the Order of Tones • • • 12 13 13 13 14 10. 10 • • Contraction 10 11 11 II 4. 9.. 7. Combining Fragments of different Motives 11.

67 67 4. Imitation 69 • Inverted Imitation 83 85 88 88 Mixed Imitations Canon. 3. * The FuJ Cadence The Half Cadence The Plagal Cadence The Deceptive Cadence •• • 66 67 2. Periods of different length • 51 62 6S Short Introductory Phrases mi.n VII Shortening of Periods CONTENTS. Cadences 1. M. Fugue Dances Variations • 89 90 9C Marches Song Composition Bondo Sonatiaa • ' 91 • M .

I. power the most important a pattern. A mere wanis dering about of tones. no melody. beginner. . without harmonic connection or natural flow. the commencing measures but be must also try. has in composer. his He who for can invent beautiful art of a and expressive melodies. Taking the Rhythm of one melody it. Music is The chief thing in Melody. and such as appeal to the feeling. but they are a very good preparatory means. to be sure. many othen may be formed in imitation of For example %^^^^^^^^t3^^^ ^^ig^lg^i^^g Tt:«__^ |gd^-Nf{^|giSgpf}ggp^3g ^i^^i^^gi^i^ ^^pi^i^niiSlip Such rhythmical in imitations.GUIDE TO MUSICAL COMPOSITION. to form melodies each melodic pattern. The fol- lowing melodic patterns should be imitated in a similar manner. To make to the matter easier to the some imitations are here given aflei without a given beginning. always taking care that the melodies be as sing-able as possible. are no real melodic formations a proper sense. Pattern Melodies for Imitation. The melodic steps or intervals must be easily comprehended.

M &c. Allegro. -^—^-T-PS-i =t===H=t: P-I -R^F=T-t= e=-'?= ==££& SEIfr -&c. &c.P GUIDE TO Allegretto. &c. &c. ^ i - £E :|=?=p: -p—(»—(*. otu. iE£gpgr ^p^iJgp>s}jgp! =*=*: n Moderaio. ^^gg^^^^^l^ i4-. &c. &c. &U. jEfet=^^'riS^f3 :E=S^ Ifc:t ^^ ^E^^£EJEEp^E^£EEJE^3Egpg^sI .-^ :J: p^i^i^i^E^ ^^t otu. ^E^BE i i =-F=^ :^ ^ &c. &c. •-T-^- ^i^Eppsa » TTTVi 1^^ ?^=PS ! I s F ^e-^ I -&c. occ. &c ac. &c. — :t=^ -• 11 &c.

ii | L J— -^ •- . i :EEE^i^^S fit 5-*"iir ^e. &e. s^e ' &e.i^I=^53e ^ &c. 9 I iis^ -•^i=)i^ T={ "SEE ME^ii^ . i . S^t^FP^fe :^? i^SSlf s^^^ fe^prf^iE iaizzzc gr^^^ggj:§^ 3r3=? itizaint t=t IE ll^S^j^g^lg:}^ . Allegretto.MUSICAL OOMPOSITION. I BHt^S£ |=§i -P= -#If I I ^=?J=E EeEe Andante.- &c.-3IE P—»- &E -*—-• — *- S=3i^ &c '^^^S^pep^'^i^ zfz±2B. &3.

-^-f-!*- :?r. A Ef^EEtHEi:?^: &c _ 1^ A_ ^^^ii i i ._. -^-m-^—0- ^ A 3=t I? I —— ^t « _ The following melodic a given beginning. Allegretto._ igE^lgj ip£=S. patterns should be imitated fovir times without ^^m^^^^^ Allegretto. A :i=t ^tt rE ^_-r^ ^ gg^^gj^j &cA :| f^il^gf^^l^i^ &c. !EtE^ '-i ^^ wm-* —^-^m^ ( >-- ^-'- I * J ^^m^^^^^. »—' —»-.10 GUIDE TO &o fe^ Moderato.^-g ^ . P^S^ I isl^te ^H rtzt rp=P=P= -^^-^ipit _^_'-.51^ •—• f rf- SE: =F==r>- ^_^-*— J- s &c.

I fr-f =P # ?- -f-!-*-• -^—»-+-» • 0- it^igBli I IhsS £ „ -•-^- 3=41 :!=^ i 0—^-0- Allegro. •— p-# r F F-»- ^^^l^^ip^i^^ ^^^m^^^m^m Moderato ir^=t=F -0-f-0^ ^^^^m^^^m r-riAllegretto. m $ *-f-f- g^si^li^^^ . ::&=j2i ^-#-? 3§ii F=r^F PI ^^^^m^^^^fei .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Allegro scherzando. HSliSsSi^iiiil^ ^^t^ -Jz::. Allegretto. n r^rfiif:&':fri:fi Allegretto. ^^F=F^ -^-0 A HP Allegretto. .

The half-period of 4 is measures called a Phase . Such periods. and finally the is 2 measures into twice 1 measure. . together. but always into equal halves thus the 8 measures into twice 4 measures.^^ i^i II.j3gse^ s^eIMe^s. again divided into smaller parts. ?=t _^. t Allegro scherzando.) strung measures .«^ aigi^s -^!^ -^-•-. the half-phrase of is 2 measures called ( Section . Usually such a member it is consists of eight in the technical lan- guage of music called a Period. ^m i AU^agretto.L!: GUIDE TU Allegre ^ri=r piB^^i^pipfe^pg Moderaio. .(tone-groups. The period may be . are the eight-bar melodies which have so far occupied us. and the half-section of 1 measure called a Motive. -m-0- lz:z^3ES^. we find consists of smaller or larger mew Jer«. the structure of a piece of music we examine it more closely. If that structure of Musical Pieces. the 4 measures into twice 2 measures. for example.

which beats. the up-beat is considered belongs with the equally incomplete That two such incomplete motives make up together whole. :» 1*1* f E=E^: -^5-»-»I -I F-#- i^Jji:'^' In periods commencing with upward as an incomplete Motive.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. -^-0-m~ j. Thus there are upoL opera motives music «ense that is. is clearly heard upon a repetition of the period. as meaning a whole Melody. Phrases ^Ji^g^li^lg --T-:U^. t^^E^ir'f^n =1=^ ^^^Sl . 1 -^-•-#F:^ t- -P=i= :*iti m m a ^igig^iggijiiii^Slt Motives. .5s:fc»: ^ t^=x 3^1 p^iii ?3 Sections. 1 s^gss closing Motive. the themes of the Variations are taken from opera the But here we use word Motive throughout in the first-named as indicating the smallest division of a Period. 11 lo used in a wdei variations mil it be remarked that the word Motive is also often lense. PERIODS AND THEIR MEMBERS.

either whole or in part. t=ijiz:3t=l\ti i-E^E ^^t^E^ 3:^ ^ It is z±z :. which in is repeated in different parts of the other periods.=piiic:ztt: m^ Motives. seldom that a piece of music has but a single Period . I ::Cr. and that others are verysimUar . .zy--z=-zt. tha. transformed. but of equal For example 1 : Motives. the repeated thought should not be employed always in it should be nized.iEgEE^5^:^^f=fig:-fe. but always so that its it may be recog- In this way appearance every time excites a new interest this . Such a principal thought is called the its Theme. for is called thematic treatment. m it5= E:j^fegEgEgEgE. neariy all pieces contain several periods but the _first period contains the principal thought. The theme Hume of its contains such work we have already remarked motives are precisely alike. may have an up-beat. =?—^• -#— P—•it=t: £ EES: iHnf of these periods with up-beats \hat is to say. The art of working up a theme in itself way.^i^SEg^tL'J -0W i Many ralue. The Theme.. so that every motive may also be divided otherwise. first form still But ..zri : gEl-^^|Eg±£ggE|5E:g=fc--^gE|:(. :t=tt :t=S^: .Ea- -^-T=^1 -« y it-^-i-V g^fe^^3| — ^- III. alte'^ed.tif:zlzc-rtir.

^^sm^^^^M^si\ -fl Motive Motive. The PEiNciPAi WATS OP TRANSFORMING A Theme 1. would be impossible them all. Transpositions. a:=t:=|:3f: t^tr^u=£ Transposition. as to represent 16 therefore il we shall soon see . ^=P ^^ ^- i Motive. ^1 . P Motive. —g— . when stands upon different degrees or stepi of the scale. Such different forms are inexhaustible. are the following Transposition. Transpositions. -0=*Transpositions. e^:E ^-cri- i E :*=t: Motive. it A Motive is transposed.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Transpositions.»=p: E#-5?= — Sip &c. Motive. but with the same intervals oreserved.»_ Transpositions. iipS t— 1= .

o. g^^=Efei^^siigfe^ Half Period. m-Js 4w ^^^^^m^mi 2. or contracted . Expand Expanded • l»bi^— i Here the a= 3. Expanded. ?^fcp Transposition.16 GUIDE TO 2 Motives. ESf 1^-*' '^m^^m^^i^i Expanded. Motive. Transposition plays a principal part in the thematic working of both smaller and larger pieces. b. but here the the notes are spread farther apart. Motive. Motive.- ^^^&feg:^ifjg|ffe(EE-j!:fJ^£^ Motive. Espvinsion. Expanded. Expanded. i Half Period.. Motive. Transposition. Motive are made smaller. intervals of a i. In transposition the Motive are not altered. Motive is expanded. Half Period. Transposition. intervals of a Contraction. zW=i- m [lE^EES ^ -P*^ J=Pfp: giiigi^ig Transposition.

Here the intervals of the Motive are not changed. but the length oi is time-value of the notes Motive. Contracted. S5531 ^^i=P3^l^ 2 Motives. by the motives may be [2*1 variously remodelled or members of the Motive . Augmentation. Diminished. Motive. Augmented. 2 Motives. i Motive. while the remain unchanged. n Motive. ZflZZIi^Zft SHI =t I -' i^ J^ =Et £ i intervals 5. Contracted. This is is the opposite of the preceding for the value of the notes of th« Motive diminished instead of being augmented. Diminished. ^J-^EE 5^. Contractions. Augmented. —r=ff=?= ^ repetition of fraj- Bepetition. i^iPj^i^^gi^^ 4. Motire. Contracted Motive. .MUSICAL COMPOSITIOA. |S ^ Many inents -t rt 6. Diminution. augmented.

