Introduction to Programming Using Java

Version 5.0, December 2006
(Version 5.1.2, with minor updates and corrections, June 2010)

David J. Eck
Hobart and William Smith Colleges

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c 1996–2010, David J. Eck
David J. Eck (eck@hws.edu) Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Hobart and William Smith Colleges Geneva, NY 14456 This book can be distributed in unmodified form with no restrictions. Modified versions can be made and distributed provided they are distributed under the same license as the original. More specifically: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/2.5/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 543 Howard Street, 5th Floor, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. The web site for this book is: http://math.hws.edu/javanotes

Contents
Preface 1 The Mental Landscape 1.1 Machine Language . . . . . . 1.2 Asynchronous Events . . . . . 1.3 The Java Virtual Machine . . 1.4 Building Blocks of Programs 1.5 Object-oriented Programming 1.6 The Modern User Interface . 1.7 The Internet . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . xiii 1 1 3 6 8 9 12 14 17 19 19 22 23 24 27 28 29 32 34 36 37 38 39 41 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 48 50 50 51

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2 Names and Things 2.1 The Basic Java Application . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Variables and Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Types and Literals . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Variables in Programs . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Objects and Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Built-in Subroutines and Functions . . 2.3.2 Operations on Strings . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Introduction to Enums . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Text Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 A First Text Input Example . . . . . . 2.4.2 Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 TextIO Input Functions . . . . . . . . 2.4.4 Formatted Output . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.5 Introduction to File I/O . . . . . . . . 2.5 Details of Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Increment and Decrement . . . . . . . 2.5.3 Relational Operators . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.4 Boolean Operators . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.5 Conditional Operator . . . . . . . . . 2.5.6 Assignment Operators and Type-Casts 2.5.7 Type Conversion of Strings . . . . . . 2.5.8 Precedence Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Programming Environments . . . . . . . . . . iii

iv 2.6.1 Java Development Kit . . . . 2.6.2 Command Line Environment 2.6.3 IDEs and Eclipse . . . . . . . 2.6.4 The Problem of Packages . . Exercises for Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 52 54 56 58 60 61 61 61 62 64 66 66 69 72 73 74 76 78 79 80 83 85 87 89 89 89 91 95 96 96 97 98 99 100 100 101 102 104 111 114 117 117 119 119 121

3 Control 3.1 Blocks, Loops, and Branches . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 The Basic While Loop . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 The Basic If Statement . . . . . . . . 3.2 Algorithm Development . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Pseudocode and Stepwise Refinement 3.2.2 The 3N+1 Problem . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Coding, Testing, Debugging . . . . . . 3.3 while and do..while . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 The while Statement . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 The do..while Statement . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 break and continue . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 The for Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 For Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Example: Counting Divisors . . . . . . 3.4.3 Nested for Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Enums and for-each Loops . . . . . . . 3.5 The if Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 The Dangling else Problem . . . . . . 3.5.2 The if...else if Construction . . . . . . 3.5.3 If Statement Examples . . . . . . . . . 3.5.4 The Empty Statement . . . . . . . . . 3.6 The switch Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 The Basic switch Statement . . . . . . 3.6.2 Menus and switch Statements . . . . . 3.6.3 Enums in switch Statements . . . . . 3.6.4 Definite Assignment . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Exceptions and try..catch . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1 Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 try..catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.3 Exceptions in TextIO . . . . . . . . . 3.8 GUI Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Subroutines 4.1 Black Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Static Subroutines and Variables 4.2.1 Subroutine Definitions . . 4.2.2 Calling Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 4.2.3 Subroutines in Programs . . . . . 4.2.4 Member Variables . . . . . . . . 4.3 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Using Parameters . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Formal and Actual Parameters . 4.3.3 Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Subroutine Examples . . . . . . . 4.3.5 Throwing Exceptions . . . . . . . 4.3.6 Global and Local Variables . . . 4.4 Return Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 The return statement . . . . . . 4.4.2 Function Examples . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 3N+1 Revisited . . . . . . . . . . 4.5 APIs, Packages, and Javadoc . . . . . . 4.5.1 Toolboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Java’s Standard Packages . . . . 4.5.3 Using Classes from Packages . . 4.5.4 Javadoc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6 More on Program Design . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Preconditions and Postconditions 4.6.2 A Design Example . . . . . . . . 4.6.3 The Program . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 The Truth About Declarations . . . . . 4.7.1 Initialization in Declarations . . 4.7.2 Named Constants . . . . . . . . 4.7.3 Naming and Scope Rules . . . . Exercises for Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 122 124 127 127 128 129 130 132 133 134 134 135 138 140 140 141 142 144 146 146 147 151 153 154 155 158 161 164 165 165 166 167 172 173 173 174 179 179 180 181 182 183 185 185 187 191

5 Objects and Classes 5.1 Objects and Instance Methods . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Objects, Classes, and Instances . . . 5.1.2 Fundamentals of Objects . . . . . . 5.1.3 Getters and Setters . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Constructors and Object Initialization . . . 5.2.1 Initializing Instance Variables . . . . 5.2.2 Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Garbage Collection . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Programming with Objects . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Some Built-in Classes . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Wrapper Classes and Autoboxing . . 5.3.3 The class “Object” . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.4 Object-oriented Analysis and Design 5.4 Programming Example: Card, Hand, Deck . 5.4.1 Designing the classes . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 The Card Class . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Example: A Simple Card Game . . .

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vi 5.5 Inheritance and Polymorphism . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 Extending Existing Classes . . . . . . 5.5.2 Inheritance and Class Hierarchy . . . 5.5.3 Example: Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.4 Polymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.5 Abstract Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 this and super . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 The Special Variable this . . . . . . . 5.6.2 The Special Variable super . . . . . . 5.6.3 Constructors in Subclasses . . . . . . 5.7 Interfaces, Nested Classes, and Other Details 5.7.1 Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.2 Nested Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.3 Anonymous Inner Classes . . . . . . . 5.7.4 Mixing Static and Non-static . . . . . 5.7.5 Static Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7.6 Enums as Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Introduction to GUI Programming 6.1 The Basic GUI Application . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 JFrame and JPanel . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 Components and Layout . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Events and Listeners . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Applets and HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 JApplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Reusing Your JPanels . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Basic HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Applets on Web Pages . . . . . . . . 6.3 Graphics and Painting . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.4 Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.5 Graphics2D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.6 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Mouse Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Event Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.2 MouseEvent and MouseListener . . . 6.4.3 Mouse Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 6.4.4 MouseMotionListeners and Dragging 6.4.5 Anonymous Event Handlers . . . . . 6.5 Timer and Keyboard Events . . . . . . . . . 6.5.1 Timers and Animation . . . . . . . . 6.5.2 Keyboard Events . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5.3 Focus Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 194 196 197 200 202 205 205 206 208 209 209 211 214 214 216 217 220 223 225 225 227 229 230 231 231 233 235 238 240 242 243 244 245 246 247 251 252 253 256 258 262 264 264 266 269

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CONTENTS 6.5.4 State Machines . . . . . . . 6.6 Basic Components . . . . . . . . . 6.6.1 JButton . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.2 JLabel . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6.3 JCheckBox . . . . . . . . . 6.6.4 JTextField and JTextArea . 6.6.5 JComboBox . . . . . . . . . 6.6.6 JSlider . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7 Basic Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.1 Basic Layout Managers . . 6.7.2 Borders . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.3 SliderAndComboBoxDemo 6.7.4 A Simple Calculator . . . . 6.7.5 Using a null Layout . . . . 6.7.6 A Little Card Game . . . . 6.8 Menus and Dialogs . . . . . . . . . 6.8.1 Menus and Menubars . . . 6.8.2 Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.3 Fine Points of Frames . . . 6.8.4 Creating Jar Files . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Arrays 7.1 Creating and Using Arrays . . . . 7.1.1 Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.2 Using Arrays . . . . . . . . 7.1.3 Array Initialization . . . . . 7.2 Programming With Arrays . . . . 7.2.1 Arrays and for Loops . . . 7.2.2 Arrays and for-each Loops . 7.2.3 Array Types in Subroutines 7.2.4 Random Access . . . . . . . 7.2.5 Arrays of Objects . . . . . . 7.2.6 Variable Arity Methods . . 7.3 Dynamic Arrays and ArrayLists . . 7.3.1 Partially Full Arrays . . . . 7.3.2 Dynamic Arrays . . . . . . 7.3.3 ArrrayLists . . . . . . . . . 7.3.4 Parameterized Types . . . . 7.3.5 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Searching and Sorting . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Searching . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Association Lists . . . . . . 7.4.3 Insertion Sort . . . . . . . . 7.4.4 Selection Sort . . . . . . . . 7.4.5 Unsorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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viii 7.5 Multi-dimensional Arrays . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Creating Two-dimensional Arrays 7.5.2 Using Two-dimensional Arrays . . 7.5.3 Example: Checkers . . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 352 354 357 364 370

8 Correctness and Robustness 8.1 Introduction to Correctness and Robustness . 8.1.1 Horror Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Java to the Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.3 Problems Remain in Java . . . . . . . 8.2 Writing Correct Programs . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Provably Correct Programs . . . . . . 8.2.2 Robust Handling of Input . . . . . . . 8.3 Exceptions and try..catch . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Exceptions and Exception Classes . . 8.3.2 The try Statement . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.3 Throwing Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.4 Mandatory Exception Handling . . . . 8.3.5 Programming with Exceptions . . . . 8.4 Assertions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Introduction to Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.1 Creating and Running Threads . . . . 8.5.2 Operations on Threads . . . . . . . . . 8.5.3 Mutual Exclusion with “synchronized” 8.5.4 Wait and Notify . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5.5 Volatile Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Analysis of Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Linked Data Structures and Recursion 9.1 Recursion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.1 Recursive Binary Search . . . . 9.1.2 Towers of Hanoi . . . . . . . . 9.1.3 A Recursive Sorting Algorithm 9.1.4 Blob Counting . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Linked Data Structures . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 Recursive Linking . . . . . . . 9.2.2 Linked Lists . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3 Basic Linked List Processing . 9.2.4 Inserting into a Linked List . . 9.2.5 Deleting from a Linked List . . 9.3 Stacks, Queues, and ADTs . . . . . . . 9.3.1 Stacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.2 Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3.3 Postfix Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

373 . 373 . 374 . 375 . 377 . 378 . 378 . 381 . 385 . 386 . 388 . 390 . 392 . 393 . 396 . 399 . 400 . 404 . 405 . 408 . 412 . 413 . 419 . 424 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 427 428 430 432 435 439 439 441 441 445 447 448 449 452 456

CONTENTS 9.4 Binary Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Tree Traversal . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Binary Sort Trees . . . . . . 9.4.3 Expression Trees . . . . . . . 9.5 A Simple Recursive Descent Parser . 9.5.1 Backus-Naur Form . . . . . . 9.5.2 Recursive Descent Parsing . . 9.5.3 Building an Expression Tree . Exercises for Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix 459 460 462 467 470 470 472 476 479 482 485 485 486 487 488 489 491 492 495 496 496 499 500 503 504 505 506 509 511 511 512 515 517 519 520 521 523 527 531 535

10 Generic Programming and Collection Classes 10.1 Generic Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Generic Programming in Smalltalk . . . 10.1.2 Generic Programming in C++ . . . . . 10.1.3 Generic Programming in Java . . . . . . 10.1.4 The Java Collection Framework . . . . . 10.1.5 Iterators and for-each Loops . . . . . . . 10.1.6 Equality and Comparison . . . . . . . . 10.1.7 Generics and Wrapper Classes . . . . . 10.2 Lists and Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 ArrayList and LinkedList . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Sorting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.3 TreeSet and HashSet . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.4 EnumSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.1 The Map Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3.2 Views, SubSets, and SubMaps . . . . . 10.3.3 Hash Tables and Hash Codes . . . . . . 10.4 Programming with the Collection Framework . 10.4.1 Symbol Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.2 Sets Inside a Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.3 Using a Comparator . . . . . . . . . . . 10.4.4 Word Counting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5 Writing Generic Classes and Methods . . . . . 10.5.1 Simple Generic Classes . . . . . . . . . . 10.5.2 Simple Generic Methods . . . . . . . . . 10.5.3 Type Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.5.4 Bounded Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Files and Networking 11.1 Streams, Readers, and Writers . . . 11.1.1 Character and Byte Streams 11.1.2 PrintWriter . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.3 Data Streams . . . . . . . . . 11.1.4 Reading Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

537 . 537 . 537 . 539 . 540 . 541

x 11.1.5 The Scanner Class . . . . . . . . 11.1.6 Serialized Object I/O . . . . . . 11.2 Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Reading and Writing Files . . . . 11.2.2 Files and Directories . . . . . . . 11.2.3 File Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Programming With Files . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1 Copying a File . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2 Persistent Data . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.3 Files in GUI Programs . . . . . . 11.3.4 Storing Objects in Files . . . . . 11.4 Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.1 URLs and URLConnections . . . 11.4.2 TCP/IP and Client/Server . . . 11.4.3 Sockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.4 A Trivial Client/Server . . . . . 11.4.5 A Simple Network Chat . . . . . 11.5 Network Programming and Threads . . 11.5.1 A Threaded GUI Chat Program. 11.5.2 A Multithreaded Server . . . . . 11.5.3 Distributed Computing . . . . . 11.6 A Brief Introduction to XML . . . . . . 11.6.1 Basic XML Syntax . . . . . . . . 11.6.2 XMLEncoder and XMLDecoder 11.6.3 Working With the DOM . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Advanced GUI Programming 12.1 Images and Resources . . . . . . . 12.1.1 Images and BufferedImages 12.1.2 Working With Pixels . . . . 12.1.3 Resources . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.4 Cursors and Icons . . . . . 12.1.5 Image File I/O . . . . . . . 12.2 Fancier Graphics . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Measuring Text . . . . . . . 12.2.2 Transparency . . . . . . . . 12.2.3 Antialiasing . . . . . . . . . 12.2.4 Strokes and Paints . . . . . 12.2.5 Transforms . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Actions and Buttons . . . . . . . . 12.3.1 Action and AbstractAction 12.3.2 Icons on Buttons . . . . . . 12.3.3 Radio Buttons . . . . . . . 12.3.4 Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.5 Keyboard Accelerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 545 546 546 549 552 554 555 557 559 561 568 569 571 572 574 578 581 582 585 588 596 596 598 600 606 609

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611 . 611 . 611 . 617 . 620 . 621 . 622 . 624 . 625 . 627 . 629 . 630 . 633 . 636 . 636 . 638 . 639 . 642 . 643

CONTENTS 12.3.6 HTML on Buttons . . . . 12.4 Complex Components and MVC 12.4.1 Model-View-Controller . . 12.4.2 Lists and ListModels . . . 12.4.3 Tables and TableModels . 12.4.4 Documents and Editors . 12.4.5 Custom Components . . . 12.5 Finishing Touches . . . . . . . . 12.5.1 The Mandelbrot Set . . . 12.5.2 Design of the Program . . 12.5.3 Internationalization . . . 12.5.4 Events, Events, Events . . 12.5.5 Custom Dialogs . . . . . . 12.5.6 Preferences . . . . . . . . Exercises for Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . Quiz on Chapter 12 . . . . . . . . . . Appendix: Source Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi 645 646 646 647 650 654 655 660 660 662 664 666 668 669 671 673 675

xii

CONTENTS

Preface
Introduction to Programming Using Java is a free introductory computer programming textbook that uses Java as the language of instruction. It is suitable for use in an introductory programming course and for people who are trying to learn programming on their own. There are no prerequisites beyond a general familiarity with the ideas of computers and programs. There is enough material for a full year of college-level programming. Chapters 1 through 7 can be used as a textbook in a one-semester college-level course or in a year-long high school course. This version of the book covers “Java 5.0”. It also works well with later versions of Java. (While Java 5.0 introduced major new features that need to be covered in an introductory programming course, Java 6.0 and the upcoming Java 7.0 do not.) Many of the examples in the book use features that were not present before Java 5.0. Note that Java applets appear throughout the pages of the on-line version of this book. Many of those applets will be nonfunctional in Web browsers that do not support Java 5.0. The home web site for this book is http://math.hws.edu/javanotes/. The page at that address contains links for downloading a copy of the web site and for downloading a PDF version of the book.
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In style, this is a textbook rather than a tutorial. That is, it concentrates on explaining concepts rather than giving step-by-step how-to-do-it guides. I have tried to use a conversational writing style that might be closer to classroom lecture than to a typical textbook. You’ll find programming exercises at the end of most chapters, and you will find a detailed solution for each exercise, with the sort of discussion that I would give if I presented the solution in class. (Solutions to the exercises can be found in the on-line version only.) I strongly advise that you read the exercise solutions if you want to get the most out of this book. This is certainly not a Java reference book, and it is not even close to a comprehensive survey of all the features of Java. It is not written as a quick introduction to Java for people who already know another programming language. Instead, it is directed mainly towards people who are learning programming for the first time, and it is as much about general programming concepts as it is about Java in particular. I believe that Introduction to Programming using Java is fully competitive with the conventionally published, printed programming textbooks that are available on the market. (Well, all right, I’ll confess that I think it’s better.) There are several approaches to teaching Java. One approach uses graphical user interface programming from the very beginning. Some people believe that object oriented programming should also be emphasized from the very beginning. This is not the approach that I take. The approach that I favor starts with the more basic building blocks of programming and builds from there. After an introductory chapter, I cover procedural programming in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. Object-oriented programming is introduced in Chapter 5. Chapters 6 covers the closely related topic of event-oriented programming and graphical user interfaces. Arrays are covered in xiii

0 have been corrected.edu/javanotes/. Finally. The non-standard TextIO class that I use for input in the first half of the book has been rewritten to support formatted output. ∗ ∗ ∗ Major changes were made for the fifth edition of this book.edu/eck/cs124/javanotes4/ (Covers Java 1.) • Third edition: http://math. I have also added some file I/O capabilities to this class to make it possible to cover some examples that use files early in the book.0 are also covered.) Introduction to Programming using Java is free. The “for-each” loop is covered and is used extensively. Chapter 8 marks a turning point in the book.hws. In previous editions. although they are not covered in their full complexity.) • Second edition: http://math.0. almost as an afterthought. A number of typographical and coding errors in Version 5. the appearance of the book has been improved. much of it has been rewritten. Also.edu/eck/cs124/javanotes3/ (Covers Java 1. I emphasized applets. Static import is covered briefly. Almost all code examples have been revised to use Javadoc-style comments.1. and almost all examples are presented as stand-alone applications.xiv Preface Chapter 7. the emphasis on applets is gone.edu/eck/cs124/javanotes5/ (Covers Java 5. applet versions of each example are still presented on the web pages of the on-line version of the book. Chapter 8 is mostly about writing robust and correct programs.4. ∗ ∗ ∗ The latest complete edition of Introduction to Programming using Java is always available on line at http://math.0. as are variable arity methods. Chapter 11 is about files and networking. but it is not in the public domain.edu/eck/cs124/javanotes2/ (Covers Java 1. and the Scanner class is covered (though not until Chapter 11). In the fifth edition. and a significant amount of new material has been added. As of Version 5. Aside from the changes in content.) • Fifth edition: http://math. Formatted output is also used extensively. and there have been several editions since then. The first version of the book was written in 1996. but it also has a section on parallel processing and threads. For the first time.hws. especially the appearance of the PDF version.hws.1.6 has been updated to be consistent with more recent versions of Eclipse.0. However. the discussion of the Eclipse IDE in Section 2.hws. The coverage of graphical user interface programming has been reorganized.edu/eck/cs124/javanotes1/ (Covers Java 1. All editions are archived at the following Web addresses: • First edition: http://math. including the Java Collection Framework.1 of this book is a minor update of Version 5. Chapters 9 and 10 cover recursion and data structures.hws.0. Other new features in Java 5. and new material has been added. moving beyond the fundamental ideas of programming to cover more advanced topics.) • Fourth edition: http://math.hws. Chapter 12 returns to the topic of graphical user interface programming to cover some of Java’s more advanced capabilities. Javadoc comments are covered for the first time in the fifth edition. Version 5.0. Stand-alone GUI applications were covered at the end. the quality of the PDF approaches that of conventional textbooks. Perhaps the most significant change is the use of parameterized types in the chapter on generic programming. Parameterized types—Java’s version of templates—were the most eagerly anticipated new feature in Java 5. The chapter on advanced GUI programming has been moved to the end. including coverage of some of the features of Graphics2D. Enumerated types are introduced. it is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share .

edu/eck/cs124/downloads/javanotes5-full-source. and therefore are not very cleanly written.hws. To produce the PDF version. I do appreciate hearing from people who are using or distributing my work. Java source code files. This license allows redistribution and modification under certain terms.5 License. ∗ ∗ ∗ Professor David J. visit http://creativecommons. Furthermore. To view a copy of this license. USA. it requires a fair amount of expertise to use them effectively. I have made the complete source files available for download at the following address: http://math. provided that attribution to the author is given. unmodified copies of this book. as long as they meet the requirements of the license. However. This includes translations to other languages. the XML is processed into a form that can be used by the TeX typesetting program. New York 14456.edu/eck/ . San Francisco.Preface xv Alike 2. Eck Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Hobart and William Smith Colleges Geneva. you can: • Post an unmodified copy of the on-line version on your own Web site (including the parts that list the author and state the license under which it is distributed!). the source includes DTDs.zip These files were not originally meant for publication. For example. and the modified copies are distributed under the same license as the original.5/ or send a letter to Creative Commons.hws. While it is not actually required by the license. and a couple of scripts that are used in processing. 543 Howard Street. 5th Floor. I have had several requests for the sources and have made them available on an “as-is” basis. California. a TeX macro file. ∗ ∗ ∗ A technical note on production: The on-line and PDF versions of this book are created from a single source. • Give away or sell printed. image files. USA Email: eck@hws. which is written largely in XML. XSLT transformations. In addition to XML files. 94105. For more information about the source and how they are used see the README file from the source download.org/licenses/bysa/2. • Make modified copies of the complete book or parts of it and post them on the web or otherwise distribute them. the modifications are clearly noted.edu WWW: http://math.

xvi Preface .

if you want—of the computer is a single component that does the actual computing. networked computing environment for which Java is designed. In addition to the program. it would be impossible for you to learn all the details from the brief expositions in this chapter.) When the CPU executes a program. A computer is built to carry out instructions that are written in a very simple type of language called machine language. The same is true for an intellectual journey.1 A The Fetch and Execute Cycle: Machine Language computer is a complex system consisting of many different components. you’ll need to know the basics of what computers are and how they work. Main memory consists of a sequence of locations. such as learning to write computer programs. or CPU. Each type of computer has its own machine language. When the CPU needs to access the program instruction or data in a particular location. in preparation for the rest of the book. In a modern desktop computer.) Concentrate on learning enough about the big ideas to orient yourself. the CPU is a single “chip” on the order of one square inch in size. You’ll want to have some idea of what a computer program is and how one is created. A program is simply a list of unambiguous instructions meant to be followed mechanically by a computer. you’ll want to know something about that language in particular and about the modern. Most of what is covered in this chapter will be covered in much greater detail later in the book. it’s a good idea to have a mental map of the terrain you’ll be passing through. In this case. As you read this chapter. the memory responds by sending back the data contained in the specified 1 . memory can also hold data that is being used or processed by the program. and the sequence number of a location is called its address. and the computer can directly execute a program only if the program is expressed in that language. 1. (It can execute programs written in other languages if they are first translated into machine language. But at the heart—or the brain. (In fact. it sends the address of that information as a signal to the memory. This is the Central Processing Unit. An address provides a way of picking out one particular piece of information from among the millions stored in memory. The job of the CPU is to execute programs. Since you will be writing programs in the Java programming language. that program is stored in the computer’s main memory (also called the RAM or random access memory). don’t worry if you can’t understand everything in detail.Chapter 1 Overview: The Mental Landscape When you begin a journey. These locations are numbered.

these switches turn each other on or off in a pattern determined both by the way they are wired together and by the program that the computer is executing. A computer can work directly with binary numbers because switches can readily represent such numbers: Turn the switch on to represent a one. Here is a schematic view of this first-stage understanding of the computer: . fetch another instruction. which will be covered in the next section. that instruction. The PC stores the address of the next instruction that the CPU should execute. The CPU fetches machine language instructions from memory one after another and executes them. So. When a machine language instruction is loaded into the CPU. These are encoded as binary numbers. The CPU is built to respond to this pattern by executing the instruction it encodes. the number in the PC is updated to indicate the instruction that is to be executed in the next cycle. but there are a few basic things you should know. On the level of machine language. complete in all details. without thinking about or understanding what it does—and therefore the program it executes must be perfect. execute it. Each particular sequence encodes some particular instruction. a machine language instruction is just a sequence of zeros and ones. The CPU uses one of these registers—the program counter . The CPU can also store information in memory by specifying the information to be stored and the address of the location where it is to be stored.2 CHAPTER 1. execute it. the CPU checks the PC to see which instruction it should fetch. The details of the fetch-and-execute cycle are not terribly important. So. but not always. you should understand this much about how computers work: Main memory holds machine language programs and data. turn it off to represent a zero. The CPU executes a program that is stored as a sequence of machine language instructions in main memory. A computer is a machine built of millions of tiny switches called transistors. This is not an easy concept. which have the property that they can be wired together in such a way that an output from one switch can turn another switch on or off. The CPU contains a few internal registers. this is just the instruction that sequentially follows the current instruction in the program. this is all that the CPU ever does. an instruction from memory and then carrying out. (Usually. the operation of the CPU is fairly straightforward (although it is very complicated in detail). or PC—to keep track of where it is in the program it is executing. Machine language instructions are stored in memory as patterns of switches turned on or off. zero and one. Machine language instructions are expressed as binary numbers. or executing . This process—fetch an instruction. which are small memory units capable of holding a single number or machine language instruction. and unambiguous because the CPU can do nothing but execute it exactly as written. With one exception. At the beginning of each fetch-and-execute cycle. As a computer computes. and so on forever—is called the fetch-and-execute cycle. The data that the computer manipulates is also encoded as binary numbers. A binary number is made up of just two possible digits. all that happens is that certain switches are turned on or off in the pattern that encodes that particular instruction. During the course of the fetch-and-execute cycle. or fetching . It does this by repeatedly reading. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE location.) ∗ ∗ ∗ A computer executes machine language programs mechanically—that is without understanding them or thinking about them—simply because of the way it is physically put together. it does this simply because of the way all the other switches in the CPU are wired together. It does this mechanically.

• A network interface that allows the computer to communicate with other computers that are connected to it on a network. there is a device driver . which consists of software that the CPU executes when it has to deal with the device. However. The CPU can only do this by executing machine language instructions (which is all it can do. The list of devices is entirely open ended. Somehow the CPU has to communicate with and control all these devices.) • A keyboard and mouse for user input. and installing the device driver software.2 Asynchronous Events: Polling Loops and Interrupts The CPU spends almost all of its time fetching instructions from memory and executing them. but programs have to be loaded from disk into main memory before they can actually be executed. period). and holds it only as long as the power is turned on. . the actual physical device would be useless. A hard disk is necessary for permanent storage of larger amounts of information. and computer systems are built so that they can easily be expanded by adding new devices. • A modem that allows the computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines. Without the device driver. since the CPU would not be able to communicate with it. • A scanner that converts images into coded binary numbers that can be stored and manipulated on the computer. ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS 3 Memory 00101110 11010011 Data to memory 01010011 00010000 10111111 Data from memory 10100110 11101001 00000111 10100110 Address for 00010001 reading/writing data 00111110 (Location 0) (Location 1) (Location 2) (Location 3) CPU Program counter: 1011100001 (Location 10) 1. the CPU and main memory are only two out of many components in a real computer system. (Note that main memory holds only a comparatively small amount of information.1.2. A complete system contains other devices such as: • A hard disk for storing programs and data files. The way this works is that for each device in a system. Installing a new device on a system generally has two steps: plugging the device physically into the computer. • A monitor and printer which can be used to display the computer’s output.

Unfortunately. An address directs the data to a particular device and perhaps to a particular register or location within that device.. is for the CPU to keep checking for incoming data over and over. Network Cable Now.4 CHAPTER 1. This information consists of the contents of important internal registers such as the program counter. when you press a key on your computer keyboard. it is also very inefficient. Control signals can be used. For example.. the CPU saves enough information about what it is currently doing so that it can return to the same state later. How does the CPU know that the data is there? One simple idea. Once it has handled the interrupt. A bus is a set of wires that carry various sorts of information between the devices connected to those wires. interrupts are often used instead of polling. Whenever it finds data. A fairly simple computer system might be organized like this: CPU Memory Empty Slot for future Expansion Input/ Output Controller Data bus Address bus Control bus Video Controller and Monitor Keyboard Network Interface . and then returning to the task it was performing before you pressed the key. it processes it. which turns out to be not very satisfactory. .. To avoid this inefficiency. An interrupt is a signal sent by another device to the CPU. mouse. Those instructions make up an interrupt handler that does the processing necessary to respond to the interrupt. The CPU is built so that when that wire is turned on. for example. since the CPU polls the input devices continually to see whether they have any input data to report. Again. by one device to alert another that data is available for it on the data bus. The wires carry data. you should understand that this is a purely mechanical process: A device signals an interrupt simply by turning on a wire. processing it. and control signals. The CPU responds to this signal by interrupting what it is doing. The CPU can waste an awful lot of time just waiting for input. addresses. devices such as keyboard. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE ∗ ∗ ∗ A computer system consisting of many devices is typically organized by connecting those devices to one or more busses. and network interface can produce input that needs to be processed by the CPU. This method is called polling .) At the end of . a keyboard interrupt is sent to the CPU. although polling is very simple. (This interrupt handler is part of the device driver software for the device that signalled the interrupt. The CPU responds to an interrupt signal by putting aside whatever it is doing in order to respond to the interrupt. Then the CPU jumps to some predetermined memory location and begins executing the instructions stored there.. it returns to what it was doing before the interrupt occurred. reading the key that you pressed.

Ordinary users. Each of the individual tasks that the CPU is working on is called a thread . things happen in a predetermined order. an interrupt will “wake up” the thread so that it can continue running. Data on the disk has to be copied into memory before it can be accessed. When the CPU needs data from the disk. Since the CPU is so fast. Interrupts allow the CPU to deal with asynchronous events. • The thread might use up its allotted slice of time and be suspended to allow other threads to run. But a modern personal computer with just a single user also uses multitasking. For example. such as 100 times per second. devoting a fraction of a second to each user in turn. The CPU can access data directly only if it is in main memory. those that can are said to use preemptive multitasking . it might as well spend its time polling for input or waiting for disk drive operations to complete. In fact.) At any given time. (Or a process. it sends a signal to the disk drive telling it to locate the data and get it ready. but they are not important here. it does that by restoring its previously saved state. you might have noticed that all this only makes sense if the CPU actually has several tasks to perform. consider what happens when the CPU needs to access data that is stored on the hard disk. there are technical differences between threads and processes. instead of just waiting the long and unpredictalble amount of time that the disk drive will take to do this. can ignore threads and . If it has nothing better to do. have no need to deal with interrupts and interrupt handlers. most users. To do preemptive multitasking. Unfortunately. When the disk drive has the data ready. to give other threads a chance to run. • The thread might have to wait for some asynchronous event to occur. The interrupt handler can then read the requested data. the CPU has a chance to switch from one thread to another. everything that happens is “synchronized” with everything else. When a timer interrupt occurs. Not all computers can “forcibly” suspend a thread in this way.1. the thread is said to be blocked . and other threads have a chance to run. For example. The CPU will continue running the same thread until one of several things happens: • The thread might voluntarily yield control.” that is. the CPU goes on with some other task. When the event occurs.) Then. a computer needs a special timer device that generates an interrupt at regular intervals. or it might wait for the user to press a key. the details of how the computer manages to get all those tasks done are not important to them. it sends an interrupt signal to the CPU. the thread might request some data from the disk drive. In the regular fetch-andexecute cycle. at unpredictable times. only one thread can actually be executed by a CPU. the disk drive is extremely slow.2. it can quickly switch its attention from one user to another. As another example of how interrupts are used. the user might be typing a paper while a clock is continuously displaying the time and a file is being downloaded over the network. Some computers can be used by several people at once. This application of multitasking is called timesharing . under the control of a regular program. (This signal is sent synchronously. and many programmers. ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS 5 the interrupt handler is an instruction that tells the CPU to jump back to what it was doing. ∗ ∗ ∗ Now. They can concentrate on the different tasks or threads that they want the computer to perform. on the scale of speed at which the CPU operates. While it is waiting. whether the thread that is currently running likes it or not. Interrupts make it possible for the CPU to deal efficiently with events that happen “asynchronously. and indeed ordinary programmers. All modern computers use multitasking to perform several tasks at once.

Indeed. with a kind of fetch-and-execute cycle. interpreters have another purpose: they can let you use a machine-language program meant for one type of computer on a completely different type of computer. Windows XP. Pascal. Such “event-driven programming” has a very different feel from the more traditional straight-through. including programs written for Windows. but we will return to threads and events later in the text. are written in high-level programming languages such as Java. Common operating systems include Linux. which is still used for programming individual tasks. such as word processors and World Wide Web browsers. The operating system is the basic. Other programs. you can run any PC program. For example. The problem is that Virtual PC executes several Macintosh machine-language instructions for Machine . If you run Virtual PC on your Macintosh. using a different compiler. into the appropriate machine language. the software that does all the interrupt handling and the communication with the user and with hardware devices is called the operating system . If the program is to run on another type of computer it has to be re-translated. are called asynchronously when specified events occur.6 CHAPTER 1. which translates it instruction-by-instruction. or C++. In order to execute a program. We will begin with the more traditional type of programming. and the Macintosh OS. are dependent upon the operating system. which translates the program all at once. While programmers don’t actually deal with interrupts directly. An interpreter is a program that acts much like a CPU.3 The Java Virtual Machine language consists of very simple instructions that can be executed directly by the CPU of a computer. (Unfortunately. but of course it can only be run on one type of computer (since each type of computer has its own individual machine language). the interpreter runs in a loop in which it repeatedly reads one instruction from the program. A program written in a high-level language cannot be run directly on any computer. which. synchronous programming. DOS. However. Almost all programs. For example. Windows 2000. you can use an interpreter . There is an alternative to compiling a high-level language program. though. the machine-language program can be run any number of times. ∗ ∗ ∗ By the way. 1. Once the translation is done. One use of interpreters is to execute high-level language programs. there is a program called “Virtual PC” that runs on Macintosh computers. they do often find themselves writing event handlers. threads are built into the Java programming language as a fundamental programming concept. a PC program will run much more slowly than it would on an actual IBM clone. First. Instead of using a compiler. like interrupt handlers. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE multitasking altogether. the programming language Lisp is usually executed by an interpreter rather than a compiler. A compiler takes a high-level-language program and translates it into an executable machine-language program. This translation can be done by a program called a compiler . However. Just as important in Java and in modern programming in general is the basic concept of asynchronous events. as necessary. essential software without which a computer would not be able to function. and then performs the appropriate machine-language commands to do so. Virtual PC is an interpreter that executes machine-language programs written for IBM-PC-clone computers. it has to be translated into machine language. threads have become increasingly important as computers have become more powerful and as they have begun to make more use of multitasking. decides what is necessary to carry out that instruction.

it is the combination of Java and Java bytecode that is platform-independent. However. THE JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE 7 each PC machine-language instruction in the program it is interpreting. I should note that there is no necessary connection between Java and Java bytecode. Such an interpreter simulates the Java virtual machine in the same way that Virtual PC simulates a PC computer. that computer can run any compiled Java program. The machine language for the Java virtual machine is called Java bytecode. r r r e e e t t t s S e e e r w r r x O p p o p u r r r d n c i e e e n a t t t i L n n n M r I I I W r o r f a a a o v v v o f f a a a J J J e m d a a o r v c g a e o t J r y P B r e l i p m o C m a a r v g a o J r P Why. Furthermore. And programs written in other languages could be compiled into Java bytecode. rather than a virtual computer. The interpreter can protect you from potentially dangerous actions on the part of that program. You are really running the interpreter. which runs the downloaded program indirectly. However. a different Jave bytecode interpreter is needed for each type of computer. simple program.3. but once a computer has a Java bytecode interpreter. . First of all. a complex high-level language. on the other hand. one of the main selling points of Java is that it can actually be used on any computer. This so-called “virtual” computer is known as the Java virtual machine. and networkcompatible while allowing you to program in a modern high-level object-oriented language. All that the computer needs is an interpreter for Java bytecode. And the same Java bytecode program can be run on any computer that has such an interpreter. A program written in Java could certainly be compiled into the machine language of a real computer. but it is a machine language for a computer that doesn’t really exist. you might wonder. This leads to obvious security concerns: you don’t want to download and run a program that will damage your computer or your files. secure. It would be much harder to write a Java compiler for the same computer. This makes it easy to write a bytecode interpreter for a new type of computer. is a fairly small. Compiled programs are inherently faster than interpreted programs. The compiler is itself a complex program. The bytecode interpreter acts as a buffer between you and the program you download. once that is done. it can run any Java bytecode program. Of course. A Java bytecode interpreter. This is one of the essential features of Java: the same compiled program can be run on many different types of computers. Programs written in Java are compiled into machine language. a compiler has to understand Java. There is no reason why Java bytecode could not be used as the machine language of a real computer. use the intermediate Java bytecode at all? Why not just distribute the original Java program and let each person compile it into the machine language of whatever computer they want to run it on? There are many reasons.) ∗ ∗ ∗ The designers of Java chose to use a combination of compilation and interpretation.1. many Java programs are meant to be downloaded over a network.

For example.). etc. to work with instructions. multiply that number by 0. which allow the computer to decide between two or more different courses of action by testing conditions that occur as the program is running. These building blocks are combined into complex programs using control structures and subroutines. or any other type of data that a program might need to store.” which might appear in a Java program. etc. etc. There are two basic types of control structure: loops.07. it might be that if the value of the variable “principal” is greater than 10000. and less common types such as dates. -2. You’ll spend a large part of the course becoming familiar with these concepts. (Yes. The programmer does need to keep in mind that the name refers to a kind of “box” in memory that can hold data.—that will work on all the platforms that support Java.7. you need to understand variables and types. one after the other. There There are also “input commands” for getting data from the user or from files on the computer’s disks and “output commands” for sending data in the other direction.0. To work with data. ∗ ∗ ∗ A program is a sequence of instructions.). For example. Programming languages always have commands for getting data into and out of variables and for doing computations with data. it is the compiler’s responsibility to keep track of the memory location.07. The programmer only has to worry about the name. which allow a sequence of instructions to be repeated over and over.” the computer executes the instructions in the sequence in which they appear. A variable is just a memory location (or several locations treated as a unit) that has been given a name so that it can be easily referred to and used in a program. a variable has a type that indicates what sort of data it can hold. the computer does make a distinction between the integer 17 and the floatingpoint number 17. buttons. and 0— while another holds floating point numbers—numbers with decimal points such as 3. sounds.6. “A string can include many characters”. However.8 CHAPTER 1. they actually look quite different inside the computer. and then store the result in the variable named “interest”: interest = principal * 0. In Java and most other languages. or 17.4 Fundamental Building Blocks of Programs are two basic aspects of programming: data and instructions. ’. colors. tells the computer to take the number stored in the variable named “principal”. even if the programmer doesn’t have to know where in memory that box is located. In the ordinary “flow of control. you need to understand control structures and subroutines. One type of variable might hold integers—whole numbers such as 3. then the . These basic commands—for moving data from place to place and for performing computations—are the building blocks for all programs. strings (“Hello”.05.14. Control structures are special instructions that can change the flow of control. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE ∗ ∗ ∗ I should also note that the really hard part of platform-independence is providing a “Graphical User Interface”—with windows. -7. this is obviously very limited: the computer would soon run out of instructions to execute. You’ll see more about this problem in Section 1. 1. and branches. then the “interest” should be computed by multiplying the principal by 0. the following “assignment statement. if not.0.’.) There could also be types for individual characters (’A’.

One of the most effective tools that has been found is objectoriented programming.5. Organizing your program into subroutines also helps you organize your thinking and your program design effort. get the second name and address and print the label. it could be expressed using the following “if statement”: if (principal > 10000) interest = principal * 0.1. and give that subroutine some appropriate name—say.04.5 Objects and Object-oriented Programming Programs must be designed. 1. you might say. suppose that one of the tasks that your program needs to perform is to draw a house on the screen. you can do so with the single command: drawHouse(). as programs become larger. For example. The discipline called software engineering is concerned with .) Loops are used when the same task has to be performed more than once. get the next name and address.04.” Subroutines provide one way to do this. You can take the necessary instructions.” A loop can be used in a program to express such repetition. else interest = principal * 0. ∗ ∗ ∗ Variables. A subroutine becomes just like a built-in part of the language which you can use without thinking about the details of what goes on “inside” the subroutine. For example. A program needs some way of expressing this type of decision. you can forget about the details of drawing houses—that problem is solved. grouped together as a unit and given a name. This will have the same effect as repeating all the house-drawing instructions in each place. (Don’t worry about the details for now. if you want to print out a mailing label for each name on a mailing list. No one can just sit down at the computer and compose a program of any complexity. loops. A subroutine consists of the instructions for performing some task. types. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING 9 interest should be computed by multiplying the principal by 0. and print the label. Then anyplace in your program where you need to draw a house. What you would like to say is something like “While there are more names to process. get the third name and address and print the label—” But this quickly becomes ridiculous—and might not work at all if you don’t know in advance how many names there are.05. The advantage here is not just that you save typing. ∗ ∗ ∗ Large programs are so complex that it would be almost impossible to write them if there were not some way to break them up into manageable “chunks. While writing the house-drawing subroutine. and subroutines are the basis of what might be called “traditional programming.” However. Just remember that the computer can test a condition and decide what to do next on the basis of that test. since you have a subroutine to do it for you. additional structure is needed to help deal with their complexity. branches. which is discussed in the next section. “Get the first name and address and print the label. you can concentrate on the problem of drawing a house without worrying for the moment about the rest of the program. “drawHouse()”. make them into a subroutine. In Java. That name can then be used as a substitute for the whole set of instructions. And once the subroutine is written.

And it makes it easier for programs to use the module. so programmers and the people who employ them are always eager to reuse past work. break the problem into several pieces and work on each piece separately. Another problem with strict top-down programming is that it makes it difficult to reuse work done for other projects. the data itself is often hidden inside the module. A module is a component of a larger system that interacts with the rest of the system in a simple. There is nothing wrong with top-down programming. . For one thing. working. it is incomplete. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE the construction of correct. This protects the data. During the 1970s and into the 80s. a subroutine for printing mailing labels. and so forth. It is unlikely that you will be able to take a large chunk of programming from another program and fit it into your project. But as time went on. Information about the representation of the data is hidden. it deals almost entirely with producing the instructions necessary to solve a problem. well-written programs. It is a valuable and often-used approach to problem-solving. Since then. a more advanced form of the same idea has more or less taken over software engineering.10 CHAPTER 1. By starting with a particular problem and subdividing it into convenient pieces. straightforward manner. well-defined. Top-down programming doesn’t give adequate consideration to the data that the program manipulates. the primary software engineering methodology was structured programming . The details of what goes on inside the module are not important to the system as a whole. However. treat it as a new problem which can itself be broken down into smaller problems. you can work upwards towards a solution to the overall problem. top-down design is often combined with bottom-up design. you will work your way down to problems that can be solved directly.” with problems that you already know how to solve (and for which you might already have a reusable software component at hand). a program that uses the module can then manipulate the data only indirectly. by calling the subroutines provided by the module. ∗ ∗ ∗ So. One common format for software modules is to contain some data. This approach is called top-down programming . In bottom-up design. top-down programming tends to produce a design that is unique to that problem. This latest approach is called object-oriented programming . The structured programming approach to program design was based on the following advice: To solve a large problem. often abbreviated as OOP. Producing high-quality programs is difficult and expensive. In such modules. well-defined ways. as long as the module fulfills its assigned role correctly. From there. and it is one of the most important principles of software engineering. Modules that could support this kind of information-hiding became common in programming languages in the early 1980s. eventually. to solve each piece. without further decomposition. people realized that the design of the data structures for a program was as least as important as the design of subroutines and control structures. a mailing-list module might contain a list of names and addresses along with a subroutine for adding a new name. in practice. The idea is that a module can be “plugged into” a system. along with some subroutines for manipulating that data. For example. since they don’t have to worry about the details of how the data is represented. The software engineer tends to use accepted and proven methods for analyzing the problem to be solved and for designing a program to solve that problem. since it can only be manipulated in known. the approach is to start “at the bottom. at least not without extensive modification. This is called information hiding . The reusable components should be as “modular” as possible.

rectangles. and so on. (In actual programming. each with its own data and its own set of responsibilities. a “print” message would produce very different results. Objects that contain the same type of data and that respond to the same messages in the same way belong to the same class. However. The objects interact by sending messages to each other. has a state consisting of a list of names and addresses. people who use OOP would claim that object-oriented programs tend to be better models of the way the world itself works. If you send it a message telling it to print itself. and ovals are “two-point objects. These classes are obviously related.5. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING 11 The central concept of object-oriented programming is the object. for example. and people used to more traditional programs can have a hard time getting used to OOP.) We could diagram these relationships as follows: . which is a kind of module containing data and subroutines. and that they are therefore easier to write. It is common for objects to bear a kind of “family resemblance” to one another. In the program. a class is created and then one or more objects are created using that class as a template. The program that results is a collection of objects. and an oval by two corners of the rectangle that contains it. For example. ∗ ∗ ∗ You should think of objects as “knowing” how to respond to certain messages. depending on the object it is sent to. The point-of-view in OOP is that an object is a kind of selfsufficient entity that has an internal state (the data it contains) and that can respond to messages (calls to its subroutines). The OOP approach to software engineering is to start by identifying the objects involved in a problem and the messages that those objects should respond to. rectangles.” (A line is determined by its endpoints. This property of objects—that different objects can respond to the same message in different ways—is called polymorphism . easier to understand. consider a drawing program that lets the user draw lines.” They would. a rectangle by two of its corners. that is.) But objects can be similar without being in exactly the same class. all the rectangles to another class. it will respond by printing out its list of names and addresses. ovals. for example. is less obvious. Different objects might respond to the same message in different ways.” while lines. all presumably be able to respond to a “draw yourself” message. For example. polygons. but would be very useful in a program: We can group polygons and curves together as “multipoint objects. based on the data needed to represent each type of object. Another level of grouping. There would be five classes of objects in the program. the class is primary. and curves on the screen. each visible object on the screen could be represented by a software object in the program. If you send it a message telling it to add a name. it will respond by modifying its state to reflect the change. one for each type of visible object that can be drawn. all of them represent “drawable objects. All the lines would belong to one class.1. There is not much “top-down” in such a program. A mailing list object. and more likely to be correct.

Early personal computers also used typed commands and responses. and so on are drawable objects. most people interact with computers in a completely different way.6 The Modern User Interface When computers were first introduced. menus. Usually. That is. They use a Graphical User Interface. it became possible for several people to interact directly with the computer at the same time. On a timesharing system. They were locked up in rooms with white-coated attendants who would take your programs and data. you can still reuse it by defining a subclass and making only the small changes necessary to adapt it exactly to your needs. and the class DrawableObject expresses this relationship. It is also related to the problem of reusing software components. users sit at “terminals” where they type commands to the computer. you are no doubt already familiar with the basics of graphical user interfaces! A lot of GUI interface components have become fairly standard. a mouse is used to manipulate such components. and icons. they have similar appearance and behavior on many different computer platforms including Macintosh. of course. and return the computer’s response some time later. A subclass of a class is said to inherit the properties of that class. scroll bars. and the computer types back its response. buttons. Objects. The components include things like windows. Nevertheless. ordinary people—including most programmers— couldn’t get near them. So. OOP is meant to be both a superior program-development tool and a partial solution to the software reuse problem. Not only can it be reused directly if it fits exactly into a program you are trying to write. A class is the ultimate reusable component.12 CHAPTER 1. but if it just almost fits. and TwoPointObject would be classes in the program. classes. The class Line would be a subclass of TwoPointObject and (indirectly) of DrawableObject. The computer draws interface components on the screen. Assuming that you have not just been teleported in from the 1970s. rectangles. The subclass can add to its inheritance and it can even “override” part of that inheritance (by defining a different response to some method). l a v O t c e j e b l g O n t n a i t o c P e o R w t T c e j b O e n e l i b L a w a r D e v t r c u e j C b O t n i o p i t l u M n o g y l o P . Inheritance is a powerful means for organizing a program. MultipointObject and TwoPointObject would be subclasses of DrawableObject. This type of interaction between a user and a computer is called a command-line interface. and object-oriented programming will be important themes throughout the rest of this text. Today. When timesharing—where the computer switches its attention rapidly from one person to another—was invented in the 1960s. 1. except that there was only one person involved at a time. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE DrawableObject. lines. MultipointObject. feed them to the computer. or GUI. Windows.

as you saw in the previous section. Java actually has two complete sets of GUI components. And in fact. In this example.1. a checkbox. was available in the original version of Java. Here is a diagram showing some of Swing’s GUI classes and their relationships: . the whole applet is itself considered to be a “component. and a scrollbar component appears alongside the text area when the number of lines of text becomes larger than will fit in the text area.” Now. since it is meant to appear on a Web page—that shows a few standard GUI interface components. which can display multiple lines of text. and the applet responds according to its program. the program consists mainly of “event handlers” that tell the applet how to respond to various types of events. but their functionality should be identical on any computer on which the program runs. These components are labeled. an “event” is generated. One of these. can use all the standard GUI components. Messages. are sent to objects. which are supposed to run on many different platforms without modification to the program. There are four components that the user can interact with: a button. For example. When a user interacts with the GUI components in this applet.6. The applet that is shown above uses components that are part of Swing. The other. The right half of the applet is a text area component. a text field. which is known as Swing . If your Web browser uses an old version of Java. you might get an error when the browser tries to load the applet. in Java terminology. Some of these classes are subclasses of others. Java GUI components are implemented as objects. Each time an event is generated. and is used in preference to the AWT in most modern Java programs. They might vary a little in appearance from platform to platform. Shown below is an image of a very simple Java program—actually an “applet”. Remember that most of the applets in this textbook require Java 5. is included in Java version 1. The labels themselves are components (even though you can’t interact with them). clicking a push button generates an event. Java includes many predefined classes that represent various types of GUI components. the applet has been programmed to respond to each event by displaying a message in the text area. In fact. and a pop-up menu. Java programs. In fact. There are a few other components in the applet. The use of the term “message” here is deliberate. a message is sent to the applet telling it that the event has occurred. THE MODERN USER INTERFACE 13 and Linux.2 or later. and pressing return while typing in a text field generates an event. the AWT or Abstract Windowing Toolkit.0 (or higher).

we will spend several chapters on the basics before returning to this topic in Chapter 6. 1. which represents general properties that are shared by all Swing components. directly or indirectly. GUI’s. is the Swing class that represents pop-up menus. such as DSL and cable modems. are increasingly common. Other protocols Computers a e r A t t x n e e T n J o p m o C t x d l e e T i J F t x e T J r a b l l o r c S J t n e n o x p o n m B o o t o t b C u J m B o o i C d J n a o R t t J u B e n l o g t t g x u o o B T t B J c k a c r t e s h b C A n J J o t t u B J l e b a L J . New computers are being connected to the Internet every day. which have certain behaviors in common. which are referred to collectively as TCP/IP.7 The Internet and the World-Wide Web can be connected together on networks. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE Don’t worry about the details for now. The classes JTextArea and JTextField. Similarly JButton and JToggleButton are subclasses of JAbstractButton. Two of the direct subclasses of JComponent themselves have subclasses. which represents properties common to both buttons and checkboxes. Computers on a network can even work together on a large computation. Note that all the GUI classes are subclasses. These two protocols. millions of computers throughout the world are connected to a single huge network called the Internet. by the way. are grouped together as subclasses of JTextComponent. There are elaborate protocols for communication over the Internet.” are probably a major factor contributing to the popularity of OOP. and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Computers can join the Internet by using a modem to establish a connection through telephone lines. A computer on a network can communicate with other computers on the same network by exchanging data and files or by sending and receiving messages. of a class called JComponent. which specifies how data is to be physically transmitted from one computer to another. However. They allow faster data transmission than is possible through telephone modems. Today. The most basic protocols on the Internet are the Internet Protocol (IP).14 CHAPTER 1. (JComboBox. perhaps you can see how GUI programming can make effective use of object-oriented design.) Just from this brief discussion. Broadband connections to the Internet. A protocol is simply a detailed specification of how communication is to proceed. which ensures that data sent using IP is received in its entirety and without error. In fact. Programming with GUI components and events is one of the most interesting aspects of Java. but try to get some feel about how object-oriented programming and inheritance are used here. For two computers to communicate at all. they must both be using the same protocols. provide a foundation for communication. with their “visible objects.

longer messages must be divided among several packets. For example. to the users of those computers). The browser will send a request for that page to the computer on which the page is stored. Then. and when a response is received from that computer. Think of a packet as an envelope with an address on the outside and a message on the inside. to communicate with the other computer. Every computer on the Internet has an IP address. A packet can hold only a limited amount of data. the main computer of the Mathematics Department at Hobart and William Smith Colleges has the domain name math. The World-Wide Web is perhaps the most exciting of network services. ∗ ∗ ∗ Now just what. A Web page can contain links to other pages on the same computer from which it was obtained or to other computers anywhere in the world. and receive data through the service. A packet consists of some data being sent from one computer to another. A web browser is just a user interface to the Web. does all this have to do with Java? In fact. The IP address is used for addressing packets. For example. a number that identifies it uniquely among all the computers on the net. (Domain names are just for convenience. These services use TCP/IP to send various types of data over the net. rather than the domain name.) The packet also includes a “return address. the address of the sender. There are computers on the Internet whose job it is to translate domain names to IP addresses. A computer can only send data to another computer on the Internet if it knows that computer’s IP address. The user interface to the Web is the type of program known as a web browser . THE INTERNET 15 use TCP/IP to send specific types of information such as web pages.7. The World-Wide Web allows you to request pages of information that are stored on computers all over the Internet. you might be thinking. they are used behind the scenes by the programs that the person uses to send and receive email messages. and the World-Wide Web. All communication over the Internet is in the form of packets. Other protocols. These programs provide an easy-to-use user interface to the underlying network protocols. doesn’t need to understand or even know about these protocols.hws. Java . the email service uses a protocol known as SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) to transfer email messages from one computer to another.) The Internet provides a number of services to the computers connected to it (and. such as POP and IMAP. which are used to control transmission of data over the network. however. your computer uses the IP address. are used to fetch messages from an email account so that the recipient can read them. which are then sent individually over the net and reassembled at their destination. the web browser uses a protocol called HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) to send each page request and to receive the response from the web server. You use a Web browser to request a page of information. your computer sends a message to a domain name server to find out the corresponding IP address. called domain names. file sharing. your computer still needs to know IP addresses before it can communicate. send. When you use a domain name. A person who uses email. (The message is the data. the web browser displays it to you in a neatly formatted form. electronic mail. along with addressing information that indicates where on the Internet that data is supposed to go. Each service has its own protocols.1. Since people prefer to use names rather than numbers. Behind the scenes. Common web browsers include Internet Explorer and Firefox. electronic mail. A computer that stores such pages of information is called a web server . of course. Each service also has some sort of user interface. most computers are also identified by names. Among the most popular services are instant messaging.” that is. and data files. Instead.edu. which allows the user to view.

Its association with the Internet is not Java’s only advantage. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE is intimately associated with the Internet and the World-Wide Web. and not the major one. as both Java and the Internet have matured. It becomes anything that programmers can imagine and implement. they can do almost anything. At the same time. But many good programming languages have been invented only to be soon forgotten. including complex interaction with the user. however. As you have seen in the previous section. A Web browser that understands Java—that is. a Web page becomes more than just a passive display of information. But applets are only one aspect of Java’s relationship with the Internet. Since applets are programs. In fact. and its platform independence makes it possible to write network programs that work on many different types of computer. A Web server transmits a Java applet just as it would transmit any other type of information. applets have become less important. stand-alone applications that do not depend on a web browser. Java includes excellent support for network protocols. special Java programs called applets are meant to be transmitted over the Internet and displayed on Web pages. Many of these programs are networkrelated. Java has increasingly been used to write complex. that includes an interpreter for the Java virtual machine—can then run the applet right on the Web page.16 CHAPTER 1. Java has had the good luck to ride on the coattails of the Internet’s immense and increasing popularity. . For example many of the largest and most complex web sites use web server software that is written in Java. With Java.

Quiz 17 Quiz on Chapter 1 1. and you want to run that program. Explain the difference between high-level languages and machine language. Java is a “platform-independent language. (What kind of services does it provide?) .” What does this mean? 10. What is a subroutine? 7. What is a variable? (There are four different ideas associated with variables in Java. One of the components of a computer is its CPU. What is the “Internet”? Give some examples of how it is used. If you have the source code for a Java program. Explain what is meant by an “asynchronous event.) 9. What is the difference between a “compiler” and an “interpreter”? 4. Java is an object-oriented programming language. What is an object? 8. What is a CPU and what role does it play in a computer? 2. What does the Java compiler do. 3. Try to mention all four aspects in your answer. you will need both a compiler and an interpreter. and what does the Java interpreter do? 6. 5. Hint: One of the aspects is the variable’s name.” Give some examples.

18 CHAPTER 1. THE MENTAL LANDSCAPE .

Chapter 2 Programming in the Small I: Names and Things On a basic level (the level of machine language). Creating complex programs will never be really easy. you still have to worry about getting all the details exactly right. However. you can’t write programs. a computer can perform only very simple operations. but for the computer to make any use of the instructions. and subroutines. A computer performs complex tasks by stringing together large numbers of such operations. A simple enough idea. Don’t be misled by the term “programming in the small” into thinking that this material is easy or unimportant. That section contains information about how to compile and run Java programs. In a high-level language such as Java. Syntax rules specify the basic vocabulary of the language and how programs can be constructed using things like loops. and you might want to take a look at it before trying to write and use your own programs. The last section of this chapter discusses programming environments. would then refer to filling in the details of that design. they must be written in a form that the computer can use.” Programming in the small. This means that programs have to be written in programming languages. When you do coding. you get to work with these concepts on a level several steps above machine language. but the difficulty can be handled to some extent by giving the program a clear overall structure. The rules that determine what is allowed are called the syntax of the language. If you don’t understand it. branches. loops and branches. This material is an essential foundation for all types of programming. The details are the explicit. Programming languages differ from ordinary human languages in being completely unambiguous and very strict about what is and is not allowed in a program. you are working fairly “close to the machine.” with some of the same concepts that you might use in machine language: memory locations. no matter how good you get at designing their large-scale structure.1 The Basic Java Application A program is a sequence of instructions that a computer can execute to perform some task. which is sometimes called coding . The design of the overall structure of a program is what I call “programming in the large. A syntactically correct program is one that 19 . step-by-step instructions for performing fairly small-scale tasks. arithmetic operations. Such tasks must be “scripted” in complete and perfect detail by programs. This chapter and the next examine the facilities for programming in the small in the Java programming language. 2.

The meaning of a program is referred to as its semantics. it depends on the particular computer and Java programming environment that you are using. A semantically correct program is one that does what you want it to. the semantics. It follows conventions that will be familiar to other programmers. 2. In the case of Java. that’s the easy part. These aspects of programming are sometimes referred to as pragmatics. And it has an overall design that will make sense to human readers. with style that will earn you the admiration of other programmers. to be a successful programmer. Then. You’ll find hints about software development throughout this textbook.20 CHAPTER 2. you will actually use an interpreter to execute the Java bytecode. It means that you understand the basic process of: 1. you can run the compiled program by giving some appropriate command. This might seem like a trivial problem. NAMES AND THINGS can be successfully compiled or interpreted. I won’t go into the details here of how you do each of these steps. you have to develop a detailed knowledge of the syntax of the programming language that you are using. you will use some command to try to compile the file. Then you should get a feeling for the semantics by following the examples given. the meaning of the program has to be right. and 3. So. I will explain the syntax. each of these steps will probably take you a few tries to get right. You should memorize the syntax. For that. Using the language correctly is not the same as using it well. but to a human reader. ∗ ∗ ∗ We begin our exploration of Java with the problem that has become traditional for such beginnings: to write a program that displays the message “Hello World!”. The first time through. running the compiled program. and maybe writing short programs of your own to test your understanding. When I introduce a new language feature. and some of the pragmatics of that feature. However. compiling the program. The computer is completely oblivious to such things. It’s not enough to write a program that will run—you want a program that will run and produce the correct result! That is. Of course. You still have to learn how to construct complex programs to solve particular problems. making sure that you understand how they work. You’ll either get a message that the program contains syntax errors. Finally. a program can be syntactically and semantically correct but still be a pretty bad program. you’ll need both experience and taste.” It is written in a way that will make it easy for people to read and to understand. Furthermore. that doesn’t make you a programmer. even when you’ve become familiar with all the individual features of the language. For example. And you should try to appreciate and absorb the pragmatics—this means learning how to use the language feature well. a good program has “style. the program is compiled into Java bytecode. or you’ll get a compiled version of the program.6 for information about creating and running Java programs in specific programming environments. syntax is only part of the story. programs that have syntax errors will be rejected (hopefully with a useful error message that will help you fix the problem). But in general. they are paramount. not into machine language. but getting a computer to do this is really a big first step in learning a new programming language (especially if it’s your first programming language). you will type the program using some sort of text editor and save the program in a file. See Section 2. For Java. getting the program text into the computer. Your programming environment .

Everything else in the program is required by the rules of Java syntax. Part of it consists of comments. All programming in Java is done inside “classes. Java has another style of comment that can extend over many lines. (If you use a command-line interface. These statements make up the . Recall that a subroutine consists of the instructions for performing some task. } } // end of class HelloWorld The command that actually displays the message is: System.) You must be curious about all the other stuff in the above program. That name can be used to “call” the subroutine whenever that task needs to be performed. they are there for human readers only. but you can be sure that the same three steps are being done in the background.out. The computer ignores the // and everything that follows it on the same line.1. Don’t expect to understand what’s going on here just yet—some of it you won’t really understand until a few chapters from now: // A program to display the message // "Hello World!" on standard output public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { System.println to do the actual work. Not every class is a program. like that in Sun Microsystem’s Java Development Kit.” The first line in the above program (not counting the comments) says that this is a class named HelloWorld. with a definition that takes the form: public static void main(String[] args) { statements } When you tell the Java interpreter to run the program. you type in a command to tell the computer to run the program. A built-in subroutine is one that is already defined as part of the language and therefore automatically available for use in any program.println("Hello World!"). Comments in a program are entirely ignored by the computer.println("Hello World!"). used in the above program. Programs are meant to be read by people as well as by computers. Hello World!. and the statements that it contains are executed. In order to define a program. the message “Hello World!” (without the quotes) will be displayed on standard output. When you run this program. Unfortunately. Here is a Java program to display the message “Hello World!”. This command is an example of a subroutine call statement. chunked together and given a name. you can expect the message to show up in some convenient place. However. the interpreter calls the main() subroutine. Java has two types of comments. THE BASIC JAVA APPLICATION 21 might automate some of the steps for you. It uses a “built-in subroutine” named System. on the next line. I can’t say exactly what that means! Java is meant to run on many different platforms. That type of comment begins with /* and ends with */.out.out. and without comments.” the name of the class. also serves as the name of the program. and standard output will mean different things on different platforms. a class must include a subroutine named main.2. a program can be very difficult to understand. The computer will type the output from the program. This doesn’t mean that they are unimportant. The first type. “HelloWorld. begins with // and extends to the end of a line.

not the source code. The definition of the subroutine—that is. I will always use a similar format: anything that you see in this style of text (italic in angle brackets) is a placeholder that describes something you need to type when you write an actual program. It has to be part of a “class”. just think of it as part of the required syntax. Here. The main() routine can call subroutines that are defined in the same class or even in other classes. such as the use of blank lines and indentation.class. as well as the name of the class. HelloWorld. for now. which is something external to the program itself. Names are fundamental to programming. but not until Chapter 4. and there are certain style guidelines for layout that are followed by most programmers. but it is the main() routine that determines how and in what order the other subroutines are used. The computer doesn’t care about layout— you could run the entire program together on one line as far as it is concerned. { and }. the instructions that say what it does—consists of the sequence of “statements” enclosed between braces. When this file is compiled. A program is defined by a public class that takes the form: public class program-name { optional-variable-declarations-and-subroutines public static void main(String[] args) { statements } optional-variable-declarations-and-subroutines } The name on the first line is the name of the program. I’ve used statements as a placeholder for the actual statements that make up the program. then the class must be saved in a file called HelloWorld.java. HelloWorld.22 CHAPTER 2. The layout of the program on the page. a programmer must understand the rules for giving names to things and the rules for using the names to work with those things.class will be produced. another file named HelloWorld. 2. contains the Java bytecode that is executed by a Java interpreter. As noted above. you only need the compiled class file. layout is important to human readers.java is called the source code for the program. These style guidelines are part of the pragmatics of the Java programming language. To execute the program. as well as things called “variable declarations. However. The remainder of the first line of the routine is harder to explain at the moment. This is essential because the main() routine is called by the Java interpreter. Throughout this textbook. . If the name of the class is HelloWorld.” You’ll learn more about these later. That is. In order to use those things. a subroutine can’t exist by itself. names are used to refer to many different sorts of things.2 Variables and the Primitive Types In programs. is not part of the syntax or semantics of the language. Also note that according to the above syntax specification. This class file. NAMES AND THINGS script that tells the computer exactly what to do when the program is executed. a program can contain other subroutines besides main(). the programmer must understand the syntax and the semantics of names. The word “public” in the first line of main() means that this routine can be called from outside the program.

(Note that the reserved words are not identifiers. you can avoid a lot of confusion by following the same convention in your own programs. static.2. Confusion can arise. The idea here is that things in Java can contain other things. while names of variables and of subroutines begin with lower case letters. Variables are actually rather subtle. since the upper case letters in the middle of a name are supposed to look something like the humps on a camel’s back. (“Underscore” refers to the character ’ ’.) For example. Finally. and several dozen other words. Java uses the Unicode character set. Properly speaking. public. Non-compound names are called simple identifiers.out. When a name is made up of several words. and hElloWorLD are all distinct names. since they can’t be used as names for things. I’ll use the term identifier to refer to any name—simple or compound—that can be used to refer to something in Java. digits. A compound name is a kind of path to an item through one or more levels of containment. HELLOWORLD. it is customary for names of classes to begin with upper case letters. and cannot be used by the programmer for other purposes. helloworld. such as HelloWorld or interestRate. The pragmatics of naming includes style guidelines about how to choose names for things. the programmer only has to remember the name. However.) 2. HelloWorld is a legal identifier. here are some legal names: N n rate x15 quite a long name HelloWorld No spaces are allowed in identifiers. else. especially for beginning .2. (Compound names are also called qualified names. Since the data in the box can change. this is sometimes referred to as camel case. if. a variable can refer to different data values at different times during the execution of the program. Certain names are reserved for special uses in Java.println. VARIABLES AND TYPES 23 According to the syntax rules of Java. The variable refers directly to the box and only indirectly to the data in the box.1 Variables Programs manipulate data that are stored in memory. names are used instead of numbers to refer to data. a variable is not a name for the data itself but for a location in memory that can hold data. while. It must begin with a letter or underscore and must consist entirely of letters. but “Hello World” is not. For example. which includes thousands of characters from many different languages and different alphabets. It is the job of the computer to keep track of where in memory the data is actually stored. and many of these characters count as letters or digits. The name System. You should think of a variable as a container or box where you can store data that you will need to use later. data can only be referred to by giving the numerical address of the location in memory where it is stored. I will be sticking to what can be typed on a regular English keyboard. In machine language. it is customary to capitalize each word.2. but it always refers to the same box. A name used in this way—to refer to data stored in memory—is called a variable.println indicates that something called “System” contains something called “out” which in turn contains something called “println”. and underscores. a name is a sequence of one or more characters. I’ll note that things are often referred to by compound names which consist of several ordinary names separated by periods. so that HelloWorld. These reserved words include: class. except possibly the first. Java is actually pretty liberal about what counts as a letter or a digit. Upper case and lower case letters are considered to be different.) You’ve already seen an example: System. Most Java programmers do not use underscores in names.out. In a high-level language such as Java. although some do use them at the beginning of the names of certain kinds of variables.

where expression represents anything that refers to or computes a data value.2 Types and Literals A variable in Java is designed to hold only one particular type of data. The names rate and principal are themselves variables. but it always refers to the same office.” I mean that Barack Obama is playing basketball.07. it refers to the container. An assignment statement takes the form: variable = expression . which might come later in the same program: interest = rate * principal. it refers to the data in the container. long. Here. NAMES AND THINGS programmers.”. because when a variable is used in a program in certain ways.2. (Note. it takes the value of rate. consider the following more complicated assignment statement. in this case. The first four types hold integers . It is not a statement of fact. There are eight so-called primitive types built into Java. the * is a “multiplication operator” that tells the computer to multiply rate times principal.07? No! The value of rate might have been changed in the meantime by another statement. You’ll see examples of both cases below. If the statement “interest = rate * principal. The variable in this assignment statement is rate. and the expression is the number 0. a variable is something like the title. into the box that the variable names—is with an assignment statement . suppose a program includes the statement “rate = 0. even though both use the symbol “=”. and stores the answer in the box referred to by interest. The meaning of an assignment statement is completely different from the meaning of an equation in mathematics. When the computer comes to an assignment statement in the course of executing a program. int. The primitive types are named byte. and boolean.24 CHAPTER 2. For example. multiplies it by the value of principal. char. it can legally hold that type of data and no other. can we say that the principal is multiplied by 0. (In this way. But if I say “Newt Gingrich wants to be President” I mean that he wants to fill the office. the only way to get data into a variable—that is.” This title can refer to different people at different times.07. it is the value stored in the variable that matters. We see that when a variable is used in an expression. consider the simple assignment statement rate = 0. the value of the expression “rate * principal” is being assigned to the variable interest. When a variable is used on the left-hand side of an assignment statement. the variable seems to refer to the data in the box.07. The compiler will consider it to be a syntax error if you try to violate this rule. not that he wants to be Barack Obama. it evaluates the expression and puts the resulting data value into the variable. For example. If I say “the President is playing basketball. that an assignment statement is a command that is executed by the computer at a certain time.) In Java. Now. When the computer executes this assignment statement.” is executed later in the program. by the way. short.07 in the variable rate. “The President of the United States. it refers to the box that is named by the variable.) 2. and it is really the values stored in those variables that are to be multiplied. We say that Java is a strongly typed language because it enforces this rule. rather than to the box itself. but when it is used in other ways. In the expression. The computer executes this assignment statement by putting the number 0. float. double. replacing whatever was there before.

there are the obvious literals such as 317 and 17. Certain special characters have special literals that use a backslash.) A double takes up 8 bytes. The quotes are not part of the value and are not stored in the variable.3 times 1012 and 12.42. A variable of type byte holds a string of eight bits. it must be surrounded by single quotes. A literal is what you have to type in a program to represent a value. Variables of type int have values in the range -2147483648 to 2147483647. you should just stick to the int data type. *. A variable of type char occupies two bytes in memory. or ’x’. A string of eight bits is called a byte. ’*’. A single zero or one is called a bit. A name for a constant value is called a literal . The float data type is represented in four bytes of memory. for example: ’A’. a carriage return as ’\r’. Usually.3737e-108.3737e-108 means 12. In particular. -38477.3e12 means 1. Ordinarily. the byte data type refers to a single byte of memory. When a character is typed into a program. eight bits can represent 256—two raised to the power eight—different values. The float and double types hold real numbers (such as 3. A variable of type char holds a single character from the Unicode character set. Of course. can range up to about 10 to the power 308. • int corresponds to four bytes (32 bits). Again. Without the quotes. a linefeed as ’\n’.3989234399 would both have to be rounded off to about 32. (There are 256 integers in that range. x.3737 times 10−108 . they are just a convention for naming a particular character constant in a program.2. The “e12” and “e-108” represent powers of 10. First of all. which can represent any of the integers between -128 and 127. a tab is represented as ’\t’. ’A’ and ’*’ are literals of type char. Note that even though you type two characters between the quotes in ’\t’. representing the character values A and *. Memory is usually measured in terms of bytes. and 0). the single quote character as ’\’’. The maximum value for a float is about 10 raised to the power 38. which is good enough for most purposes. You don’t have to remember these numbers.398923 in order to be stored in a variable of type float. Any data value stored in the computer’s memory must be represented as a binary number. inclusive. The four integer types are distinguished by the ranges of integers they can hold. or a space character. A would be an identifier and * would be a multiplication operator. and the backslash itself as ’\\’. The value can also be a special character such a tab or a carriage return or one of the many Unicode characters that come from different languages. Variables of type long have values in the range -9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807.99). Variables of type short have values in the range -32768 to 32767. and has about 15 significant digits. Numeric literals are a little more complicated than you might expect. you should stick to the double type for real values. (So that 32. This format can . but they do give you some idea of the size of integers that you can work with.2.6 and -145. • long corresponds to eight bytes (64 bits). the two real types are distinguished by their range and accuracy. Not surprisingly. But there are other possibilities for expressing numbers in a Java program. the value represented by this literal is a single tab character. \. that is as a string of zeros and ones. • short corresponds to two bytes (16 bits).3e12 or 12. real numbers can be represented in an exponential form such as 1. using a standard method for encoding real numbers. A float can have about 7 significant digits. VARIABLES AND TYPES 25 (whole numbers such as 17. so that 1.) As for the other integer types. And a variable of type boolean holds one of the two logical values true or false.3989231134 and 32. The value of a char variable is a single character such as A. as an “escape character”.

but all the other types represent objects rather than “primitive” data values. it’s worth knowing a few things: Octal numbers use only the digits 0 through 7. You’ve already seen a string literal: "Hello World!".2F. for example. Hexadecimal numbers are also used in character literals to represent arbitrary Unicode characters. I don’t want to cover base-8 and base-16 in detail. B. \r. rate > 0. Boolean values occur most often as the values of conditional expressions.2F” stands for 1. E. For example. and to false if the value of rate is not greater than 0. (Occasionally.05. You can make a literal of type long by adding “L” as a suffix. For the most part. so you might be confronted with a ridiculous-seeming error message if you try to do something like “x = 1.2.05. and F. as in 0x45 or 0xFF7A. Java has other types in addition to the primitive types. Any numerical literal that contains a decimal point or exponential is a literal of type double.) Even for integer literals. there are precisely two literals: true and false.26 CHAPTER 2. to represent the string value I said. \"Are you listening!\"\n" You can also use \t. not the number 45. NAMES AND THINGS be used to express very large and very small numbers. the usual digits 0 through 9 and the letters A. “1. C. These literals are typed just as I’ve written them here. you have to append an “F” or “f” to the end of the number. "Are you listening!" with a linefeed at the end. To make a literal of type float. the character literal ’\u00E9’ represents the Unicode character that is an “e” with an acute accent. you need to know this because the rules of Java say that you can’t assign a value of type double to a variable of type float. or int. Hexadecimal numbers use 16 digits. However.05 is a boolean-valued expression that evaluates to true if the value of the variable rate is greater than 0. depending on their size. you would have to type the string literal: "I said. and unicode sequences such as \u00E9 to represent other special characters in string literals. D. there is one predefined object type that is very important: the type String. Upper case and lower case letters can be used interchangeably in this context. but in case you run into them in other people’s programs. For example. Because strings are objects. For example. boolean values can also be assigned to variables of type boolean. Ordinary integers such as 177777 and -32 are literals of type byte. The double quotes are part of the literal. Of course. their behavior in programs is peculiar . As you’ll see in Chapter 3. not variables. A String is a sequence of characters. In Java. short. they have to be typed in the program. Within this context.2 considered as a value of type float. special characters can be represented using the backslash notation. For example: 17L or 728476874368L. For the type boolean. You have to say “x = 1. This is one reason why I advise sticking to type double for real numbers. In Java. For example.". the double quote is itself a special character. a hexadecimal literal begins with 0x or 0X. Java allows octal (base-8) and hexadecimal (base-16) literals. boolean-valued expressions are used extensively in control structures. but they represent values. the literal 045 represents the number 37. a numeric literal that begins with a 0 is interpreted as an octal number. they are not part of the actual string value. Within a string. However. The letters represent the numbers 10 through 15. \\. A Unicode literal consists of \u followed by four hexadecimal digits. which consists of just the characters between the quotes.” when x is a variable of type float. without quotes. As another complication. there are some complications. we are not concerned with objects for the time being.

VARIABLES AND TYPES 27 in some respects (to someone who is not used to objects). They exist only inside the subroutine. */ public class Interest { public static void main(String[] args) { /* Declare the variables. while it is running.3 Variables in Programs A variable can be used in a program only if it has first been declared . // Rate as a decimal.2. boolean isFinished.2. lastInitial.07 for one year. Here is a simple program using some variables and assignment statements: /** * This class implements a simple program that * will compute the amount of interest that is * earned on $17. The interest and * the value of the investment after one year are * printed to standard output. Declare “utility variables” which are not important to the overall logic of the subroutine at the point in the subroutine where they are first used. or to give other information that might be useful to a human reader. middleInitial. not percentage. It is also good style to include a comment with each variable declaration to explain its purpose in the program. Others like to wait to declare a variable until it is needed. Variable declarations can occur anywhere inside the subroutine. String name. The variable-name-or-names can be a single variable name or a list of variable names separated by commas. and use a comment to explain the purpose of each variable. 2. (We’ll see later that variable declaration statements can actually be somewhat more complicated than this. it sets aside memory for the variable and associates the variable’s name with that memory. y. we will only use variables declared inside the main() subroutine of a program. double interestRate.2. Variables declared inside a subroutine are called local variables for that subroutine.000 invested at an interest * rate of 0. and are completely inaccessible from outside. For example: double principal. Some people like to declare all the variables at the beginning of the subroutine. A variable declaration statement is used to declare one or more variables and to give them names. // Amount of money invested. My preference: Declare important variables at the beginning of the subroutine. char firstInitial. */ . double x. unless the variables are closely related in some way. as long as each variable is declared before it is used in any expression. When the computer executes a variable declaration. In this chapter. A simple variable declaration takes the form: type-name variable-name-or-names .) Good programming style is to declare only one variable in a declaration statement. For example: int numberOfStudents. I’ll have more to say about them in the next section.

. The source code for the Interest program. // Compute the interest. System.) /* Output the results. While we will not study objects in detail until Chapter 5. follows on the same line after the string displayed by the previous System. the value of interest.out. Enums.edu/javanotes/source. Not all subroutines have parameters. CHAPTER 2. the subroutine name must be followed by an empty pair of parentheses. Objects. */ System. // Compute value of investment after one year. double interest.println(interest). rate = 0.”.3 Strings. An enum is a data type that can be created by a Java programmer to represent a small collection of possible values. */ principal = 17000. } // end of main() } // end of class Interest This program uses several subroutine call statements to display information to the user of the program. If there are no parameters in a subroutine call statement. // (Note: The new value replaces the old value of principal. // Interest earned in one year.print("The value of the investment after one year is $").out. /* Do the computations. Note that the value to be displayed by System. Another reason for considering classes and objects at this point is so that we can introduce enums. principal = principal + interest.print("The interest earned is $"). double rate. All the sample programs for this textbook are available in separate source code files in the on-line version of this text at http://math. NAMES AND THINGS // The value of the investment.println adds a linefeed after the end of the information that it displays.out.out. an enum is a class and its possible values are The previous section introduced the eight primitive data types and the type String. can be found in the file Interest.out.out. any parameters are listed in parentheses after the subroutine name. and Subroutines There is a fundamental difference between the primitive types and the String type: Values of type String are objects. A parameter provides a subroutine with information it needs to perform its task. interest = principal * rate. This value is called a parameter to the subroutine.out. The difference between these is that System.out.out. 2. Technically. This is not just because strings are useful but because objects and classes are essential to understanding another important programming concept.println.println(principal).hws. System.println(interest).print does not.28 double principal. Thus.println is provided in parentheses after the subroutine name. // The annual interest rate. Two different subroutines are used: System.print or System.print and System. In a subroutine call statement. They are also included in the downloadable archives of the web site.out. while System. System.java.print statement.07. it will be useful for you to know a little about them and about a closely related topic: classes. which is displayed by the subroutine call “System.out. for example. with interest. subroutines.out.

First of all. These variables and subroutines are called static members of the class. Hello World. named Math.out. So. the class of an object specifies what subroutines and variables are contained in that object. System.out. As you have seen earlier in this chapter. Some classes that are standard parts of the Java language contain predefined subroutines that you can use. and literal strings such as "Hello World" represent values of type String.out. let’s look at the subroutine System.3. Classes in Java have two very different functions. that’s the whole point of subroutines: A subroutine is a “black box” which can be used without knowing what goes on inside. this subroutine is used to display information to the user. Another standard class. One of the static member variables in this class is named out. Since this variable is contained in the class System. In Chapter 4. you’ll learn how to write your own subroutines. and that object in turn contains a subroutine named print.out refers to an object. I will note that the object referred to by System. classes have a second function. For example. just like the main() routine of a program. ∗ ∗ ∗ To begin to get a handle on all of this complexity. System is one of Java’s standard classes. a class can group together variables and subroutines that are contained in that class. its full name—which you have to use to refer to it in your programs—is System. it exists mainly to specify a large number of subroutines that are contained in objects of type String. the main() routine is a static member of the class. A value of type String. PrintStream is another class that is a standard part of Java. They are used to describe objects. In Java. However. The parts of a class definition that define static members are marked with the reserved word “static”. Enums will be our first example of adding a new type to the Java language.out is an object of the class PrintStream. every subroutine is contained in a class or in an object. In this role.3.print("Hello World") displays the message.1 Built-in Subroutines and Functions Recall that a subroutine is a set of program instructions that have been chunked together and given a name. Classes contain subroutines called static member subroutines. You’ve seen one example: In a class that defines a program. (As an aside.out. Indeed. contains subroutines that can be used to manipulate that string. For example. and in practice most classes are designed to perform primarily or exclusively in only one of the two possible roles. but you can get a lot done in a program just by calling subroutines that have already been written for you. Classes also describe objects and the subroutines that are contained in those objects. The class is a type—in the technical sense of a specification of a certain type of data value—and the object is a value of that type. 2. We will look at them later in this section.2. These subroutines are “built into” the Java language. String is also a type. String is actually the name of a class that is included as a standard part of the Java language. although the String class does contain a few rarely-used static member subroutines. Any object of . For example. The compound identifier System. which is an object. every subroutine is contained either in a class or in an object.print refers to the subroutine print in the object out in the class System. This dual use can be confusing. exists entirely to group together a number of static member subroutines that compute various common mathematical functions. You can call all these subroutines without understanding how they were written or how they work.print as an example. The variable System. OBJECTS AND SUBROUTINES 29 objects.

You are familiar with the mathematical function that computes the square root of a number. Generally. In a program. Subroutines of this type are called functions. of course. A parameter value of 0 indicates that the program ended normally. Other objects of type PrintStream might send information to other destinations such as files or across a network to other computers. We say that a function returns a value. the term “method” means a subroutine that is contained in a class or in an object. If x is any numerical value. I will prefer to use the more general term. any object of type PrintStream has a print subroutine that can be used to send information to that destination. For historical reasons. every subroutine in Java is a method. (The parameter tells the computer why the program was terminated. it might be hard to tell which is which. after all. For some subroutines. then Math. predefined names in Java follow the rule that class names begin with an upper case letter while variable names begin with a lower case letter. this subroutine takes an integer as a parameter. While this is not a formal syntax rule. and until we start doing real object-oriented programming in Chapter 5.sqrt(x).30 CHAPTER 2. There is no possibility of confusing a variable with a subroutine. the value of the parameter is usually ignored.sqrt(x) represents a value.out.exit. The object System.out is just one possible destination. (As one final general note. I recommend that you follow it in your own programming. // This doesn’t make sense! What. Since Math. as well as static member variables. “subroutine. You could use it if you had some reason to terminate the program before the end of the main routine. since a subroutine name in a program is always followed by a left parenthesis.sqrt(x) computes and returns the square root of that value.) Since class names and variable names are used in similar ways. the System class contains a subroutine named exit.exit(1). The same is not true for other programming languages. For example. and System.” or “System. would the computer do with the value computed by the function in this case? You have to tell the computer to do something with the value.”) ∗ ∗ ∗ Classes can contain static member subroutines. This is object-oriented programming: Many different things which have something in common—they can all be used as destinations for information—can all be used in the same way—through a print subroutine. But in practice. Calling this subroutine will terminate the program. NAMES AND THINGS type PrintStream is a destination to which information can be printed. you should be aware that subroutines in Java are often referred to as methods. that task is to compute or retrieve some data value.exit(0). Remember that all the built-in. this subroutine must be referred to as System. You might tell the computer to display it: . it doesn’t make sense to put it on a line by itself in a subroutine call statement such as Math. the term “method” is mostly used in the context of object-oriented programming. Since this is true of every subroutine in Java. Any other value indicates that the program was terminated because an error was detected. Subroutine names should also begin with lower case letters.) Every subroutine performs some specific task. The returned value must then be used somehow in the program.”. so the subroutine call statement might look like “System.sqrt. This function is a static member subroutine of the class named Math. Nevertheless. The PrintStream class expresses the commonalities among all these objects.print is the subroutine that sends information to that particular destination. Java has a corresponding function called Math.

and it can be used anyplace where a numeric literal of type double could be used. This function can be used to measure the time that it takes the computer to perform a task. Math. because it is too small to measure in milliseconds. (For all the trigonometric functions. // Display the square root of x. it retrieves the current time. • The usual trigonometric functions.cos(x). You still need the parentheses.abs(x). The parentheses let the computer know that this is a subroutine rather than a variable. expressed as the number of milliseconds that have passed since a standardized base time (the start of the year 1970 in Greenwich Mean Time.random(). and Math. • Math. which computes the absolute value of x. the value returned will be the same type as x. if x is of type int. Math. while Math. The function call Math.0.abs(x). • Math. not degrees. Even if it’s not zero. the value returned by the function is of type double no matter what the type of the parameter. Here is a sample program that performs a few mathematical tasks and reports the time that it takes for the program to run.out. Math.abs(9) is the int value 9.sqrt(x).sqrt(9) is the double value 3.76) is 3. you can be sure that most of the time reported by the computer was spent doing output or working on tasks other . (The computer actually calculates so-called “pseudorandom” numbers.print( Math.0. and Math. Here is a list of some of the more important of them: • Math.floor(3. The Math class contains many static member functions. for example.) For these functions.sin(x). Another example of a subroutine that has no parameters is the function System. and arctan. OBJECTS AND SUBROUTINES System. and the natural logarithm function Math. However. Note that Math. if you care).0 <= Math.currentTimeMillis(). angles are measured in radians.) • The inverse trigonometric functions arcsin. the type of the parameter—the x or y inside the parentheses—can be any value of any numeric type. On some computers.random() < 1. So. • The exponential function Math. Even though the return value is mathematically an integer.asin(x). which returns a randomly chosen double in the range 0. For most of the functions.acos(x). The return value is expressed in radians.pow(x.2.floor(x). • Math. not degrees. which are not truly random but are random enough for most purposes. then so is Math. 31 or you might use an assignment statement to tell the computer to store that value in a variable: lengthOfSide = Math. it is returned as a value of type double. arccos. the time reported might be zero.sqrt(x) represents a value of type double.exp(x) for computing the number e raised to the power x.atan(x). Just record the time at which the task is begun and the time at which it is finished and take the difference. rather than of type int as you might expect. For example.3. for Math.round(x) returns the integer that is closest to x. Math. from the System class. even though there’s nothing between them.abs(x). The function Math. Math. When this function is executed.y) for computing x raised to the power y. which are written as: Math.0. One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second.random() does not have any parameter.sqrt(x) ).currentTimeMillis() is of type long.tan(x). which rounds x down to the nearest integer value that is less than or equal to x. The return value of System.log(x) for computing the logarithm of x in the base e.

out.1 is ").out. System. hypotenuse. // Starting time of program. since the calculations performed in this program occupy only a tiny fraction of a second of a computer’s time.sqrt( width*width + height*height ).println("\nMathematically. advice might have been declared and assigned a value as follows: String advice.out."). System.cos(1)*Math.println(hypotenuse).cos(1) . startTime = System. System.currentTimeMillis().out.print("\nRun time in seconds was: System. in milliseconds. . advice = "Seize the day!". // Time difference. sin(x)*sin(x) + " + "cos(x)*cos(x) .1 should be 0.println("Let’s check this for x = 1:"). height.1 ).random() ).0. double time.2 Operations on Strings A value of type String is an object. namely the sequence of characters that make up the string. It then reports the number of seconds that the * computer spent on this task. // Time when computations are done. long endTime.0. System. For example. endTime = System. */ public class TimedComputation { public static void main(String[] args) { long startTime. That object contains data. "). double width.out.out.sin(1)*Math.out.out.println(time). System.println( Math. 2. time = (endTime . System. For example. hypotenuse = Math. in milliseconds. } // end main() } // end class TimedComputation ").println("(There can be round-off errors when" + " computing with real numbers!)"). height = 17.32 CHAPTER 2.print("A triangle with sides 42 and 17 has hypotenuse "). /** * This program performs some mathematical computations and displays * the results.out. System. All of these subroutines are in fact functions.startTime) / 1000.print("\nHere is a random number: System.out. every string object contains a function named length that computes the number of characters in that string. System.println( Math.0. System.out. in seconds. // sides of a triangle width = 42.print(" sin(1)*sin(1) + cos(1)*cos(1) .sin(1) + Math. NAMES AND THINGS than the program. Suppose that advice is a variable that refers to a String.3.currentTimeMillis(). It also contains subroutines.

• s1. • s1. Otherwise. then s1. after all.indexOf(ch) to search for a particular character. the value of str. • s1. just constant values of type String. An error occurs if the value of the parameter is less than zero or greater than s1.2. To find the first occurrence of x at or after position N.toUpperCase() is the string "CAT". The returned value is called a substring of s1. where N and M are integers. but this function considers upper and lower case letters to be equivalent.println("the string \"Hello World\" is "). You can also use s1. • s1. and it can be used with any value of type String. Otherwise. "Cat". while s1. There is also a function s1. you could have a program count the characters in “Hello World” for you by saying System. the particular string whose length is being computed is the value of str. if s1 is “cat”. for any string variable str. ch. In general.M)..) • s1.length() is a function call that returns the number of characters in the string “Seize the day!”. For example. • s1.1. Here are some that you might find useful. OBJECTS AND SUBROUTINES 33 Then advice. and so on.indexOf(s2) returns an integer. except that any lower case letters in s1 have been converted to upper case. For example.compareTo(s2) is an integer-valued function that compares the two strings.toLowerCase(). the ordering is more complicated.charAt(N). the value of "cat". and returns false otherwise. the return value would be 14.println( "Hello World". then “less than” and “greater than” refer to alphabetical order.length() . N+1. It returns the Nth character in the string. The final position is s1.1.charAt(1) is the second.length() .substring(N.print("The number of characters in "). It can even be used with String literals. Note that this function has no parameter.charAt(0) is actually the first character.indexOf(x. Positions are numbered starting with 0. System. (If both of the strings consist entirely of lower case letters. .length(). The String class defines a lot of functions. then the returned value is the starting position of that substring. you can use s1.equalsIgnoreCase("Cat") is true. is an integer-valued function that gives the number of characters in s1. • s1. the value returned is a number less than zero. the value returned is some number greater than zero.toUpperCase() is a String -valued function that returns a new string that is equal to s1. and if s1 is greater than s2. the returned value is -1. in s1. If s2 occurs as a substring of s1. It returns true if s1 consists of exactly the same sequence of characters as s2.out. Note that the character in position M is not included.equals("Cat") is false. where N is an integer. so s1. In this case.out. returns a value of type char.out.trim() is a String -valued function that returns a new string that is equal to s1 except that any non-printing characters such as spaces and tabs have been trimmed from the . which are. .3. Thus.length() ). as mentioned above. System. returns a value of type String. The length subroutine is defined by the class String.length() is an int equal to the number of characters in the string that is the value of str.charAt(1) is ’a’. If s1 is less than s2. For example. If the strings are equal.N). The returned value consists of the characters in s1 in positions N.equalsIgnoreCase(s2) is another boolean-valued function that checks whether s1 is the same string as s2.equals(s2) is a function that returns a boolean value. • s1. the value returned is zero. s1. . M-1. Assume that s1 and s2 refer to values of type String : • s1.

But we will look here at one particular case: the ability to define enums (short for enumerated types). 2. Technically. and s1. it has to be somewhere in the input data.3. +.0. to concatenate two strings. The value is converted to a string.print("After "). Obviously. this is done by defining new classes.34 CHAPTER 2. then For the functions s1. in an assignment statement such as “smallLetters = s1. So.trim(). can be replaced by the single statement: System. just like almost any other programming language.print(principal). .3 Introduction to Enums Java comes with eight built-in primitive types and a large set of types that are defined by classes. ". such as String. Thus. For example. But even this large collection of types is not sufficient to cover all the possible situations that a programmer might have to deal with. we will look at enums in a simplified form. but that is not important for now.out. the value is " + principal). note that the value of s1 is not modified. The returned value could be used. For the most part.out.toLowerCase(). To change the value of s1. Then. if s1 has the value "fred s1. Even more surprising is that you can actually concatenate values of any type onto a String using the + operator. Many programming languages have something similar. you will learn how to do that in Chapter 5. It would have shortened some of the examples presented earlier in this chapter.out. Enums are a recent addition to Java.out.trim() is the string "fred".”. for example.toUpperCase().”. System. " + name + ". For example.toLowerCase(). They were only added in Version 5. ∗ ∗ ∗ Here is another extremely useful fact about strings: You can use the plus operator.print("After " + years + " years. an enum is considered to be a special kind of class. the program could greet the user by executing the statement: System. is the ability to create new types. and then it is concatenated onto the string. of course—if you want a space in the concatenated string. And the statements System.out. as in "Hello " + "World". In this section.) Let’s suppose that name is a variable of type String and that it already refers to the name of the person using the program. most uses of enums will only need the simplified form that is presented here. The concatenation of two strings is a new string consisting of all the characters of the first string followed by all the characters of the second string. s1.println("Hello. System.toLowerCase(). an essential part of Java. just as it would be if you printed it to the standard output. this is very convenient.print(years). (Gotta watch those spaces.print(" years. Instead a new string is created and returned as the value of the function. "Hello" + "World" evaluates to "HelloWorld". In practice. System. the expression "Number" + 42 evaluates to the string "Number42". Pleased to meet you!"). NAMES AND THINGS beginning and from the end of the string.out. you could use an assignment “s1 = s1. and many people believe that enums should have been part of Java from the beginning. the value is ").

you can assign a value to it using an assignment statement.FALL. Season. which means—following the convention that compound identifiers are used for things that are contained in other things—the names that you actually use in your program to refer to them are Season. Enum values are not variables. it returns the ordinal number of the value in the list of values of the enum. FALL.ordinal() in our example. In this case. it can be used to declare variables in exactly the same ways that other types are used. As you work though the rest of the book. Season. The value on the right-hand side of the assignment can be one of the enum constants of type Season. For example. SUMMER.WINTER.print(vacation). The definition of an enum types has the (simplified) form: enum enum-type-name { list-of-enum-values } This definition cannot be inside a subroutine. Each value is a constant that always has the same value.2. You can print out an enum value with an output statement such as System. you can declare a variable named vacation of type Season with the statement: Season vacation. the possible values of an enum type are usually referred to as enum constants.ordinal() is the int value 0. Season.SPRING. OBJECTS AND SUBROUTINES 35 An enum is a type that has a fixed list of possible values. The output value will be the name of the enum constant (without the “Season. (You will see over and over again that computer scientists like to start counting at zero!) You can. When used with an enum value. while an enum is not. One of the subroutines in every enum value is named ordinal(). and Season. For now.WINTER. In some ways. That is. and the identifiers in the list are separated by commas.out. which has true and false as its only possible values. you should be convinced that they are. and Season. You can place it outside the main() routine of the program. The ordinal number simply tells the position of the value in the list. including “Season”! For example: vacation = Season. the output would be “SUMMER”. but that is a style guideline and not a syntax rule. it might not seem to you that enums are all that useful. Season. However. you should at least appreciate them as the first example of an important concept: creating new types. Because an enum is technically a class. boolean is a primitive type.ordinal() is 1. In fact. Right now. an enum is similar to the boolean data type. This identifier becomes the name of the enum type.ordinal() is 2. Once an enum type has been created. For example. the enum values are technically objects. As objects. which is specified when the enum is created. in the same way that “boolean” is the name of the boolean type and “String” is the name of the String type.SUMMER. After declaring the variable. Remember to use the full name of the constant. The enum-type-name can be any simple identifier. use the ordinal() method with a variable of type Season.SUMMER. Here is a little example that shows enums being used in a complete program: . here is the definition of an enum type named Season whose values are the names of the four seasons of the year: enum Season { SPRING. they can contain subroutines. Note that the enum constants of type Season are considered to be “contained in” Season.SUMMER.SPRING.FALL.”). Each value in the list-of-enum-values must be a simple identifier. enum values are given names that are made up of upper case letters.ordinal() is 3.3. of course. such as vacation. Season. WINTER } By convention.

libra = Month. . System. basic support is needed for input/output in old-fashioned non-GUI programs. MAY.out.out. System. // Declare a variable of type Month.out. System. NOV. // Declare a variable of type Day.println( tgif + " is the " + tgif.FRIDAY. FRIDAY.out. The purpose of this object is precisely to display output to the user. However.").ordinal() + "-th day of the week. FEB. JUN. which is implemented in Java. There is a corresponding object called System. Fortunately.print( libra. SEP. System.remember that the definitions // go OUTSIDE The main() routine! enum Day { SUNDAY. it requires some knowledge of object-oriented programming to use this class. AUG. since I was born in "). and it requires some advanced Java programming skills to use it effectively. // You can concatenate enum values onto Strings! } } 2. // Output value will be: OCT System.println("-th month of the year. TUESDAY.out. System. THURSDAY. System.println(libra). since Java is meant mainly to write programs for Graphical User Interfaces.").out. MONDAY. System.print("My sign is libra.print("Isn’t it nice to get to ").36 public class EnumDemo { CHAPTER 2. As soon as a new class is available. OCT.out. Scanner still does not get things quite right. // Assign a value of type Day to tgif.4 For Text Input and Output some unfathomable reason. Month libra.in that exists to read data input by the user. NAMES AND THINGS // Define two enum types -. so it’s not appropriate for use here at the beginning of this course.out.out.ordinal() ). Java has never made it easy to read data typed in by the user of a program. However.) There is some excuse for this lack of concern with input.out. WEDNESDAY. SATURDAY } enum Month { JAN. You’ve already seen that output can be displayed to the user using the subroutine System. it is possible to extend Java by creating new classes that provide subroutines that are not available in the standard part of the language.OCT. but it provides only very primitive input facilities.print. // Assign a value of type Month to libra.out. (Furthermore. tgif = Day. the subroutines that it contains can be used in exactly the same way as built-in routines. // Output value will be: FRIDAY System. of course!)"). and those programs have their own style of input/output. DEC } public static void main(String[] args) { Day tgif. This subroutine is part of a pre-defined object called System. in my opinion. JUL.println(" (Counting from 0.println(tgif). MAR. Java 5.print("That’s the ").0 finally makes input a little easier with a new Scanner class. APR.

java. it will wait for the user to type in an integer value. then you could use the assignment statement userInput = TextIO. TextIO also contains a set of output subroutines.2.out. The subroutines in this class make it possible to get input from the standard input object. TEXT INPUT AND OUTPUT 37 Along these lines. The value typed will be returned by the function. System.getlnInt(). (Static member functions were introduced in the previous section. TextIO. */ public class PrintSquare { public static void main(String[] args) { int userInput.4. without knowing about the advanced aspects of Java that are needed to use Scanner or to use System. Since this function is contained in the TextIO class. } // end of main() } //end of class PrintSquare .1 A First Text Input Example The input routines in the TextIO class are static member functions. 2. such as assign it to a variable. For example. // The userInput. multiplied by itself. System. The function has no parameters. and you have to do something with the returned value.getlnInt()”. I’ve written a class called TextIO that defines subroutines for reading values typed by the user of a non-GUI program.getlnInt().print("The square of that number is "). This function call represents the int value typed by the user. if userInput is a variable of type int (created with a declaration statement “int userInput. To use the TextIO class. The output subroutines are similar to those provided in System. to the same directory that contains your main program. userInput.in directly. int square. You can use whichever set of output subroutines you prefer. System. so a complete call to the function takes the form “TextIO. In general. What this means depends on the Java programming environment that you are using. The TextIO class contains a static member function named getlnInt that you can use for this purpose. but they provide a few additional features. When the computer executes this statement.) Let’s suppose that you want your program to read an integer typed in by the user. userInput = TextIO.out. Here is a complete program that uses TextIO. // The number input by the user.in. you just have to add the source code file.out. and it will be stored in the variable.out.print("Please type a number: "). you have to refer to it in your program as TextIO. square = userInput * userInput.”). and you can even mix them in the same program.println(square).getlnInt to read a number typed by the user and then prints out the square of the number that the user types: /** * A program that reads an integer that is typed in by the * user and computes and prints the square of that integer. you must make sure that the class is available to your program.6 for more information about how to use TextIO.4.getlnInt. System. See Section 2.

print and System. The parameter can also be a String.”. depending on the type of parameter that you supply.out.println.2 Text Output The TextIO class contains static member subroutines TextIO. a variable. Keep in mind that TextIO can only be used in a program if it is available to that program. Do you see why?) As mentioned above. it will display the message “Please type a number:” and will pause until you type a response. Each of these subroutines can be used with one parameter. A subroutine call statement for this version of the subroutine looks like “System.out.print and System.38 CHAPTER 2. except that. but it is common in Java programs.put("The square of that number is "). the TextIO subroutines TextIO.print("The square of that number is ").out. although there is no particular advantage in doing so in this case. or boolean.println().println is that the println version outputs a carriage return after it outputs the specified parameter value. . another for values that are objects.println(square).println. There is one System. you can say “System.print without parameters.print and System. System. and I will often use it for output.out.out. char.println(x).”. For the next few chapters. (There is no version of System. with empty parentheses.”.out. or even something more complicated such as 2*distance*time.out.” is exactly equivalent to “System.putln can be used as replacements for System. Let’s look a little more closely at the built-in output subroutines System.out.out. Having several subroutines of the same name that differ in the types of their parameters is called overloading . or indeed any object. NAMES AND THINGS When you run this program. and so on. float.print(x).print(x). the carriage return comes after the value of x. int. and nothing else. Note that “System. the System class actually includes several different subroutines to handle different parameter types.print and System.out.out.out. Many programming languages do not permit overloading. The difference between System.out. one for values of type int. For example. long. as we will see below.” or “System. with TextIO.out.out. I will use TextIO for input in all my examples. TextIO. a value belonging to an enum type. where x is any expression whose value is of any type whatsoever. including a carriage return after the number.put and TextIO. double.out.println(x). It is not built into Java in the way that the System class is. TextIO can also be used to write to other destinations.put and TextIO. Now.putln(square).putln that can be used in the same way as System. These subroutines can have the same name since the computer can tell which one you mean in a given subroutine call statement. in fact. short. The expression can be a constant. That is.out.out. 2.println. you could replace the two lines System. There is a version of System. The TextIO functions work in exactly the same way as the System functions. This version simply outputs a carriage return. System. where the parameter can be a value of any of the primitive types byte.println that has no parameters.println().print for printing values of type double.4.out.

n. However. TextIO. For example. makes the user type in a value of type int and returns that input value so that you can use it in your program. "". You will then be able to refer to the user’s input value by using the name of the variable.getlnDouble().4. If the user types in an illegal value as input—for example. it skips over any spaces and carriage returns typed in by the user. In any case. TEXT INPUT AND OUTPUT 39 2.getlnBoolean(). getln(). the user will have to type in another line of input. you are guaranteed that it will return a legal value of the correct type. f. they can use either upper or lower case letters. The carriage return itself is not returned as part of the input string. The values that they return come from outside the program. the user is allowed to type in any of the following: true.getlnChar(). TextIO. With TextIO. but it is read and discarded by the computer. returns a string consisting of non-blank characters only. including spaces. illegal value that the user entered. It gets an entire line of input text. value of type String. if you ask for an int and the user types in a non-numeric character or a number that is outside the legal range of values that can be stored in in a variable of type int—then the computer will ask the user to re-enter the value. It’s convenient to use TextIO. up to the next carriage return.getlnBoolean(). and getlnChar()—behave like getWord() in that they will skip past any blanks and carriage returns in the input before reading a value. It might not sound like a good idea to discard any of the user’s input. Furthermore. you do want to read more . false. Note that the String returned by this function might be the empty string . If the program executes another input function.getlnInt(). simply returns a string consisting of all the characters typed in by the user. which was discussed above. It returns a String consisting of all the non-blank characters that it has read. getlnBoolean(). double. it’s input for which we really need it. but it turns out to be the safest thing to do in most programs. For these statements to be legal. without typing anything else first. Then it reads non-blank characters until it gets to the next space or carriage return. TextIO. the variables on the left side of each assignment statement must already be declared and must be of the same type as that returned by the function on the right side. the user’s input is interpreted as a true/false value.2. along with the carriage return at the end of the line. typed in by the user as the program is running. When it is called.4. Furthermore. or 0.getlnBoolean() to read the user’s response to a Yes/No question. TextIO. t. The second input function. all the extra characters will be discarded. boolean. line as a String. TextIO. you have to assign the return value of the function to a variable. input is done using functions. Here are examples of the ones that you are most likely to use: j y a c w s = = = = = = TextIO. TextIO. For TextIO. // // // // // // Reads Reads Reads Reads Reads Reads a value of type a value of type a value of type a value of type one "word" as a an entire input int.3 TextIO Input Functions The TextIO class is a little more versatile at doing output than is System. The first.getlnInt(). and your program never sees the first. yes. char. getlnDouble(). if the user types extra characters on the line after the input value. Note carefully that these functions do not have parameters. getlnWord(). no. which contains no characters at all. however. You will get this return value if the user simply presses return.getln(). y. TextIO includes several functions for reading different types of input values. Sometimes. You’ll notice that there are two input functions that return Strings.getlnWord(). When you call one of these functions. To “capture” that data so that you can use it in your program.out. All the other input functions listed—getlnInt(). 1.

which can output data values of any type. It will regard this as an error and will force the user to retype the number. you can look at the comments in the source code file. The computer can tell them apart based on the type of the parameter that you provide.peek().getBoolean(). To learn more about them. If the user typed a carriage return. You only need to follow the details if you want to do something fancy. For example.getAnyChar(). TextIO stores that line in the input buffer until the data on the line has been read or discarded (by one of the “getln” functions). Clearly. but will then save the rest of the input line in a chunk of internal memory called the input buffer . There is another character input function. the input routines don’t have parameters. it will look in the input buffer before prompting the user for input. it will see the comma. TextIO. (You might be wondering why there are only two output routines. This allows the computer to read several values from one line of the user’s input.40 CHAPTER 2. the semantics of input is much more complicated than the semantics of output! Fortunately. you should make sure that the user knows to separate them with spaces. while there is a separate input routine for each data type. print and println. However. Strictly speaking. TextIO. Alternatively.3”. so that you can take different actions depending on what’s there. TextIO. that although the TextIO input functions will skip past blank spaces and carriage returns while looking for input. TextIO. the computer will wait while the user types in an entire line of input. char. unless you really want to read several items from the same line of input. the computer will read the first number correctly. The TextIO class provides a number of other functions. Note. that lets you look ahead at the next character in the input without actually reading it. it will still be there when you read the next item from input. The next time the computer wants to read an input value. This allows you to look ahead and see what’s coming up in the input. boolean. they will not skip past other characters. It simply reads and returns the next character typed by the user. A function without the “ln” will read an input value in the same way. value of type String. by the way. one for each data type.getWord(). if you try to read two ints and the user types “2. use getChar() to read the comma before reading the second number. not commas.java. rather than the “get” versions. then the char returned by getAnyChar() is the special linefeed character ’\n’. double. In particular. There is also a function. As noted above. if you want to require a comma between the numbers. The user only gets to type when the buffer is empty. the computer actually reads only from the input buffer.getChar(). TextIO. it’s pretty straightforward in practice. NAMES AND THINGS than one value from the same line of input. TextIO.getDouble(). for the majority of applications. TextIO. The first time the program tries to read input from the user. TextIO provides the following alternative input functions to allow you to do this: j y a c w = = = = = TextIO. // // // // // Reads Reads Reads Reads Reads a value of a value of a value of a value of one "word" type type type type as a int. The names of these functions start with “get” instead of “getln”. even if it’s a blank or carriage return. “Getln” is short for “get line” and should remind you that the functions whose names begin with “getln” will get an entire line of data. precisely because the semantics of the “getln” versions is much simpler. in reality there are many print and println routines. but when it tries to read the second number. I strongly advise you to use the “getln” versions of the input routines.getInt(). After you “peek” at the next character. so the different input routines can only be . which does not skip past blanks or carriage returns. If you want to input several numbers from one line.

// The value of the investment.out. But the program’s output can be a number like 1050.58. not a percentage (for * example.putln(principal). It would be better if these numbers were printed as 1050. You can use the function System. interest = principal * rate.getlnDouble(). The result is a much more useful program—for one thing. // The annual interest rate. In general. This parameter is called the format string .05 rather than 5). we can now improve the program from Section 2. System. // Compute this year’s interest. A lot of formatting options are available. TextIO.2.put("Enter the initial investment: "). double rate. The first parameter is a String that specifies the format of the output.” is copied from the C and C++ programming languages.4 Formatted Output If you ran the preceding Interest2 example. TextIO. not percentage!): ").put("The value of the investment after one year is $").put("Enter the annual interest rate (decimal. (The name “printf.00 and 43. double interest. We can have the user type in the initial value of the investment and the interest rate. The * rate must be input as a decimal. // The interest earned during the year. it makes sense to run it more than once! /** * This class implements a simple program that will compute * the amount of interest that is earned on an investment over * a period of one year. */ public class Interest2 { public static void main(String[] args) { double principal.” which stands for “print formatted. } // end of main() } // end of class Interest2 2.0 or 43. The value of * the investment at the end of the year is output. Java 5. TextIO. TEXT INPUT AND OUTPUT distinguished by having different names. which have always had a similar formatting capability).0 introduced a formatted output capability that makes it much easier than it used to be to control the format of output numbers.4.printf to produce formatted output.out. The remaining parameters specify the values that . you might have noticed that the answer is not always written in the format that is usually used for dollar amounts. // Add it to principal. TextIO. I will cover just a few of the simplest and most commonly used possibilities here.2 for computing the value of an investment.) 41 ∗ ∗ ∗ Using TextIO for input and output. The initial amount of the investment * and the interest rate are input by the user. dollar amounts are written with two digits after the decimal point.printf takes two or more parameters. principal = principal + interest. 0. rate = TextIO.575.4.getlnDouble(). principal = TextIO.

A number. The function TextIO.” A format specifier such as %15.printf.) The letter “s” at the end of a format specifier can be used with any type of value.printf("The product of %d and %d is %d". where amount is a variable of type double: System. representing “6. the 8 gives the total number of digits in the answer. For example. Using TextIO.3f would specify a floating-point format with 3 digits after the decimal point.amount). (The “d. We say that the output is “right-justified in a field of length 12.2f.putf("%1.putf("%1. The “s” stands for “string.2f. x*y). if x and y are variables of type int. Similarly. The specifier %d means the same as %1d.” The value is not forced into 12 spaces. When this statement is executed. These extra characters are just copied to the output. if the value has more than 12 digits. In %1. the “2” specifies the number of digits to use after the decimal point. stands for “decimal” (base-10) numbers.out. the output will be in floating-point form for small values and in exponential form for large values. that is an integer will be printed using just as many spaces as necessary. which effectively means that just as many characters as are necessary should be used. It means that the value should be output in its default format. y. instead of TextIO. the value of x is substituted for the first %d in the string.00221415 times 10 raised to the power 23. with no extra spaces. the above example would be: TextIO. with the “8” telling how many digits to use after the decimal point. the format string in a printf statement can include other characters. in the Interest2 program to get the output in the right format. The “12” in %12d specifies the minimum number of spaces that should be used for the output. x. Here is a statement that will print a number in the proper format for a dollar amount.printf( "%1. amount ).out. the . You can use an “x” to output an integer value in hexadecimal form.2f". Some typical format specifiers are %d. The output format of a value is specified by a format specifier . The “1” specifies the (minimum) number of characters to output. such as the “10” in %10s can be added to specify the (minimum) number of characters.out. In addition to format specifiers.2". Every format specifier begins with a percent sign (%) and ends with a letter. %12. An “f”. %12d. In %1. that is with digits after the decimal point. extra blank spaces are added in front of the integer to bring the total up to 12.” by the way. just as it would be in unformatted output. and you could say TextIO. is used to output a number in “floating-point” form. The format specifiers for values of type double are even more complicated.8g.” meaning that the value is converted into a String value in the usual way.8g. the “d” specifies that an integer is to be written. including both the digits before the decimal point and the digits after the decimal point. The letter specifies the type of output that is to be produced. in %d and %12d.2f". %10s. NAMES AND THINGS are to be output. For example. %1.00221415e23.2f. all the digits will be printed. right-justified in a field of length 12.principal). %15. possibly with some extra formatting information in between. TextIO can also do formatted output. If the integer that is being output takes up fewer than 12 spaces.42 CHAPTER 2. as in %1. you could say System. Very large and very small numbers should be written in exponential format.putf has the same functionality as System. If you use “g” instead of “e”. such as 6.putln(principal).8e specifies an output in exponential form. This can be a convenient way to insert values into the middle of an output string.8e and %1. The format string (in the simple cases that I cover here) contains one format specifier for each of the values that is to be output.

email it to someone else. the current output destination is standard output. However. To write to a file named “result. we will see that it is possible to “catch” such errors and recover from them. and the value of the expression x*y for the third. its previous contents will be erased! In many cases. TextIO has some subroutines that can be used to change the current output destination. and so on.txt”: public class CreateProfile { public static void main(String[] args) { . and the user can print the file. TextIO has the ability to write data to files and to read data from files. When your program is reading from standard input. (Later. and they will allow you to get some experience with files sooner rather than later. when writing to files. and you can go back to reading from standard input with TextIO.readStandardInput().txt”. If illegal data is found when a program tries to read from a file. you can say TextIO. or you can let the user select the input file by saying TextIO. The file should be created in the same directory that contains the program. The advantage to this. For example. they are sufficient for many applications. The default input source is standard input. Nevertheless. You can also specify the input source for TextIO’s various “get” functions. you want to let the user select the file that will be used for output.4. When you write output using the put.txt") to read from a file named “data.4.txt").readFile("data.2. will open a typical graphical-user-interface file selection dialog where the user can specify the output file.) Errors can also occur. data can be written to a file that is stored on the user’s hard drive. You can use the statement TextIO. any output from TextIO output statements will be sent to the file named “result. After this statement is executed. As a simple example. TEXT INPUT AND OUTPUT 43 value of y for the second %d. The file I/O capabilities in TextIO are rather primitive by comparison.txt” instead. We will return to the topic later. here is a program that asks the user some questions and outputs the user’s responses to a file named “profile.out sends its output to the output destination known as “standard output. or putf method in TextIO. The statement TextIO.writeStandardOutput(). you would use the statement: TextIO. the user gets a chance to correct any errors in the input. the output is sent to the current output destination.readUserSelectedFile().writeUserSelectedFile().txt” instead of to standard output. This is not possible when the program is reading from a file.5 Introduction to File I/O System. so the output would be something like “The product of 17 and 42 is 714” (quotation marks not included in output!). is that the data is saved in the file even after the program ends. in Chapter 11. Note that if a file with the same name already exists.” But standard output is just one possible output destination. If you want to go back to sending output to standard output. an error occurs that will crash the program. though more rarely. A complete understanding of file input/output in Java requires a knowledge of object oriented programming. edit it with another program.writeFile("result. 2. putln. for example. By default. of course.

44 String String double String name. */ TextIO.txt").) Expressions are an essential part of programming. TextIO. The basic building blocks of expressions are literals (such as 674.5 This Details of Expressions section takes a closer look at expressions. TextIO. a variable. /* Write the user’s information to the file named profile. TextIO. TextIO. and function calls. .putln("Thank you. or several of these things combined with operators such as + and >. favorite color. "). salary). Recall that a function is a subroutine that returns a value.writeFile("profile. // subsequent output goes to the file TextIO. TextIO. a function call.getln().getlnDouble(). such as the input routines from the TextIO class and the mathematical functions from the Math class. Recall that an expression is a piece of program code that represents or computes a value.put("What is your email address? email = TextIO. // // // // The The the The user’s user’s user’s user’s CHAPTER 2. /* Gather responses from the user. TextIO. You’ve already seen some examples of functions. favColor. } } 2."). this is more common than you might think. TextIO.getln().putln("a few simple questions.putln("Email: " + email). The value of an expression can be assigned to a variable. these notes have dealt only informally with expressions. 3. ").put("What is your yearly income? salary = TextIO. */ TextIO. be ignored.putln(). and ’X’). if that’s what you want to do. // The "\n" in the previous line is a carriage return.txt. email. yearly salary. TextIO. TextIO.2f\n".getln(). salary.14."). email address. Your profile has been written to profile. This section tells you the more-or-less complete story (leaving out some of the less commonly used operators).putf("Yearly Income: %1. true. in some cases. or combined with other values into a more complicated expression. variables. TextIO. /* Print a final message to standard output. TextIO.putln("Name: " + name). NAMES AND THINGS name.writeStandardOutput(). used as a parameter in a subroutine call. if you will just answer"). ").putln("Good Afternoon! This program will create").txt.putln("your profile file. (The value can even. "). So far.putln("Favorite Color: " + favColor).put("What is your favorite color? favColor = TextIO. */ TextIO.put("What is your name? name = TextIO. An expression can be a literal.

and function calls are simple expressions. which would require an infinite number of digits to specify exactly. then the value of A % B will be negative. For example. > for comparing two values. and 50 % 8 is 2. A common use of % is to test whether a given integer is even or odd.) For example. We say that multiplication (*) has higher precedence than addition (+). If the default precedence is not what you want. the answer will be of the same type. the computer will convert one of the values from one type to another. you get an int. These operations can be used on values of any numeric type: byte. More generally. the value of 7/2 is 3. If your program tells the computer to combine two values of different types. If N is an integer variable. you can check whether an integer N is evenly divisible by an integer M by checking whether N % M is zero. DETAILS OF EXPRESSIONS 45 The Math class also contains a couple of mathematical constants that are useful in mathematical expressions: Math. and it is odd if N % 2 is 1. Java also has an operator for computing the remainder when one integer is divided by another.0.5. because the computer does it automatically. which takes the negative of a number. More complex expressions can be built up by using operators to combine simpler expressions.0. For example. They are indicated by +.0 and will then compute 37. and division. or double. 7 % 2 is 1. which determines how the operators are grouped for evaluation. you might need the unary minus operator. it is discarded. B*C is computed first and then the result is added to A. you get a double. int. but you have to be very careful when you use the division operator /. multiplication. while 34577 % 100 is 77.PI represents π (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter).E represents e (the base of the natural logarithms). -. so you get a real number as the answer. When the computer actually calculates one of these operations. Finally. when the computer evaluates 1. and Math. if the quotient has a fractional part. since if one of A or B is negative. not 3. They are only approximations for the mathematical constants.4 + 10. The rest of this section gives details of operators in Java. then A % B represents the remainder when A is divided by B. Most of the important ones are here. This is what you would expect. When two numerical values are combined (after doing type conversion on one of them. there is a question of precedence. for negative operands.5. long. Operators include + for adding two numbers.1 Arithmetic Operators Arithmetic operators include addition. For example. the two values that it combines must be of the same type. you can use parentheses to explicitly specify the grouping you want. Literals. If A and B are integers. Ordinarily. you could use “(A + B) * C” if you want to add A to B first and then multiply the result by C. N is even if N % 2 is zero.4 + 10. it first converts N to a real number in order to match the type of 1. and /. You can force the computer to compute a real number as the answer by making one of the operands real: For example. and I will not cover them all here. and so on. if you multiply two doubles.5. This is called a type conversion. For example. to compute 37. % is not quite the same as the usual mathematical “modulus” operator. if necessary). float. (However. 2. the computer will convert the integer 10 to a real number 10. subtraction. *. The number of operators in Java is quite large. you don’t have to worry about type conversion in expressions. and 1/N is equal to zero for any N greater than one! This fact is a common source of programming errors. When you divide two integers. These “constants” are actually member variables in Math of type double. then N/100 is an integer. If you multiply two ints. in the expression “A + B * C”. When several operators appear in an expression. a few will be covered in later chapters as they become relevant. . the answer will always be an integer. short.2.0/N. This operator is indicated by %. variables.

any type can be automatically converted into type String. so that it has the same effect as writing “x = x + 1”.putln(--x). you could write x-.3 Relational Operators Java has boolean variables and boolean-valued expressions that can be used to express conditions that can be either true or false. My advice is: Don’t be confused. 2.5.2 Increment and Decrement You’ll find that adding 1 to a variable is an extremely common operation in programming.”. NAMES AND THINGS For example. So if x is 6. Subtracting 1 from a variable is also pretty common. You might perform the operation of adding 1 to a variable with assignment statements such as: counter = counter + 1. The value assigned to y is the value of the expression x++. after the 1 is added. ++x. the statement “y = x++.(or --x) to subtract 1 from x. then the statement “y = ++x.only in stand-alone statements.” changes the values of both x and y to 7. not in expressions. compute the result of adding 1 to that value. goalsScored = goalsScored + 1. in addition. These statements are commands to change the value of x. Use ++ and -.are used in statements like “x++. 2. if the value of x is 6. if you prefer. ++x). One way to form a boolean-valued expression is . Usually. -X has the same value as (-1)*X.1. or --x as expressions. goalsScored++. The same operation can be accomplished by writing x++ (or. works in a similar way. Thus. z = (++x) * (y--). the value of ++x is defined to be the new value of x. The operators ++ and -. Java also has a unary plus operator.5.46 CHAPTER 2. However. y = ++x. On the other hand. you can write things like: y = x++.performs the same computation as x = x . which is defined to be the old value of x. Similarly.” or “x--. In Java. x-. For completeness. I will follow this advice in all the examples in these notes. as in +X. This actually changes the value of x. That is. and subtracting 1 is called decrementing . x--. recall that the + operator can also be used to concatenate a value of any type onto a String. This is another example of type conversion. Adding 1 to a variable is called incrementing that variable. the operators ++ or -. and store the answer as the new value of x. even though it doesn’t really do anything. The decrement operator. These operators can be used on variables belonging to any of the numerical types and also on variables of type char. assigning some value to y. --. By the way. TextIO. The effect of the assignment statement x = x + 1 is to take the old value of the variable x. That is.” has the effects of adding 1 to the value of x and. or as parts of larger expressions. The statement “y = x++. it is also legal to use x++. before the 1 is added. This can be confusing. The two statements above could be written counter++. respectively.are called the increment operator and the decrement operator. but it will change the value of y to 6 since the value assigned to y is the old value of x.” will change the value of x to 7.

The operators && and || are said to be short-circuited versions of the boolean operators. The result is true if both of the combined values are true. “And”. whether one value is greater than another. For example. The relational operators in Java are: ==. and the result is false if either of the combined values is false.” For example. ”. “If there is a test and you did not study for it. “A || B” is false only if both A and B are false.) The expression “A || B” is true if either A is true or B is true. you will see how to use them in loop and branch statements.2. Consider the test (x != 0) && (y/x > 1) . can you figure out what this does: boolean sameSign.4 Boolean Operators In English. rather than whether they contain the same value. This means that the second operand of && or || is not necessarily evaluated. (That’s supposed to be two of the vertical line characters. which were described in Section 2. !=. you should use the subroutines equals(). In the next chapter. you do want to make such a check—but rarely for strings. for some objects. and “not. The boolean operator “or” is represented by ||. In Java.3. complicated conditions can be formed using the words “and”. You can legally use == and != to compare Strings. For example. they might not give the results you want.) Instead. |. DETAILS OF EXPRESSIONS 47 to compare two values using a relational operator . “(x == 0) && (y == 0)” is true if and only if both x is equal to 0 and y is equal to 0. just as you can assign numeric values to numeric variables. >. . <=. 2. or if both are true. to compare two Strings. The meanings of these operators are: A A A A A A == B != B < B > B <= B >= B Is Is Is Is Is Is A A A A A A "equal to" B? "not equal to" B? "less than" B? "greater than" B? "less than or equal to" B? "greater than or equal to" B? These operators can be used to compare values of any of the numeric types. (The == operator checks whether two objects are stored in the same memory location. < and > are defined according the numeric Unicode values of the characters. there is nothing special about boolean values. and <= is to use them to compare values of type String. For characters. equalsIgnoreCase(). >. They can also be used to compare values of type char. the boolean operator “and” is represented by &&. and they exist in Java as well as in English. It is not the same as alphabetical order because all the upper case letters come before all the lower case letters. (This might not always be what you want. but because of peculiarities in the way objects behave.) When using boolean expressions. But you can also assign boolean-valued expressions to boolean variables. you should remember that as far as the computer is concerned. This is occasionally useful.5. The result is also a boolean value. and compareTo(). <. sameSign = ((x > 0) == (y > 0)). and “not” are boolean operators. and so forth. The && operator is used to combine two boolean values. Relational operators are used to test whether two values are equal. By the way. <=. and >=. I’ll get back to this in a later chapter. “or”. One thing that you cannot do with the relational operators <. “or”.5. Occasionally. . the operators == and != can be used to compare boolean values.

and it will assign the value (3*N+1) to next if N is odd.5. the division y/x is undefined mathematically. the type of the expression on the right-hand side of an assignment statement must be the same as the type of the variable on the left-hand side. A value of a type that occurs earlier in this list can be converted automatically to a value that occurs later. For example: next = (N % 2 == 0) ? (N/2) : (3*N+1). Without the shortcircuiting. In fact. it has three operands—and it comes in two pieces. short B. that have to be used together. int. it evaluates expression1 . long. double. it evaluates expression2 . So. otherwise. For example. Usually. it finds that the result is false. or from false to true. Java has the conditional operator. Therefore. = is really an operator in the sense that an assignment can itself be used as an expression or as part of a more complex expression. the computer will automatically convert the value computed by the expression to match the type of the variable. changing it from true to false. NAMES AND THINGS Suppose that the value of x is in fact zero. which uses the symbol “=” to assign the value of an expression to a variable. in some cases. However. I would say. The evaluation has been short-circuited and the division by zero is avoided.48 CHAPTER 2. (The parentheses in this example are not required. it is indicated by ! and is written in front of its single operand.) The boolean operator “not” is a unary operator. if test is a boolean variable. The value of an assignment such as A=B is the same as the value that is assigned to A. But at times. In that case. will assign the value N/2 to next if N is even (that is. it will make your programming life a little easier. 2. Consider the list of numeric types: byte. don’t do things like that! In general.. the computer will never perform the division. ? and :. double X.. since when the computer evaluates (x != 0). you could say: if ( (A=B) == 0 ). (This may seem like a technicality. For example: int A. . If the value is true. then test = ! test. if N % 2 == 0 is true). and it is. float. However. It’s a ternary operator—that is. will reverse the value of test. In Java. if you want to assign the value of B to A and test at the same time whether that value is zero. (y/x > 1). short. but they do make the expression easier to read. and so it knows that ((x != 0) && anything) has to be false.) 2.5.5 Conditional Operator Any good programming language has some nifty little features that aren’t really necessary but that let you feel cool when you use them. there would have been a division by zero. It takes the form boolean-expression ? expression1 : expression2 The computer tests the value of boolean-expression .6 Assignment Operators and Type-Casts You are already familiar with the assignment statement. it doesn’t bother to evaluate the second operand.

(However.5. 2. Thus.) Java has several variations on the assignment operator. Since str += x is equivalent to str = str + x. and 5.9999. short B. However. you might want to force a conversion that wouldn’t be done automatically. However. you should note that you might change the numeric value of a number by type-casting it. (for integers x and y) (for booleans q and p) The combined assignment operator += even works with strings. . we can add 1: “(int)(6*Math. when += is used with a string on the left-hand side. In some cases. .random() gives a real number between 0. (The -31072 is obtained by taking the 4-byte int 100000 and throwing away two of those bytes to obtain a short—you’ve lost the real information that was in those two bytes. in parentheses. For example. it appends the value on the right-hand side onto the string. 1. /= y. * y. 3. A is converted to a double // illegal.random()) is one of the integers 0. if str has the value “tire”. *= y. since the largest value of type short is 32767. and (int)’+’ is 43. then the statement str += ’d’.0 and 0. . there are int values that lie outside the legal range of shorts. % y. a type conversion from char to int is automatic and does not have to be indicated with an explicit type cast. for example.random() is between 0. For example. DETAILS OF EXPRESSIONS A = 17. . Recall that when the + operator is used with a string as one of the operands. %= y. For example. 4. no automatic conversion // from int to short The idea is that conversion should only be done automatically when it can be done without changing the semantics of the value. . You can also type-cast between the type char and the numeric types. A type cast is indicated by putting a type name. . in front of the value you want to convert. (int)(6*Math. A = 17. . A is explicitly type cast // to a value of type short You can do type casts from any numeric type to any other numeric type. can be used to convert this to an integer: (int)(6*Math.0 and 5. / y. The numeric value of a char is its Unicode code number. and so 6*Math. B = (short)A. // // // // // same same same same same as: as: as: as: as: x x x x q = = = = = x x x x q . To get a number between 1 and 6. For example. Every operator in Java that applies to two operands gives rise to a similar assignment operator. A real number is cast to an integer by discarding the fractional part.random()). // OK. 49 // OK. For example. && p. which exist to save typing. Any int can be converted to a double with the same numeric value.999. For example: x x x x q -= y. For this. you can use what is called a type cast. B = A.) As another example of type casts. (short)100000 is -31072. (char)97 is ’a’. changes the value of str to “tired”.2. The function Math. &&= p. int A. The type-cast operator. “A += B” is defined to be the same as “A = A + B”. (int). consider the problem of getting a random integer between 1 and 6. it represents concatenation.y. X = A. There is simply no way to represent the int 100000 as a short.random()) + 1”.

&& || ?: =. <. the standard class named Double includes a function Double. +.14. The valueOf function is part of the enum type. HEART } then the name of the type conversion function would be Suit.parseInt does not represent a legal int value. unary .and +. or enums. if str is any expression of type String. the parameter used in Double. >= != +=. in practice.) Here is a listing of the operators discussed in this section. For example. CLUB.parseDouble that tries to convert a parameter of type String into a value of type double.42e-2" into the double value 0.parseDouble("3. For example.valueOf("CLUB") would be the enumerated type value Suit.valueOf.CLUB. (Enumerated types. if an enum Suit is defined as enum Suit { SPADE. (Recall that since int is not a class.14") is the double value 3. -=.3. If the parameter to Integer. Similarly. and if you don’t use parentheses to explicitly indicate the order of evaluation. <=. then an error occurs. This is a function that takes a string as parameter and tries to convert it to a value belonging to the enum. these conversions are handled by built-in functions. For the conversion to succeed. then you have to worry about the precedence rules that determine the order of evaluation. a predefined function named valueOf is automatically defined for that type. % >. listed in order from highest precedence (evaluated first) to lowest precedence (evaluated last): Unary operators: Multiplication and division: Addition and subtraction: Relational operators: Equality and inequality: Boolean and: Boolean or: Conditional operator: Assignment operators: ++. NAMES AND THINGS 2. In Java.50 CHAPTER 2. ==. %= . the value of Integer. there are some other cases where you might want to convert a value of one type into a value of a different type.parseInt(str) is a function call that attempts to convert the value of str into a value of type int.8 Precedence Rules If you use several operators in one expression. (Advice: don’t confuse yourself or the reader of your program. DIAMOND.) For any enum type.) In particular.) Type conversion functions also exist for converting strings into enumerated type values. *. For example. /=.5.parseInt would be a variable or expression rather than a constant string. so the name of the enum is part of the full name of the function.parseDouble or Integer. type-cast /.parseInt("10") is the int value 10. --. the string must exactly match the simple name of one of the enumerated type constants (without the “Suit. (Of course. int itself can’t contain any subroutines or variables. One common example is the conversion of a String value into some other type. There is a standard class named Integer that contains several subroutines and variables related to the int data type. The value of the function call Suit. the value of the function call Double.3. use parentheses liberally. then Integer.5. were introduced in Subsection 2.7 Type Conversion of Strings In addition to automatic type conversions and explicit type casts. !.1742. 2. *=.” in front). such as converting the string "10" into the int value 10 or the string "17.

sun. If a JDK is installed on your computer. given that the value of B=C as an expression is the same as the value that is assigned to B?) 2. at least in a command line environment. while the remaining operators are evaluated left-to-right.0 (or higher). unary operators and assignment operators are evaluated right-to-left. and I can’t cover them all here. Mac OS comes with Java. If you need to download and install the JDK. where the user types commands and the computer responds. I cannot give complete or definitive information on Java programming environments in this section. you might still need a JDK. As of June.5 is 5. You need a JDK for use with this textbook. The Development Kit includes the Runtime and adds to it the JDK which lets you compile programs. but it does not allow you to compile your own Java programs.jsp. PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS 51 Operators on the same line have the same precedence. and an integrated development environment (IDE).6. compiling. (Can you see how the expression A=B=C might be useful. Note that J2SE comes in two versions. but you might still need to download the JDK. but some of the information that is presented will apply to other IDEs as well.com/javase/downloads/index.6. Some IDEs depend on the JDK.2. If you have a Windows computer. Confusingly..sun. of course). A*B/C means (A*B)/C.0 is sometimes referred to as JDK 1. Inc. The version included with Mac OS 10.6 Programming Environments Although the Java language is highly standardized. There are many IDEs. where the user uses the keyboard and mouse to interact with a graphical user interface. Some versions of Linux come with the JDK either installed by default or on the installation media.0 is installed by recent software updates.0 (or higher). For example.0. Java was developed by Sun Microsystems. While there is just one common command line environment for Java programming. When operators of the same precedence are strung together in the absence of parentheses. one of the most popular IDEs for Java programming.5 instead of 5. One thing to keep in mind is that you do not have to pay any money to do Java programming (aside from buying a computer. I will concentrate on Eclipse. you can use the command line environment to compile and run Java programs. The Runtime can be used to run Java programs and to view Java applets in Web pages. so even if you plan to use an IDE for programming. the Java 2 Platform Standard Edition. This book requires J2SE version 5. 2. the JDK that is part of J2SE version 5. which makes its JDK for Windows and Linux available for free download at its Java Web site. Everything that you need can be downloaded for free on the Internet.com.1 Java Development Kit The basic development system for Java programming is usually referred to as the JDK (Java Development Kit). but 6. . the procedures for creating. but I will try to give enough information to let you compile and run the examples from this textbook. There are two basic approaches: a command line environment .0. the current version of the JDK is JDK 6. and editing Java programs vary widely from one programming environment to another. it might have come with a Java Runtime. 2009. while A=B=C means A=(B=C). a Development Kit version and a Runtime version. java. It is a part of J2SE. and it can be downloaded from http://java. be sure to get JDK 5. there is a wide variety of IDEs.

there are several possibilities. and java is used to run Java stand-alone applications. If a JDK is correctly installed on your computer. For example. including Konsole. you can find it in the directory named source. You can change the current directory using the cd command with the name of the directory that you want to use. When the window first opens. For example. it means that a Java Runtime is installed rather than a Development Kit. where all your files are stored. Of course. it can be found in the “Accessories” submenu of the Start menu. You should create a directory (that is. it will display a prompt of some sort. When you want to work on programming. ∗ ∗ ∗ The most basic commands for using Java on the command line are javac and java . The computer will carry out the command. (On Windows. Alternatively. you want to run the Terminal program. (The words “directory” and “folder” mean the same thing. To use a command line programming environment. and will then redisplay the prompt so that you can type another command. displaying any output in the command window.) Often. type in the command cd Desktop and press return. but “javac” does not. you can have more than one working directory for your Java work. It is certainly very different from the graphical user interfaces that most people are used to.) To test the javac command. (If you downloaded the Web site of this book.java on the book’s Web site and use the “Save As” command in your Web browser to save a copy of the file into your working directory.) Type the command: . In Mac OS. the name of the current directory is part of the command prompt. the current directory is your home directory . However. One of the central concepts in the command line environment is the current directory which contains the files to which commands that you type apply. which can be be found in the Utilities folder inside the Applications folder. In Linux. you can use your computer’s GUI to copy-and-paste this file into your working directory. No matter what type of computer you are using.java into your working directory. it takes only a little practice to learn the basics of the command line environment and to become productive using it. a folder) to hold your Java work. Type in a command at the prompt and press return. open a command window and enter the command cd javawork to change into your work directory. you can navigate to TextIO. In recent versions of Windows. Try typing the commands java -version and javac -version which should tell you which version of Java is installed. If the “java” command works. when you open a command window. You can get a list of the files in the current directory by typing in the command dir (on Windows) or ls (on Linux and Mac OS).” then Java is not correctly installed. under the name “Command Prompt”. you can open such a command window by running the program named cmd . place a copy of TextIO. you will have to open a window where you can type in commands. See the JDK installation instructions for information about how to do this. If you get a message such as “Command not found. you can organize your files any way you like. it should recognize these commands when you type them in on the command line.52 CHAPTER 2. gterm . create a directory named javawork in your home directory. You can do this using your computer’s GUI. you need to modify the Windows PATH variable to make this work. Alternatively. NAMES AND THINGS 2. and xterm . javac is used to compile Java source code. after installing the JDK. you can run cmd by using the “Run Program” feature in the Start menu.2 Command Line Environment Many modern computer users find the command line environment to be pretty alien and unintuitive. to change into your Desktop directory. and entering “cmd” as the name of the program. In Windows. another way to do it is to open a command window and enter the command mkdir javawork.6.

To create your own programs. as discussed above. Word processor documents are not appropriate. such as by double-clicking its icon or selecting it from a Start menu. but you will probably want something better. That’s really all there is to it: Keep both editor and command-line window open. Then you can execute the program using the command java Interest2 Be careful to use just the name of the program. copy sample program Interest2. When you give this command. you will see the command prompt.java and will create a bytecode file named TextIO. PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS javac TextIO. You will be asked to enter some information.class in the same directory.6. If there are syntax errors in the code. compile the program with the command javac Interest2. (It’s usually a good idea to just work on the first few errors. Linux comes with several text editors. you can use notepad in a pinch. and you can enter another command. That command will be introduced later in the book. To test the java command. and the rest of the file name must match the name of the class that is defined in the file. they will be listed in the command window. sometimes fixing those will make other errors go away.java Remember that for this to succeed. and then try the javac command again. pressing return at the end of the line. First. Interest2. Type your code into the editor window. save. A good text editor can make programming a lot more pleasant. TextIO must already be in the same directory. Note that if the command succeeds.2. a good programmer’s text editor that is itself written in Java and that can be downloaded for free from www. Go back to the editor and try to fix the errors. and you will respond by typing your answers into the command window. Edit. ∗ ∗ ∗ To create your own programs. When you start work with applets. It is important that the documents be saved as plain text. you will not get any response from the computer. save your changes. as described above. go to the command window and use the javac command to compile it. you will get no message at all. One possibility that will work on any platform is to use jedit. Save the file. that is without any special encoding or formatting information.org.) Remember that when the javac command finally succeeds. Then you can use the java command to run your program. Each error message contains the line number in the file where the computer found the error. You can follow the same procedure to run all of the examples in the early sections of this book. you will need a different command to execute the applets. the program will run.jedit. you can run it as many times as you like without recompiling it.java 53 This will compile TextIO. A text editor is a computer program that allows you to create and save documents that contain plain text. you might download the free TextWrangler application. On Windows. For Mac OS. (Always remember to save . you should open a command line window and cd into the working directory where you will store your source code files. Once you’ve compiled the program. When the program ends. or open an existing source code file that you want to modify. Start up your text editor program. and compile until you have eliminated all the syntax errors. you will need a text editor . it will just redisplay the command prompt to tell you it’s ready for another command. not the name of the Java source code file or the name of the compiled class file.java from this book’s source directory into your working directory.java”. Remember that the name of a Java source code file must end in “. Once the file is saved in your working directory. unless you can get your word processor to save as plain text.

Eclipse requires a JDK. The first time you start Eclipse. Netbeans can be downloaded from www. The whole set of views is called a perspective.” Another popular choice of IDE is Netbeans. not the version in the editor window. and I won’t say much about it here. that is different sets of views of different types of information. The Eclipse GUI consists of one large window that is divided into several sections. and recent versions of Mac OS. which will contain a list of your Java projects and source code files.” The Java perspective includes a large area in the center of the window where you will create and edit your Java programs. you have to go back to the edit/save/compile loop to try to find and fix the problem. It that case. When startup is complete. NAMES AND THINGS the file before compiling it—the compiler only sees the saved file. compile. and Sun offers download bundles that include Netbeans along with the JDK.6. you will be asked to specify a workspace. can be overwhelming. there is a danger in using an IDE.0 (or higher) is installed on your computer. You can download the “Eclipse IDE for Java Developers. You can accept the default name. for different tasks. I generally use the Eclipse IDE. you can get it back by selecting it form . Furthermore.org. you can get back to it later by choosing “Welcome” from the “Help” menu. The only perspective that you will need is the “Java Perspective.54 CHAPTER 2. I like Netbeans a little less than Eclipse. And even though it has many advanced features.netbeans. you might find that it has semantic errors that cause it to run incorrectly. 2. on top of the difficulty of learning to program.org/. with a graphical user interface that will be familiar to most computer users. Eclipse is itself written in Java. Each view displays a different type of information. If there are several views in one section. there there will be tabs at the top of the section to select the view that is displayed in that section. as described above. However. You can close this screen. Eclipse uses different perspectives. which provides many of the same capabilies as Eclipse. since the difficulty of learning to use the IDE. however. Eclipse has a variety of features that are very useful for a beginning programmer. or provide one of your own. Windows. quite similar to Eclipse. and run programs is integrated into a single package. To the right are some other views that I don’t find this very useful. Each section contains one or more views. Several other views that will be useful while you are compiling and running programs appear in a section of the window below the editing area. It is. You should make sure that JDK 5.3 IDEs and Eclipse In an Integrated Development Environment. Eclipse is used by many professional programmers and is probably the most commonly used Java IDE. If you accidently close one of the important views. including Linux. and I suggest that you close them by clicking the small “X” next to the name of each view. such as the Package Explorer. for my own programming. and I introduce my students to it after they have had some experience with the command line. Eclipse can be downloaded for free from www. To the left of this is the Package Explorer view. the Eclipse window will be filled by a large “Welcome” screen that includes links to extensive documentation and tutorials.eclipse. before you install Eclipse. There are many different IDEs for Java program development.4 (or higher) to run. by clicking the “X” next to the word “Welcome”.) When you run the program.4. ranging from fairly simple wrappers around the JDK to highly complex applications with a multitude of features. For a beginning programmer. so it works on any computer platform that supports Java 1. It requires Java 1. its design makes it possible to use Eclipse without understanding its full complexity. everything you need to create. which is the directory where all your work will be stored.

The class name must be a legal Java identifier. you can find a copy of TextIO.java. it will appear in the editing area of the Eclipse window. and select “Java Application”. you can navigate to the file on-line and use the “Save As” command of your Web browser to save a copy of the file onto your computer. To start a Java project. It also contains the “JRE System Library”. The easiest way to get TextIO into your project is to locate the source code file on your computer and drag the file icon onto the project name in the Eclipse window.6. you can use an alternative version of TextIO. right-click the project name in the Eclipse window.) In the window that pops up. Assuming that you use the default settings. The class should appear inside the “default package. you must create a new Java class. (There is also a small icon in the toolbar that you can click to start a Java project. this is the collection of standard built-in classes that come with Java. go to the “New” submenu in the “File” menu. type in the name of the class. it is only necessary to fill in a “Project Name” for the project and click the “Finish” button. The project should appear in the “Package Explorer” view. TextIO should appear in the src dirctory of your project. copy the source code file into your Eclipse Java project in the same way that you did for TextIO. In the menu that pops up. so that the characters that you type will be sent to the correct part of the window. Once a file is in this list. (Note that if you don’t like doing I/O in the “Console” view.2.java to your project. rightclick the file name in the Package Explorer view (or control-click in Mac OS). right-click the Java project name in the “Project Explorer” view. PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS the “Show View” submenu of the “Window” menu. under the editing area. and select “Paste”. You can find this “GUI” version of TextIO in a directory named TextIO-GUI inside this textbook’s source directory. Remember to place a copy of TextIO. If you find that you have to use it.) You can have more than one program in the same Eclipse project. you can open it by double-clicking it.) In any case. using the file import window is rather complicated. If the program uses TextIO for input. If you also have trouble with that. not the name of the source code file. and select “Class”. and click the “Finish” button. To do this. The program will be executed. Note that you want the name of the class. select “File system” in the window that pops up. If that doesn’t work. Go to the “New” submenu of the popup menu. go to the “Run As” submenu. you need a project. ∗ ∗ ∗ To create your own Java program. Alternatively.” and it should automatically open . you can try using copy-and-paste: Right-click the file icon (or control-click on Mac OS). click “Next”.java in the source directory. or you can create additional projects to organize your work better. inside a package named “default package”.” which is where your Java source code files will go. To run the TextIO based examples from this textbook. and provide the necessary information in the next window. (Unfortunately. you must add the source code file TextIO. To run the program.java that opens a separate window for I/O. select “Copy” from the pop-up menu. and select the “Java Project” command. you should consult the Eclipse documentation about it. so don’t add “. Click on the small triangle next to the project name to see the contents of the project. If you have downloaded the Web site of this book. there should be a directory named “src. 55 ∗ ∗ ∗ To do any work in Eclipse.java in any project that requires it. The project name can be anything you like. In the window that opens.java” at the end of the name. you will have to type the required input into the “Console” view—click the “Console” view before you start typing. To run any of the Java programs from this textbook. you can try using the “Import” command in the “File” menu. the output will appear in the “Console” view. If the program writes to standard output.

For example. Note that you do not have to get rid of every error immediately as you type. and are re-compiled whenever you modify them. some IDEs might force you to pay attention to packages. by right-clicking its name in the Package Explorer and using “Run As / Java Application”. If you use Netbeans instead of Eclipse. You can actually use this error-correcting feature to get Eclipse to write certain types of code for you! Unfortunately. and you can create your own classes by right-clicking the project name and selecting New/Java Class.” and pause for just a fraction of a second. NAMES AND THINGS in the editing area so that you can start typing in your program. Click the light bulb to get a list of possible fixes. Eclipse has several features that aid you as you type your code. Eclipse will offer to declare it for you. It will underline any syntax error with a jagged red line. Note that using Eclipse. and in some cases will place an error marker in the left border of the edit window. and turn off the “Enable auto activation” option. I have chosen to use it anyway. 2. Classes that are not explicitly put into a different package are in the “default” package. you will get a list of identifiers that start with the characters that you have typed. . (Look under Java / Editor / Code Assist. If you hover the mouse cursor over the error marker. Once you have an error-free program. make changes. when you type a period or certain other characters. at least at first.5. if you type “TextIO. when you create a New Java Class.” Eclipse is offering to try to fix the error for you. Code Assist will also pop up automatically. Almost all the examples in this textbook are in the default package. you’ll find that you won’t understand a lot of the proposed fixes until you learn more about the Java language. If you find a problem when you run it.” One thing that you have to watch with Netbeans is that it might want to create classes in (non-default) packages. if you use an undeclared variable in your program. you can run it as described above. right-click the file that contains the main routine. You can add an existing source code file to a project by dragging the file onto the “Source Packages” folder in the project. Another nice Eclipse feature is code assist. By default.6.56 CHAPTER 2. If an error marker displays a small “light bulb. if you type part of an identifier and hit Control-Space. since it seems easier for beginning programmers to avoid the whole issue of packages. it’s very easy to go back to the editor. and I will not even discuss packages in any depth until Section 4. use the up and down arrow keys to select one of the items in the list. and select the “Run File” command. the procedures are similar. You still have to create new project (of type “Java Application”). When you create a class in Eclipse. To run a program. and press Return or Enter. It will offer possible completions of whatever you are typing at the moment. Code assist can be invoked by typing ControlSpace. You can disable it in the Eclipse Preferences.” Although this is true. some errors will go away as you type in more of the program. and it is not usually a good idea to apply a fix that you don’t understand. However. make sure that the “Package” input box is left blank. you might notice a message that says that “The use of the default package is discouraged.) You can still call up Code Assist manually with Control-Space.) If there is only one possible completion when you hit Control-Space.4 The Problem of Packages Every class in Java is contained in something called a package. Personally. you will get a list of all the subroutines in the TextIO class. Netbeans has a “Code Completion” feature that is similar to Eclipse’s “Code Assist. The source code files in your project are automatically compiled. it will be inserted automatically. For example. there is no explicit “compile” command. (Or hit Escape to dismiss the list. a description of the error will appear. I find this auto-activation annoying. and run it again. then double click the fix that you want to apply. For example. after a short delay.

pkg. If you create a class in a package. By the way.6. you should be in the main directory. like Netbeans. PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS 57 Some IDEs. the example should run in the same way as if it were in the default package. However. Nevertheless. the source code starts with a line that specifies which package the class is in. The command for executing the program is then “java test. In an IDE. then the source code file must be in a subdirectory named pkg inside a directory named “test” that is in turn inside your main Java working directory.pkg. if you copy TextIO. you will not need to worry about any of that when working with almost all of the examples in this book. if you use packages in a command-line environment. You can put TextIO in a non-default package. this will not cause any problem unless the program you are writing depends on TextIO. . when you compile or execute the program.java” on Linux or Mac OS. you have to include the name of the directory in the command: Use “javac test/pkg/ClassName. When you compile the source code file. then the first line of the source code will be package test. using the same package name as the program.java is modified to specify the package.) Once you’ve done this. just add a package statement to the beginning of the file.pkg.2. other complications arise. not in a subdirectory. For example. as long as the source code file TextIO. if a class is in a package named test.java into a non-default package. You will not be able to use TextIO in a program unless TextIO is in the same package as the program. (The IDE might do this for you.ClassName”.java” on Windows. or “javac test\pkg\ClassName. For example. if the class is in a package named test. with a period separating the package name from the class name. might be even less willing than Eclipse to use the default package.pkg.

You can simulate rolling one die by choosing one of the integers 1. then your program would respond with Your number of eggs is 9 gross. how many dozen.58 CHAPTER 2. convert it to upper case letters. Write a program that will print your initials to standard output in letters that are nine lines tall. 3 dozen. then the output would look something like: ****** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ***** ************* ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **** ********** ** ** ** ******** ** ** ** ********** 2. Then the program should tell the user how much money he has. with N%12 eggs left over. if your initials were “DJE”. 5. if the user’s name is Fred. then how many pennies. or 6 at random. and 10 . 2. The expression (int)(Math. 4. For example. FRED. For example. Extend your program so that it will tell the user how many gross.random()*6) + 1 does the computation you need to select a random integer between 1 and 6. Write a program that helps the user count his change. A gross of eggs is equal to 144 eggs. nice to meet you!”. and then greets the user by name. and how many left over eggs she has. Your program should report the number showing on each die as well as the total roll. You can assign this value to a variable to represent one of the dice that are being rolled. Each big letter should be made up of a bunch of *’s. then you have N/12 dozen eggs. then the program should respond “Hello. If you have N eggs. Write a program that simulates rolling a pair of dice. Do this twice and add the results together to get the total roll. then how many dimes. 3. 5. Before outputting the user’s name. Write a program that asks the user’s name. then how many nickels. The program should ask how many quarters the user has. expressed in dollars. As pointed out in Section 2. NAMES AND THINGS Exercises for Chapter 2 1. For example: The first die comes up 3 The second die comes up 5 Your total roll is 8 3. if the user says that she has 1342 eggs.) Write a program that asks the user how many eggs she has and then tells the user how many dozen eggs she has and how many extra eggs are left over.5. For example. (This is essentially the definition of the / and % operators for integers. 4. The number you pick represents the number on the die after it is rolled.

59 6. The integers are the student’s scores on three exams. The average is obtained by adding up the individual exam grades and then dividing by the number of exams.txt” contains the following information: The first line of the file is the name of a student. Write a program that will read the information in the file and display (on standard output) a message the contains the name of the student and the student’s average grade on the three exams.Exercises since 1342 is equal to 9*144 + 3*12 + 10. . Each of the next three lines contains an integer. Suppose that a file named “testdata.