. Omissions. Change of tones. Motive. Motive. i -M—f—T-W •=?- i^^^lgi^P^^S^H^E ±^ |i 8. i^#iiip^g^ii^i^E fe^^^^^^^ Motive. introduced in a different order. One or more members may be omitted from a Motive.e. Change of tones. but without altering the rhythm. Omissions. . Repetitiona. rtt ^?=^ PI :T . Omission. ^^fegEfefeSS -^-^j— tij—Si5"'s3"- "--^-^-^j- E!Et 1 7.Id GUIDE TO si=S^ I Motive. maybe tniercAang'edji. Change of tones. 2 Motives. may occur within a narrower or a wider Section. especially such as form a chord together The members of a Motive.] ¥ s This g=E Changing the Order of Tones.

9. or * —*—•——*— 11. Reversing tlie Order of Tones. i. tz=Mz \ I±=^ -*—*- E3^5=i= and '^m 3 and 2. means of transformation many new Motives may be formed Half Period. Combinations from measures. as in No. This is not reversing the ordec of tones.-^1 -*. Inverted. isi t=: -tt C ^^ ^^ 2 Motives. *—• —d-^ —^— — —^— -i^ • * Inversion.-*- -^ -^-- f^ s 3 and 3.- Reversed- i By :«i|ii -^:a10. that their intervals shall make inverted move in the opposite direction. Inverted. 2 and 3. 3 1. t-t. 1 and 3. this st ^^ ' —^— *i *• Combining Members of different Motives. d. but here we commence inverting the intervals at the first note of the Motive. i Section. and 2. 3 and 1. «_. Motive. or several Motives may e.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Zizzzw:. from tlM to the begiuniug. and not at the last. i 3^S"^A 1= -*. ^ Bteps. without altering the rhythm. Motives may also be so changed. I J-L r n M. Section. A Bnd Motive. Reversed.i: . bo taken backwards. for there the series of tones went back from the end to the beginning .

but there are also three-fold. & inverted. &c. -0-n- Motive.:£i|:: Inverted.20 2 Motives. Half Period. | reversed. it. trans- Frequently not only one. by repetition. I^SHseg-l^pipSfS Inverted. ::t: S££ ^^iEjand the figares re. . GUIDE TO Inverted. or we may transpose and way Motives may be at once transposed and inverted. transposed Motive. and lengthened Lengthened by transposed repetition. 2 Motives. transposed and repeated. transposed and diminished. | transposed & reversed. i i :p:>i^^rp: Mai. IE =#-^= -0—0'^^ transposed and reversed. S '^m in sixteenths inverted. ZJfZlfi- ^^ EE^ ntm -0-0- ^E^' IV. &c. Combination of several Modes of Transformation.-jtz=± -J^ m Motive. In the same Thus we can trans- pose a Motive and at the same time contract at the same time expand it. inveried. four-fold and even five-fold transformations. It is better to begin with combining only two modes . ^^^^m^^^^^m Transposed. three. -W-0. or even more means of formation are applied to a Motive at the same time. as the following example shows. but two. transposed and reve rsed.

& expanded. |[ Transposed. COMPOSITION. five original motives . -W=lt- 2 V. |i=p: 0-—f-0- t=i: ^^^mi Oriii'-ial motive. Motive. the first we find trans- posed in the third measure. have already remarked that not a single Period consists of purely motives.rfUSICAI. contracted. Consideration of some Periods with regard to their Thematic Treatment. || 21 transposed transposed & reversed. and the second transposed in the fourth meas- In the sixth measure we have the third original motive repeated. rjf) but enlarged by two new members (a and at the close. which are mostly taken from well tives known works of Mozart and Haydn. with allusion also to their transformations. Transposed. which will call original motives. I Ir—1^=^l?E j^ • f- Original motive. inverted. In the following Periods. gg^Eisga Transposed. diminished with repetition. the original mo- must be pointed Allegro. but We new we some motives are only transformations of of others. out. i^^dm^^m^m^ The whole Period has ure. contracted and inverted. contracted and incomplete. in order to ^ connect it more agreeably with the following fourth motive. .

contracted and inverted »lly. namely the . S^33^S nal motive. two last Measures the first 3."=F=^P- I ure This whole Period is is developed out of two motives. measure 5 repeated and measure 6 transposed.» 22 GUIDE TO . ^i^i Original Motive. this period has only one original motive is for. in and the two semi-quavers may be resolved this into the harmonic note d. No. measure 4 liter- has been transposed. the e in the second original Motive only a participant note. 1 . Vivace assai. nt EE ^^ :t=p:: 0a single i origi- What may be made out of so simple a melody with only may be seen in Haydn's Symphony. ^ -f— FT Sii ipi! Original Itotive. Presto. first The second measfind i)oth repeat- a transposition of the fifth original motive. 10. 7 and 8 contain transpo- sitions of the members of Properly original Motive. . which case motive would be only a transformation. strictly taken. m =t ES^ it -0—fi- =tit= Original Motive. Andante. m^mM Here only tne first E&'£ original motive has been transformed . crotchet and quaver.itt*=i=^. and we ed in the and sixth measures. like measures 3. 7 and 8.

half of an ex- pansion of the second ori^nal motive.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. Tt A^^^=rr^: p. eontraxsted and inverted and measure 6 motive. e. and the other half a transformation of the three eighths in the first original Allegro. Original Motive. • „^— • I •te Section. partlj transposed. it. Measures 3 and 5 are transformations of the first in the fourth original motive.4--^gL-j3^M^i Such periods :^ ^M^^^^^^3=^^ divided into sections than inld as the last are better . first original motive. 23 g^ggg^^g^^^^EE= Measures 3 and 4 are transformations of the measure 5 is first t two original motives 1. 1 The second second half is original motive only half deserves this name. Allegro con spirito. because the only a transposition of the first. where the two eighths make inverted and expanded steps. _i- p i i -i.. a transformation of the . This motive is transformed and sixth measures. is. .

The first is the origin^ the second and third are transpositions of the same. it. a period of sixteen measures of it so. Vivace. expansions and inversions. by ohap^ng the * and the feeling actually divides w^sm LT 13 14 15 __ 16 We shall soon become better acquainted with such periods of more than 8 measures. We might make into I measure. which are easily found out Only in the fourth section (measure 7) is a new thought introduced. I i^^=i 3 i: -•: '- fci=-±rt E m Allegro molto. and also note the transposed motives as above. with occa nonal contractions. since each section section . GUIDE makes a little Tt whole. ^EE|Eg^Jg^ai^EgE^^^:j|E|^^ 7> -^—^KUgzirW . Motives. In the following Periods the scholar must seek out and indicate the original motives himself.24 motives. Exercises.

---- 5:f- ^^ m~0-' -.-•-.MUSICAL COMPOSITION.•-•-^-•- Allegro. -^ '^^m I t^^=^^ Allegro. * M- s^ ^ES^ ^^ iE^iiigi -p ISe Vivace. •y-p~r-y— M.. .^ -r Allegro <— —— f- ^.-f^^^ I — _!_• . 23 6= ^^ m olto. ite3^= i« ::1=:t=:t -^ ==!=: *-• — zM—izzi: :1==i L^: II I Allegretto.m r fe^Efe -h^'^4 !s££t:3igc:^=g-^^--F-fr-tiFr-r3 ggiili^^ip^li [3J i . — —— — ^~0 -0—P-0 — — ^'^^ —T. Ji — ~~ l2_-»3q=£^^^£^t^n-'-. . — ^ 1«- ^^ :t:^L^-r.

^^iiiiE i ^3: S^ 4 E*=-E3E3 ^•— Adagio.' fea^i^^i^i^i^iiii^si . N-=5z ^r=r3 sssiei .=r-.0 — 0^0 -. ^. i^eiSlij^ =§^=1 TyroUenne. ^m 1-3=* Largo. t Presto.i^^^j|P^}j^ *=^ ^^^^i^^§m^ gHEESse^ES^iSSi: -^.^. E&: -«-•- P Allegretto.P. ^f^Egp^j^.6 GUIDE TO Moderato.-^.=fi=t: -P-?rfo/.

II ^B^gzj^gjteg^E :fi2=?ib( P H igrp5?j5? Allegro."-1* -" i^^^i^^^^ Allegretto.^ g=^^ [See measure 7. zf i^^i ^-f-f -f-. iif^g^^i^iSE i ^^^E^: Allegro. ^'f -f-f..MUSICATi COMPOSITION. 21 0I E=b^3EfEEiEEe3=P. ^ ^-..f-. A^ji^Jl.J ^'^^igg!^^^^ p^t^f^jE^mi^-fe ^isi^giteiif^ . -•-— p••— i —— I gs i Allegretto^ ^ f. |te^^5i^e ^!SE S£.

tei^: p=?=±»zrp= ^^^^^ r^--7y #-»-.28 AUegr GUIDE TO ±±3:. Allegretto. and out of these he is form periods of eight measif ures left the invention. l^^igg^gssgg^jBfeESi^ga ^=^" =t^: Allegro . transformation and succession of the other motives wholly free to him. simply imitating the pattern melody. For example. will Here he to is no longer work after In the following exercises only the commencing motives hira. be given . Commencement - ptii^ :| . measure for measure. knowing the to Hitherto the scholar has worked after certain melodic patterns. without means of transforming the melody.m^^^^^. # 5 i- — Allegretto. n -p^=»- tf^ t=Xr Some Periods of the Scholar's own Formation. Several periods should be formed &om one and the san e beginning. such models.^^zrd=r ff^ ^ k- i ^-^ 3=SS t=3t=jt:^^jL ^E^ -0- t P=i=Pt lirt- E2e:^: '^^^mmm.

m^i^^^^^^^m ^^m t^ ^s^Period 4. Allegretto. A A. tssaf - [3«] ^ 2. A— _i. A Period 6 E^ ^^ ^^=i5= E^feg^zL^E^Ei^^ Commencement 1.-n_k. Period 1. 29 ii^ii^^^fi^^ Period 2. A A w^^^m^^^^^ A .i_ Period 5. FJVoea ^ .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. ^^^^^mi^^ Period 3.

:t::--t -P-1-! 19. 5. and then compare your work with the necessary improvemec's. 13. imagination. but choose them from pieces with which you are not familiar. 10. 12 Moderato. I-- *— »»- m # 6. Allegretto. to avail yourself of the This done. Allegretto. . Moderato. FiVace. i S3 7. 16. EE l=[ -4-=*- ^s^ Galoppade. Andantino. Andante. EEE -s — —jp^t •- ::jzi^ =£ i ~^-zl- fc -0—0-0- :E^ 9. JToZier. Allegro.^3 8. rg^g^gg^pEggiigl 20. in order Choose now out of various musical pieces several more such beginnings {(IT the formation of periods . ± 11. Allegretto. ilforscA. Allegretto. 17. GUIDE TC Allegretto^ ^ ^ 4 Allegretto. then invenc the beginning also. Allegretto. Allegretto. P=#: fe±:i? $^ :ee3e =t: s^i original. 2=t l?3E S—5: 1 Moderate. and Melodies will flow more and more easily from your will gain you more and more dexterity in the thematii tnatment. 0^0- . 14. 18.30 3. 15.

g — d. J ^-. but some of them the fifth Bound empty. The following paniment. vated has in his thought at the same time the Harmony at least itj Nay. c-c. both in and a false tone-series. but first to one measure.. must be chosen for the accont panying voice let but which ? We will try them all one after another.r-J-4-l-Tr-J-^-! i. first place first we must know (c to what chord each of these tonfi to the Trichord of < I The and third note and c) belong major.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. am ihe sense of hearing judge which intervals will serve our purpose. . J-4-l-t . we will suppose.. three notes. still d-d. I -a- f All these combinations sound not disagreeably . 31 The Harmonic Accompaniment of MelodJos who is In the invention of a Melody. ment to a melody . evnn Bbould it consist only of the ground-tone (Tonic) and the Fifth (Dominant) So too will we begin with setting a second part as an accompanifundamental chords. and a? more the fourth g — c. not all at once to a whole Period. Such empty consonances we must avoid much as possible. a person at all musically calti to it. and then to two and four measures. even unmusical persons and childien find for simple melodies a second part as a harmonious accompaniment. namely the Octaves e-e. require a Oiie-voice accom i EfefE?^ In the belongs. 2 . VI. at all events not use them in unfit successions The accompaniment of the above three melodic notes.^-J_J-)-^-j-4-4-Tr-^U-J-. and the middle note (rf) to the Dominant chord of this Trichord Hence an interval out of these two chords . of tones a correcl would be as follows : Correct.

because the seventh must always move g-c . Such a progression of the hereafter. parts is called Contrary motion Of this more We and d may also accompany the three melodic notes e e. but one step downward. -^ accompanying harmony is i so obvious 1 need no explanation. for to the and c belong also to the Trichord of A minor. an octave (_d) but in this progression of the it is two voices. in 12 the octave 3. then. where it one moves downward and the other upward. d and c with tones from other harmonies. For instance : PS In to the. besides the progressiop c. not faulty.-r -r- ff15 in ? 171 in What this is there false. also in 15. with the fourth in 11 the progression from fto c. and here in f should go to e . and to e. is here the hadincf-note to — In be sure. nor does sound badly. from 8 to In 8 the octave d . ri>-r- ^ ^ :J-Jd rr'^rffrr'-^T- m . the- J.52 GUIDB TO False.following examples. Dominant chord of this Trichord. 9 10 11 12 13 U 15 r-^I Tr. to e . 10 the two octaves d and c . 9 same octave. from J because h occurs . 13 and 14 the same octave. pl ^r'^r *=i ^-^- m.

if one would set a proper accompaniment to a figural melody. in this come always EEfegg^^EE^: The notes notes. and In composing a figural melody.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. which should stand in the place of the ares he. syncopated and suspensions. for example.-3- -r ~w sixteenths. if these voices are is dissolved into richer note-forms. to But it must not be understood that the eighths and sixteenths are upon the place of their principal notes. . passing notes. we have jigurated way : the voices. — ^if.=frtt ip:p. E=E 1^=:^: £ l=E^li=E=E=^ il^i :^ :3: ^ ^P }$ -• -m -0 1^=14 -*—^- I w^--t-r — fi- 7:i—i=z± -•. illustrate meant by this example.p:pi enriching or embellishment of a voice is effected by participant harmonic notes (in broken harmony). and also the harmonic pri» ripal notes from the harmonic accessory notes. A^d not less must he . 33 ^ To ri=Jz 3-:r=i^3^3E " rrr^T Ft" what is E^EEJ T n^we will take the last Pigural Voices. . a fourth turned into 4 &c.. to find must be able out the principal notes in the various figurations. Accordingly the composer must bd able corrcatly to distinguish passing and participant notes from the harmonic notos. one must first fig- think of the principal notes. f^= ii=t: Now Here both 2 eighths or voices proceed in simple tones.

.i=P— •-a-L. |ri^3|=^p|pi^^S=3= ^ ^ -i ^ .k ^^^^^^^^^m^ m $ r^ it=* ^^^^^^3S=^s^^m Ie: :5^3 H^-•— ^ — •-»+•• -d. The following 15 examples show. which contributes remarkably the animation and coloring of a piece of music .34 nave a is GUIDE TO suflSciont knowledge of syncopations and suspensions. ^Sgggggggg^^^^Sg=g^ ¥^ -I zjizizpsr. and hence FiguraHo« to an excellent means of transformation.-*- ^ SEtE£. it is of great importance to a composer.Ei:E^[ -fC0=?=Z =P. j«l notes of the in what a variety of ways the princi- upper voice may be figurated. r-»-f^-r a^^^pg^^feEi^gEEj .

lipMpgiE^^^i gpSJ^Batl^Egf^iagggpg &c. 6 33 &c. i ^Mi f i 3^^S &e. i 13 ili^iig^i^Pif 14 i^^ii^ji^pSE3^^ .-^ &c. ¥ . &c ^^3 ip^Pi^f &c. Szg^:^ fillip 12 &o.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. &c.

1. is a passing note . Quarters 1 and 3 begin with an eighth pause. principal note. the second and fourth quarters are not 4. 1 15 Examples.S6 15 GUIDE TO |B3. So too with quarters 3 and 4. the first and third quarters aro The first quarter has a passing note . answered by a harmonic accessory note not figurated. which the harmonic principal note follows as an after-stroke. answered by the harmonic principal note. The first and third quarters are not figurated . 5. In the is first quarter the first eighth is a harmonic principal note. because they aie The harmonic principal notes pushed out of place by syncopation. In the second and fourth quarter the harmonic principal note ia . repeated again as a sixteenth. which is followed by the harmonic 8. as in Ex. which strikes in again after the passing note. Each triplet begins with a harmonic principal note. 7. the second on the contrary begins with a harmonic acces. 1. is The first eighth of every quarter a participant note . 9. 2. the harmonic principal note strikes in every quarter as the second eighth.g^_E^^=pgjggE^: ^ Bemarks on these Ex. followed .iory note. In the first and third quarter the second eighth figurated. and then followed by a passing so too with the third quarter. strike in after. which note . 3. . Quarters 2 and 4 begin with a hai> nionic accessory note. by the har monio note 10. The first eighth in quarters 1 and 3 is a participant note . the first eighth in quarters 2 and 4 is a participant note. 6. the second and fourth have participant notes. quarters 2 and 4 begin with an eighth pause.

MUSICAL COMPOSITION. -S^-#- ifeig^^^^^ i=jS^ ^:? zizSiL: -^^^^^^^^&^ — m [4] HE —^_ ^ . of the 31 E ery quarter begins with a harmonic principal ncte. In the upper voice the eighths. is followed by a passing 14. adorned by a short after. The second and fifth fourth tones of the lower voice are shortened into eighths. Here § time is used instead of t. The harmonic principal note. So it is also with the figure of the third quartur. the figuri quarter has then two passing notes. In the first again struck. as also in the third appoggiatura. strikes quarter . 11. The harmonic principal note is is followed by two passing notes. between which the principal note 15. quarter the harmonic principal note. as second and 13. So also with the figure of the fourth quarter. 12. striking after. note. harmonic principal notes strike after. To the following figurated examples the scholar in composition should mite down similar remarks himself. is In the figure of the second quarter the passing note followed by a harmonic accessory note. between which the prinii- fiist pal note is again struck. quarters 2 and 4 have participation notes. to which the principal note succeeds as a fourth sixteenth.

gz ^ ^#^ :^" .38 GUIDE TO ipf^i^^gg Eapi^p mi^^=£^^^ p ^^=1 *=!^3ESEE:^=^*Ei =C--qi iil :^=t: J±tH^3£ ^^g|£JgEflgj^3E8g±^Mgg{ ^3 sO S ^ ^ 3 _ ^ 3 3 §11-1 / §1 e:^ t=t ^=p: l^ii ir^z -i»=p: i it=f: ii-jsSE $^^ -^rL^gg^igg^i :e=i5ii::.

-p -'- ^- i ^^^^^^Ip^a si |g| .MUSICAL COMPOSITION.#- :3^:: =E^^^.=i eS iEEEt^t^E fefEL=^^^3^]gl3=3 iS IEe ±3E^EE =C-?- ^1 -^ if= =p= =1= =t=: — ^m « . 39 ^^ iiEE -p-#- 7^::z^m Mz^- <-!•-»- ptc=r-h=i-p- p.

^i^^^Jg£^|^ii .q: 5z=5z Ejzt e i 5. -*—_-•-# ?^E -p—t-gd- -f—•- 1 i^i jipMlgpgis^Bi^^i The lunder. 4 exchanged. i ^— g*f^-fe?fe -4. parts of No. so that the upper hecomes the and vice versa.t k f 40 GUID E Examples with the lower part 1 TO figurated. lagg^jsapajgig^^^g^pfpti SbeE ^^ ) il.— mmm *--f* i^i 1 i S^ES -S-yW V—»( ^3 fCEZ^ZiZWZ HrftP^ 3^ iit =F—f— •- q.

is exchanged. Harmonic principal notes. principal notes 13. 8. 9 both figurated. The voices exchanged. The parts exchanged. 41 m^i^^i!^^M^^Mw^i e-3H3£EJEEE^53^g^=P=?rB ^m^mmmm^^^ 9. The voices of No.MUSxCAL C0MPOSiri'»N. -0- ^ 11. :fi=f=i—fi- r-:i=\: t- :t=t::t i -0- The parts fvoices) of No. 8 both figurated. "h* pa. Harmonic ^mm^^^^^^^ --•|»-fe»n-a^ ' 12. fffejifefig-fgi^jSj CONTRARY MOVEMENT. —^ t=h ^--'-•- s^^^^^^^S^^ £4*] . E^i^m^^fsmm^^i tE^m 10.