” and the statement “x = TextIO. In Java. 3. which assigns various colors to the characters in a program to reflect the syntax of the language. classes have two fundamentally different purposes. The student asks why String should be a different color. A student notices that Eclipse colors the word String differently from int. What are assignment statements used for? 7. since all these words are names of types. What is the boolean type? Where are boolean values used? What are its possible values? 5.getDouble(). What is a type. What does the computer do when it executes a variable declaration statement.” 11. Give an example to illustrate the difference between a syntax error and a semantics error. Explain why the value of the expression 2 + 3 + "test" is the string "5test" while the value of the expression "test" + 2 + 3 is the string "test23". 2. What is the value of "test" + 2 * 3 ? 12. NAMES AND THINGS Quiz on Chapter 2 1. Give an example.60 CHAPTER 2. Give the meaning of each of the following Java operators: a) b) c) ++ && != 6.getlnDouble(). and give an example. What are they? 10. double. Integrated Development Environments such as Eclipse often use syntax coloring . Briefly explain what is meant by the syntax and the semantics of a programming language. What is meant by precedence of operators? 8. One of the primitive types in Java is boolean. Explain what is meant by an assignment statement. and boolean. as this term relates to programming? 4. What’s the answer to the student’s question? . What is the difference between the statement “x = TextIO. What is a literal? 9.

complexity is provided by control structures. how can you come up with a program to solve that problem? We’ll look at a partial answer to this question in Section 3. and subroutine call statements—were covered in the previous chapter.2. there are just six such structures that are used to determine the normal flow of control in a program—and. Starting with this chapter. Java includes several control structures of each type. The six control structures are: the block . Each of these structures is considered to be a single “statement. in fact. just three of them would be enough to write programs to perform any task. In Java. 3. expressions.” but each is in fact a structured statement that can contain one or more other statements inside itself. On this level. assignment statements. the for loop.1 The Blocks. and Branches ability of a computer to perform complex tasks is built on just a few ways of combining simple commands into control structures. the while loop. Its purpose is simply to group a sequence of statements into a single statement. loops and branches.Chapter 3 Programming in the Small II: Control The basic building blocks of programs—variables. This chapter will also begin the study of program design. Since we are still working on the level of “programming in the small” in this chapter. Loops.. and we will look at each of them in some detail. we look at how these building blocks can be put together to build complex programs with more interesting behavior. and the switch statement.while loop. Given a problem.1. the if statement. 3. can be used to repeat a sequence of statements over and over or to choose among two or more possible courses of action.1 Blocks The block is the simplest type of structured statement. The format of a block is: { statements } 61 . the do. The two types of control structures. we are interested in the kind of complexity that can occur within a single subroutine.

} { // This block exchanges the values of x and y int temp. So. // Copy the value of y into x. which is . There is one place where a block is required: As you might have already noticed in the case of the main subroutine of a program. a variable.1. They can be divided into two classes: loop statements and branching statements. since it is a sequence of statements enclosed inside a pair of braces. However. (In fact. where their purpose is to group together several statements into a unit. There is a general concept called the “scope” of an identifier. The scope of an identifier is the part of the program in which that identifier is valid.) Block statements usually occur inside other statements. Of course.out. it is possible for a block to contain no statements at all. and can actually be useful at times. The scope of a variable defined inside a block is limited to that block. In this section.62 CHAPTER 3.print("The answer is ").2 The Basic While Loop The block statement by itself really doesn’t affect the flow of control in a program.println(ans). A variable declared inside a block is completely inaccessible and invisible from outside that block. // A temporary variable for use in this block. the definition of a subroutine is a block. Here are two examples of blocks: { System. An empty block consists of nothing but an empty pair of braces. The five remaining control structures do. a block can be legally used wherever a statement can occur. I’ll give the full details of these statements and of the other three control structures in later sections. made available for reuse). for example. But as a matter of good programming style. // Copy the value of temp into y. temp. and more specifically to the part of the block that comes after the declaration of the variable. and it is good style to declare a variable inside a block if that variable is used nowhere else but inside the block. it’s not likely that you would want to keep repeating it forever. I’ll introduce the while loop and the if statement. CONTROL That is.out. In general. More than that is just convenience. that memory is discarded (that is. 3. } In the second example. it allocates memory to hold the value of the variable. y = temp. There are no syntax rules about how the language has to be arranged on a page. is declared inside the block. x = y. That would be an infinite loop. you should lay out your program on the page in a way that will make its structure as clear as possible. This is perfectly legal. “{” and “}”. When the computer executes the variable declaration statement. You really just need one control structure from each category in order to have a completely general-purpose programming language. This is the format that I will generally use in my examples. When the block ends. A while loop is used to repeat a given statement over and over. it consists of a sequence of statements enclosed between a pair of braces. you could write an entire block on one line if you want. temp = x. // Save a copy of the value of x in temp. this means putting one statement per line and using indentation to indicate statements that are contained inside control structures. System. I should probably note again at this point that Java is what is called a free-format language. such a block is called an empty block . The variable is said to be local to the block.

Here is an example of a while loop that simply prints out the numbers 1. which yields either true or false as the value.println("Done!"). it re-evaluates the boolean-expression . It continues in this way until eventually number becomes equal to 6. who read instructions on a bottle of shampoo telling her to “lather. it evaluates the boolean-expression .out. rinse. 4. By the way. A while loop has the form: while ( boolean-expression ) statement Since the statement can be. so the computer executes the loop again. the computer skips over the rest of the while loop and proceeds to the next command in the program. this time printing out 2 as the value of number and then changing the value of number to 3. So. a while loop will repeat a statement over and over. the expression “number < 6” evaluates to false. If the value of the expression is true. while ( number < 6 ) { // Keep going as long as number is < 6. // Go on to the next number.1. when the computer evaluates the expression “number < 6”. it is asking whether 1 is less than 6. This is an improvement over examples from the previous chapter that just reported the results for one year: . the computer jumps past the end of the loop to the next statement and prints out the message “Done!”. The second statement adds 1 to number and stores the result back into the variable number. // The number to be printed. Then it returns to the beginning of the while loop and repeats the process. As an example of a while loop used inside a complete program. (In case you don’t get it. At that point.3. AND BRANCHES 63 generally a bad thing. The variable number is initialized with the value 1. BLOCKS. This will continue over and over until the value of the expression is false.println(number). // Start with 1. 3. So the first time through the while loop. The first statement prints out “1”. System. 2.)) To be more specific. you should remember that you’ll never see a while loop standing by itself in a real program. (There is an old story about computer pioneer Grace Murray Hopper. this is a joke about the way that computers mindlessly follow instructions. if that never happens. 5: int number. That is. the value of number is 6. The computer therefore proceeds to execute the two statements inside the loop.” As the story goes. Once again this is true. Note that when the loop ends. a block. and continues it if the value is true. LOOPS. number = 1. but the last value that was printed was 5. many while loops have the form: while ( boolean-expression ) { statements } The semantics of this statement go like this: When the computer comes to a while statement. here is a little program that computes the interest on an investment over several years. If the value is false. repeat. but only so long as a specified condition remains true. The computer has reached the end of the loop. she claims that she tried to follow the directions. } System.out. then there will be an infinite loop. so it returns to the beginning and asks again whether number is less than 6. ends the loop if the value is false. number = number + 1. and usually is. which is true. the computer executes the statement or block of statements inside the loop. the value of number has been changed to 2. but she ran out of shampoo. It will always be inside a subroutine which is itself defined inside some class.

// Interest for this year.out. The value of the investment at the end of each year is output.println().print(" years is $"). // Count the current year. CHAPTER 3. An if statement has the form: . */ public static void main(String[] args) { double principal.getlnDouble(). System. */ int years.2f". System.put("Enter the initial investment: "). and make sure that you understand what the computer does step-by-step as it executes the while loop. principal = principal + interest.1.out. depending on whether the value of a given boolean-valued expression is true or false.64 public class Interest3 { /* This class implements a simple program that will compute the amount of interest that is earned on an investment over a period of 5 years.out.3 The Basic If Statement An if statement tells the computer to take one of two alternative courses of action. The initial amount of the investment and the interest rate are input by the user. System.out. rate = TextIO.put("Enter the annual interest rate: "). System. CONTROL // The value of the investment. /* Simulate the investment for 5 years.out. */ TextIO. // Add it to principal. 3. // Counts the number of years that have passed. } // end of while loop } // end of main() } // end of class Interest3 You should study this program. It is an example of a “branching” or “decision” statement. interest = principal * rate. // The annual interest rate. /* Get the initial investment and interest rate from the user.print("The value of the investment after ").printf("%1. System. double rate. years = 0.print(years). principal = TextIO. TextIO. while (years < 5) { double interest. principal).getlnDouble(). years = years + 1.

out. but only if x is greater than y to begin with. Save a copy of the value of x in temp. x and y. } // // // // A temporary variable for use in this block. LOOPS. BLOCKS. The two statements represent alternative courses of action.3. you want the computer to choose between doing something and not doing it.print("The value of the investment after "). it evaluates the boolean expression.1. either or both of the statement ’s in an if statement can be a block. then the computer skips the first statement and executes the second one. System. if the value is false. the computer executes the first statement and skips the statement that follows the “else”. Of course.print(years). one and only one of the two statements inside the if statement is executed. here is an if statement that exchanges the value of two variables. } else { // handle case for 1 year . the computer decides between these courses of action based on the value of the boolean expression. Copy the value of temp into y. You can do this with an if statement that omits the else part: if ( boolean-expression statement ) To execute this statement. After this if statement has been executed. Note that in any case.out.out. If the value is true. here is an example of an if statement that includes an else part. Copy the value of y into x. y = temp. the computer executes the statement that is contained inside the if statement. the computer skips that statement . AND BRANCHES if ( boolean-expression statement else statement ) 65 When the computer executes an if statement. In many cases. System. and why it would be used: if ( years > 1 ) { // handle case for 2 or more years System.print(" years is $"). so that an if statement often looks like: if ( boolean-expression statements } else { statements } ) { or: if ( boolean-expression statements } ) { As an example. See if you can figure out what it does. temp = x. we can be sure that the value of x is definitely less than or equal to the value of y: if ( x > y ) { int temp. x = y. Finally. If the value is true. If the value of the expression is false. the computer evaluates the expression.

The steps of the algorithm don’t have to be filled in in complete detail. but it’s the idea of the steps the program will take to perform its task. step-by-step procedure for carrying out the task. unambiguous. and take that description as an outline of the algorithm you want to develop.2. often with a lot of thought and hard work. An algorithm is more like the idea behind the program. as long as the steps are unambiguous and it’s clear that carrying out the steps will accomplish the assigned task. This method is called stepwise refinement. they have to be developed. You might also have some subroutines. Then you can refine and elaborate that description. do people write any but the most simple programs? It’s not a big mystery. // this is done in any case I’ll have more to say about control structures later in this chapter.66 CHAPTER 3. A programmer starts with a general idea of a task for the computer to perform. I’ll talk here about some techniques and guidelines that are relevant to “programming in the small. principal). and input/output routines. the programmer has some idea of how to perform the task by hand. When you write a program.2 Algorithm Development Programming is difficult (like many activities that are useful and worthwhile—and like most of those activities. until you have a complete algorithm that can be translated directly into programming language. since the computer will blindly follow your program exactly as written. One way to proceed is to write a description of the task. So. then. and it is a type of . gradually adding steps and detail.print("The value of the investment after 1 year is $"). at least in general outline.2f". (Input/output routines fall into this class. Simple looping and branching are all you really need! 3. The problem is to flesh out that outline into a complete.out. If you never learned anything more about control structures.1 Pseudocode and Stepwise Refinement When programming in the small. where do algorithms come from? Usually. objects. An algorithm can be expressed in any language. CONTROL System. Skill at algorithm development is something that comes with practice. not just the idea of the task itself.) You can build sequences of these basic instructions. or other building blocks that have already been written by you or someone else. step-by-step procedure that terminates after a finite number of steps. you have to tell the computer every small detail of what to do. but there are techniques and guidelines that can help.” (Technically. A program is written in some particular programming language. A program is an expression of an idea. and you can also combine them into more complex control structures such as while loops and if statements. including English.) An algorithm is not the same as a program. Of course. you have a few basics to work with: variables. you would already know enough to perform any possible computing task. Suppose you have a task in mind that you want the computer to perform.out. Presumably. an algorithm can only be expressed as a program if all the details have been filled in. 3. And you have to get everything exactly right. an algorithm is an unambiguous.” and I will return to the subject several times in later chapters. actually. we don’t want to count procedures that go on forever. it can also be rewarding and a lot of fun). } // end of if statement System. But you already know the essentials. assignment statements.printf("%1. How. Such a procedure is called an “algorithm. It’s a matter of learning to think in the right way.

And seeing that repetition. “Get the user’s input” into Ask the user for the initial investment Read the user’s response Ask the user for the interest rate Read the user’s response To fill in the details of the step “Compute the value after the next year. you might notice an opportunity to use a loop. (Maybe you need to ask your boss or professor for clarification?) Let’s say you know that the value is computed by adding some interest to the previous value. where the initial investment and interest rate are to be specified by the user. A loop would take less typing. the only way that we can do that is by counting the years ourselves. ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 67 top-down design. let’s see how one might develop the program from the previous section. and you should expect to use something similar in a lot of programs: We have to start with zero years. which computes the value of an investment over five years.” We can expand the step. So.3.” You might then write—or at least think—that this can be expanded as: Get the Compute Display Compute Display Compute Display Compute Display Compute Display user’s input the value of the investment after 1 year the value the value after 2 years the value the value after 3 years the value the value after 4 years the value the value after 5 years the value This is correct. The task that you want the program to perform is: “Compute and display the value of an investment for each of the next five years. you can write out descriptions of your algorithm in pseudocode—informal instructions that imitate the structure of programming languages without the complete detail and perfect syntax of actual program code.” how to “Compute the value after the next year. but for a computer.” and what it means to say “there are more years to process. As you proceed through the stages of stepwise refinement. Then we can refine the while loop to: while there Compute Add the Display are more years to process: the interest interest to the value the value As for testing whether there are more years to process. you might rewrite the above sequence of steps as: Get the user’s input while there are more years to process: Compute the value after the next year Display the value Following this algorithm would certainly solve the problem.2. we’ll have to be more explicit about how to “Get the user’s input.” you have to know how to do the computation yourself. This displays a very common pattern. add one each . More important. but rather repetitive. it would be more general: Essentially the same loop will work no matter how many years you want to process. As an example.

Putting this together with the part of the algorithm that gets the user’s inputs.print("Type interest rate: "). Let’s say that the interest is to be computed by multiplying the interest rate by the current value of the investment. We still have to choose names for the variables. years = 0. and it really needs to print out more information in a nicer format for the user. System. after the loop ends. rate. principal = principal + interest. The nasty thing is that the computer won’t notice this error for you. while (years < 5) { years = years + 1.out. the only statement inside the loop would be “years = years + 1. interest.". The parentheses are required by the syntax of . But it’s essentially the same program as the one in the previous section. So the while loop becomes: years = 0 while years years = Compute Add the Display < 5: years + 1 the interest interest to the value the value We still have to know how to compute the interest. we are at the point where we can translate pretty directly into proper programminglanguage syntax. decide exactly what we want to say to the user. interest = principal * rate. we could express our algorithm in Java as: double principal. and stop when we reach the desired number of years. (Note that the pseudocode algorithm uses indentation to show which statements are inside the loop. // declare the variables int years.out. we have the complete algorithm: Ask the user for the initial investment Read the user’s response Ask the user for the interest rate Read the user’s response years = 0 while years < 5: years = years + 1 Compute interest = value * interest rate Add the interest to the value Display the value Finally. Having done this.print("Type initial investment: "). and so forth.println(principal). The other statements would only be executed once. indentation is completely ignored by the computer. principal = TextIO. } This still needs to be wrapped inside a complete program. If you leave out the braces.getlnDouble(). System. like it would if you left out the parentheses around “(years < 5)”. In Java.out. System. so you need a pair of braces to tell the computer which statements are in the loop. rate = TextIO. it still needs to be commented.68 CHAPTER 3. CONTROL time we process a year.getlnDouble().

2.3. ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 69 the while statement. So. Then. For example. and count each number in the sequence. Output N. we’ll start with a more complete specification of the task to be performed: “Given a positive integer. 5. Count this term. “Write a program that will read a positive integer from the user and will print out the 3N+1 sequence starting from that integer. This time. we multiply by 3 and add 1. print. you should make sure you have a complete specification of exactly what the program is supposed to do. . stopping when we reach 1. We continue in this way. The assignment here is an abstract mathematical problem that is one of my favorite programming exercises. we can expand our pseudocode algorithm to: Get a positive integer N from the user. Each year. Output the number of terms. The braces are only required semantically. 4. then multiply N by 3 and add 1. 8. In particular. Assume that the initial value and the rate of interest are to be input by the user when the program is run. interest is added to the value. we divide by 2. define the ’3N+1’ sequence starting from N as follows: If N is an even number. 16. The computer can recognize syntax errors but not semantic errors. 1. giving N = 10/2 = 5. The program should also count and print out the number of terms in the sequence. To put this in terms appropriate for a while loop. since N is even. starting from N = 3. we want to continue as long as the number is not 1. Before you start writing a program. working this time with a program that you haven’t already seen. Compute. The interest is computed by multiplying the current value by a fixed interest rate. you need to know what information the program is going to input and output and what computation it is going to perform. since we want to keep computing numbers until we get 1. which is odd.) One thing you should have noticed here is that my original specification of the problem— “Compute and display the value of an investment for each of the next five years”—was far from being complete. We’ll need a loop. The bulk of the program is in the second step.2.2 The 3N+1 Problem Let’s do another example.2. N. 10. while N is not 1: Compute N = next term. Continue to generate numbers in this way until N becomes equal to 1. giving the complete sequence: 3. Here is what a reasonably complete specification of the problem might look like in this example: “Write a program that will compute and display the value of an investment for each of the next five years.” 3. giving N = 3*3+1 = 10. Output the number of terms. but if N is odd.” A general outline of the algorithm for the program we want is: Get a positive integer N from the user. then divide N by two.

you add one. Output the counter. The one problem that remains is counting. it’s possible that the user might type in a negative number or zero. (Again. The first while loop will end only when N is a positive number. else Compute N = 3 * N + 1.70 CHAPTER 3. We still have to worry about the very first step. Output N. ask the user to input another value. (A common beginning programmer’s error is to use an if statement instead of a while statement here: “If N is not positive. this is a common pattern that you should expect to see over and over. We are almost there. while N is not 1: if N is even: Compute N = N/2. One way to fix this is to keep reading in numbers until the user types in a positive number: Ask user to input a positive number.” The problem arises if the second . In this case. while N is not 1: if N is even: Compute N = N/2.) With the counter added. Read another value for N. Counting means that you start with zero. else Compute N = 3 * N + 1. else Compute N = 3 * N + 1. the problem is probably no big deal. Output the counter. the computer must take different actions depending on whether N is even or odd. you’ll see that the program will go on forever. Output the number of terms. as required. and every time you have something to count. Add 1 to counter. Let counter = 0. while N is not 1: if N is even: Compute N = N/2. Add 1 to counter. Output N. CONTROL In order to compute the next term. How can we get a positive integer from the user? If we just read in a number. If you follow what happens when the value of N is negative or zero. but in general you should try to write programs that are foolproof. This is bad. We need an if statement to decide between the two cases: Get a positive integer N from the user. We need a variable to do the counting. Count this term. we get: Get a positive integer N from the user. while N is not positive: Print an error message. since the value of N will never become equal to 1. Output N. Let N be the user’s response. Let counter = 0.

The problem (if it is one!) can be fixed easily enough. so the second input number is never tested. The if statement is only executed once.getlnInt(). and it will continue asking for numbers until the user enters an acceptable input.put(counter). */ public class ThreeN1 { public static void main(String[] args) { int N. Just replace the line “counter = 0” before the while loop with the two lines: . we know that N > 0 counter = 0. ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT 71 number input by the user is also non-positive.putln(). after the second number is input. It also counts the number of * terms in the sequence.putln(N). while (N <= 0) { TextIO. TextIO. N = TextIO. } } // end of main() // end of class ThreeN1 Two final notes on this program: First. Was the specification of the program careful enough to decide? This is the type of thing that might send you back to the boss/professor for clarification. It uses the operators <= to mean “is less than or equal to” and != to mean “is not equal to. TextIO. If not. All the operators used here were discussed in Section 2.” To test whether N is even. TextIO. Is this an error? It’s hard to say. counter = counter + 1. while (N != 1) { if (N % 2 == 0) N = N / 2.put("Starting point for sequence: "). With the while loop.put("There were "). } TextIO. N = TextIO. and prints out that number.").) Here is a Java program implementing this algorithm. else N = 3 * N + 1.putln(" terms in the sequence.5. Please try again: "). you might have noticed that the first term of the sequence—the value of N input by the user—is not printed or counted by this program. // for counting the terms TextIO.3. the computer jumps back to the beginning of the loop and tests whether the second number is positive. } // At this point. it uses “N % 2 == 0”. TextIO. /** * This program prints out a 3N+1 sequence starting from a positive * integer specified by the user. // for computing terms in the sequence int counter.getlnInt().put("The starting point must be positive.2. it asks the user for a third number.

When your program compiles without error. having developed an algorithm for your program. there is the question of why this problem is at all interesting. no matter how careful you are. it’s not very good about telling you exactly what’s wrong. and get a perfectly working program. and the rest of the error messages might just be guesses. which is not true for a variable of type int in a Java program. it’s not even good about telling you where the real error is. with 500 newly written lines of code that have an error in there somewhere. You might even have to write some extra code to do the testing—for example to call a subroutine that you’ve just written. If you change the program. In general. Well.3 Coding. For example. To put this another way. when faced with an unreasonable input. so you don’t have to struggle to remember whether you called that variable interestrate or interestRate. Unfortunately. After program design comes coding: translating the design into a program written in Java or some other language. Unfortunately. it can get confused. I never type a “{” without typing the matching “}”. you could relax.) 3. The goal is a program that will work correctly for all reasonable inputs. Usually. while a compiler will always detect syntax errors. Debugging It would be nice if. Try to find a set of inputs that will test the full range of functionality that you’ve coded into your program.72 TextIO. write them in stages and test each stage along the way. change the indentation to match. A spelling error or missing “{” on line 45 might cause the compiler to choke on line 105. it’s often only working in the sense that it does something. if you can avoid it. As you begin writing larger programs.2. press a button. You can avoid lots of errors by making sure that you really understand the syntax rules of the language and by following some basic programming guidelines. the process of turning an algorithm into Java source code doesn’t always go smoothly. when the compiler gives multiple error messages. // print out initial term // and count it CHAPTER 3. Once the compiler hits an error in your program. Ideally. Maybe the best advice is: Take the time to understand the error before you try to fix it. it will respond by gently chiding the user rather than by crashing. Programming is not an experimental science. You don’t want to be faced. Unfortunately not what you want it to do. You have to test the program to make sure it works correctly. Use a consistent naming scheme. no one has been able to answer the general question. Always. It’s worth the trouble. and the Java compiler will reject your program with some kind of error message. Testing. you are still not done. don’t try to fix the second error message from the compiler until you’ve fixed the first one. A missing or extra brace can be one of the hardest errors to find in a large program. Test your program on a wide variety of inputs. And when you do get to the stage of a working program. a few syntax errors will creep in from somewhere. Sometimes. no one knows whether the process of computing 3N+1 sequences can properly be called an algorithm. since an algorithm is required to terminate after a finite number of steps! (This discussion assumes that the value of N can take on arbitrarily large integer values.putln(N). it’s interesting to mathematicians and computer scientists because of a simple question about the problem that they haven’t been able to answer: Will the process of computing the 3N+1 sequence finish after a finite number of steps for all possible starting values of N? Although individual sequences are easy to compute. Remember that the goal is not to get the right output for the two sample inputs that the professor gave in class. . Then I go back and fill in the statements between the braces. always indent your program nicely. CONTROL Second. counter = 1.

and you want to know the value of important variables. This is hard. but no one has found a way to avoid them altogether. Debugging is a skill that. Remember that the goal is to find the first point in the program where the state is not what you expect it to be. You have to track down the cause of the bug in the program’s source code and eliminate it.out. Once you’ve detected a bug. step-by-step—to see what it really does. you will find that the computer isn’t even getting to a part of the program that you think it should be executing. N = "+ N). A breakpoint is a point in the program where the debugger will pause the program so you can look at the values of the program’s variables. I can still remember the time I spent hours looking for a bug only to find that a line of code that I had looked at ten times had a “1” where it should have had an “i”. Typically. it’s time for debugging . remember the golden rule of debugging: If you are absolutely sure that everything in your program is right. So don’t be afraid of bugs. The debugger will also let you execute your program one line at a time..while statement in this section. WHILE AND DO. 3.while Statements Statements in Java can be either simple statements or compound statements. such as assignment statements and subroutine call statements. And the sad fact is that you will probably find them. Compound statements. and if it still doesn’t work. so that you can watch what happens in detail once you know the general area in the program where the bug is lurking. Often. You need to be able to tell from the output where in your program the output is coming from. At the same time. Most programming environments come with a debugger . The idea is to track down exactly when things start to go wrong during the program’s execution. then one of the things that you are absolutely sure of is wrong. Learn from them. And finally. The debugger allows you to set “breakpoints” in your program. or the time when I wrote a subroutine named WindowClosing which would have done exactly what I wanted except that the computer was looking for windowClosing (with a lower case “w”).3.3 The while and do. Again.. are used to organize simple statements into complex structures. your program can be run under the control of the debugger. are the basic building blocks of a program. That’s where the bug is. a debugging statement would say something like System. like other aspects of programming. it’s a problem just to find the part of the program that contains the error. The next five sections explore the details of control structures that are available in Java. which is a program that can help you find bugs. you can minimize bugs by careful design and careful coding.3. which are called control structures because they control the order in which the statements are executed. starting with the while statement and the do.WHILE 73 The point of testing is to find bugs—semantic errors that show up as incorrect behavior rather than as compilation errors. A more traditional approach to debugging is to insert debugging statements into your program. requires practice to master. I will confess that I only rarely use debuggers myself. such as while loops and if statements. Sometimes. we’ll look at examples of programming with each control structure and apply the techniques for designing algorithms . Typically. Simple statements.println("At start of while loop. These are output statements that print out information about the state of the program. Sometimes it can help to have someone who doesn’t share your preconceptions look at your code.. One essential debugging skill is the ability to read source code—the ability to put aside preconceptions about what you think it does and to follow it the way the computer does—mechanically.

1. we have to do something before the while loop to make sure that the test makes sense.1 The while Statement while ( boolean-expression statement ) The while statement was already introduced in Section 3. A while loop has the form The statement can. and only then can the loop end. There are a few points that might need some clarification. Setting things up so that the test in a while loop makes sense the first time it is executed is called priming the loop.74 that were introduced in the previous section. The body of the loop is repeated as long as the boolean-expression is true. before the body of the loop has ever been executed. or more simply the test. Let’s look at a typical problem that can be solved using a while loop: finding the average of a set of positive integers entered by the user. because the computer continues executing the body of the loop until it gets to the end. CHAPTER 3. we can simply read the first integer before the beginning of the loop. So now the test in the while loop becomes “while the input integer is not zero”. so testing whether the input integer is zero doesn’t make sense. of the loop. so zero is not a legal data value. be a block statement consisting of several statements grouped together between a pair of braces. The program will ask the user to enter one integer at a time. but it becomes false somewhere in the middle of the loop body? Does the loop end as soon as this happens? It doesn’t. This boolean expression is called the continuation condition. What happens if the condition is false in the first place. Here is a revised algorithm: Let sum = 0 Let count = 0 Read an integer while the integer is not zero: . no integer has yet been read. CONTROL 3. The average is the sum of the integers. A data value used in this way is sometimes called a sentinel value. But there is another problem! The first time the test is evaluated. What happens if the condition is true. the body of the loop is never executed at all. The body of a while loop can be executed any number of times. Only then does it jump back to the beginning of the loop and test the condition. So. This statement is called the body of the loop. Here is a pseudocode algorithm for the program: Let sum = 0 Let count = 0 while there are more integers to process: Read an integer Add it to the sum Count it Divide sum by count to get the average Print out the average But how can we test whether there are more integers to process? A typical solution is to tell the user to type in zero after all the data have been entered. and it will keep a running total of all the numbers it has read so far. The zero is not itself part of the data to be averaged. This will work because we are assuming that all the data are positive numbers.3. of course. divided by the number of integers. There is no “input integer” yet. In this case. It will keep count of the number of integers entered. before the body of the loop is executed even once? In that case. including zero. It’s just there to mark the end of the real data.

One other issue is addressed by the program: If the user enters zero as the first input value. even if it could have been made to work without priming. the computer reads a new integer. sum of the positive integers. (The zero is not counted as part of the data to * be averaged. and it is not counted. Such so-called off-by-one errors are very common. Since an integer is read before the loop. The type cast “(double)sum” converts the value of sum to a real number.3. .”. Here is the program: /* * This program reads a sequence of positive integers input * by the user. double average. and it will print out the average of those * integers. the sum would still be correct. (Since the sentinel is zero. It is not added to the sum. This might seem like a minor point. /* Initialize the summation and counting variables. The user must enter a 0 to mark the end of the * data.” to compute the average. was incorrect since it would have summed and counted all the integers. // // // // One The The The of the integers input by the user. This is the way it’s supposed to work.) The program does not check whether the * user’s input is positive. int sum. The user is prompted to enter one integer at a * time. The computer then jumps back to the beginning of the loop and tests the integer that it has just read. the loop has to begin by processing that integer. so in the program the average is computed as “average = ((double)sum) / count. there are no data to process. Since sum and count are both variables of type int. the loop ends before the sentinel value is processed. */ public class ComputeAverage { public static void main(String[] args) { int inputNumber.. Counting turns out to be harder than it looks!) We can easily turn the algorithm into a complete program.WHILE Add the integer to the sum Count it Read an integer Divide sum by count to get the average Print out the average 75 Notice that I’ve rearranged the body of the loop. the value of sum/count is an integer. This can be done by type-casting one of the variables to type double. We can test for this case by checking whether count is still equal to zero after the while loop. At the end of the loop. int count. We’ve seen this problem before: we have to convert one of the int values to a double to force the computer to compute the quotient as a real number. Note that when the computer finally reads the sentinel value. average of the positive integers. WHILE AND DO. but the count would be off by one.3. The sentinel is not part of the data. but a careful programmer should cover all the bases. number of positive integers. Note that the program cannot use the statement “average = sum/count. The average should be a real number. including the sentinel. so it will actually work for * both positive and negative input values. The original algorithm. Another solution in this case would have been to declare sum to be a variable of type double in the first place. */ sum = 0.

at the very end. the computer first executes the body of the loop—that is. or.getlnInt(). while (inputNumber != 0) { sum += inputNumber.. the statement can be a block.while statement has the form do statement while ( boolean-expression ).putln("You didn’t enter any data!"). } else { average = ((double)sum) / count.3f. The do.putln("You entered " + count + " positive integers. TextIO. or 0 to end: "). If the value of the expression is true.putln().2 The do. ’. */ CHAPTER 3. TextIO. has been moved to the end. /* Read and process the user’s input. . the statement or statements inside the loop—and then it evaluates the boolean expression. it ends the loop and continues with the next part of the program. the computer returns to the beginning of the do loop and repeats the process.\n".3. every statement in Java ends either with a semicolon or a right brace. inputNumber = TextIO. TextIO.while Statement Sometimes it is more convenient to test the continuation condition at the end of a loop.) To execute a do loop. except that the word “while.’.while statement is very similar to the while statement. A do."). as usual.. (More generally. count++. } /* Display the result..putf("Their average is %1. // Add inputNumber to running sum.put("Enter your first positive integer: "). TextIO. The word “do” is added to mark the beginning of the loop. This semicolon is part of the statement. CONTROL TextIO. Note the semicolon. */ if (count == 0) { TextIO. Omitting it is a syntax error. as is done in the while loop. // Count the input by adding 1 to count.” along with the condition that it tests.getlnInt(). } } // end main() } // end class ComputeAverage 3. ’}’.put("Enter your next positive integer.76 count = 0. instead of at the beginning. average). inputNumber = TextIO. do { statements } while ( boolean-expression ). if the value is false. since. just as the semicolon at the end of an assignment statement or declaration is part of the statement.

and you can write “if (!flag)” instead of “if (flag == false)”.playGame(). Testing whether “wantsToContinue == true” is true amounts to the same thing as testing whether “wantsToContinue” is true.getlnBoolean(). Although a do. where ! is the boolean negation operator. the algorithm can be coded as boolean wantsToContinue. WHILE AND DO.3. and vice versa. } while (wantsToContinue == true). Let’s convert this into proper Java code. Since I don’t want to talk about game playing at the moment. consider the following pseudocode for a game-playing program. // True if user wants to play again. having two kinds of loops does not make the language more powerful. if doSomething represents any block of program code. TextIO. do { Checkers. the pseudocode “Play a game” can be expressed as the subroutine call statement “Checkers. Any problem that can be solved using do. let’s say that we have a class named Checkers. a more-than-usually-pedantic programmer would sneer at the test “while (wantsToContinue == true)”. The do loop makes sense here instead of a while loop because with the do loop... For example.WHILE 77 Since the condition is not tested until the end of the loop. you know there will be at least one game. In fact. This test is exactly equivalent to “while (wantsToContinue)”. The value of “flag == false” is exactly the same as the value of “!flag”. When a boolean variable is used in this way—as a signal that is set in one part of the program and tested in another part—it is sometimes called a flag or flag variable (in the sense of a signal flag). Also. The input function TextIO. it is a signal that the loop should end. So. “Yes” is considered to be true. Then.playGame(). A little less offensive is an expression of the form “flag == false”. then do { doSomething } while ( boolean-expression ).3.put("Do you want to play again? ").while loops can also be solved using only while statements. So you can write “while (!flag)” instead of “while (flag == false)”.while statement is sometimes more convenient than a while statement. We need a variable to store the user’s response. where flag is a boolean variable.getlnBoolean() allows the user to enter the value as “yes” or “no”. The TextIO class makes it convenient to use a boolean variable to store the answer to a yes/no question.”. wantsToContinue = TextIO. When the value of the boolean variable is set to false. the body of a do loop is always executed at least once. and that the Checkers class contains a static member subroutine named playGame() that plays one game of checkers against the user. and “no” is considered to be false.. has exactly the same effect as . the test that is used at the end of the loop wouldn’t even make sense at the beginning: do { Play a Game Ask user if he wants to play another game Read the user’s response } while ( the user’s response is yes ). By the way.

"). The computer evaluates this expression and checks whether the value is true or false. jump out of loop break.) A break statement terminates the loop that immediately encloses the break statement. (The first line of this loop. without changing the meaning of the program in any way. it is more natural to have the test in the middle of the loop. where one loop statement is contained inside another. So “while (true)” can be used to write an infinite loop.. the computer will print out “Your answer must be > 0.3 break and continue The syntax of the while and do. It then continues on to whatever follows the loop in the program. Consider for example: while (true) { // looks like it will run forever! TextIO. The condition in a while loop can be any boolean-valued expression. Otherwise.3.putln("Your answer must be > 0. It’s called the break statement. 3. The boolean literal “true” is just a boolean expression that always evaluates to true. “while (true)” might look a bit strange.while loops allows you to test the continuation condition at either the beginning of a loop or at the end. while ( boolean-expression doSomething } ) { can be replaced by if ( boolean-expression ) { do { doSomething } while ( boolean-expression } ). When the computer executes a break statement in a loop. Java provides a general method for breaking out of the middle of any loop.78 doSomething while ( boolean-expression doSomething } CHAPTER 3.getlnInt().put("Enter a positive number: "). the break statement will be executed and the computer will jump out of the loop. Sometimes. If you use a break statement inside a nested loop. CONTROL ) { Similarly. } // continue here after break If the number entered by the user is greater than zero. if (N > 0) // input is OK. or one that will be terminated by a break statement. which takes the form break. TextIO. it will immediately jump out of the loop. It is possible to have nested loops. but it’s perfectly legitimate. N = TextIO. it will only break out of that loop. not out of .” and will jump back to the start of the loop to read another input value. or to have several tests at different places in the same loop.

for loops actually outnumber while loops. 3. break and continue can be used in while loops and do. // Assume s1 and s2 have no chars in common.” to break out of the labeled loop. They can also be used in for loops.length()) { j = 0. Labels work like this: You can put a label in front of any loop. There is something called a labeled break statement that allows you to specify which loop you want to break. but in that case. .length()) { if (s1. THE FOR STATEMENT 79 the loop that contains the nested loop. which are covered in the next section. a “labeled continue” can be used to continue the containing loop instead.. it breaks out of the loop or switch statement that contains the if statement. i = 0.j. bigloop: while (i < s1. a for loop can be easier to construct and easier to read than the corresponding while loop. so I will go over it quickly. nothingInCommon = false. while (j < s2. A continue statement tells the computer to skip the rest of the current iteration of the loop. Inside this loop you can use the labeled break statement “break mainloop. nothingInCommon = true. // break out of BOTH loops } j++. //Go on to the next char in s1. For example.charAt(i) == s2. A label consists of a simple identifier followed by a colon. However. // Go on to the next char in s2. For example. // Variables for iterating through the chars in s1 and s2. A break can occur inside an if statement. when a continue is in a nested loop. In Section 3.6. here is a code segment that checks whether two strings. } The continue statement is related to break. } i++.4. break bigloop. a while with a label might look like “mainloop: while.charAt(j)) { // s1 and s2 have a comman char. and a labeled break is used to end the processing at that point: boolean nothingInCommon. As with break.4 We The for Statement turn in this section to another type of loop. This is not very common.3. It’s quite possible that in real programs.. Instead. instead of jumping out of the loop altogether. it does not mean to break out of the if. the for statement. but less commonly used.while loops. int i. so the language doesn’t get any additional power by having for statements.. A similar consideration applies to continue statements inside ifs. then the if statement cannot legally contain a break. have a character in common.”. If a common character is found. If the if statement is not contained inside a loop or switch. we’ll see that break can also be used to break out of a switch statement. the value of the flag variable nothingInCommon is set to false. Any for loop is equivalent to some while loop. it jumps back to the beginning of the loop and continues with the next iteration (including evaluating the loop’s continuation condition to see whether any further iterations are required). it will continue the loop that directly contains it. s1 and s2. But for a certain type of problem.

continuation condition. // initialize the variable years while ( years < 5 ) { // condition for continuing loop interest = principal * rate. } // update the value of the variable. principal += interest. such as a break statement. If the continuation condition is empty.println(principal). CONTROL 3.” so the loop will be repeated forever or until it ends for some other reason. it is treated as if it were “true. years This loop can be written as the following equivalent for statement: for ( years = 0. before the loop begins. Many while loops have the general form: initialization while ( continuation-condition statements update } ) { For example. continuation-condition . The update can also be any expression. update statements } ) { The continuation-condition must be a boolean-valued expression. which helps makes the loop easier to read and understand. The update part is executed at the end of each execution of the loop.1 For Loops The for statement makes a common type of while loop easier to write. using a block statement: for ( initialization .4.println(principal).)” instead of “while (true)”. (Some people like to begin an infinite loop with “for (. The continuation condition is executed before each execution of the loop.) . The initialization can be any expression. but is usually an increment. update statement ) or.80 CHAPTER 3. continuation-condition . and the loop ends when this condition is false. The formal syntax of the for statement is as follows: for ( initialization . and updating have all been combined in the first line of the for loop. consider this example. a decrement. Any of the three can be empty. This keeps everything involved in the “control” of the loop in one place. } The initialization. // do three statements System. // years++. years++ ) { interest = principal * rate. years < 5. The for loop is executed in exactly the same way as the original code: The initialization part is executed once. // principal += interest. just before jumping back to check the condition. System.2: years = 0.. copied from an example in Section 3.out. or an assignment statement.out. but is usually an assignment statement.

2.out. The value of the variable is tested in the continuation condition. 16. j). . The for loop at the beginning of this section is a counting loop in which the loop control variable. 3. rather than a “<=”. . j=10. .println( N ). let’s say that we want to use a for loop that prints out just the even numbers between 2 and 20. // Output i in a 5-character wide column. where a loop control variable takes on all integer values between some minimum and some maximum value. and they tend to use a “<” in the condition. . Certainly. 18. Using < instead of <= in the test.out. years. } As a final example. // and end the line. the loop control variable is years. and continue as long as the variable is greater than or equal to one. TextIO. is a common source of off-by-one errors in programs. 1. min +1. 10. or vice versa. here are four different solutions (three of which would get full credit): . in which the numbers 1. takes on the values 1. Just start with 10. 4.) { TextIO. In the for statement given above. 9: for ( N = 0 .putf("%5d". . j-. i <= 10. 8. THE FOR STATEMENT 81 Usually. Java programmers like to start counting at 0 instead of 1. Here is an even simpler example. in fact.4. and the update changes the value of that variable with an assignment statement or with an increment or decrement operation. N++ ) System.putf("%5d". 5. i++. .3.) System. the initialization part of a for statement assigns a value to some variable. . . You should always stop and think. N <= 10 . The value of the loop control variable is often used in the body of the loop. // Output j in a 5-character column TextIO. A variable used in this way is called a loop control variable. 12. 14. The variable takes on the values min .putln(). statements } variable <= max . and the loop ends when this condition evaluates to false. i).out. the most common type of for loop is the counting loop. The following variation of the above loop prints out the ten numbers 0. . that is: 2. N++ ) System. There are several ways to do this. For various reasons. 4. 2. Now. N-. .println( N ). . max . min +2. the official syntax of a for statemenent actually allows both the initialization part and the update part to consist of several expressions. 20.println( N ). decrement the loop control variable instead of incrementing it. Just to show how even a very simple problem can be solved in many ways. 10 are displayed on standard output: for ( N = 1 . A counting loop has the form for ( variable = min . So we can even count up from 1 to 10 and count down from 10 to 1 at the same time! for ( i=1. N >= 1 . 6. variable ++ ) { where min and max are integer-valued expressions (usually constants). separated by commas. Do I want the final value to be processed or not? It’s easy to count down from 10 to 1 instead of counting up. for ( N = 10 . 2. . N < 10 .

. 19...out. and that includes the loop control variable in a for statement.. A statement must be inside the main routine of a program or inside some other subroutine.println(). 3. N++) { System. Here.. .print(ch). char ch. . N <= 20. And that subroutine must be defined inside a class. ch++ ) System.print("2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20"). // one of the letters to be printed. for (N = 2.. N++) { System. } (2) // // // // Use a for loop that counts 2. 20. . N++) { if ( N % 2 == 0 ) // is N even? System. It is not required that a loop control variable be an integer.out. } Perhaps it is worth stressing one more time that a for statement. never occurs on its own in a real program. for (N = 1. .. 2. The numbers we want to print are 2*1. System. 2*2. like any statement. N = N + 2) { System.82 (1) // // // // There are 10 numbers to print. ch <= ’Z’..println( 2*N ). using the fact that the ++ operator can be applied to characters as well as to numbers: // Print out the alphabet on one line of output.out. is of type char.. 10. } (4) // // // // Irritate the professor with a solution that follows the letter of this silly assignment while making fun of it.. N <= 10. ch.println( N ). the loop control variables should be declared to be of type int. CHAPTER 3. for example. 4. In all the examples that you have seen so far in this section. CONTROL for (N = 1. Use a for loop to count 1.out. } (3) // // // // Count off all the numbers 2. 4.out.. I should also remind you that every variable must be declared before it can be used. N <= 1.out.println( N ). N <= 20. for (N = 2. // The loop control variable. 20 directly by adding 2 to N each time through the loop. is a for loop in which the variable. 2*10. but only print out the numbers that are even. . for ( ch = ’A’.

. N. the program outputs a ’. for each number. in the range from 1 to N: if testDivisor is a divisor of N: Count it by adding 1 to divisorCount Add 1 to numberTested if numberTested is 1000000: print out a ’. there are two types of counting going on. the algorithm now looks like Get a positive integer. testDivisor. we can just test each possible divisor of N and count the ones that actually do divide N evenly. from the user and computes how many different divisors N has. testDivisor++) { if ( N % testDivisor == 0 ) divisorCount++. from the user Let divisorCount = 0 for each number. 2. So the program needs two counters. testDivisor <= N. . I decided to output a dot every time the computer has tested one million possible divisors.) In terms of Java programming.) However. When the second counter reaches 1000000. we could say that N is an even multiple of D.2 Example: Counting Divisors Let’s look at a less trivial problem that can be solved with a for loop.4.’ Let numberTested = 0 Output the count . . In the improved version of the program. The general pattern is for each item in the sequence: if the item passes the test: process it The for loop in our divisor-counting algorithm can be translated into Java code as for (testDivisor = 1. it does take a noticeable amount of time for very large numbers. So when I implemented this algorithm. Let numberTested = 0 // Number of possible divisors tested // since the last period was output.4. this loop can be executed very quickly. If N and D are positive integers. N. N. To compute the number of divisors of N.3. N. you could use variables of type long rather than int. We have to count the number of divisors and we also have to count the number of possible divisors that have been tested. the algorithm takes the form Get a positive integer. of a sequence of items are to be processed. (Equivalently. in the range from 1 to N: if testDivisor is a divisor of N: Count it by adding 1 to divisorCount Output the count This algorithm displays a common programming pattern that is used when some. The numbers that could possibly be divisors of N are 1. It is not impossible to run it even for the largest legal int value. testDivisor. we say that D is a divisor of N if the remainder when D is divided into N is zero. In pseudocode. from the user Let divisorCount = 0 // Number of divisors found. } On a modern computer. 2147483647.’ and resets the counter to zero so that we can start counting the next group of one million. (If you wanted to run it for even larger values. Reverting to pseudocode. D is a divisor of N if N % D is zero. but not all. Let’s write a program that inputs a positive integer. THE FOR STATEMENT 83 3. .

/* Get a positive integer from the user. numberTested = 0. When the number reaches 1000000. and * then it prints the result. we can translate the algorithm into a complete Java program: /** * This program reads a positive integer from the user. } // end main() } // end class CountDivisors . // Divisors of this number will be counted. // A positive integer entered by the user. */ TextIO. int divisorCount. numberTested = 0.put("Enter a positive integer: ").84 CHAPTER 3. } Please try again. if (numberTested == 1000000) { TextIO. int numberTested. numberTested++. testDivisor <= N.putln("The number of divisors of " + N + " is " + divisorCount)." after every 1000000 tests. */ public class CountDivisors { public static void main(String[] args) { int N. if (N > 0) break. printing a ". // Number of divisors of N that have been found. * It counts how many divisors that number has. */ divisorCount = 0. TextIO.putln(). CONTROL Finally.’).getlnInt(). /* Count the divisors. // A number between 1 and N that is a // possible divisor of N. } } /* Display the result. testDivisor++) { if ( N % testDivisor == 0 ) divisorCount++. N = TextIO."). // // // // Used to count how many possible divisors of N have been tested. int testDivisor. TextIO. for (testDivisor = 1. */ while (true) { TextIO. a period is output and the value of numberTested is reset to zero.putln("That number is not positive.put(’.

. N <= 12. We say that one structure is nested inside another.. The syntax of Java does not set a limit on the number of levels of nesting. N * rowNumber ). and it is important to understand how they work. This can be done using formatted output with format specifier %4d.out. rowNumber <= 12. 3. As a practical matter.printf( "%4d". control structures can contain control structures.. You can even have multiple levels of nesting. it’s difficult to understand a program that has more than a few levels of nesting. with each output number taking up four spaces.3. Assuming that rowNumber and N have been declared to be variables of type int. but any combination of one control structure inside another is possible... rowNumber++ ) { for ( N = 1. and one example of a while loop inside another while. . 3. First. . You’ve already seen several examples of if statements inside loops. . though. 3. 12: for N = 1. the algorithm can be expressed in Java as for ( rowNumber = 1.3 Nested for Loops Control structures in Java are statements that contain statements. 12: Print N * rowNumber Output a carriage return We want to print the output in neat columns. 12: Print N * rowNumber so a refined algorithm for printing the table has one for loop nested inside another: for each rowNumber = 1. . THE FOR STATEMENT 85 3.4. The process of printing them out can be expressed in a pseudocode algorithm as for each rowNumber = 1. 2. N++ ) { // print in 4-character columns System. 2. 2. Nested for loops arise naturally in many algorithms. such as a while loop inside an if statement inside another while loop.. 12: Print the first twelve multiples of rowNumber on one line Output a carriage return The first step in the for loop can itself be expressed as a for loop. In particular. // No carriage return ! } .. consider the problem of printing out a multiplication table like this one: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 8 9 10 11 12 16 18 20 22 24 24 27 30 33 36 32 36 40 44 48 40 45 50 55 60 48 54 60 66 72 56 63 70 77 84 64 72 80 88 96 72 81 90 99 108 80 90 100 110 120 88 99 110 121 132 96 108 120 132 144 The data in the table are arranged into 12 rows and 12 columns.... We can expand “Print the first twelve multiples of rowNumber on one line” as: for N = 1.4. Let’s look at a couple of examples. 2. 3...

We can now flesh out the algorithm fully. letter<=’Z’.charAt(i): Print letter Add 1 to count break // jump out of the loop Output the count Here is the complete program: /** * This program reads a line of text entered by the user. Upon executing the break. ’Z’: for i = 0. * and it reports how many different letters were found. More specifically. } This section has been weighed down with lots of examples of numerical processing. L. ... ’A’ or ’a’. For example. The break statement breaks out of the inner for loop. Ask the user to input a string Read the response into a variable.getln() to read it. letter. For our next example. but not the outer for loop. But the body of this for loop needs more thought. We can get the i-th character of str with the function call str. The line of the algorithm that reads “for each letter of the alphabet” can be expressed as “for (letter=’A’. It is required to avoid printing or counting a given letter more than once (in the case where it occurs more than once in the string). and check whether that character is equal to letter. we’ll use TextIO. Let’s start with a pseudocode algorithm for the program. ’B’. * It prints a list of the letters that occur in the text. str. How do we check whether the given letter.charAt(i). . We have to check for both of these. Then. let’s do some text processing. we will write a program that will list all the letters contained in a string and will also count the number of different letters. One more difficulty: A letter such as ’A’ can occur in str in either upper or lower case. The string will be input by the user. H. str Convert str to upper case Let count = 0 for letter = ’A’.length() ..length()-1: if letter == str. the computer continues the outer loop with the next value of letter.1. */ . the letters that occur in “Hello World” are D. O. // Add a carriage return at end of the line. str Let count = 0 (for counting the number of different letters) for each letter of the alphabet: if the letter occurs in str: Print the letter Add 1 to count Output the count Since we want to process the entire line of text that is entered by the user..86 CHAPTER 3. Note the use of break in the nested for loop.. we only have to check for the upper case letter.. CONTROL System. Consider the problem of finding which of the 26 letters of the alphabet occur in a given string. E. R. letter++)”. But we can avoid this difficulty by converting str to upper case before processing it.println().out. where i ranges from 0 to str. Ask the user to input a string Read the response into a variable. occurs in str? One idea is to look at each character in the string in turn. and W. 1.

but we won’t encounter them in any serious way until Chapter 7. considered as a unit. The built-in function str.putln("Your input contains the following letters:"). str = TextIO. TextIO. // Line of text entered by the user. count++. } } } TextIO. TextIO. // Number of different letters found in str. and so we consider it briefly here. count = 0.4.indexOf(letter) will return -1 if letter does not occur in the string. TextIO.put(" "). TextIO.0 introduces a new “enhanced” form of the for loop that is designed to be convenient for processing data structures. str.toUpperCase(). So.) .putln().putln("There were " + count + " different letters. // A letter of the alphabet. // Position of a character in str. break. int count.put(letter).putln(). For example.4 Enums and for-each Loops Java 5. i < str.put(’ ’).3. str = str. } // end main() } // end class ListLetters 87 In fact. TextIO. The enhanced for loop makes it easy to apply the same processing to every element of a list or other data structure. for ( i = 0. for ( letter = ’A’.length(). (Enums were introduced in Subsection 2.3.indexOf(letter) >= 0)”. If we used this technique in the above program. It returns a number greater than or equal to zero if it does occur.charAt(i) ) { TextIO. we wouldn’t need a nested for loop.3. A data structure is a collection of data items. THE FOR STATEMENT public class ListLetters { public static void main(String[] args) { String str. char letter. Data structures are a major topic in computer science. 3.4. TextIO."). i++ ) { if ( letter == str. TextIO.getln(). a list is a data structure that consists simply of a sequence of items. However. there is actually an easier way to determine whether a given letter occurs in a string. This gives you a preview of how subroutines can be used to deal with complexity. one of the applications of the enhanced for loop is to enum types.putln()."). we could check whether letter occurs in str simply by checking “if (str. letter++ ) { int i.putln("Please type in a line of text. letter <= ’Z’.

and so on through Day.values() ) The intent of this is to execute the statement once for each of the possible values of the MyEnum type.MONDAY. } Day. The syntax for doing this is: for ( enum-type-name statement variable-name : enum-type-name .out. The syntax for this type of loop is unfortunate. This variable should not be declared before the for loop.print( d ).out. the for loop would have the form: for ( MyEnum statement variable-name : MyEnum. In the statement .print(" is day number ").values() represents the list containing the seven constants that make up the enumerated type. SUNDAY } Then we could write: for ( Day d : Day. WEDNESDAY. The full output from this loop would be: MONDAY is day number 0 TUESDAY is day number 1 WEDNESDAY is day number 2 THURSDAY is day number 3 FRIDAY is day number 4 SATURDAY is day number 5 SUNDAY is day number 6 Since the intent of the enhanced for loop is to do something “for each” item in a data structure. the value of d would be the first enumerated type value Day.) For this enumerated type. it is often called a for-each loop.values() ) { If MyEnum is the name of any enumerated type. which conveys the meaning much better and is similar to the syntax used in other programming languages for similar types of loops. it is essentially being declared in the loop itself. The variable-name is the loop control variable. with d taking on each of those values in turn. CONTROL The enhanced for loop can be used to perform the same processing on each of the enum constants that are the possible values of an enumerated type.out. the value of d would be Day. The second time through the loop. so the output would be “MONDAY is day number 0”. It’s helpful to think of the colon (:) in the loop as meaning “in.values() ) or for ( enum-type-name statements } variable-name : enum-type-name .TUESDAY. it represents the enumerated type value that is currently being processed. System. (values() is a static member function in MyEnum and of any other enum. TUESDAY. The body of the loop is executed once for each item in the list Day.ordinal() ). SATURDAY. suppose that the following enumerated type has been defined to represent the days of the week: enum Day { MONDAY. To give a concrete example. which has ordinal number 0. THURSDAY.values().values() is a function call that returns a list containing all of the values of the enum.” . then MyEnum.88 CHAPTER 3.SUNDAY. FRIDAY. The first time through this loop.println( d. It would be better if it were written something like “foreach Day d in Day.values()”. System.values() ) { System.

println("Second case").out.5. Suppose. else System. but the rule that the computer follows attaches the else to “if (y > 0)”.out. the first statement doesn’t print anything.println("First case"). 3. which is closer. The else part of an if statement—consisting of the word “else” and the statement that follows it—can be omitted. remember that the way you’ve indented this doesn’t mean anything at all to the computer.out.println("First case"). else System.println("Second case"). You can force the computer to use the other interpretation by enclosing the nested if in a block: if ( x > 0 ) { if (y > 0) System. that you type if ( x > 0 ) if (y > 0) System.println("First case"). however.1. Now. This means that either statement-1 or statement-2 in the above if statement can itself be an if statement. in particular..out. This special case is effectively forbidden by the syntax of Java.else if Construction Much more interesting than this technicality is the case where statement-2 . The statement would look like this (perhaps without the final else part): . 3.println("Second case"). That is. for example. is itself an if statement.1 The Dangling else Problem Now. It takes the form if ( boolean-expression ) statement-1 else statement-2 As usual. You might think that the else part is the second half of your “if (x > 0)” statement. These two if statements have different meanings: In the case when x <= 0. but the second statement prints “Second case.5 The if Statement The first of the two branching statements in Java is the if statement.3. if statement-1 is an if statement that has no else part. a statement.5. the else part of the if statement. THE IF STATEMENT 89 3.out. The if statement represents a two-way branch. } else System. the computer reads your statement as if it were formatted: if ( x > 0 ) if (y > 0) System..out.”. A problem arises.2 The if. an if statement is.5. which you have already seen in Section 3. the statements inside an if statements can be blocks.

// (more cases) ."). skipping the other two statement s. If it is true.println("It’s nice. so the computer prints “It’s nice” and skips the rest.90 if ( boolean-expression-1 ) statement-1 else if ( boolean-expression-2 ) statement-2 else statement-3 CHAPTER 3. If the temperature is 173. that is)."). If boolean-expression-1 is false. nested if statement. it tests the value of boolean-expression-2 and uses it to decide between statement-2 and statement-3 . one and only one of the three statements— statement-1 . statement2 . CONTROL However. This test is true.println("It’s hot. The computer prints out the message “It’s cold”. both of the tests evaluate to false. else if (temperature < 80) System. If temperature is. To do this. the first test is false. You can go on stringing together “else-if’s” to make multi-way branches with any number of cases: if ( boolean-expression-1 ) statement-1 else if ( boolean-expression-2 ) statement-2 else if ( boolean-expression-3 ) statement-3 . this is almost always written in the format: if ( boolean-expression-1 ) statement-1 else if ( boolean-expression-2 ) statement-2 else statement-3 You should think of this as a single statement representing a three-way branch. The computer starts by evaluating boolean-expression1 . since the computer doesn’t care how a program is laid out on the page. . the computer skips statement-1 and executes the second.out. the computer executes statement-1 and then jumps all the way to the end of the outer if statement.println("It’s cold."). or statement-3 —will be executed.out. so the computer says “It’s hot” (unless its circuits have been fried by the heat. depending on the value of a variable named temperature: if (temperature < 50) System. so the computer goes on to the second test.out. the first test is true. and skips the rest—without even evaluating the second condition. say. For a temperature of 75. else System. . When the computer executes this. 42. Here is an example that will print out one of three different messages.

3.5. THE IF STATEMENT
else if ( boolean-expression-N ) statement-N else statement-(N+1)

91

The computer evaluates boolean expressions one after the other until it comes to one that is true. It executes the associated statement and skips the rest. If none of the boolean expressions evaluate to true, then the statement in the else part is executed. This statement is called a multi-way branch because only one of the statements will be executed. The final else part can be omitted. In that case, if all the boolean expressions are false, none of the statements is executed. Of course, each of the statements can be a block, consisting of a number of statements enclosed between { and }. (Admittedly, there is lot of syntax here; as you study and practice, you’ll become comfortable with it.)

3.5.3

If Statement Examples

As an example of using if statements, lets suppose that x, y, and z are variables of type int, and that each variable has already been assigned a value. Consider the problem of printing out the values of the three variables in increasing order. For examples, if the values are 42, 17, and 20, then the output should be in the order 17, 20, 42. One way to approach this is to ask, where does x belong in the list? It comes first if it’s less than both y and z. It comes last if it’s greater than both y and z. Otherwise, it comes in the middle. We can express this with a 3-way if statement, but we still have to worry about the order in which y and z should be printed. In pseudocode,
if (x < y && x < z) { output x, followed by y and z in their correct order } else if (x > y && x > z) { output y and z in their correct order, followed by x } else { output x in between y and z in their correct order }

Determining the relative order of y and z requires another if statement, so this becomes
if (x < y && x < z) { if (y < z) System.out.println( else System.out.println( } else if (x > y && x > z) { if (y < z) System.out.println( else System.out.println( } else { if (y < z) System.out.println( else // x comes first x + " " + y + " " + z ); x + " " + z + " " + y ); // x comes last y + " " + z + " " + x ); z + " " + y + " " + x ); // x in the middle y + " " + x + " " + z);

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System.out.println( z + " " + x + " " + y); }

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You might check that this code will work correctly even if some of the values are the same. If the values of two variables are the same, it doesn’t matter which order you print them in. Note, by the way, that even though you can say in English “if x is less than y and z,”, you can’t say in Java “if (x < y && z)”. The && operator can only be used between boolean values, so you have to make separate tests, x<y and x<z, and then combine the two tests with &&. There is an alternative approach to this problem that begins by asking, “which order should x and y be printed in?” Once that’s known, you only have to decide where to stick in z. This line of thought leads to different Java code:
if ( x < y ) { // x comes before y if ( z < x ) // z comes first System.out.println( z + " " + x + else if ( z > y ) // z comes last System.out.println( x + " " + y + else // z is in the middle System.out.println( x + " " + z + } else { // y comes before x if ( z < y ) // z comes first System.out.println( z + " " + y + else if ( z > x ) // z comes last System.out.println( y + " " + x + else // z is in the middle System.out.println( y + " " + z + }

" " + y); " " + z); " " + y);

" " + x); " " + z); " " + x);

Once again, we see how the same problem can be solved in many different ways. The two approaches to this problem have not exhausted all the possibilities. For example, you might start by testing whether x is greater than y. If so, you could swap their values. Once you’ve done that, you know that x should be printed before y.

∗ ∗ ∗
Finally, let’s write a complete program that uses an if statement in an interesting way. I want a program that will convert measurements of length from one unit of measurement to another, such as miles to yards or inches to feet. So far, the problem is extremely underspecified. Let’s say that the program will only deal with measurements in inches, feet, yards, and miles. It would be easy to extend it later to deal with other units. The user will type in a measurement in one of these units, such as “17 feet” or “2.73 miles”. The output will show the length in terms of each of the four units of measure. (This is easier than asking the user which units to use in the output.) An outline of the process is
Read the user’s input measurement and units of measure Express the measurement in inches, feet, yards, and miles Display the four results

The program can read both parts of the user’s input from the same line by using TextIO.getDouble() to read the numerical measurement and TextIO.getlnWord() to read the unit of measure. The conversion into different units of measure can be simplified by first

3.5. THE IF STATEMENT

93

converting the user’s input into inches. From there, the number of inches can easily be converted into feet, yards, and miles. Before converting into inches, we have to test the input to determine which unit of measure the user has specified:
Let measurement = TextIO.getDouble() Let units = TextIO.getlnWord() if the units are inches Let inches = measurement else if the units are feet Let inches = measurement * 12 // 12 inches per foot else if the units are yards Let inches = measurement * 36 // 36 inches per yard else if the units are miles Let inches = measurement * 12 * 5280 // 5280 feet per mile else The units are illegal! Print an error message and stop processing Let feet = inches / 12.0 Let yards = inches / 36.0 Let miles = inches / (12.0 * 5280.0) Display the results

Since units is a String, we can use units.equals("inches") to check whether the specified unit of measure is “inches”. However, it would be nice to allow the units to be specified as “inch” or abbreviated to “in”. To allow these three possibilities, we can check if (units.equals("inches") || units.equals("inch") || units.equals("in")). It would also be nice to allow upper case letters, as in “Inches” or “IN”. We can do this by converting units to lower case before testing it or by substituting the function units.equalsIgnoreCase for units.equals. In my final program, I decided to make things more interesting by allowing the user to enter a whole sequence of measurements. The program will end only when the user inputs 0. To do this, I just have to wrap the above algorithm inside a while loop, and make sure that the loop ends when the user inputs a 0. Here’s the complete program:
/* * This program will convert measurements expressed in inches, * feet, yards, or miles into each of the possible units of * measure. The measurement is input by the user, followed by * the unit of measure. For example: "17 feet", "1 inch", * "2.73 mi". Abbreviations in, ft, yd, and mi are accepted. * The program will continue to read and convert measurements * until the user enters an input of 0. */ public class LengthConverter { public static void main(String[] args) { double measurement; // Numerical measurement, input by user. String units; // The unit of measure for the input, also // specified by the user. double inches, feet, yards, miles; // Measurement expressed in // each possible unit of // measure.

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TextIO.putln("Enter measurements in inches, feet, yards, or miles."); TextIO.putln("For example: 1 inch 17 feet 2.73 miles"); TextIO.putln("You can use abbreviations: in ft yd mi"); TextIO.putln("I will convert your input into the other units"); TextIO.putln("of measure."); TextIO.putln(); while (true) { /* Get the user’s input, and convert units to lower case. */ TextIO.put("Enter your measurement, or 0 to end: measurement = TextIO.getDouble(); if (measurement == 0) break; // Terminate the while loop. units = TextIO.getlnWord(); units = units.toLowerCase(); /* Convert the input measurement to inches. */ if (units.equals("inch") || units.equals("inches") || units.equals("in")) { inches = measurement; } else if (units.equals("foot") || units.equals("feet") || units.equals("ft")) { inches = measurement * 12; } else if (units.equals("yard") || units.equals("yards") || units.equals("yd")) { inches = measurement * 36; } else if (units.equals("mile") || units.equals("miles") || units.equals("mi")) { inches = measurement * 12 * 5280; } else { TextIO.putln("Sorry, but I don’t understand \"" + units + "\"."); continue; // back to start of while loop } /* Convert measurement in inches to feet, yards, and miles. */ feet = inches / 12; yards = inches / 36; miles = inches / (12*5280); /* Output measurement in terms of each unit of measure. */ TextIO.putln(); TextIO.putln("That’s equivalent to:"); TextIO.putf("%12.5g", inches); TextIO.putln(" inches"); TextIO.putf("%12.5g", feet); TextIO.putln(" feet"); TextIO.putf("%12.5g", yards); ");

3.5. THE IF STATEMENT
TextIO.putln(" yards"); TextIO.putf("%12.5g", miles); TextIO.putln(" miles"); TextIO.putln(); } // end while TextIO.putln(); TextIO.putln("OK! Bye for now."); } // end main() } // end class LengthConverter

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(Note that this program uses formatted output with the “g” format specifier. In this program, we have no control over how large or how small the numbers might be. It could easily make sense for the user to enter very large or very small measurements. The “g” format will print a real number in exponential form if it is very large or very small, and in the usual decimal form otherwise. Remember that in the format specification %12.5g, the 5 is the total number of significant digits that are to be printed, so we will always get the same number of significant digits in the output, no matter what the size of the number. If we had used an “f” format specifier such as %12.5f, the output would be in decimal form with 5 digits after the decimal point. This would print the number 0.0000000007454 as 0.00000, with no significant digits at all! With the “g” format specifier, the output would be 7.454e-10.)

3.5.4

The Empty Statement

As a final note in this section, I will mention one more type of statement in Java: the empty statement. This is a statement that consists simply of a semicolon and which tells the computer to do nothing. The existence of the empty statement makes the following legal, even though you would not ordinarily see a semicolon after a } :
if (x < 0) { x = -x; };

The semicolon is legal after the }, but the computer considers it to be an empty statement, not part of the if statement. Occasionally, you might find yourself using the empty statement when what you mean is, in fact, “do nothing”. For example, the rather contrived if statement
if ( done ) ; // Empty statement else System.out.println( "Not done yet. );

does nothing when the boolean variable done is true, and prints out “Not done yet” when it is false. You can’t just leave out the semicolon in this example, since Java syntax requires an actual statement between the if and the else. I prefer, though, to use an empty block, consisting of { and } with nothing between, for such cases. Occasionally, stray empty statements can cause annoying, hard-to-find errors in a program. For example, the following program segment prints out “Hello” just once, not ten times:
for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++); System.out.println("Hello");

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Why? Because the “;” at the end of the first line is a statement, and it is this statement that is executed ten times. The System.out.println statement is not really inside the for statement at all, so it is executed just once, after the for loop has completed.

3.6

The switch Statement

The second branching statement in Java is the switch statement, which is introduced in this section. The switch statement is used far less often than the if statement, but it is sometimes useful for expressing a certain type of multi-way branch.
3.6.1 The Basic switch Statement

A switch statement allows you to test the value of an expression and, depending on that value, to jump directly to some location within the switch statement. Only expressions of certain types can be used. The value of the expression can be one of the primitive integer types int, short, or byte. It can be the primitive char type. Or, as we will see later in this section, it can be an enumuerated type. In particular, the expression cannot be a String or a real number. The positions that you can jump to are marked with case labels that take the form: “case constant :”. This marks the position the computer jumps to when the expression evaluates to the given constant . As the final case in a switch statement you can, optionally, use the label “default:”, which provides a default jump point that is used when the value of the expression is not listed in any case label. A switch statement, as it is most often used, has the form:
switch ( expression ) { case constant-1 : statements-1 break; case constant-2 : statements-2 break; . . // (more cases) . case constant-N : statements-N break; default: // optional default case statements-(N+1) } // end of switch statement

The break statements are technically optional. The effect of a break is to make the computer jump to the end of the switch statement. If you leave out the break statement, the computer will just forge ahead after completing one case and will execute the statements associated with the next case label. This is rarely what you want, but it is legal. (I will note here—although you won’t understand it until you get to the next chapter—that inside a subroutine, the break statement is sometimes replaced by a return statement.) Note that you can leave out one of the groups of statements entirely (including the break). You then have two case labels in a row, containing two different constants. This just means

3.6. THE SWITCH STATEMENT

97

that the computer will jump to the same place and perform the same action for each of the two constants. Here is an example of a switch statement. This is not a useful example, but it should be easy for you to follow. Note, by the way, that the constants in the case labels don’t have to be in any particular order, as long as they are all different:
switch ( N ) { // (Assume N is an integer variable.) case 1: System.out.println("The number is 1."); break; case 2: case 4: case 8: System.out.println("The number is 2, 4, or 8."); System.out.println("(That’s a power of 2!)"); break; case 3: case 6: case 9: System.out.println("The number is 3, 6, or 9."); System.out.println("(That’s a multiple of 3!)"); break; case 5: System.out.println("The number is 5."); break; default: System.out.println("The number is 7 or is outside the range 1 to 9."); }

The switch statement is pretty primitive as control structures go, and it’s easy to make mistakes when you use it. Java takes all its control structures directly from the older programming languages C and C++. The switch statement is certainly one place where the designers of Java should have introduced some improvements.

3.6.2

Menus and switch Statements

One application of switch statements is in processing menus. A menu is a list of options. The user selects one of the options. The computer has to respond to each possible choice in a different way. If the options are numbered 1, 2, . . . , then the number of the chosen option can be used in a switch statement to select the proper response. In a TextIO-based program, the menu can be presented as a numbered list of options, and the user can choose an option by typing in its number. Here is an example that could be used in a variation of the LengthConverter example from the previous section:
int optionNumber; // Option number from menu, selected by user. double measurement; // A numerical measurement, input by the user. // The unit of measurement depends on which // option the user has selected. double inches; // The same measurement, converted into inches. /* Display menu and get user’s selected option number. */ TextIO.putln("What unit of measurement does your input use?"); TextIO.putln();

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TextIO.putln(" 1. inches"); TextIO.putln(" 2. feet"); TextIO.putln(" 3. yards"); TextIO.putln(" 4. miles"); TextIO.putln(); TextIO.putln("Enter the number of your choice: "); optionNumber = TextIO.getlnInt(); /* Read user’s measurement and convert to inches. */

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switch ( optionNumber ) { case 1: TextIO.putln("Enter the number of inches: "); measurement = TextIO.getlnDouble(); inches = measurement; break; case 2: TextIO.putln("Enter the number of feet: "); measurement = TextIO.getlnDouble(); inches = measurement * 12; break; case 3: TextIO.putln("Enter the number of yards: "); measurement = TextIO.getlnDouble(); inches = measurement * 36; break; case 4: TextIO.putln("Enter the number of miles: "); measurement = TextIO.getlnDouble(); inches = measurement * 12 * 5280; break; default: TextIO.putln("Error! Illegal option number! I quit!"); System.exit(1); } // end switch /* Now go on to convert inches to feet, yards, and miles... */

3.6.3

Enums in switch Statements

The type of the expression in a switch can be an enumerated type. In that case, the constants in the case labels must be values from the enumerated type. For example, if the type of the expression is the enumerated type Season defined by
enum Season { SPRING, SUMMER, FALL, WINTER }

then the constants in the case label must be chosen from among the values Season.SPRING, Season.SUMMER, Season.FALL, or Season.WINTER. However, there is another quirk in the syntax: when an enum constant is used in a case label, only the simple name, such as “SPRING” can be used, not the full name “Season.SPRING”. Of course, the computer already knows that the value in the case label must belong to the enumerated type, since it can tell that from the type of expression used, so there is really no need to specify the type name in the constant. As an example, suppose that currentSeason is a variable of type Season. Then we could have the switch statement:

3.6. THE SWITCH STATEMENT
switch ( currentSeason ) { case WINTER: // ( NOT Season.WINTER ! ) System.out.println("December, January, February"); break; case SPRING: System.out.println("March, April, May"); break; case SUMMER: System.out.println("June, July, August"); break; case FALL: System.out.println("September, October, November"); break; }

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3.6.4

Definite Assignment

As a somewhat more realistic example, the following switch statement makes a random choice among three possible alternatives. Recall that the value of the expression (int)(3*Math.random()) is one of the integers 0, 1, or 2, selected at random with equal probability, so the switch statement below will assign one of the values "Rock", "Scissors", "Paper" to computerMove, with probability 1/3 for each case. Although the switch statement in this example is correct, this code segment as a whole illustrates a subtle syntax error that sometimes comes up:
String computerMove; switch ( (int)(3*Math.random()) ) { case 0: computerMove = "Rock"; break; case 1: computerMove = "Scissors"; break; case 2: computerMove = "Paper"; break; } System.out.println("Computer’s move is " + computerMove);

// ERROR!

You probably haven’t spotted the error, since it’s not an error from a human point of view. The computer reports the last line to be an error, because the variable computerMove might not have been assigned a value. In Java, it is only legal to use the value of a variable if a value has already been definitely assigned to that variable. This means that the computer must be able to prove, just from looking at the code when the program is compiled, that the variable must have been assigned a value. Unfortunately, the computer only has a few simple rules that it can apply to make the determination. In this case, it sees a switch statement in which the type of expression is int and in which the cases that are covered are 0, 1, and 2. For other values of the expression, computerMove is never assigned a value. So, the computer thinks computerMove might still be undefined after the switch statement. Now, in fact, this isn’t true: 0, 1, and 2 are actually the only possible values of the expression (int)(3*Math.random()), but the computer isn’t smart enough to figure that out. The easiest way to fix the problem is

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to replace the case label case 2 with default. The computer can see that a value is assigned to computerMove in all cases. More generally, we say that a value has been definitely assigned to a variable at a given point in a program if every execution path leading from the declaration of the variable to that point in the code includes an assignment to the variable. This rule takes into account loops and if statements as well as switch statements. For example, the following two if statements both do the same thing as the switch statement given above, but only the one on the right definitely assigns a value to computerMove:
String computerMove; int rand; rand = (int)(3*Math.random()); if ( rand == 0 ) computerMove = "Rock"; else if ( rand == 1 ) computerMove = "Scissors"; else if ( rand == 2 ) computerMove = "Paper"; String computerMove; int rand; rand = (int)(3*Math.random()); if ( rand == 0 ) computerMove = "Rock"; else if ( rand == 1 ) computerMove = "Scissors"; else computerMove = "Paper";

In the code on the left, the test “if ( rand == 2 )” in the final else clause is unnecessary because if rand is not 0 or 1, the only remaining possibility is that rand == 2. The computer, however, can’t figure that out.

3.7

Introduction to Exceptions and try..catch

In addition to the control structures that determine the normal flow of control in a program, Java has a way to deal with “exceptional” cases that throw the flow of control off its normal track. When an error occurs during the execution of a program, the default behavior is to terminate the program and to print an error message. However, Java makes it possible to “catch” such errors and program a response different from simply letting the program crash. This is done with the try..catch statement. In this section, we will take a preliminary, incomplete look at using try..catch to handle errors. Error handling is a complex topic, which we will return to in Chapter 8.

3.7.1

Exceptions

The term exception is used to refer to the type of error that one might want to handle with a try..catch. An exception is an exception to the normal flow of control in the program. The term is used in preference to “error” because in some cases, an exception might not be considered to be an error at all. You can sometimes think of an exception as just another way to organize a program. Exceptions in Java are represented as objects of type Exception. Actual exceptions are defined by subclasses of Exception. Different subclasses represent different types of exceptions We will look at only two types of exception in this section: NumberFormatException and IllegalArgumentException. A NumberFormatException can occur when an attempt is made to convert a string into a number. Such conversions are done by the functions Integer.parseInt and Double.parseDouble. (See Subsection 2.5.7.) Consider the function call Integer.parseInt(str) where str is a variable of type String. If the value of str is the string "42", then the function call will correctly convert the string into the int 42. However,

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if the value of str is, say, "fred", the function call will fail because "fred" is not a legal string representation of an int value. In this case, an exception of type NumberFormatException occurs. If nothing is done to handle the exception, the program will crash. An IllegalArgumentException can occur when an illegal value is passed as a parameter to a subroutine. For example, if a subroutine requires that a parameter be greater than or equal to zero, an IllegalArgumentException might occur when a negative value is passed to the subroutine. How to respond to the illegal value is up to the person who wrote the subroutine, so we can’t simply say that every illegal parameter value will result in an IllegalArgumentException. However, it is a common response. One case where an IllegalArgumentException can occur is in the valueOf function of an enumerated type. Recall from Subsection 2.3.3 that this function tries to convert a string into one of the values of the enumerated type. If the string that is passed as a parameter to valueOf is not the name of one of the enumerated type’s values, then an IllegalArgumentException occurs. For example, given the enumerated type
enum Toss { HEADS, TAILS }

Toss.valueOf("HEADS") correctly returns the value Toss.HEADS, while Toss.valueOf("FEET") results in an IllegalArgumentException.