SEfafejipja--. Mm^^^^^sBs^ 9i= f?^^ Oreo: = i E^E -I" ?— ?-?— y- i 17. ^E3ES p=:i- i 4=ir figurated.i^^m^^^^^ The upper voice of No. -?—?•- . 12 figurated. ~m * 1 — -I •- » ig^Efei:EpiB^}P^^^ii^^i [ . 13 iig3^=}r>=pg=i^E^ .. P ^E -•-— 1« r— T—a~' ^ ^-T ^ f !«-• ^^ r—m-r-'i — — - »- ^.(2 14. GUIDE TO The upper voice of No. jg^l^HEgggl s:-=»-P-i»-| 18. 12 figurated.^ 19. 13 figurated.t£E R=Pt=l^^| ifczi 1 IS The lower voice of No. =?=^ I The lower voice of No.^=^. U .. ^p^^ EEE =P=?fnc: ^—?— y:tE±=5z i The lower voice of No. ^^m[^E^m — — » • 16. 12 figurated.

^^SeSI^^ Now completely flgurated. iS Both voices only pEirtially in contrary movement. The following harmony also may be placed under the upper voice of No. 20. gfe^^^pggpg^^rg^ - 7^»- p^^^m^^m^m^ 2i . The following passage in thirds shows the principal notes of No. which appears in the other measures as transposed.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. ^s^igigps^ijg^i^^gg^ zpi. so. iEH: ::i^ 3:&5i^£^j.rr 9ie£ 23. 23 and 24 contains the rriginaJ motive. 20. and indeed . m The same melody founded on the following passage ::1=*: in thirds.^Si 3£± EE 24. s?SiEi iiE^SIglg^^Sgi^p^ig^i Observe : The first rieosure in Nos. 22.

I I I i_ feiS^&J^i —--0-^-0- =P*=tlt iPgS:! . progressing st«p by step. liy transposition.) Cantabile. In contrary movement there often occur tones. would sound For example. other voice.44 in GUIDE TO both voices Also tbe cross-lines show that the first foui -eighths ft one voice are repeated. m^ m -tfH»: i^ g^^ lir-* in the figurated voice.y _J L I ^^^gj. in a Such progressions too must be used but seldom. they to If tones of a hrohen harmony occur form must be so placed as not Cmnsecutive fifths false fifth and octave progression! and octaves. ri=p=p=irp: i£?BS Faulty. -till I . being longer heard. which form several consecutive dissonances. i which we shall speak more fully in due time. since in a slower movement harsh. and quick tempo. their dissonances. in the last four-eighths of th« Such repetition in the other voice is called imitation.

then the after-tone. and then both voices move on in an octave to c. but the octaves strike octave. after. — If a third is struck after an octave. to be sure. Similar faulty progressions are found in the other measures. as after the octaves c and / in the first and fourth measures of the following might give c as the lower voice tie example.^^^^ fei E:E v^rxz ^lls ^m^^m^^^^MM If in the figurated voice two tones of broken harmony come always upon one tone of the other voice. . which to is taken from the omitted tones of the chord. must be so chosen as the indicate harmony distinctly. the fourth eighth e forms an octave with the upper voice. and the upper voice has holding tones. and by a prolong this c through it the first two-eighths of the second measure. it is not faulty. first We to all the four notes of the measure.- Pf^^ m ^_i I #:p-*?f|£. because the harmony is full.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 4S i ^ittrf-r.^ SB gg|3E=E giiS^ffi pT_zpizzp: iteji^ :Et In the faulty first measure. A good musical ear soon detects such Both voices flgurated by broken harmony. In the figurated voice which stands above the faulty one. as indicated the close of this period . do not progress to another and are not struck simultaneously with tones of the upper voice faults. octaves occur also.

S»^=»=P- l« 1^1 -»— =t7 =f:=4 g^ ?=^ (^3^ 3E* IS =3^ Id: ^ . i a^=Ei^EtE«E'3=57l^S Sl=^^g-^g^=E A :^^E^E^ g^i^^^^=-. particularly notes. Andante. It facilitates the seeking out of harmonic principal notes. as figures of accomphniment. &c. § :=E U k fzM: * -"-^=i fc-^ 1* — m^^ ^^^ ^-* A Scherzo. where not seldom the Dominant) plays the principal part in the after-strokes.^ i\S GUID E TO E^mm^^^Mi ^^ii £iF r-tt ^^^^ — p^-» f-^! •- — I- ^ # m (or - J^EE ^-1 fifth Passages with broken harmony frequently occur in Piano-Forte works. to imagine the broken harmony as struck together.

i#.^ .0- -0. -"«-. 41 •— -^wr» ^e^Se^ rE2 -•--•- -•--• m i ffi^g^-'ge^i^'^^ zjnw -•— -#-^- -« =t=t=t -•.: :E i 11 -r f^i^^^g^l^ ±=S=i=3=?: ::rt — 5ii^ t^l.-•- :*-• i „ M^^m -^. :±. ^=^ 1 1 : ii The figures of ?^ accompaniment only partly broken. #-_ ±=^-.-«- h.-»- ^^m s^ ^ Moderato.-n ^-»'-f^ ^v-f.Wt:zt--tzK — ^m^^.MOSICAL COMPOSITION. iS-. Allegro sckerzando. =?=?^ For example Staccato. Allegro moderato. -%'^ =B.

-f-f ^ For example J^^ X 3EE ^^tgj^ fe»-'a ^^^izs-i-^s3izs-t=i3:zi=s—l—i-_s—-i=^ -•. ii=fcz:^iirM A 9.— 18 Allegro.zsz ziTiiz {'t-^ -^ — - ^— »! J ^ Ji- a! l-a ^—r-±--l -• i ^PJg^EB^^ -5— 5-^-i-iS^ -•.-•-•- ^l ^ig j iiHiiiiiiSsi^ ^< ^^Ifl^g^^l^ '^^^i^p^g^pi . Walzer.-••-^•^•- I EEEEf^S ifcnf: ::pi^^ -r-F-P-a-*- ^ffi: ii B^^S zt Allegretto.-•. —— GUIDE TO : s^^^^^i^^^pE^ gg^^b^^ Accompaniment with chords not broken.

Allegretto.#— and third measure has the Organ-point.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. this In larger compositions the Organ-point often occurs in for instance. leldom found of such length in piano compositions. 49 With the bass immoveable. m^^ ^^ -^--^-J. from the beginning through two consecutive periods. Allegro. or Organ-point. all more fre- IB S^ '^=s^S^ in the second A-— -^ ^-^-S-T-J: -t a^^^ps^ The bass ^[ivsn in eighths. in the Finale of way through Haydn's well-known the D major It is Bymphoily. although . m *-^_i^^ E=^iE^^:E^feEE^ ^^ ^iOil ^^^ -rIrhole periods . ^^^^^^^mn-J^j-jt. but |uently therefore in a few measures. ^ #-!. Pastorale.

Somi examples will confirm . interesting by an apt accompaniment. These chords he will find.so Allegretto. one must it reflect through what fundamental chords will fasten his can be done. and not if in be led astray by accessory notes (participant notes. But then too he must have regard rhythm and beautiful .) especially figurated passages he knows how to find out the ground-notes quickly. &c.-#- i -*^-M-0- ZESI^ ^^i^Sl^^il^i note of the bass in measures 5 and 7 is an Organ-point. Allegro eon brio. Measures 2 and 3 have an Organ-point in the first note. tempo. Harmonic Accompaniment of the Scholar's Own. to tne measure. GUIDE TO Si ^ i The first rp-i -W-0 I ift^i^gSi ^ ^gg^^^g?^gf^#^. if he eye distinctly on the principal notes of the melody. character of the melody which is to be accompanied. «: P. To set a right accompaniment to a melody. The most melody may be ruined by a poor and inappropriate accompaniment B poor and melody can be made this..

an Andante. and now too comes the accompaniment in the same movement. consists of eighth notes.^^A_. for which But there is still a better one.^^E . . 4 fe ^ -#- i. Beethoven there it has the following accompaniment .E^ .-(•- .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. because is more waltz-like . on the contrary. ascribed .h-y-M^ it is ^- i -^EB =t=t ^^glgiiiili The accompaniment «o =i::|=]z at a does not please ns. The accompaniment at c.j_ . 51 mm^m^ Wah. is That at h is better. by which the whole becomes very monotonous.^ 3^::rt jgglpgggjSlgg^g^^^ sgi^ipiMr^^r^lif iS^ telE -i r rE =!«=F= ip=t:: ii =l=t te -?— §BP —-^ &^ x=x. icelody to is taken from the so-called Sehnsiuiht {Le Desir) waltz. because it better suited .j_ zw=zr- i^ m:^ ^3Eh. yet there something in this that goes against the feeling the melody moves purely in quarter notes. The reason it is the best of the three.

i aud c the . in the weU-knowh "Fairy Danees"of Eeissiger. -• -^ !§^te We lompositions 33^EE — — •(«- ^i i^Ei in find something similar in . of the right kind . melody and accompaniment many piano for instance. f5 I 5 • I i I »i I tal*B ^1 Ilk '^ * —M^ I I -rr-rr-y\-r''y~r' I I III I P &c. GU1DE TO i^S^^^S y—^- i |gi^ U^-.^ 62 With deep feeling. 1 ^F ::?=ii= >.-5^-B*^ • •-«-•'! The accompaniment at d alone is Wonaise charaotor is entirely lost. it=±if — 4=it= -^« *. DoLce. at a. II ' ' ' -0- ^^m^' ^^^gg :J: Tempo di polacca. -» -^ 4=f:=t: :J:zzJz=iq!Li isi^iii — »1«- :f^-Sp^ -r^i^. *- :»=i«r -• — »- \ sal £ a • a -S: % -t-S-SS-STil* % -<•- 'T'T H« • -5. b±: r-» »—t: T-^ •— -t i. Moderaio.

Allegretto. principal notes are In the following examples the marked by x.i _ _. the ground chords are easily determined._x Ground cliords. if 53 e. J3: 3E -ESS • ^ [5*1 —14—i-"--^ -i1 I I I . ft ^ Or: -.» i.^4— " V -r > -»- . Ete^ ":+rE^ Ground chords. the ground chords are ob nous. i ^l^JEl fc - —f-* ^i— T-— 5=5^ -g-y-f ^-?—?- ^±E{^^^Ei when 1^ i On the other hand the seeking out of the difficulty to beginners. Z^ . But when . -^ -3t-i il^^^ip^^ X .the principal notes are once singled out. a mslody consists of broken harmony.^Ztf-l £^ m ^p^-^i 1r Figurated accompaniment. ~W^5=P .MtrsiCAL COMPOSITION. m . Allegretto g. principal notes sometimes occasions some the melody is figurated in scales or runs.

. only (Jl?) In the first measure the second quarter b'? not a faulty octave. Dolce. where ground-tone and melody progress in octaves. e.It is understood of the itself. is nothing to be said. especially the two measures. for the bass voice has already given the third to it. because the melody also introduces in the sewnd •ighth. will not connection. But one who has any notion of modulation proceed from one chord another in so awkward a manner. tliat it is not a matter of indifference whether .bdj has first a participant note. g). instead of falling. t==^=?3 ± at t 'zgr- s first The accompaniment' a sounds very disagreeably. and moreover the two outermost tones of the accompaniment move in c — fifths. The chords spring up and down without and a true ear. &o. Allegretto. and sort of to the sevenths rise. 1^^ ^ m (J>\>—f. g. is Against the succession of tones at b there the whole sounds too thin. and the mi. fundamental chord be used in it this or that position or inversion much nore must be carefully considered whether the original chord or one else there will »f its inversions best suits the place to be accompanie'' be faulty reduplications and progressions. -I h- EH a -^^M^M i P^ -^Z.

»^-*- ki^— &c. t^ •-# With Eighths merely. i=p=r=P. for •Bi^iEEfE^iE? example- aE* m ii^ &e. &c. The bass note in the second and third measure makes an Organ-point. I I - ^i^ Andante._^ ^ Doles. Allegro moderato. ^ . one might be satisfied. &C.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. &C. i ^=» #=2 ££ te^Sii^ f^i^.tit: S^?^3^^^ iz*:'zFi JtJt. Moderato. -—^ . -P- i *- « fc=qr=.&::^ -^-^- -^ ' H^l SE Melodies as Exercises for Harmonic Accompaniment.^B^^E^^r^'i^ Accompanied first with Fourths merely. . With fi 55 the accompaniment at c. then with Eighths. but the following still certainly more to the purpose. Allegretto. i »^Eii3: &c. &c. then with Sixteenths. With Fourths and Eighths.

56 Moderato. g.» W=¥T^'- /VV t-W^i^ ggf-r^ e. 3i7^z-3z: g^S: Beginning asg^gspis^G^gi Allegro molto.i- £9^^: *-rL ~ ijj^ig^iaj^^issg^ a Two-part accompaniment. -a-f. -f-»- mm Adagio espressivo. fe#i^jp|i«p-ipg raZi. GUIDE TO m SEglBSSSEglE /VV > .gii—"Jt^: Two-part accompaniment throughout . /VV With fonrths merely. I &c. %r^ &c. EE?firi: s^^^^m .?. pEga^a^f rt ^pp^ggg o tempo. Beginning of the accompaniment. :^--:. Beginning: . -3^»-i£ £:^!^ .

the in right mode of accompaniment also will suggest itself But most cases. But one must not only look set at and play such pieces. with periods consisting of eight measures OT but there are period? of mort fewer measures. as to what kind of accotapaniment is is best suited to this or that melody. For example : . The smaller have only one period. Beginning: §»E^ To infinitely various. Neither beautiful melody nor accompaniment CO fly into one's hands so instantaneously as many seem ima^ne. a pure impossibility. Periods of all diflferent Length. he must use them for written exorcises . and instructive to own work with anotherV but not necessaay that the two should agree note for note. in the begin- ning the accompaniment will cost him some pains. their Our all first greatest masters have not at made works without some pains. 57 One-part accompaniment. since these cases are An attentive perusal of good compositions for the piano helps one to a sure judgment in the matter. It will then be very . several. the largei Heretofore we have had to do onlj . which they before us . VII. he must write off from them an eight-bar melody. and to the nscosssry skill in composing. but they have made they afterwards elaborated in various ways. to which the fiindamental harmony has floated before his mind at the same time. from the smallest to the largest. consist of Periods. ill: give rules for all cases. interesting it is and a fit accompaniment compare his to it.MUSICAL COMPOSITION Scke'i zo. courage ! Let him not lose By constant reflection and endeavor he will at last succeed in finding the right accompaniment. which are strung together. and lie once so pure and perfect as plans and sketches. If the scholar invents melodies of his own. We have already said that pieces of music.

feeling halves these measures.E^ 53^33^3- SS^:!!E!^3^ '-iS^£-'-^ifPeriods with sixteen measures. '^-^J~ iSi F-i-*- The period. i^^g^Sl^^igil Here bara. Allegro.58 GUID B TO Periods with four measures. L^i_ -i«-»- 3-. the case is the reverse . and makes of them an eight-hat i nere too again the feeling \- \ ^-»-f- ^^i^S -Ff ^^^^^^1 ^. Andante. the feeling divides this melody into eighl S> by changing the | time into | or ^^ fe :t:=t!=U: 3E5 i 52^-=F=F=P= 3= ^ . I fc.^ -*- makes eight measures.

eight bars.~ _^_ ^ —^ — m^^^^m^0^m\ m ^ ii :pzi|2«— irpziW i. feeling craves variety. 10. or phrase or. not merely in rhythm and succession of as has been already shown. and so on. and the other regarded only as transformations of that one. Allegro. 2HEf35 m^' ^^M^ . is lengthened by the addition of 2. We take. one as well as another It of eight bars ? — would be simpler. 12 measures. is shortened by taking «way one or more measures. The tones. it 7 measures and vf One may ask we formed all : What is the use of this ? Would not be simpler periods of an equal compass. you have again the period of eight measures. a shortened . An eight-bar period . especially in larger pieces of music. juiegro. 11. or of In this way arise periods of 9. since in But it the principal period remains always that of the leading thoughts. which otherwise would easily become tame and monotonous.MUSICAL COMPOSITIOX. section. less. period is Moreover. ^. to be sure. but too simple. it mother motive. 59 Besides such periods of four and sixteen measures there are two other kinds. as a first example. of a composition divisions of musical thoughts are to be are presented. Solo. 1. easily converted into the full eight-bar form and by dropping out certain measures from a lengthened period. the beginning of ths last Allegro in Mozart's Concerto in B flat major. the theme. but also in the length of periods.

there follows again a second Solo : Solo. ^ ~ •> 1 a 1 A ^M^^g^^ »J =t: R fi " s iisialli^-^l^ '1*=^ . and . g^Sa^gigjBJESEEa ^^^ This second of which the Sob first consists of a lengthened period oiffteen measures. Jj.. iiia=J:.-'^Jm. . 8 measures form the natural principal period. ^g^^i^j^i^l 10 11 13 i£i^3^= i2=5:=t ?zi?rS: ''^ 13 14 15 Here follows agata the first Solo.0 OU IDB orchestra TO After the preceding eight-bar period has been fspeated by dii .

Measures 12 and 14 are transformations of the second motive of the first it Solo. 14th. — With truth. — we — pause 5 feel that eighths. At least i( m for the most part. and measure 10 varied after measure 8. and are is be regarded as transformations of the same. repetitions of to its thematia Measures of 9 and 11 are is measure 7.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. and pasi 4) Of 12 measures Skip from 9 to 13. Could we not remodel the eighth measure lengthening of the period would it. by forming periods of from 9 to 16 measures. 9. so that the become unnecessary? We will try and remodel this bar thus: i fall -?— rate. and 15th 3) Of 11 measures. We will therefore make some further trials. out. and 11. let the 13th. : Strike out the 12th measure. That it really is only a prolongsnon. is obvious to hearing. was said above to The prolongations flow out of the principal period. and not a new period of 7 measures.i Mozart's lengthened period fifteen measures is still the best. 10. then. This would be better. : Of 13 6) Of 14 7) Of 16 5) measures measures measures Strike out measures 9 and 10. stopping with the of the eighth measure. but yet the entrance of the Solo comes too soon for our feeling. which desires a longer mediation. . {. 1) follow. Of 9 measures: Of 10 measures follow. first eighth immediately follow. and then let the first Sola a mediating transition between tha two periods is wanting. as 13 and 15 : are of the fifth motive. 'nto such a transition. where we into the house with the door. : After the 7th measure. Leave out 8. let the 14th and 15tb 2) After the 7th measure. as first it were . the last 7 61 the prolongation. or the working of the theme. through If we play merely the principal period. directly from 7 to 12. Repeat the 13 th measure. The means here employed for lengtheninji the period are easily detected. Let us now consider the prolongation with regard treatment. at any than the first attempt.

: : S2 GUIDE TO Period of twelve measures AUegro. i^^ .in the of 8 measures. for the reason that they contain an imitation. ^ =p^p= i ssfiflgiliiie^lifi^gi p^ i=^ 8 9 10 11 " — 18 ^E g We shall Leave ^ ^: the eight-bar period. fifth But in this case the left out. Ii^ v. of which the ning. IS ft3E §:*S= Ca-CSSS kataaaiuS ^SSS -^—•—^. and we have a period a). measure makes the begmimitations in a following also make acquaintance with such off the first four measures. Strike out measures 6 to 9. Bass quarter (y and measure must be Period of fourteen measures Allegro assai. chapter. and it we have fifth But would be a pity to sacrifice these four measures.