3.7.2

try..catch

When an exception occurs, we say that the exception is “thrown”. For example, we say that Integer.parseInt(str) throws an exception of type NumberFormatException when the value of str is illegal. When an exception is thrown, it is possible to “catch” the exception and prevent it from crashing the program. This is done with a try..catch statement. In somewhat simplified form, the syntax for a try..catch is:
try { statements-1 } catch ( exception-class-name statements-2 }

variable-name

) {

The exception-class-name could be NumberFormatException, IllegalArgumentException, or some other exception class. When the computer executes this statement, it executes the statements in the try part. If no error occurs during the execution of statements-1 , then the computer just skips over the catch part and proceeds with the rest of the program. However, if an exception of type exception-class-name occurs during the execution of statements-1 , the computer immediately jumps to the catch part and executes statements-2 , skipping any remaining statements in statements-1 . During the execution of statements-2 , the variablename represents the exception object, so that you can, for example, print it out. At the end of the catch part, the computer proceeds with the rest of the program; the exception has been caught and handled and does not crash the program. Note that only one type of exception is caught; if some other type of exception occurs during the execution of statements-1 , it will crash the program as usual. (By the way, note that the braces, { and }, are part of the syntax of the try..catch statement. They are required even if there is only one statement between the braces. This is different from the other statements we have seen, where the braces around a single statement are optional.)

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CHAPTER 3. CONTROL

As an example, suppose that str is a variable of type String whose value might or might not represent a legal real number. Then we could say:
try { double x; x = Double.parseDouble(str); System.out.println( "The number is " + x ); } catch ( NumberFormatException e ) { System.out.println( "Not a legal number." ); }

If an error is thrown by the call to Double.parseDouble(str), then the output statement in the try part is skipped, and the statement in the catch part is executed. It’s not always a good idea to catch exceptions and continue with the program. Often that can just lead to an even bigger mess later on, and it might be better just to let the exception crash the program at the point where it occurs. However, sometimes it’s possible to recover from an error. For example, suppose that we have the enumerated type
enum Day { MONDAY, TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY, FRIDAY, SATURDAY, SUNDAY }

and we want the user to input a value belonging to this type. TextIO does not know about this type, so we can only read the user’s response as a string. The function Day.valueOf can be used to convert the user’s response to a value of type Day. This will throw an exception of type IllegalArgumentException if the user’s response is not the name of one of the values of type Day, but we can respond to the error easily enough by asking the user to enter another response. Here is a code segment that does this. (Converting the user’s response to upper case will allow responses such as “Monday” or “monday” in addition to “MONDAY”.)
Day weekday; // User’s response as a value of type Day. while ( true ) { String response; // User’s response as a String. TextIO.put("Please enter a day of the week: "); response = TextIO.getln(); response = response.toUpperCase(); try { weekday = Day.valueOf(response); break; } catch ( IllegalArgumentException e ) { TextIO.putln( response + " is not the name of a day of the week." ); } }

The break statement will be reached only if the user’s response is acceptable, and so the loop will end only when a legal value has been assigned to weekday.

3.7.3

Exceptions in TextIO

When TextIO reads a numeric value from the user, it makes sure that the user’s response is legal, using a technique similar to the while loop and try..catch in the previous example. However, TextIO can read data from other sources besides the user. (See Subsection 2.4.5.) When it is reading from a file, there is no reasonable way for TextIO to recover from an illegal value in the input, so it responds by throwing an exception. To keep things simple, TextIO only

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103

throws exceptions of type IllegalArgumentException, no matter what type of error it encounters. For example, an exception will occur if an attempt is made to read from a file after all the data in the file has already been read. In TextIO, the exception is of type IllegalArgumentException. If you have a better response to file errors than to let the program crash, you can use a try..catch to catch exceptions of type IllegalArgumentException. For example, suppose that a file contains nothing but real numbers, and we want a program that will read the numbers and find their sum and their average. Since it is unknown how many numbers are in the file, there is the question of when to stop reading. One approach is simply to try to keep reading indefinitely. When the end of the file is reached, an exception occurs. This exception is not really an error—it’s just a way of detecting the end of the data, so we can catch the exception and finish up the program. We can read the data in a while (true) loop and break out of the loop when an exception occurs. This is an example of the somewhat unusual technique of using an exception as part of the expected flow of control in a program. To read from the file, we need to know the file’s name. To make the program more general, we can let the user enter the file name, instead of hard-coding a fixed file name in the program. However, it is possible that the user will enter the name of a file that does not exist. When we use TextIO.readfile to open a file that does not exist, an exception of type IllegalArgumentException occurs. We can catch this exception and ask the user to enter a different file name. Here is a complete program that uses all these ideas:
/** * This program reads numbers from a file. It computes the sum and * the average of the numbers that it reads. The file should contain * nothing but numbers of type double; if this is not the case, the * output will be the sum and average of however many numbers were * successfully read from the file. The name of the file will be * input by the user. */ public class ReadNumbersFromFile { public static void main(String[] args) { while (true) { String fileName; // The name of the file, to be input by the user. TextIO.put("Enter the name of the file: "); fileName = TextIO.getln(); try { TextIO.readFile( fileName ); // Try to open the file for input. break; // If that succeeds, break out of the loop. } catch ( IllegalArgumentException e ) { TextIO.putln("Can’t read from the file \"" + fileName + "\"."); TextIO.putln("Please try again.\n"); } } // At this point, TextIO is reading from the file. double number; double sum; int count; sum = 0; // A number read from the data file. // The sum of all the numbers read so far. // The number of numbers that were read.

When the region needs to be drawn.putln("Number of data values read: " + count). In this section. we’ve read the entire file.putln(). The programmer specifies what happens when these routines are called by filling in the bodies of the routines.8 For Introduction to GUI Programming the past two chapters. It is the job of the applet to draw the contents of that rectangle.putln("Can’t compute an average of 0 values. we’ll be more concerned with the larger scale structure of programs. We’ll do this by taking a short. although they can still be very useful. Just proceed with the rest of the program. // This is skipped when the exception occurs sum += number. when an applet needs to be drawn. Programming in the . number = TextIO. // We don’t consider this to be an error. we will concentrate on stand-alone GUI programs rather than on applets. When we study GUI programming in Chapter 6. but applets are a good place to start for our first look at the subject. you’ve been learning the sort of programming that is done inside a single subroutine. count++. the Web page calls a subroutine in the applet to do so. it is assigned a rectangular area on the page. TextIO. before moving on to programming-in-the-large. When an applet is placed on a Web page. } } 3. } } catch ( IllegalArgumentException e ) { // We expect this to occur when the end-of-file is encountered. command-linestyle programs. CHAPTER 3. applets were one of its major appeals. When Java first appeared on the scene.104 count = 0. In fact. an applet is an object rather than a class. but the material that you’ve already learned will be an important foundation for everything to come. introductory look at applets and graphical programming."). they have become less important. } // At this point. An applet is not a stand-alone application. TextIO. CONTROL try { while (true) { // Loop ends when an exception occurs. the system calls the main() routine of the program. Since then. the Web page calls the paint() routine of the applet. In the rest of the text. so there is nothing to do // in this catch clause.putln("The average of the values: " + (sum/count)). TextIO. This is not so different from what happens with stand-alone programs. Similarly. and it does not have a main() routine.putln("The sum of the data values: " + sum). else TextIO. we’ll take a look at how programming-in-the-small can be used in other contexts besides text-based. An applet is a Java program that runs on a Web page.getDouble(). When such a program needs to be run. if ( count == 0 ) TextIO.

applet package contains classes specifically related to applets. GUI PROGRAMMING 105 small! Applets can do other things besides draw themselves.*.awt. Now here is the part that can get confusing: Even though a non-static subroutine is not actually part of a class (in the sense of being part of the behavior .awt.” Applet is a standard class that is defined in the java. and the statements are the code that actually draws the applet. The java. The programmer specifies how the applet behaves by filling in the bodies of the appropriate subroutines. For the moment. you have to ask for them first. you don’t have to do anything special.*. The standard classes are grouped into so-called “packages. (Actually. When you write a program.3.) If you want to use these classes in your program. This looks similar to the definition of a stand-alone program. By extending the Applet class.awt available for use in your program. Of course. The Graphics class is referred to in the paint() routine above. including the class named Applet. The java. import java. public class name-of-applet extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics g) { statements } } where name-of-applet is an identifier that names the class. These built-in classes include System and Math. but there are a few things here that need to be explained. Each of the applet’s behaviors is defined by a subroutine. so we only have to define the paint() routine that does the drawing.) One more thing needs to be mentioned—and this is a point where Java’s syntax gets unfortunately confusing.awt” and “java. there are certain built-in classes that are available for you to use. The source code for the class would then have the form: import java. This is one of the main advantages of object-oriented programming. not classes. which does nothing but draw itself.awt package contains classes related to graphical user interface programming. including a class called Graphics. (There are just too many of them. The Applet class has existed since the original version of Java.” makes all the classes from the package java.” Two of these packages are called “java. You just go ahead and use it. The directive “import java.applet”.8. our applets will be defined to extend JApplet rather than Applet.applet. the distinction is not important. The first line of the class definition above says that the class “extends Applet. We only have to define the ways in which our class differs from the basic Applet class. in the future. while JApplet is part of the newer “Swing” set of graphical user interface components. the only difference is that our applet will draw itself differently. objects are related to classes because every object is described by a class. It defines all the basic properties and behaviors of applet objects. the subroutines that define the applet’s behavior are part of the applet object. The JApplet class is itself an extension of Applet. We say that they are “non-static” subroutines. But Java also has a large number of standard classes that are there if you want them but that are not automatically available to your program.applet package. If you want to use one of these classes. In our case. Instead of being static members of a class. can be defined by a class that contains nothing but a paint() routine. starting with the first two lines. Applets are objects. the new class we are defining inherits all those properties and behaviors. A very simple applet. such as responding when the user clicks the mouse on the applet.*.

Many objects can be described by the same class. These standard colors include Color. CONTROL of the class). y.RED. one of the classes in the java. The parameter. it is nevertheless defined in a class (in the sense that the Java code that defines the subroutine is part of the Java code that defines the class). “static”. To put it briefly: static subroutines in a class definition say what the class does. But the common definition of those subroutines—the actual Java source code—is physically part of the class that describes all the objects. leave it out when working with applets. just as in writing textoriented programs you need to know what subroutines are available for reading and writing text. Color. This subroutine draws the outline of the rectangle whose top-left corner is x pixels from the left edge of the applet and y pixels down from the top of the applet. About a dozen standard colors are available as static member variables in the Color class.drawRect(x.106 CHAPTER 3. (This object is provided as a parameter to the paint() routine when that routine is called. An applet’s paint() routine is an example of a non-static subroutine. However.w. • g. Color.) Graphics objects contain many subroutines. if you want to draw in red. In an applet’s paint() routine. In order to write an applet that draws something. The width of the rectangle is w pixels. is called to set the color that is used for drawing.y. • g.h) draws the outline of a rectangle.w. and Color. and the height is h pixels.setColor(Color. This is enough information to write an applet that will draw the following image on a Web page: .WHITE. c is an object belonging to a class named Color.RED). A stand-alone program’s main() routine is an example of a static subroutine.BLUE. ∗ ∗ ∗ Let’s write an applet that draws something. The parameters x. In Java.fillRect(x.setColor(c). you would say “g.h) is similar to drawRect except that it fills in the inside of the rectangle instead of just drawing an outline. and h must be integer-valued expressions. The specified color is used for all subsequent drawing operations up until the next time setColor is called. You’ll encounter more of them in Chapter 6.awt package. you can use the Graphics object g for drawing.GREEN.awt package. non-static subroutines say what all the objects described by the class do. Color. another one of the classes in the java.y. the distinction between static and non-static will become more important later in the course. Each object has its own non-static subroutine. • g. mark everything with the reserved word. you need to know what subroutines are available for drawing. The distinction doesn’t really matter too much at this point: When working with stand-alone programs. I’ll mention just three of them here. the built-in drawing subroutines are found in objects of the class Graphics. w. For example.BLACK.”.

GUI PROGRAMMING 107 The applet first fills its entire rectangular area with red. (We’ll see how to do that later.Applet. // The size of one of the rectangles. here is the source code for the applet: import java. so the inset is increased by 15 each time through the while loop. I’ll address both these issues before the end of this section.red). . // Set size of first rect to size of applet. int inset.fillRect(0.*. On the other hand. import java. rectHeight.setColor(Color. In general outline.3. // Gap between borders of applet // and one of the rectangles. We’ll need variables to hold the width and height of the rectangle and a variable to record how far the top-left corner of the rectangle is inset from the edges of the applet. g.fillRect subroutine) Set the drawing color to black Set the top-left corner inset to be 0 Set the rectangle width and height to be as big as the applet while the width and height are greater than zero: draw a rectangle (using the g. The rectangle shrinks by 15 pixels on the left and by 15 pixels on the right. each rectangle is 15 pixels away from the rectangle that surrounds it. rectWidth = 299. the source code for the page must include a command that specifies which applet to run and how big it should be.awt. where each rectangle is nested inside the previous one. The size is actually set in the source code of the Web page where the applet appears. // Fill the entire applet with red. the rectangle gets smaller and it moves down and over a bit. In order for an applet to appear on a page. Each time through the loop.160).drawRect subroutine) increase the inset decrease the width and the height In my applet. Then it changes the drawing color to black and draws a sequence of rectangles. The rectangles can be drawn with a while loop. But for now. g. int rectWidth. inset = 0. so the width of the rectangle shrinks by 30 each time through the loop.black). // Each nested rectangle is separated by 15 pixels on // all sides from the rectangle that encloses it. public class StaticRects extends Applet { public void paint(Graphics g) { // Draw a set of nested black rectangles on a red background. It is not hard to code this algorithm into Java and use it to define the paint() method of an applet. I’ve assumed that the applet has a height of 160 pixels and a width of 300 pixels.) It’s not a great idea to assume that we know how big the applet is going to be. The height also shrinks by 30 pixels each time through the loop.8.300. // Draw the rectangles in black. the algorithm for drawing the applet is Set the drawing color to red (using the g.setColor(Color. The while loop ends when the rectangle shrinks to nothing.applet.setColor subroutine) Fill in the entire applet (using the g.0. g. it’s also not a great idea to write an applet that does nothing but draw a static picture.

What has really happened is that the applet has started over again with the first image in the sequence. } } } // end paint() // end class StaticRects (You might wonder why the initial rectWidth is set to 299. The problem of creating an animation is really just the problem of drawing each of the still images that make up the animation. while new rectangles appear at the edge. Careful graphics programming demands attention to details like these. rectHeight -= 30. which is based on a non-standard class called SimpleAnimationApplet2. A computer animation is really just a sequence of still images. If the differences are not too big and if the sequence is displayed quickly enough. rectWidth -= 30. I’ve written a small framework that makes it possible to write applets that display simple animations. You can see the applet in action at the bottom of the on-line version of this page. inset += 15. an illusion. This gap gets wider and wider until a new rectangle appears at the border. The perpetual motion is. inset. // Width decreases by 15 pixels // on left and 15 on right. there is a gap between the borders of the applet and the outermost rectangle. In the example. One example that we will consider is an animated version of the nested rectangles applet from earlier in this section. rectHeight). the eye is tricked into perceiving continuous motion.) ∗ ∗ ∗ When you write an applet. CHAPTER 3. CONTROL while (rectWidth >= 0 && rectHeight >= 0) { g. Each still image is called a frame. In my framework for animation. If you think about it. public class name-of-class extends SimpleAnimationApplet2 { public void drawFrame(Graphics g) { statements // to draw one frame of the animation . It’s because rectangles are drawn as if with a pen whose nib hangs below and to the right of the point where the pen is placed.108 rectHeight = 159. Each image differs a bit from the preceding image in the sequence. The basic format is as follows: import java. rectWidth. // Rects are 15 pixels apart. you’ll see that the applet loops through the same set of images over and over. of course. Only it’s not a new rectangle. The computer displays the images one after the other. The same reasoning applies to rectHeight. Any programmer can create additional frameworks that can be used by other programmers as a basis for writing specific types of applets or stand-alone programs. we run the pen along a line one pixel to the left of the edge of the applet. instead of to 300. The Applet class provides a framework on which you can hang your own work. all you have to do is fill in the code that says how to draw one frame. rectangles shrink continually towards the center of the applet. // Height decreases by 15 pixels // on top and 15 on bottom. So instead. since the width of the applet is 300 pixels. you get to build on the work of the people who wrote the Applet class.drawRect(inset.awt. the line it draws is actually outside the applet and therefore is not seen. In each image.*. If you run the pen exactly along the right edge of the applet.

with only minor modification. When the frame number reaches 15 or any multiple of 15. // Gap between borders of applet and a rectangle. and you get to fill in the statements inside the subroutine. and to do that you need to know which frame you are drawing. the value of getFrameNumber() % 15 jumps back to 0.*. The value of the expression getFrameNumber() % 15 is between 0 and 14. // Width of the applet. int rectWidth. the thing that differs from one frame to another is the distance between the edges of the applet and the outermost rectangle. The class SimpleAnimationApplet2 provides a function named getFrameNumber() that you can call to find out which frame to draw. you are supposed to draw the first frame. in pixels. This function returns an integer value that represents the frame number. int height. The function getWidth() returns an integer value representing the width of the applet. The appropriate value can be computed very simply from the frame number. with the statement “inset = getFrameNumber() % 15. the drawFrame() routine has to know how big the applet is. int width. public class MovingRects extends SimpleAnimationApplet2 { public void drawFrame(Graphics g) { // // // // Draw one frame in the animation by filling in the background with a solid red and then drawing a set of nested black rectangles. width = getWidth(). The frame number tells how much the first rectangle is to be inset from the borders of the applet. are used to compute the size of the first rectangle that is drawn.*.”.awt. // The size of one of the rectangles. you are supposed to draw the second frame. as given above. int inset. // The inset for the outermost rectangle goes // from 0 to 14 then back to 0. All you have to do is say what happens when this subroutine is called. and so on. The MovingRects applet will work for any applet size. and so on. and the function getHeight() returns the height. The paint() method in the StaticRects applet becomes. // Find out the size of the drawing area.” is required to get access to graphics-related classes such as Graphics and Color. There are two functions that can be called to get this information. you have to draw a different picture for each frame. To implement this. You get to fill in any name you want for the class. The width and height. GUI PROGRAMMING } } 109 The “import java.8. Since the rectangles are 15 pixels apart. together with the frame number. If the value returned is 0. if the value is 1. . in pixels. rectHeight. In the sample applet. Here is the complete source code: import java.awt. The drawFrame() subroutine will be called by the system each time a frame needs to be drawn. Of course. // as the frameNumber varies. // Height of the applet. this distance increases from 0 to 14 and then jumps back to 0 when a “new” rectangle appears.3. I’ve chosen to make one improvement: The StaticRects applet assumes that the applet is 300 by 160 pixels. the drawFrame() method of my MovingRects animation applet. Drawing one frame in the sample animated applet is very similar to drawing the single image of the StaticRects applet.

rectWidth. As you learn more about programming and more about Java. g. inset = getFrameNumber() % 15. // Width decreases by 15 pixels // on left and 15 on right.2*inset . // Switch color to black. you’ll always be dependent on other people’s work to some extent.1. rectWidth -= 30.inset. you can do interesting things using the type of local. // Height decreases by 15 pixels // on top and 15 on bottom. CHAPTER 3. // Fill the frame with red.red).drawRect(inset.width.1.setColor(Color. you’ll be able to do more on your own—but no matter how much you learn.rectHeight). rectWidth = width . } } } // end drawFrame() // end class MovingRects The main point here is that by building on an existing framework. inset += 15. rectHeight = height .110 height = getHeight(). // Set size of outermost rect. while (rectWidth >= 0 && rectHeight >= 0) { g. . // Rects are 15 pixels apart. // Get the inset for the // outermost rect.2*inset . rectHeight -= 30. inside-a-subroutine programming that was covered in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. g.setColor(Color.height). CONTROL g.fillRect(0.black).0.

) Exercise 2. if the user inputs the line He said. and how many divisors does it have? Write a program to find the answers and print out the results. However. A word is defined to be a sequence of letters. The input always consist of a number. you might use (ch >= ’a’ && ch <= ’z’) || (ch >= ’A’ && ch <= ’Z’). The basic idea is to go through all the integers. An apostrophe can be considered to be part of a word if there is a letter on each side of the apostrophe. Which integer between 1 and 10000 has the largest number of divisors.4. You might need some hints about how to find a maximum value. followed by an operator.2 discussed divisors. The program should end when the user enters 0 as the first number on the line. For example. A better choice is to call the standard function Character. How many times do you have to roll a pair of dice before they come up snake eyes? You could do the experiment by rolling the dice by hand. followed by another number. which returns a boolean value of true if ch is a letter and false if it is not. The expressions are to be typed in by the user.14159 * 4. (Note: “Snake eyes” means that both dice show a value of 1. maximum number of divisors. read another expression.2 explained how to simulate rolling a pair of dice. Write a program that will evaluate simple expressions such as 17 + 3 and 3. Also. 4. Subsection 3. Your program only has to print out one of them. 3.isLetter(ch). . Your program should read an expression.Exercises 111 Exercises for Chapter 3 1. and /. *.getDouble() and the operator with TextIO. keeping track of the largest number of divisors that you’ve seen so far. Any characters in the input that are not letters should be discarded. this only works in English and similar languages. The operators that are allowed are +. print its value. Write a computer program that simulates the experiment. Write a program that reads one line of input text and breaks it up into words. The source code for that example is CountDivisors.java.getChar(). You can read the numbers with TextIO. This works for any Unicode character. print its value. It is possible that several integers in this range have the same. The words should be output one per line. The program should report the number of rolls that it makes before the dice come up snake eyes. -. "That’s not a good idea. keep track of the integer that had that number of divisors. To test whether a character is a letter. 2." then the output of the program should be He said that s not a good idea An improved version of the program would list “that’s” as a single word. and so on.7.

.112 CHAPTER 3. 6. Here is a tricky way to determine whether a given square is red or black: If the row number and the column number are either both even or both odd. The name of the file is “sales. For example.32 Chicago: no report received New York: 298734.eof() can be used to test for end of file.. so you can use the subroutine g. you need a Web page to display it. This boolean-valued function returns true if the file has been entirely read and returns false if there is more data to read in the file. Note that a square is just a rectangle in which the height is equal to the width. Each line of the file contains a city name. However. The loop will end when all the lines of the file have been read. Assume that the size of the applet is 160 by 160 pixels. for some cities. no data was available. Since you don’t know in advance how many lines there are in the file. This means that you can read the lines of the file in a loop while (TextIO. To complete this program. Here is an image of the checkerboard: (To run an applet. you need a way to tell when you have gotten to the end of the file.12 Write a program that will compute and print the total sales from all the cities together. Try to convert the string into a number.eof() == false). In these lines. you’ll need one fact about file input with TextIO that was not covered in Subsection 2. When TextIO is reading from a file.class Make a file that contains only the lines: . Suggestion: For each line. then the square is red. the data is replaced by a comment explaining why the data is missing. several lines from the file might look like: San Francisco: 19887. followed by a colon (:) followed by the data for that city. Then read the rest of the line into a variable of type String. and use try.fillRect() to draw the squares. Assume that your applet class is called Checkerboard. read and ignore characters up to the colon.. it is black. the function TextIO.4. Otherwise. Each square in the checkerboard is 20 by 20 pixels.. The checkerboard contains 8 rows of squares and 8 columns.catch to test whether the conversion succeeds.5.dat”. The squares are red and black. CONTROL 5. so that when you compile it you get a class file named Checkerboard. Write an applet that draws a checkerboard. The program should also report the number of cities for which data was not available. Suppose that a file contains information about sales figures for a company in various cities. A very simple page will do. The data is a number of type double.

You can assume that the applet is 160 by 160 pixels.class. which was introduced in Section 3. (Before trying to do this exercise. so the drawing of the checkerboard will not fill the entire window.w. then the source file for the Web page should contain the lines: <applet code="SlidingCheckerboard. This is the source code for a simple Web page that shows nothing but your applet. so you can draw more than 8 squares in a row. Write an animation applet that shows a checkerboard pattern in which the even numbered rows slide to the left while the odd numbered rows slide to the right.html. The compiled class file.fillRect(x. The compiled class files. go to “Run As” then to “Java Applet”.) 7. it would be a good idea to look at a working applet. The default size for the window is bigger than 160-by-160.8. you can simply right-click the name of the source code file in the Package Explorer. must be in the same directory with the Web-page file. SimpleAnimationApplet2.Exercises <applet code="Checkerboard.html.) Your applet will extend the non-standard class. You can use negative values of x in g. Hints: Anything you draw outside the boundaries of the applet will be invisible. Assuming that the name of your class is SlidingCheckerboard. These files are produced when you compile SimpleAnimationApplet2.class and SimpleAnimationApplet2$1. Checkerboard. (If you are using the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment.class. Checkerboard. SimpleAnimationApplet2.h).class" width=160 height=160> </applet> . must be in the same directory as your Web-page source file along with the compiled class file for your own class.java. This will open the window in which the applet appears.y. You can open the file in a Web browser or with Sun’s appletviewer program. Each row should be offset from its usual position by the amount getFrameNumber() % 40.class" width=160 height=160> </applet> 113 Call this file Checkerboard. In the pop-up menu. which can be found in the on-line version of this book.

out.getInt() to read the integer. System. Fill in the following main() routine so that it will ask the user to enter an integer. y = 1. 3.1. What is a block statement? How are block statements used in Java programs? 4. while (x > 0) { x = x .while loop? 5. Explain what is meant by an animation and how a computer displays an animation. What does it mean to prime a loop? 6..114 CHAPTER 3. 8. (Use a try. Show the exact output that would be produced by the following main() routine: public static void main(String[] args) { int N. CONTROL Quiz on Chapter 3 1. (You can use TextIO.) public static void main(String[] args) { // Fill in the body of this subroutine! } 9.println(N).. that is: 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36.out. Recall that an integer n is even if n % 2 == 0.y. Write a code segment that will compute and print the integer sum of those values. and tell the user whether the number entered is even or odd. } } 11. System.println(y). while (N <= 32) { N = 2 * N. y = y * x. Show the exact output produced by the following main() routine: public static void main(String[] args) { int x. read the user’s response. } } . whose values are expected to be string representations of values of type int. What is the main difference between a while loop and a do. Suppose that s1 and s2 are variables of type String. 7. x = 5. or will print an error message if the values cannot successfully be converted into integers. Write a for loop that will print out all the multiples of 3 from 3 to 36. N = 1.) 10. Explain briefly what is meant by “pseudocode” and how is it useful in the development of algorithms.catch statement. What is an algorithm? 2.

Quiz 12.charAt(i)). i++) { if (startWord) System. int i. boolean startWord. name. name = "Richard M.charAt(i) == ’ ’) startWord = true. What output is produced by the following program segment? name. for (i = 0.charAt(i) is the i-th character in the string.out.) String name.length(). else startWord = false. } 115 Why? (Recall that . i < name.println(name. startWord = true. Nixon". if (name.

116 CHAPTER 3. CONTROL .

many steps that the computer might have to go though to perform that task. Subroutines can be used over and over. Elsewhere in the program. grouped together and given a name. which can then be used in turn in other subroutines. which allows some interaction between what’s inside the box and what’s outside. and slots that can be used for passing information back and forth. 4. This allows you to write simple subroutines and then use them to help write more complex subroutines. dials that you can set. In this way. Non-static subroutines. As a computer executes a program. will be covered in the next chapter. that name can be used as a stand-in for the whole set of instructions. Instead of worrying about the many. Of course. not create it.1 Black Boxes A subroutine consists of instructions for performing some task. to be more precise. you just call the subroutine. Whenever you want your program to perform the task. Subroutines are a major tool for dealing with complexity. we have the first rule of black boxes: 117 . As mentioned in Section 3. you just need to remember the name of the subroutine. A subroutine consists of the instructions for carrying out a certain task. “Chunking” allows you to deal with a potentially very complicated task as a single concept. chunked together and given a name. very complex programs can be built up step-by-step. where each step in the construction is reasonably simple. A physical black box might have buttons on the outside that you can push. whenever it encounters a subroutine name. A subroutine can even be used inside another subroutine. a black box that has no way of interacting with the rest of the world would be pretty useless. subroutines in Java can be either static or non-static. A black box needs some kind of interface with the rest of the world. because then you would have to deal with all the complexity that the subroutine is meant to hide). at different places in the program. which are used in true objectoriented programming. A subroutine is sometimes said to be a “black box” because you can’t see what’s “inside” it (or. This chapter covers static subroutines only. you usually don’t want to see inside it.Chapter 4 Programming in the Large I: Subroutines One way to break up a complex program into manageable pieces is to use subroutines.8. Since we are trying to hide complexity. it executes all the instructions necessary to carry out the task associated with that subroutine.

you shouldn’t need to know anything about its implementation. In a way. your refrigerator. To understand the purpose of the subroutine and to use it effectively. as seen from the outside. Similarly. connecting those two parts. . The same goes for a VCR. and set the volume by using elements of the television’s interface— dials. Of course. The semantic component specifies exactly what task the subroutine will accomplish. all you need to know is its interface. you need to know the subroutine’s semantic specification. it should be possible to change the implementation. your VCR. I will refer to both parts of the interface—syntactic and semantic—collectively as the contract of the subroutine. The interface is at the boundary. then maybe the VCR violates the simple interface rule. The black box idea works to the advantage of the implementor as well as of the user of the black box. The inside of a black box is called its implementation. don’t forget to plug in the power—without understanding anything about how the thing actually works. you are surrounded by them. the users of the sets didn’t even need to know about it—or even know what it means. to use more efficient code. the black box might be used in an unlimited number of different situations. For example. Now. . After all. The interface also includes a specification of what the box does and how it can be controlled by using the elements of the physical interface. your car. . The implementor of the black box doesn’t need to know about any of that.118 CHAPTER 4. change channels. The syntactic part of the interface tells you just what you have to type in order to call the subroutine. you need to know the syntactic specification of the subroutine. and easy to understand. the interface of a subroutine has a semantic as well as a syntactic component. although if the stories are true about how hard people find it to set the time on a VCR. It’s not enough to say that a TV set has a power switch. you should not think of an interface as just the physical connection between the box and the rest of the world. remote control. in fact. . The second rule of black boxes is that: To use a black box. To write a legal program. remains unchanged. Are there any examples of black boxes in the real world? Yes. for example. it should be possible to rewrite the inside of a subroutine. You can turn your television on and off. ∗ ∗ ∗ By the way. without affecting the programs that use that subroutine. Your television. someone must have designed and built the implementation in the first place. to have a black box. a black box does have an inside—the code in a subroutine that actually performs the task. The implementor just needs to make sure that the box performs its assigned task and interfaces correctly with the rest of the world. when the insides of TV sets went from using vacuum tubes to using transistors. In fact. all the electronics inside your television set. a black box divides the world into two parts: the inside (implementation) and the outside. well-defined. This is the third rule of black boxes: The implementor of a black box should not need to know anything about the larger systems in which the box will be used. SUBROUTINES The interface of a black box should be fairly straightforward. you need to specify that the power switch is used to turn the TV on and off! To put this in computer science terms. as long as the behavior of the box.

) For the rest of this chapter. 4. As a less philosophical motivation. The fact that those subroutines are grouped into named classes (and classes are grouped into named “packages”) helps control the confusion that might result from so many different names. I will use the term “method” most often to refer to non-static subroutines. A subroutine that is a member of a class is often called a method . I will start using the term “method” occasionally. essentially. representing its interface. and “method” is the term that most people prefer for subroutines in Java.2. I turn from general ideas about black boxes and subroutines in general to the specifics of writing and using subroutines in Java. We’ll see that a class can have a “public” part. { and }.” When you write a subroutine. Of course. “Here is what you have to do to use me. and a “private” part that is entirely inside its hidden implementation. you’ve already seen examples of subroutines in previous chapters. This makes Java rather unusual among programming languages. The statements between the braces.4.2 Every Static Subroutines and Static Variables subroutine in Java must be defined inside some class. much to the regret and annoyance of the programmers who have to use them. 4. For example. since a Java program potentially has access to a huge number of subroutines created by many different programmers.1 Subroutine Definitions modifiers return-type statements } subroutine-name ( parameter-list ) { A subroutine definition in Java takes the form: It will take us a while—most of the chapter—to get through what all this means in detail. All the principles of black boxes apply to classes as well as to subroutines. ∗ ∗ ∗ You should keep in mind that subroutines are not the only example of black boxes in programming. guaranteed. This should be especially clear in Section 4. which belong to objects rather than to classes. since most languages allow free-floating. . They are the reasons that subroutines exist in the first place. however. or implementation part. Perhaps the designers of Java felt that everything must be related to something. where I will discuss subroutines as a tool in program development. This chapter will deal with static subroutines almost exclusively.2. These statements are the inside. of the “black box”. and they are your guidelines for using them. So you are familiar with the general format.6. One purpose of a class is to group together related subroutines and variables. such as the main() routine of a program and the paint() routine of an applet. But keep the general ideas and principles in mind. a class is also a black box. STATIC SUBROUTINES AND VARIABLES 119 The contract of a subroutine says. in a subroutine definition make up the body of the subroutine. independent subroutines. (I should admit that in practice. Java’s designers wanted to place firm controls on the ways things are named. and here is what I will do for you. the comments that you write for the subroutine should make the contract very clear. We’ll turn to non-static methods and object-oriented programming in the next chapter. subroutines’ contracts are often inadequately specified. I will continue to prefer the more general term “subroutine” for static subroutines.

Finally. // Statements that define what getNextN does go here. They are the instructions that the computer executes when the method is called. If the subroutine is a function. . Since the channel number is an integer. to be used by the subroutine’s internal computations. For a concrete example. } int getNextN(int N) { // There are no modifiers. then the return-type is replaced by the special value void. double y”. A value for channelNum is provided when the subroutine is called.4. The term “void” is meant to indicate that the return value is empty or non-existent. We’ll be looking at functions and return types in some detail in Section 4. the . or it can consist of one or more parameter declarations of the form type parameter-name . "playGame" is the subroutine-name. Note that each declaration can name only one parameter. The modifiers that you’ve seen so far are “static” and “public”. they are separated by commas. "boolean" is the // return-type. The parameter list in a subroutine can be empty. leaving out the statements that define what the subroutines do: public static void playGame() { // "public" and "static" are modifiers. .. Here are a few examples of subroutine definitions. which indicates that no value is returned. "int" in the return-type // "getNextN" is the subroutine-name. . They represent information that is passed into the subroutine from outside. "lessThan" is the subroutine-name. the parameter-list // includes one parameter whose name is "N" and whose // type is "int". and the declaration of the changeChannel() method might look like public void changeChannel(int channelNum) { . imagine a class named Television that includes a method named changeChannel(). for example: changeChannel(17). rather than “double x. "void" is the // return-type. } This declaration specifies that changeChannel() has a parameter named channelNum of type int. Parameters are covered in more detail in the next section. then the return-type is used to specify the type of value that is returned by the function. The modifiers that can occur at the beginning of a subroutine definition are words that set certain characteristics of the subroutine. SUBROUTINES as discussed in the previous section. Parameters are part of the interface of a subroutine. The immediate question is: What channel should it change to? A parameter can be used to answer this question. . } static boolean lessThan(double x.120 CHAPTER 4. There are only about a half-dozen possible modifiers altogether. However. . the type of the parameter would be int. such as whether it is static or not. whose job is to compute some value. double y) { // "static" is a modifier. If there are several declarations. // the parameter-list is empty. Subroutines can contain any of the statements discussed in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. . y”. // Statements that define what playGame does go here. channelNum does not yet have any particular value. you have to say “double x. we come to the parameter-list of the method.. If the subroutine is not a function. For example. if you want two parameters of type double.

then by default. the return type is void. Since playGame() is a static method. If no access specifier is given for a method. args. } the modifiers are public and static.2. you have to tell the computer which class it comes from. including the interface part.) There is one other access modifier. that method can be called from anywhere in the “package” that contains the class. .2. you would have to say Poker. 4. The subroutine doesn’t actually get executed until it is called. Let’s say. (Packages were introduced in Subsection 2. it is called by the system when the system runs your program.. In fact. “private”. which has to be a type if it is to match the syntax of a parameter list. that the main() routine of a program follows the usual syntax rules for a subroutine. by the way. represents information provided to the program when the main() routine is called by the system. but not from outside that package. This statement could occur anywhere in the same class that includes the definition of playGame().5. In public static void main(String[] args) { . but in that case. Note. The modifiers public and private are called access specifiers. for example. it can also be called from other classes.) For example. which indicates that the method can be called only from inside the same class.playGame(). . STATIC SUBROUTINES AND VARIABLES // parameter-list includes two parameters whose names are // "x" and "y". There is another modifier. In case you know the term.4. (This is true even for the main() routine in a class—even though you don’t call it. the information consists of any “command-line arguments” specified in the command that the user typed to run the program. Since playGame() is a public method.4. its full name includes the name of the class in which it is defined. in Section 4. the subroutine name is main. . which will only become relevant when we turn to object-oriented programming in Chapter 5. String[] represents a so-called “array type”. Then to call playGame() from outside the Poker class. whether in a main() method or in some other subroutine. the playGame() method given as an example above could be called using the following subroutine call statement: playGame(). even from outside the class where the method is defined. you’ll learn all about writing your own complete subroutine definitions. and the type of each of these parameters // is "double". all you are doing is telling the computer that the subroutine exists and what it does. In this chapter. We will cover arrays in Chapter 7. protected. since its definition does not include the modifier “static”—and so it’s not an example that we should be looking at in this chapter! The other modifier shown in the examples is “public”. The only question might be about “String[]”. This modifier indicates that the method can be called from anywhere in a program. (The parameter. . so the syntax is valid. and the parameter list is “String[] args”. that playGame() is defined in a class named Poker. // Statements that define what lessThan does go here.2 Calling Subroutines When you define a subroutine.6.. } 121 In the second example given here.) You’ve already had some experience with filling in the implementation of a subroutine. getNextN is a non-static method. and you’ll learn more about them later in this chapter.

SUBROUTINES The use of the class name here tells the computer which class to look in to find the method. we’ll have to keep track of the number of guesses that the user has made. After each game. when it includes other subroutines in addition to the main() routine. if the subroutine is defined elsewhere. The test for whether the game is over is complicated. the user wins the game. low. 4. it makes sense to write a subroutine that will play one guessing game with the user. (Non-static methods belong to objects rather than classes. subroutine-name ( parameters ). as in the playGame() example. a subroutine call statement for a static subroutine takes the form subroutine-name ( parameters ). such as Roulette. As in many cases. since the game ends if either the user makes a correct guess or the number of guesses is six.) Note that the parameter list can be empty. The computer tells the user whether the guess is high or low or correct. as many times as the user wants to play.3 Subroutines in Programs It’s time to give an example of what a complete program looks like. More on that later. the easiest thing to do is to use a “while (true)” loop and use break to end the loop whenever we find a reason to do so. More generally. if the subroutine that is being called is in the same class. coherent task. Also. If the user gets the number after six guesses or fewer. the user has the option of continuing with another game.playGame() or Blackjack. and the user will try to guess it. or correct. Filling out the algorithm gives: Let computersNumber be a random number between 1 and 100 Let guessCount = 0 while (true): Get the user’s guess Count the guess by adding 1 to guess count if the user’s guess equals computersNumber: Tell the user he won break out of the loop if the number of guesses is 6: Tell the user he lost break out of the loop if the user’s guess is less than computersNumber: .playGame() and other potential playGame() methods defined in other classes. We approach the problem of designing the playGame() subroutine the same way we write a main() routine: Start with an outline of the algorithm and apply stepwise refinement.122 CHAPTER 4. or class-name .2. Let’s write a program that plays a guessing game with the user. if we are going to end the game after six guesses. Since playing one game can be thought of as a single. but the parentheses must be there even if there is nothing between them. The computer will choose a random number between 1 and 100. It also lets you distinguish between Poker.playGame(). and they are called using object names instead of class names. Here is a short pseudocode algorithm for a guessing game program: Pick a random number while the game is not over: Get the user’s guess Tell the user whether the guess is high. in a different class. The main() routine will use a loop to call the playGame() subroutine over and over.

if (usersGuess == computersNumber) { TextIO. STATIC SUBROUTINES AND VARIABLES Tell the user the guess was low else if the user’s guess is higher than computersNumber: Tell the user the guess was high 123 With variable declarations added and translated into Java. } if (guessCount == 6) { TextIO.putln(). The main() routine will call playGame().put("That’s too low. int guessCount. You can put the definition of playGame() either before or after the main() routine. // The game is over. where exactly should you put this? It should be part of the same class as the main() routine.putln("1 and 100.putln(). computersNumber = (int)(100 * Math.random()) + 1. inclusive. else if (usersGuess > computersNumber) TextIO. It’s pretty easy to write the main routine. // A number entered by user as a guess. Try again: "). A random integer between 1 and 100 can be computed as (int)(100 * Math. break. and you try to guess it. Here’s what the complete program looks like (except that a serious program needs more comments than I’ve included here). I’ve cleaned up the interaction with the user to make it flow better. TextIO.putln("Let’s play a game. // The value assigned to computersNumber is a randomly // chosen integer between 1 and 100.putln("You lose. TextIO. I’ll pick a number between")."). but not inside the main routine. guessCount++. Java is not very picky about having the members of a class in any particular order. while (true) { usersGuess = TextIO. // Tell the user if the guess was too high or too low. but not contain it physically. int usersGuess. You’ve done things like this before.put("That’s too high. My number was " + computersNumber).random()) + 1.putln("You didn’t get the number in 6 guesses. the user has won.getInt(). static void playGame() { int computersNumber. the game continues. the user has lost.putln("You got it in " + guessCount + " guesses! My number was " + computersNumber). TextIO. this becomes the definition of the playGame() routine. } // If we get to this point. // A random number picked by the computer. if (usersGuess < computersNumber) TextIO.put("What is your first guess? ").2. TextIO."). . It is not legal to have one subroutine physically nested inside another. public class GuessingGame { public static void main(String[] args) { TextIO. Try again: "). break. } TextIO. // Get the user’s guess. // The game is over. } // end of playGame() Now.4. guessCount = 0. // Number of guesses the user has made.

4 Member Variables A class can include other things besides subroutines.putln(). In particular."). int guessCount. TextIO.put("What is your first guess? "). the user has won.put("That’s too high.random()) + 1. Try again: ").putln("You got it in " + guessCount + " guesses! My number was " + computersNumber). the game continues.getInt(). you can also have variables that are not part of any subroutine. do { playGame(). Goodbye. Those are called local variables. computersNumber = (int)(100 * Math. guessCount++. 4. you can declare variables inside subroutines. } TextIO. // The value assigned to computersNumber is a randomly // chosen integer between 1 and 100. SUBROUTINES boolean playAgain. Of course.putln("You lose. int usersGuess. // Get the user’s guess. break. } while (playAgain). // Tell the user if the guess was too high or too low. TextIO.2. } // If we get to this point. } if (guessCount == 6) { TextIO. while (true) { usersGuess = TextIO. // Number of guesses the user has made. breaking up the program into two methods makes the program easier to understand and probably made it easier to write each piece. it can also include variable declarations. Try again: "). // A number entered by user as a guess. break. However.putln("Thanks for playing. the user has lost.put("Would you like to play again? "). To . playAgain = TextIO. // The game is over. // The game is over.putln("You didn’t get the number in 6 guesses. } // end of playGame() } // end of class GuessingGame Take some time to read the program carefully and figure out how it works. } // end of main() static void playGame() { int computersNumber."). TextIO. // A random number picked by the computer.getlnBoolean().putln(). else if (usersGuess > computersNumber) TextIO. // call subroutine to play one game TextIO. My number was " + computersNumber). And try to convince yourself that even in this relatively simple case. inclusive. TextIO.put("That’s too low.124 CHAPTER 4. if (usersGuess < computersNumber) TextIO. guessCount = 0. if (usersGuess == computersNumber) { TextIO.

and is completely inaccessible from outside that one subroutine. and the declaration can be marked with modifiers such as static. and you use this variable in your own classes by referring to System. When you declare a local variable in a subroutine. member variables can be either static or non-static. time. Since we are only working with static member variables for now. while subroutines in another class would refer to it as Poker. it must be referred to with a compound identifier of the form class-name . A local variable in a subroutine. which we won’t encounter officially until later. let’s add a static member variable to the GuessingGame class that we wrote earlier in this section. the default is false. A static member variable belongs to the class itself. Just as with subroutines. exists only while that subroutine is being executed. since we need access to the same variable from both subroutines. You can.numberOfPlayers. This variable will be used to keep track of how many games the user wins. The declaration of a member variable looks just like the declaration of a local variable except for two things: The member variable is declared outside any subroutine (although it still has to be inside a class). the default initial value is a special value called null. every declaration of a member variable in this chapter will include the modifier static.out. Memory is allocated for the variable when the class is first loaded by the Java interpreter. This happens to be the correct initial value for a variable that is being used as a counter. and private. Static member variables are “shared” by all the static subroutines in the class. In the playGame() routine. we add 1 to gamesWon if the user wins the game. no matter where the expression is located in the program. . variable-name . the value is fetched from that same memory. In this chapter. no matter where that assignment statement is located in the program. such as Strings. the System class contains the public static member variable named out. We’ll call the variable gamesWon and declare it with the statement “static int gamesWon. public static int numberOfPlayers. For numeric variables. Any time the variable is used in an expression. If numberOfPlayers is a public static member variable in a class named Poker.4. it’s the unprintable character that has Unicode code number zero. as well as inside. on the other hand are automatically initialized with a default value. Any assignment statement that assigns a value to the variable changes the content of that memory.”. When it is used in some other class. of course. public. and it exists as long as the class exists. the static member variable gamesWon automatically gets assigned an initial value of zero. And for char variables. This means that the value of a static member variable can be set in one subroutine and used in another subroutine. then subroutines in the Poker class would refer to it simply as numberOfPlayers. on the other hand. STATIC SUBROUTINES AND VARIABLES 125 distinguish such variables from local variables. private static double velocity. assign a different value to the variable at the beginning of the main() routine if you are not satisfied with the default initial value. It would be impossible to do the same thing with a local variable. They might also be marked as public or private. For boolean variables. the default value is zero. As an example. (For objects. At the end of the main() routine.) Since it is of type int. we’ll stick to static variables. For example.2. A static member variable that is not declared to be private can be accessed from outside the class where it is defined. you have to assign a value to that variable before you can do anything with it. we print out the value of gamesWon. since they are members of a class. we call them member variables. Member variables. For example: static String usersName.

My number was " + computersNumber). } // If we get to this point.putln("Let’s play a game.getlnBoolean(). I’ll pick a number between")."). TextIO. public static void main(String[] args) { gamesWon = 0. while (true) { usersGuess = TextIO.putln("You got it in " + guessCount + " guesses! My number was " + computersNumber). else if (usersGuess > computersNumber) TextIO. TextIO.random()) + 1. int guessCount. TextIO. int usersGuess. if (usersGuess < computersNumber) TextIO. break. Try again: "). } .getInt(). TextIO. } while (playAgain). break. // The game is over. guessCount++.put("That’s too low. computersNumber = (int)(100 * Math. TextIO. // The game is over.put("Would you like to play again? "). playAgain = TextIO."). if (usersGuess == computersNumber) { TextIO. guessCount = 0. // Tell the user if the guess was too high or too low. // Number of guesses the user has made. inclusive. the user has won.126 CHAPTER 4.").putln(). // A number entered by user as a guess. TextIO. do { playGame(). } if (guessCount == 6) { TextIO. since 0 is // the default initial value. and you try to guess it. TextIO. // Get the user’s guess. The changes from the above version are shown in italic: public class GuessingGame2 { static int gamesWon. Goodbye. // This is actually redundant. gamesWon++. TextIO.java that includes the gamesWon variable.put("What is your first guess? "). // call subroutine to play one game TextIO. // The number of games won by // the user."). // Count this game by incrementing gamesWon. Try again: "). SUBROUTINES Here’s a revised version of GuessingGame. the user has lost.put("That’s too high.putln("You didn’t get the number in 6 guesses. the game continues. boolean playAgain.putln().putln("Thanks for playing. } // end of main() static void playGame() { int computersNumber.putln("You won " + gamesWon + " games. // The value assigned to computersNumber is a randomly // chosen integer between 1 and 100. // A random number picked by the computer.putln("1 and 100.putln("You lose.

using * startingValue as the initial value of N. System. But the exact sequence it prints out depends on the starting value of N.” For example. As an analogy.out. // We have one term. 1. } // end of playGame() } // end of class GuessingGame2 127 4. let’s go back to the “3N+1” problem that was discussed in Subsection 3. Parameters are part of the interface of a subroutine. 5. // print initial term of sequence while (N > 1) { if (N % 2 == 1) N = 3 * N + 1. the starting value of N would be a parameter to the subroutine. count = 1. The thermostat has a parameter.println(N).2.println(). which temperature it maintains—is customized by the setting on its dial. The thermostat always performs the same task: maintaining a constant temperature. divide by 2. // is N odd? .3. However. The value of the parameter. 2. System. the starting value.putln().4. if N is even. System. namely the dial that is used to set the desired temperature.out. int count. It also prints the number * of terms in the sequence.out. the exact task that it performs—that is. 8.3. They allow you to customize the behavior of a subroutine to adapt it to a particular situation. * must be a positive integer.) Suppose that we want to write a subroutine to print out such sequences. 16. 4. then a parameter provides a mechanism for passing information from the outside world into the box. The subroutine could be written like this: /** * This subroutine prints a 3N+1 sequence to standard output.3 Parameters If a subroutine is a black box. 10. 4. // One of the terms in the sequence.println("The 3N+1 sequence starting from " + N).2. multiply by 3 and add 1. N = startingValue. PARAMETERS TextIO. startingValue. (Recall that a 3N+1 sequence is computed according to the rule. // The number of terms. so far.1 Using Parameters As an example. “if N is odd. consider a thermostat—a black box whose task it is to keep your house at a certain temperature. else N = N / 2. */ static void print3NSequence(int startingValue) { int N. // The first term is whatever value // is passed to the subroutine as // a parameter. continue until N is equal to 1. starting from N=3 we get the sequence: 3. So. The subroutine will always perform the same task: Print out a 3N+1 sequence.

the actual parameters in the subroutine call statement are evaluated and the values are assigned to the formal parameters in the subroutine’s definition.putln("Enter a starting value.128 count++. here is a main() program that prints out 3N+1 sequences for various starting values specified by the user: public static void main(String[] args) { TextIO. startingValue. If K is a variable of type int. Parameters in a subroutine definition are called formal parameters or dummy parameters. but only if K is > 0.").println(). such as startingValue in the above example.3. the computer assigns the value 17 to startingValue and then executes the statements in the subroutine. print3NSequence(K). loop ends when K < 0.putln("This program will print out 3N+1 sequences"). the parameter name can be used in the same way as a variable name. 4. Then the body of the subroutine is executed. } // end main Remember that before you can use this program.put("To end the program. There are parameters that are used in the definitions of subroutines. This value will be assigned to the parameter. When the computer executes this statement. } while (K > 0).println(N).getInt(). of type int. if (K > 0) // Print sequence. then when the computer executes the subroutine call statement “print3NSequence(K).”.”. This prints the 3N+1 sequence starting from 17. When a subroutine is called.”. TextIO. And there are parameters that are used in subroutine call statements. For example.putln("for starting values that you specify. However. and execute the body of the subroutine. When the subroutine is called. . Within the body of the subroutine. but related. enter 0: "). specifies that the subroutine has one parameter. concepts. before the body of the subroutine is executed. the parameter gets its initial value from outside the subroutine. the subroutine could be called using the subroutine call statement “print3NSequence(17). // Continue only if K > 0. // Input from user.2 Formal and Actual Parameters Note that the term “parameter” is used to refer to two different. do { TextIO. TextIO. such as the K in the statement “print3NSequence(K). The parameters that are passed to a subroutine when it is called are called actual parameters or arguments. int K. // Get starting value from user. the definitions of main and of print3NSequence must both be wrapped inside a class definition. a value must be provided for this parameter in the subroutine call statement. TextIO. } // end print3NSequence The parameter list of this subroutine.out. it will take the value of the variable K. assign that value to startingValue.")."). // count this term System.out. For example.putln(). “(int startingValue)”. // print this term } CHAPTER 4.println("There were " + count + " terms in the sequence.out. K = TextIO. SUBROUTINES System. The class that contains print3NSequence can contain a main() routine (or other subroutines) that call print3NSequence. System.

An actual parameter is a value. test.3. or to ask the user to input their values. // Allocate memory locations for the formal parameters. This information is called the subroutine’s signature. double x. Consider. then it would be legal to pass an int as the actual parameter since ints can legally be assigned to doubles. // Evaluate "z >= 10" and assign the resulting // true/false value to the third formal // parameter. you must provide one actual parameter for each formal parameter in the subroutine’s definition. a simple identifier. you need to know its name. double x. PARAMETERS 129 A formal parameter must be a name. if the formal parameter is of type double. This represents a fundamental misunderstanding. N. used as an example above. the formal parameters will already have values. When you call a subroutine.boolean). // statements to perform the task go here } (There are a few technical differences between this and “doTask(17.sqrt(z+1). Remember that a subroutine is not independent. a subroutine static void doTask(int N. z >= 10). // Assign 17 to the first formal parameter. and assign it to // the second formal parameter.) Beginning programming students often find parameters to be surprisingly confusing. It is called by some other routine.4. it has essentially the same effect as the block of statements: { int N. boolean test. x = Math. you need to know how many formal parameters it has. that is.sqrt(z+1). N = 17. A common mistake is to assign values to the formal parameters at the beginning of the subroutine. The type of the actual parameter must be one that could legally be assigned to the formal parameter with an assignment statement.sqrt(z+1). A formal parameter is very much like a variable. The values come from the subroutine call statement. provided that the expression computes a value of the correct type.3. for example. 4. can be expressed as as: doTask(int. When the statements in the subroutine are executed. The signature of the subroutine doTask. test = (z >= 10). boolean test) { // statements to perform the task go here } This subroutine might be called with the statement doTask(17. When the computer executes this statement. x. Calling a subroutine that already exists is not a problem—the idea of providing information to the subroutine in a parameter is clear enough.z>=10).3 Overloading In order to call a subroutine legally. // Compute Math. boolean. For example. and it is the calling routine’s responsibility to provide appropriate values for the parameters. and you need to know the type of each parameter.Math. Math. and so it can be specified by any expression.” —besides the amount of typing—because of questions about scope of variables and what happens when several variables or parameters have the same name. Writing the subroutine definition is another matter.double. or String. Note that the signature does .sqrt(z+1). and—like a variable—it has a specified type such as int.

such as getlnInt() and getlnDouble(). SUBROUTINES not include the names of the parameters.3. so it would be impossible to have different subroutines to handle each case. for example. In a given class. Java 5. The task performed by a subroutine is always a subtask in a larger program. it would be a syntax error for a class to contain two methods defined as: int getln() { . provided that their signatures are different.putln("Hello") calls the subroutine with signature putln(String). This class includes many different methods named putln. It is illegal to have two subroutines in the same class that have the same signature but that have different return types. Note.. } double getln() { . printing out an int is very different from printing out a String.. you’ll learn how to write subroutines with a variable number of parameters. writing the definition of such a subroutine requires some knowledge of arrays. The art of designing those programs—of deciding how to . this is only one side of programming with subroutines. You have already used subroutines that do this—the formatted output routines System. For example. in fact. if you just want to use the subroutine. Unfortunately.0 introduced another complication: It is possible to have a single subroutine that takes a variable number of actual parameters. which is different from printing out a boolean. When you call these subroutines.) When this happens. } So it should be no surprise that in the TextIO class. you don’t even need to know what the formal parameter names are. which will not be covered until Chapter 7. such as: putln(int) putln(String) putln(boolean) putln(double) putln(char) putln() The computer knows which of these subroutines you want to use based on the type of the actual parameter that you provide. (The language C++ on which Java is based also has this feature. we say that the name of the subroutine is overloaded because it has several different meanings. You have already seen overloading used in the TextIO class. while TextIO.4 Subroutine Examples Let’s do a few examples of writing small subroutines to perform assigned tasks. which is why it is acceptable programming style to use the same name for them all. Of course. there can only be one routine that has the name getln and has no parameters. TextIO. But as far as the computer is concerned. the number of parameters in the subroutine call can be arbitrarily large.130 CHAPTER 4. Java is somewhat unusual in that it allows two different subroutines in the same class to have the same name.putln(17) calls the subroutine with signature putln(int). that the signature does not include the subroutine’s return type.. For now.. The computer doesn’t get the subroutines mixed up. So. so the names are not part of the interface. These methods all have different signatures. by the way. we will ignore this complication. It can tell which one you want to call by the number and types of the actual parameters that you provide in the subroutine call statement. the methods for reading different types are not all named getln().putf. Of course all these different subroutines are semantically related. and so forth—so that each of these operations requires a different method. When we get to that chapter. 4. the input routines in TextIO are distinguished by having different names.printf and TextIO.out.

println("The divisors of " + N + " are:").out. the statement of the problem tells us that there is one parameter. if D evenly divides N. As a first example. // One of the possible divisors of N. let’s write a subroutine to compute and print out all the divisors of a given positive integer. We’ll return to the question of program design in Section 4. the return type is void. The integer will be a parameter to the subroutine. It is up to the caller of the subroutine to make sure that this assumption is satisfied. Since we are only working with static subroutines for now. this becomes: /** * Print all the divisors of N.4. I’ll use N for the parameter and printDivisors for the subroutine name. so we don’t have much choice about the first line of the subroutine definition. The contract includes the assumption that N is a positive integer. In this case. so the body of the subroutine is easy to write. It should have a parameter ch of type char and a parameter N of type int. As a second short example. we’ll need to use static as a modifier. for ( D = 1. The task in this case is pretty simple.6. PARAMETERS 131 break them up into subtasks—is the other side of programming with subroutines. then print D. but in the absence of any instructions.println(D). what it does and what assumptions it makes. of type int.3. Here. We could add an access modifier (public or private).” Written in Java. */ static void printDivisors( int N ) { int D. This is not difficult.out. Remember that the syntax of any subroutine is: modifiers return-type statements } subroutine-name ( parameter-list ) { Writing a subroutine always means filling out this format. Since no names are specified. consider the problem: Write a subroutine named printRow. } } I’ve added a comment before the subroutine definition indicating the contract of the subroutine—that is. Just remember that you have to write the body assuming that N already has a value! The algorithm is: “For each possible divisor D in the range from 1 to N. The subroutine will look like static void printDivisors( int N ) { statements } and all we have left to do is to write the statements that make up the body of the routine. System. we’ll have to make up names for the formal parameter and for the subroutine itself. Since we are not told to return a value. and it tells us what the statements in the body of the subroutine should do. D++ ) { if ( N % D == 0 ) System. we are told the name of the subroutine and the names of the two parameters. The complete subroutine is given by . D <= N. The subroutine should print out a line of text containing N copies of the character ch. * We assume that N is a positive integer. I’ll leave it out.

i++ ) { System. but it makes it clear what will happen in all cases. Again.5 Throwing Exceptions I have been talking about the “contract” of a subroutine. 4. i++ ) { printRow( str. // Loop-control variable for counting off the copies. including the unexpected case that N < 0. if you want to take a look. an empty line is output. it will print a line of output containing 25 copies of that character. It should use the printRow() subroutine to produce the output.25) to print one line of the output. i < str.getln().charAt(i). */ static void printRowsFromString( String str ) { int i. // Line of text input by user.putln(). The algorithm is pretty clear: For each position i in the string str. SUBROUTINES /** * Write one line of output containing N copies of the * character ch. we get to choose a name for the subroutine and a name for the parameter.println(). } System. The program is rather useless. You’ll find the program in the file RowsOfChars. int N ) { int i.length(). for ( i = 0. provided that the caller of the subroutine provides acceptable values for subroutine’s . I’ll call the subroutine printRowsFromString and the parameter str.out. } Of course. */ static void printRow( char ch. TextIO. } } We could use printRowsFromString in a main() routine such as public static void main(String[] args) { String inputLine. // Loop-control variable for counting off the chars. If N <= 0. write a line of output * containing 25 copies of that character. but it does demonstrate the use of subroutines. would have to be collected together inside the same class. we get: /** * For each character in str. let’s do an example that shows how one subroutine can build on another. i <= N.put("Enter a line of text: ").charAt(i).out.132 CHAPTER 4. the contract makes no assumption about N. call printRow(str. TextIO. printRowsFromString( inputLine ). Finally.3. So. The contract says what the subroutine will do. the three routines. For each character in the string. inputLine = TextIO. and printRow(). printRowsFromString(). for ( i = 1. 25 ).java. Let’s write a subroutine that takes a String as a parameter.print( ch ). } Note that in this case. main().

you would check whether the values of the parameters are legal. If the caller violates the contract by passing an invalid string as the actual parameter. An exception is an object. without executing the rest of the body of the subroutine.catch statement. That variable exists independently of the subroutine. then the subroutine will convert the string into the equivalent numeric value. You won’t officially learn how to do this until Chapter 5." ). Things are different when a subroutine uses a variable that is defined outside the subroutine. You might want to take this response in your own subroutines. the computer executes the throw statement. but for now. and in order to throw an exception. This will immediately terminate the subroutine. though. and it is accessible to other parts of the program. but once the subroutine starts executing. Local variables have no connection to the outside world. . The question arises. where error-message is a string that describes the error that has been detected. parameters act much like local variables. Parameters are used to “drop” values into the subroutine when it is called. consider the print3NSequence subroutine from the beginning of this section.) To use this statement in a subroutine. If not. (The word “new” in this statement is what creates the object. the program as a whole will crash unless the exception is “caught” and handled elsewhere in the program by a try.parseDouble says that the parameter should be a string representation of a number of type double.7. If the start value is bad.6 Global and Local Variables I’ll finish this section on parameters by noting that we now have three different sorts of variables that can be used inside a subroutine: local variables declared in the subroutine. The parameter of print3NSequence is supposed to be a positive integer. Many subroutines throw IllegalArgumentExceptions in response to bad parameter values. the subroutine responds by throwing an exception of type NumberFormatException. 4. (See Section 3. PARAMETERS 133 parameters.3. what should the subroutine do when the caller violates the contract by providing bad parameter values? We’ve already seen that some subroutines respond to bad parameter values by throwing exceptions.3. the contract of the built-in subroutine Double. . if this is true. you must create an exception object.) . and static member variables that are declared outside the subroutine but inside the same class as the subroutine. formal parameter names.4. Furthermore. you would throw the exception. // (The rest of the subroutine is the same as before.. For example. We can modify the subroutine definition to make it throw an exception when this condition is violated: static void print3NSequence(int startingValue) { if (startingValue <= 0) // The contract is violated! throw new IllegalArgumentException( "Starting value must be positive. as discussed in Section 3. Changes made inside a subroutine to a formal parameter have no effect on the rest of the program (at least if the type of the parameter is one of the primitive types—things are more complicated in the case of objects. Such a variable is said to be global to the subroutine.) For example. as we’ll see later).7. . they are purely part of the internal working of the subroutine. you can use the following syntax for a throw statement that throws an IllegalArgumentException: throw new IllegalArgumentException( error-message ). as well as to the subroutine. This can be done with a throw statement.

just as if it were a regular subroutine. A function call generally occurs in a position where the computer is expecting to find a value.”. (It is also legal to use a function call as a stand-alone statement. this function is also useful as a subroutine call statement “TextIO. The subroutine uses the global variable to communicate with the rest of the program. it can be very reasonable to let the subroutines inside that box be a little sneaky about communicating with each other.getln(). Changes made to a global variable can have effects that extend outside the subroutine where the changes are made. A given function can only return a value of a specified type. (More exactly. This is done with a return statement. You’ve seen how this works in the last example in the previous section. the effect of the subroutine call is to read and discard some input. the computer ignores the value computed by the subroutine. and the type of the expression must match the return type that was specified for the function. and it risks violating the rule that the interface of a black box should be straightforward and easy to understand.while statement. What you haven’t seen is how to write functions of your own. as in the statement “name = TextIO. So before you use a global variable in a subroutine.4 Return Values A subroutine that returns a value is called a function. Such a return statement can only occur inside the definition of a function. Sometimes this makes sense. 4. The scope of a global variable includes the entire class in which it is defined. while. A function takes the same form as a regular subroutine. as an actual parameter in a subroutine call.) 4.getInt() can be used. In this case. There is at least one good reason to do it: If you think of the class as a whole as being a kind of black box. which has the following syntax: return expression .1 The return statement You’ve already seen how functions such as Math. However. It’s not always bad to use global variables in subroutines. such as the right side of an assignment statement. Usually. I don’t advise you to take an absolute stand against using global variables inside subroutines.134 CHAPTER 4. the function TextIO. the line that is returned is assigned to a variable to be used later in the program. A boolean-valued function can even be used as the test condition in an if. which still reads all input up to and including the next carriage return.getln(). where the value of the global variable.. with a return type of String.”. but you should realize that the global variable then has to be considered part of the subroutine’s interface. for or do. discarding unwanted input is exactly what you need to do. except that you have to specify the value that is to be returned by the subroutine. called the return type of the function. gamesWon.4. Since the return value is not assigned to a variable or used in an expression. it must be legal to assign the expression to a variable whose type is specified by the .sqrt() and TextIO. if that will make the class as a whole look simpler from the outside. SUBROUTINES as opposed to the local variables defined inside the subroutine. you should consider whether it’s really necessary. reads and returns a line of input typed in by the user. or in the middle of some larger expression. back-door communication that is less visible than communication done through parameters. For example. is computed inside a subroutine and is used in the main() routine. So. This is a kind of sneaky.getln(). Sometimes. it is simply discarded.

it evaluates Math.5). no matter what path the execution of the function takes through the code. on the other hand.5). // if not. For example.4. When it gets to the term pythagoras(12. a return statement. this function computes the next term of the sequence: static int nextN(int currentN) { if (currentN % 2 == 1) // test if current N is odd return 3*currentN + 1. Since a void subroutine does not return a value. where the sides of the triangle are x and y. and the result. but return statements are optional in non-function subroutines.0). is stored in the variable. and uses the value of the expression as the returned value of the function. Some people prefer to use a single return statement at the very end of the function when possible. In a function. which works out to 13. The effect of this statement is to terminate execution of the subroutine and return control back to the point in the program from which the subroutine was called. one with declared return type “void”. is always required.sqrt(12. In the body of the function. 4.4.5).4. return Math. consider the function definition static double pythagoras(double x. double y) { // Computes the length of the hypotenuse of a right // triangle. This can be convenient if you want to terminate execution somewhere in the middle of the subroutine. with expression. the return statement does not include an expression.”. Given one term in a 3N+1 sequence. 30. } Suppose the computer executes the statement “totalLength = 17 + pythagoras(12. return this value else return currentN / 2. return this instead } This function has two return statements.sqrt( x*x + y*y ). // if so. terminates execution of the function.) When the computer executes this return statement. This allows the reader to find the return statement easily.”. The return value is added to 17. for example: . Exactly one of the two return statements is executed to give the value of the function. it assigns the actual parameters 12 and 5 to the formal parameters x and y in the function. This value is “returned” by the function.0. it simply takes the form “return.2 Function Examples Here is a very simple function that could be used in a program to compute 3N+1 sequences. You might choose to write nextN() like this. it must be the case that the function definitely does return some value.0*5.0 essentially replaces the function call in the statement “totalLength = 17 + pythagoras(12. At any point in the function where you know the value that you want to return.”.0*12. so the 13. totalLength.0. However. Returning a value will end the function immediately. (The 3N+1 sequence problem is one we’ve looked at several times already.0. you can return it. RETURN VALUES 135 return type. Note that a return statement does not have to be the last statement in the function definition. The effect is the same as if the statement had been “totalLength = 17 + 13.”. it evaluates the expression. skipping any subsequent statements in the function.0 + 5. You can use a return statement inside an ordinary subroutine. including in the previous section).

// print initial term of sequence while (N > 1) { N = nextN( N ). } ∗ ∗ ∗ Here are a few more examples of functions.3 is not great. // Print this term. but if nextN() were a long function that performed a complex computation. // The number of terms found. SUBROUTINES static int nextN(int currentN) { int answer. // 65 to 79 gets a C else if (numGrade >= 50) return ’D’. int count. // Count this term. count++. this is the answer return answer.putln(). on a typical grading scale: /** * Returns the letter grade corresponding to the numerical * grade that is passed to this function as a parameter. TextIO. // (Don’t forget to return the answer!) } Here is a subroutine that uses this nextN function. N = startingValue.putln(N). TextIO. */ static char letterGrade(int numGrade) { if (numGrade >= 90) return ’A’. this is the answer else answer = currentN / 2. the improvement from the version of this subroutine in Section 4. TextIO. // 80 to 89 gets a B else if (numGrade >= 65) return ’C’. // 50 to 64 gets a D else .putln()."). // One of the terms in the sequence. count = 1. } TextIO.putln("The 3N+1 sequence starting from " + N). TextIO. // if so. using the function nextN. // Start the sequence with startingValue. // answer will be the value returned if (currentN % 2 == 1) // test if current N is odd answer = 3*currentN+1. The first one computes a letter grade corresponding to a given numerical grade. TextIO.putln("There were " + count + " terms in the sequence. // Compute next term. then it would make a lot of sense to hide that complexity inside a function: static void print3NSequence(int startingValue) { int N. In this case. // 90 or above gets an A else if (numGrade >= 80) return ’B’.136 CHAPTER 4. // if not.putln(N).

For example. return true. // No number <= 1 is a prime. RETURN VALUES return ’F’.4. // from str. It demonstrates some interesting programming points.sqrt(N). we know N is not prime.sqrt(N).) { .length() .1. */ static boolean isPrime(int N) { int divisor. here is a function with return type String. if (N <= 1) return false. divisor <= maxToTry. copy = "". i-. Otherwise. then // N is prime. for ( i = str. } // Yes. N is prime. The returned value is a reversed copy of the parameter. then it has a divisor in the range 2 to Math. // No need to continue testing! } // If we get to this point. // A number we will test to see whether it evenly divides N. (Note that since Math.length() . int i. int maxToTry. str. } // anything else gets an F 137 // end of function letterGrade The type of the return value of letterGrade() is char. // One of the positions in str. Functions can return values of any type at all.sqrt(N). divisor++) { if ( N % divisor == 0 ) // Test if divisor evenly divides N. // the function would already have been terminated by // a return statement in the previous loop. N must be prime.) for (divisor = 2. i >= 0. Here’s a function whose return value is of type boolean. return false. If N has any divisor. This function has a String as parameter. // If N is not evenly divisible by any of these numbers. So we only test possible divisors from 2 to * Math. the value must be typecast // to type int before it can be assigned to maxToTry. starting from the last character of str and working backwards to the first: static String reverse(String str) { String copy. // The largest divisor that we need to test.4.sqrt(N) is defined to // return a value of type double. // The reversed copy. is to start with an empty string and then to append each character from str.1 down to 0. // If so. // Start with an empty string. // end of function isPrime Finally. maxToTry = (int)Math. the reverse of “Hello World” is “dlroW olleH”. except itself and 1. so you should read the comments: /** * The function returns true if N is a prime number. // We will try to divide N by numbers between 2 and maxToTry. namely * either D itself or N/D. D. in the range * 1 < D < N. The algorithm for computing the reverse of a string. A prime number * is an integer greater than 1 that is not divisible by any positive * integer.

138 // Append i-th char of str to copy. using .putln("for starting values that you specify."). I’ll also take the opportunity to improve the program by getting it to print the terms of the sequence in columns. } while (K > 0).putln(). the number of terms in that * sequence is reported to the user. TextIO."). int K. instead of returning it. This will give me a chance to show the function nextN(). enter 0: "). Maybe it will be assigned to a variable. Maybe it will be printed out. which was defined above. * After a sequence has been displayed. That’s where the value is used. 4.equals(reverse(word)))”. such as “radar”. The reverse() function could be used to check whether a string. K = TextIO. start a new line of output. To make the terms line up into neat columns. used in a complete program. Starting * values for the sequences are input by the user. Maybe it will be used in an expression. but only if K is > 0 print3NSequence(K).putln("Enter a starting value. Terms in the sequence * are printed in columns.getInt().charAt(i). TextIO. with five terms on each line. /** * A program that computes and displays several 3N+1 sequences. The task of a function is to compute a value and return it to the point in the program where the function was called. By the way. do { TextIO. I use formatted output. with five terms on each line of output. TextIO. // continue only if K > 0 } // end main /** * print3NSequence prints a 3N+1 sequence to standard output.4.putln("This program will print out 3N+1 sequences"). */ public class ThreeN2 { public static void main(String[] args) { TextIO. specified by the user.put("To end the program. is a palindrome by testing “if (word. // Starting point for sequence. This idea is this: Keep track of how many terms have been printed on the current line. // get starting value from user if (K > 0) // print sequence. copy = copy + str. when that number gets up to 5. a typical beginner’s error in writing functions is to print out the answer.3 3N+1 Revisited I’ll finish this section with a complete new version of the 3N+1 program. } return copy. } CHAPTER 4. But it’s not for the function to decide. SUBROUTINES A palindrome is a string that reads the same backwards and forwards. This represents a fundamental misunderstanding. word. This will make the output more presentable.

putln("The 3N+1 sequence starting from " + N)."). // The number of terms found. It also prints the number * of terms in the sequence. // Start the sequence with startingValue.putf("%8d"..put(N. // count this term if (onLine == 5) { // If current output line is full TextIO. (Try using 27 for the starting value!) . onLine++.putln(). while (N > 1) { N = nextN(N). // end current line of output TextIO. * must be a positive integer. 8). } // end of Print3NSequence /** * nextN computes and returns the next term in a 3N+1 sequence.4. } // end of nextN() } // end of class ThreeN2 You should read this program carefully and try to understand how it works. TextIO. int count. onLine = 1. // compute next term count++. using 8 characters.4.putln(). The value of the parameter. // and then add a blank line TextIO. // We have one term so far. } TextIO. N). } TextIO. int onLine. else return currentN / 2. // The number of terms that have been output // so far on the current line. // . */ static int nextN(int currentN) { if (currentN % 2 == 1) return 3 * currentN + 1. // One of the terms in the sequence. // Print this term in an 8-char column.putln(). */ static void print3NSequence(int startingValue) { int N. // Print initial term.then output a carriage return onLine = 0.putln("There were " + count + " terms in the sequence. TextIO.. // .. // Add 1 to the number of terms on this line. TextIO.. * given that the current term is currentN. // There’s now 1 term on current output line. startingValue. RETURN VALUES * startingValue as the initial value of N. 139 N = startingValue.putln(). count = 1.and note that there are no terms // on the new line.

and Javadoc computers and their user interfaces have become easier to use.” say—would provide an API to allow others to use those routines without understanding the details of the computations they perform.1 Toolboxes Someone who wants to program for Macintosh computers—and to produce programs that look and behave the way users expect them to—must deal with the Macintosh Toolbox. scroll bars. a collection of well over a thousand different subroutines. computer games. To these. there are routines for opening files and reading data from them. for communicating over a network. can be used as true black boxes: They can be called to perform their assigned tasks without worrying about the particular steps they go through to accomplish those tasks. A modern graphical user interface. what parameters they use. and in general for doing all the standard things that a computer has to do. The programmer sees this increased complexity in the form of great numbers of subroutines that are provided for managing the user interface. menus. associated with the toolbox. Microsoft Windows provides its own set of subroutines for programmers to use. This information constitutes the API . Linux has several different GUI toolboxes for the programmer to choose from. The innovative part of programming is to take all these tools and apply them to some particular project or problem (word-processing. Packages. for sending output to a printer. text-input boxes. There are other routines for creating menus and for reacting to user selections from menus. and so on. These tools. keeping track of bank accounts. and they are quite a bit different from the subroutines used on the Mac. SUBROUTINES 4. might make things easier for the user. 4. if they are well-designed. for drawing geometric figures and text to windows. with windows. they have also become more complex for programmers to deal with. This interface is a specification of what routines are in the toolbox. for adding buttons to windows. the programmer can add existing toolboxes full of routines that have already been written for performing certain tasks. A software toolbox is a kind of black box. You can write programs for a simple console-style user interface using just a few subroutines that write output to the console and read the user’s typed replies. ). . This is called applications programming . Aside from the user interface. and for responding to mouse clicks on the window.140 CHAPTER 4. There are routines for opening and closing windows. Every programming project involves a mixture of innovation and reuse of existing tools. or Applications Programming Interface. Scientists who write a set of routines for doing some kind of complex computation—such as solving “differential equations. if statements. but it forces the programmer to cope with a hugely expanded array of possibilities. and it presents a certain interface to the programmer. A programmer is given a set of tools to work with. buttons. The analogy of a “toolbox” is a good one to keep in mind. The Macintosh API is a specification of all the routines available in the Macintosh Toolbox.5. Web browsing.5 As APIs. for handling communication between programs. and what tasks they perform. and loops. starting with the set of basic tools that are built into the language: things like variables. . assignment statements. as well as for other purposes. processing image data from a space probe. . A company that makes some hardware device—say a card for connecting a computer to a network—might publish an API for that device consisting of a list of routines that programmers can call in order to communicate with and control the device. ∗ ∗ ∗ .

out.awt. A package can contain both classes and other packages. To provide larger-scale organization. A package that is contained in another package is sometimes called a “sub-package. which provides facilities for input/output.awt. which is named “java”. AND JAVADOC 141 The Java programming language is supplemented by a large.awt. for reading and writing files. However.print() routines.JFrame.io. in the form of mathematical subroutines such as Math. PACKAGES. The standard Java API includes routines for working with graphical user interfaces. Windows. the older of the two Java GUI toolboxes. Linux. which deals with network communication.JMenu. javax contains a sub-package named javax.Graphics.6.awt.sqrt().5.2 and contains the classes used by the Swing graphical user interface and other additions to the API. That is. for example. A Java system on a particular computer includes implementations of all the standard API routines. Another package.2 Java’s Standard Packages Like all subroutines in Java. The same Java API must work on all these platforms.lang. It’s tempting to think of these routines as being built into the Java language. java. was added in Java version 1.net.JButton. the String data type and its associated routines. It means that you only need to learn one API to program for a wide variety of platforms.awt. and javax. their full names are actually java.) Similarly. which provides a variety of “utility” classes. the implementation varies from one platform to another. You can have even higher levels of grouping. A Java program includes only calls to those routines. such as the Graphics class which provides routines for drawing on the screen. You’ve seen part of this API already. “javax”. and the System. This package contains classes that represent GUI components such as buttons and menus in the AWT. are all part of the API that makes it possible to program graphical user interfaces in Java. Since these classes are contained in the package java. In fact.awt also contains a number of classes that form the foundation for all GUI programming. and Double. java.” Both the java package and the javax package contain sub-packages. APIS. Integer.Color.swing. contains several non-GUI packages as well as the original AWT graphics user interface classes. java.swing. The java package includes several other sub-packages.5. Math. 4. One of the sub-packages of java.swing. since packages can also contain other packages. standard API. is called “awt”. together with the foundational classes in java. which includes such classes as javax. It might be helpful to look at a graphical representation of the levels of nesting in the . Since awt is contained within java. When the Java interpreter executes a program and encounters a call to one of the standard routines. The most basic package is called java. the Color class which represents colors. and others.4. the routines in the standard API are grouped into classes. javax.swing. which is no longer widely used. The GUI classes in javax. classes in Java can be grouped into packages. the entire standard Java API is implemented in several packages.swing. which were introduced briefly in Subsection 2. such as java. But notice that it is the interface that is platform-independent. This is a very powerful idea. but they are technically subroutines that have been written and made available for use in Java programs. One of these. it will pull up and execute the implementation of that routine which is appropriate for the particular platform on which it is running. Java is platform-independent. and java. This package contains fundamental classes such as String. the same program can run on platforms as diverse as Macintosh.util. (I hope that by now you’ve gotten the hang of how this naming thing works in Java. its full name is actually java. and the Font class which represents the fonts that are used to display characters on the screen. and more. and java. for network communication.4.Font.awt.

html Even an expert programmer won’t be familiar with the entire API. suppose that you want to declare a variable named rectColor of type java.142 CHAPTER 4. ) o ( ) ( g t r w c n t o l e a l s n o R .Color.”. r h e t y a a l M . and the subroutines in those classes. This is just an ordinary variable declaration of the form “ type-name variable-name .Color rectColor. If you put import java. its sub-packages.awt. which means that you can use it to declare variables and parameters and to specify the return type of a function. i c i a C w t h d v r a e p r e t a o t s j l n a d s r o o s i e G F t C n ) ( w t s a r e q s s s f a l o c e n ) i ( m a ) m d ( n t e o r t l d l q s r n u s e e f a g r h n g n t i e e r s t a h t n e S I M T g n i n t a l u o r b a u v S a j . s e g a k c a l i ) p t ( t u f r o q s s . This is not a complete picture.awt.sun. since it shows only a very few of the many items in each element: The official documentation for the standard Java 5. and those will be sufficient for writing a wide variety of programs. In this book.3 Using Classes from Packages Let’s say that you want to use the class java. but you might want to browse through the documentation to see what is available. including sub-packages. SUBROUTINES java package. at the beginning of a Java source code file.awt.Color in a program that you are writing.Color. As I write this. Color. Of course. One way to do this is to use the full name of the class as the name of the type.Color is a type. you’ll only encounter several dozen classes. Like any class.5.5.awt. java.awt. or even a majority of it. then. using the full name of every class can get tiresome.0 API lists 165 different packages.com/j2se/1.awt. so Java makes it possible to avoid using the full name of a class by importing the class. Many of these are rather obscure or very specialized. the documentation for the complete API can be found at http://java. and it lists 3278 classes in these packages. For example.0/docs/api/index. the classes in those sub-packages. you can abbreviate the full name java. 4. You could say: java.Color to just the simple name of the class. Note that the import . in the rest of the file.