—|-i|-— U-i-fA—0-i-^f-l-l~\-^ H 10 ' t 1 . E£ 3eE 0—0—^ t-^E^ fei mp^!^^^^^^^^^^ » JO 12 "Ts 14 ^l^!3_^_gj__^ r^_y ^ ^. for himself the means used for lengthening Period of ten measures Allegro. —01 I .MUSICAL COMPOSITION.— . 1 > — —fj — — —•—• —•— I ' •j. . Let the student seek out this period. if 11.^g=^^ we leave out measures I 6 to The eight-bar period appears.I —0^0 — . : mf 1 2 J> I 'J^ '0-¥- |?=C * 6^-3^1 ^^^^^^^] . 63 . • .

M m • • • 9 10 -^ —• —I—« s _-4-4^-m. — — What are the IfRtt =?=?= «= ^^^ i-^-0 -f. means of prolongation here employed ? Period of ten measures.— I 64 GtJlUE TO — ii .girn ** i —^^— 1I I r — ' I $ -?— =£k tiz^i^fiCs .0-0. ^?^ :t =?^10 m M :t=t =t ^ms • eight measures 9 ^ It A period of ^e£ fall is. or if measures 5 and 6 are left out. if measures 9 and 10 away with and we end with the third quarter of the eighth measure. that the second b flat. •-'-ri.b . Presto.^ ^ ' . is left.m — — a •- 1^ -^ ' * .

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.
To make an
8,

65

eigbt-bar period out of tbis,
tbis

we must drop measures 3 and

whicb would give

form to tbe melody

I^ %^^^|g

A^
.-»,-»-

-^^m

£E»isa=
-ne

Or we migbt
and
8,

condense measures 2 and 3 into one, and also measures 7
tbe following melody

wben we sbould bave

^^m^^^^^^
In botb
cases, bowever, tbe
in

accompaniment would bave

to

be cbanged.
repetitions,
it

Measures 2 and 7 appear

measures 3 and 8 as transposed

and

it

was

tbis tbat

caused tbe lengtbening of tbe period.

But

must

be borne in mind, tbat we bave bere been merely showing

bow

a lengtbis

ened period can be transformed

into

one of eight bars, which
;

by no

means saying that
grave, if

it

should be so transformed
is

and Father Hatdn, out

of whose symphonies the above period

taken, would turn round in bis

we should

lay bands on his masterworks in tbis way.

Prom

this

old master the scholar can learn tbe best use of all tbe

means of

transfor-

mation, and
ti^n

bow one may thereby develop a

greiat

and beautiful eomposi

out of a simple melody.

Jjengthened period-formations veiy frequently occur in musical piecM

w concluding pas$ages.

For example

66
Alhgro non moUo.

GUIDE TO

•^

/

1

^

2

3

ffegg^^^aggi^^itg^l ^ ;S sas
i^=i=3:
-^--tuj:

^:«r
-K--

^'''-Jt'

«

6

fcJ3i3::d^d:ii

iz-fqz'-.^^Mqz

/ivLengthened. ^_/;\"°"S"' °"°"-

—0-

-0-

—0

0^

m^^^^^.
8

'^J)-'^

-'.z^- ~»^^.-

-rj-

P^i.

The connecting passages between
follows

periods do not properly beloJig to the

lengthening of the periods ; but lest the two should be confounded, here

an example.

^mm^^^^^^tcherz.

Allegro.

-^- -0-

-^-

mt

i4-i

-0.^.0 gJTf.
f-f-t

,-f:?=r-^.

Pif

=f^^'

iiE

^

^

g

WU8ICAL COMPOSITION.
0.0

Gl

m $mm^^^^^m ^^^^m S:S
8
Connecting passage.

-•-p.

iiiit

•i-"--^-

^^-0—»il

^ '»^

—T
JL
-

-f-0

•=f=rfE

3^^3E:
-ii

.«_

_»- _^

-^-

^^^l^^isg^l^l
ij^^jipili^^!^^
It

must be remarked, however, that the connecting passages should not

be too foreign to the motives of the periods, but should be developed
naturally and appropriately out of them.

•Periods of 12 measures are also formed
»r half of the eight-bar period,

by repeating the second phrast commonly with slight alterations ; thus
_,_

Waher.

^^_^_

-,

-»-•--•-•-»-• »-T-»-»-»-

-»-•--•-•-•-

-•-m-

-'-»~

-'-0-0-f'

a::Ei5I

without remarking that there are not 16.— .G8 GUIDE TO If the entire eighfrbar period be repeated in this way. -i—l«-T-i isEgii f 1 iprir^TC '^^m -wn: m^^^EE^ ^-? 4 V=^—i-^- ^m^^^^gggis 'P 5 f\\\ :p=i: :p=ri=*r Ie^^I^^ -^. and append the necessary obseirations. We give at the outset an example of this. -ft. The Shortening of Periods. ia^E^E Pf^-.-m. vre have a doubli period of 16 measures.- -^- -# «j. AUegro. which That is- the beginning of a well known Sonata many certainly have played. but •nly 15 measures. -^ #-^ fegiS?3F 'yf"-r=j^= ^p§^ ice i: i !SE of Clementi.

MUSICaL COMPOgiTION.
May
ft

69
wa»

it

not be a period lengthened out to

15

bars, like that whicii

udduced as an example from the Mozart Concerto, and^ therefore not
shortened one?

at all

And why

is

the eighth measure doubly numbered,
in brackets?^

l?here the figures 8

and 1 are placed
lies

In the eighth bar
iu
DO

the knot, or rather the solution of the knot.

As
in

Mozart we heard

at onoe the prolongation,

by which

the transition

another period was to be mediated, so we here see and hear
is

now

Clementi, very clearly, that with the 15th bar the period
closed,

formally

inasmuch as a sign of repetition

follows,

and upon

closer consider-

ation the feeling tells us, that with the eighth bar

a new period

begins.

The end
period
is

of the

first

period coincides with the beginning of the second
first

period in one and the same measure, so that the conclusion of the
as
it

were swallowed up by the beginning of the one that follows.

The forte in the eighth bar does not come in without reason ; it serves to make the beginning of a new period felt. Also the first measure of this
period
is

repeated with transposition in the third
is

;

and so too the second

measure in the fourth, which likewise

a sign of the entrance of a period.
full

These 15 measures, then, consist of a seven-bar period followed by a
period of eight bars.

If
the

now we

consider the conclusion of this Allegro,

we remark

precisely

same thing.

.

1

"^ •
=1:

a

^^
-.

s

4

^

§gg=J3=^

5-1

i^£=i=fi

pg^ Q!

6
cresc.

^

^EZE

^11

e| ^^

-

:

10

GUIDE TO

I i^^s
-*-•

^^^^mmm^
j

— —-y
'

2—?'

mt

i
1 to

P=i= ?L,ifiZn*

^
SF
first

This conclusion

is
;

a transformation of the

two periods
;

:

Measures

4 transposed

5 and 6 transposed and inverted

7 also transposed,
first

but containing only the principal of the figured notes in the

period

;

^d
the

so on.

Would we
first

see the

ground

of such abbreviation,

we have only

to bring

period into

its

complete eighfebar form, somewhat as follows

^^^^^^0^
^i
periods

&c.

This conclusion in the eighth measure breaks the connection of the two

by a

full stop,

which

is

quite

unwelcome

to the feeling.

the

sontrary,
flow.

by

the omission of the eighth bar, the whole acquires a liveliei
abbreviations occur very frequently, and therefore

— Such
M

we have
:

spoken of them at such length.
Abbreviations by the introduction of General Pauses.
Allegro,

Example

k leEi3^3=,.^ai^3:i:^3^^S !•¥.

m^m^^^^^^^^

p

MUSICAL. COMPOSITION.

71

m
III

^^:33=5 -^-^Here enters a new Period.

gl^jg^j^
passages so incomplete and interrupted by a general pause, the
it

feeling as

were

silently supplies

the wanting measures.

There

is

a

peculiar charm in such abbreviations, only they must not be used too
often.

The

listener is surprised, all the

more,

if after the

pause the piece
in dance

takes an unexpected turn.

Such pauses sometimes occur even

music.

Many
first

pieces, small

and

great, are introduced
little

by

short,

phrases.

These

are not shortened periods, but merely

introductions, after which the
similar to the lengthened

period commences.

They have something

conclusions, for they are a sort of lengthening of the beginning.

The

following examples need no explanation.

Allegro moderato.

i feiS^ESES!
/-.:tt-E
.0.

E^=

-f-

l»5Sa3
Moderato.

r_^tLT ^:=
1=

-M^-

.!:mm^ :E^E^E
.0

^S-^^ — g— g+s^^=lt-*-4-F^3=H=-FF=t

r

— —

00-

-e-, -S-:

&c.

r^ 3P^ ^

. both of the outsidi . the i=* first upper voice' of the first chord Vises b. Tonic c. Tonic a. of which the is the Dominant. In the following example at a. where the upper and lower voice. Cadences are the most decisive marks by which we can recognize tne end of a period. they do Dot give the ground-tone of the roiccs aie imperfect. In A minor. at b.) a. ^^1 At a.72 Galopp GUIDE TO illtegi:? mf 1 2 _ &c. at on the contrary. §»|£a^Ei^p^pigfffi|i r^-'i'^ett YIII.Seventh Chord. upper voice proceeds to the third of the Tonic. first i. It consists of The Full Cadence. Dominant e. 1.) In C major. at e. the Bass steps are imperfect. two chords. This kind of concluding sequence these the imperfect called a perfetit taH cadence. a. Cadences. e. either alone both at once. and at the same time the beginning of another period They are of four kinds. the upper voice of the chord descends a step into the Tonic of the second. the Trichord. which has seat upon the Tonic or key-note of a piece of music. and the second the Tonic Trichord. 0. throughout in is The Bass moves fiill its fundamental tones. one step into the Tonic of the second chord. or remains standing fifth on the of the same . i. the make other progressions. From cadences oi are to be distinguished. its e. Dominant. 0. (Dominant 9.