”.List.”. is to use import to import the individual classes you need. to declare the variable. In my own programming.*. since it can make a large number of class names available that you are not going to use and might not even know about. Using this import directive would allow you to say Color rectColor.event. Suppose that you want some classes that you are writing to be in a package named utilities. For example.4. The solution is simple: Use the full name of the class. Programmers can create new packages. (However. import javax.) Because the package java.awt. be perfectly legal to use the longer forms of the names. It’s as if every program began with the statement “import java.io. AND JAVADOC 143 line comes at the start of a file and is not inside any class.lang. Although it is sometimes referred to as a statement.util package contain classes named List. (But when you start importing lots of packages in this way. A program that works with networking might include the line “import java. import java.*. you have to be careful about one thing: It’s possible for two classes that are in different packages to have the same name.lang.*. you can still access the class—you just have to use its full name. This is why we have been able to use the class name String instead of java.*. In fact. however. APIS. instead of importing entire packages.lang. The “*” is a wildcard that matches every class in the package.event. of course.Math.util.awt.*. either java.*. If you leave out the import directive.lang are automatically imported into every program. and Math.sqrt().awt by saying import java.util.*.awt package and the java.swing packages as well as from another package named java.*. while one that reads or writes files might use “import java. PACKAGES. and I usually begin such programs with import java.awt. They think it is better to explicitly import each individual class that you want to use. it is more properly called an import directive since it is not a statement in the usual sense. both the java. Then the source code file that defines those classes must begin with the line package utilities.*. the simple name List will be ambiguous. you aren’t really importing anything substantial.String. you cannot import the entire contents of all the sub-packages of the java package by saying import java.awt. Another solution.sqrt() instead of java. If you import both java. all the classes in java.* and java. If you try to declare a variable of type List. you will get a compiler error message about an ambiguous class name. it does not match sub-packages. It would still.”.net.) Some programmers think that using a wildcard in an import statement is bad style. There is a shortcut for importing all the classes from a given package.5.awt. You can import all the classes from java.List or java. and use individual imports when I am using just one or two classes from a given package.class” names. I often use wildcards to import all the classes from the most relevant packages. .lang is so fundamental. any Java program that uses a graphical user interface is likely to use many classes from the java.awt and javax. Note that the only effect of the import directive is to allow you to use simple class names instead of full “package.swing.awt.

using * startingValue as the initial value of N. a Javadoc comment is ignored by the computer when the file is compiled. a class doesn’t have to import the package in which it is defined. And almost everyone who creates a toolbox in Java publishes Javadoc documentation for it. startingValue. but it begins with /** rather than simply /*. this system is used to prepare the documentation for Java’s standard packages..4. such as this subroutine from Section 4. you need to know about packages mainly so that you will be able to import the standard packages. You can have Javadoc comments for subroutines. Again. */ static void print3NSequence(int startingValue) { . It also makes sense for programmers to create new packages as toolboxes that provide functionality and APIs for dealing with areas not covered in the standard Java API.5. SUBROUTINES This would come even before any import directive in that file. for member variables. These packages are always available to the programs that you write..jar. In fact. 4. * must be a positive integer. I will not be creating any packages in this textbook. But there is a tool called javadoc that reads Java source code files. Recall that one type of Java comment begins with /* and ends with */. The documentation for most Java APIs is prepared using a system called Javadoc. A class that is in a package automatically has access to other classes in the same package. that is. If a class is not specifically placed in a package. instead of as individual class files. Note that the Javadoc comment is placed just before the subroutine that it is commenting on. then it is put in something called the default package. and for classes. Javadoc documentation is prepared from special comments that are placed in the Java source code file. The value of the parameter. A jar (or “Java archive”) file is a single file that can contain many classes. In projects that define large numbers of classes.4 Javadoc To use an API effectively. Furthermore. For the purposes of this book. every class is actually part of a package. For example.0. as mentioned in Subsection 2. the source code file would be placed in a folder with the same name as the package. they are stored in jar files in a subdirectory of the main Java installation directory. extracts any Javadoc . but in the standard Java 5. You might wonder where the standard classes are actually located.3: /** * This subroutine prints a 3N+1 sequence to standard output. A Javadoc comment takes the same form.6. This rule is always followed. The Javadoc comment always immediately precedes the thing it is commenting on. Java programs are generally distributed in the form of jar files.144 CHAPTER 4. you need good documentation for it. it makes sense to organize those classes into packages. Although we won’t be creating packages explicitly. which has no name. It also prints the number * of terms in the sequence. All the examples that you see in this book are in the default package. (And in fact such “toolmaking” programmers often have more prestige than the applications programmers who use their tools. Like any comment. You have already seen comments of this form in some of the examples in this book. that can depend to some extent on the version of Java that you are using.) However. Most of the standard classes can be found in a jar file named classes.

5. These tags do not have to be given in any particular order. you have to write a Javadoc comment. Javadoc comments can include doc tags. These tags are always placed at the end of the comment. @return. By default. As an example. in the absence of HTML commands. For one thing. blank lines and extra spaces in the comment are ignored. This is syntactic information. the comment can contain certain special codes. it will construct one. you can add <p> to indicate the start of a new paragraph. or you can find a link to it in the on-line version of this section. you can look at the documentation Web page for TextIO. * @param width the length of one side of the rectangle * @param height the length the second side of the rectangle * @return the area of the rectangle * @throws IllegalArgumentException if either the width or the height * is a negative number. You should have a @return tag only for a non-void subroutine.").2. and creates a set of Web pages containing the comments in a nicely formatted. Here is an example that doesn’t do anything exciting but that does use all three types of doc tag: /** * This subroutine computes the area of a rectangle. . In a Javadoc comment. If you have downloaded the on-line version of this book. The length and the width should be positive numbers. return type. and parameter list of a subroutine. TextIO. interlinked form.4. javadoc will only collect information about public classes. HTML is the language that is used to create web pages. but the comment will contain only basic information such as the name and type of a member variable or the name. and member variables. These tags are used in Javadoc comments for subroutines to provide information about its parameters. To add information about semantics and pragmatics. subroutines. (Generally.) In addition to HTML commands. which are processed as commands by the javadoc tool. given its width * and its height. and the exceptions that it might throw. The description ends at the next tag or at the end of the comment. APIS. AND JAVADOC 145 comments that it finds. You’ll learn some basic HTML in Section 6. but as an example. and Javadoc comments are meant to be shown on web pages. double width ) { if ( width < 0 || height < 0 ) throw new IllegalArgumentException("Sides must have positive length. its return value. You can include a @param tag for every parameter of the subroutine and a @throws for as many types of exception as you want to document. after any description of the subroutine itself. the *’s at the start of each line are optional. The documentation page was created by applying the javadoc tool to the source code file. The syntax for using them is: @param @return @throws parameter-name description-of-parameter description-of-return-value exception-class-name description-of-exception The descriptions can extend over several lines. the comment can contain HTML mark-up commands. */ public static double areaOfRectangle( double length. I will only discuss three tags: @param. the documentation can be found in the TextIO Javadoc directory. In addition to normal text. PACKAGES. The javadoc tool will copy any HTML commands in the comments to the web pages that it creates. If javadoc doesn’t find any Javadoc comment for something. and @throws. The javadoc tool will remove them.java. but it allows the option of creating documentation for non-public things as well. A doc tag has a name that begins with the character @.

This interaction is specified by the contract . you need to run the javadoc tool. Developing that subroutine then becomes a separate problem. } CHAPTER 4. Given a problem. If you do want to create Web-page documentation. But if you have subroutines lying around to perform certain useful tasks. The subroutines become a toolbox of ready-made tools that you can integrate into your algorithm as you develop it. In the absence of subroutines. We can now see how subroutines can fit into the process. it is important to be clear about how a subroutine interacts with the rest of the program. This allows you to add a bottom-up element to the top-down approach of stepwise refinement. containing subroutines that you can use in your project as black boxes. see the documentation.) Subroutines can also be helpful even in a strict top-down approach. even if you don’t plan to generate Web page documentation of your work. As you refine your algorithm. but the process does have a “bottom.” and select “Javadoc” in the window that pops up. smaller problems. return area. Understanding how programs work is one thing. 4. I encourage you to use them in your own code. This.146 double area. SUBROUTINES I will use Javadoc comments for some of my examples. In Section 3.2.6. you might start by writing some subroutines that perform tasks relevant to the problem domain. you can stop refining as soon as you’ve managed to express your algorithm in terms of those tasks. is just a way of breaking your problem down into separate. I discussed how pseudocode and stepwise refinement can be used to methodically develop an algorithm. Your main algorithm will merely call the subroutine. In the bottom-up approach. Stepwise refinement is inherently a top-down process. the process would not bottom out until you get down to the level of assignment statements and very primitive input/output operations. area = width * height. you start by writing or obtaining subroutines that are relevant to the problem domain. (Alternatively. of course. It is still a top-down approach because the top-down analysis of the problem tells you what subroutines to write. Javadoc can also be applied in the Eclipse integrated development environment that was also discussed in Section 2.6 More on Program Design Designing a program to perform some particular task is another thing altogether. since it’s a standard format that other Java programmers will be familiar with.1 Preconditions and Postconditions When working with subroutines as building blocks. you might be able to buy or find a software toolbox written by someone else. a point at which you stop refining the pseudocode algorithm and translate what you have directly into proper programming language. you are free at any point to take any sub-task in the algorithm and make it into a subroutine. You can use javadoc in a command line interface similarly to the way that the javac and java commands are used.” that is. This tool is available as a command in the Java Development Kit that was discussed in Section 2.6: Just right-click the class or package that you want to document in the Package Explorer. 4. select “Export. which you can work on separately. and you build your solution to the problem on top of that foundation of subroutines.6. I won’t go into any of the details here.

2 A Design Example Let’s work through an example of program design using subroutines.sqrt() is that the square of the value that is returned by this function is equal to the parameter that is provided when the subroutine is called. For a function. MORE ON PROGRAM DESIGN 147 of the subroutine. but that has not yet been done. If you call a subroutine without meeting its precondition. A convenient way to express the contract of a subroutine is in terms of preconditions and postconditions. the postcondition should specify the value that the function returns.out. closed. The precondition of a subroutine is something that must be true when the subroutine is called. cols. (Many computer scientists think that new doc tags @precondition and @postcondition should be added to the Javadoc system for explicit labeling of preconditions and postconditions. Preconditions most often give restrictions on the acceptable values of parameters. then there is no reason to expect it to work properly. and h are positive integers. In fact.6. since it is not possible to take the square root of a negative number. Each rectangle is w pixels . Here are some of the available routines in the API. a precondition is that the parameter. A postcondition of a subroutine represents the other side of the contract. if the subroutine is to work correctly. w. is greater than or equal to zero. Suppose that I have found an already-written class called Mosaic. Of course. they can also refer to global variables that are used in the subroutine. However. with Javadoc-style comments: /** * Opens a "mosaic" window on the screen. It is something that will be true after the subroutine has run (assuming that its preconditions were met—and that there are no bugs in the subroutine). This class allows a program to work with a window that displays little colored rectangles arranged in rows and columns. In this example. we will use prewritten subroutines as building blocks and we will also design new subroutines that we need to complete the project. For example. as discussed in Section 4. * * Precondition: The parameters rows. A postcondition of the built-in subroutine System. x. In terms of a contract. this will only be true if the precondition— that the parameter is greater than or equal to zero—is met. The postcondition of the function Math. as in the example of Math. but you can only blame yourself.print() is that the value of the parameter has been displayed on the screen. a precondition represents an obligation of the caller of the subroutine. the class defines a toolbox or API that can be used for working with such windows. * Postcondition: A window is open on the screen that can display rows and * columns of colored rectangles.1.4. but I will explicitly label the preconditions and postconditions. The window can be opened. I will use this approach in the example that constitutes the rest of this section. not the subroutine.sqrt(x). When you are assigned to write a subroutine. Subroutines are often described by comments that explicitly specify their preconditions and postconditions.sqrt(x).) 4. The postcondition of a subroutine specifies the task that it performs. a statement of its preconditions and postconditions tells you how to use it and what it does. The program might crash or give incorrect results. for the built-in function Math.6. The comments are given in the form of Javadoc comments. and otherwise manipulated with static member subroutines defined in the Mosaic class. When you are given a pre-written subroutine. the preconditions and postconditions give you an exact specification of what the subroutine is expected to do.

but returns the blue component of the color. * Note: The rows are numbered from 0 to rows . * * Precondition: row and col are in the valid range of row and column numbers. int w. Initially. int b) /** * Gets the red component of the color of one of the rectangles. The number of rows is given by * the first parameter and the number of columns by the * second. * * Precondition: row and col are in the valid range of row and column numbers.148 CHAPTER 4. int h) /** * Sets the color of one of the rectangles in the window. all rectangles are black. and it is false if the window is * closed. int col) /** * Tests whether the mosaic window is currently open. */ public static void setColor(int row. * Postcondition: The red component of the color of the specified rectangle is * returned as an integer in the range 0 to 255 inclusive. inclusive. int col) /** * Like getRed. * and b. but returns the green component of the color. */ public static int getBlue(int row. the * more red in the color. g and b work similarly for the * green and blue color components.1. and b are in the range 0 to 255. and the columns are * numbered from 0 to cols . * * Precondition: None. */ public static int getRed(int row. int cols.1. int g. int col. * Postcondition: The return value is true if the window is open when this * function is called. int col) /** * Like getRed. The larger the value of r. * Postcondition: The color of the rectangle in row number row and column * number col has been set to the color specified by r. * and r. SUBROUTINES * wide and h pixels high. g. int r. */ public static int getGreen(int row. r gives the amount of red in the color with 0 * representing no red and 255 representing the maximum * possible amount of red. */ public static boolean isOpen() /** . */ public static void open(int rows. g.

changing the color of each square that it encounters. or right. for example). I decide it would be interesting to have a “disturbance” that wanders randomly around the window. * Postcondition: The program has paused for at least the specified number * of milliseconds. * * Precondition: milliseconds is a positive integer. left. the name of the class must be included as part of the name of the routine. changing squares at random. so let’s decide to write a separate subroutine to do it.6. As long as the mosaic window is open: Randomly change color of the square at the current position. ∗ ∗ ∗ My idea is to use the Mosaic class as the basis for a neat animation. where one second is equal to 1000 * milliseconds. at random. I want to fill the window with randomly colored squares. I can turn to the specific problem at hand. Here’s a picture showing what the contents of the window might look like at one point in time: With basic routines for manipulating the window as a foundation. Move around. but after thinking for a while. and then randomly change the colors in a loop that continues as long as the window is open.isOpen() rather than simply isOpen().4. then keep moving to a new square and changing the color of that square. Move current position up. The third step can be expanded a bit more. Set the current position to the middle square in the window. */ public static void delay(int milliseconds) 149 Remember that these subroutines are members of the Mosaic class. into the steps: Start in the middle of the window. down. This should continue as long as the mosaic window is still open. . we’ll have to use the name Mosaic. A basic outline for my program is Open a Mosaic window Fill window with random colors. “Randomly change the colors” could mean a lot of different things. MORE ON PROGRAM DESIGN * Inserts a delay in the program (to regulate the speed at which the colors * are changed. Filling the window with random colors seems like a nice coherent task that I can work on separately. Thus we can refine the algorithm to: Open a Mosaic window Fill window with random colors. so when they are called from outside Mosaic. For example.

” is added to the while loop. while ( Mosaic. currentColumn = 10. // Middle column. column++) changeToRandomColor(row. row++) for (int column = 0. The fillWithRandomColors() routine is defined by the postcondition that “each of the rectangles in the mosaic has been changed to a random color.random()). Mosaic.setColor(). Mosaic. I already have a subroutine. } With the proper wrapper.setColor() subroutine. I’ll use 10 rows and 20 columns of squares in my mosaic. the line “Mosaic.” Pseudocode for an algorithm to accomplish this task can be given as: For each row: For each column: set the square in that row and column to a random color “For each row” and “for each column” can be implemented as for loops. Writing each of these subroutines is a separate. int green = (int)(256*Math. we already have a method in the Mosaic class. row < 10. currentColumn). fillWithRandomColors() can be written in proper Java as: static void fillWithRandomColors() { for (int row = 0. It turns out I have to make one small modification: To prevent the animation from running too fast.20. to open the window. A formula for randomly selecting such an integer is “(int)(256*Math. but to complete the program. .random())”. int blue = (int)(256*Math. } Turning to the changeToRandomColor subroutine. The main() routine is taken care of. currentRow = 5. changeToRandomColor(int. According to the precondition of the Mosaic. I decide that I will write two more subroutines of my own to carry out the two tasks in the while loop. g.random()). The algorithm can then be written in Java as: Mosaic. these random values must be integers in the range from 0 to 255.isOpen() ) { changeToRandomColor(currentRow.column). halfway down the window. small task. randomMove().10. Mosaic. this is essentially the main() routine of my program. to test whether the window is open. We’ve already planned to write a subroutine changeToRandomColor that can be used to set the color. I still have to write the subroutines fillWithRandomColors(). and b.isOpen(). int colNum) { int red = (int)(256*Math.open(). we just have to choose random values for r. and randomMove(). So the random color subroutine becomes: static void changeToRandomColor(int rowNum. that can be used to change the color of a square. That can be done with two int variables named currentRow and currentColumn that hold the row number and the column number of the square where the disturbance is currently located. SUBROUTINES I need to represent the current position in some way. (The possibility of reusing subroutines in several places is one of the big payoffs of using them!) So.open(10.random()).150 CHAPTER 4.delay(20). and I have a function. If we want a random color. // Middle row.int).10) fillWithRandomColors(). column < 20. To keep the main routine simple. so setting the current position to be in the center means setting currentRow to 5 and currentColumn to 10.

currentRow = 9. Rather than let this happen. left. (Remember that the 10 rows are numbered from 0 to 9. Note that I’ve added Javadocstyle comments for the class itself and for each of the subroutines.colNum. move in one direction. switch (directionNum) { case 0: // move up currentRow--. the code for randomMove becomes: int directionNum. break. } 4. break. if (currentColumn >= 20) currentColumn = 0. The variables currentRow and currentColumn are defined as static members of the class. break. To “move up” means to subtract 1 from currentRow. case 2: // move down currentRow++. } 151 Finally. case 1: // move right currentColumn++. This program actually depends on two other classes.red.6. left. // move it to the opposite edge. we get the following complete program.random()). To make a random choice among four directions. because each of them is used in several different subroutines. both of these classes must be available to the program. I decide to move the disturbance to the opposite edge of the applet by setting currentRow to 9. The position of the disturbance is given by the variables currentRow and currentColumn. which would put the disturbance above the window. or right. case 3: // move left currentColumn--. Mosaic and another class called MosaicCanvas that is used by Mosaic. rather than local variables. which is supposed to randomly move the disturbance up.) Moving the disturbance down. . and so on. or right is handled similarly. if (currentRow >= 10) currentRow = 0. down.3 The Program Putting this all together. if it is 1. directionNum = (int)(4*Math. break.setColor(rowNum. If we use a switch statement to decide which direction to move. move in another direction. if (currentRow < 0) // CurrentRow is outside the mosaic. If the integer is 0.green.blue). MORE ON PROGRAM DESIGN mosaic. consider the randomMove subroutine. If you want to compile and run this program. we can choose a random integer in the range 0 to 3. if (currentColumn < 0) currentColumn = 19. This leaves open the question of what to do if currentRow becomes -1.6.4.

* Postcondition: The square in the specified row and column has * been set to a random color. * Precondition: The mosaic window is open. while (Mosaic. /** * The main program creates the window. currentColumn). * Precondition: The specified rowNum and colNum are in the valid range * of row and column numbers. */ public static void main(String[] args) { Mosaic. currentRow = 5. randomMove(). int blue = (int)(256*Math. A "disturbance" * moves randomly around in the window. row < 10.isOpen()) { changeToRandomColor(currentRow.random()). // start at center of window currentColumn = 10. // and blue color components.20. fills it with random colors. Mosaic. // Choose random levels in range int green = (int)(256*Math. // Row currently containing the disturbance. column). } } } // end fillWithRandomColors /** * Changes one square to a new randomly selected color.10). * @param rowNum the row number of the square. // Column currently containing disturbance. * Postcondition: Each square has been set to a random color. row++) { for (int column=0. // 0 to 255 for red.random()).random()). * and then moves the disturbances in a random walk around the window * as long as the window is open. . SUBROUTINES /** * This program opens a window full of randomly colored squares. static int currentColumn. counting rows down * from 0 at the top * @param colNum the column number of the square. fillWithRandomColors(). */ static void fillWithRandomColors() { for (int row=0.10. counting columns over * from 0 at the left */ static void changeToRandomColor(int rowNum. The program runs until the user closes the window.delay(20). */ public class RandomMosaicWalk { static int currentRow. column++) { changeToRandomColor(row. } } // end main /** * Fills the window with randomly colored squares. randomly changing the color of each * square that it visits. green. int colNum) { int red = (int)(256*Math.open(10.152 CHAPTER 4. column < 20.

if (currentRow < 0) currentRow = 9. I have been avoiding some of those details. break.blue). since I will be using it regularly in future chapters. } } // end randomMove } // end class RandomMosaicWalk 4. // Randomly set to 0. if (currentColumn >= 20) currentColumn = 0. 2. then it is moved to the * opposite edge of the grid. If this moves the * position outside of the grid. or * right from the current position. switch (directionNum) { case 0: // move up currentRow--. break.green.setColor(rowNum. THE TRUTH ABOUT DECLARATIONS Mosaic. // end of changeToRandomColor() 153 } /** * Move the disturbance.colNum. left. 1. as I said a few chapters ago.4. break. There are a lot of details involved in declaring and using names. I’ll reveal most of the truth (although still not the full truth) about declaring and using variables in Java. case 2: // move down currentRow++. */ static void randomMove() { int directionNum. or 3 to choose direction. case 3: // move left currentColumn--. case 1: // move right currentColumn++. The material in the subsections “Initialization in Declarations” and “Named Constants” is particularly important. . break.random()). if (currentRow >= 10) currentRow = 0. directionNum = (int)(4*Math.up. In this section. * Postcondition: currentRow or currentColumn is changed to one of the * neighboring positions in the grid -.7.7 The Truth About Declarations Names are fundamental to programming.red. if (currentColumn < 0) currentColumn = 19. * Precondition: The global variables currentRow and currentColumn * are within the legal range of row and column numbers. down.

// Give count its initial value. It is legal to initialize several variables in one declaration statement. the declaration is often followed closely by an assignment statement that does the initialization. static int maxWithdrawal = 200. For example: for ( int i = 0. The initial value does not have to be a constant. the special type of for statement that is used with enumerated types.154 CHAPTER 4. The computer still executes this statement in two steps: Declare the variable count.1 Initialization in Declarations When a variable declaration is executed. but only y has been initialized! // OK. where I’ve added an extra pair of braces to show that i is considered to be local to the for statement and no longer exists after the for loop ends: { int i. This memory must be initialized to contain some definite value before the variable can be used in an expression. Since the loop control variable generally has nothing to do with the rest of the program outside the loop. it’s reasonable to have its declaration in the part of the program where it’s actually used. i < 10.println(i). In the case of a local variable. i < 10.out. the truth about declaration statements is that it is legal to include the initialization of the variable in the declaration statement.) A member variable can also be initialized at the point where it is declared. since it makes it possible to declare a loop control variable at the same point in the loop where it is initialized. int x. It can be any expression. // OK. For example. count = 0. However. declaring the variable in the for is required. char firstInitial = ’D’. The two statements above can therefore be abbreviated as int count = 0. y = 1. int count. that for “for-each” loops. secondInitial = ’E’.05. This feature is especially common in for loops. you should remember that this is simply an abbreviation for the following. N is initialized // before its value is used. just as for a local variable.4. // Declare count and give it an initial value.println(i). . SUBROUTINES 4.out. then assign the value 0 to the newly created variable. For example: public class Bank { static double interestRate = 0. For example. See Subsection 3. by the way. i++ ) { System. i++ ) { System. for ( i = 0. } Again. memory is allocated for the variable. } } (You might recall.7. // Declare a variable named count.4. M = N+2. int N = 3.

. 4. when declaring an integer member variable. since its value remains constant for the whole time that the program is running. if no initial value is provided for a member variable.” rather than “principal += principal*0. if the member variable interestRate is declared with final static double interestRate = 0. we have already seen that the Math class contains a variable Math. .7. In fact. // Can’t be outside a subroutine!: . This variable is declared in the Math class as a “public final static” variable of type double. count.”. Any assignment statement that tries to assign a value to interestRate will be rejected by the computer as a syntax error when the program is compiled. in the above example where interestRate is initialized to the value 0.4.” is equivalent to “static int count = 0. as mentioned in Subsection 4. I will often refer to a static member variable that is declared to be final as a named constant .05. then a default initial value is used. For example. Assignment statements cannot. with underscore characters to separate words if necessary. so the following is illegal: public class Bank { static double interestRate. to give a meaningful name to the otherwise meaningless number.2 Named Constants Sometimes.4.05. A recommended style rule for named constants is to give them names that consist entirely of upper case letters. which define many named constants. The readability of a program can be greatly enhanced by using named constants to give meaningful names to important quantities in the program. } 155 // More variables and subroutines. In the case of member variables. It is legal to apply the final modifier to local variables and even to formal parameters.05. For example. THE TRUTH ABOUT DECLARATIONS . the preferred style for the interest rate constant would be final static double INTEREST RATE = 0. In Java. the modifier “final” can be applied to a variable declaration to ensure that the value stored in the variable cannot be changed after the variable has been initialized. and the initialization is also done at that time.”. // ILLEGAL: . but it is most useful for member variables.05. declarations of member variables often include initial values. A static member variable is created as soon as the class is loaded by the Java interpreter. .7. It’s easier to understand what’s going on when a program says “principal += principal*interestRate. . 0.05. interestRate.PI. the value of a variable is not supposed to change after it is initialized. This is the style that is generally used in Java’s standard classes. then it would be impossible for the value of interestRate to change anywhere else in the program. Because of this. the programmer is probably defining the variable. “static int count. For example.2.05. In this case. For example. it’s quite possible that that is meant to be the value throughout the entire program. For example. interestRate = 0. Declaration statements are the only type of statement that can occur outside of a subroutine. this is not simply an abbreviation for a declaration followed by an assignment statement.

RIGHT. But between runs of the program. and it will not raise any objection if the value that is assigned to the variable is not one of the three valid alignment values. the programmer would have to track down each place where the interest rate is used in the program and change the rate to the new value. Technically.05 were used throughout the program. With the enumerated type. this is how things were generally done before the introduction of enumerated types in Java 5.BOLD. (This is made even harder by the fact that the number 0. Alignment. and Font.LEFT.) are also examples of named constants. ∗ ∗ ∗ Curiously enough.ITALIC mentioned above. and it is what is done with the constants Font.) On the other hand. if the named constant INTEREST RATE is declared and used consistently throughout the program. Alignment is a class. public static final int ALIGNMNENT RIGHT = 1. and the three constants are public final static members of that class. public static final int ALIGNMENT CENTER = 2. Enumerated type constants (See Subsection 2. the number of columns. one of the major reasons to use named constants is that it’s easy to change the value of a named constant. Of course. then only the single line where the constant is initialized needs to be changed. These constants are used for specifying different styles of text when calling various subroutines in the Font class. you could define a variable of type int and assign it the values ALIGNMENT LEFT.0. Any attempt to assign an invalid value to the variable is a syntax error which the computer will detect when the program is compiled.3.ITALIC.PLAIN.156 CHAPTER 4.05 might occur in the program with other meanings besides the interest rate. Defining the enumerated type is similar to defining three constants of type. Many named constants are created just to give meaningful names to be used as parameters in subroutine calls. I will give a new version of the RandomMosaicWalk program from the previous section. the Color class contains named constants such as Color. It’s quite possible that the value of the interest rate is used many times throughout the program. In fact. Font. If the literal number 0. and the size of each little square. int: public static final int ALIGNMENT LEFT = 0. The only problem with this is that the computer has no way of knowing that you intend the value of the variable to represent an alignment. it’s easy to change the value in the source code and recompile the program. The enumerated type definition enum Alignment { LEFT. This extra safety is one of the major advantages of enumerated types.PLAIN. Font. Consider the interest rate example. For example. SUBROUTINES Similarly. and Alignment. or ALIGNMENT CENTER to represent different types of alignment. The three constants are declared as final static member variables with the lines: . Suppose that the bank changes the interest rate and the program has to be modified. CENTER } defines the constants Alignment.RIGHT. the standard class named Font contains named constants Font. and Font. on the other hand. Using the integer constants. As an extended example.BOLD.CENTER. as well as by the fact that someone might have used 0.YELLOW which are public final static variables of type Color. This version uses named constants to represent the number of rows in the mosaic. ALIGNMENT RIGHT. the only values that can be assigned to a variable of type Alignment are the constant values that are listed in the definition of the enumerated type.3. the value can’t change while the program is running. say.025 to represent half the interest rate.RED and Color.

// Number of columns in mosaic. // Row currently containing the disturbance.isOpen()) { changeToRandomColor(currentRow. fillWithRandomColors(). } } // end main static void fillWithRandomColors() { for (int row=0. // Number of rows in mosaic. For example. // 0 to 255 for red. // Randomly set to 0. // and blue color components. directionNum = (int)(4*Math. currentRow = ROWS / 2. // Column currently containing disturbance.random()). randomMove(). static int currentRow. Mosaic. switch (directionNum) { case 0: // move up . // Number of columns in mosaic. to test that it works properly in all cases. If you don’t use the named constant consistently. column++) { changeToRandomColor(row.blue). Mosaic. final static int SQUARE SIZE = 15. // Size of each square in mosaic.random()). // Choose random levels in range int green = (int)(256*Math. public class RandomMosaicWalk2 { final static int ROWS = 30.colNum. while (Mosaic. Sometimes. column < COLUMNS. currentColumn). THE TRUTH ABOUT DECLARATIONS final static int ROWS = 30. I’ve left out some of the comments to save space. Here is the complete new program. column). final static int COLUMNS = 30. int colNum) { int red = (int)(256*Math. It’s always a good idea to run a program using several different values for any named constants. public static void main(String[] args) { Mosaic.green.random()). or 3 to choose direction. it’s not easy to find all the places where a named constant needs to be used. // Size of each square in mosaic. RandomMosaicWalk2. final static int COLUMNS = 30. final static int SQUARE SIZE = 15. the Mosaic window is opened with the statement Mosaic. row < ROWS. static int currentColumn.setColor(rowNum. COLUMNS. int blue = (int)(256*Math. 2.red. 1. SQUARE SIZE ). COLUMNS. SQUARE SIZE. green. 157 The rest of the program is carefully modified to use the named constants. row++) { for (int column=0. SQUARE SIZE. // start at center of window currentColumn = COLUMNS / 2.delay(20). } // end changeToRandomColor static void randomMove() { int directionNum. // Number of rows in mosaic.open( ROWS. SQUARE SIZE).random()).open(ROWS. with all modifications from the previous version shown in italic.4. } } } // end fillWithRandomColors static void changeToRandomColor(int rowNum. in the new version of the program.7. you’ve more or less defeated the purpose.

// local variable . we can refer to the scope of subroutine names and formal parameter names. case 1: // move right currentColumn++. break. case 3: // move left currentColumn--. That is. for example. // member variable static void playGame() { int count. if (currentColumn < 0) currentColumn = COLUMNS .158 currentRow--. break. For a variable that is declared as a static member variable in a class. but with one complication. within the scope of the local variable or parameter. the member variable is hidden. The portion of the program source code where the variable name is valid is called the scope of the variable.3 Naming and Scope Rules When a variable declaration is executed.” a fairly advanced topic that we will return to later. SUBROUTINES } // end class RandomMosaicWalk2 4. . Similarly. if (currentRow >= ROWS) currentRow = 0. the situation is similar. } } // end randomMove CHAPTER 4. a class named Game that has the form: public class Game { static int count. break. In that case. break.1. For static member subroutines.7. memory is allocated for that variable. } . if (currentRow < 0) currentRow = ROWS . scope is straightforward. // Some statements to define playGame() . if (currentColumn >= COLUMNS) currentColumn = 0. Consider. it is possible to call the subroutine from any point in the class. case 2: // move down currentRow ++.1. This is an example of something called “recursion. It is even possible to call a subroutine from within itself. It is legal to have a local variable or a formal parameter that has the same name as a member variable. The scope of a static subroutine is the entire source code of the class in which it is defined. The variable name can be used in at least some part of the program source code to refer to that memory or to the data that is stored in the memory. including at a point in the source code before the point where the definition of the subroutine appears.

once the block in which a variable is declared ends. So. as in “for (int i=0. It is not legal to redefine the name of a formal parameter or local variable within its scope. there is no rule against using it inside the class. . In the rest of the Game class.4. unless hidden by other local variables or parameters named count. In many languages. However. } while (y > 0) { . it is possible to declare a loop control variable of a for loop in the for statement. } } x is already defined. can be used inside the playGame() subroutine to refer to the member variable. For example: void goodSub(int y) { while (y > 10) { int x. // end Game In the statements that make up the body of the playGame() subroutine. the declaration of x in the while loop would hide the original declaration. The scope of a local variable extends from the declaration statement that defines the variable to the end of the block in which the declaration occurs. even in a nested block. but where the simple name of the member variable is hidden by a local variable or formal parameter name. the name “count” refers to the local variable. while (y > 0) { int x. . .) The scope of a formal parameter of a subroutine is the block that makes up the body of the subroutine. Game. there is one further complication. For example. } // More variables and subroutines.count. The scope of such a declaration is considered as a special case: It is valid only within the for statement and does not extend to the remainder of the block that contains the for statement. The full name. // The scope of x ends here. .count. (Scope rules for non-static members are similar to those for static members. non-static members cannot be used in static subroutines. As noted above. the member variable must be referred to by its full name of the form className . as we shall see. The member variable named count can also be referred to by the full name Game. i < 10. the full name is only used outside the class where count is defined. THE TRUTH ABOUT DECLARATIONS 159 . however. except that. However. i++)”. its name does become available for reuse in Java. Usually. . // ERROR: .7. . the full scope rule is that the scope of a static member variable includes the entire class in which it is defined. “count” refers to the member variable. . It is not legal in Java. this would be legal. this is not allowed: void badSub(int y) { int x. variableName .

The second is the function name.. . A class name is a type. } } CHAPTER 4. .) Even more is true: It’s legal to reuse class names to name variables and subroutines. However. This can’t happen. please remember that not everything that is possible is a good idea! .160 int x. It’s a good idea to think of the parentheses as part of the name. } The first Insanity is the return type of the function. The syntax rules of Java guarantee that the computer can always tell when a name is being used as a class name. SUBROUTINES // OK: Previous declaration of x has expired. and so it can be used to declare variables and formal parameters and to specify the return type of a function.. the third is the type of the formal parameter. It’s perfectly legal to have a variable called count and a subroutine called count in the same class. as when I talk about the main() routine. You might wonder whether local variable names can hide subroutine names. The computer can always tell whether a name refers to a variable or to a subroutine. . There is no rule that variables and subroutines have to have different names. This means that you could legally have a class called Insanity in which you declare a function static Insanity Insanity( Insanity Insanity ) { . for a reason that might be surprising. and the fourth is a formal parameter name. because a subroutine name is always followed by a left parenthesis. (This is one reason why I often write subroutine names with parentheses.

If the parameter is not one of the legal hexadecimal digits. a capitalized version of “Now is the time to act!” is “Now Is The Time To Act!”. return -1 as the value of the function. Character. The hexadecimal digits are the ordinary. and its hexadecimal value is the return value of the function. If not. 12. Use your function in a program that computes and prints the number of rolls it takes to get snake eyes. Write a function that simulates rolling a pair of dice until the total on the dice comes up to be a given number. . The number that you are rolling for is a parameter to the function. Recall that there is a standard boolean-valued function Character. this is not valid if str contains any characters that are not hexadecimal digits. If all the characters in the string are hexadecimal digits. .3. what’s the average number of rolls to get a given total? Write a function that performs the experiment of rolling to get a given total 10000 times. . 3. 174204. Write a function named hexValue that uses a switch statement to find the hexadecimal value of a given character.charAt(i) ). The number of times you have to roll the dice is the return value of the function.) 4. it just returns a copy of the parameter. The function should throw an IllegalArgumentException if this is not the case. A hexadecimal integer is a sequence of hexadecimal digits.isLetter(char) that can be used to test whether its parameter is a letter. such as 34A7. This exercise builds on Exercise 4.Exercises 161 Exercises for Chapter 4 1. If str is a string containing a hexadecimal integer. Of course. (Snake eyes means that the total showing on the dice is 2. To “capitalize” a string means to change the first letter of each word in the string to upper case (if it is not already upper case). . 2. that returns a capitalized version of the single character passed to it as a parameter. it returns the upper-case version.toUpperCase(char). these digits represent the values 0 through 15. the number of rolls it takes can be different. There is another standard char-valued function. or FADE. then the corresponding base-10 integer can be computed as follows: value = 0. If the parameter is not a letter. Write a program that reads a string from the user. trying to get a given total. base-10 digits ’0’ through ’9’ plus the letters ’A’ through ’F’. Write a subroutine named printCapitalized that will print a capitalized version of a string to standard output. i < str. In the hexadecimal system. The character is a parameter to the function. Note that a letter is the first letter of a word if it is not immediately preceded in the string by another letter. print out the corresponding base-10 value. FF8. The question naturally arises. The string to be printed should be a parameter to the subroutine. The desired total is . You should count lower case letters ’a’ through ’f’ as having the same value as the corresponding upper case letters.length(). for ( i = 0. i++ ) value = value*16 + hexValue( str. if the parameter is a letter. For example. 3. Test your subroutine with a main() routine that gets a line of input from the user and applies the subroutine to it. That is. respectively. Every time you roll the dice repeatedly. print out an error message. The parameter should be one of the possible totals: 2.

and square size.height.7 that uses named constants for the number of rows.g. 3. write a main program that will call your function once for each of the possible totals (2.c). .0607 .7 in the on-line version of this book shows a variation on this idea.) Set the number of rows and the number of columns to 80. SUBROUTINES a parameter to the subroutine.b). Each individual experiment should be done by calling the function you wrote for Exercise 4. something like: Total On Dice ------------2 3 . Average Number of Rolls ----------------------35. The sample program RandomMosaicWalk. While the program does not do anything particularly interesting.6. Recall that you can discover the current red component of the square in row r and column c with the function call Mosaic. Here is a picture showing what it looks like at several different times: The program will show a rectangle that grows from the center of the applet to the edges. 5. it’s interesting as a programming problem. number of columns. all the squares start out with the default color.width. Write a subroutine that will add 25 to the red component of one of the squares in the mosaic. the color of that square is changed. 12). getting brighter as it grows.6 shows a “disturbance” that wanders around a grid of colored squares. you will write another program based on the non-standard Mosaic class that was presented in Section 4. Set the square size to 5. 6.left. More specifically. The row and column numbers of the square should be passed as parameters to the subroutine.. You should first write a subroutine that draws a rectangle on a Mosaic window. . . black. For this exercise..java.r. Every time the disturbance visits a square. Use your subroutine as a substitute for the changeToRandomColor() subroutine in the program RandomMosaicWalk2..3. An applet that does the same thing as the program can be seen in the on-line version of this book. The rectangle is made up of the little squares of the mosaic. In this applet.getRed(r. .8382 18. write a subroutine named rectangle such that the subroutine call statement rectangle(top.java from Section 4. When the disturbance visits a square. Now. It should make a table of the results. The average number of rolls is the return value.162 CHAPTER 4. The applet at the bottom of Section 4. (This is the improved version of the program from Section 4. a small amount is added to the red component of the color of that square.

since the problem is complicated enough already. with all three color components having the same value).r. the variables giving the top row.col. (I advise you not to used named constants for the numbers of rows and columns. You might want to make a subroutine that does one loop through all the steps of the animation. In the applet. The leftmost column of the rectangle is specified by left. size. In each step. The main() routine simply opens a Mosaic window and then does the animation loop over and over until the user closes the window.setColor(row.g. Then the very same rectangle is drawn in black. The number of columns in the rectangle is specified by width (so the rightmost column is left+width-1.Exercises 163 will call Mosaic. effectively erasing the gray rectangle. the loop ends. When the rectangle gets to the outer edge of the applet. There is a pause of 200 milliseconds so the user can see the rectangle. left column. The topmost row of the rectangle is specified by top. There is a 1000 millisecond delay between one animation loop and the next.) . and color level of the rectangle are adjusted to get ready for the next step.b) for each little square that lies on the outline of a rectangle.) The animation loops through the same sequence of steps over and over. the color level starts at 50 and increases by 10 after each step. a rectangle is drawn in gray (that is. The animation then starts again at the beginning of the loop. Finally. Use a Mosaic window that has 41 rows and 41 columns. The number of rows in the rectangle is specified by height (so the bottommost row is top+height-1).

Write a subroutine with three parameters of type int. and so on. What is the syntactic aspect? What is the semantic aspect? 3. (A star is the character “*”. 2. Write a subroutine named “stars” that will output a line of stars to standard output. Discuss the concept of parameters. 2 stars in the second line. What is an API? Give an example. Write a main() routine that uses the subroutine that you wrote for Question 7 to output 10 lines of stars with 1 star in the first line.164 CHAPTER 4. 10. For example.) The number of stars should be given as a parameter to the subroutine. Use a for loop. Give two different reasons for using named constants (declared with the final modifier). * ** *** **** ***** ****** ******* ******** ********* ********** 9. the command “stars(20)” would output ******************** 8. Write a function named countChars that has a String and a char as parameters. Briefly explain how subroutines can be a useful tool in the top-down design of programs. A subroutine is said to have a contract. Explain what is meant by the terms interface and implementation. SUBROUTINES Quiz on Chapter 4 1. The value of the smallest parameter should be returned as the value of the subroutine. 6. as shown below. The function should count the number of times the character occurs in the string. . 4. and it should return the result as the value of the function. What is meant by the contract of a subroutine? When you want to use a subroutine. why is it important to understand its contract? The contract has both “syntactic” and “semantic” aspects. The subroutine should determine which of its parameters is smallest. 7. A “black box” has an interface and an implementation. What are parameters for? What is the difference between formal parameters and actual parameters? 5.

But at the heart of objectoriented programming. it is possible to use object-oriented techniques in any programming language. we will generally use these ideas in a limited form. We can think of an object in standard programming terms as nothing more than a set of variables together with some subroutines for manipulating those variables. an object can encapsulate both data (in the form of instance variables) and a number of different tasks or “behaviors” related to that data (in the form of instance methods). and Instance Variables Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents an attempt to make programs more closely model the way people think about and deal with the world.5 covers the central ideas of object-oriented programming: inheritance and polymorphism. more sophisticated type of structure that can be used to help manage the complexity of large programs.1 Objects. in this textbook. To some extent. that hold information. you might want to skim through them now and return to them later when they are actually needed. there is a big difference between a language that makes OOP possible and one that actively supports it. by creating independent classes and building on existing classes rather than by designing entire hierarchies of classes from scratch. Section 5. Software objects in the program can represent real or abstract entities in the problem domain. This is supposed to make the design of the program more natural and hence easier to get right and easier to understand. Therefore objects provide another. instead of tasks we find objects—entities that have behaviors. Programming consists of designing a set of objects that somehow model the problem at hand.Chapter 5 Programming in the Large II: Objects and Classes Whereas a subroutine represents a single task. you have to “orient” your thinking correctly.7 cover some of the many details of object oriented programming in Java.6 and Section 5. and that can interact with one another. Although these details are used occasionally later in the book. Instance Methods. In order to make effective use of those features. OOP is just a change in point of view. Programming then consists of finding a sequence of instructions that will accomplish that task. Section 5. However. In the older styles of programming. 5. a programmer who is faced with some problem must identify a computing task that needs to be performed in order to solve the problem. In fact. An object-oriented programming language such as Java includes a number of features that make it very different from a standard language. However. This chapter covers the creation and use of objects in Java. 165 .

1. which are objects.1 Objects. Section 3. it is more exact to say that classes are used to create objects. it didn’t seem to make much difference: We just left the word “static” out of the subroutine definitions! I have said that classes “describe” objects.166 CHAPTER 5. the PlayerData object that represents that player can be destroyed. or describe. it’s a lot of potential. UserData. Consider a simple class whose job is to group together a few static member variables. The more usual terminology is to say that objects belong to classes. A class is a kind of factory for constructing objects. static int age. OBJECTS AND CLASSES 5. but this might not be much clearer. Now. since name and age are not static members of PlayerData. If a player leaves the game. there is no such variable as PlayerData. There can be many “players” because we can make new objects to represent new players on demand. if they are created using the same class. A program might use this class to store information about multiple players in a game. Think of an applet that scrolls . So.age.) From the point of view of programming. For example. The non-static parts of the class specify. An object certainly doesn’t “belong” to a class in the same way that a member variable “belongs” to a class. (There is a real shortage of English words to properly distinguish all the concepts involved.” since we only have memory space to store data about one user. This is part of the explanation of how objects differ from classes: Objects are created and destroyed as the program runs. or more exactly that the non-static portions of classes describe objects. since it can be used to create any number of objects! Each object will have its own variables called name and age.8. how do they differ from classes? And why does it require a different type of thinking to understand and use them effectively? In the one section where we worked with objects rather than classes. If an object is also a collection of variables and subroutines. Classes. You can’t do this with “static” variables! In Section 3. what variables and subroutines the objects will contain. and the variables it contains exist as long as the program runs. and Instances Objects are closely related to classes. The class. But one class can be used to make many applets. A system of objects in the program is being used to dynamically model what is happening in the game. But it’s probably not very clear what this means.age. and there can be many objects with the same structure. But.8. We have already been working with classes for several chapters. } In this case. There can only be one “user. a new PlayerData object can be created to represent that player. and we have seen that a class can contain variables and subroutines. When a player joins the game. int age. Each player has a name and an age. the following class could be used to store information about the person who is using the program: class UserData { static String name. there is only one copy of each of the variables UserData. there is nothing much in the class at all— except the potential to create objects. consider a similar class that includes non-static variables: class PlayerData { String name. } In a program that uses this class.name and UserData. The reason they didn’t seem to be any different from classes is because we were only working with one applet in each class that we looked at. we worked with applets.name or PlayerData.

As you can see. Many classes contain only static members. It is important to remember that the class of an object determines the types of the instance variables.2 Fundamentals of Objects So far. rather than to instances of that class. The situation is even clearer if you think about windows. As a program runs. Thus.1. The non-static subroutines in the class merely specify the instance methods that every object created from the class will contain. and the class itself. The “static” definitions in the source code specify the things that are part of the class itself. But there is a real difference between the two scroll() methods. whereas the non-static definitions in the source code specify things that will become part of every instance object that is created from the class. By the way. depending on the values of their instance variables. The source code determines both the class and the objects that are created from that class. are objects. method is a synonym for “subroutine”. The scroll() methods in two different applets do the same thing in the sense that they both scroll messages across the screen. and we’ll see a few examples later in this chapter where it is reasonable to do so. which. I will prefer the term “method. You should distinguish between the source code for the class. 5. as defined above. it is possible to mix static and non-static members in a single class. if the PlayerData class. but the specific behavior can vary from object to object. is used to create an object. If the scrolling message in the applet is stored in a non-static variable. all created from the same class. but all those windows can belong to the same class. and each applet can show a different message. Consider this extremely simplified version of a Student class. The variables that the object contains are called instance variables. Still. not to the class. since we are doing object-oriented programming. You might say that the method definition in the class specifies what type of behavior the objects will have. we have a dynamic situation where multiple objects are created and destroyed as a program runs. The subroutines that the object contains are called instance methods. The messages that they scroll can be different. OBJECTS AND INSTANCE METHODS 167 a message across a Web page. However. (Recall that in the context of object-oriented programming. not the class. From now on. however. then that object is an instance of the PlayerData class. There could be several such applets on the same page. or only non-static. many windows might be opened and closed. since they belong to the class itself. Since the applet is an object. each object has its own set of data. Let’s look at a specific example to see how it works. An applet that scrolls a message across a Web page might include a subroutine named scroll(). The source code for the method is in the class that is used to create the applet. this subroutine is an instance method of the applet. it’s better to think of the instance method as belonging to the object. which could be used to store information about students taking a course: . the actual data is contained inside the individual objects. and I haven’t given you much idea what you have to put in a program if you want to work with objects. Here again. then each applet will have its own variable. like applets.”) For example. I’ve been talking mostly in generalities. ∗ ∗ ∗ An object that belongs to a class is said to be an instance of that class.5.1. the static and the non-static portions of a class are very different things and serve very different purposes. and name and age are instance variables in the object. static member variables and static member subroutines in a class are sometimes called class variables and class methods.

// Student’s name. In fact. public double getAverage() { // compute average test grade return (test1 + test2 + test3) / 3. It is not quite true. test1. test3. a variable holds the information necessary to find the object in memory. In effect. Different students can have different averages. the computer uses the reference in the variable to find the actual object. the type of a formal parameter.) In Java. or the return type of a function. // Grades on three tests. When called for a particular student. Instead of holding an object itself. So. public double test1. then. test2. declared as above. } } // end of class Student None of the members of this class are declared to be static. and it would store a reference to that object in the variable std. test1. suppose that the variable std refers to an object belonging to the class Student. That object has instance variables name. the method getAverage() will compute an average using that student’s test grades. These instance variables can . When you use a variable of class type. which is related to this Very Important Fact: In Java. This class definition says that any object that is an instance of the Student class will include instance variables named name. The value of the variable is a reference to the object. objects are created using an operator called new. The names and tests in different objects will generally have different values. a reference to an object is the address of the memory location where the object is stored.168 public class Student { CHAPTER 5. OBJECTS AND CLASSES public String name. the assignment statement std = new Student(). It is certainly not at all true to say that the object is “stored in the variable std. so the class exists only for creating objects. test2. this is what it means to say that an instance method belongs to an individual object. a class name can be used to specify the type of a variable in a declaration statement. In a program. similar to the built-in types such as int and boolean. a program could define a variable named std of type Student with the statement Student std. and test3. For example.” The proper terminology is that “the variable std refers to the object. to say that the object is the “value of the variable std” (though sometimes it is hard to avoid using this terminology). test2. which creates an object and returns a reference to that object. assuming that std is a variable of type Student. However.” and I will try to stick to that terminology as much as possible. there is a special portion of memory called the heap where objects live. (Again. So. This information is called a reference or pointer to the object. no variable can ever hold an object. not to the class. declaring a variable does not create an object! This is an important point. and test3. would create a new object which is an instance of the class Student. and it will include an instance method named getAverage(). a class is a type. You should think of objects as floating around independently in the computer’s memory. A variable can only hold a reference to an object. not the object itself. For example.

// // // // // // // // // // // // // Declare four variables of type Student. This would output the name and test grades from the object to which std refers. If your program attempts to use a null reference illegally like this. and hence no instance variables to refer to. It is possible for a variable like std. For example. std3. // Set values of some instance variables. and std. You can even use it to call subroutines from the String class. and you could test whether the value of std is null by testing if (std == null) . std1.5. of course. Create a new object belonging to the class Student.println(std. std.getAverage() ). std3 = null. std. Copy the reference value in std1 into the variable std2.) . std = new Student(). Similarly. the result is an error called a null pointer exception.length() is the number of characters in the student’s name.test3). then the full name of B is A. you could use std.test1. illegal to refer to instance variables or instance methods through that variable—since there is no object.test3.out. For example.test2).println("Hello. and store a reference to that object in the variable std. This follows the usual naming convention that when B is part of A.println(std. std. Let’s look at a sequence of statements that work with objects: Student std. For example. then it would be illegal to refer to std.name. std can be used to call the getAverage() instance method in the object by saying std.name any place where a variable of type String is legal. System.println( "Your average is " + std. a program might include the lines System. OBJECTS AND INSTANCE METHODS 169 be referred to as std.name = "John Smith".test1). More generally.out.getAverage().out. The null reference is written in Java as “null”.name = "Mary Jones". If the value of a variable is null.name. std1. To print out the student’s average. whose type is given by a class. then it is.test1. You can store a null reference in the variable std by saying std = null.out.println(std.test2. // (Other instance variables have default // initial values of zero. Create a second Student object and store a reference to it in the variable std1. Your test grades are:").1. " + System. if the value of the variable std is null. You can use it in expressions. std1 = new Student().B. to refer to no object at all. We say in this case that std holds a null reference. Store a null reference in the variable std3. std. std2 = std1.out. . . std2. System. you could say: System. You can assign a value to it. std.name + ".

For example. std2 was set to refer to the very same object that std1 refers to.name and std2. only a reference is copied. OBJECTS AND CLASSES After the computer executes these statements.” was executed. “The object is not in the variable. but here again. not objects.” You can test objects for equality and inequality using the operators == and !=. but you can help protect yourself from it if you keep telling yourself. the situation in the computer’s memory looks like this: This picture shows variables as little boxes. whether they point to the same location .name are two different names for the same variable.name is "Mary Jones". doesn’t point anywhere.170 CHAPTER 5.name. you are testing whether the values stored in std1 and std2 are the same. This has some consequences that might be surprising. This illustrates a Very Important Point: When one object variable is assigned to another. The variable just holds a pointer to the object. that is. The variable std3. But the values are references to objects. So. namely the instance variable in the object that both std1 and std2 refer to. std1. the semantics are different from what you are used to. you are testing whether std1 and std2 refer to the same object. the value of that variable is shown as an arrow pointing to the object. When a variable contains a reference to an object. with a value of null. There is a potential for a lot of confusion here. Objects are shown as boxes with round corners. The arrows from std1 and std2 both point to the same object. no new object was created. labeled with the names of the variables. After the string "Mary Jones" is assigned to the variable std1. The object referred to is not copied. When you make a test “if (std1 == std2)”. Instead. When the assignment “std2 = std1. it is also true that the value of std2.

obj still points to the same object. Suppose that a variable that refers to an object is declared to be final. if its what you want to do. what you want to check is whether the instance variables in the objects have the same values. But sometimes. // The value stored in stu is not changed! // It still refers to the same object. // Change data in the object.5. It’s perfectly legal to say final Student stu = new Student(). But the strings could still be different objects. . not the string itself. this does not prevent the data in the object from changing. However.1. Next. The variable greeting and the String literal "Hello" each refer to a string that contains the characters H-e-l-l-o. However. ∗ ∗ ∗ The fact that variables hold references to objects. } The lines: x = 17. It only has a copy of that value. This explains why using the == operator to test strings for equality is not a good idea. the variable points to it. This means that the value stored in the variable can never be changed. maybe not. Suppose that greeting is a variable of type String. A variable of type String can only hold a reference to a string. not the object. you would need to ask whether “std1. So the variable will continue to refer to the same object as long as the variable exists. suppose that obj is a variable that refers to an object. not objects themselves.name = "John Doe". The expression greeting == "Hello" tests whether greeting and "Hello" contain the same characters stored in the same memory location. After the subroutine ends.println(stu. } The lines: stu. that just happen to contain the same characters. The subroutine has no power to change the value stored in the variable. System. meaning that it does not refer to any string at all. it can change the data stored in the object. that value is a reference to an object. The value stored in the variable is a reference to the object. They follow logically. has a couple of other consequences that you should be aware of.test1 == std2. change(stu). Then would the test greeting == "Hello" be true? Well.out. The object is somewhere else.out. This is fine. void change(Student s) { s. Let’s consider what happens when obj is passed as an actual parameter to a subroutine. The variable is final.name)”.println(x). dontChange(x). once the variable has been initialized. System.name = "Fred". Since the subroutine has a reference to the object. It could also hold the value null. OBJECTS AND INSTANCE METHODS 171 in memory.test2 == std2.test3 == std2. which is almost certainly the question you want to ask.equals(std2. if you just keep in mind the basic fact that the object is not stored in the variable. and the subroutine is executed.test3 && std1. and that the string it refers to is "Hello".name. I’ve remarked previously that Strings are objects. but the data stored in the object might have changed.equals("Hello") tests whether greeting and "Hello" contain the same characters.name). Suppose x is a variable of type int and stu is a variable of type Student.test2 && std1.name = "Jane". The value of obj is assigned to a formal parameter in the subroutine. maybe. To do that. and I’ve shown the strings "Mary Jones" and "John Smith" as objects in the above illustration. Compare: void dontChange(int z) { z = 42.test1 && std1. stu. The function greeting. obj.

return title. } and a setter method might check that the value that is being assigned to the variable is legal: . Anglo-Saxon words. for the variable title. a getter method might keep track of the number of times that the variable has been accessed: public String getTitle() { titleAccessCount++. (If you don’t like simple. s. You might also want to allow “write access” to a private variable. accessor methods are more often referred to as getter methods. Since this allows other classes both to see and to change the value of the variable. you might wonder why not just make the variable public? The reason is that getters and setters are not restricted to simply reading and writing the variable’s value. // Increment member variable titleAccessCount. or getTitle(). } It is actually very common to provide both a getter and a setter method for a private member variable.1. you can provide a method public String getTitle() { return title. almost all member variables should be declared private.name is. By convention.name = "Fred". if your class contains a private member variable. So. you can use the fancier term mutator method . and it should have a parameter with the same type as the variable.3 Getters and Setters When writing new classes. z = 42. A getter method provides “read access” to a variable. Recall that making a member of a class public makes it accessible from anywhere. For example. In fact.) The name of a setter method should consist of “set” followed by a capitalized copy of the variable’s name. In the opinion of many programmers. Because of this naming convention. } that returns the value of title. we get an accessor method named “get” + “Title”. including from other classes. For example. but stu.172 output the value 17. This is done with a setter method . The value of stu is not changed. the name of an accessor method for a variable is obtained by capitalizing the name of variable and adding “get” in front of the name. a private member can only be used in the class where it is defined. Even if the variable itself is private. CHAPTER 5. you can allow other classes to find out what its value is by providing a public accessor method that returns the value of the variable. of type String. it’s a good idea to pay attention to the issue of access control. A setter method for the variable title could be written public void setTitle( String newTitle ) { title = newTitle. This gives you complete control over what can be done with the variable. title. 5. they can take any action at all. The value of x is not changed by the subroutine. This is equivalent to s = stu. you might want to make it possible for other classes to specify a new value for the variable. OBJECTS AND CLASSES output the value "Fred". which is equivalent to z = x. On the other hand. That is.

2.random()*6) + 1. As a programmer. The private member variable is not part of the public interface of your class. filling in the object’s instance variables.” A couple of final notes: Some advanced aspects of Java rely on the naming convention for getter and setter methods. CONSTRUCTORS AND OBJECT INITIALIZATION public void setTitle( String newTitle ) { if ( newTitle == null ) // Don’t allow null strings as titles! title = "(Untitled)". that might or might not correspond to a variable. . first. so it’s a good idea to follow the convention rigorously. but you will usually want to exercise some control over what initial values are stored in a new object’s instance variables.2. you might change your mind in the future when you redesign and improve your class. finding some unused memory in the heap that can be used to hold the object and. you will also want to do more complicated initialization or bookkeeping every time an object is created. else title = newTitle. “Sorry guys. 5. // Number showing on the first die. consider a class named PairOfDice. For example. A getter and/or setter method defines a property of the class. public int die2 = 4. only the public getter and setter methods are. you’ll have to contact everyone who uses your class and tell them. if a class includes a public void instance method with signature setValue(double). And though I’ve been talking about using getter and setter methods for a variable.5. An object of this class will represent a pair of dice. 5. It will contain two instance variables to represent the numbers showing on the dice and an instance method for rolling the dice: public class PairOfDice { public int die1 = 3. In many cases. If you haven’t used get and set from the beginning. second. For the computer. If you’ve used a getter and setter from the beginning. then the class has a “property” named value of type double.2 Constructors and Object Initialization Object types in Java are very different from the primitive types. you can define get and set methods even if there is no variable. you’ll have to track down every use that you’ve made of this variable and change your code to use my new get and set methods instead. } 173 Even if you can’t think of any extra chores to do in a getter or setter method. and it has this property whether or not the class has a member variable named value. Objects must be explicitly constructed . you don’t care where in memory the object is stored. die1 = (int)(Math. public void roll() { // Roll the dice by setting each of the dice to be // a random number between 1 and 6.1 Initializing Instance Variables An instance variable can be assigned an initial value in its declaration. // Number showing on the second die. For example. you can make the modification to your class without affecting any of the classes that use your class. // Use an appropriate default value instead. the process of constructing an object means. Simply declaring a variable whose type is given as a class does not automatically create an object of that class. just like any other variable.

a call to a special type of subroutine called a constructor .174 CHAPTER 5. For initialization of static member variables. so that after the assignment statement is executed.) are automatically initialized to zero if you provide no other values.random()*6) + 1. every class has at least one constructor. In this example. the default initial value for String variables is null. it gets its own instance variables. since Strings are objects. new. // Construct a new object and store a // reference to it in the variable.2 Constructors Objects are created with the operator.random()*6) + 1. dice refers to the newly created object. a default initial value is provided automatically.random()*6) + 1. There is only one copy of a static variable. Part of this expression. and initialization of that variable is executed just once.random()*6) + 1. This might puzzle you.random()*6) + 1. “new PairOfDice()” is an expression that allocates memory for the object. Different pairs of dice can have different initial values. There can be many PairOfDice objects. If you don’t provide any initial value for an instance variable. Instance variables of numerical type (int. } } // end class PairOfDice The instance variables die1 and die2 are initialized to the values 3 and 4 respectively. looks like a subroutine call. initializes the object’s instance variables. “PairOfDice()”. An instance variable can also be a variable of object type. a set of random initial values will be computed for each new pair of dice. and then returns a reference to the object. and char variables. For such variables. Since the initialization is executed for each new object. since there is no such subroutine in the class definition. These initializations are executed whenever a PairOfDice object is constructed. (In particular. die2 = (int)(Math. and the assignments “die1 = 3” and “die2 = 4” are executed to fill in the values of those variables. of course. in fact. the default initial value is null. However. a program that wants to use a PairOfDice object could say: PairOfDice dice. and that value is stored by the assignment statement in the variable. etc. public int die2 = (int)(Math. the situation is quite different. public void roll() { die1 = (int)(Math. . and that is no accident. dice = new PairOfDice(). If the programmer doesn’t write a constructor definition in a class. // Declare a variable of type PairOfDice. boolean variables are initialized to false. It is. the dice are initialized to random values. to the Unicode character with code number zero.2. OBJECTS AND CLASSES die2 = (int)(Math. } } // end class PairOfDice Here. Each time one is created. To make this clearer. double. when the class is first loaded. It’s important to understand when and how this happens.) 5. For example. as if a new pair of dice were being thrown onto the gaming table. This reference is the value of the expression. consider a variation of the PairOfDice class: public class PairOfDice { public int die1 = (int)(Math. dice.

public PairOfDice(int val1. } public void roll() { // Roll the dice by setting each of the dice to be // a random number between 1 and 6. Creates a pair of dice that // are initially showing the values val1 and val2. as in PairOfDice dice.) However. this is not a big . } } // end class PairOfDice The constructor is declared as “public PairOfDice(int val1. a constructor can’t be declared static. so there is only one constructor in the class.4)” would create a PairOfDice object in which the values of the instance variables die1 and die2 are initially 3 and 4. and it requires two actual parameters. dice = new PairOfDice(1. // Number showing on the second die. CONSTRUCTORS AND OBJECT INITIALIZATION 175 then the system will provide a default constructor for that class. In fact.”. we can no longer create an object by saying “new PairOfDice()”! The system provides a default constructor for a class only if the class definition does not already include a constructor. (In particular. with three exceptions. If you want more than that to happen when an object is created.random()*6) + 1. This is how the Java compiler recognizes a constructor. For example. And it can have a list of formal parameters. A constructor does not have any return type (not even void).1). However. Now that we’ve added a constructor to the PairOfDice class. the expression “new PairOfDice(3. // to the instance variables. The definition of a constructor looks much like the definition of any other subroutine. in a program. the ability to include parameters is one of the main reasons for using constructors. die1 = val1. die1 = (int)(Math. die2 = (int)(Math. a block of statements. // Assign specified values die2 = val2. The parameters can provide data to be used in the construction of the object. For example.5. int val2) { // Constructor.random()*6) + 1. private. a constructor does have a subroutine body of the usual form. you can include one or more constructors in the class definition. Here is what the class would look like in that case: public class PairOfDice { public int die1. public int die2. This default constructor does nothing beyond the basics: allocate memory and initialize instance variables. int val2) .2. the value returned by the constructor should be used in some way. and protected. // Let dice refer to a new PairOfDice // object that initially shows 1. The name of the constructor must be the same as the name of the class in which it is defined.. // Declare a variable of type PairOfDice. and values for these parameters must be provided when the constructor is called. Of course. with no return type and with the same name as the name of the class. // Number showing on the first die. 1.. a constructor for the PairOfDice class could provide the values that are initially showing on the dice. The only modifiers that can be used on a constructor definition are the access modifiers public. The constructor has two parameters. There are no restrictions on what statements can be used.

public PairOfDice() { // Constructor. } } // end class PairOfDice Now we have the option of constructing a PairOfDice object either with “new PairOfDice()” or with “new PairOfDice(x. int countRolls. This illustrates once again that you can create several instances of the same class: public class RollTwoPairs { public static void main(String[] args) { PairOfDice firstDice. // Number showing on the first die. } public void roll() { // Roll the dice by setting each of the dice to be // a random number between 1 and 6. die1 = (int)(Math. And the programmer. None of those programs will ever have to use the obscure incantation “(int)(Math. as long as their signatures are different. Rolls the dice. // Assign specified values die2 = val2. you can have as many different constructors as you want. is a main program that uses the PairOfDice class to count how many times two pairs of dice are rolled before the two pairs come up showing the same value. roll(). // Refers to the second pair of dice. die1 = val1. for example. we might have a constructor with no parameters which produces a pair of dice showing random numbers: public class PairOfDice { public int die1. In the PairOfDice class.random()*6) + 1. // Call the roll() method to roll the dice. int total2. // Refers to the first pair of dice.random()*6)+1”. can be used in any program that needs to work with one or more pairs of dice. Here. // Total showing on second pair of dice. public int die2. This class. having once gotten the dice-rolling thing straight will never have to worry about it again. firstDice = new PairOfDice().176 CHAPTER 5. PairOfDice secondDice. int total1. one that has no parameters. die2 = (int)(Math. as long as they have different numbers or types of formal parameters.y)”. int val2) { // Constructor.random()*6) + 1. // Number showing on the second die. Creates a pair of dice that // are initially showing the values val1 and val2. . where x and y are int-valued expressions. since we can add a second constructor to the class. once it is written. In fact. } public PairOfDice(int val1. because it’s done inside the PairOfDice class. that is. secondDice = new PairOfDice(). // Total showing on first pair of dice. // Counts how many times the two pairs of // dice have been rolled. so that they initially // show some random values. // to the instance variables. OBJECTS AND CLASSES problem.

println("Second pair comes up " + total2).roll(). if any. but they are not and cannot be declared to be static. they exist before any objects have been created.5. Most often.die2. Otherwise. Since they are responsible for creating objects. and the values are assigned to the formal parameters of the constructor.").die1 + secondDice. System. large enough to hold an object of the specified type. total2 = secondDice. firstDice. CONSTRUCTORS AND OBJECT INITIALIZATION 177 countRolls = 0. for example as a parameter in a subroutine call or as part of a more complex expression. a constructor can only be called using the new operator. The actual parameters in the constructor. the default initial value is used.out. They are more like static member subroutines. // Roll the second pair of dice. 2. It initializes the instance variables of the object.println("It took " + countRolls + " rolls until the totals were the same. you will store the returned reference in a variable.die2. countRolls++. Of course. the computer gets a block of unused memory in the heap. System. according to the Java language specification. constructors are not referred to as “methods.out. If the declaration of an instance variable specifies an initial value. They are certainly not instance methods. It is helpful to understand the exact steps that the computer goes through to execute a constructor call: 1. System. they are technically not members of the class at all! In particular. then that value is computed and stored in the instance variable.println("First pair comes up " + total1). A constructor call is more complicated than an ordinary subroutine or function call.2. are evaluated. since they don’t belong to objects. } // end main() } // end class RollTwoPairs ∗ ∗ ∗ Constructors are subroutines. 3. System. } while (total1 != total2).out.println(). // Get total. . in an expression that has the form new class-name ( parameter-list ) where the parameter-list is possibly empty. but they are subroutines of a special type. namely a reference to the object that is constructed. // Get total. total1 = firstDice. I call this an expression because it computes and returns a value. // Count this roll. In fact. First. do { // Roll the two pairs of dice until totals are the same. secondDice. but it is also legal to use a constructor call in other ways.die1 + firstDice. // Roll the first pair of dice. if you don’t save the reference in a variable.” Unlike other subroutines.out. you won’t have any way of referring to the object that was just created. // Blank line.roll().

return name. } public String getName() { // Getter method for reading the value of the private // instance variable. test2. name. and whole hordes of frustrating bugs are squashed before they even have a chance to be born. public class Student { private String name. But I haven’t provided any setter method or other way to change the name. and that constructor automatically sets the name. I’ve provided a function. the value of name had to be assigned by a program after it created the object of type Student. and I’ll also take the opportunity to make the instance variable. The constructor in this class has a parameter of type String. The statements in the body of the constructor. return (test1 + test2 + test3) / 3. You can use this reference to get at the instance variables in that object or to call its instance methods. there is no way to create a Student object except by calling the constructor. The programmer’s life is made easier. } public double getAverage() { // Compute average test grade. Another type of guarantee is provided by the private modifier. let’s rewrite the Student class that was used in Section 1. test3. Student(String theName) { // Constructor for Student objects. std1 = new Student("Mary Jones"). getName(). . indirectly. Objects of type Student can be created with statements such as: std = new Student("John Smith"). In the new version of the class. are executed. There was no guarantee that the programmer would always remember to set the name properly. Since the instance variable. I’ll add a constructor. if any. name. // provides a name for the Student. that can be used from outside the class to find out the name of the student. is private. } } // end of class Student An object of type Student contains information about some particular student. OBJECTS AND CLASSES 4. which specifies the name of that student. Once a student object is created. private. // Student’s name. 5. // Grades on three tests. name. A reference to the object is returned as the value of the constructor call. public double test1. there is no way for any part of the program outside the Student class to get at the name directly. it keeps the same name as long as it exists. In the original version of this class. ∗ ∗ ∗ For another example.178 CHAPTER 5. when it calls the constructor. The program sets the value of name. name = theName. The end result of this is that you have a reference to a newly constructed object.

not the programmer. There . Another type of error is a memory leak . An object exists in the heap. the destruction of objects takes place automatically. But in the next line. Unfortunately. a reference to a newly created Student object is stored in the variable std. What should be done with an object if there are no variables that refer to it? Such things can happen. and the reference to the Student object is gone. Java uses a procedure called garbage collection to reclaim memory occupied by objects that are no longer accessible to a program. Here. there are now no references whatsoever to that object stored in any variable. to keep track of which objects are “garbage. This is called a dangling pointer error . and many serious program bugs are caused by such errors. large amounts of memory are being wasted. the value of std is changed. it was very easy to see that the Student object had become garbage. In fact. Because Java uses garbage collection. it’s much harder. In fact. It is the responsibility of the system. Garbage collection is an old idea and has been used in some programming languages since the 1960s. object-oriented programming encourages programmers to produce generalized software components that can be used in a wide variety of programming projects. and it can be accessed only through variables that hold references to the object. On another level. However. such errors are simply impossible. the idea is to identify things in the problem domain that can be modeled as objects.” In the above example. the memory occupied by the object should be reclaimed to be used for another purpose. std = null. Programmers should rejoice.5. you’d never do anything like this): Student std = new Student("John Smith").2. during which the overall design of a program is created. This can lead to filling memory with objects that are completely inaccessible. The broadest of these is object-oriented analysis and design which applies an object-oriented methodology to the earliest stages of program development. and the program might run out of memory even though. Usually. research into garbage collection techniques combined with the incredible speed of modern computers have combined to make garbage collection feasible. keeping track of memory usage is very error-prone. this section has been about creating objects. PROGRAMMING WITH OBJECTS 179 5.3 Programming with Objects are several ways in which object-oriented concepts can be applied to the process of designing and writing programs. In the first line. and it leads to problems when the program tries to access an object that is no longer there. What about destroying them? In Java. In the past. in fact. It might as well not exist. In many other programming languages. there might be several references to the object stored in several variables. Consider the following two statements (though in reality. So there is no way for the program ever to use the object again. The object doesn’t become garbage until all those references have been dropped. it’s the programmer’s responsibility to delete the garbage. 5. it was considered too slow and wasteful. You might wonder why all languages don’t use garbage collection.3 Garbage Collection So far. If an object has been used for a while. A programmer might accidently delete an object even though there are still references to that object. where a programmer neglects to delete objects that are no longer in use.3.

Some of these classes are meant to be extended to produce new classes. is used to represent times.append(x) will add x. A string can be built up from smaller pieces using the + operator. but this is not very efficient. the result represents the current date and time.) Like a String. In the next chapter.180 CHAPTER 5.5. This command actually modifies the buffer. and you will encounter other built-in classes throughout the remainder of this book.3 for a discussion of packages and import.util.Date. java.7.println( new Date() ). the function buffer.Date. But let’s take a moment to look at a few built-in classes that you might find useful. To do this. it is possible to add new characters onto the end of a StringBuffer without making a copy of the data that it already contains.util. The standard function . Combining declaration with initialization was covered in Subsection 4.util. The StringBuffer class is in the standard package java.” or “import java. At the end of the section. we will get back to generalities. for the most part. We begin this section by looking at some built-in classes that are used for creating objects. we will begin the study of Java’s GUI classes. Building up a long string letter by letter would require a surprising amount of processing.lang. A number of useful classes are collected in the package java. it’s important not to forget that the designers of Java have already provided a large number of reusable classes. then executing the command “str = str + ch. a StringBuffer contains a sequence of characters. For example. you must make it available by importing it with one of the statements “import java. For example: StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). you will experience “generalized software components” by using the standard classes that come along with Java.out.” involves creating a whole new string that is a copy of str. (See Subsection 4. 5.util. then the command buffer. When the string is complete. to use the Date class in this way. with the value of ch appended onto the end. Copying the string takes some time.*. rather than making a copy.3.util.Random. Another class in this package. OBJECTS AND CLASSES Of course. A true mastery of Java requires familiarity with a large number of built-in classes—something that takes a lot of time and experience to develop.1 Some Built-in Classes Although the focus of object-oriented programming is generally on the design and implementation of new classes. A long string can be built up in a StringBuffer using a sequence of append() commands. and that can be done efficiently. (This statement both declares the variable buffer and initializes it to refer to a newly created StringBuffer object. this package contains classes for working with collections of objects. so you can use its simple name without importing it. We will study these collection classes in Chapter 10. you must make an object belonging to the StringBuffer class.) I will also mention the class java. Of course. An object belonging to this class is a source of random numbers (or. The class StringBuffer makes it possible to be efficient about building up a long string from a number of smaller pieces.toString() will return a copy of the string in the buffer as an ordinary value of type String. onto the end of the data that was already in the buffer. If str is a String and ch is a character. so an easy way to display this information is: System. When a Date object is constructed without parameters.” at the beginning of your program. more precisely pseudorandom numbers).1 and works for objects just as it does for primitive types. However. If x is a value of any type and buffer is the variable defined above. converted into a string representation. while others can be used directly to create useful objects.

) In Java 5. If you want to add a primitive type value to a collection. Java 5. one can say “die1 = randGen. again.doubleValue().5. The object is a wrapper for the double value. as well as random real numbers. Similarly.”. Byte. it has to be put into a wrapper object first.”. Float. Short. they have another use as well: They are used for creating objects that represent primitive type values. Instead of saying “die1 = (int)(6*Math. you can wrap an int in an object of type Integer. and the computer will silently read this as if it were . There is a similar class for each of the other primitive types.0221415e23). and values of primitive type are not objects. and if N is a positive integer.2 Wrapper Classes and Autoboxing We have already encountered the classes Double and Integer in Subsection 2. you can create an object that wraps the double value 6. sometimes it’s useful to treat a primitive value as if it were an object.3. These classes are called wrapper classes. (As an example of where this would be useful.Random and create the Random object. An object of type Random can generate random integers. If you want to retrieve the double value that is wrapped in the object. this makes it a little easier to roll a pair of dice. Long.0. If randGen is created with the command: Random randGen = new Random(). an object of type Double contains a single instance variable. if you use a value of type int in a context that requires an object of type Integer. For example.0221415e23 with Double d = new Double(6. The main point here. you might not agree that it is actually easier. These classes contain the static methods Double.3. You can’t do that literally.nextInt(N) generates a random integer in the range from 0 to N-1.7. and so on. If you are faced with a task that looks like it should be fairly common. you can call the function d. For example.random())+1. the int will automatically be wrapped in an Integer object. you can say Integer answer = 42. We have also encountered the Character class in some examples. For example.parseDouble and Integer. Although they contain useful static members.util.random() uses one of these objects behind the scenes to generate its random numbers. (Since you also have to import the class java. 5. but you can “wrap” the primitive type value in an object belonging to one of the wrapper classes. and the solutions are available in Java’s standard classes. wrapper classes have become easier to use. However.nextInt(6)+1. then randGen. of type double. The value of d contains the same information as the value of type double. is that many problems have already been solved. and static methods such as Character. a boolean value in an object of type Boolean.5.isLetter.) An object of type Random can also be used to generate so-called Gaussian distributed random real numbers. PROGRAMMING WITH OBJECTS 181 Math. the collection classes that will be studied in Chapter 10 can only hold objects.0 introduced automatic conversion between a primitive type and the corresponding wrapper class. and Boolean. For example. but it is an object. Remember that the primitive types are not classes. which can be used to test whether a given value of type char is a letter. it might be worth looking through a Java reference to see whether someone has already written a class that you can use. For example.parseInteger that are used to convert strings to numerical values.

contains constants Integer. The infinite values can occur as the values of certain mathematical expressions.isInfinite(x) and Double. autoboxing and unboxing make it possible in many circumstances to ignore the difference between primitive types and objects. for example. Because of the existence of Double. MAX VALUE still gives the largest number that can be represented in the given type.0. CHAPTER 5. “NaN” stands for Not a Number . Double and Float also have constants named MIN VALUE and MAX VALUE.NaN and x != Double. but MIN VALUE represents the smallest possible positive value. (It’s especially important to use Double.MIN VALUE is 4. If you create a class and don’t explicitly make it a subclass of .MIN VALUE and Integer. you’ll learn how to create subclasses. It works in the other direction. It’s certainly easier to remember the names than the numerical values. but can modify and add to what it inherits. In fact. because Double.NaN. These values are given by named constants in class Double: Double.NEGATIVE INFINITY. 1e200*1e200 is considered to be infinite.3. For example. Double. The double value inside d is automatically unboxed and multiplied by 2. you can use d in a numerical expression such as 2*d. and it represents an undefined value such as the square root of a negative number or the result of dividing zero by zero.NaN. The encoding of real numbers into values of type double has room for a few special values that are not real numbers at all in the mathematical sense. no mathematical operation on real numbers will ever throw an exception.POSITIVE INFINITY.isNaN(x). if d refers to an object of type Double. In Section 5. (It’s even more complicated than this. This is the closest they can get without actually being equal to zero. What you don’t know yet is that every class in Java (with just one exception) is a subclass of some other class. to -2147483648 and 2147483647 respectively. x.5. you can pass an actual parameter of type int to a subroutine that has a formal parameter of type Integer. The subclass inherits all the properties or behaviors of the class. Autoboxing and unboxing also apply to subroutine calls. In fact.NaN has really weird behavior when used with relational operators such as ==.MAX VALUE. and Double.182 Integer answer = new Integer(42). ∗ ∗ ∗ The wrapper classes contain a few other things that deserve to be mentioned. For example.9 times 10−324 .3 The class “Object” We have already seen that one of the major features of object-oriented programming is the ability to create subclasses of a class. actually.) 5.NaN as the result. There are similar named constants in Long. of type double is infinite or undefined by calling the boolean-valued static functions Double. For example. For type double.MAX VALUE.NaN is even more interesting. since doubles are so much more complicated than integers.NaN are always both false—no matter what the value of x is—so you can’t use these expressions to test whether x is Double.) You also get Double. which are equal to the largest and smallest possible values of type int. it simply gives Double. and Byte. Integer.isNaN() to test for undefined values. the values of x == Double. The value Double. For example. they can’t get arbitrarily close to zero. that is. Double. You can test whether a value. OBJECTS AND CLASSES This is called autoboxing . too. written -0. because the double type includes a value called “negative zero”.POSITIVE INFINITY whenever the mathematical value of an expression is greater than Double. dividing a positive number by zero will give the result Double. Since double values have only a finite accuracy. Dividing a positive number by negative zero gives Double. The class Double deserves special mention.NEGATIVE INFINITY. Short.NaN.POSITIVE INFINITY.

any time you’ve printed out an object or concatenated an object onto a string.3. This method would be used automatically to convert dice to type String in a statement such as System. a well-designed class is likely to be reusable without modification in a variety of projects. we might add the following method to any of the PairOfDice classes from the previous section: public String toString() { // Return a String representation of a pair of dice. so this statement might output. (On the level of a corporation that wants to save money by not reinventing the wheel for each new project.) Class Object defines several instance methods that are inherited by every other class. The instance method toString() in class Object returns a value of type String that is supposed to be a string representation of the object. else return die1 + " and " + die2. For example. then it automatically becomes a subclass of the special class named Object. The problem is that the editing is error-prone and time-consuming. When you create a class.toString() will return strings such as “3 and 6”. where die1 // and die2 are instance variables containing the numbers that are // showing on the two dice. 5. (Object is the one class that is not a subclass of any other class. if (die1 == die2) return "double " + die1.println( "The dice came up " + dice ). Since objects and concepts can recur in many problems. A welldesigned class is not carefully crafted to do a particular job in a particular program.3. The version of toString that is defined in Object just returns the name of the class that the object belongs to.) Well-designed classes are software components that can be reused without editing. “The dice came up 5 and 1” or “The dice came up double 2”. and “double 2”.4 Object-oriented Analysis and Design Every programmer builds up a stock of techniques and expertise expressed as snippets of code that can be reused in new programs using the tried-and-true method of cut-and-paste: The old code is physically copied into the new program and then edited to customize it as necessary. I will mention just one of them here. You’ll see another example of a toString() method in the next section. it is crafted to model some particular type of object or a single coherent concept. “5 and 1”. When you use an object in a context that requires a string. and the whole enterprise is dependent on the programmer’s ability to pull out that particular piece of code from last year’s project that looks like it might be made to fit. concatenated with a code number called the hash code of the object. You’ve already used this method implicitly. depending on the numbers showing on the dice. You will encounter more of them later in the book. this is not very useful.5. then dice. which will replace the inherited version. you can write a new toString() method for it. . Instead. the object is automatically converted to type String by calling its toString() method. just keeping track of all the old wheels becomes a major task. PROGRAMMING WITH OBJECTS 183 some other class.out. These methods can be used with any object whatsoever. } If dice refers to a PairOfDice object.

This is followed by testing and debugging of the program. we are in trouble (one reason why numerical student ID’s are often used). the ability to be rolled. “a pair of dice. systematic approach is adopted during all stages of the software life cycle. This can be done even if the programmer doesn’t have access to the source code of the class and doesn’t know any details of its internal. it is possible to make subclasses of an existing class. OBJECTS AND CLASSES Furthermore. If the problem is serious enough. The systematic approach to programming. There is a wide range of “methodologies” that can be applied to help in the systematic design of programs. . it might even require a new design. These . ∗ ∗ ∗ The PairOfDice class in the previous section is already an example of a generalized software component. During the analysis stage. This class would be reusable in many different programming projects. in an object-oriented programming language. It seems to be crafted to represent students in a particular course where the grade will be based on three tests. is called software engineering . starting with specification of the problem to be solved. If a class needs to be customized. it might turn out that the specifications are incomplete or inconsistent. Admittedly. which means fixing any new problems that are found in the program and modifying it to adapt it to changing requirements. Underline all the nouns in that description. The instance method represents the behavior of a pair of dice. . The class represents a single. (In the real world. although one that could certainly be improved.) Large. But this particular Student class is good mostly as an example in a programming textbook. in which the program’s design is expressed in some actual programming language. On the other hand. Similarly. it’s useless. underline all the verbs. Then comes coding . (Most of these methodologies seem to involve drawing little boxes to represent program components. using accepted principles of good design. The software engineer tries to efficiently construct programs that verifiably meet their specifications and that are easy to modify if necessary. that is. The question in this stage of the software life cycle is. hidden implementation. which is relevant to the coding stage of program development. How can one discover or invent the overall structure of a program? As an example of a rather simple object-oriented approach to analysis and design. If there are two people in the class who have the same name. coherent concept. the number showing on each of the dice. that is. and additions or modifications can be made in the subclass without making any changes to the original class. Together. A problem found during testing requires at least a brief return to the coding stage.184 CHAPTER 5. If there are more tests or quizzes or papers. the Student class from the previous section is not very reusable. it’s much more difficult to develop a general-purpose student class than a general-purpose pair-of-dice class. ∗ ∗ ∗ A large programming project goes through a number of stages. After that comes a long period of maintenance. with labeled arrows to represent relationships among the boxes. the ideal of consecutive stages is seldom if ever achieved. these stages form what is called the software life cycle. consider this advice: Write down a description of the problem. This makes classes even more reusable. The nouns should be considered as candidates for becoming classes or objects in the program design.” The instance variables hold the data relevant to the state of the dice. complex programming projects are only likely to succeed if a careful. .) We have been discussing object orientation in programming languages. a subclass can be created. followed by analysis of the problem and design of a program to solve it. But there are also object-oriented methodologies for analysis and design. Maintenance usually involves redoing some of the work from previous stages.

since the caller needs to know what card is being dealt. so the deck can throw an exception in that case. you just get the next card. Cards can be added to and removed from hands. It has no parameters—when you deal the next card from the deck. 5. clubs. When a deck of cards is first created. since it is used in the game of poker). whatever it is. DECK 185 are candidates for methods. But this raises another question: How will the rest of the program know whether the deck is empty? Of course. . We can make this possible by specifying another instance method. and create classes to represent those concepts. so the program should just be able to ask the deck object. . we look at some specific examples of object-oriented design in a domain that is simple enough that we have a chance of coming up with something reasonably reusable. In a complete program. 5. and suit. 2. we’ll design the deck class in detail.4. diamonds. and deck. the other five nouns might be represented by classes. The Deck class will need a constructor to create a new deck. value. Deck In this section. If we look for nouns in this description. that returns the number of cards remaining in the deck. cardsLeft(). Cards are relatively passive things. In some games. each player gets a hand of cards. There will be an instance method called shuffle() that will rearrange the 52 cards into a random order. This leads to a full specification of all . The constructor needs no parameters because any new deck is the same as any other. cards can be removed from a hand. hand. hand. . But let’s work on the ones that are most obviously reusable: card. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: CARD. . we see that we can shuffle a deck and deal a card from a deck.4. This gives use us two candidates for instance methods in a Deck class: shuffle() and dealCard(). This gives two candidates for instance methods in a Hand class: addCard() and removeCard(). it contains 52 cards in some standard order. but the idea is clear and the general approach can be effective: Analyze the problem to discover the concepts that are involved. and you should end up with a program whose structure reflects the structure of the problem in a natural way. hearts) of the cards that a player receives. Hand. The deck is shuffled and cards are dealt one at a time from the deck and added to the players’ hands. and it might reveal that subclassing can be used to take advantage of similarities among classes. the value and the suit of a card are simple values. The design should arise from the problem itself. there are several candidates for objects: game. player. This is your starting point.5. Further analysis might uncover the need for more classes and methods. If we look for verbs in the description of a card game. The game is won or lost depending on the value (ace. the program could keep track of how many cards it has used. deck. We will discover more instance methods as we go along. but we need to be able to determine their suits and values. and they will just be represented as instance variables in a Card object. king) and suit (spades. First. HAND. But the deck itself should know how many cards it has left. and new cards can be added. This is perhaps a bit simple-minded. This will be a function with a return type of Card. Of these.4 Programming Example: Card. Consider card games that are played with a standard deck of playing cards (a so-called “poker” deck. What will happen if there are no more cards in the deck when its dealCard() method is called? It should probably be considered an error to try to deal a card from an empty deck.1 Designing the classes In a typical card game. card. The dealCard() instance method will get the next card from the deck. you don’t provide any information to the deck.

public void clear() { // Discard all cards from the hand. Deck. . arrays. it’s convenient to be able to ask a hand object how many cards it contains. When I play cards. Of course. since we can allow for both options. we can provide instance methods for sorting the cards in the hand. Nevertheless. it doesn’t tell us how to write the class. we need an instance method getCardCount() that returns the number of cards in the hand. I like to arrange the cards in my hand so that cards of the same value are next to each other. When a hand object is first created. c should be non-null. public void shuffle() // Put all the used cards back into the deck. Even though you won’t understand the implementation. We can do a similar analysis for the Hand class. // If c is null. public Card dealCard() // Deals one card from the deck and returns it. if you want. Here is a full specification for a reusable Hand class: Constructor and instance methods in class Hand: public Hand() { // Create a Hand object that is initially empty. // Throws an exception if no more cards are left. An addCard() instance method will add a card to the hand. the Javadoc comments give you all the information that you need to understand the interface. With this information. or should we specify the card by its position in the hand (“Remove the third card in the hand”)? Actually. For the removeCard() method. In fact. writing the class involves a programming technique. This function returns the // number of cards that are still left in the deck. you can use the class in your programs without understanding the implementation.java. which will not be covered until Chapter 7. OBJECTS AND CLASSES Constructor and instance methods in class Deck: public Deck() // Constructor. (Remember that you can have two methods in a class with the same name. we don’t have to decide. Since this is a generally useful thing to be able to do. the number of // cards left decreases. making the hand empty. provided they have different types of parameters. This method needs a parameter of type Card to specify which card is being added. public void addCard(Card c) { // Add the card c to the hand. you can look at the source code. We’ll have two removeCard() instance methods.186 the subroutines in the Deck class: CHAPTER 5. it has no cards in it. a parameter is needed to specify which card to remove. // and shuffle it into a random order. So. not in programming. a NullPointerException is thrown. one with a parameter of type Card specifying the card to be removed and one with a parameter of type int specifying the position of the card in the hand.) Since a hand can contain a variable number of cards. This is everything you need to know in order to use the Deck class. Create an unshuffled deck of cards. public int cardsLeft() // As cards are dealt from the deck. But should we specify the card itself (“Remove the ace of spades”). This has been an exercise in design.

// Construct ace of spades. an exception is thrown. spades. Cards with the same value // are sorted by suit. For example. which can be represented by the integers 0.4.) A Card object can be constructed knowing the value and the suit of the card. I’ve defined some named constants to represent the values of aces and face cards. and within a suit the cards // are sorted by value. card3 = new Card( v. and 3. 11 for a jack. Card.java. public int getCardCount() { // Return the number of cards in the hand. I’ll return to the question of using enumerated types in this example at the end of the chapter. Note that aces are considered // to have the lowest value. you’ll see that I’ve also added support for Jokers. with 1 standing for an ace. Card. Cards are numbered counting from zero. it is removed.SPADES is a constant that represents the suit. 1. but for now we will stick to integer-valued constants. public void sortByValue() { // Sorts the cards in the hand so that cards are sorted into // order of increasing value. Again. It would be tough to remember which number represents which suit. public Card getCard(int position) { // Get the card from the hand in given position. public void sortBySuit() { // Sorts the cards in the hand so that cards of the same // suit are grouped together. and 13 for a king.4. It might be better to use an enumerated type. There are four suits. s ). The class will have a constructor that specifies the value and suit of the card that is being created.ACE. . so I’ve defined named constants in the Card class to represent the four possibilities. But given the source code. Note that aces are considered // to have the lowest value. where // positions are numbered starting from 0. card2 = new Card( 10.DIAMONDS ). you don’t yet know enough to implement this class. For example.) The possible values of a card are the numbers 1.SPADES ). . (These constants are declared to be public final static ints. Again. 12 for a queen. 2. DECK 187 public void removeCard(Card c) { // If the specified card is in the hand. // This is OK. If // the specified position does not exist. . 5. If the // specified position is not the position number of // a card in the hand. then an // exception is thrown.2 The Card Class We have covered enough material to write a Card class. . 13. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: CARD. . 1. as long as v and s // are integer expressions. (When you read the Card class. Card. public void removeCard(int position) { // Remove the card in the specified position from the // hand. Hand. you can use the class in your own programming projects. we can call the constructor with statements such as: card1 = new Card( Card. // Construct 10 of diamonds. HAND.5. 2.

HEARTS = 1. A spade. Recall that this method will be used whenever a Card needs to be converted into a String. I’ve made these private so that they cannot be changed from outside the class. heart. and testing it pays off handsomely in the long run. such as “Queen of Hearts”. // Cards 2 through 10 have their // numerical values for their codes. It is general enough to be highly reusable. since they are never changed after they are initialized. I’ve declared the instance variables suit and value to be final. DIAMONDS = 2. diamonds. 10. writing.out. the statement System. OBJECTS AND CLASSES A Card object needs instance variables to represent its value and suit. and are never changed after that. CLUBS = 3. which is used in the class to represent diamonds. it makes sense to include support for it in the class. Here is the complete Card class. // Codes for the 4 suits.println( "Your card is the " + card ). 3. * this value can be anything and can be used to keep track of several * different jokers.out. 6. Note that "ace" is considered to be * the smallest value. JACK = 11. including Jokers. I want to be able to print out the suit of a card as the word “Diamonds”. I’ve added a few convenience methods to the class to make it easier to print out cards in a human-readable form. such as when the card is concatenated onto a string with the + operator. Finally. either of these will print out “Your card is the Queen of Hearts”. or club has one of the 13 values: ace. In fact. 7. KING = 13.) Finally. ACE = 1. or king. queen. /** * An object of type Card represents a playing card from a * standard Poker deck. * diamond. 2. * 8. 4. I’ve provided instance methods getSuitAsString() and getValueAsString() to return string representations of the suit and value of a card. The instance variables are initialized in the constructor. JOKER = 4. which * can be spades. plus Joker. // Codes for the non-numeric cards.println( "Your card is the " + card. or joker. Since this is something that I’ll probably have to do in many programs. Thus. 9. QUEEN = 12. If the card is the queen of hearts. is equivalent to System. hearts.188 CHAPTER 5. A joker can also have an associated value.toString() ). . rather than as the meaningless code number 2. and I’ve provided getter methods getSuit() and getValue() so that it will be possible to discover the suit and value from outside the class. so the work that went into designing. 5. (An instance variable can be declared final provided it is either given an initial value in its declaration or is initialized in every constructor in the class. */ public class Card { public public public public public public public public public /** final final final final final final final final final static static static static static static static static static int int int int int int int int int SPADES = 0. The card has a suit. clubs. jack. So. I’ve defined the instance method toString() to return a string with both the value and suit. For example.

with 1 representing an Ace.JOKER. Card.5. or Card. * the value must be in the range 1 through 13. */ private final int suit.KING. Card. Card. * Card.DIAMONDS. The suit cannot be changed after the card is * constructed.) */ public Card() { suit = JOKER.4. with 1 as the associated value.DIAMONDS. * CLUBS.HEARTS.JOKER */ public int getSuit() { return suit. * @param theValue the value of the new card. For a JOKER. * @returns the suit. } /** * Returns the value of this card. and Card. inclusive for . or JOKER. which is one the numbers 1 through 13. /** * The card’s value. Card.HEARTS. if (theSuit != JOKER && (theValue < 1 || theValue > 13)) throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal playing card value").QUEEN. * @param theSuit the suit of the new card. The value cannot be changed after the card * is constructed. suit = theSuit. * You can use the constants Card. PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: CARD. * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the parameter values are not in the * permissible ranges */ public Card(int theValue.JOKER)". Card. the value can be anything. which is one of the constants Card. HEARTS. HAND.SPADES. one of the constants SPADES. } 189 /** * Creates a card with a specified suit and value. */ private final int value. this is one of the values * 1 through 13. * @return the value. with 1 representing ACE. } /** * Returns the suit of this card. Card. DECK * This card’s suit. * For a Joker.CLUBS.Card. value = theValue. int theSuit) { if (theSuit != SPADES && theSuit != HEARTS && theSuit != DIAMONDS && theSuit != CLUBS && theSuit != JOKER) throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal playing card suit").JACK. (Note that * "new Card()" is equivalent to "new Card(1. Card. or Card. the value * can be anything. This must be one of the values * Card.CLUBS. value = 1. For a normal cards. /** * Creates a Joker.SPADES. DIAMONDS.ACE. For a regular card (non-joker).

} } } /** * Returns a string representation of this card. OBJECTS AND CLASSES * a regular card. } } /** * Returns a String representation of the card’s value. "2". "10 of Diamonds". * @return for a regular card. case 10: return "10". default: return "King". case 7: return "7". "Ace of Spades". including both * its suit and its value (except that for a Joker with value 1.. the * string is always a numerical.. case HEARTS: return "Hearts". case 2: return "2". "10". } /** * Returns a String representation of the card’s suit. */ public String getValueAsString() { if (suit == JOKER) return "" + value. case CLUBS: return "Clubs".. or "King". For a Joker. and which can be any value for a Joker. * "Joker". case 8: return "8". "Diamonds". "Joker #2" . case DIAMONDS: return "Diamonds". */ public String getSuitAsString() { switch ( suit ) { case SPADES: return "Spades".190 CHAPTER 5. default: return "Joker". * "3". case 4: return "4". case 6: return "6". "Clubs" * or "Joker". case 12: return "Queen". "Jack". . case 5: return "5". Sample return values * are: "Queen of Hearts". else { switch ( value ) { case 1: return "Ace". case 9: return "9". case 3: return "3". * the return value is just "Joker"). case 11: return "Jack". "Queen". one of the strings "Ace". * @return one of the strings "Spades". */ public int getValue() { return value. "Hearts".

DECK */ public String toString() { if (suit == JOKER) { if (value == 1) return "Joker".println("HighLow. At the end."). Here is the program: /** * This program lets the user play HighLow.println("you guess wrong. else return "Joker #" + value.out. */ public class HighLow { public static void main(String[] args) { System.3 Example: A Simple Card Game I will finish this section by presenting a complete program that uses the Card and Deck classes. and one card is dealt from the deck and shown to the user. it reports the user’s average score. // Number of games user has played.out. then the next card from the deck becomes the current card. This continues until the user makes an incorrect prediction. int gamesPlayed = 0."). My program has a subroutine that plays one game of HighLow.out. System. After the user plays several games. * the user’s average score is reported. The program lets the user play a very simple card game called HighLow. } } // end class Card 191 5.println(). PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: CARD.println("higher or lower. If the user predicts correctly. HAND. Note in particular that the subroutine that plays one game of HighLow returns the user’s score in the game as its return value. This subroutine has a return value that represents the user’s score in the game. The user predicts whether the next card from the deck will be higher or lower than the current card. int sumOfScores = 0.4."). A card is dealt from a deck of cards. System. The main() routine lets the user play several games of HighLow.out. and the user makes another prediction. a simple card game * that is described in the output statements at the beginning of * the main() routine.println("You have to predict whether the next card will be").out. but I encourage you to read it carefully and make sure that you understand how it works.5. where it is needed. A deck of cards is shuffled. // The sum of all the scores from . The number of correct predictions is the user’s score. I won’t go through the development of the algorithms used in this program.println("number of correct predictions you make before"). System.println("This program lets you play the simple card game. System.out. Your score in the game is the").out. System. } else return getValueAsString() + " of " + getSuitAsString(). This gets the score back to the main program. System.4.

Card currentCard. // The current card. ’H’ if the user predicts that // the next card will be higher. deck. deck. do { int scoreThisGame. computed by dividing // sumOfScores by gamesPlayed. // Shuffle the deck into a random order before // starting the game.\n". which the user sees. scoreThisGame = play().println("You played " + gamesPlayed + " games. // Play the game and get the score. correctGuesses = 0. int correctGuesses .println(). The score is the number of * correct guesses that the user makes.out. Card nextCard. */ private static int play() { Deck deck = new Deck(). ’L’ if the user // predicts that it will be lower.shuffle(). ’H’ or ’L’ (or ’h’ or ’l’). TextIO. // this will be the user’s score. gamesPlayed++.3f. */ . while (true) { // Loop ends when user’s prediction is wrong.dealCard(). and // store a reference to it in // the variable. // Average score. averageScore). // The number of correct predictions the // user has made.").getlnBoolean().out. The user tries // to predict whether this is higher or lower // than the current card. boolean playAgain. System. /* Get the user’s prediction. System. System. // Record user’s response when user is // asked whether he wants to play // another game. // The user’s guess. playAgain = TextIO. char guess. TextIO. and returns the * user’s score on that game. // Score for one game. } while (playAgain). double averageScore.192 CHAPTER 5. sumOfScores += scoreThisGame. averageScore = ((double)sumOfScores) / gamesPlayed. currentCard = deck.put("Play again? "). OBJECTS AND CLASSES // all the games played. At the end of the game. } // end main() /** * Lets the user play one game of HighLow.printf("Your average score was %1.out. // The next card in the deck. // Get a new deck of cards.putln("The first card is the " + currentCard).

4.putln("The next card is " + nextCard). TextIO. since the currentCard has to be the card that the user sees. TextIO. HAND.putln("The game is over. } while (guess != ’H’ && guess != ’L’).putln().putln("You lose on ties. if (guess != ’H’ && guess != ’L’) TextIO. break.putln(). Sorry!").getValue() == currentCard. */ nextCard = deck.getValue()) { TextIO.")."). guess = Character. } else { TextIO.toUpperCase(guess). the nextCard becomes the currentCard. TextIO.putln("Your prediction was correct. } else if (nextCard."). PROGRAMMING EXAMPLE: CARD. } } /* To set up for the next iteration of the loop. // End the game. break.getlnChar(). if (nextCard. // End the game.getValue() > currentCard. TextIO. */ currentCard = nextCard."). } else { TextIO.5. DECK 193 TextIO.putln("The card is " + currentCard). TextIO.put("Will the next card be higher (H) or lower (L)? do { guess = TextIO. and the nextCard will be set to the next card in the deck after the user makes his prediction. correctGuesses++.putln("Your prediction was incorrect.").putln("Your prediction was correct. /* Check the user’s prediction.dealCard()."). } // end of while loop TextIO.getValue()) { if (guess == ’H’) { TextIO. correctGuesses++. TextIO. break. /* Get the next card and show it to the user.putln("Your prediction was incorrect. // End the game.putln("You made " + correctGuesses .put("Please respond with H or L: "). */ ").putln("The value is the same as the previous card. } } else { // nextCard is lower if (guess == ’L’) { TextIO.

However. return correctGuesses. Here’s the definition of such a class: . something like this can be done in most programming languages. . } // end play() } // end class 5. However. Note that this means that the second. However. An Ace should be counted as 11 unless doing so would put the total value of the hand over 21. and it determines behavior by providing the instance methods that express the behavior of the objects. OBJECTS AND CLASSES + " correct predictions. One way to handle this is to extend the existing Hand class by adding a method that computes the Blackjack value of the hand. // Changes and additions. inheritance. and Deck classes developed in Section 5. Blackjack. In the first part of this section.194 CHAPTER 5. or King is 10. especially for programmers who are just beginning to work with objects. 5. a hand in the game of Blackjack is a little different from a hand of cards in general. . Hand.5.4. of their structure and behavior. The value of a numeric card such as a three or a ten is its numerical value. The central new idea in object-oriented programming—the idea that really distinguishes it from traditional programming—is to allow classes to express the similarities among objects that share some. and polymorphism. but not all. third. it will probably be a while before you actually do anything with inheritance except for extending classes that already exist. This is much more common than designing groups of classes and subclasses from scratch. Queen. You can use the Card. The existing class can be extended to make a subclass. Any programmer should know what is meant by subclass. Such similarities can be expressed using inheritance and polymorphism . The value of a Jack. Polymorphism. This is a powerful idea. we look at how that is done.5 A Inheritance. The class determines the structure of objects by specifying variables that are contained in each instance of the class. since it must be possible to compute the “value” of a Blackjack hand according to the rules of the game. The rules are as follows: The value of a hand is obtained by adding up the values of the cards in the hand.putln(). The value of an Ace can be either 1 or 11. In day-to-day programming."). } { As an example.1 Extending Existing Classes The topics covered later in this section are relatively advanced aspects of object-oriented programming. TextIO. or fourth Ace in the hand will always be counted as 1. subclassing is used mainly in one situation: There is an existing class that can be adapted with a few changes or additions. and Abstract Classes class represents a set of objects which share the same structure and behaviors. The syntax for this is public class subclass-name extends existing-class-name . suppose you want to write a program that plays the card game.

counting any ace as 1. // This will be set to true if the // hand contains an ace. for ( int i = 0. then the following are all legal: bjh. plus the new instance method named getBlackjackValue(). Card card. The first two methods are defined in Hand. if (cardVal > 10) { cardVal = 10. val is the value of the hand.” in the above definition of getBlackjackValue() calls the instance method getCardCount(). // Number of cards in the hand. val + 10 <= 21 ) if ( ace == true && val = val + 10. if bjh is a variable of type BlackjackHand. boolean ace.getCardCount(). return val. or King. } if (cardVal == 1) { ace = true. but are inherited by BlackjackHand. and bjh. which was defined in Hand. 195 val = 0. card = getCard(i).getValue().5. int cards. } // // // // Now. // For a Jack. bjh. and if changing its value from 1 to 11 would leave the score less than or equal to 21. ace = false. If there is an ace. INHERITANCE AND POLYMORPHISM public class BlackjackHand extends Hand { /** * Computes and returns the value of this hand in the game * of Blackjack. an object of type BlackjackHand contains all the instance variables and instance methods defined in Hand. Inherited variables and methods from the Hand class can also be used in the definition of BlackjackHand (except for any that are declared to be private. The statement “cards = getCardCount(). } // end getBlackjackValue() } // end class BlackjackHand Since BlackjackHand is a subclass of Hand.5.removeCard(0). cardVal = card. // There is at least one ace. // The blackjack value of the i-th card. Queen. // The normal value. . i++ ) { // Add the value of the i-th card in the hand. // The value computed for the hand.getBlackjackValue(). then do so by adding the extra 10 points to val. } val = val + cardVal. */ public int getBlackjackValue() { int val. cards = getCardCount(). 1 to 13. i < cards. For example. which prevents access even by subclasses). int cardVal. // The i-th card.

we could make die1 and die2 protected. if we think it possible that PairOfDice will be used to create subclasses. The relationship between subclass and superclass is sometimes shown by a diagram in which the subclass is shown below. The class that does the inheriting is said to be a subclass of the class from which it inherits. In that case.196 CHAPTER 5. and connected to. but it cannot be used in non-subclasses. When protected is applied as an access modifier to a method or member variable in a class. its superclass. ∗ ∗ ∗ Access modifiers such as public and private are used to control access to members of a class. we also say that class A is a superclass of class B. you are allowing subclasses to use and modify that part of the implementation. (Sometimes the terms derived class and base class are used instead of subclass and superclass. consider a PairOfDice class that has instance variables die1 and die2 to represent the numbers appearing on the two dice. However.) A subclass can add to the structure and behavior that it inherits.2 Inheritance and Class Hierarchy The term inheritance refers to the fact that one class can inherit part or all of its structure and behavior from another class. However. that comes into the picture when subclasses are taken into consideration. rather than part of the public interface of the class. which would allow the subclass to change their values without making them public to the rest of the world. For example. There is one more access modifier. OBJECTS AND CLASSES Extending existing classes is an easy way to build on previous work. (There is one exception: A protected member can also be accessed by any class in the same package as the class that contains the protected member. ensure that the value that is being assigned to the variable is in the legal range 1 through 6. Using the protected modifier is strictly more liberal than using no modifier at all: It allows access from classes in the same package and from subclasses that are not in the same package. for example. while still allowing read access through getter methods. and nowhere else. For example. (An even better idea would be to define protected setter methods for the variables. A setter method could. protected . this is the common terminology in C++. .) When you declare a method or member variable to be protected.5. you are saying that it is part of the implementation of the class. Recall that using no access modifier makes a member accessible to classes in the same package. a GraphicalDice subclass that draws the dice might want to change the numbers at other times besides when the dice are rolled. We could make those variables private to make it impossible to change their values from outside the class. as shown here on the left. If class B is a subclass of class A. that member can be used in subclasses—direct or indirect—of the class in which it is defined. We’ll see that many standard classes have been written specifically to be used as the basis for making subclasses. It can also replace or modify inherited behavior (though not inherited structure). we might want to make it possible for subclasses to change the numbers on the dice.) 5.

Truck. which might be referred to as “sibling classes. you would write class B extends A { .3 Example: Vehicles Let’s look at an example. as shown in this class hierarchy diagram: The Vehicle class would include instance variables such as registrationNumber and owner and instance methods such as transferOwnership(). even though it is not a direct subclass. The Car class might add an instance variable numberOfDoors. 5. above. including cars. they would be represented by subclasses of the Vehicle class. classes B. Suppose that a program has to deal with motor vehicles. and modifications of. // additions to. This whole set of classes forms a small class hierarchy . These are variables and methods common to all vehicles. (This might be a program used by a Department of Motor Vehicles to keep track of registrations. to create a class named “B” as a subclass of a class named “A”. . trucks.” share some structures and behaviors—namely.5. Since cars. the Truck class might have numberOfAxles. . } Several classes can be declared as subclasses of the same superclass. The three subclasses of Vehicle—Car. and Motorcycle—could then be used to hold variables and methods specific to particular types of vehicles. Inheritance can also extend over several “generations” of classes. The superclass expresses these shared structures and behaviors. In this case.5. In the diagram shown on the right. and motorcycles. trucks. where class E is a subclass of class D which is itself a subclass of class A. C. . the ones they inherit from their common superclass. class E is considered to be a subclass of class A.) The program could use a class named Vehicle to represent all types of vehicles. and motorcycles are types of vehicles. and D are sibling classes. The subclasses.5. INHERITANCE AND POLYMORPHISM 197 In Java. This is shown in the diagram. // stuff inherited from class A .

like this (although in practice. even if it might give a chuckle to the people at the Department of Motor Vehicles. . Given this declaration. or even Vehicle myVehicle = new Car(). That is. trucks. . a car also has all the structure and behavior of a vehicle. . Now. . and myCar. } . since numberOfDoors is an instance variable in the class Car. . The same is true in a program. Person owner. } Suppose that myCar is a variable of type Car that has been declared and initialized with the statement Car myCar = new Car(). it could in theory at least. . . . . . OBJECTS AND CLASSES and the Motorcycle class could have a boolean variable hasSidecar.198 CHAPTER 5.) The declarations of these classes in a Java program would look. The practical effect of this in our example is that an object of type Car can be assigned to a variable of type Vehicle. defined in separate files): class Vehicle { int registrationNumber. it would be legal to say Vehicle myVehicle = myCar.registrationNumber. .owner.transferOwnership() also exist. an object of type Car or Truck or Motorcycle is automatically an object of type Vehicle too. . This brings us to the following Important Fact: A variable that can hold a reference to an object of class A can also hold a reference to an object belonging to any subclass of A. } class Car extends Vehicle { int numberOfDoors. This means that myCar.numberOfDoors. That is. cars. But since class Car extends class Vehicle. // (Assuming that a Person class has been defined!) void transferOwnership(Person newOwner) { . a program could refer to myCar. . (Well. . myCar. and motorcycles are in fact vehicles. in the real world. they would probably be public classes. } class Motorcycle extends Vehicle { boolean hasSidecar. } class Truck extends Vehicle { int numberOfAxles. in outline.

it will not allow you to assign a value of type Vehicle to a variable of type Car because not every vehicle is a car. suppose that you want to print out relevant data about a vehicle. On the other hand.println("Type of vehicle: Motorcycle"). for some reason. When this happes. INHERITANCE AND POLYMORPHISM 199 After either of these statements. If.out. Truck t. System.6: The computer will not allow you to assign an int value to a variable of type short.out. the assignment statement myCar = myVehicle. As in the case of ints and shorts. Motorcycle m. for example. So. System. and not just a Vehicle.registrationNumber).numberOfDoors). c = (Car)myVehicle. the solution here is to use type-casting.out.out.println("Number of doors: " + c. if myVehicle refers to an object of type Truck.println("Type of vehicle: Truck"). t = (Truck)myVehicle.5. using the instanceof operator. you can use the type cast (Car)myVehicle to tell the computer to treat myVehicle as if it were actually of type Car.. Car c.numberOfDoors.println("Registration number: " + myVehicle. when the computer executes a program. m = (Motorcycle)myVehicle.5. } Note that for object types.out.println("Vehicle Data:"). It is even possible to test whether a given object belongs to a given class. an exception of type ClassCastException is thrown.println("Number of axles: " + t. . So. System. Car.numberOfAxles). you could say myCar = (Car)myVehicle. Similarly. determines whether the object referred to by myVehicle is in fact a car. if (myVehicle instanceof Car) { System.out. Information about the actual class of an object is stored as part of that object. As an example of how this could be used in a program. and you could even refer to ((Car)myVehicle). you happen to know that myVehicle does in fact refer to a Car. } else if (myVehicle instanceof Truck) { System.hasSidecar). System..println("Has a sidecar: " + m.println("Type of vehicle: Car"). This is similar to a problem we saw previously in Subsection 2. } else if (myVehicle instanceof Motorcycle) { System. then the type cast (Car)myVehicle would be an error. You could say: System. The object “remembers” that it is in fact a Car. because not every int is a short. would be illegal because myVehicle could potentially refer to other types of vehicles that are not cars. the variable myVehicle holds a reference to a Vehicle object that happens to be an instance of the subclass.out. it checks whether type-casts are valid.out. The test: if (myVehicle instanceof Car) .5.

ovals. Every shape object knows what it has to do to redraw itself. and then redrawing the shape in its new color: class Shape { Color color.4 Polymorphism As another example.5. // redraw shape. and RoundRect. position. The method setColor() can be called for any type of shape. // Color of the shape.) Three classes. (Recall that class Color // is defined in package java. These three classes would have a common superclass. might involve changing the value of an instance variable. Oval. and size. How does the computer know which shape to draw when it executes the redraw()? Informally. .) void setColor(Color newColor) { // Method to change the color of the shape. Assume // that this class has been imported. and roundrects of various colors.awt. Changing the color. Rectangle. consider a program that deals with shapes drawn on the screen. // commands for drawing a rectangle . color = newColor. position. In practice. for example. Shape. which will appear in new color } void redraw() { // method for drawing the shape ? ? ? // what commands should go here? } . The Shape class could include instance variables to represent the color. . . and it could include instance methods for changing the color. The problem is that each different type of shape is drawn differently. . OBJECTS AND CLASSES 5.200 CHAPTER 5. (A “roundrect” is just a rectangle with rounded corners. we can answer the question like this: The computer executes redraw() by asking the shape to redraw itself. this means that each of the specific shape classes has its own redraw() method: class Rectangle extends Shape { void redraw() { . could be used to represent the three types of shapes. Let’s say that the shapes include rectangles. and size of a shape. // change value of instance variable redraw(). to represent features that all three shapes have in common. // more instance variables and methods } // end of class Shape Now. you might see a problem here with the method redraw().

// commands for drawing a rounded rectangle } . . is executed. The object responds to the message by executing the appropriate method. // possibly. If the value of oneShape changes as the loop is executed. Polymorphism is one of the major distinguishing features of object-oriented programming. from looking at the text of the program. . Rectangle.redraw().5. INHERITANCE AND POLYMORPHISM } . on who receives it. Even more is true. A method is polymorphic if the action performed by the method depends on the actual type of the object to which the method is applied. We say that the redraw() method is polymorphic. more methods and variables } class RoundRect extends Shape { void redraw() { . A beveled rectangle has a triangle cut off each corner: . . calling a method is often referred to as sending a message to an object.” will call different methods and draw different shapes as it is executed over and over. // possibly. it is possible that the very same statement “oneShape. since it depends on the value that oneShape happens to have when the program is executed. . Suppose the statement is in a loop and gets executed many times. From this point of view. . and the value of oneShape changes. more methods and variables } 201 If oneShape is a variable of type Shape. The statement “oneShape.” is a message to the object referred to by oneShape. There may be no way of telling. . and polymorphism is a natural.redraw(). or RoundRect. . it could even refer to objects of different types at different times! Whenever the statement oneShape. naturally.” in the same way: by sending a message. the redraw method that is actually called is the one appropriate for the type of object to which oneShape actually refers. even necessary. // possibly. One of the most beautiful things about polymorphism is that it lets code that you write do things that you didn’t even conceive of. Oval. part of this view. the computer always executes “oneShape. As a program executes.redraw(). what shape this statement will draw. The response to the message depends. Suppose that I decide to add beveled rectangles to the types of shapes my program can deal with. it could refer to an object of any of the types.5. objects are active entities that send and receive messages. Polymorphism just means that different objects can respond to the same message in different ways. more methods and variables } class Oval extends Shape { void redraw() { . From this point of view.redraw(). at the time you wrote it. Since that object knows what type of object it is. . . . it knows how it should respond to the message. Perhaps this becomes more understandable if we change our terminology a bit: In objectoriented programming. // commands for drawing an oval } .

Look back at the method from the Shape class for changing the color of a shape: void setColor(Color newColor) { color = newColor. then it is the redraw() method from the Rectangle class that is executed. This leaves open the question.5. then it is the redraw() method from the Oval class. it contains a redraw() method. it is the redraw() method in the appropriate class that is executed. the one that received the setColor message. of class Shape and give it its own redraw() method. even though the beveled rectangle class didn’t exist when I wrote the statement! In the statement “oneShape. Automatically. or RoundRect object has to draw itself. I can write a new subclass.”.redraw()—can now suddenly start drawing beveled rectangles. this is not a real surprise if you think about it in the right way. // change value of instance variable redraw(). but it means that the “redraw(). Only particular. The source code for that method is in the Rectangle class.202 CHAPTER 5. BeveledRect. Shape. the redraw message is sent to the object oneShape. the redraw() method that is executed is the one in the same object. Again. Even though the source codes for the two methods are in different classes. the methods themselves are part of the same object. If that object is a rectangle. So. concrete shapes like rectangles and ovals can be drawn. When a Rectangle object is created. Oval. but which object is it sent to? Well. What does the redraw() method in the Shape class do? How should it be defined? The answer may be surprising: We should leave it blank! The fact is that the class Shape represents the abstract idea of a shape. This is what you should expect. When the rectangle’s setColor() method is executed and calls redraw(). The class only contains the source code for the method. and there is no way to draw such a thing.5 Abstract Classes Whenever a Rectangle. OBJECTS AND CLASSES To implement beveled rectangles. Remember that an instance method is always contained in an object. // redraw shape.” statement in the setColor() method does not necessarily call the redraw() method in the Shape class! The redraw() method that is executed could be in any subclass of Shape. the setColor method is itself a message that was sent to some object. the source code for the rectangle’s setColor() method comes from the superclass. code that I wrote previously—such as the statement oneShape. Since the Rectangle class does not define a setColor() method. If the object is an oval. but the method itself is in the object of type Rectangle. 5.redraw(). which will appear in new color } A redraw message is sent here. The object also contains a setColor() method. The answer is that the redraw message is sent to that same object. why should there .

You can create objects belonging to a concrete class. An abstract class exists only to express the common properties of all its subclasses. But it is there only to tell the computer that all Shapes understand the redraw message. it exists merely to specify the common interface of all the actual. In fact. Nevertheless the version of redraw() in the Shape class itself will never actually be called.redraw(). it becomes illegal to try to create actual objects of type Shape.5. there is nothing for it to do—any actual redrawing is done by redraw() methods in the subclasses of Shape. The compiler would complain that oneShape is a variable of type Shape and there’s no redraw() method in the Shape class. it has to be there. For an abstract method. Shape and its redraw() method are semantically abstract. and it would be illegal to write “oneShape. You can also tell the computer. but only as a basis for making subclasses. or it would be illegal to call it in the setColor() method of the Shape class. As an abstract method. a class declaration with no “extends” part such as . ∗ ∗ ∗ Recall from Subsection 5. The redraw() method in Shape has to be there. which will appear in new color } abstract void redraw().3 that a class that is not explicitly declared to be a subclass of some other class is automatically made a subclass of the standard class Object. There is no reason for the abstract redraw() in class Shape to contain any code at all. where oneShape is a variable of type Shape. . but the objects they refer to will always belong to one of the subclasses of Shape. syntactically. we say that the redraw() method in class Shape is an abstract method . A class that is not abstract is said to be concrete. An abstract class is one that is not used to construct objects. // redraw shape. // color of shape. In fact. // change value of instance variable redraw(). Here’s what the Shape class would look like as an abstract class: public abstract class Shape { Color color. // more instance variables and methods } // end of class Shape Once you have declared the class to be abstract. the block of code that gives the implementation of an ordinary method is replaced by a semicolon. . INHERITANCE AND POLYMORPHISM 203 even be a redraw() method in the Shape class? Well. since it is never meant to be called. An implementation must be provided for the abstract method in any concrete subclass of the abstract class.5.3. We say that Shape is an abstract class. void setColor(Color newColor) { // method to change the color of the shape color = newColor. if you think about it. and the computer will report a syntax error if you try to do so. Similarly. that they are abstract by adding the modifier “abstract” to their definitions. // abstract method---must be defined in // concrete subclasses . concrete versions of redraw() in the subclasses of Shape. That is. A variable whose type is given by an abstract class can only refer to objects that belong to concrete subclasses of the abstract class. but not to an abstract class. there can never be any reason to construct an actual object of type Shape! You can have variables of type Shape.”.

which means that you can create objects of type Object. What you would do with them. You might want to look at this file. The number of shapes in the list is given by the function “listOfShapes.size() .size(). which is defined by the class ArrayList in the package java. Once a shape is in the drawing area. i < listOfShapes.) I’ll return .add(oneShape). I have no idea. it is not declared to be abstract syntactially. . the people who wrote the ArrayList class didn’t even know about Shapes. s.size()”. and it will grow.3. Since the items in the list are of type Object. which is lovely example of object-oriented programming and of polymorphism: for (int i = 0. of any type. Shapes and not just Objects. you can type-cast the Object returned by listOfShapes. Curiously.204 public class myClass { . that you want to redraw all the shapes in the list. This class is very convenient.util. the list can actually hold objects of any type. // What is drawn here depends on what type of shape s is! } ∗ ∗ ∗ The sample source code file ShapeDraw. note that this method returns an Object. for example. (For example. One example is the “ArrayList” data structure. The shape can be removed from the list with the instance method “listOfShapes.java uses an abstract Shape class and an ArrayList to hold a list of shapes. even though you won’t be able to understand all of it at this time. CHAPTER 5. these data structures can actually hold any object whatsoever. Object is an abstract class.1. Let’s say. . not a Shape.”. but since every object is an instance of class Object. This means that class Object is at the top of a huge class hierarchy that includes every other class.) However. so the method they wrote could hardly have a return type of Shape!) Since you know that the items in the list are.get(i).redraw(). A shape. as objects are added to it. A program that wants to keep track of various Shapes that have been drawn on the screen can store those shapes in an ArrayList. Even the definitions of the shape classes are somewhat different from those that I have described in this section.get(i). in fact. // i-th element of the list. The file defines an applet in which the user can add various shapes to a drawing area. the user can use the mouse to drag it around.get(i) to be a value of type Shape: oneShape = (Shape)listOfShapes. .) Since every class is a subclass of Object.remove(oneShape). Java has several standard data structures that are designed to hold Objects.”. Suppose that the ArrayList is named listOfShapes. (ArrayList is discussed more fully in Section 7. (Items in the list are numbered from 0 to listOfShapes. a variable of type Object can refer to any object whatsoever. . because an ArrayList can hold any number of objects. i++) { Shape s.get(i)”. however. oneShape. You could do this with a simple for loop. in fact the most abstract class of all. This parameter is required because of the way Java handles all drawing. can be added to the end of the list by calling the instance method “listOfShapes. (Of course. the draw() method has a parameter of type Graphics.) An ArrayList is simply a list of Objects. (Semantially. considered as a Shape s = (Shape)listOfShapes. when necessary. And it is possible to retrieve the i-th object from the list with the function call “listOfShapes. however. OBJECTS AND CLASSES is exactly equivalent to public class myClass extends Object { .

the dragging routine just calls the Shape’s draw method each time the shape has to be drawn. but you should read it to be aware of what is possible. works only with variables of type Shape. which can only be used inside the class definition. You might also check how an ArrayList is used to hold the list of shapes. “System. This section and the next cover more of those annoying details. The variable. To get at an instance variable or method from outside the class definition. but remember that instance variables and methods are actually contained in objects. they are subtle. How can you get a reference to the object that contains that instance method? You might need such a reference. Sometimes it’s even necessary. For use outside the class. we’ll look at two variables. Instance members also have full names.1 The Special Variable this A static member of a class has a simple name. As the Shape is being dragged. 5. this and super.out” is a static member variable with simple name “out” in the class “System”. Java provides a special.6. However. for example. you can find it at the end of the on-line version of this section. it is manipulated entirely as an abstract shape. simple-name . this. The routine that implements dragging. and program the button to add the correct type of shape to the screen. for example. Then the full name is of the form variable-name . you need a variable that refers to the object. not classes. or I will refer you back to it. even within the class where it’s defined. it has a full name of the form class-name . so it doesn’t have to know how to draw the shape or even what type of shape it is. Once the shape has been created. is used in the source code of an instance method to refer to the . The object is responsible for drawing itself. Instance variables and instance methods also have simple names. If I wanted to add a new type of shape to the program. If you want to try out the applet. The full name of an instance member has to contain a reference to the object that contains the instance member. predefined variable named “this” that you can use for such purposes. as when the simple name of a static member variable is hidden by a local variable of the same name. that are automatically defined in any instance method. beyond the basic ideas there are a lot of details. I would define a new subclass of Shape. For the most part. 5. You should not necessarily master everything in these two sections the first time through. I will explain it again briefly. And unfortunately. It’s always legal to use the full name of a static member. because the simple name of the instance variable is hidden by a local variable or parameter. when I need to use this material later in the text. No other changes in the programming would be necessary.5. THIS AND SUPER 205 to this example in later chapters when you know more about GUI programming. it would still be worthwhile to look at the definition of the Shape class and its subclasses in the source code. simple-name . For example. add another button to the applet. But suppose you are writing the definition of an instance method in some class. In the applet the only time when the actual class of a shape is used is when that shape is added to the screen.6.6 this and super Although the basic ideas of object-oriented programming are reasonably simple and clear. In this section. if you want to use the full name of an instance variable. The simple name of such an instance member can be used in instance methods in the class where the instance member is defined. and they take time to get used to.

6. it automatically sets the variable. In the assignment statement.doSomething(). super doesn’t know about any of those additions and modifications. super doesn’t know anything about the doSomething() method in the subclass. except change its value. Whenever the computer executes an instance method.206 CHAPTER 5. for use in the definitions of instance methods. Let’s say that the class that you are writing contains an instance method named doSomething(). 5.x always refers to an instance variable named . so it tries to execute a method named doSomething() from the superclass. Consider the subroutine call statement super. Or you could assign the value of this to another variable in an assignment statement. // Name of the student. super. This intent of the name. named “super”. this. One common use of this is in constructors. it can only be used to refer to methods and variables in the superclass. as an actual parameter. and it remembers only that it belongs to the superclass of that class. For example: public class Student { private String name. then this. is assigned to the instance variable. In that case. . super refers to the object that contains the method. this.out. is to refer to “this object. if you wanted to print out a string representation of the object. the instance variable called name is hidden by a formal parameter. If otherMethod() is an instance method in the same object. Create a student with specified name. public Student(String name) { // Constructor. then this. name. This is considered to be acceptable style: There is no need to dream up cute new names for formal parameters that are just used to initialize instance variables. Sometimes.”. It only knows about things in the superclass. Now.x can be used as a full name for that variable. The reason super exists is so you can get access to things in the superclass that are hidden by things in the subclass. } .name. this.name.name = name. The point is that the class can contain additions and modifications to the superclass. You can use the same name for the parameter as for the instance variable. this.println(this). The variable super is for use in a subclass. you can use this as the actual parameter. you can do anything with this that you could do with any other variable. you need to pass the object that contains the method to a subroutine. If there is none—if the doSomething() method was an addition rather than a modification—you’ll get a syntax error. However. OBJECTS AND CLASSES object that contains the method. to refer to the object that contains the method. the value of the formal parameter. this. But it’s forgetful. For example.” the one right here that this very method is in. . For example. you could say “System. the instance variable can still be referred to by its full name.otherMethod() could be used to call that method. There are other uses for this. // More variables and methods. In fact.2 The Special Variable super Java also defines another special variable. If x is an instance variable in the same object. when you are writing an instance method. } In the constructor. Like this. It forgets that the object belongs to the class you are writing.

Again.7 (in the on-line version). super. each time a square is brightened. A symmetric version of the applet is shown at the bottom of Section 5. the roll() method for a GraphicalDice object has to redraw the dice to show the new values. The result looks interesting. using super. The GraphicalDice class might look something like this: public class GraphicalDice extends PairOfDice { public void roll() { // Roll the dice. suppose you have a PairOfDice class that includes a roll() method. As an example. This picture might make the symmetry idea clearer: . The applet at the end of Section 4. . As it moves. including definition of redraw(). the method from the superclass is hidden in the same way. } Note that this allows you to extend the behavior of the roll() method even if you don’t know how the method is implemented in the superclass! Here is a more complete example. The new method can use super to call the method from the superclass. and redraw them. We can express this with a call to super. // More stuff. the squares that can be obtained from that one by horizontal and vertical reflection through the center of the mosaic are also brightened. each square that it visits becomes a brighter shade of red. to represent a pair of dice drawn on the computer screen.7 in the on-line version of this book shows a disturbance that moves around in a mosaic of little squares. This can be useful for the following reason: If a class contains an instance variable with the same name as an instance variable in its superclass. // Call the roll method from PairOfDice. } . and then it can add additional code to provide additional behavior. THIS AND SUPER 207 x in the superclass.5.6. but I think it would be prettier if the pattern were symmetric. however. GraphicalDice.roll(). The symmetric applet can be programmed as an easy extension of the original applet. We say that the method in the subclass overrides the method from the superclass. super can be used to access the method from the superclass. The variable from the superclass can still be accessed. instead of replacing that behavior entirely. The major use of super is to override a method with a new method that extends the behavior of the inherited method. which calls the method in the superclass. But in addition to that. it merely hides it.roll(). then an object of that class will actually contain two variables with the same name: one defined as part of the class itself and one defined as part of the superclass. The roll() method in the GraphicalDice class should do everything that the roll() method in the PairOfDice class does. . When you write a method in a subclass that has the same signature as a method in its superclass. // Call a method to draw the dice. Suppose that you want a subclass. The variable in the subclass does not replace the variable of the same name in the superclass. In the symmetric version. redraw().

Here’s the complete definition of the new class: public class SymmetricBrighten extends RandomBrighten { void brighten(int row. super. col). it’s possible to come up with formulas for the reflections. if you extend an existing class to make a subclass. Using these variables. the modified routine will also brighten the horizontal and vertical reflections of that square.brighten().brighten(ROWS .208 CHAPTER 5.3 Constructors in Subclasses Constructors are not inherited.1 .1 .row. then “brighten(row. } } // end class SymmetricBrighten This is the entire source code for the applet! 5.1 . (The blue square is at the center of the mosaic.brighten(row. To do this. . the actual task of brightening a square is done by a method called brighten(). with no parameters. If you don’t define any constructors in the subclass. That is. form a set of such symmetrically placed squares.col). for you. If you want constructors in the subclass. which just // brightens one square. The RandomBrighten class has instance variables named ROWS and COLUMNS to represent these quantities. col). super.” increases the brightness of that square. as do the purple squares and the green squares. There is still the problem of computing the row and column numbers of the horizontal and vertical reflections. you have to define new ones from scratch. But how will it brighten each of the four individual squares? By calling the brighten() method from the original class. In that class. it’s its own reflection.6.row. COLUMNS .brighten(row. int col) { // Brighten the specified square and its horizontal // and vertical reflections. you need to know the number of rows and the number of columns. It can do this by calling super. All we need is a subclass of RandomBrighten with a modified brighten() routine. then the computer will make up a default constructor.) The original applet is defined by the class RandomBrighten. COLUMNS . as shown in the definition of the brighten() method below. OBJECTS AND CLASSES The four red squares in the picture. This overrides the brighten // method from the RandomBrighten class. super. super. so reflecting it doesn’t produce any other squares. Instead of just brightening one square. the constructors in the superclass do not become part of the subclass.1 . If row and col are the row and column numbers of a square.col).col).brighten(ROWS . for example.

. but unfortunately it is sometimes necessary.5. interfaces. the one with no parameters. It involves the special variable. and don’t know how it works.7 THIS Interfaces. and it can only be used in this one particular circumstance: It looks like you are calling super as a subroutine (even though super is not a subroutine and you can’t call constructors the same way you call other subroutines anyway). allow a class to extend two or more superclasses. Nested Classes. and there is. you can use super to call a constructor from the superclass. This can be useful since it can save you from repeating the same code in several constructors.” calls the constructor from the superclass.7. The notation for this is a bit ugly and misleading. if there is a constructor in the superclass that does a lot of necessary work. This call must be the first line of the constructor in the subclass.1 Interfaces Some object-oriented programming languages. such as C++. . with parameters 3.4). The statement “super(3. or if the constructor in the superclass initializes private member variables that you don’t even have access to in the subclass! Obviously. . super(3. This might seem rather technical.. initializeGraphics(). By the way. for example. and Other Details SECTION simply pulls together a few more miscellaneous features of object oriented programming in Java. 5. class E is shown as having both class A and class B as direct superclasses. } // More constructors.. AND OTHER DETAILS 209 This could be a problem. As the very first statement in a constructor. As an example. there has to be some fix for this.4). super. Note that if you don’t explicitly call a constructor from the superclass in this way. Consider a subclass: public class GraphicalDice extends PairOfDice { public GraphicalDice() { // Constructor for this class. or just look through it and refer back to it later when you need this material. Read it now. methods. while class F has three direct superclasses. } . This is called multiple inheritance. INTERFACES. will be called automatically. variables. NESTED CLASSES. In the illustration below. you can use the special variable this in exactly the same way to call another constructor in the same class.7. // Call the constructor from the // PairOfDice class. assume that the PairOfDice class has a constructor that takes two integers as parameters. then the default constructor from the superclass. It looks like you might have to repeat all that work in the subclass! This could be a real problem if you don’t have the source code to the superclass.) 5. 4. almost as soon as we begin GUI programming. (You will need to know about the first topic. // Do some initialization specific // to the GraphicalDice class.

210 CHAPTER 5. The designers of Java wanted to keep the language reasonably simple. it must also state that it implements the interface. and felt that the benefits of multiple inheritance were not worth the cost in increased complexity. } This looks much like a class definition. public class Line implements Drawable { public void draw(Graphics g) { . The interface of a subroutine consists of the name of the subroutine. except that the implementation of the draw() method is omitted. // other methods and variables } Note that to implement an interface.) A class can implement an interface by providing an implementation for each of the methods specified by the interface. interface is a reserved word with an additional. (Actually. Any object created from such a class includes a draw() method. without any associated implementations. technical meaning. using the reserved word implements as in this example: “public class Line implements Drawable”. and the number and types of its parameters. This is the information you need to know if you want to call the subroutine. the class can also include other methods and variables. // do something---presumably. . An “interface” in this sense consists of a set of instance method interfaces. A class that implements the interface Drawable must provide an implementation for this method. a Java interface can contain other things as well. Java does have a feature that can be used to accomplish many of the same goals as multiple inheritance: interfaces. We’ve encountered the term “interface” before. but we won’t discuss them here. Any class that implements the Drawable interface defines a draw() instance method. . In Java. However. We say that an object implements . For example. draw a line } . a class must do more than simply provide an implementation for each method in the interface. its return type. Of course. . Here is an example of a very simple Java interface: public interface Drawable { public void draw(Graphics g). . OBJECTS AND CLASSES Such multiple inheritance is not allowed in Java. A subroutine also has an implementation: the block of code which defines it and which is executed when the subroutine is called. in connection with black boxes in general and subroutines in particular.

Fillable { . although interfaces are not classes. I can ease the embarrassment. For example. 5. You are not likely to need to write your own interfaces until you get to the point of writing fairly complex programs. However. // figure now refers to an object of class Line figure. // calls draw() method from class Line figure = new FilledCircle(). Fortunately. that object must have a draw() method. or the return type of a function. INTERFACES. // Now. .2 Nested Classes A class seems like it should be a pretty important thing. above. So. whatever object figure refers to. that is. It can // refer to any object that implements the // Drawable interface. // Declare a variable of type Drawable. NESTED CLASSES. Note that a type is something that can be used to declare variables.5. and any Drawable object has a draw() method. and if Line and FilledCircle are classes that implement Drawable. but can be used as a basis for making subclasses.7. which must be implemented in any concrete class that implements the interface. My trivial . they are something very similar. we can have things like class FilledCircle extends Circle implements Drawable. a type can be either a class. // calls draw() method from class FilledCircle A variable of type Drawable can refer to any object of any class that implements the Drawable interface. However. An interface is very much like an abstract class. a class can both extend one other class and implement one or more interfaces. such trivial classes are often useful and even essential. In Java. because one class can be nested inside another class. figure refers to an object // of class FilledCircle. These are the only possibilities. a class that can never be used for constructing objects. figure. A class is a high-level building block of a program. You’ll learn about some of these standard interfaces in the next few chapters. then you could say: Drawable figure. in Java. representing a potentially complex idea and its associated data and behaviors. however. there are a few interfaces that are used in important ways in Java’s standard packages. or one of the eight built-in primitive types. . In fact. only classes can be used to construct new objects. an interface. While a class can extend only one other class. figure = new Line(). you can declare a variable whose type is given by the interface. even though you can’t construct an object from an interface.draw(g). So. is legal because figure is of type Drawable.draw(g). I’ve always felt a bit silly writing tiny little classes that exist only to group a few scraps of data together. A statement like figure.draw(g). it can implement any number of interfaces. And as with abstract classes. } The point of all this is that. if Drawable is an interface. any object of type Line implements the Drawable interface.7. AND OTHER DETAILS 211 an interface if it belongs to a class that implements the interface. For example. Of these. A type can also be used to specify the type of a parameter in a subroutine. The subroutines in an interface are abstract methods.

“new WireFrameModel. y1. even to the private members. the containing class has full access to the members of the nested class. y2. OBJECTS AND CLASSES little class doesn’t have to stand on its own. can be either static or non-static. The definition of a static nested class looks just like the definition of any other class. Outside the class. And. . This is particularly useful when you want to create a little class specifically to support the work of a larger class. two class files will be created. . its name must indicate its membership in the containing class. Of course. a nested class is any class whose definition is inside the definition of another class. like this: public class WireFrameModel { . It becomes part of a larger more respectable class. . A static nested class is part of the static structure of the containing class. It can be used inside that class to create objects in the usual way. For example. Then. A named nested class. When you compile the above class definition.y2.class. that represents a single line. since it lets you give one class access to the private members of another class without making those members generally available to other classes.y1. // other members of the WireFrameModel class static public class Line { // Represents a line from the point (x1. If it has not been declared private. A static nested class has full access to the static members of the containing class. Similarly.Line. Even though the definition of Line is nested inside WireFrameModel.z2) in 3-dimensional space. more seriously. there are other good reasons for nesting the definition of one class inside another class. except that it is nested inside another class and it has the modifier static as part of its declaration.Line()” would be used. The definition of the WireFrameModel class with its nested Line class would look.) Suppose that the WireFrameModel class contains a static nested class. but when it is used outside the class. z1. a Line object would be created with the constructor “new Line()”. outside of the class WireFrameModel. in outline. In Java. // other members of the WireFrameModel class } // end WireFrameModel Inside the WireFrameModel class. I will come back to the topic of anonymous classes later in this section. (Such models are used to represent three-dimensional objects in graphics programs.z1) // to the point (x2. double x1. double x2. } // end class Line . ∗ ∗ ∗ . Nested classes can be either named or anonymous. then it can also be used outside the containing class. like most other things that occur in classes. . the Line class would be referred to as WireFrameModel. The name of the class file for Line will be WireFrameModel$Line. This can be another motivation for declaring a nested class. this just follows the normal naming convention for static members of a class. the compiled Line class is stored in a separate file. z2.212 CHAPTER 5. suppose a class named WireFrameModel represents a set of lines in threedimensional space. This is similar to other static components of a class: A static nested class is part of the class itself in the same way that static member variables are parts of the class itself. Line.

and it has complete access to the members of the containing class object. } // end class Player private Deck deck. // Represents one of the players in this game. If game is a variable of type PokerGame. and there it can be referred to by its simple name. Looking at an example will help. in practice. however. private int pot.7.) The Player object will have access to the deck and pot instance variables in the PokerGame object. game contains its own copy of the Player class. . The same is true—at least logically—for inner classes. just as for any other class. the object “this” is used implicitly. From outside the containing class. you must first have an object that belongs to the containing class. (A Player object could be created outside the PokerGame class with an expression such as “game. and will hopefully convince you that inner classes are really very natural. the rule for deciding whether a nested class should be static or non-static is simple: If the nested class needs to use any instance variable or instance method from the containing class. Any non-static member of a class is not really part of the class itself (although its source code is contained in the class definition). make the nested class non-static. Again. In an instance method of a PokerGame object. where variableName is a variable that refers to the object that contains the class. NestedClassName . The two copies of the inner class in two different objects differ because the instance variables and methods they refer to are in different objects. (When working inside the class. very different from static nested classes. a non-static nested class has to be referred to using a name of the form variableName . In order to create an object that belongs to an inner class. just as it is for any other non-static part of a class.5. // The amount of money that has been bet. then. . This is actually rather rare. This can take some getting used to.new Player()”. This copy has access to all the instance methods and instance variables of the object. . } // end class PokerGame // Represents a game of poker. however. a new Player object would be created by saying “new Player()”. Players of that poker game use the deck and pot for that game. A non-static nested class is generally used only inside the class in which it is nested. Consider a class that represents poker games. It’s as if each object that belongs to the containing class has its own copy of the nested class. This is true for inner classes. but a non-static nested class is actually associated with an object rather than to the class in which it is nested. // A deck of cards for playing the game. Each PokerGame object has its own deck and pot and Players. INTERFACES. . NESTED CLASSES. This structure of the PokerGame class could be: public class PokerGame { private class Player { . AND OTHER DETAILS 213 Non-static nested classes are referred to as inner classes. it might as well be static. this is very rare. Inner classes are not. This class might include a nested class to represent the players of the game.) The inner class object is permanently associated with the containing class object. In fact. conceptually. players of another poker game use the other game’s deck and pot. Otherwise. . That’s the effect of making the Player class . even to those that are declared private. The non-static members of a class specify what will be contained in objects that are created from that class.

class.setColor(Color. A Player object represents a player of one particular poker game. you might find yourself writing an inner class and then using that class in just a single line of your program. If an interface is used as a base. rather than a class. 5. we can use an anonymous class to create the object in one statement: Drawable redSquare = new Drawable() { void draw(Graphics g) { g. Note that it is possible to base an anonymous class on an interface. For now. It’s the semicolon that is required at the end of every declaration statement. each anonymous nested class will produce a separate class file. An anonymous class is created with a variation of the new operator that has the form new } superclass-or-interface ( parameter-list methods-and-variables ) { This constructor defines a new class. and we will encounter them several times in the chapters on GUI programming.10. the parameter-list must be empty. If the name of the main class is MainClass. it can be.4 Mixing Static and Non-static Classes.3 Anonymous Inner Classes In some cases. as I’ve said. g. independent of a particular poker game. which is defined earlier in this section. OBJECTS AND CLASSES non-static. 100-pixel square. Anonymous classes are often used for handling events in graphical user interfaces. we will look at one not-very-plausible example.class. If Player were a static nested class. it can contain parameters for a constructor in the superclass .100. The intention of this expression is to create: “a new object belonging to a class that is the same as superclass-or-interface but with these methods-andvariables added. This is the most natural way for players to behave. When a Java class is compiled. without giving it a name. then the names of the class files for the anonymous nested classes will be MainClass$1. but for cases like this you have the option of using an anonymous inner class. Consider the Drawable interface. Rather than defining a new. MainClass$2. just at the point in the program where you need it. A class can be used to group together a set of static member variables and static member subroutines. it would represent the general idea of a poker player. Suppose that we want a Drawable object that draws a filled.100). Otherwise. Or it can be used as a factory for making objects.214 CHAPTER 5.red). MainClass$3.7. 5. on the other hand. and so on. and it simultaneously creates an object that belongs to that class. the anonymous class must implement the interface by defining all the methods that are declared in the interface. In this case. Is it worth creating such a class? Indeed.7. red. separate class and then using that class to create the object. have two very distinct purposes. The non-static variables and subroutines in the class definition specify the .class. for example. The semicolon at the end of this statement is not part of the class definition.” The effect is to create a uniquely customized object. } }.fillRect(10. This form of the new operator can be used in any statement where a regular “new” could be used.

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instance variables and methods of the objects. In most cases, a class performs one or the other of these roles, not both. Sometimes, however, static and non-static members are mixed in a single class. In this case, the class plays a dual role. Sometimes, these roles are completely separate. It is also possible for the static and non-static parts of a class to interact. This happens when instance methods use static member variables or call static member subroutines. An instance method belongs to an object, not to the class itself, and there can be many objects with their own versions of the instance method. But there is only one copy of a static member variable. So, effectively, we have many objects sharing that one variable. Suppose, for example, that we want to write a PairOfDice class that uses the Random class mentioned in Section 5.3 for rolling the dice. To do this, a PairOfDice object needs access to an object of type Random. But there is no need for each PairOfDice object to have a separate Random object. (In fact, it would not even be a good idea: Because of the way random number generators work, a program should, in general, use only one source of random numbers.) A nice solution is to have a single Random variable as a static member of the PairOfDice class, so that it can be shared by all PairOfDice objects. For example:
import java.util.Random; public class PairOfDice { private static Random randGen = new Random(); public int die1; public int die2; // Number showing on the first die. // Number showing on the second die.

public PairOfDice() { // Constructor. Creates a pair of dice that // initially shows random values. roll(); } public void roll() { // Roll the dice by setting each of the dice to be // a random number between 1 and 6. die1 = randGen.nextInt(6) + 1; die2 = randGen.nextInt(6) + 1; } } // end class PairOfDice

As another example, let’s rewrite the Student class that was used in Section 5.2. I’ve added an ID for each student and a static member called nextUniqueID. Although there is an ID variable in each student object, there is only one nextUniqueID variable.
public class Student { private String name; // Student’s name. private int ID; // Unique ID number for this student. public double test1, test2, test3; // Grades on three tests. private static int nextUniqueID = 0; // keep track of next available unique ID number Student(String theName) { // Constructor for Student objects; provides a name for the Student,

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// and assigns the student a unique ID number. name = theName; nextUniqueID++; ID = nextUniqueID; } public String getName() { // Accessor method for reading value of private // instance variable, name. return name; } public int getID() { // Accessor method for reading value of ID. return ID; } public double getAverage() { // Compute average test grade. return (test1 + test2 + test3) / 3; } } // end of class Student

The initialization “nextUniqueID = 0” is done only once, when the class is first loaded. Whenever a Student object is constructed and the constructor says “nextUniqueID++;”, it’s always the same static member variable that is being incremented. When the very first Student object is created, nextUniqueID becomes 1. When the second object is created, nextUniqueID becomes 2. After the third object, it becomes 3. And so on. The constructor stores the new value of nextUniqueID in the ID variable of the object that is being created. Of course, ID is an instance variable, so every object has its own individual ID variable. The class is constructed so that each student will automatically get a different value for its ID variable. Furthermore, the ID variable is private, so there is no way for this variable to be tampered with after the object has been created. You are guaranteed, just by the way the class is designed, that every student object will have its own permanent, unique identification number. Which is kind of cool if you think about it.

5.7.5

Static Import

The import directive makes it possible to refer to a class such as java.awt.Color using its simple name, Color. All you have to do is say import java.awt.Color or import java.awt.*. But you still have to use compound names to refer to static member variables such as System.out and to static methods such as Math.sqrt. Java 5.0 introduced a new form of the import directive that can be used to import static members of a class in the same way that the ordinary import directive imports classes from a package. The new form of the directive is called a static import, and it has syntax
import static package-name . class-name . static-member-name ;

to import one static member name from a class, or
import static package-name . class-name .*;

to import all the public static members from a class. For example, if you preface a class definition with

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import static java.lang.System.out;

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then you can use the simple name out instead of the compound name System.out. This means you can use out.println instead of System.out.println. If you are going to work extensively with the Math class, you can preface your class definition with
import static java.lang.Math.*;

This would allow you to say sqrt instead of Math.sqrt, log instead of Math.log, PI instead of Math.PI, and so on. Note that the static import directive requires a package-name , even for classes in the standard package java.lang. One consequence of this is that you can’t do a static import from a class in the default package. In particular, it is not possible to do a static import from my TextIO class—if you wanted to do that, you would have to move TextIO into a package.