e. is is a deceptive cadence. of this expected chord another follows. Example mm^. when the Dominant-Trichord Example : upon any choid belong ^m 3. one in which our expectation deceived or betrayed. ing to the scale. 4. Used in the right place such cadences have a good but the composci tc must dfial sparingly with them. it After the Dominant chord the ear commonly expects the Tonic Trichord now if instead i. '^ vv^ ii &c. 73 pfplS^^lil^lpf ^i[ sgiimii^g^sg mi 2. m The Deceptive Cadenoe.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. effect . Here follow some examples of the most common way of are placed in bracketE. follows This arises. or they will lose their charm and cease be agreeable. EbE3 1 r =p=f The Flagal Cadenoe. is This the is one in which the Tonic Trichord preceded by the fnebtrd of Suhdominant. ising them. The expected chords [7] . The Half Cadenoe.

but flow into the next following. although thre« eadences occur in more three perfect cadences . and not unfrequently caden- middle of a period. I t~^ dolce. as many we have already seen in the abbreviations of periods ces occur in the .: 74 GUIDE TO ^^mMi^m^am ' ^E^mm^E^m^^m)-:^ ^^m0m(imm^m ^m^^^)^^mm But infallible sign for the distinguishing of periods \ the Cadences must not be regarded as an absolutely decisive and one from another . £ and what is S =P ml The second Wo feel that here are not three periods. Thus Allegro. a-F -f-n -^- P 9fcA 4- y£ i^i a=i ^mm^^^^^ t it. but only one. for periods have no cadences.

therefore is no but only a transposition. then it voice is silent. a musical thought can be transferred from one voice Such a repetition is called an Imitation. only in a few tones occasionally. if a section were to he left out. predominant motives. but only a one-voiced phrase. either was shown. IX. 75 so also is the (hird. the musical thought expressed in periods . pes. motives or parts of motive^ can be repeated. which have come under our notice. has the most infallible sign for the distinguishing of periods. It is one of the most interesting means of thematic is and every one who beginning to compose is advised to make himself as much at home in it as possible. it In speaking of the ways of transforming a melody. Imitation. The very first example out of Mozart's the Concerto will appear now in another light. which ) heard during the imitation. distinguish it called the Counter-phrase (Antithesis call the To from this we will passage to be imitated th« . There must be as many kinds of imitations as there are kinds of transformations. and imitation.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. when the imitation enters is no longer a two-voiced. and there are as many different entrances of imitations possible. does not become absolutely if silent. treatment. with their transformations. &c. or a second above or below. section is a transposed repetition of the frith fii-st . then. voices. At to the entrance of the imitation the voice which has to first uttered the thought be imitated. it would be disturbed. which indicate the fundaIf the first mental harmony. — It will be well now to re-examiue. and can neither be led astray by caden- nor by prolongations and abbreviations. So we find it in all whoever takes sufficient note of that. in spite of cadences and pauses. that literally. but continues be heard. as there are different intervals. third. the fourth becomes an iin«ltered repetition of the The whole period. will strike the eye more clearly. is The second voice. from this point of view. expansion. and feel the we shall unity of the whole period of 15 measures. &c. Thus the imitation can enter in unison. a third above or below. or trans- formed by transposition. onlj a little addition of three notes section If we do not reckon this additii n. shows unity of design it would have no complete meaning. the lengthened and shortened periods abeady given as examples. consist of If a piece of music two parts or to the other. contraction.

may a voice. GUIDE To The principal phr<ige we may repeat in another with its jUiitatidL i.76 trineipal phrase (Thesis. iu/itate a section.") be of various lengths motive. The is following example therefore no imitation. since the counter-phrase wanting. or even a whole period. f^^^ . e. is a phrase. .

nor are they essen- necessary. which Mmn that of b. At e. both voices com.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. I found below or above. in the octave rated voices. a. and/. EEg- 77 j^EEfEg^ 3? is Here too the lower voice fui nishes the principal phrase. ^^p§=pi mence together the is first motive of the upper voice imitated in the second motive of the lower one . I \ 1 ! E ^ W=i' i ^ i^¥ -T=?= ^^^ [7»] giitrgEJilfe/ ^fl^r^^^^^t^ . voices. iipi a:tt33E b. We The imitations are 2. where the upper becomes the lower. Such interchanges of ihe lower the upper. tially They still are not possible in all imitations. ana Jiffu- have already occurred among the examples of give here a few more examples of them. second motive of the upper as the cross-lines indicate. while the is first motive of the lower one imitated in the (ine.

78 GUIDE TO Ja^gP^ggjEp -*--»- P ^ i^^fi^^ §Sli^ ^ipi^^^g^ gsfel^isl! il4. ^^ tef ^ Also in the following l^isfe^ g^jEa^ii&ggf examples the imitations occur in the octave. o. —TT-T r ?t-i-T- irt- :fe tf: =t: • t S5>^ ii^ Ji iipff-irrip^i-i-KKjq: *-#:p P 3EE cji-2 ^E^S^y I -— yf-»—I-»-g=»-T-» 1[ .

S helow. if only by a single quarter note. 79 ^mm^^^ m 8. sounds as if a third voico made the imitation. is by which the fundamental harmony indicated. It is TH^t g^: all *-^-» rtr- =*=m m ^^^^m In the two following examples might seem as if mii i^i^ the imitations enter in the seventh these were transpositions. for the entrance of the imitation simultaneous with the close of the principal phrase. and no is imitations but this not the case.MUSICAL. two octaves lower.COMPOSITION. pgi?EJ^~^' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ -#-•- fc*z =F=Et: u W^ ^^i^ P:« 'I^' §fe i^^ggji^H^^^^^Si . The second imitation.

'-^^^'^:td:it A passage of sixths used for different fignral imitations in the (Seventh below. s$ &^^ #-?=> -p- m 1= n -JF=^ ^^ m & *.80 GUIDE TO ^EgJigaEgE^^Sl^^lgggf^^^P p^g^^^gggzg^^^ !^^ . W^El F^=rF- ji=lzt -ii—»-* P-JJ — L t^^ *r-^ :p=»: t=^ ^^ _ '^m^ . 11 Imitations also in tbe seventh below. i 12.

3-Hi-# i*-f7|t 81 ift=Li fflj t. ii^i^igi^ &=F^L%Eejs ^^^^^^ig^^^ ^l i^lg^p :f=S^ ^:-^gJ i^i5=^^Eigs=^^ipll SEgg^g^-^ ^^ 'i^ i::pi=p-^.MUSICAL COMPOSITION._^ -i«i».^ . ^piiSI 1=^:^^=._^!q:^ — r I T i i:|=^i=^=3=t i^^r*-M: — -•-*-^|# i==l3^ ^=S— ^ I ^- P^ ?*-gpi ii^E ^g:^^^ .:i^ p^? S :^^^3ig£g|^fe=itf^ Pz*-^^i ^= m^ i .

L_^> ?£^fE^i^^^ i^-i= ^.^it -•- tiSizSz f^-!l EJ. :t^ -F--^- ^^ P=? -2- ±^2E ^ ?— y- following are examples of imitations in the other intervals.E ig^ll^^.• -»-. ^m^m^ *— Second below. 25zfzri^l-q^ -*-•-# -•-. 7C=:zp t:= It I g^s:^ . Second above. ilgilS.. ^l^i^^^gn^ Third below. Fourth above. 'zE=^ -»-'-f-0- ^=^--5 -^--•-i^- 5^ 53EE -?-?^ . Third above.-J-x_^_.=^ .. -•zz:i= *--^_ -•—. .— GUIDE TO 13 Imitation in the seventh above^ --&-^- t==::.=BE=E fc' '^ 1? j -> ggggjEgTeEa -«•g: ' gstjE^i The TTnison.

i -f T=?- — ?- ^ m m m Foarth below.UUSICAL COMPOSITION. fa: 1—^—^— :—r-p::^- . Fifth above. iscS .

Imitation expanded ii-.2gi^i^={lg^^^i Imitation aaicmented. 1 r "1 — Imitation diminished. ^^^^t I 1=^: m^B Sixth below.: — — 81 GUIDE TO ^^^^^^^^^ i^^^^^^^igi^ ^ P=Mim Sixth above. that the imitations can be transformed. as well as the motives. -^-?- -137:33:3: -^ w :*^ s IZE -0=f^ i^i^i^ig it mi ^^ ^gi^ ±zS=J:. |ifgggg^g^S^^{^Q -•. Example Imitation contracted. I --^^=t _.-^- -#-1 ! -•---It -#-1 :-2—-I i gZgS^t^EEJlg ._^- I F m — a a It has been already said.

Imitation varied. Principal phrase.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. double periods can be formed. as in motives. at once. ^^^ ^—. Allegretto I I nan troppo. but several means of transformation imitations may be used may be formed.fj£^E^^^^E^gE^ i Imitation in the octave below.^^ ^ • ^ -#-' i^^i^^i^iiilgi^i Eg ggj:^^. :^^ 53E Et-li ^M . not only one. Imitation interrupted. ^^S4^m i^t^ -?—><- 913 4z 9=T- EE Since in imitations. rrmcjpai pnrase. and at the same time contracted. it follows that very variously mixed By imitations of larger principal phrases. and at the same time angmented.

i^i cEifE'+p=i|tip X t: ^^|3i^i3l^^^.86 GUIDE TO is Observe. hero the accompaniment of the pnncipal phrase ts CDunter-phrase to the imitation.itat. again used Imitations for may be employed Example : to great advantage also in piano-forte piecea four hands. i^i^ ffiiss iJ—5: I 3:=^ Prime. g^i{^=j^|g£ia^^fegi:J3g Secondo.-» ^ggrg^^^ legato. i^sf^pgrg^feigs^g Secondo. Ml 5.a 6* -o—*- m ^-e- fsafeiig^ ^ i-^^^i3i^^=^f i 3=?- gEgEig^gij g^^l^i|g|^ -t^tT r^i^irprsr iSEE?:2 Andante. j g^ Brfc :t=5: ^17—o—-z^:—-'-^— -i^- 1^ 4=. Moderato :t=p Prime. ^!^ @ m .