5.7.6

Enums as Classes

Enumerated types were introduced in Subsection 2.3.3. Now that we have covered more material on classes and objects, we can revisit the topic (although still not covering enumerated types in their full complexity). Enumerated types are actually classes, and each enumerated type constant is a public, final, static member variable in that class (even though they are not declared with these modifiers). The value of the variable is an object belonging to the enumerated type class. There is one such object for each enumerated type constant, and these are the only objects of the class that can ever be created. It is really these objects that represent the possible values of the enumerated type. The enumerated type constants are actually variables that refer to these objects. When an enumerated type is defined inside another class, it is a nested class inside the enclosing class. In fact, it is a static nested class, whether you declare it to be static or not. But it can also be declared as a non-nested class, in a file of its own. For example, we could define the following enumerated type in a file named Suit.java:
public enum Suit { SPADES, HEARTS, DIAMONDS, CLUBS }

This enumerated type represents the four possible suits for a playing card, and it could have been used in the example Card.java from Subsection 5.4.2. Furthermore, in addition to its list of values, an enumerated type can contain some of the other things that a regular class can contain, including methods and additional member variables. Just add a semicolon (;) at the end of the list of values, and then add definitions of the methods and variables in the usual way. For example, we might make an enumerated type to represent the possible values of a playing card. It might be useful to have a method that returns the corresponding value in the game of Blackjack. As another example, suppose that when we print out one of the values, we’d like to see something different from the default string representation (the identifier that names the constant). In that case, we can override the toString() method in the class to print out a different string representation. This would give something like:
public enum CardValue {

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ACE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, JACK, QUEEN, KING; /** * Return the value of this CardValue in the game of Blackjack. * Note that the value returned for an ace is 1. */ public int blackJackValue() { if (this == JACK || this == QUEEN || this == KING) return 10; else return 1 + ordinal(); } /** * Return a String representation of this CardValue, using numbers * for the numerical cards and names for the ace and face cards. */ public String toString() { switch (this) { // "this" is one of the enumerated type values case ACE: // ordinal number of ACE return "Ace"; case JACK: // ordinal number of JACK return "Jack"; case QUEEN: // ordinal number of QUEEN return "Queen"; case KING: // ordinal number of KING return "King"; default: // it’s a numeric card value int numericValue = 1 + ordinal(); return "" + numericValue; } } // end CardValue

The methods blackjackValue() and toString() are instance methods in CardValue. Since CardValue.JACK is an object belonging to that class, you can call CardValue.JACK.blackjackValue(). Suppose that cardVal is declared to be a variable of type CardValue, so that it can refer to any of the values in the enumerated type. We can call cardVal.blackjackValue() to find the Blackjack value of the CardValue object to which cardVal refers, and System.out.println(cardVal) will implicitly call the method cardVal.toString() to obtain the print representation of that CardValue. (One other thing to keep in mind is that since CardValue is a class, the value of cardVal can be null, which means it does not refer to any object.) Remember that ACE, TWO, . . . , KING are the only possible objects of type CardValue, so in an instance method in that class, this will refer to one of those values. Recall that the instance method ordinal() is defined in any enumerated type and gives the position of the enumerated type value in the list of possible values, with counting starting from zero. (If you find it annoying to use the class name as part of the name of every enumerated type constant, you can use static import to make the simple names of the constants directly available—but only if you put the enumerated type into a package. For example, if the enumerated type CardValue is defined in a package named cardgames, then you could place
import static cardgames.CardValue.*;

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at the beginning of a source code file. This would allow you, for example, to use the name JACK in that file instead of CardValue.JACK.)

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Exercises for Chapter 5
1. In all versions of the PairOfDice class in Section 5.2, the instance variables die1 and die2 are declared to be public. They really should be private, so that they are protected from being changed from outside the class. Write another version of the PairOfDice class in which the instance variables die1 and die2 are private. Your class will need “getter” methods that can be used to find out the values of die1 and die2. (The idea is to protect their values from being changed from outside the class, but still to allow the values to be read.) Include other improvements in the class, if you can think of any. Test your class with a short program that counts how many times a pair of dice is rolled, before the total of the two dice is equal to two. 2. A common programming task is computing statistics of a set of numbers. (A statistic is a number that summarizes some property of a set of data.) Common statistics include the mean (also known as the average) and the standard deviation (which tells how spread out the data are from the mean). I have written a little class called StatCalc that can be used to compute these statistics, as well as the sum of the items in the dataset and the number of items in the dataset. You can read the source code for this class in the file StatCalc.java. If calc is a variable of type StatCalc, then the following methods are defined: • calc.enter(item); where item is a number, adds the item to the dataset. • calc.getCount() is a function that returns the number of items that have been added to the dataset. • calc.getSum() is a function that returns the sum of all the items that have been added to the dataset. • calc.getMean() is a function that returns the average of all the items. • calc.getStandardDeviation() is a function that returns the standard deviation of the items. Typically, all the data are added one after the other by calling the enter() method over and over, as the data become available. After all the data have been entered, any of the other methods can be called to get statistical information about the data. The methods getMean() and getStandardDeviation() should only be called if the number of items is greater than zero. Modify the current source code, StatCalc.java, to add instance methods getMax() and getMin(). The getMax() method should return the largest of all the items that have been added to the dataset, and getMin() should return the smallest. You will need to add two new instance variables to keep track of the largest and smallest items that have been seen so far. Test your new class by using it in a program to compute statistics for a set of non-zero numbers entered by the user. Start by creating an object of type StatCalc:
StatCalc calc; // Object to be used to process the data. calc = new StatCalc();

Read numbers from the user and add them to the dataset. Use 0 as a sentinel value (that is, stop reading numbers when the user enters 0). After all the user’s non-zero

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numbers have been entered, print out each of the six statistics that are available from calc. 3. This problem uses the PairOfDice class from Exercise 5.1 and the StatCalc class from Exercise 5.2. The program in Exercise 4.4 performs the experiment of counting how many times a pair of dice is rolled before a given total comes up. It repeats this experiment 10000 times and then reports the average number of rolls. It does this whole process for each possible total (2, 3, . . . , 12). Redo that exercise. But instead of just reporting the average number of rolls, you should also report the standard deviation and the maximum number of rolls. Use a PairOfDice object to represent the dice. Use a StatCalc object to compute the statistics. (You’ll need a new StatCalc object for each possible total, 2, 3, . . . , 12. You can use a new pair of dice if you want, but it’s not necessary.) 4. The BlackjackHand class from Subsection 5.5.1 is an extension of the Hand class from Section 5.4. The instance methods in the Hand class are discussed in that section. In addition to those methods, BlackjackHand includes an instance method, getBlackjackValue(), that returns the value of the hand for the game of Blackjack. For this exercise, you will also need the Deck and Card classes from Section 5.4. A Blackjack hand typically contains from two to six cards. Write a program to test the BlackjackHand class. You should create a BlackjackHand object and a Deck object. Pick a random number between 2 and 6. Deal that many cards from the deck and add them to the hand. Print out all the cards in the hand, and then print out the value computed for the hand by getBlackjackValue(). Repeat this as long as the user wants to continue. In addition to TextIO.java, your program will depend on Card.java, Deck.java, Hand.java, and BlackjackHand.java. 5. Write a program that lets the user play Blackjack. The game will be a simplified version of Blackjack as it is played in a casino. The computer will act as the dealer. As in the previous exercise, your program will need the classes defined in Card.java, Deck.java, Hand.java, and BlackjackHand.java. (This is the longest and most complex program that has come up so far in the exercises.) You should first write a subroutine in which the user plays one game. The subroutine should return a boolean value to indicate whether the user wins the game or not. Return true if the user wins, false if the dealer wins. The program needs an object of class Deck and two objects of type BlackjackHand, one for the dealer and one for the user. The general object in Blackjack is to get a hand of cards whose value is as close to 21 as possible, without going over. The game goes like this. • First, two cards are dealt into each player’s hand. If the dealer’s hand has a value of 21 at this point, then the dealer wins. Otherwise, if the user has 21, then the user wins. (This is called a “Blackjack”.) Note that the dealer wins on a tie, so if both players have Blackjack, then the dealer wins. • Now, if the game has not ended, the user gets a chance to add some cards to her hand. In this phase, the user sees her own cards and sees one of the dealer’s two cards. (In a casino, the dealer deals himself one card face up and one card face down. All the user’s cards are dealt face up.) The user makes a decision whether to “Hit”,

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CHAPTER 5. OBJECTS AND CLASSES which means to add another card to her hand, or to “Stand”, which means to stop taking cards. • If the user Hits, there is a possibility that the user will go over 21. In that case, the game is over and the user loses. If not, then the process continues. The user gets to decide again whether to Hit or Stand. • If the user Stands, the game will end, but first the dealer gets a chance to draw cards. The dealer only follows rules, without any choice. The rule is that as long as the value of the dealer’s hand is less than or equal to 16, the dealer Hits (that is, takes another card). The user should see all the dealer’s cards at this point. Now, the winner can be determined: If the dealer has gone over 21, the user wins. Otherwise, if the dealer’s total is greater than or equal to the user’s total, then the dealer wins. Otherwise, the user wins. Two notes on programming: At any point in the subroutine, as soon as you know who the winner is, you can say “return true;” or “return false;” to end the subroutine and return to the main program. To avoid having an overabundance of variables in your subroutine, remember that a function call such as userHand.getBlackjackValue() can be used anywhere that a number could be used, including in an output statement or in the condition of an if statement. Write a main program that lets the user play several games of Blackjack. To make things interesting, give the user 100 dollars, and let the user make bets on the game. If the user loses, subtract the bet from the user’s money. If the user wins, add an amount equal to the bet to the user’s money. End the program when the user wants to quit or when she runs out of money. An applet version of this program can be found in the on-line version of this exercise. You might want to try it out before you work on the program.

6. Subsection 5.7.6 discusses the possibility of representing the suits and values of playing cards as enumerated types. Rewrite the Card class from Subsection 5.4.2 to use these enumerated types. Test your class with a program that prints out the 52 possible playing cards. Suggestions: You can modify the source code file Card.java, but you should leave out support for Jokers. In your main program, use nested for loops to generated cards of all possible suits and values; the for loops will be “for-each” loops of the type discussed in Subsection 3.4.4. It would be nice to add a toString() method to the Suit class from Subsection 5.7.6, so that a suit prints out as “Spades” or “Hearts” instead of “SPADES” or “HEARTS”.

Quiz

223

Quiz on Chapter 5
1. Object-oriented programming uses classes and objects. What are classes and what are objects? What is the relationship between classes and objects? 2. Explain carefully what null means in Java, and why this special value is necessary. 3. What is a constructor? What is the purpose of a constructor in a class? 4. Suppose that Kumquat is the name of a class and that fruit is a variable of type Kumquat. What is the meaning of the statement “fruit = new Kumquat();”? That is, what does the computer do when it executes this statement? (Try to give a complete answer. The computer does several things.) 5. What is meant by the terms instance variable and instance method? 6. Explain what is meant by the terms subclass and superclass. 7. Modify the following class so that the two instance variables are private and there is a getter method and a setter method for each instance variable:
public class Player { String name; int score; }

8. Explain why the class Player that is defined in the previous question has an instance method named toString(), even though no definition of this method appears in the definition of the class. 9. Explain the term polymorphism. 10. Java uses “garbage collection” for memory management. Explain what is meant here by garbage collection. What is the alternative to garbage collection? 11. For this problem, you should write a very simple but complete class. The class represents a counter that counts 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . . The name of the class should be Counter. It has one private instance variable representing the value of the counter. It has two instance methods: increment() adds one to the counter value, and getValue() returns the current counter value. Write a complete definition for the class, Counter. 12. This problem uses the Counter class from the previous question. The following program segment is meant to simulate tossing a coin 100 times. It should use two Counter objects, headCount and tailCount, to count the number of heads and the number of tails. Fill in the blanks so that it will do so:

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CHAPTER 5. OBJECTS AND CLASSES
Counter headCount, tailCount; tailCount = new Counter(); headCount = new Counter(); for ( int flip = 0; flip < 100; flip++ ) { if (Math.random() < 0.5) // There’s a 50/50 chance that this is true. ; else ; } System.out.println("There were " + System.out.println("There were " + + " heads."); + " tails."); // Count a "tail". // Count a "head".

Chapter 6

Introduction to GUI Programming
users today expect to interact with their computers using a graphical user interface (GUI). Java can be used to write GUI programs ranging from simple applets which run on a Web page to sophisticated stand-alone applications. GUI programs differ from traditional “straight-through” programs that you have encountered in the first few chapters of this book. One big difference is that GUI programs are event-driven. That is, user actions such as clicking on a button or pressing a key on the keyboard generate events, and the program must respond to these events as they occur. Eventdriven programming builds on all the skills you have learned in the first five chapters of this text. You need to be able to write the subroutines that respond to events. Inside these subroutines, you are doing the kind of programming-in-the-small that was covered in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. And of course, objects are everywhere in GUI programming. Events are objects. Colors and fonts are objects. GUI components such as buttons and menus are objects. Events are handled by instance methods contained in objects. In Java, GUI programming is object-oriented programming. This chapter covers the basics of GUI programming. The discussion will continue in Chapter 12 with more details and with more advanced techniques.

Computer

6.1

The Basic GUI Application

There

are two basic types of GUI program in Java: stand-alone applications and applets. An applet is a program that runs in a rectangular area on a Web page. Applets are generally small programs, meant to do fairly simple things, although there is nothing to stop them from being very complex. Applets were responsible for a lot of the initial excitement about Java when it was introduced, since they could do things that could not otherwise be done on Web pages. However, there are now easier ways to do many of the more basic things that can be done with applets, and they are no longer the main focus of interest in Java. Nevertheless, there are still some things that can be done best with applets, and they are still fairly common on the Web. We will look at applets in the next section. A stand-alone application is a program that runs on its own, without depending on a Web browser. You’ve been writing stand-alone applications all along. Any class that has a main() routine defines a stand-alone application; running the program just means executing this main() routine. However, the programs that you’ve seen up till now have been “commandline” programs, where the user and computer interact by typing things back and forth to each 225

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CHAPTER 6. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING

other. A GUI program offers a much richer type of user interface, where the user uses a mouse and keyboard to interact with GUI components such as windows, menus, buttons, check boxes, text input boxes, scroll bars, and so on. The main routine of a GUI program creates one or more such components and displays them on the computer screen. Very often, that’s all it does. Once a GUI component has been created, it follows its own programming—programming that tells it how to draw itself on the screen and how to respond to events such as being clicked on by the user. A GUI program doesn’t have to be immensely complex. We can, for example, write a very simple GUI “Hello World” program that says “Hello” to the user, but does it by opening a window where the greeting is displayed:
import javax.swing.JOptionPane; public class HelloWorldGUI1 { public static void main(String[] args) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog( null, "Hello World!" ); } }

When this program is run, a window appears on the screen that contains the message “Hello World!”. The window also contains an “OK” button for the user to click after reading the message. When the user clicks this button, the window closes and the program ends. By the way, this program can be placed in a file named HelloWorldGUI1.java, compiled, and run just like any other Java program. Now, this program is already doing some pretty fancy stuff. It creates a window, it draws the contents of that window, and it handles the event that is generated when the user clicks the button. The reason the program was so easy to write is that all the work is done by showMessageDialog(), a static method in the built-in class JOptionPane. (Note that the source code “imports” the class javax.swing.JOptionPane to make it possible to refer to the JOptionPane class using its simple name. See Subsection 4.5.3 for information about importing classes from Java’s standard packages.) If you want to display a message to the user in a GUI program, this is a good way to do it: Just use a standard class that already knows how to do the work! And in fact, JOptionPane is regularly used for just this purpose (but as part of a larger program, usually). Of course, if you want to do anything serious in a GUI program, there is a lot more to learn. To give you an idea of the types of things that are involved, we’ll look at a short GUI program that does the same things as the previous program—open a window containing a message and an OK button, and respond to a click on the button by ending the program—but does it all by hand instead of by using the built-in JOptionPane class. Mind you, this is not a good way to write the program, but it will illustrate some important aspects of GUI programming in Java. Here is the source code for the program. You are not expected to understand it yet. I will explain how it works below, but it will take the rest of the chapter before you will really understand completely. In this section, you will just get a brief overview of GUI programming.
import java.awt.*; import java.awt.event.*; import javax.swing.*; public class HelloWorldGUI2 { private static class HelloWorldDisplay extends JPanel {

6.1. THE BASIC GUI APPLICATION
public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.paintComponent(g); g.drawString( "Hello World!", 20, 30 ); } } private static class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.exit(0); } } public static void main(String[] args) { HelloWorldDisplay displayPanel = new HelloWorldDisplay(); JButton okButton = new JButton("OK"); ButtonHandler listener = new ButtonHandler(); okButton.addActionListener(listener); JPanel content = new JPanel(); content.setLayout(new BorderLayout()); content.add(displayPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER); content.add(okButton, BorderLayout.SOUTH); JFrame window = new JFrame("GUI Test"); window.setContentPane(content); window.setSize(250,100); window.setLocation(100,100); window.setVisible(true); } }

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6.1.1

JFrame and JPanel

In a Java GUI program, each GUI component in the interface is represented by an object in the program. One of the most fundamental types of component is the window . Windows have many behaviors. They can be opened and closed. They can be resized. They have “titles” that are displayed in the title bar above the window. And most important, they can contain other GUI components such as buttons and menus. Java, of course, has a built-in class to represent windows. There are actually several different types of window, but the most common type is represented by the JFrame class (which is included in the package javax.swing). A JFrame is an independent window that can, for example, act as the main window of an application. One of the most important things to understand is that a JFrame object comes with many of the behaviors of windows already programmed in. In particular, it comes with the basic properties shared by all windows, such as a titlebar and the ability to be opened and closed. Since a JFrame comes with these behaviors, you don’t have to program them yourself! This is, of course, one of the central ideas of objectoriented programming. What a JFrame doesn’t come with, of course, is content, the stuff that is contained in the window. If you don’t add any other content to a JFrame, it will just display a large blank area. You can add content either by creating a JFrame object and then adding the content to it or by creating a subclass of JFrame and adding the content in the constructor of that subclass.

setVisible(true). the window is still on the screen and the program as a whole does not end until the user clicks the OK button.100). In fact.228 CHAPTER 6. window. (In addition to its content pane. which is used as a drawing surface. (Nested classes were introduced in Subsection 5. which is a nested static class inside the HelloWorldGUI2 class. again. g. However. which is a separate thing that I will talk about later.setSize(250. This variable is of type HelloWorldDisplay. JPanel is another of the fundamental classes in Swing. The parameter in the constructor. paintComponent(). Before making the window visible. and. you will find two JPanels in the program: content.7. window. In my sample program. the line window. window. but the window itself is not yet visible on the screen. The first line here sets the content of the window.drawString( "Hello World!". Once all this has been set up. and displayPanel. This line creates the window object.) In this case.) This class defines just one instance method. The basic JPanel is. Both of these techniques are illustrated in the sample program. in fact. } } The paintComponent() method is called by the system when a component needs to be painted on the screen.100). specifies the title that will be displayed in the titlebar of the window. you can either add things to that pane or you can replace the basic content pane entirely. some of its properties are set with these statements: window.) A basic JFrame already has a blank content pane.2. the window is actually made visible on the screen with the command: window. just a blank rectangle.setLocation(100. the new content is a component of type JPanel. 30 ).paintComponent(g). INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING The main program above declares a variable. a JFrame can also have a menu bar. The third line says that the upper left corner of the window will be 100 pixels over from the left edge of the screen and 100 pixels down from the top. In the JPanel class.setContentPane(content). ∗ ∗ ∗ The content that is displayed in a JFrame is called its content pane. (The content itself was created earlier in the main program.) The second line says that the window will be 250 pixels wide and 100 pixels high. There are two ways to make a useful JPanel : The first is to add other components to the panel.setContentPane(content) replaces the original blank content pane with a different component. It might look as if the program ends at that point. “GUI Test”. the paintComponent method simply fills the panel with the . the main() routine does end. Let’s look more closely at displayPanel. the second is to draw something in the panel. 20. of type JFrame and sets it to refer to a new window object with the statement: JFrame window = new JFrame("GUI Test"). which is used to contain other components. (Remember that a “component” is just a visual element of a graphical user interface. which overrides a method of the same name in the JPanel class: private static class HelloWorldDisplay extends JPanel { public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.

In the program. as discussed above. We will often use JPanels in this way. (See Subsection 5. Before these components can appear on the screen. THE BASIC GUI APPLICATION 229 panel’s background color. Essentially. they must be added to a container. with their own layout managers and components. Usually. the statement content. BorderLayout.2 for a discussion of the special variable super.SOUTH position puts the button at the bottom of the panel. and the most common technique for laying out components is to use a layout manager . Here. This makes it possible to build up complex user interfaces in a hierarchical fashion. the Java class that represents push buttons.6. The variable okButton is of type JButton.add(displayPanel. different types of layout manager implement different policies. that is. with containers inside containers inside containers. it fills the panel with the background color.SOUTH). The first component that is added to content is displayPanel which.CENTER position makes it fill any space that is not taken up by the button. content refers to an object of type JPanel .paintComponent(g). In this program. The net result is that whenever a HelloWorldDisplay is shown on the screen.) Then it calls g. When components are added to a container. A container is itself a component. displays the message. A layout manager is an object that implements some policy for how to arrange the components in a container. One type of layout manager is defined by the BorderLayout class. it displays the string “Hello World!”.drawString() to paint the string “Hello World!” onto the panel.2 Components and Layout Another way of using a JPanel is as a container to hold other components.1. and use the container as the content pane of a window or applet. but for now all you need to know is that adding okButton in the BorderLayout. This is called “laying out” the components in the container. there has to be some way of deciding how those components are arranged inside the container. “Hello World!”. The paintComponent() method in HelloWorldDisplay begins by calling super. The second is okButton which represents the button that the user clicks to close the window. creates a new BorderLayout object and tells the content panel to use the new object as its layout manager. This example shows a general technique for setting up a GUI: Create a container and assign a layout manager to it. later in the program. The “BorderLayout” stuff in these statements has to do with how the two components are arranged in the container. the variable named content refers to a JPanel that is used as a container. JPanel . this line determines how components that are added to the content panel will be arranged inside the panel. and putting displayPanel in the BorderLayout.1. This is done in the statements: content. we will define a nested class that is a subclass of JPanel and we will write a paintComponent method in that class to draw the desired content in the panel.CENTER). BorderLayout. This calls the version of paintComponent() that is defined in the superclass. and two other components are added to that container. this panel becomes the content pane of the window. when we do this.setLayout(new BorderLayout()). .6. content. so it is possible that some of the components that are added to the top-level container are themselves containers. create components and add them to the container.add(okButton. We will cover layout managers in much more detail later. 6. as drawing surfaces. . Java has many classes that define GUI components. .

but as you gain experience with it.230 CHAPTER 6. When an event occurs.1. the code is a call to System. you have to write event-handling methods to respond to the events that you are interested in.1. such as a button or menu. In order to program the behavior of a GUI. and the code that you wrote in one of its event-handling methods is executed. When an event is detected by another object. what can the user do to the GUI and how will it respond? GUIs are largely event-driven. the listener. Without this statement. an event is generated. Create objects that belong to these classes and register them as listeners with the objects that will actually detect or generate the events. the button has no way of knowing that some other object would like to listen for events from the button. in this case.exit().) The eventhandling method is named actionPerformed. which carries information about the type of event. as specified by the ActionListener interface.3 Events and Listeners The structure of containers and components sets up the physical appearance of a GUI.exit(0). That is. that is. An event is detected or generated by an object. } } This class implements the ActionListener interface—a requirement for listener objects that handle events from buttons. which will terminate the program. This method contains the code that is executed when the user clicks the button. has the responsibility of responding to the event. the program responds by executing an event-handling method . which is defined as a nested class inside HelloWorldGUI2 : private static class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System. At first. As an example. This event is represented by an object belonging to the class ActionEvent. we say that the button is the source of the event. and so on. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 6. This is done with the statement: okButton. when it occurred. This example shows a general technique for programming the behavior of a GUI: Write classes that include event-handling methods. (We will return to events . The listener object in this case is an object belonging to the class ButtonHandler. This statement tells okButton that when the user clicks the button. the program waits for events that are generated by the user’s actions (or by some other cause). (Interfaces were introduced in Subsection 5. The most common technique for handling events in Java is to use event listeners. the listener is notified. the listener object is notified and it responds by running the appropriate event-handling method. There is one more ingredient that is necessary to get the event from the button to the listener object: The listener object must register itself with the button as an event listener.7. this might seem like a very roundabout and complicated way to get things done. Another object. you will find that it is very flexible and that it goes together very well with object oriented programming.addActionListener(listener). the ActionEvent that is generated should be sent to listener. The event that is generated is associated with the button. but it doesn’t say anything about how the GUI behaves. A listener is an object that includes one or more event-handling methods. When the user clicks the button. consider the OK button in the sample program. This division of responsibilities makes it easier to organize large programs. When an event occurs. The event itself is actually represented by a third object.

and destroy(). such as closing any windows that were opened by the applet. The most important of these special applet methods is public void init() An applet’s init() method is called when the applet is created. I will generally create a JPanel and use it as a replacement for the applet’s content pane.3. . most of what you learn about applications applies to applets. you can override these methods in a subclass. this area must appear on a Web page.2 Applets and HTML stand-alone applications are probably more important than applets at this point in the history of Java. It is easy to distribute applets to users: The user just has to open a Web page. Since an applet is not a stand-alone application.1 JApplet The JApplet class (in package javax. The good news is that writing applets is not much different from writing stand-alone applications. applets are still widely used. In Subsection 6. one difference is that an applet is dependent on a Web page. a JApplet contains a content pane (and can contain a menu bar).6. with no special installation required (although the user must have an appropriate version of Java installed on their computer). you have to learn at least a little about creating Web pages. you’ll learn how to use HTML to create Web pages that display applets. They can do things on Web pages that can’t easily be done with other technologies. you will write a subclass of JApplet. and the applet is there. (You can also do some initialization in the constructor for your class.) 6.” In the JApplet class itself. These methods are called by the applet’s environment at certain points during the applet’s “life cycle. stop(). or in some other environment that knows how to display an applet.2. Of course. The JApplet class defines several instance methods that are unique to applets. You can use the init() method as a place where you can set up the physical structure of the applet and the event handling that will determine its behavior.2.swing) can be used as a basis for writing applets in the same way that JFrame is used for writing stand-alone applications. I will not use these methods for the time being and will not discuss them here except to mention that destroy() is called at the end of the applet’s lifetime and can be used as a place to do any necessary cleanup. And of course. You can add content to an applet either by adding content to its content pane or by replacing the content pane with another component. Web pages are written using a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language).) The other applet life-cycle methods are start(). applets are fun. so there are a few operations that will work in the init() method but will not work in the constructor. but there are certain aspects of the applet’s environment that are set up after its constructor is called but before the init() method is called.2. and I do not expect you to completely understand them at this time. it’s nice to be able to see your work running on a web page. below. and vice versa.3 and later sections. So. so to use applets effectively. APPLETS AND HTML 231 and listeners in much more detail in Section 6. these methods do nothing. now that the Web has become such a common part of life. The basic JApplet class represents a blank rectangular area. To create an applet. Although 6. and events are handled in the same way in both types of program. The structure of an applet is essentially the same as the structure of the JFrames that were introduced in the previous section. In my examples. Like a JFrame.

addActionListener(listener). // The panel where the message is displayed. public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if (currentMessage.*. ButtonHandler listener = new ButtonHandler().232 CHAPTER 6.event. currentMessage. To make it a little more interesting. import java. else currentMessage = "Hello World!". This example is very similar to the stand-alone application HelloWorldGUI2 from the previous section. Here is the source code for the applet.paintComponent(g). INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING With this in mind. private MessageDisplay displayPanel. // Paint display panel with new message. JPanel content = new JPanel(). // Currently displayed message. and a state variable. content. 20.equals("Hello World!")) currentMessage = "Goodbye World!". an applet that says “Hello World!”. The applet contains a button. } } // Defines the display panel. that holds the text of the current message. The second panel becomes the content pane of the applet.drawString(currentMessage. .repaint(). of course. /** * A simple applet that can display the messages "Hello World" * and "Goodbye World". changeMessageButton. g. It is. private class MessageDisplay extends JPanel { public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. a panel to display the message. 30). */ public void init() { displayPanel = new MessageDisplay().setLayout(new BorderLayout()).swing. private class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener { // The event listener. again. It uses an event-handling class to respond when the user clicks the button. import javax. */ public class HelloWorldApplet extends JApplet { private String currentMessage = "Hello World!". I have added a button that changes the text of the message. } } /** * The applet’s init() method creates the button and display panel and * adds them to the applet.awt. and another panel that serves as a container for the message panel and the button. you are not expected to understand all the details at this time: import java.awt. and it sets up a listener to respond to * clicks on the button. we can look at our first example of a JApplet. and it * switches from one message to the other when the button is * clicked. displayPanel.*. JButton changeMessageButton = new JButton("Change Message").*.

As an example. This class is very similar to HelloWorldApplet. import java.7.2 Reusing Your JPanels Both applets and frames can be programmed in the same way: Design a JPanel. otherwise. private MessageDisplay displayPanel. which use those variables. 6. // The event listener. and only a very simple applet class is needed to show your panel in an applet.*. 30). . BorderLayout. } } // Defines the display panel.2.2. setContentPane(content). Since the variables are non-static. the two nested classes.*. public class HelloWorldPanel extends JPanel { private String currentMessage = "Hello World!". and each of those applets will need its own copy of the applet data. private class MessageDisplay extends JPanel { public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. BorderLayout.awt.java from the previous section.SOUTH).2. g.paintComponent(g).equals("Hello World!")) currentMessage = "Goodbye World!".6. and use it to replace the default content pane in the applet or frame. but now the initialization is done in a constructor instead of in an init() method: import java. content. it can be declared to be static. That class can then be reused to make a frame in a standalone application. This makes it very easy to write two versions of a program.*. // The panel where the message is displayed.add(displayPanel. all the hard programming work is done in this panel class.awt. APPLETS AND HTML content.) Remember the basic rule for deciding whether to make a nested class static: If it needs access to any instance variable or instance method in the containing class. must also be non-static.swing. so it’s easy to make both versions.drawString(currentMessage.event. (Static nested classes cannot access non-static member variables in the containing class. // Currently displayed message. An object of this class can then be used as the content pane either in a frame or in an applet. see Subsection 5.add(changeMessageButton.CENTER). 20. } } 233 You should compare this class with HelloWorldGUI2. one which runs as an applet and one which runs as a frame. Remember that an applet is an object. the nested class must be non-static. Only a very simple main() program is needed to show your panel in a frame. One subtle difference that you will notice is that the member variables and nested classes in this example are non-static. import javax. A single class can be used to make several applets. we can rewrite HelloWorldApplet by writing a subclass of JPanel. The idea is to create a subclass of JPanel that represents the content pane for your program. private class ButtonHandler implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if (currentMessage. so the member variables in which the data is stored must be non-static instance variables.

EXIT ON CLOSE ). // The button.addActionListener(listener).234 CHAPTER 6. } } Similarly.setContentPane(content). and then adds those components to this panel. add(changeMessageButton. } } One new feature of this example is the line window.100). */ public HelloWorldPanel() { displayPanel = new MessageDisplay(). public class HelloWorldGUI3 { public static void main(String[] args) { JFrame window = new JFrame("GUI Test").repaint(). window. BorderLayout. } } Once this class exists.swing. add(displayPanel. changeMessageButton.JFrame. HelloWorldPanel content = new HelloWorldPanel(). setLayout(new BorderLayout()). public class HelloWorldApplet2 extends JApplet { public void init() { HelloWorldPanel content = new HelloWorldPanel(). BorderLayout.JApplet.CENTER). window. } } /** * The constructor creates the components that will be contained inside this * panel. window. window.EXIT ON CLOSE ).setDefaultCloseOperation( JFrame.setDefaultCloseOperation( JFrame. // Paint display panel with new message.swing. setContentPane(content). // Add the display panel. window. its easy to make a frame that uses an object of type HelloWorldPanel as its content pane: import javax.setSize(250. // Set the layout manager for this panel.setVisible(true). .100). it can be used in an applet. // Create the display subpanel. ButtonHandler listener = new ButtonHandler(). JButton changeMessageButton = new JButton("Change Message"). // Add the button. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING else currentMessage = "Hello World!".setLocation(100. The applet class only has to create an object of type HelloWorldPanel and use that object as its content pane: import javax. displayPanel.SOUTH).

2. I will cover just the most basic aspects of the language. HTML has become a rather complicated language. but that text is “marked up” with commands that determine the structure and appearance of the text and determine what will appear on the page in addition to the text. The HTML code doesn’t look much like the resulting page that appears in the browser. the program should be terminated. many of the GUI examples in this book will be written as subclasses of JPanel that can be used either in an applet or in a frame. Such pages are themselves written in a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language). the default close operation of the window would simply hide the window when the user clicks the close box. you need to create a Web page on which to place the applet. if you want to learn more. Terminating the program is one of those things. Leaving out optional features. The HTML document does contain all the text that appears on the page.2. Although there are many Web-authoring programs that make it possible to create Web pages without ever looking at the underlying HTML code.exit(). leaving the program running. The rest of this section describes some of the things that can go into the document-content section of an HTML document. it has no effect except to generate an error. APPLETS AND HTML 235 This says that when the user closes the window by clicking the close box in the title bar of the window. This brings up one of the difficulties of reusing the same panel class both in an applet and in a frame: There are some things that a stand-alone application can do that an applet can’t do. There is a strict syntax for HTML documents (although in practice Web browsers will do their best to display a page even if it does not follow the syntax strictly). and it is worthwhile to learn how to create at least simple pages in this way. An HTML tag takes the form < tag-name optional-modifiers > . An HTML document describes the contents of a page. The document-content is what is displayed on the page itself. This is necessary because no other way is provided to end the program. A Web browser interprets the HTML code to determine what to display on the page.3 Basic HTML Before you can actually use an applet that you have written. If an applet calls System. typing in all the mark-up commands by hand. it is possible to write an HTML page using an ordinary text editor. 6. ∗ ∗ ∗ The mark-up commands used by HTML are called tags. Examples include <html> and <title> in the document outline given above.6. Without this line. an HTML document has the form: <html> <head> <title> document-title </title> </head> <body> document-content </body> </html> The document-title is text that will appear in the title bar of the Web browser window when the page is displayed. You can easily find more information on the Web. In this section. in spite of occasional minor difficulties. Nevertheless.

are used to provide additional information for the command (much like parameters in subroutines). I might give my address as: David Eck<br> Department of Mathematics and Computer Science<br> Hobart and William Smith Colleges<br> Geneva. meaning a line that extends halfway across the page. Outside of <pre>. which should be placed at the beginning of every paragraph. (However. Five blank lines in the source code have no more effect than one blank line or even a single blank space. The hr tag can take several possible modifiers such as width and align. For example. HTML is case insensitive. a successor language to HTML. you can use <p align=right> instead of . All of the sample programs in the on-line version of this book are formatted using the <pre> command. if present. you can use the tag <br>. It is important for you to understand that when you don’t use <pre>.) “Pre” stands for preformatted text. An opening/closing tag pair applies to everything that comes between the opening tag and the closing tag.236 CHAPTER 6. (But tags between <pre> and </pre> are still interpreted by the browser. NY 14456<br> If you want extra vertical space in your web page. As another example. The width could also be given as a fixed number of pixels. Similarly. including all the spaces and carriage returns. which should be placed at the end of each paragraph. and it must be if it is more than one word long or if it contains certain special characters. If you want all the lines of the paragraph to be shoved over to the right. For example. if you want to force a new line on the Web page. in which case only the name of the modifier is present. lower case is generally used because XHTML. A modifier takes the form modifier-name = value Usually. the value is enclosed in quotes. the tag <pre> must always have a matching closing tag </pre> later in the document. but it is considered good form to use it. which stands for “break”. and the optional-modifiers . There are a few modifiers which have no value. Many tags require matching closing tags. the computer will completely ignore the formatting of the text in the HTML source code. The closing </p> is technically optional. you need a tag to indicate how the text should be broken up into paragraphs. This is done with the <p> tag. which take the form </ tag-name > For example.) A simple example of a tag is <hr>. which means that you can use upper case and lower case letters interchangeably in tags and modifiers. a horizontal line that extends halfway across the page could be generated with the tag: <hr width="50%"> The width here is specified as 50% of the available space. you can use several <br>’s in a row. The <pre> tag tells a Web browser to display everything between the <pre> and the </pre> just as it is formatted in the original HTML source code. requires lower case. The <p> tag has a matching </p>. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING where the tag-name is a word that specifies the command. the <html> tag at the beginning of an HTML document must be matched by a closing </html> tag at the end of the document. which draws a line—also called a “horizontal rule”— across the page. The only thing it pays attention to is the tags.

hws... underlined. The character & is itself a special character whose entity name is &amp. You can add the modifier align=center to center the headline. centered. (This is mostly useful when used with one short line. For example. For example. There are also entity names for nonstandard characters such as an accented “e”. you can use a relative URL. <i>Introduction to Programming using Java</i> in an HTML document gives Introduction to Programming using Java in italics when the document is displayed as a Web page. A headline.6.. if tags like <p> and <hr> have special meanings in HTML. If you are writing an HTML document and you want to make a link to another document that is in the same directory.html">Section 1</a> . The user can follow links from page to page and in the process visit pages from all over the Internet. with very large text.hws.2. you have to use an entity name in the HTML source code. To get certain special characters to appear on the page. the URL for my own “home page” is http://math. I would use the HTML source code <a href="http://math. For example. the user can follow the link by clicking on this text.html” in the same directory as the HTML document that you are writing. two-line headline: <h2 align=center>Chapter 6:<br>Introduction to GUI Programming</h2> ∗ ∗ ∗ The most distinctive feature of HTML is that documents can contain links to other documents. enclose the text between <i> and </i>. <u>. the following HTML code will produce a medium–sized. and the entity name for > is &gt. The text between the <a> and its matching </a> appears on the page as the text of the link. or when used with <br> to make several short lines. There are several useful tags that change the appearance of text. and typewriter-style (“monospace”) text. Similarly. and they can display the URL of a link if you point to the link with the mouse. Entity names begin with & and end with a semicolon. The value for href must be a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). can be made by placing the text between <h1> and </h1>. APPLETS AND HTML 237 <p>.) You can also use <p align=center> for centered lines. Headlines with smaller text can be made using <h2> or <h3> instead of <h1>. to get italic text. you could use <a href="s1.edu/eck/ To make a link to this page. which has the entity name &eacute. the tags <b>. The relative URL consists of just the name of the file.. For example. Note that these headline tags stand on their own. they are not used inside paragraphs. you might wonder how one can get them to appear literally on a web page. The <a> tag uses the modifier href to say which document the link should connect to. Web browsers display the URL for the page you are currently viewing. and you can include break tags (<br>) in a headline to break it up into multiple lines. By the way.edu/eck/">David’s Home Page</a> The best place to find URLs is on existing Web pages. A URL is a coded set of instructions for finding a document on the Internet. and <tt> can be used for bold. For example. to create a link to a file named “s1. The <a> tag is used to create a link. The entity name for < is &lt.

“align=center” doesn’t have the meaning you would expect.jpg”). When you type a URL into a Web browser. Browsers treat images as if they are just big characters. for example. The modifiers height and width are required to specify the size of the applet. If you want an image centered on the page. in an <a> tag in an HTML document. just the name of the image file—is used to specify the image file. named src.png" align=right height=150 width=100> The image is 100 pixels wide and 150 pixels high.) For example. It’s a good idea to always include the height and width modifiers. it is required. This tag must have a matching </applet>. Some browsers handle images better if they know in advance how big they are. Using relative URLs is a good idea. you can omit the “http://” at the beginning of the URL.2. and headings. ∗ ∗ ∗ You can add images to a Web page with the <img> tag. here is HTML code that will place an image from a file named figure1. and it will appear on the right edge of the page. and a relative URL—that is. A required modifier named code gives the name of the compiled class file that contains the applet class. The <img> tag has a required modifier. put it inside a <p align=center> tag.gif”). you can move a whole collection of files without changing any of the links between them (as long as you don’t change the relative locations of the files). Images can occur inside paragraphs.png on the page. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING There are also relative URLs for linking to files that are in other directories. or GIF (with a file name ending in “. If you want the applet to be centered on the page. top. For a normal URL. The <img> tag also has several optional modifiers. the top. to specify the URL of the image file. or the bottom of the image? Alignment values of right and left were added to HTML later.png”).class" height=100 width=250> </applet> </p> . the image should be in one of the formats PNG (with a file name ending in “. 6. the image is stored in the same place as the HTML document. Usually. which specify the size of the image in pixels. (Unfortunately. the “http://” can only be omitted if the URL is a relative URL.) The actual image must be stored in a separate file from the HTML document. and bottom are used to specify how the image should line up with other characters in a line of text: Should the baseline of the text be at the center. links. and the text on the page will flow around the image. you can put the applet in a paragraph with center alignment So. an applet tag to display an applet named HelloWorldApplet centered on a Web page would look like this: <p align=center> <applet code="HelloWorldApplet. The <applet> tag can be used to add a Java applet to a Web page. <img src="figure1. JPEG (with a file name ending in “.jpeg” or “. (This is a tag that has no matching closing tag. For most browsers. but they are the most useful values. The align modifier can be used to affect the placement of the image: “align=right” will shove the image to the right edge of the page. However. in pixels. since if you use them.238 CHAPTER 6. Alignment values of center.4 Applets on Web Pages The main point of this whole discussion of HTML is to learn how to use applets on the Web. “align=left” works similarly.

If this is not the case. then getParameter(paramName) returns the associated param-value . Jar files are “archive files” which hold a number of smaller files. String fontName.4). value = getParameter("message"). since it depends on information about the applet’s environment that is not available when the constructor is called. If the specified paramName actually occurs in one of the param tags. which could go something like this: String message. If the applet uses other classes in addition to the applet class itself. if (value == null) .6. If an applet requires more than one or two class files.class is located in the same directory with the HTML document. The value of code itself is always just a class. then those class files must be in the same directory as the applet class (always assuming that your classes are all in the “default package”. as in <applet code="HelloWorldApplet. Applets can use applet parameters to customize their behavior. The getParameter() method has the following interface: String getParameter(String paramName) The parameter paramName corresponds to the param-name in a param tag.. not a URL. APPLETS AND HTML 239 This assumes that the file HelloWorldApplet. int fontSize. which can only occur between an <applet> tag and the closing </applet>. // Get message param.class" width=200 height=50> <param name="message" value="Goodbye World!"> <param name="font" value="Serif"> <param name="size" value="36"> </applet> The ShowMessage applet would presumably read these parameters in its init() method. It will not work correctly in the applet’s constructor.. The param tag has required modifiers named name and value. I will have more to say about creating and using jar files at the end of this chapter. Applet parameters are specified by using <param> tags. // Instance variable: message to be displayed. so you cannot use “size” in the param tag and ask for “Size” in getParameter. // Instance variable: font to use for display. An applet can use the predefined method getParameter() to check for parameters specified in param tags. you can use another modifier. if any. see Subsection 2. Here is an example of an applet tag with several params: <applet code="ShowMessage. it’s a good idea to collect all the class files into a single jar file. // Instance variable: size of the display font.class" archive="HelloWorld. The getParameter() method is often called in the applet’s init() method. then you have to specify the name of the jar file in an archive modifier in the <applet> tag.2. If the specified paramName does not occur in any param tag. to give the URL of the directory that contains the class file. and it takes the form <param name=" param-name " value=" param-value "> The parameters are available to the applet when it runs. codebase. public void init() { String value. Parameter names are case-sensitive.jar" height=50.6. then getParameter(paramName) returns the value null. If your class files are in a jar archive.

// Convert string to number. When you want to do this. If you want to use a standard component. or if } // the parameter value is not a legal integer. Sometimes. menus. Create an object belonging to this class and use it in your applet . In Java. you do want to draw on a component.3 Graphics and Painting you see on a computer screen has to be drawn there. . fontName. // Value from PARAM tag. value = getParameter("font"). In this section. else fontName = value. as is done here for the size parameter. // Default value. if (value == null) fontName = "SansSerif".awt. If the param represents a numerical value. since it already knows how to draw itself. That will happen automatically. // Default value. and so on.awt. . text-input boxes. // Default value. even the text. Elsewhere in the applet. check boxes.parseInt(value). however. you have to define your own component class and provide a method in that class for drawing the component. A JPanel. draws its content in the method public void paintComponent(Graphics g) Everthing To create a drawing surface. including buttons. try { fontSize = Integer. which is itself a subclass of java. else message = value. the string must be converted into a number.JComponent. You don’t have to worry about painting it on the screen. if no param is present. 6. The physical structure of a GUI is built of components. value = getParameter("size"). The term component refers to a visual element in a GUI. Every component is responsible for drawing itself. the instance variables message. like any JComponent. You will have to do this whenever you want to display something that is not included among the standard. The Java API includes a range of classes and methods that are devoted to drawing. you should define a subclass of JPanel and provide a custom paintComponent() method. pre-defined component classes.Component. } catch (NumberFormatException e) { fontSize = 20. I’ll look at some of the most basic of these. if no param is present. scroll bars. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING message = "Hello World!". . as I did for the MessageDisplay class in the example HelloWorldApplet. GUI components are represented by objects belonging to subclasses of the class java. and fontSize would be used to determine the message displayed by the applet and the appearance of that message. Most components in the Swing GUI—although not top-level components like JApplet and JFrame—belong to subclasses of the class javax. you only have to add it to your applet or frame.swing. Note that the value returned by getParameter() is always a String.240 CHAPTER 6. if no param is present. I will always use a subclass of JPanel when I need a drawing surface of this kind.java in the previous section.Component.

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or frame. When the time comes for your component to be drawn on the screen, the system will call its paintComponent() to do the drawing. That is, the code that you put into the paintComponent() method will be executed whenever the panel needs to be drawn on the screen; by writing this method, you determine the picture that will be displayed in the panel. Note that the paintComponent() method has a parameter of type Graphics. The Graphics object will be provided by the system when it calls your method. You need this object to do the actual drawing. To do any drawing at all in Java, you need a graphics context. A graphics context is an object belonging to the class java.awt.Graphics. Instance methods are provided in this class for drawing shapes, text, and images. Any given Graphics object can draw to only one location. In this chapter, that location will always be a GUI component belonging to some subclass of JPanel. The Graphics class is an abstract class, which means that it is impossible to create a graphics context directly, with a constructor. There are actually two ways to get a graphics context for drawing on a component: First of all, of course, when the paintComponent() method of a component is called by the system, the parameter to that method is a graphics context for drawing on the component. Second, every component has an instance method called getGraphics(). This method is a function that returns a graphics context that can be used for drawing on the component outside its paintComponent() method. The official line is that you should not do this, and I will avoid it for the most part. But I have found it convenient to use getGraphics() in a few cases. The paintComponent() method in the JPanel class simply fills the panel with the panel’s background color. When defining a subclass of JPanel for use as a drawing surface, you will almost always want to fill the panel with the background color before drawing other content onto the panel (although it is not necessary to do this if the drawing commands in the method cover the background of the component completely.) This is traditionally done with a call to super.paintComponent(g), so most paintComponent() methods that you write will have the form:
public void paintComponent(g) { super.paintComponent(g); . . . // Draw the content of the component. }

∗ ∗ ∗
Most components do, in fact, do all drawing operations in their paintComponent() methods. What happens if, in the middle of some other method, you realize that the content of the component needs to be changed? You should not call paintComponent() directly to make the change; this method is meant to be called only by the system. Instead, you have to inform the system that the component needs to be redrawn, and let the system do its job by calling paintComponent(). You do this by calling the component’s repaint() method. The method
public void repaint();

is defined in the Component class, and so can be used with any component. You should call repaint() to inform the system that the component needs to be redrawn. The repaint() method returns immediately, without doing any painting itself. The system will call the component’s paintComponent() method later, as soon as it gets a chance to do so, after processing other pending events if there are any. Note that the system can also call paintComponent() for other reasons. It is called when the component first appears on the screen. It will also be called if the component is resized or if it is covered up by another window and then uncovered. The system does not save a copy of the

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component’s contents when it is covered. When it is uncovered, the component is responsible for redrawing itself. (As you will see, some of our early examples will not be able to do this correctly.) This means that, to work properly, the paintComponent() method must be smart enough to correctly redraw the component at any time. To make this possible, a program should store data about the state of the component in its instance variables. These variables should contain all the information necessary to redraw the component completely. The paintComponent() method should use the data in these variables to decide what to draw. When the program wants to change the content of the component, it should not simply draw the new content. It should change the values of the relevant variables and call repaint(). When the system calls paintComponent(), that method will use the new values of the variables and will draw the component with the desired modifications. This might seem a roundabout way of doing things. Why not just draw the modifications directly? There are at least two reasons. First of all, it really does turn out to be easier to get things right if all drawing is done in one method. Second, even if you did make modifications directly, you would still have to make the paintComponent() method aware of them in some way so that it will be able to redraw the component correctly on demand. You will see how all this works in practice as we work through examples in the rest of this chapter. For now, we will spend the rest of this section looking at how to get some actual drawing done.

6.3.1

Coordinates

The screen of a computer is a grid of little squares called pixels. The color of each pixel can be set individually, and drawing on the screen just means setting the colors of individual pixels.

A graphics context draws in a rectangle made up of pixels. A position in the rectangle is specified by a pair of integer coordinates, (x,y). The upper left corner has coordinates (0,0). The x coordinate increases from left to right, and the y coordinate increases from top to bottom. The illustration shows a 16-by-10 pixel component (with very large pixels). A small line, rectangle, and oval are shown as they would be drawn by coloring individual pixels. (Note that, properly speaking, the coordinates don’t belong to the pixels but to the grid lines between them.) For any component, you can find out the size of the rectangle that it occupies by calling the instance methods getWidth() and getHeight(), which return the number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. In general, it’s not a good idea to assume that you know the size of a component, since the size is often set by a layout manager and can

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even change if the component is in a window and that window is resized by the user. This means that it’s good form to check the size of a component before doing any drawing on that component. For example, you can use a paintComponent() method that looks like:
public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.paintComponent(g); int width = getWidth(); // Find out the width of this component. int height = getHeight(); // Find out its height. . . . // Draw the content of the component. }

Of course, your drawing commands will have to take the size into account. That is, they will have to use (x,y) coordinates that are calculated based on the actual height and width of the component.

6.3.2

Colors

You will probably want to use some color when you draw. Java is designed to work with the RGB color system . An RGB color is specified by three numbers that give the level of red, green, and blue, respectively, in the color. A color in Java is an object of the class, java.awt.Color. You can construct a new color by specifying its red, blue, and green components. For example,
Color myColor = new Color(r,g,b);

There are two constructors that you can call in this way. In the one that I almost always use, r, g, and b are integers in the range 0 to 255. In the other, they are numbers of type float in the range 0.0F to 1.0F. (Recall that a literal of type float is written with an “F” to distinguish it from a double number.) Often, you can avoid constructing new colors altogether, since the Color class defines several named constants representing common colors: Color.WHITE, Color.BLACK, Color.RED, Color.GREEN, Color.BLUE, Color.CYAN, Color.MAGENTA, Color.YELLOW, Color.PINK, Color.ORANGE, Color.LIGHT GRAY, Color.GRAY, and Color.DARK GRAY. (There are older, alternative names for these constants that use lower case rather than upper case constants, such as Color.red instead of Color.RED, but the upper case versions are preferred because they follow the convention that constant names should be upper case.) An alternative to RGB is the HSB color system . In the HSB system, a color is specified by three numbers called the hue, the saturation, and the brightness. The hue is the basic color, ranging from red through orange through all the other colors of the rainbow. The brightness is pretty much what it sounds like. A fully saturated color is a pure color tone. Decreasing the saturation is like mixing white or gray paint into the pure color. In Java, the hue, saturation and brightness are always specified by values of type float in the range from 0.0F to 1.0F. The Color class has a static member function named getHSBColor for creating HSB colors. To create the color with HSB values given by h, s, and b, you can say:
Color myColor = Color.getHSBColor(h,s,b);

For example, to make a color with a random hue that is as bright and as saturated as possible, you could use:
Color randomColor = Color.getHSBColor( (float)Math.random(), 1.0F, 1.0F );

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The type cast is necessary because the value returned by Math.random() is of type double, and Color.getHSBColor() requires values of type float. (By the way, you might ask why RGB colors are created using a constructor while HSB colors are created using a static member function. The problem is that we would need two different constructors, both of them with three parameters of type float. Unfortunately, this is impossible. You can have two constructors only if the number of parameters or the parameter types differ.) The RGB system and the HSB system are just different ways of describing the same set of colors. It is possible to translate between one system and the other. The best way to understand the color systems is to experiment with them. In the on-line version of this section, you will find an applet that you can use to experiment with RGB and HSB colors. One of the properties of a Graphics object is the current drawing color, which is used for all drawing of shapes and text. If g is a graphics context, you can change the current drawing color for g using the method g.setColor(c), where c is a Color. For example, if you want to draw in green, you would just say g.setColor(Color.GREEN) before doing the drawing. The graphics context continues to use the color until you explicitly change it with another setColor() command. If you want to know what the current drawing color is, you can call the function g.getColor(), which returns an object of type Color. This can be useful if you want to change to another drawing color temporarily and then restore the previous drawing color. Every component has an associated foreground color and background color . Generally, the component is filled with the background color before anything else is drawn (although some components are “transparent,” meaning that the background color is ignored). When a new graphics context is created for a component, the current drawing color is set to the foreground color. Note that the foreground color and background color are properties of the component, not of a graphics context. The foreground and background colors can be set by instance methods setForeground(c) and setBackground(c), which are defined in the Component class and therefore are available for use with any component. This can be useful even for standard components, if you want them to use colors that are different from the defaults.

6.3.3

Fonts

A font represents a particular size and style of text. The same character will appear different in different fonts. In Java, a font is characterized by a font name, a style, and a size. The available font names are system dependent, but you can always use the following four strings as font names: “Serif”, “SansSerif”, “Monospaced”, and “Dialog”. (A “serif” is a little decoration on a character, such as a short horizontal line at the bottom of the letter i. “SansSerif” means “without serifs.” “Monospaced” means that all the characters in the font have the same width. The “Dialog” font is the one that is typically used in dialog boxes.) The style of a font is specified using named constants that are defined in the Font class. You can specify the style as one of the four values: • Font.PLAIN, • Font.ITALIC, • Font.BOLD, or • Font.BOLD + Font.ITALIC. The size of a font is an integer. Size typically ranges from about 10 to 36, although larger sizes can also be used. The size of a font is usually about equal to the height of the largest characters in the font, in pixels, but this is not an exact rule. The size of the default font is 12.

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Java uses the class named java.awt.Font for representing fonts. You can construct a new font by specifying its font name, style, and size in a constructor:
Font plainFont = new Font("Serif", Font.PLAIN, 12); Font bigBoldFont = new Font("SansSerif", Font.BOLD, 24);

Every graphics context has a current font, which is used for drawing text. You can change the current font with the setFont() method. For example, if g is a graphics context and bigBoldFont is a font, then the command g.setFont(bigBoldFont) will set the current font of g to bigBoldFont. The new font will be used for any text that is drawn after the setFont() command is given. You can find out the current font of g by calling the method g.getFont(), which returns an object of type Font. Every component has an associated font. It can be set with the instance method setFont(font), which is defined in the Component class. When a graphics context is created for drawing on a component, the graphic context’s current font is set equal to the font of the component.

6.3.4

Shapes

The Graphics class includes a large number of instance methods for drawing various shapes, such as lines, rectangles, and ovals. The shapes are specified using the (x,y) coordinate system described above. They are drawn in the current drawing color of the graphics context. The current drawing color is set to the foreground color of the component when the graphics context is created, but it can be changed at any time using the setColor() method. Here is a list of some of the most important drawing methods. With all these commands, any drawing that is done outside the boundaries of the component is ignored. Note that all these methods are in the Graphics class, so they all must be called through an object of type Graphics. • drawString(String str, int x, int y) — Draws the text given by the string str. The string is drawn using the current color and font of the graphics context. x specifies the position of the left end of the string. y is the y-coordinate of the baseline of the string. The baseline is a horizontal line on which the characters rest. Some parts of the characters, such as the tail on a y or g, extend below the baseline. • drawLine(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2) — Draws a line from the point (x1,y1) to the point (x2,y2). The line is drawn as if with a pen that hangs one pixel to the right and one pixel down from the (x,y) point where the pen is located. For example, if g refers to an object of type Graphics, then the command g.drawLine(x,y,x,y), which corresponds to putting the pen down at a point, colors the single pixel with upper left corner at the point (x,y). • drawRect(int x, int y, int width, int height) — Draws the outline of a rectangle. The upper left corner is at (x,y), and the width and height of the rectangle are as specified. If width equals height, then the rectangle is a square. If the width or the height is negative, then nothing is drawn. The rectangle is drawn with the same pen that is used for drawLine(). This means that the actual width of the rectangle as drawn is width+1, and similarly for the height. There is an extra pixel along the right edge and the bottom edge. For example, if you want to draw a rectangle around the edges of the component, you can say “g.drawRect(0, 0, getWidth()-1, getHeight()-1);”, where g is a graphics context for the component. If you use “g.drawRect(0, 0, getWidth(),

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CHAPTER 6. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING getHeight());”, then the right and bottom edges of the rectangle will be drawn outside the component. • drawOval(int x, int y, int width, int height) — Draws the outline of an oval. The oval is one that just fits inside the rectangle specified by x, y, width, and height. If width equals height, the oval is a circle. • drawRoundRect(int x, int y, int width, int height, int xdiam, int ydiam) — Draws the outline of a rectangle with rounded corners. The basic rectangle is specified by x, y, width, and height, but the corners are rounded. The degree of rounding is given by xdiam and ydiam. The corners are arcs of an ellipse with horizontal diameter xdiam and vertical diameter ydiam. A typical value for xdiam and ydiam is 16, but the value used should really depend on how big the rectangle is. • draw3DRect(int x, int y, int width, int height, boolean raised) — Draws the outline of a rectangle that is supposed to have a three-dimensional effect, as if it is raised from the screen or pushed into the screen. The basic rectangle is specified by x, y, width, and height. The raised parameter tells whether the rectangle seems to be raised from the screen or pushed into it. The 3D effect is achieved by using brighter and darker versions of the drawing color for different edges of the rectangle. The documentation recommends setting the drawing color equal to the background color before using this method. The effect won’t work well for some colors. • drawArc(int x, int y, int width, int height, int startAngle, int arcAngle) — Draws part of the oval that just fits inside the rectangle specified by x, y, width, and height. The part drawn is an arc that extends arcAngle degrees from a starting angle at startAngle degrees. Angles are measured with 0 degrees at the 3 o’clock position (the positive direction of the horizontal axis). Positive angles are measured counterclockwise from zero, and negative angles are measured clockwise. To get an arc of a circle, make sure that width is equal to height. • fillRect(int x, int y, int width, int height) — Draws a filled-in rectangle. This fills in the interior of the rectangle that would be drawn by drawRect(x,y,width,height). The extra pixel along the bottom and right edges is not included. The width and height parameters give the exact width and height of the rectangle. For example, if you wanted to fill in the entire component, you could say “g.fillRect(0, 0, getWidth(), getHeight());” • fillOval(int x, int y, int width, int height) — Draws a filled-in oval. • fillRoundRect(int x, int y, int width, int height, int xdiam, int ydiam) — Draws a filled-in rounded rectangle. • fill3DRect(int x, int y, int width, int height, boolean raised) — Draws a filled-in three-dimensional rectangle. • fillArc(int x, int y, int width, int height, int startAngle, int arcAngle) — Draw a filled-in arc. This looks like a wedge of pie, whose crust is the arc that would be drawn by the drawArc method.

6.3.5

Graphics2D

All drawing in Java is done through an object of type Graphics. The Graphics class provides basic commands for such things as drawing shapes and text and for selecting a drawing color.

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These commands are adequate in many cases, but they fall far short of what’s needed in a serious computer graphics program. Java has another class, Graphics2D, that provides a larger set of drawing operations. Graphics2D is a sub-class of Graphics, so all the methods from the Graphics class are also available in a Graphics2D. The paintComponent() method of a JComponent gives you a graphics context of type Graphics that you can use for drawing on the component. In fact, the graphics context actually belongs to the sub-class Graphics2D (in Java version 1.2 and later), and can be type-cast to gain access to the advanced Graphics2D drawing methods:
public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.paintComponent(g); Graphics2D g2; g2 = (Graphics2D)g; . . // Draw on the component using g2. . }

Drawing in Graphics2D is based on shapes, which are objects that implement an interface named Shape. Shape classes include Line2D, Rectangle2D, Ellipse2D, Arc2D, and CubicCurve2D, among others; all these classes are defined in the package java.awt.geom. CubicCurve2D can be used to draw Bezier Curves, which are used in many graphics programs. Graphics2D has methods draw(Shape) and fill(Shape) for drawing the outline of a shape and for filling its interior. Advanced capabilities include: lines that are more than one pixel thick, dotted and dashed lines, filling a shape with a texture (that is, with a repeated image), filling a shape with a gradient, and drawing translucent objects that will blend with their background. In the Graphics class, coordinates are specified as integers and are based on pixels. The shapes that are used with Graphics2D use real numbers for coordinates, and they are not necessarily bound to pixels. In fact, you can change the coordinate system and use any coordinates that are convenient to your application. In computer graphics terms, you can apply a “transformation” to the coordinate system. The transformation can be any combination of translation, scaling, and rotation. I mention Graphics2D here for completeness. I will not use any of the advanced capabilities of Graphics2D in this chapter, but I will cover a few of them in Section 12.2.

6.3.6

An Example

Let’s use some of the material covered in this section to write a subclass of JPanel for use as a drawing surface. The panel can then be used in either an applet or a frame, as discussed in Subsection 6.2.2. All the drawing will be done in the paintComponent() method of the panel class. The panel will draw multiple copies of a message on a black background. Each copy of the message is in a random color. Five different fonts are used, with different sizes and styles. The message can be specified in the constructor; if the default constructor is used, the message is the string “Java!”. The panel works OK no matter what its size. Here is what the panel looks like:

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There is one problem with the way this class works. When the panel’s paintComponent() method is called, it chooses random colors, fonts, and locations for the messages. The information about which colors, fonts, and locations are used is not stored anywhere. The next time paintComponent() is called, it will make different random choices and will draw a different picture. For this particular applet, the problem only really appears when the panel is partially covered and then uncovered (and even then the problem does not show up in all environments). It is possible that only the part that was covered will be redrawn, and in the part that’s not redrawn, the old picture will remain. The user might see partial messages, cut off by the dividing line between the new picture and the old. A better approach would be to compute the contents of the picture elsewhere, outside the paintComponent() method. Information about the picture should be stored in instance variables, and the paintComponent() method should use that information to draw the picture. If paintComponent() is called twice, it should draw the same picture twice, unless the data has changed in the meantime. Unfortunately, to store the data for the picture in this applet, we would need to use either arrays, which will not be covered until Chapter 7, or off-screen images, which will not be covered until Chapter 12. Other examples in this chapter will suffer from the same problem. The source for the panel class is shown below. I use an instance variable called message to hold the message that the panel will display. There are five instance variables of type Font that represent different sizes and styles of text. These variables are initialized in the constructor and are used in the paintComponent() method. The paintComponent() method for the panel simply draws 25 copies of the message. For each copy, it chooses one of the five fonts at random, and it calls g.setFont() to select that font for drawing the text. It creates a random HSB color and uses g.setColor() to select that color for drawing. It then chooses random (x,y) coordinates for the location of the message. The x coordinate gives the horizontal position of the left end of the string. The formula used for the x coordinate, “-50 + (int)(Math.random() * (width+40))” gives a random integer in the range from -50 to width-10. This makes it possible for the string to extend beyond the left edge or the right edge of the panel. Similarly, the formula for y allows the string to extend beyond the top and bottom of the applet. Here is the complete source code for the RandomStringsPanel:
import import import import java.awt.Color; java.awt.Font; java.awt.Graphics; javax.swing.JPanel;

/** * This panel displays 25 copies of a message. The color and * position of each message is selected at random. The font

6.3. GRAPHICS AND PAINTING
* of each message is randomly chosen from among five possible * fonts. The messages are displayed on a black background. * <p>Note: The style of drawing used here is bad, because every * time the paintComponent() method is called, new random values are * used. This means that a different picture will be drawn each * time. This is particularly bad if only part of the panel * needs to be redrawn, since then the panel will contain * cut-off pieces of messages. * <p>This panel is meant to be used as the content pane in * either an applet or a frame. */ public class RandomStringsPanel extends JPanel { private String message;

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// The message to be displayed. This can be set in // the constructor. If no value is provided in the // constructor, then the string "Java!" is used. // The five fonts.

private Font font1, font2, font3, font4, font5;

/** * Default constructor creates a panel that displays the message "Java!". * */ public RandomStringsPanel() { this(null); // Call the other constructor, with parameter null. } /** * Constructor creates a panel to display 25 copies of a specified message. * @param messageString The message to be displayed. If this is null, * then the default message "Java!" is displayed. */ public RandomStringsPanel(String messageString) { message = messageString; if (message == null) message = "Java!"; font1 font2 font3 font4 font5 = = = = = new new new new new Font("Serif", Font.BOLD, 14); Font("SansSerif", Font.BOLD + Font.ITALIC, 24); Font("Monospaced", Font.PLAIN, 30); Font("Dialog", Font.PLAIN, 36); Font("Serif", Font.ITALIC, 48);

setBackground(Color.BLACK); } /** * The paintComponent method is responsible for drawing the content of the panel. * It draws 25 copies of the message string, using a random color, font, and * position for each string. */ public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.paintComponent(g); // Call the paintComponent method from the // superclass, JPanel. This simply fills the // entire panel with the background color, black.

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int width = getWidth(); int height = getHeight(); for (int i = 0; i < 25; i++) { // Draw one string. First, set the font to be one of the five // available fonts, at random. int fontNum = (int)(5*Math.random()) + 1; switch (fontNum) { case 1: g.setFont(font1); break; case 2: g.setFont(font2); break; case 3: g.setFont(font3); break; case 4: g.setFont(font4); break; case 5: g.setFont(font5); break; } // end switch // Set the color to a bright, saturated color, with random hue. float hue = (float)Math.random(); g.setColor( Color.getHSBColor(hue, 1.0F, 1.0F) ); // Select the position of the string, at random. int x,y; x = -50 + (int)(Math.random()*(width+40)); y = (int)(Math.random()*(height+20)); // Draw the message. g.drawString(message,x,y); } // end for } // end paintComponent() } // end class RandomStringsPanel

This class defines a panel, which is not something that can stand on its own. To see it on the screen, we have to use it in an applet or a frame. Here is a simple applet class that uses a RandomStringsPanel as its content pane:
import javax.swing.JApplet; /** * A RandomStringsApplet displays 25 copies of a string, using random colors, * fonts, and positions for the copies. The message can be specified as the * value of an applet param with name "message." If no param with name * "message" is present, then the default message "Java!" is displayed.

6.4. MOUSE EVENTS
* The actual content of the applet is an object of type RandomStringsPanel. */ public class RandomStringsApplet extends JApplet { public void init() { String message = getParameter("message"); RandomStringsPanel content = new RandomStringsPanel(message); setContentPane(content); } }

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Note that the message to be displayed in the applet can be set using an applet parameter when the applet is added to an HTML document. Using applets on Web pages was discussed in Subsection 6.2.4. Remember that to use the applet on a Web page, you must include both the panel class file, RandomStringsPanel.class, and the applet class file, RandomStringsApplet.class, in the same directory as the HTML document (or, alternatively, bundle the two class files into a jar file, and put the jar file in the document directory). Instead of writing an applet, of course, we could use the panel in the window of a standalone application. You can find the source code for a main program that does this in the file RandomStringsApp.java.

6.4

Mouse Events

Events are central to programming for a graphical user interface.

A GUI program doesn’t have a main() routine that outlines what will happen when the program is run, in a step-by-step process from beginning to end. Instead, the program must be prepared to respond to various kinds of events that can happen at unpredictable times and in an order that the program doesn’t control. The most basic kinds of events are generated by the mouse and keyboard. The user can press any key on the keyboard, move the mouse, or press a button on the mouse. The user can do any of these things at any time, and the computer has to respond appropriately. In Java, events are represented by objects. When an event occurs, the system collects all the information relevant to the event and constructs an object to contain that information. Different types of events are represented by objects belonging to different classes. For example, when the user presses one of the buttons on a mouse, an object belonging to a class called MouseEvent is constructed. The object contains information such as the source of the event (that is, the component on which the user clicked), the (x,y) coordinates of the point in the component where the click occurred, and which button on the mouse was pressed. When the user presses a key on the keyboard, a KeyEvent is created. After the event object is constructed, it is passed as a parameter to a designated subroutine. By writing that subroutine, the programmer says what should happen when the event occurs. As a Java programmer, you get a fairly high-level view of events. There is a lot of processing that goes on between the time that the user presses a key or moves the mouse and the time that a subroutine in your program is called to respond to the event. Fortunately, you don’t need to know much about that processing. But you should understand this much: Even though your GUI program doesn’t have a main() routine, there is a sort of main routine running somewhere that executes a loop of the form
while the program is still running: Wait for the next event to occur Call a subroutine to handle the event

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This loop is called an event loop. Every GUI program has an event loop. In Java, you don’t have to write the loop. It’s part of “the system.” If you write a GUI program in some other language, you might have to provide a main routine that runs an event loop. In this section, we’ll look at handling mouse events in Java, and we’ll cover the framework for handling events in general. The next section will cover keyboard-related events and timer events. Java also has other types of events, which are produced by GUI components. These will be introduced in Section 6.6.

6.4.1

Event Handling

For an event to have any effect, a program must detect the event and react to it. In order to detect an event, the program must “listen” for it. Listening for events is something that is done by an object called an event listener . An event listener object must contain instance methods for handling the events for which it listens. For example, if an object is to serve as a listener for events of type MouseEvent, then it must contain the following method (among several others):
public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { . . . }

The body of the method defines how the object responds when it is notified that a mouse button has been pressed. The parameter, evt, contains information about the event. This information can be used by the listener object to determine its response. The methods that are required in a mouse event listener are specified in an interface named MouseListener. To be used as a listener for mouse events, an object must implement this MouseListener interface. Java interfaces were covered in Subsection 5.7.1. (To review briefly: An interface in Java is just a list of instance methods. A class can “implement” an interface by doing two things. First, the class must be declared to implement the interface, as in “class MyListener implements MouseListener” or “class MyApplet extends JApplet implements MouseListener”. Second, the class must include a definition for each instance method specified in the interface. An interface can be used as the type for a variable or formal parameter. We say that an object implements the MouseListener interface if it belongs to a class that implements the MouseListener interface. Note that it is not enough for the object to include the specified methods. It must also belong to a class that is specifically declared to implement the interface.) Many events in Java are associated with GUI components. For example, when the user presses a button on the mouse, the associated component is the one that the user clicked on. Before a listener object can “hear” events associated with a given component, the listener object must be registered with the component. If a MouseListener object, mListener, needs to hear mouse events associated with a Component object, comp, the listener must be registered with the component by calling “comp.addMouseListener(mListener);”. The addMouseListener() method is an instance method in class Component, and so can be used with any GUI component object. In our first few examples, we will listen for events on a JPanel that is being used as a drawing surface. The event classes, such as MouseEvent, and the listener interfaces, such as MouseListener, are defined in the package java.awt.event. This means that if you want to work with events, you should either include the line “import java.awt.event.*;” at the beginning of your source code file or import the individual classes and interfaces. Admittedly, there is a large number of details to tend to when you want to use events. To summarize, you must

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1. Put the import specification “import java.awt.event.*;” (or individual imports) at the beginning of your source code; 2. Declare that some class implements the appropriate listener interface, such as MouseListener ; 3. Provide definitions in that class for the subroutines from the interface; 4. Register the listener object with the component that will generate the events by calling a method such as addMouseListener() in the component. Any object can act as an event listener, provided that it implements the appropriate interface. A component can listen for the events that it itself generates. A panel can listen for events from components that are contained in the panel. A special class can be created just for the purpose of defining a listening object. Many people consider it to be good form to use anonymous inner classes to define listening objects (see Subsection 5.7.3). You will see all of these patterns in examples in this textbook.

6.4.2

MouseEvent and MouseListener
public public public public public void void void void void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt); mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt); mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt); mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt); mouseExited(MouseEvent evt);

The MouseListener interface specifies five different instance methods:

The mousePressed method is called as soon as the user presses down on one of the mouse buttons, and mouseReleased is called when the user releases a button. These are the two methods that are most commonly used, but any mouse listener object must define all five methods; you can leave the body of a method empty if you don’t want to define a response. The mouseClicked method is called if the user presses a mouse button and then releases it quickly, without moving the mouse. (When the user does this, all three routines—mousePressed, mouseReleased, and mouseClicked—will be called in that order.) In most cases, you should define mousePressed instead of mouseClicked. The mouseEntered and mouseExited methods are called when the mouse cursor enters or leaves the component. For example, if you want the component to change appearance whenever the user moves the mouse over the component, you could define these two methods. As an example, we will look at a small addition to the RandomStringsPanel example from the previous section. In the new version, the panel will repaint itself when the user clicks on it. In order for this to happen, a mouse listener should listen for mouse events on the panel, and when the listener detects a mousePressed event, it should respond by calling the repaint() method of the panel. For the new version of the program, we need an object that implements the MouseListener interface. One way to create the object is to define a separate class, such as:
import java.awt.Component; import java.awt.event.*; /** * An object of type RepaintOnClick is a MouseListener that * will respond to a mousePressed event by calling the repaint() * method of the source of the event. That is, a RepaintOnClick

panel. The relationship between an object that generates an event and an object that responds to that event is rather loose. the event-handling class contains no reference at all to the RandomStringsPanel class. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING * object can be added as a mouse listener to any Component. and it would work in the same way. a class must define all five methods. The relationship is set up by registering one object to listen for . the mousePressed() method in the listener will be called. In this case.* for easy access to event-related classes. it imports java. // Create MouseListener object. // Register MouseListener with the panel. we can create a mouse listener object and register it with the panel with the statements: RepaintOnClick listener = new RepaintOnClick(). source. the listener object will be notified of mouse events on the panel. * when the user clicks that component. RandomStringsPanel was written before we even knew anything about mouse events! The panel will send mouse events to any object that has registered with it as a mouse listener. // Call repaint() on the Component that was clicked. If we have registered the RepaintOnClick object as a listener on a RandomStringsPanel. (Note that four of the five event-handling methods have empty defintions. in the panel. it is declared that the class “implements MouseListener”. The result is that the RandomStringsPanel is repainted with its strings in new random colors.awt. We really only want to define a response to mousePressed events. */ public class RepaintOnClick implements MouseListener { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { Component source = (Component)evt. that is. but in order to implement the MouseListener interface. the RandomStringsPanel class contains no reference to the RepaintOnClick class— in fact. Although we have written the RepaintOnClick class for use with our RandomStringsPanel example. then it is that panel that is repainted. The code in this method calls the repaint() method in the component that is the source of the event. If panel is a variable that refers to the panel object. } public public public public } void void void void mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseExited(MouseEvent evt) { } This class does three of the four things that we need to do in order to handle mouse events: First.event. It does not need to know anything about that object except that it is capable of receiving mouse events.getSource(). How can this be? The mousePressed() method in class RepaintOnClick looks at the source of the event. But the listener object could be used with any type of component. And third. Similarly. the mouse events that we are interested in will be generated by an object of type RandomStringsPanel. Second. Once this is done.addMouseListener(listener). When a mousePressed event occurs. it provides definitions for the five methods that are specified in the MouseListener interface. the component will be * repainted. and calls its repaint() method. and positions.254 CHAPTER 6.repaint(). fonts.) We must do one more thing to set up the event handling for this example: We must register an event-handling object as a listener with the component that will generate the events.