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.. Kcompaniment.zzr.§p ..iig. ^=^=^ i ^^^ V-- ipiiril^g^l^i -2- -f«— ^. „2 I ^ 4-- is^Pig.-*— If ilp s=^ ^m^^s^^ i^m^ij^ lps£^ ^ ^v.q- JSi^iEip It-^i i .-±ZM.-Ji?^-.E?Ef> -0-^ =trc -•-±± 1^^ ^j^ m s^p^ ^--^^g^ Me sentences. 87 WM -(«-•-f--t=t: Hzzt m 1 mm^m^ 33i'.. to -^- Counter-phrases should be written to the imitations in the following Also the other empty measures are which the beginning is to be filled out with given.-^.

88 GUIDE TO P^^^^S^^ 8. ^3l|=f| T(-» Jttjt±M fit •-"-••^-» H and imitate Let the scholar now invent If he does not succeed . principal phrases himself. all at once as he would wish. I §3eE? m 13 fc^ M ^^3^ 10.-== f^^^^PUg li^i i i them. be deterred further trials lead to the goal at . ^i^il^lf! -•^L If p^^^^ |^3gig!|H ^^^^^g^gi =1::=. let him not last. -l«-#- i^ i*—:* 2-i--r-!- «=^ g S igg^^S [3:i?= :iiS nil.

had the imitation. and sj'ce versa. «i9 had tlie same ir a similar move ment with the principal phrase the imitation BO if if the principal phrase had rising notes. Second below. may also enter in all possible intervals. m^^ [8»] . The inverted Example Unison. -^ =i=P £^ ^^ P » Third below. ztz. and the principal phrade had falling notes.^ Third above.— i^rf:Jit*::=i ^^5*33^'=^=^^^ Fourth above. Fonrth below. But an inverted or contrary movement may take place in the imitation. where the intervals tion make opposite steps. Inverted Imitation Thus far the imitation every time has .MUSICAL COMPOSITIOy. Second above. -» P- -^ T-. 3 !^S L^- I ??E^^ -#-!-•- ^rg^i^^i!. where the ascending notes of the principal phrase become descending ones in the imitation. as in the inversion imita- of motives. had the same .

90 GUIDE TO —^-^ : :t=iz g^il^E^sil ^ Fifth above. li * §^=^Efef£g.. •—^•=i3=^=^^=jd=?-5 i ^^S^M^ _^---^. E^ tt -W=i^=f:: ll =iT5 :3=Ji±=:=*= ^39^ Sixth below.^^ Sixth above. ^ ^-''-''k ^ »-*- -^ ^^ Fifth below. Z-. -3^ P The same.. .Q. i *i:n: -i^-.

-g-0-' -0- — FPC=:t^ u^=^ *rt ?^ m zT-rii: ?Ef^E: ml i Octave below. and 6.^fc?*-=^ 9iit-^xz ^=iP^igE^ himself. .MUSICAL COMPOSITION. 5. Etjfp=^^^=|^|^^EJ^ii|^^^3 §S^^3^^^Si^SS^^^ '^^^^^^^^^^^^ ± •— a^^:^gJI^^E^^}^E3£g * —y—*-?f ^i 1 The octave. :A^^-E=p:Lp--_r:::*=•I±:f=•:i=3:. 91 Seventh below. Imitations. 3 and 7 in tha of them in the lowei 3. enter in the fifth below. although also the expansions all Bemark and contractions at 4. and 7. imitations 1. fourth lelow and 4 in the sixth below. fluventh aboTo. Examples with mixed Mbderato. for inverted Let the scbolar here invent some principal phrases pnitation. . |i==^|^^s=|iJi^ii35^: Pi pzipz-i^ SHEEESS: £:=2=^ Octave above' 2Eg31g^ i"— pi» V-.I: :3H3 =1=4 l. 2.

and the figure i( Bizteenths only at 5. .. .:^ . are inverted and expanded. measure. ^E^^3^p^ J). •*-a-^-F-»- Im/ Slip} l&c..^3rtEE ^\ |Slii^J^:i^ .^. transposed and contracted and then the upper voice brings of the lower. instead At 4 too only one measure is imitated. -i.^.. in the figure in sixteenths again.i'r. t GUIDE TO :d=:^-: 'mi i :f=P=e= m *^ijiz ^. but inverted.J?r. =^=5^= most zA- ^^m imitations here.i=i fe i 3^3E The Alleg retto. for the part. :iggpi^i tn=^ ±=1: =5^= m^ e Imitations 1 and oieiely imitates the first ^i=gi^fe At 3 the lower voice j 2 require no explanation.D2 Allegro. L fefe..

^. I I --1= Sl^il^5|l ^r"f— . Allegro ciri spirito. #-!« ~»ft^ 93 »-0- .MUSICAL COMPOSITION.t£^r ^F?— gJBam i V IS 33= II ^.g^^:|g^5j^^j #-^-«-^ EfcfcS53S ^rt=n.

). the imitations in this Allegro are not marked. and the jffirsf measures of the part that follows with regard to Modulation. in composition first is strongly advised to prepare dances of variona and flowing melodies. In these he will remark. because and ear first will easily distinguish is them. canonical imitation. The peculiar rhythm of the National Dancei (Pclka. that some kinds of dances Lave a determinate number of measures. it is called a A richly and broadly executed a Canon. from which there must be no variation. Tyrolienne. Francaise. three. IB). and even more parts. Such are the following Banoes. ona must see into what keys he can pass. Polouaise. Canon or a Fugue. &c ) is also learned best from gO(d models . &c. note for note. If the voice imitated in short. as well as rhythwhich consist of two. or by the other. artistic Canon of a is the Fugue.— 94 : GUIDE TO Si^^ :fciS^=±=d=|=* The entrances of the eye • * * I p- m The composition . (Waltzes. therefore. but that in both cases the number of measures is alwajs an even number (8. Every beginner mical variety. measures. the Cotillon. Especial attention is required by the last measures of t part. &c ). (as the Ecossaise. is not a matter for a dilettante he will choose pieces which have easier forms. since he will thereby acquire singable The thing is to choose good models. the most thing in music. while others on the contrary may have more or fewer kinds. 12.

—joy. and yet the former are often nothing but a senseless humming. &c. Even in the speaking tone one may by his delivery mark the character and the intensity of feelings. A rich harvest of such examples is afforded ui In the examination of any example.. by adding to it passing and participant notes. to be sure.-. but all this may be done in a tones. delivers the theme. let the scholar first observe in what way the Melody alone expresses the text. but also the tempo. but which always expresa manly sorrow. the bass voice varied and with another harmony. would stand far above those of Mozart and Haydn. like a Hondo. which have a slower tempo. il can only be seen by examples. as well as harmonic by -notes. &c. which has cheerful. genial. The composer must of a piece of music. the following. that immediately follows.MUSICAL COMPOSITION. fiery. Marches. far livelier sense by the singing tone. In these there commonly prevails a warlike. The melody flgurated. As the scholar writes merely foJ himself or for good friends. for example. speaking tone. the upper voice another melody — — as accompaniment. •elect. as through the composition of Songs. Variations. terror. then the variations of Gelinek. in which the figuration is the richest. tenderness. the measure — and key must undergo changes." is tlje 95 best opportunity for praeti'. Song Uomposition. on the contrary these must be clearly heard in every variation. what chords will express the different emotions. rage. spirited character. . Heri. either Major or Minor. But the March requires more variety of harmony than the Dance. The variations also may h« prefaced by an Introduction. possess the faculty of expressing every emotion of the heart by That is what we call the character Through nothing can one acquire this faculty so soon and so well.e witli a view to acquiring facility in Pigf uration tlien>e to be varied must bavea simple and pleasing me(orf. a quicker tempo. soft. while the upper voice —But not only the tones. which is as it were a higher degree of the Hence it will not do to make a melody to a text without any regard to its contents. — the middle voices take different figures. in which there are allusions to the theme. and call forth the inward sympathy of those addressed by declamation. there comes usually an Adagio or Andante. while the latter are to be commended as models to every composer. it is felt even Id funeral marches. which he ma« espe<'lally by opera music. The process of varying might be. as we have already made acquaintance with when the subject of Periods was under consideration. complaining. No change must suppress the leading features of the principal melody. &c. cannot be taught. for instance. the composer most first enter into the sense and spirit of the poem. let him figurate his theme to his own heart's content. so that every variation may have another character^ Before the final variation. &c. the bass takes the theme. and also interpolated parcnt7i€ticpArases. before ho tin express by melody and harmony the feeling described by the words What tones. The only do not let him hold those variations to be the best. for if such pieces are to be judged by this measure. or it may consist merely of such short phrases. sorrow. else it will QOt admit of a sufflciently many-sided treatment.

he will be more strikingly convinced. that it has a great influence on the expression of the melody. Skill in this is acquired with most certainty by imitation of the various modes of accompaniment. a stiff and helpless accompaniment. by writing down upon note-lines under the text such fundamental chords. the following counsels may be given. i. then the accompaniment is prepared.96 GUIDE TO may see afterwards let him include the accompaniment.. Would he afterwards attempt to write pieces of this kind.) For his own work then let him choose a simple. be will succeed tbe better in hif •wn original attempt!. accent.— One who is so practised a singer. When the melody stands complete upon the paper. When way suggested. adhering to their rhythm. that he can hit the note well. Then the Key is to be determined. as in rhythm. and divided off. and in the learn this in small and less developed Rondino and Bondoletto. e. and work after them. by bars i. . as seem to be most fit. that he utes to the what this contrib- enhanced effect of the melody. and therefore they require a further elaboration. so much the easier. The beginner may best Sonatinas. suited to the kind of . in precisely same way that he did when he commenced on After he has written several Sonatinas in this way. &c. harmony. will find the writing down of a melody from hearing. these bars are so placed upon th e note-lines. And now The Kondo. e. to what kind of measure it is best the text is written under music lines. is frequently repeated. let him take the the easiest for models. according to ite lowest and its highest tone. according to the compass of the melody. For the plan or design of a Song composition. or from his own imagination. then the the contents of the text have been thoroughly thought over in the first thing is to consider. pattern melodies. Such fundamental chords give. Then if he supposes various changes in the accompaniment. as if the melody were to be at once written down there. which. ^as the same farm. pleasing theme. as we have already seen. after various interludes or parenthetic passages. according measure chosen. This is distinguished from other musical pieces by having a pn'ncijjaZ sentence.

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