This is the essence of modular design: Build a complex system out of modules that interact only in straightforward.event. window. content. */ public class ClickableRandomStringsApp { public static void main(String[] args) { JFrame window = new JFrame("Random Strings"). without having to make any changes at all to that class: import import import import java.setLocation(100.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame. easy to understand ways.MouseEvent.EXIT ON CLOSE).Component. although it could just as easily be a separate class.awt. MOUSE EVENTS 255 events from the other object.MouseListener.getSource(). Then each module is a separate design problem that can be tackled independently.awt. I have included RepaintOnClick as a nested class.4.75).repaint(). The content of the window * is an object of type RandomStringsPanel.setVisible(true). window.JFrame. The main point is that this program uses the same RandomStringsPanel class that was used in the original program. source. the content of the window is repainted. RandomStringsPanel content = new RandomStringsPanel().swing. and positions.awt. } private static class RepaintOnClick implements MouseListener { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { Component source = (Component)evt. with no knowledge of the internal operation of the other object. java. which did not respond to mouse clicks. window.event. To make this clearer. // Register mouse listener. This is something that can potentially be done from outside both objects. window. javax.addMouseListener( new RepaintOnClick() ). window.setContentPane(content). with the * strings in newly selected random colors.6. /** * Displays a window that shows 25 copies of the string "Java!" in * random colors. } public public public public } } void void void void mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseExited(MouseEvent evt) { } . java. When the user clicks * the window. fonts.setSize(300. The mouse handling has been “bolted on” to an existing class.240). consider the application version of the ClickableRandomStrings program. and positions. fonts. Each object can be developed independently.

The constructor for the panel class registers the panel with itself as a mouse listener. (If you find this too confusing.0).3 Mouse Coordinates Often. and evt. You might want to respond to a mouse event differently when the user is holding down a modifier key. the Control key.4. The parameter “this” also refers to the panel object.isMetaDown(). definitions for the event-handling methods. “implements MouseListener”. remember that you can always write a separate class to define the listening object. However. pressing the middle mouse button is equivalent to holding down the ALT key. where the top left corner of the component is (0.getY(). In this case. Similarly. and the Meta key (called the Command or Apple key on the Macintosh). That is. which contains instance methods that return information about the event. Clicking with the right mouse button (or holding down the Command key while clicking on a Macintosh) will place a blue oval on the applet.isAltDown(). evt. The possible modifier keys include: the Shift key. Any object can be a mouse listener. The coordinates are expressed in the coordinate system of the component that generated the event. the panel class implements the MouseListener interface. so any object belonging to that class can act as a mouse listener. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 6. what this really means is that pressing the right mouse button under Windows is equivalent to holding down the Command key while pressing the mouse button on Macintosh. in this case. Now. and “addMouseListener”): . If evt is the parameter. the panel object plays a dual role here. if the right button is pressed.) The source code for the panel class is shown below.256 CHAPTER 6. In practice. as long as it implements the MouseListener interface. It does this with the statement “addMouseListener(this)”. These methods return integers which give the x and y coordinates where the mouse cursor was positioned at the time when the event occurred. The boolean-valued instance methods evt.isMetaDown() will return true (even if the Meta key is not pressed). I could write a separate class to handle mouse events. It treats pressing the right button as equivalent to holding down the Meta key while pressing the left mouse button. Since this command is in a method in the panel class. when a mouse event occurs. so Java handles the information in a peculiar way. the middle mouse button. A program tests for either of these by calling evt. You might also want to have different responses depending on whether the user presses the left mouse button.getX() and evt. not every mouse has a middle button and a right button.isControlDown(). The user can hold down certain modifier keys while using the mouse. Holding down the Shift key while clicking will clear the panel by removing all the shapes that have been placed. evt.isShiftDown(). and a listener is being registered with that panel. There are several ways to write this example. as I did in the previous example.*”. You can also check for the Four Steps of Event Handling (“import java. As an example.event. then you can find out the coordinates of the mouse cursor by calling evt. or the right mouse button. the addMouseListener() method in the panel object is being called. This information is available from the MouseEvent parameter to the event-handling method.isMetaDown() can be called to test whether the modifier keys are pressed. then the instance method evt. you want to know the location of the mouse cursor. the ALT key (called the Option key on the Macintosh). Thus.awt. You should check how the instance methods in the MouseEvent object are used. consider a JPanel that does the following: Clicking on the panel with the left mouse button will place a red rectangle on the panel at the point where the mouse was clicked. so it is the same panel object that is listening for events. I decided to let the panel respond to mouse events itself.

15. the // method from the superclass. Graphics g = getGraphics().swing. For example.awt. repaint().BLUE).getX(). // y-coordinate where user clicked.fillOval( x . g. Draw a blue oval centered // at the point (x.6.awt.y). Otherwise. */ public SimpleStamperPanel() { setBackground(Color. (A black outline around the oval will make it // more distinct when ovals and rects overlap.y). // NOTE: This is considered to be bad style! if ( evt. they might disappear * if the panel is covered and uncovered.drawOval( x . a red rectangle is drawn. 30 ).isMetaDown() ) { // User right-clicked at the point (x. addMouseListener(this). g. } int x = evt.setColor(Color. y . */ public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { if ( evt. the applet is cleared.4. If the user * right-clicks the applet. } .setColor(Color.) g. 60. Shapes are drawn * on a black background when the user clicks the panel If * the user Shift-clicks. That method simply // fills the panel with its background color. // Black outline. /** * A simple demonstration of MouseEvents. The contents of * the panel are not persistent. is called. // Since this class does not define a paintComponent() method.15. Just repaint the panel.event. MOUSE EVENTS import java. JPanel. which is black.getY(). 60.isShiftDown() ) { // The user was holding down the Shift key. // Graphics context for drawing directly. a blue oval is drawn. * This method is part of the MouseListener interface. import javax. The // effect is to clear the panel.*. } /** * Since this panel has been set to listen for mouse events on itself. * when the user clicks.*. // Blue interior.30.BLACK). import java. */ public class SimpleStamperPanel extends JPanel implements MouseListener { 257 /** * This constructor simply sets the background color of the panel to be black * and sets the panel to listen for mouse events on itself. 30 ).BLACK).30. // x-coordinate where user clicked.*. g. return. y . * this method will be called when the user clicks the mouse on the panel. int y = evt.

so dispose of it. After using g for drawing.) . public public public public void void void void mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseExited(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt) { } mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { } } // end class SimpleStamperPanel Note. The mouseDragged method is called if the mouse is moved while a button on the mouse is pressed. } g.15. To make this possible. It is a good idea to do this to free the system resources that are used by the graphics context.y).dispose(). // The next four empty routines are required by the MouseListener interface. by the way. This interface specifies two event-handling methods: public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent evt).drawRect( x . 60. 30 ). } // end mousePressed(). // Draw a red rectangle centered at (x. The most common reason to do so is to implement dragging . The operating system of the computer detects these events and uses them to move the mouse cursor on the screen. I do not advise doing this type of direct drawing if it can be avoided. The methods for responding to mouse motion events are defined in an interface named MouseMotionListener.4 MouseMotionListeners and Dragging Whenever the mouse is moved. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING // User left-clicked (or middle-clicked) at (x. that this class violates the rule that all drawing should be done in a paintComponent() method.258 else { CHAPTER 6. // Black outline. g.30.15. The parameter.fillRect( x . (So many events are generated that it would be inefficient for a program to hear them all.setColor(Color. if it doesn’t want to do anything in response. I call g.dispose() to inform the operating system that I will no longer be using g for drawing. Dragging occurs when the user moves the mouse while holding down a mouse button.y). is an object of type MouseEvent. // Red interior. public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent evt). 6. If the mouse is moved while no mouse button is down.BLACK). g. It contains the x and y coordinates of the mouse’s location. g.setColor(Color. and at this point we really have no other way to write this example. evt. one of these methods will be called over and over. It is also possible for a program to listen for these “mouse motion” events and respond to them. This is why the mouse motion event-handlers are defined in a separate interface from the other mouse events: You can listen for the mouse events defined in MouseListener without automatically hearing all mouse motion events as well. The rectangles and ovals are drawn directly in the mousePressed() routine. 60. g.30. As long as the user continues to move the mouse. I need to obtain a graphics context by saying “g = getGraphics()”.4. then mouseMoved is called instead. but you can see that it does work in this case. // Since they don’t do anything in this class. y . it generates events. // We are finished with the graphics context. 30 ). so their definitions are empty.RED). y .

// Set to true when dragging is in process.*. I encourage you to read the source code. This means that the programming for the response to one dragging gesture must be spread out over the three methods! Furthermore. .java. and a list of the modifier keys that are down (Shift. // Most recently processed mouse coords. The panel class includes a nested class. To get a better idea of how mouse events work. private int prevX. which defines the applet class. You should now be familiar with all the techniques that it uses. prevY. which is set to true while a dragging gesture is being processed. The dragging gesture starts when the user presses a mouse button.java. Control. // other instance variables for use in dragging public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { if ( we-want-to-start-dragging ) { dragging = true. it continues while the mouse is dragged. The applet is programmed to respond to any of the seven different kinds of mouse events by displaying the coordinates of the mouse. To keep track of what is going on between one method call and the next. for example. This is necessary because not every mousePressed event starts a dragging operation to which you want to respond. the listener object will also implement the MouseListener interface so that it can respond to the other mouse events as well. . You can experiment with the applet to see what happens when you use the mouse on the applet. SimpleTrackMouse. you need to remember the previous coordinates of the mouse. in instance variables. It is interesting to look at what a program needs to do in order to respond to dragging operations. You might need other instance variables as well. startY = evt. the type of event. MOUSE EVENTS 259 If you want your program to respond to mouse motion events. startY. MouseHandler. You can store this information in two instance variables prevX and prevY of type int.) The source code for the applet can be found in SimpleTrackMousePanel. you could run the stand-alone application version of the program. and in SimpleTrackMouseApplet. // Remember most recent coords.getX(). but in general outline. where the mousePressed event occurred. and it ends when the user releases the button. and Alt). The registration is done by calling a component’s addMouseMotionListener method. In many applications. public class MouseDragHandler implements MouseListener. which defines the panel that is used as the content pane of the applet. mouseDragged(). In general.java. startX = evt. private boolean dragging. . prevX = startX.6. The mouseDragged and mouseReleased methods can use the value of dragging to check whether a drag operation is actually in progress. a class that handles mouse dragging looks like this: import java. and mouseReleased(). // Remember starting position. The object will then listen for mouseDragged and mouseMoved events associated with that component. in order to process a mouseDragged event. dragging. the mouseDragged() method can be called many times as the mouse moves. . In most cases. // Point where mouse is pressed.awt. It can also be useful to save the starting coordinates. I also suggest having a boolean variable. MouseMotionListener { private int startX. that defines the mouse-handling object.event. Meta.4. (Alternatively. you should try the SimpleTrackMouseApplet in the on-line version of this section. you need to set up some instance variables.getY(). the response involves three methods: mousePressed(). you must create an object that implements the MouseMotionListener interface. prevY = startY. and you must register that object to listen for events.

which can be run as a stand-alone application. and you can select a color for drawing by clicking on one of several colored rectangles to the right of the drawing area. . . . } } public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent evt) { if ( dragging == false ) // First. // Other processing. // Other processing and clean-up. // Remember the current position for the next call. prevY) to (x. . prevX = x.y). } public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { if ( dragging == false ) // First. This example also shows many other features of graphics and mouse processing.getY(). and you can find an applet version in the on-line version of this section. dragging = false. prevY = y. check if we are return. } } As an example.getX(). In the program. // Process a mouse movement from (prevX. . . // processing a dragging gesture. The complete source code can be found in SimplePaint. int x = evt.260 CHAPTER 6. check if we are return. . INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING . // We are done dragging.java. // Current position of Mouse. // processing a dragging gesture. let’s look at a typical use of dragging: allowing the user to sketch a curve by dragging the mouse. int y = evt. . you can draw a curve by dragging the mouse on a large white drawing area. Here is a picture of the program: .

clear the drawing. each of which uses colorSpace pixels. this adds up to put the right edge of the drawing area 56 pixels from the right edge of the panel.3). is set to true so that the mouseDragged and mouseReleased methods will know that a curve is being drawn. The top of the N-th rectangle is located (N*colorSpace + 3) pixels down from the top of the panel. colorSpace . dragging.) The panel class for this example is designed to work for any reasonable size. That was not easy! But it shows the kind of careful thinking and precision graphics that are sometimes necessary to get good results. Together with the 3-pixel border around the panel and a 3-pixel divider between the drawing area and the colored rectangles. If the user clicked somewhere in the strip of colored rectangles. which is done by dividing the y coordinate by colorSpace. Allowing for this square. These numbers are needed in order to interpret the meaning of a mouse click. the border and the color bar are part of the drawing surface. 3 pixels are used as spacing between the rectangles. and draw a curve. The extra 3 is for the border at the top of the panel. (The width and height are obtained by calling getWidth() and getHeight(). For example. Only the third of these involves dragging. There are lots of informative comments in the source code. so the height of each rectangle is colorSpace . The code for this follows the general form given above. we can figure out how much vertical space is available for the seven colored rectangles. This quantity is represented by a variable. The actual drawing of the curve is done in the mouseDragged method. The mouse in this panel is used to do three different things: Select a color.3. MOUSE EVENTS 261 I will discuss a few aspects of the source code here. the application opens a window that shows the same panel that would be shown in the applet version. Out of this space.53. if the user clicked on the drawing area. the drawing area is cleared by calling repaint(). The main() routine has nothing to do with the class’s use as an applet. so not every mouse click will start a dragging operation.4. the selected color is changed. but it makes it possible to run the class as a stand-alone application. This example thus shows how to write a single file that can be used either as a stand-alone application or as an applet. This is not automatic. A boolean variable. They take into account a gray border around the panel and the color palette along the right edge of the panel.fillRect(width . Finally. If the user clicked on the CLEAR rectangle. the large white drawing area extends from y = 3 to y = height .) This makes things quite a bit harder than they would be if we assumed some particular fixed size for the panel. 50. N*colorSpace + 3. assuming that we count the rectangles starting with zero. that is. since as far as the computer is concerned. This is because there are N rectangles above the N-th rectangle. After all that. unless the panel is too small.56 horizontally. The border is 3 pixels wide. This involves computing which color the user clicked on. Let’s look at some of these computations in detail. which draws a line from the previous location of the mouse to its current location. This means that coordinates are computed in terms of the actual width and height of the panel. (The source code uses one unusual technique: It defines a subclass of JApplet. The colored rectangles are 50 pixels wide. When this is done. colorSpace. we can write down the command for drawing the N-th rectangle: g. but I encourage you to read it carefully in its entirety. and then divide that space by 7 to get the vertical space available for each rectangle. A white square labeled “CLEAR” occupies a 50-by-50 pixel region beneath the colored rectangles on the right edge of the panel. Some effort is required to make sure that the line does not extend beyond the white drawing area of the panel. The mousePressed routine has to look at the (x.6. but it also includes a main() routine.3 vertically and from x = 3 to x = width . If the . a drag operation is initiated.y) coordinates where the mouse was clicked and decide how to respond.

INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING user drags the mouse outside the drawing area while drawing a line. .addMouseListener( new MouseListener() { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { . if you want a mouse listener that only responds to mouse-pressed events. .Component. . javax.3. Now. } public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt) { . . . . public class ClickableRandomStringsApp { . } } ).event. A class that implements an interface must provide definitions for all the methods in that interface. . .2.addMouseListener( new MouseAdapter() { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { .7. the empty definitions that are provided by the adapter class will be used. you can use a command of the form: component. a mouse listener object can be created with an expression of the form: new MouseListener() { public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { . } public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt) { . the mouseDragged routine changes the x and y coordinates to make them lie within the drawing area.MouseListener. For example. To avoid the tedium of writing empty method definitions in cases like this. . The adapter class for the MouseListener interface is named MouseAdapter. java.4. .awt. . a special form of the new operator is used to create an object that belongs to an anonymous class. . For example. This version uses an anonymous class based on MouseAdapter to handle mouse events: import import import import java.5 Anonymous Event Handlers As I mentioned above.awt. it is a fairly common practice to use anonymous nested classes to define listener objects. To see how this works in a real example.4. } public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent evt) { . Java provides adapter classes. it should be passed as the parameter to some component’s addMouseListener() method in a command of the form: component.event. . For the remaining methods. 6. } public void mouseExited(MouseEvent evt) { . An adapter class implements a listener interface by providing empty definitions for all the methods in the interface. As discussed in Subsection 5. .JFrame. } public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { . } public void mouseExited(MouseEvent evt) { .awt. most of the method definitions in this class will be empty.swing. An adapter class is useful only as a basis for making subclasses. . To use the object as a mouse listener. . . . . .262 CHAPTER 6. you can define just those methods that you actually want to use. } } ). java.MouseEvent. } public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent evt) { . . } public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent evt) { . . let’s write another version of the ClickableRandomStringsApp application from Subsection 6. in a typical application. In the subclass. even if the definitions are empty. } } This is all just one long expression that both defines an un-named class and creates an object that belongs to that class.

20. import java. } } ).*. public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { Component source = (Component)evt. the program ends.swing. window. window. As an example. When the user clicks * the OK button. 30 ). It will redefine the paintComponent() method. It might make sense to define the subclass as an anonymous nested class. /** * A simple GUI program that creates and opens a JFrame containing * the message "Hello World" and an "OK" button. window.setContentPane(content). window. content.repaint(). RandomStringsPanel content = new RandomStringsPanel().setSize(300. This replaces the RepaintOnClick class that was // used in the original version.*. This version is a variation of HelloWorldGUI2. */ public class HelloWorldGUI4 { /** * The main program creates a window containing a HelloWorldDisplay * and a button that will end the program when the user clicks it.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame. Compare to HelloWorldGUI2.75).4. import javax. This version uses anonymous * classes to define the message display panel and the action listener * object.EXIT ON CLOSE). */ public static void main(String[] args) { JPanel displayPanel = new JPanel() { // An anonymous subclass of JPanel that displays "Hello World!".paintComponent(g). } .java that uses anonymous nested classes where the original program uses ordinary.6.240). I present HelloWorldGUI4. g. MOUSE EVENTS 263 public static void main(String[] args) { JFrame window = new JFrame("Random Strings").*. public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. The subclass will only be used once.setVisible(true).setLocation(100.addMouseListener( new MouseAdapter() { // Register a mouse listener that is defined by an anonymous subclass // of MouseAdapter. suppose that you want to define a subclass of JPanel to represent a drawing surface.drawString( "Hello World!". } } Anonymous inner classes can be used for other purposes besides event handling. which uses nested classes.awt.getSource(). For example. named nested classes: import java. source.java.awt. but will make no other changes to JPanel.event. window.

setLayout(new BorderLayout()).setContentPane(content). by default. if the object is set to listen for . the object must belong to a class that is declared to “implement ActionListener”.264 }. BorderLayout. and that class must define the actionPerformed method. generates a sequence of events with a fixed delay between each event and the next. which defines just one method: public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) To use a Timer. A Timer.SOUTH). BorderLayout.Timer exists only to generate events. CHAPTER 6. (It is also possible to set a Timer to emit a single event after a specified time delay. window.Timer. the timer is being used as an “alarm. public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { System.5 Not Timer and Keyboard Events every event is generated by an action on the part of the user. window.setSize(250.swing.5.setLocation(100. okButton.100). We will then look at another type of basic user-generated event: the KeyEvents that are generated when the user types on the keyboard. One example of this is the class javax. Then.add(okButton. } } ). content. window. An object that is to listen for the events must implement the interface ActionListener. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING JButton okButton = new JButton("OK").setVisible(true). These events can be used to drive an animation or to perform some other task at regular intervals.swing. Events can also be generated by objects as part of their regular programming.”) Each event belongs to the class ActionEvent.add(displayPanel. content. That is. content.CENTER). in that case. JFrame window = new JFrame("GUI Test"). you must create an object that implements the ActionListener interface. } } 6. and these events can be monitored by other objects so that they can take appropriate actions when the events occur. window.1 Timers and Animation An object belonging to the class javax.100).exit(0). We will begin this section with a look at timer events and animation. A Timer generates events at regular intervals.addActionListener( new ActionListener() { // An anonymous class that defines the listener object. 6. The example at the end of the section uses both a timer and keyboard events to implement a simple game. JPanel content = new JPanel().

The easiest way to do animation in Java is to use a Timer to drive the animation.*. then the statement timer = new Timer( millisDelay. The timer’s stop() method can be used to turn the stream of events off—it can be restarted by calling start() again.*.swing. If the computer is busy with some other task. The work of the program is done in a subclass of JPanel. The time delay between timer events is also specified in the constructor. which starts like this: import java. A timer does not automatically start generating events when the timer object is created. and the response to a timer event is simply to call repaint(). A computer animation is just a sequence of still images. creates a timer with a delay of millisDelay milliseconds between events (where 1000 milliseconds equal one second). import java. In fact.5. Events from the timer are sent to the listener. listener ). Since there is no point to having a timer without having a listener to respond to its events. then the user perceives continuous motion.awt. ∗ ∗ ∗ One application of timers is computer animation. an event might be delayed or even dropped altogether. which in turn triggers a call to paintComponent. } } . If the time between images is short.) Note that a timer is not guaranteed to deliver events at precisely regular intervals.*. Each time the timer generates an event. but it does display a new image for each timer event. the program draws a new random image every time its paintComponent() method is called. Our first example of using a timer is not exactly an animation. TIMER AND KEYBOARD EVENTS 265 events from the timer.event. presented to the user one after the other. (millisDelay must be of type int. public class RandomArtPanel extends JPanel { /** * A RepaintAction object calls the repaint method of this panel each * time its actionPerformed() method is called. The result is that the panel is * redrawn every four seconds. An object of this * type is used as an action listener for a Timer that generates an * ActionEvent every four seconds. and if the change from one image to another is not too great. */ private class RepaintAction implements ActionListener { public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) { repaint(). the action listener for a timer is specified as a parameter in the timer’s constructor. the next frame of the animation is computed and drawn on the screen—the code that implements this goes in the actionPerformed method of an object that listens for events from the timer. The start() method in the timer must be called to tell the timer to start generating events. and listener must be of type ActionListener. import javax. If timer is a variable of type Timer. the code in the listener’s actionPerformed method will be executed every time the timer generates an event.awt.6. The program shows randomly generated images that vaguely resemble works of abstract art. // Call the repaint() method in the panel class.

the event that is generated is associated with the component that contains the mouse cursor. Calling this method does not absolutely guarantee that the component will actually get the input focus. What about keyboard events? When the user presses a key. The type * of art to be drawn is chosen at random. You can see the applet version in the on-line version of this section. If the interface element happens to be a Java component. what component is associated with the key event that is generated? A GUI uses the idea of input focus to determine the component associated with keyboard events. Another common visual clue is to draw a brightly colored border around the edge of a component when it has the input focus. */ public RandomArtPanel() { RepaintAction action = new RepaintAction(). we will use a timer to drive the animation in a simple computer game. These events are associated with GUI components. user actions become events in a program. the feedback is usually in the form of a blinking text cursor. while the applet version is RandomArtApplet. timer.5.java. At any given time. exactly one interface element on the screen has the input focus. Later in this section. } /** * The paintComponent() method fills the panel with a random shade of * gray and then draws one of three types of random "art". Several components might request the focus. The necessity of managing input focus adds an extra twist to working with keyboard events. // The rest of the class is omitted . since it can be a rude surprise to the user to have the focus suddenly pulled away from a component that the user is working with. It also starts the timer running. An application version of the program is RandomArt. and that is where all keyboard events are directed. as I do in the examples given later in this section.266 CHAPTER 6. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING /** * The constructor creates a timer with a delay time of four seconds * (4000 milliseconds). which is defined in the Component class. For example. When the user presses a button on the mouse. It’s a good idea to give the user some visual feedback about which component has the input focus.2 Keyboard Events In Java. In a typical user interface. the user can choose to .java. and with a RepaintAction object as its * ActionListener.start().java. if the component is the typing area of a word-processor. then the information about the keyboard event becomes a Java object of type KeyEvent. Timer timer = new Timer(4000. A component that wants to have the input focus can call the method requestFocus(). . This method should only be used in certain circumstances in any case. only one will get it. */ public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { . 6. and it is delivered to any listener objects that are listening for KeyEvents associated with that component. action). You can find the full source code for this class in the file RandomArtPanel.

in particular. All this is. keyboard event objects belong to a class called KeyEvent. down. Also. If the panel does not have the input focus. and JPanel objects do not receive the input focus automatically. directly analogous to what you learned about mouse events in the previous section. page up and page down keys. you have to register a listener to listen for mouse events on the drawingSurface and call drawingSurface. the panel displays a different message in each case. public void keyTyped(KeyEvent evt). And pressing the tab key will often move the focus from one component to another. blue. which must be included in any class that implements KeyListener : public void keyPressed(KeyEvent evt). The registration is done with the command “component. TIMER AND KEYBOARD EVENTS 267 give the focus to a component by clicking on that component with the mouse. a gray-colored border is drawn. In . none of these key events are delivered to the program unless it has the input focus. and component is the object that will generate the key events (when it has the input focus). These components are defined as subclasses of JPanel. the object must be registered with a component by calling the component’s addKeyListener() method. The complete source code for this example can be found in the file KeyboardAndFocusDemo. As our first example of processing key events. It is possible for component and listener to be the same object. Here is what the program looks like in its focussed state: In Java. arrow keys. modifier keys such as Control and Shift. If you want to be able to use the keyboard to interact with a JPanel named drawingSurface. we look at a simple program in which the user moves a square up. Of course. a program has to register a mouse listener with the component to detect user clicks. To solve this problem. you should be able to understand the source code in its entirety. the mousePressed() method should call requestFocus() for the component. The KeyListener interface defines the following methods. number keys. keypad keys. I will discuss some aspects of it below. for the components that are used as drawing surfaces in the examples in this chapter. When the user hits the ’R’. There are lots of keys on a keyboard: letter keys.5. After reading this section. left. ’B’.java. function keys. ’G’. the color of the square is set to red. or ’K’ key.6. Furthermore.” where listener is the object that is to listen for key events. the user can give the input focus to the panel by clicking on it. This is true. of course. or black. and right by pressing arrow keys. Some components do not automatically request the input focus when the user clicks on them. when it does not.requestFocus() in the mousePressed() method of the listener object. a cyan-colored border is drawn around the panel.addKeyListener(listener). respectively. In response to a user click. The panel in the program changes its appearance when it has the input focus: When it does. Java makes a careful distinction between the keys that you press and the characters that you type. An object that needs to listen for KeyEvents must implement the interface named KeyListener. green. public void keyReleased(KeyEvent evt).

Usually. KeyEvent. different keyboards use different key codes. can be responsible for two events. and KeyEvent. It can also generate multiple keyTyped events. This function returns a value of type char representing the character that was typed. but it would be difficult (and also system-dependent to some extent).getKeyCode(). pressing a key does not type a character.VK DOWN. this is only true for keys that Java knows about. to type an uppercase ’A’. there are three types of KeyEvent. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING many cases. This means that it will generate multiple keyPressed events. but I had to perform three key-presses and I had to release a key at the right time. Note that one user action. the keyReleased method is called when the user releases a key. This information can be obtained from the parameter.268 CHAPTER 6. you could say “if (evt. I use the keyPressed routine to respond when the user presses one of the arrow keys. There is one more complication. Typing an upper case ’A’ can generate two keyPressed. contains the code of the key that was pressed or released. These constants are defined in the KeyEvent class. for other applications.VK RIGHT. in the keyTyped method by calling the function evt. Rather than asking you to memorize a table of code numbers. For example. as long as it is held down. it is better to think in terms of two separate streams of events. For some applications. one consisting of keyPressed and keyReleased events and the other consisting of keyTyped events. Java provides a named constant for each key.VK SHIFT. On the other hand. such as pressing the E key. Usually. KeyEvent. For example the constant for the shift key is KeyEvent. two keyReleased. you want to know which character was typed. you have to press the Shift key and then press the A key before releasing the Shift key. (Actually. Of course. you want to monitor the first stream. Only one character was typed. but Java translates the actual codes from the keyboard into its own “virtual” codes.) In the case of a keyTyped event. by holding down the Option key. In reality. You could do something like that in Java by hiliting the cards when the Shift key is pressed and removing the hilite when the Shift key is released. so it will work with various keyboards on various platforms without modification. The keyPressed method is called when the user presses a key. typing a character sometimes involves pressing several keys. The code can be obtained by calling the function evt. When the . and typing a character. Other keys have similar codes. can only be detected as keyPressed events. Some user actions. In the KeyboardAndFocusDemo program. you want to monitor the second one. but you should not expect every keyPressed event to have a corresponding keyReleased event. evt. The applet includes instance variables. and one keyTyped event. The key codes for the four arrow keys are KeyEvent. releasing the Option key.) When the keyPressed or keyReleased method is called. If you want to test whether the key that the user pressed is the Shift key. Many keyboards have extra keys that can’t be used with Java.getKeyCode() == KeyEvent. The types correspond to pressing a key. evt. when you hold down a key on the keyboard. squareLeft and squareTop. and pressing E again.VK SHIFT)”. that give the position of the upper left corner of the movable square. I have a solitaire game on my computer that hilites every card that can be moved. pressing the E key. the parameter. For the most part. Every key on the keyboard has an integer code number. and the keyTyped method is called when the user types a character.getKeyChar(). the information in the keyTyped stream could be extracted from the keyPressed/keyReleased stream. In Java. this will not affect your programming.VK LEFT. On my Macintosh computer.VK UP. such as pressing the Shift key. Your program only sees these virtual key codes. a keyPressed event and a keyTyped event. when I hold down the Shift key. releasing a key. that key will auto-repeat. I can type an accented e. (The “VK” stands for “Virtual Keyboard”.

SQUARE SIZE. ’B’.VK RIGHT) { // move the square right squareLeft += 8.SQUARE SIZE) squareTop = getHeight() . to complete the KeyListener interface.SQUARE SIZE) squareLeft = getWidth() .6. Note that the values of squareLeft and squareTop are restricted so that the square never moves outside the white area of the panel: /** * This is called each time the user presses a key while the panel has * the input focus.3 Focus Events If a component is to change its appearance when it has the input focus. 6. */ public void keyPressed(KeyEvent evt) { int key = evt.3 .3 . the body of this method is empty since the applet does nothing in response to keyReleased events. if (squareTop > getHeight() . allowing for a 3-pixel border). In the sample program. repaint(). objects are notified about changes of input focus by events of type FocusEvent. This interface declares two methods: . the keyPressed routine modifies the appropriate instance variable and calls repaint() to redraw the panel with the square in its new position. In Java. repaint().SQUARE SIZE. or the lower case equivalents—are handled in the keyTyped method. } else if (key == KeyEvent. repaint(). repaint(). ’G’. } else if (key == KeyEvent. and ’K’.VK UP) { // move the squre up squareTop -= 8.VK DOWN) { // move the square down squareTop += 8. TIMER AND KEYBOARD EVENTS 269 user presses one of the arrow keys.getKeyCode().5. the keyReleased method must be defined. if (squareTop < 3) squareTop = 3. If the key pressed was one of the arrow keys. if (squareLeft > getWidth() .3 . I won’t include it here. // keyboard code for the pressed key if (key == KeyEvent. } else if (key == KeyEvent. } } // end keyPressed() Color changes—which happen when the user types the characters ’R’. it needs some way to know when it has the focus.3 . An object that wants to be notified of changes in focus can implement the FocusListener interface.5. Finally. since it is so similar to the keyPressed method. if (squareLeft < 3) squareLeft = 3.VK LEFT) { // move the square left squareLeft -= 8. * the square is moved (except that it is not allowed to move off the * edge of the panel.

the panel implements the MouseListener interface and listens for mouse events on itself. It defines a mousePressed routine that asks that the input focus be given to the panel: public void mousePressed(MouseEvent evt) { requestFocus(). addMouseListener(this). The net result is that the appearance of the panel changes when the panel gains or loses focus.5. in the terminology we have been using. and MouseListener. To do this. // will redraw with a new message and a cyan border } public void focusLost(FocusEvent evt) { // The panel has now lost the input focus. I will take the latter approach. Furthermore. In the sample KeyboardAndFocusDemo program. other ways to organize this example. The paintComponent() method checks whether the panel has the input focus by calling the boolean-valued function hasFocus(). } The other four methods of the mouseListener interface are defined to be empty. the definition of the method can look at the instance variables to decide what to do. (Or. of course. which is defined in the Component class. (That . // will redraw with a new message and a gray border } The other aspect of handling focus is to make sure that the panel gets the focus when the user clicks on it. When one of the object’s methods is called. It would be possible. the response to a focus event is simply to redraw the panel. the state can change. repaint(). In my next example. and it draws a different picture depending on whether or not the panel has the input focus. for example.270 CHAPTER 6. repaint().4 State Machines The information stored in an object’s instance variables is said to represent the state of that object.) Furthermore. 6. the addFocusListener() method must be used to set up a listener for the focus events. Sometimes. and the constructor in the panel class registers itself to listen for all three types of events with the statements: addKeyListener(this). Or anonymous classes could be used to define separate listening objects for each type of event. the action taken by the object can depend on its state. The methods from the FocusListener interface are defined simply as: public void focusGained(FocusEvent evt) { // The panel now has the input focus. to use a nested class to define the listening object. Note that the panel implements three different listener interfaces. public void focusLost(FocusEvent evt). INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING public void focusGained(FocusEvent evt). FocusListener. it calls the focusGained() method of any object that has been registered with that component as a FocusListener. There are. it calls the listener’s focusLost() method. KeyListener. When a component gets the input focus. addFocusListener(this). When it loses the focus. it is the component itself that listens for focus events.

the user plays a simple arcade-style game by pressing the arrow keys. These state variables are used in the paintComponent() method to decide how to draw the panel. so you can see the explosion. When designing a GUI program. The objective is to blow up the submarine by hitting it with the bomb. this submarine moves back and forth erratically near the bottom. which is just something that has a state and can change state in response to events or inputs. In the KeyboardAndFocusDemo program. the definition of the method can assign new values to the instance variables.5. you get a new one. When the panel has the input focus. You can move this boat back and forth by pressing the left and right arrow keys. and squareTop. Attached to the boat is a red “bomb” (or “depth charge”). The main panel of the program is defined in the souce code file SubKillerPanel. where the state plays an even bigger role. The response of a state machine to an event or input depends on what state it’s in. You can drop the bomb by hitting the down arrow key.) In computer science. If the bomb falls off the bottom of the screen. there is the idea of a state machine. An applet that uses this panel can be found in SubKillerApplet. Try it! Make sure to hit the sub at least once. I decided to represent the boat. the depth charge. you can ask yourself: What information about state do I need to keep track of? What events can change the state of the program? How will my response to a given event depend on the current state? Should the appearance of the GUI be changed to reflect a change in state? How should the paintComponent() method take the state into account? All this is an alternative to the top-down.6. Sometimes. we’ll look at another example. The state machine point of view can be especially useful in the type of event-oriented programming that is required by graphical user interfaces. You can try out the applet in the on-line version of this section. and the submarine as objects. First of all. The program shows a black “submarine” near the bottom of the panel.java.java. Let’s think about how this program can be programmed. In this example. squareLeft. there is a blue “boat”. and each object has its own state which is represented by the instance variables in . a new sub is created and you get a new bomb. shown above. TIMER AND KEYBOARD EVENTS 271 is. They are changed in the two key-event-handling methods. which does not apply to the overall design of an event-oriented program. Here is what it looks like: You have to click on the panel to give it the input focus. An object is a kind of state machine. while the stand-alone application version is SubKiller. this point of view can be very useful in designing classes.java. In the rest of this section. step-wise-refinement style of program design. If the submarine explodes. the state of the program is recorded in the instance variables squareColor. Near the top. since we are doing object-oriented programming. Each of these objects is defined by a separate nested class inside the main panel class.

The difference is represented by another boolean variable. and it is represented by a boolean variable. Now. so I need variables to store the positions. Sometimes.272 CHAPTER 6. the sub is exploding. the sub switches between moving to the left and moving to the right. and sometimes it’s not. and bomb. these variables are changing because of an animation. possibly less obvious? Well. At random times. The action listener for the timer calls these methods with the statements boat. While an explosion is in progress. as the sub moves left and right. Also. The boat. the state variables that specify its position are changing. and sub objects each contain an updateForNextFrame() method that updates the state variables of the object to get ready for the next frame of the animation. That is. There is a 1 in 25 chance that Math. An explosion is something that takes place over a series of frames. so that the panel will be redrawn to reflect its new state. Each time an event is generated by the timer. This is also part of the state. bomb. the explosion ends and isExploding is reset to false. and that animation is driven by a timer. The action listener also calls repaint(). If the bomb hits the sub. However.updateForNewFrame(). submarine. Since there are two possibilities. Of course. bomb. this is checked in a . INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING the corresponding class. and the isFalling variable of the bomb becomes false. sometimes the bomb is falling. The isFalling variable also becomes false when the bomb falls off the bottom of the screen. then the isExploding variable of the sub changes to true. In addition to changes in state that take place from one frame to the next. on the average. Sometimes the submarine is moving left and sometimes it is moving right. sub.04. sub. The effect of this statement is to reverse the value of isMovingLeft. I need to know when the explosion is over so that I can go back to moving and drawing the sub as usual. The sub’s updateForNewFrame() method includes the lines if ( Math. the sub looks different in each frame. and submarine objects.isMovingLeft. the state includes the positions of the boat. and sub in the panel class to refer to the boat. the explosions require a little more thought. sub. I represent this aspect of the state with a boolean variable in the bomb object. How and when do the values of these state variables change? Some of them seem to change on their own: For example. bomb.random() will be less than 0. what constitutes the “state” of the program? That is. Its direction of motion is recorded in the sub’s isMovingLeft variable. then its y-coordinate increases from one frame to the next. In the program.isFalling. and when it reaches a certain value. as the size of the explosion increases. I use variables boat. The changes are made by the action listener that listens for events from the timer. the value of this variable is used only when an explosion is in progress. sub.isExploding.explosionFrameNumber to record how many frames have been drawn since the explosion started. some of the state variables have to change to get ready for the next frame of the animation. bomb. in addition to the position of the sub: If the bomb is falling. Anything else. then its explosionFrameNumber increases from one frame to the next. I use an integer variable. If the sub is exploding. the direction of motion of the sub is reversed.04 ) isMovingLeft = ! isMovingLeft.updateForNewFrame(). a few state variables change when the user presses certain keys. from false to true or from true to false. so the statement “isMovingLeft = ! isMovingLeft” is executed in one in every twenty-five frames. That is a difference in state.random() < 0.updateForNewFrame(). There are several state variables that change in these update methods. So. bomb. what things change from time to time and affect the appearance or behavior of the program? Of course.

5. key events from the user.updateForNewFrame() method. // which key was pressed. to respond to action events from the timer.) The timer runs only when the panel has the input focus. And it nicely illustrates how to apply state-machine thinking in event-oriented programming.6. but I choose to check for this in another routine. if ( bomb. I encourage you to read the source code in SubKillerPanel. 6. if it is not already falling.updateForNewFrame() method. in the boat object. you’ve seen how to use a graphics context to draw on the screen and how to handle mouse events and keyboard events. you would either be doing a lot . However.6 In Basic Components preceding sections. the bomb changes from not-falling to falling. } else if (code == KeyEvent. and mouse events. you have nothing more to learn. since this panel shows an animation that is constantly being redrawn anyway. I could have done this in keyPressed().java. its // position will be adjusted in the boat. this is programmed by having the focus listener start the timer when the panel gains the input focus and stop the timer when the panel loses the input focus.6.isFalling = true. I have to make sure that the user does not move the boat off the screen. Any changes in the state will become visible to the user as soon as the next frame is drawn.4. (See Subsection 6.centerX += 15. BASIC COMPONENTS 273 method that responds to user keystrokes.) boat. If you’re willing to program all the drawing and handle all the mouse and keyboard events. its // position will be adjusted in the boat. Note how the state of each of the three objects in the program changes in response to events from the timer and from the user.isFalling == false ) bomb. If the user presses the down arrow key.centerX -= 15.VK RIGHT) { // Move the boat right.VK LEFT) { // Move the boat left. This is coded in the keyPressed()method of a KeyListener that is registered to listen for key events on the panel.) boat. Although a few points are tricky. (If this moves the boat out of the frame. (If this moves boat out of the frame. } } Note that it’s not necessary to call repaint() when the state changes.getKeyCode(). that method reads as follows: public void keyPressed(KeyEvent evt) { int code = evt. Try to understand the program in terms of state machines. (The mouse is used only to request the input focus when the user clicks the panel.VK DOWN) { // Start the bomb falling. You should also note that the program uses four listeners. the position of the boat is changed. At some point in the program. if (code == KeyEvent. focus events. If the user presses the left or right arrow key. you should with some effort be able to read and understand the entire program. that’s all there is to GUI programming.) While it’s not at all sophisticated as arcade games go. the SubKiller game does use some interesting programming. All four listeners are created in the constructor of the SubKillerPanel class using anonymous inner classes. In one sense. } else if (code == KeyEvent.

and menus. When it is disabled. the button is triggered. its size is zero. The size will be set later. Consider one of the simplest user interface components. such as in a constructor. and focus events on its own. If the button has the focus and the user presses the space bar. This means that the button must respond to keyboard and focus events as well. The event object is sent to any registered listeners to tell them that the button has been pushed. or you would be limiting yourself to very simple user interfaces. in pixels. the button changes to its regular appearance. If the user moves the mouse outside the push button before releasing the mouse button. the button changes appearance while the mouse button is pressed and changes back when the mouse button is released.3.JButton. ∗ ∗ ∗ The standard components that are defined as part of the Swing graphical user interface API are defined by subclasses of the class JComponent. it is necessary to respond to mouse exit or mouse drag events. keyboard. the JButton object creates an event object belonging to the class java.274 CHAPTER 6.setVisible(true) and comp. Your program gets only the information it needs—the fact that a button was pushed.event. and they can handle the details of processing the mouse and keyboard events that concern them. • comp.3. Furthermore. • comp. In fact.setFont(font) sets the font that is used for text displayed on the component. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING more work than you need to do. A JButton object draws itself and processes mouse. Fortunately.isEnabled() that you can call to discover whether the component is enabled. a push button. and the user cannot do anything with it. so you don’t have to duplicate the work involved in developing them. • comp. probably by a layout manager. (Note that this includes the JPanel class that we have already been working with extensively. • comp.setEnabled(true) and comp.getWidth() and comp. and it displays some text. you don’t have to program any of this.) Many useful methods are defined in the Component and JComponent classes and so can be used with any Swing component. This text can be changed.ActionEvent. it’s more complicated than that. on many platforms. See Subsection 6. A typical user interface uses standard GUI components such as buttons. Sometimes the button is disabled. . so that clicking on it doesn’t have any effect. These components have already been written for you. They know how to draw themselves.setVisible(false) can be called to hide or show the component. There is a boolean-valued function. You only hear from the Button when the user triggers it by clicking on it or pressing the space bar while the button has the input focus. When this happens.2. Then the following methods can be used: • comp. scroll bars. When the user clicks on the push button.setEnabled(false) can be used to enable and disable the component. Suppose that comp is a variable that refers to some JComponent. its appearance might change. One warning: When a component is first created. The button has a border.getHeight() are functions that give the current size of the component.setForeground(color) set the background and foreground colors for the component. text-input boxes. provided you use an object belonging to the standard class javax. its appearance changes. A common mistake is to check the size of a component before that size has been set. We begin by looking at a few of these methods.setBackground(color) and comp. a button can receive the input focus. See Subsection 6.3 for a discussion of fonts. The button changes appearance when it has the focus. comp. To implement this. When a component is disabled. which is itself a subclass of Component.awt.swing.

setOpaque(true) tells the component that the area occupied by the component should be filled with the component’s background color before the content of the component is painted. where an object of type Dimension has two public integer-valued instance variables. The preferred size is used as a hint by layout managers.6. The component object must be created with a constructor. a listener must be registered to respond to events from the component. In many cases.2. but will not be respected in all cases. • comp. but it can be useful to set it in some cases. only JLabels are non-opaque. The parameter is of type java. To use any component effectively. • Listeners: An object that wants to handle events generated by buttons must implement the ActionListener interface. if you use a JPanel as a drawing surface. This creates a button object that will display the text. but we consider them in much more detail here. • Registration of Listeners: In order to actually receive notification of an event from a button. Note that using any component is a multi-step process. the button generates an event of type ActionEvent. For example. For example: stopGoButton = new JButton("Go"). A call to this method usually looks something like “setPreferredSize( new Dimension(100. “Go” (but remember that the button must still be added to a container before it can appear on the screen). It must be added to a container. which is called to notify the object of an action event.setPreferredSize(size) sets the size at which the component should be displayed. it might be a good idea to set a preferred size for it. 6. This is done with the but- .50) )”. You’ve already seen buttons used in Section 6. In the next section we will consider the problem of laying out components in containers. The tool tip is displayed if the mouse cursor is in the component and the mouse is not moved for a few seconds. In this section. And in some cases.Dimension. an ActionListener must be registered with the button. a reference to the component must be saved in an instance variable so that the component can be manipulated by the program after it has been created. component ignores its background color and simply paints its content over the content of its container. BASIC COMPONENTS 275 • comp.6. Standard components generally compute a correct preferred size automatically.awt.1 JButton An object of class JButton is a push button that the user can click to trigger some action. width and height. A non-opaque.1 and Section 6. if possible. This interface defines just one method. I list these aspects explicitly: • Constructors: The JButton class has a constructor that takes a string as a parameter. • comp. there are several aspects of the corresponding class that you should be familiar with. For JButton. “public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt)”. This event is sent to any listener that has been registered with the button as an ActionListener.6. The tool tip should give some information about the meaning of the component or how to use it.setToolTipText(string) sets the specified string as a “tool tip” for the component. This usually means that it inherits the background color from its container. • Events: When the user clicks on a button. By default. or “transparent”. as an example. This string becomes the text displayed on the button. we will look at a few of the basic standard components that are available in Swing.

since otherwise the JLabel might not fill in its background. such as setEnabled() and setFont(). although it can be changed by your program.setBackground(Color. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING ton’s addActionListener() method. stopGoButton. // Make sure background is filled in.. For example: JLabel message = new JLabel("Hello World!".setActionCommand("sgb") changes the action command associated to this button for action events. JLabel.. because other types of components can also produce ActionEvents. The return value is of type Object. There is another constructor that specifies where in the label the text is located. // in a big bold font.276 CHAPTER 6. that is. The text cannot be edited by the user.getSource() returns a reference to the Object that produced the event. Since the JLabel class is a subclass of JComponent.getActionCommand() returns a String giving the command associated with the button.6. // on a black background. // Display red text. JLabel.RED). you can’t click on me now!” 6. JLabel. the parameter.LEFT.addActionListener( buttonHandler ).Font. message. evt. You can change the text displayed in a label by calling the label’s setText() method: message. The method evt.18)). not JButton. • Event methods: When actionPerformed(evt) is called by the button. An object of type JLabel exists just to display a line of text. The constructor for a JLabel specifies the text to be displayed: JLabel message = new JLabel("Hello World!"). The possible alignments are given by the constants JLabel. This information can be retrieved by calling methods in the ActionEvent class. JLabel message = new JLabel("Hello World!". If you want the background color to have any effect. message.2 JLabel JLabel is certainly the simplest type of component.CENTER).setOpaque(true). creates a label whose text is centered in the available space. you should call setOpaque(true) on the label. but it is possible to set it to some other string. contains information about the event. if there is extra space.setText("Stop") changes the text displayed on the button to “Stop”. evt..CENTER). . For example. In particular.setFont(new Font("Serif".setForeground(Color. message. JButtons also have all the general Component methods. And stopGoButton. The setEnabled() and setText() methods of a button are particularly useful for giving the user information about what is going on in the program.. A disabled button is better than a button that gives an obnoxious error message such as “Sorry.RIGHT. and JLabel. • Component methods: Several useful methods are defined in the JButton class. you can use methods such as setForeground() with labels.CENTER. For example.setText("Goodbye World!"). this command is the text that is displayed on the button. to the JButton that was pressed.BLACK). For example: stopGoButton. Of course.BOLD. By default. message.

which is specified when the box is constructed: JCheckBox showTime = new JCheckBox("Show Current Time"). then your actionPerformed() method might look like this: public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) { Object source = evt.isSelected().6. To uncheck the box. the action command is. cb1 or cb2.getSource() in the actionPerformed() method to find out which object generated the event.6. if you know that the event had to come from one of two checkboxes. which returns a boolean value. and you can detect this event and respond to it if you want something to happen at the moment the state changes. // respond to the change of state } else if (source == cb2) { boolean newState = cb2.getActionCommand() to retrieve the action command associated with the source.. The state of a checkbox is represented by a boolean value that is true if the box is selected and false if the box is unselected. you must register an ActionListener with the checkbox by calling its addActionListener() method. if you are only listening for events from one component.) When handling an ActionEvent. which simulates a user click on the checkbox and does generate an ActionEvent.. no ActionEvent is generated. // respond to the change of state } } Alternatively. You can determine the current state of a checkbox by calling its isSelected() method. Once you know the object that generated the event. If you want something to happen when the user changes the state. . doClick(). However. A checkbox has a label. For example. there is another method in the JCheckBox class.setSelected(false)". However. if (source == cb1) { boolean newState = cb1. you would say “showTime. you can ask the object to tell you its current state. it generates an event of type ActionEvent. say “showTime. For example. . the label of the checkbox. but you can also set the state in your program. BASIC COMPONENTS 277 6.3 JCheckBox A JCheckBox is a component that has two states: selected or unselected. you don’t need to worry about events from checkboxes. . it’s the user who sets the state of a JCheckBox.) The returned value is of type Object. if you want the checkbox showTime to be checked. but you can type-cast it to another type if you want. In many cases.getSource(). you don’t have to do this. The user can change the state of a check box by clicking on it.. by default.setSelected(true)".isSelected(). a checkbox does generate an event when its state is changed by the user. When the state of a checkbox is changed by the user. you can use evt. you can call evt. (Note that if you change the state by calling the setSelected() method. Your program can just check the state whenever it needs to know it by calling the isSelected() method. For a JCheckBox.. The current state of a checkbox is set using its setSelected(boolean) method. (Of course. Usually.6.

For example. JTextComponent.4 JTextField and JTextArea The JTextField and JTextArea classes represent components that contain text that can be edited by the user. textComponent. there is no space between the text in a text component and the edge of the component. By default. This is used to determine the preferred width of the text field. You can use the setMargin() method of the component to add some blank space between the edge of the component and the text. I usually call requestFocus() on the text field that contains the error. the actual number of characters visible in the text field might not be equal to columns. left.setMargin( new Insets(5. You can also use the following constructors. You can do this by calling its requestFocus() method. If you want to stop the user from modifying the text. which returns a value of type String. int columns). In that case. The user can only type into a text component when it has the input focus. A JTextField holds a single line of text. This helps the user see where the error occurred and lets the user start typing the correction immediately.) You don’t have to specify the number of columns. public JTextField(String contents. ∗ ∗ ∗ The JTextField class has a constructor public JTextField(int columns) where columns is an integer that specifies the number of characters that should be visible in the text field. The constructors for a JTextArea are public public public public JTextArea() JTextArea(int rows. which takes a parameter of type String. which defines their common properties.Insets which contains four integer instance variables that specify the margins on the top. Call the same method with a parameter of true to make the input component user-editable again.278 CHAPTER 6. int rows. It is also possible to set a JTextField or JTextArea to be read-only so that the user can read the text that it contains but cannot edit the text. which usually doesn’t look very good. For example.6. and right edge of the component. you might use the text field in a context where it will expand to fill whatever space is available. adds a five-pixel margin between the text in textComponent and each edge of the component. The contents of the component can be retrieved by calling its getText() instance method. you can call setEditable(false).awt. can be used to change the text that is displayed in an input component. int columns) JTextArea(String contents) JTextArea(String contents. The instance method setText(). This method takes a parameter of type java. JTextField and JTextArea have many methods in common. (Because characters can be of different sizes and because the preferred width is not always respected. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 6.5. which specify the initial contents of the text field: public JTextField(String contents). The user can give the input focus to a text component by clicking it with the mouse.5.5) ). for example. int columns) . Both classes are subclasses of an abstract class. while a JTextArea can hold multiple lines. bottom. but sometimes it is useful to give the input focus to a text field programmatically. you can use the constructor JTextField(). with no parameters. when I discover an error in the user’s input.

obviously. (When using append() or setText() to add text to a JTextArea. If you want to respond to such events. pressing return in a text area does not generate an event. where moreText is of type String. In that case. you might expect a text area to come with scroll bars. and only the currently selected option is visible on the screen. Text components are actually quite complex.) And setLineWrap(wrap). If wrap is true. line breaks can be inserted in the text by using the newline character. you have to put the JTextArea inside another component. The characters in a JPasswordField are all displayed as asterisks (or some other fixed character). Since it might be necessary to scroll a text area to see all the text that it contains. It is common to use a JTextArea as the CENTER component of a BorderLayout.5 JComboBox The JComboBox class provides a way to let the user select one option from a list of options. just as columns determines the preferred width. the text area can be scrolled to reveal lines that are not currently visible. The scroll bars will appear only when needed. To get scroll bars for a text area.4. an ActionEvent is generated.6. it initially contains no items. this does not happen automatically. designed to let the user enter a password without showing that password on the screen. to the container. This can be done as follows: JTextArea inputArea = new JTextArea(). it is less useful to specify the number of lines and columns. Unfortunately. the instance method append(moreText).6. which is identical except that it does not reveal the text that it contains. An item is added to the bottom of the list of options by calling the combo box’s instance method. The JTextArea class adds a few useful methods to those inherited from JTextComponent. I will return to the topic of text components in Subsection 12. you can register an ActionListener with the text field. using the text field’s addActionListener() method. then any line that is too long will be “wrapped” onto the next line. and I have covered only their most basic properties here. For example. When a JComboBox object is first constructed. However. Note that when you want to put the text area into a container. ∗ ∗ ∗ When the user is typing in a JTextField and presses return. if wrap is false.6. the text area can actually contain any number of lines. not the text area itself. BASIC COMPONENTS 279 The parameter rows specifies how many lines of text should be visible in the text area. A password field is. 6. that is when the size of the text exceeds the size of the text area. addItem(str). The scroll pane provides scroll bars that can be used to scroll the text in the text area. JPasswordField. the line will simply extend outside the text area. and the user will have to scroll the text area horizontally to see the entire line. called a JScrollPane. The default value of wrap is false. where str is the string that will be displayed in the menu. where wrap is of type boolean. ’\n’. since the TextArea will expand to fill all the space available in the center area of the container. This determines the preferred height of the text area. The options are presented as a kind of pop-up menu.4. is simply begins a new line of text.) JTextField has a subclass. (Since a JTextArea can contain multiple lines of text. . JScrollPane scroller = new JScrollPane( inputArea ). you should add the scroll pane. tells what should happen when a line of text is too long to be displayed in the text area. adds the specified text at the end of the current content of the text area.

However.) You can change the selection by calling the method setSelectedIndex(n). int maximum.6 JSlider A JSlider provides a way for the user to select an integer value from a range of possible values. If you do this. then the getSelectedIndex() method will return the value -1. (This method returns a value of type Object. and getSelectedItem() will return the string that the user typed.) If the user has edited the selection in this way. You can call the getSelectedIndex() method of a JComboBox to find out which item is currently selected. colorChoice. you can call getSelectedItem() to get the selected item itself. like other components that we have seen. the user can edit the selection by clicking on the JComboBox and typing. This picture shows three sliders with different decorations and with different ranges of values: Here. Blue. colorChoice. It’s possible for a single slider to have both types of decorations.addItem("Red"). A slider can.addItem("Black"). The most common way to use a JComboBox is to call its getSelectedIndex() method when you have a need to know which item is currently selected. colorChoice. optionally. This method returns an integer that gives the position of the selected item in the list. be decorated with tick marks and with labels.6. The user does this by dragging a “knob” along a bar. JComboBoxes have a nifty feature. colorChoice. the following code will create an object of type JComboBox that contains the options Red. Green. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING For example. int value) . since a JComboBox can actually hold other types of objects besides strings. You can register an ActionListener with the JComboBox if you want to respond to such events as they occur. This allows the user to make a selection that is not in the pre-configured list that you provide.addItem("Green"). Alternatively. You can make a JComboBox “editable” by calling its method setEditable(true). the second slider is decorated with ticks. The most commonly used constructor for JSliders specifies the start and end of the range of values for the slider and its initial value when it first appears on the screen: public JSlider(int minimum. (The “Combo” in the name “JComboBox” refers to the fact that it’s a kind of combination of menu and text-input box. and Black: JComboBox colorChoice = new JComboBox().280 CHAPTER 6. JComboBox components generate ActionEvents when the user selects an item. An ActionEvent is triggered if the user presses return while typing in the JComboBox. 6.addItem("Blue"). and the third one is decorated with labels. where n is an integer giving the position of the item that you want to select. which is probably not all that useful in practice. where the items are numbered starting from zero.

slider3.2006). A ChangeListener must provide a definition for the method: public void stateChanged(ChangeEvent evt) This method will be called whenever the value of the slider changes. the third slider in the above picture was created and configured with the commands: slider3 = new JSlider(2000. max. but the JSlider class has a method to simplify it. but you can make it vertical by calling its method setOrientation(JSlider. setMajorTickSpacing(i). which takes a parameter of type int. slider2.) slider2. 100.swing.6.createStandardLabels(i) ). they generate events of type ChangeEvent. and you must register the change listener with the slider by calling its addChangeListener() method. the values 0.addChangeListener(this). There are actually two types of tick marks. (The spacing is in terms of values on the slider. do not generate ActionEvents. For example. you should import javax. slider3. slider2. You can have one or the other or both. where i is an integer giving the spacing between the labels.setMajorTickSpacing(25).swing.* at the beginning of your program. you can register a listener with the slider. You also have to call setPaintTicks(true).event. as well as when the user changes the value. and value. The parameter is an integer.event. you can do so with the method setValue(n). You have to specify the labels and tell the slider to paint them. BASIC COMPONENTS 281 If the parameters are omitted. The method setMinorTickSpacing(i) indicates that there should be a minor tick mark every i units along the slider.setLabelTable( sldr. Major tick marks are a bit longer than minor tick marks.getSource() to find out which object generated the event. The current value of a JSlider can be read at any time with its getValue() method. Specifying labels is a tricky business.awt. “major” tick marks and “minor” tick marks.VERTICAL).setPaintTicks(true). ChangeEvent and related classes are defined in the package javax. which returns a value of type int. you can call evt. Calling these methods is not enough to make the tick marks appear. a slider is horizontal. You can create a set of labels and add them to a slider named sldr with the command: sldr.) For the major tick marks. unlike other components we have seen. call setPaintLabels(true). .setPaintLabels(true).2100. Instead. For example. You must also define some object to implement the ChangeListener interface. To arrange for the labels to be displayed. JSliders. and tell the slider that the tick marks should be displayed. (Note that it will also be called when you change the value with the setValue() method. and 50 are used. slider2. so if you want to use ChangeEvents. If you want to respond immediately when the user changes the value of a slider. there is a similar command. Using tick marks on a slider is a two-step process: Specify the interval between the tick marks. // (Uses default min.setMinorTickSpacing(5). slider3.event rather than java. If you want to change the value.addChangeListener(this). Labels on a slider are handled similarly.6. By default. the second slider in the above picture was created and configured using the commands: slider2 = new JSlider().setLabelTable( slider3.) In the stateChanged() method. not pixels.createStandardLabels(50) ).

In this section. The components in a container must be “laid out. . INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 6. that takes a parameter of type LayoutManager and that is used to specify the layout manager that will be responsible for laying out any components that are added to the container. especially if you don’t assume a fixed size for the drawing area. deciding where they are drawn and how big they are. The content pane of a JApplet or JFrame is an example of a container. You have probably noticed that computing coordinates can be a difficult problem. Containers in Java are objects that belong to some subclass of java.” which means setting their sizes and positions. Components are added to a container by calling an instance method named add() in the container object. Because a JPanel object is a container.282 CHAPTER 6. you can add a JPanel to another JPanel. Different types of layout manager implement different policies. Another aspect of GUI programming is laying out components on the screen. which can hold other components. and then we will look at several programming examples that use components and layout. Because a JPanel is itself a component.7 Basic Layout But you have to do more with components besides create them. which we have mostly used as a drawing surface up till now. It’s possible to program the layout yourself. There are actually several versions of the add() method. Every container has an instance method. Some components are containers. we will cover the three most common types of layout manager. A layout manager is an object associated with a container that implements some policy for laying out the components in that container. JPanels can be used to organize complicated user interfaces. as we will see below. but ordinarily layout is done by a layout manager . Components are the visible objects that make up a GUI. that is.Container. setLayout(). Different versions of add() are appropriate for different layout managers. This makes complex nesting of components possible. it can hold other components. is another example of a container. with different parameter lists. as well. Java has a solution for this.awt. as shown in this illustration: Components are the fundamental building blocks of a graphical user interface. The standard class JPanel.

add(button3). then the components on each row will be centered and both the horizontal and the vertical gaps will be five pixels. panel.add(button5). int hgap. and FlowLayout. The possible values of align are FlowLayout.6. and GridLayout. can be added to the container with the statement cntr. When a container uses a layout manager.RIGHT. A FlowLayout simply lines up components in a row across the container. Suppose that cntr is a container object that is using a FlowLayout as its layout manager.CENTER.1 Basic Layout Managers Java has a variety of standard layout managers that can be used as parameters in the setLayout() method. The FlowLayout will line up all the components that have been added to the container in this way.add(comp). A FlowLayout prefers to put its components in a single row. The size of each component is equal to that component’s “preferred size. a component.awt. they are arranged in two rows. The buttons were added to the panel using the statements: panel. and there can be horizontal and vertical gaps between components. a JPanel uses a FlowLayout unless you specify a different layout manager by calling the panel’s setLayout() method. the buttons are grouped together and are centered in the row. The default layout for a JPanel is a FlowLayout. panel. If the default constructor. BorderLayout.7. right-aligned. ∗ ∗ ∗ .add(button2). plus the horizontal gaps between the components. int vgap) can be used to specify alternative alignment and gaps. comp. panel. is used. this picture shows five buttons in a panel that uses a FlowLayout: Note that since the five buttons will not fit in a single row across the panel. For example. In each row. BASIC LAYOUT 283 6. Then. “new FlowLayout()”. FlowLayout. Here. or centered within that row. the layout manager will move on to the next row. that is. we will look at just three of these layout manager classes: FlowLayout. so the preferred width is the total of the preferred widths of all the components.LEFT.add(button1).” After laying out as many items as will fit in a row across the container.add(button4). The constructor public FlowLayout(int align. the layout manager is ordinarily responsible for computing the preferred size of the container (although a different preferred size could be set by calling the container’s setPreferredSize method). The components in a given row can be either left-aligned. They are defined by classes in the package java.7. panel. The preferred height is the maximum preferred height of all the components. They will be lined up in the order in which they were added.

comp.setLayout(new BorderLayout(5.SOUTH. The default layout for the original content pane that comes with a JFrame or JApplet is a BorderLayout with no horizontal or vertical gap. The default constructor.CENTER. A grid layout lays out components in a grid of equal sized rectangles. but wouldn’t make much sense in the EAST or WEST position. but their width is set equal to the full width of the container. where borderLayoutPosition specifies what position the component should occupy in the layout and is given as one of the constants BorderLayout. BorderLayout. then a component. You should make sure that the components that you put into a BorderLayout are suitable for the positions that they will occupy. so that not all five of the possible positions need to be filled. borderLayoutPosition ). A horizontal slider or text field. BorderLayout. A BorderLayout selects the sizes of its components as follows: The NORTH and SOUTH components (if present) are shown at their preferred heights. but their height is set to the height of the container. central component. would work well in the NORTH or SOUTH position.NORTH. The meaning of the five positions is shown in this diagram: Note that a border layout can contain fewer than five components. you can specify horizontal and vertical gaps in the constructor of the BorderLayout object.add( comp. for example. If a container. Finally. should be added to the container using a statement of the form cntr. leaves no space between components. the preferred size of the CENTER component is completely ignored. BorderLayout. with up to four smaller components arranged along the edges of the central component. new BorderLayout(). is using a BorderLayout.EAST. This illustration shows how the components would be arranged in a grid layout with 3 rows and 2 columns: . minus the space occupied by the NORTH and SOUTH components. For example.7)). then the layout manager will insert horizontal gaps of 5 pixels between components and vertical gaps of 7 pixels between components. the CENTER component takes up any remaining space. or BorderLayout. If you would like to leave some space. ∗ ∗ ∗ Finally. we consider the GridLayout layout manager.WEST. The EAST and WEST components are shown at their preferred widths. cntr. if you say panel. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING A BorderLayout layout manager is designed to display one large.284 CHAPTER 6. The background color of the container will show through in these gaps.

0)". button2. The panel can be created as follows: JPanel buttonBar = new JPanel().C. If you want to depend on this behavior. buttonBar.H. with a single column.2 Borders We have seen how to leave gaps between the components in a container. In fact.add(button3). then the buttons will completely fill that panel and will all be the same size. with just as many rows as necessary to hold the components that are added to the container. Horizontal grids.BorderFactory contains a large number of static methods for creating border objects. but what if you would like to leave a border around the outside of the container? This problem is not handled by layout managers. The system will use the specified number of columns. You might find this button bar to be more attractive than the one that uses the default FlowLayout layout manager. use “new GridLayout(R. Instead. each row is filled from left to right before going on the next row. the function . BASIC LAYOUT 285 If a container uses a GridLayout. The constructor for a GridLayout takes the form “new GridLayout(R. // To leave gaps between the buttons. suppose that button1.add(button1). Components are added to the grid in the order shown.swing. are very common. For example. and button3 are buttons and that you’d like to display them in a horizontal row in a panel.3) ). you could use // "new GridLayout(1. buttonBar.) buttonBar. If you want to leave horizontal gaps of H pixels between columns and vertical gaps of V pixels between rows.5)". and vertical grids.C)”. A Border object can be added to any JComponent. However.6. as long as you specify a non-zero value for the number of rows. the appropriate add method for the container takes a single parameter of type Component (for example: cntr. this is not required.add(comp)).V)” instead. buttonBar. you must give a non-zero number of columns.7. you should probably specify zero as the number of columns. In that case.5. that is.add(button2). and // you could also say "new GridLayout(1. it’s probably good form to add just enough components to fill the grid. The system will use just as many columns as are necessary to hold all the components that you add to the container.7. with a single row. borders in Swing are represented by objects. where R is the number of rows and C is the number of columns.0. then the number of columns is essentially ignored. // (Note: The "3" here is pretty much ignored. For example. not just to containers. The class javax. You can also specify the number of rows as zero.setLayout( new GridLayout(1. If you use a horizontal grid for the panel. 6. Borders can be more than just empty space. When you use a GridLayout.

There are many other methods in the BorderFactory class. However. If the second parameter is omitted. The first parameter is of type Color and specifies the color of the line. and right edges of the component.bottom. The text in each component is the command that created the border for that component: .thickness) — draws a line around all four edges of a component.createLineBorder(Color. It can also be useful on a JLabel. which otherwise would not have any space between the text and the edge of the label. • BorderFactory.createMatteBorder(top.color) — is similar to createLineBorder. just inside its boundary.right.BLACK) ). without any further effort on the part of the programmer.createLineBorder(Color. This is actually very useful when used on a JPanel that contains other components.left. bottom. Nothing is drawn in this space.left.right) — leaves an empty border around the edges of a component. • BorderFactory.286 CHAPTER 6. a border can be added to comp using its setBorder() method.createEmptyBorder(top. but the component looks like it is raised above the computer screen. The parameters are integers that give the width of the border along the top. The title is a String. As with an EtchedBorder. For example: comp. I don’t recommend using a border on a JPanel that is being used as a drawing surface. • BorderFactory.createRaisedBevelBorder()—similar to a LoweredBevelBorder. left. so the background color of the component will appear in the area occupied by the border.setBorder( BorderFactory. If you draw in the area occupied by the border. The layout manager of a JPanel or other container will take the space occupied by the border into account. The following illustration shows six components with six different border styles. which is displayed in the upper left corner of the border.bottom. The border is drawn along the edges of the component. It puts some space between the components and the edge of the panel. you should take the border into account. The components that are added to the container will be displayed in the area inside the border. this only works well for certain background colors. When a border has been set for a JComponent. and it does not work well with every background color. The effect is achieved using lighter and darker shades of the component’s background color.createEtchedBorder() — creates a border that looks like a groove etched around the boundary of the component. • BorderFactory.createLoweredBevelBorder()—gives a component a three-dimensional effect that makes it look like it is lowered into the computer screen. The second parameter is an integer that specifies the thickness of the border. left. • BorderFactory. and right edges of the component.createTitledBorder(title)—creates a border with a title. a line of thickness 1 is drawn. • BorderFactory. most of them providing variations of the basic border styles given here. the border is drawn automatically.BLACK) returns an object that represents a one-pixel wide black line around the outside of a component. that part of your drawing will be covered by the border. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING BorderFactory. if you do this.createLineBorder(color. bottom. except that you can specify individual thicknesses for the top. Here are some of the static methods that can be used to create borders: • BorderFactory. If comp is a JComponent.

200). it’s time to put them together into some complete programs.255. In the constructor. BASIC LAYOUT 287 (The source code for the applet that produced this picture can be found in BorderDemo. as shown in this picture: The sliders in this applet control the foreground and background color of the label. so the panel itself can act as the listener for change events from the sliders and action events from the combo box.) 6. */ bgColorSlider = new JSlider(0. fgColorSlider = new JSlider(0.100). and a couple of JSliders.java. fgColorSlider.7. and the combo box controls its font style. . all laid out in a GridLayout.addChangeListener(this).addChangeListener(this). We start with a simple demo that uses a JLabel. a JComboBox.3 SliderAndComboBoxDemo Now that we have looked at components and layouts. the four components are created and configured. Writing this program is a matter of creating the components. This class implements ChangeListener and ActionListener. laying them out. and the components are added to the panel: /* Create the sliders. and programming listeners to respond to events from the sliders and combo box. bgColorSlider. In my program. a GridLayout is installed as the layout manager for the panel. I define a subclass of JPanel which will be used for the applet’s content pane.7.6. and set up this panel to listen for ChangeEvents that are generated by the sliders.255.

The method checks evt. case 3: displayLabel. 200) ).setForeground( new Color(255. fontStyleSelect.getSource() to determine which slider was changed: . /* Create the display label. JLabel.ITALIC. 30) ).setFont( new Font("Serif". /* Set the layout for the panel. add(fontStyleSelect). */ displayLabel = new JLabel("Hello World!".setBackground( new Color(100. break.setFont( new Font("Serif". add(fgColorSlider).addItem("Bold Italic Font").setSelectedIndex(2). displayLabel. } } And the stateChanged() method. fontStyleSelect.addItem("Plain Font").288 CHAPTER 6.100. 30) ).CENTER). The class also defines the methods required by the ActionListener and ChangeListener interfaces. which is called when the user manipulates one of the sliders. 30) ). and add the four components. displayLabel. The actionPerformed() method is called when the user selects an item in the combo box.BOLD. Font.BOLD + Font. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING /* Create the combo box. 30) ).addItem("Bold Font"). and add four items to it.ITALIC. Font. displayLabel. add(bgColorSlider). fontStyleSelect.addActionListener(this).BOLD. with properties to match the values of the sliders and the setting of the combo box. listing different font styles. where the font depends on which item is currently selected in the combo box. fontStyleSelect. break. Font. 30) ). add(displayLabel). case 1: displayLabel.100) ). */ fontStyleSelect = new JComboBox(). */ setLayout(new GridLayout(4.setFont( new Font("Serif". fontStyleSelect. Use a GridLayout with 4 rows and 1 column. Font. fontStyleSelect. displayLabel.PLAIN. This method changes the font in the JLabel. Font. case 2: displayLabel.1)). 200.setFont( new Font("Serif".setOpaque(true).getSelectedIndex() ) { case 0: displayLabel. break. Set up the panel to listen for ActionEvents from the combo box. fontStyleSelect: public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) { switch ( fontStyleSelect.setFont( new Font("Serif". uses the value on the slider to compute a new foreground or background color for the label. break.addItem("Italic Font").

a subpanel that is nested inside the main panel.add(xInput).) 6.5.1. // // // // // Create a text field sized to hold 10 chars. fgVal) ). multiply. . Add the text field to the subpanel Add the subpanel to the main panel. xPanel. we look briefly at an example that uses nested subpanels to build a more complex user interface. } else { int fgVal = fgColorSlider.6. Add a label to the subpanel. subtract.3.getValue(). This subpanel in turn contains the label and text field. } } 289 (The complete source code is in the file SliderAndComboBoxDemo.java.3)). In this case. // NOTE: The background color is a shade of gray. fgVal. and a JLabel that displays the result of the operation: Like the previous example.4 A Simple Calculator As our next example. BASIC LAYOUT public void stateChanged(ChangeEvent evt) { if (evt. Create the subpanel. A grid layout can only only have one component in each position.bgVal.getSource() == bgColorSlider) { int bgVal = bgColorSlider.add( new JLabel(" x = ")). displayLabel.setForeground( new Color( 255. // Note: The foreground color ranges from pure red to pure // white as the slider value increases from 0 to 255. four JButtons that the user can click to add.5) ). displayLabel.7.getValue(). xPanel. which allows a 3-pixel gap between the rows where the gray background color of the panel is visible.5. // determined by the setting on the slider. This can be programmed as follows: xInput = new JTextField("0". The gray border around the edges of the panel is added with the statement setBorder( BorderFactory. a JLabel displaying the text “x =” and a JTextField. JPanel xPanel = new JPanel(). mainPanel.add(xPanel).bgVal) ). 10). The first row of the grid layout actually contains two components. this example uses a main panel with a GridLayout that has four rows and one column. The program has two JTextFields where the user can enter two numbers. the layout is created with the statement: setLayout(new GridLayout(4.createEmptyBorder(5.7.setBackground( new Color(bgVal. or divide the two numbers. that component is a JPanel. In this case.

The action command is the text displayed on the button. // The numbers from the input boxes.setText("Illegal data for x. } /* Perfrom the operation based on the action command from the button. This method must retrieve the user’s numbers from the text field.").getText(). Similarly. */ String op = evt.parseDouble(xStr). so the label and text field are simply placed next to each other in the subpanel at their preferred size. xInput. else if (op.setText("Can’t divide by zero!"). y = Double.setText( "x / y = " + (x/y) ). the contents of the text fields can only be retrieved as strings. One other point of interest in this example is the actionPerformed() method that responds when the user clicks one of the buttons. return. and are centered in the subpanel. try { String xStr = xInput.requestFocus(). the third row of the grid layout is a subpanel that contains four buttons. perform the appropriate arithmetic operation on them (depending on which button was clicked). INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING The subpanel uses the default FlowLayout layout manager. } try { String yStr = yInput.equals("-")) answer. the subpanel uses a GridLayout with one row and four columns. } catch (NumberFormatException e) { // The string yStr is not a legal number. and set the text of the label to represent the result. if (op. ."). else if (op.equals("/")) { if (y == 0) answer. and these strings must be converted into numbers. so that the buttons are all the same size and completely fill the subpanel.setText("Illegal data for y. else answer.getText(). answer. return. y. Note that division by zero produces an error message. In this case.getActionCommand(). If the conversion fails.equals("+")) answer.setText( "x . yInput. } catch (NumberFormatException e) { // The string xStr is not a legal number. the label is set to display an error message: public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) { double x.equals("*")) answer.290 CHAPTER 6. However.parseDouble(yStr). x = Double. else if (op.setText( "x * y = " + (x*y) ).setText( "x + y = " + (x+y) ).requestFocus(). answer.y = " + (x-y) ).

and a panel that displays a checkerboard pattern: This is just an example of using a null layout. Our example contains four components: two buttons. If comp is any component.5 as a starting point for a checkers game.) For its content pane. the layout manager is responsible for setting the bounds. the component will not appear on the screen. then the statement comp. In a container that has a non-null layout manager.setLayout(null). you can call the setBounds() method any time you like. You should only set the bounds of a component if the container that contains it has a null layout manager. it doesn’t do anything. then you can set the bounds of each component in the panel’s constructor. measured in the coordinate system of the container that contains the component. height). width. it is possible to do without a layout manager altogether.) 6. and it sets the width and height of the component to the specified values.setBounds(x. a label. otherwise. then you assume complete responsibility for positioning and sizing the components in that container. (You can even make a component that moves or changes size while the user is watching. this example uses a main panel that is defined by a class named NullLayoutPanel.5 Using a null Layout As mentioned above.java. using the panel’s add(component) instance method. fixed size. Assuming that you have set the layout manager to null. by calling container. puts the top left corner of the component at the point (x.) If you are writing a panel that has a known. we’ll look at a panel that does not use a layout manager.7. and you should not interfere with its job. If you set the layout manager of a container to be null. BASIC LAYOUT } } // end actionPerformed() 291 (The complete source code for this example can be found in SimpleCalc.y).7.6. The four components are created and added to the panel in the constructor of the NullLayoutPanel class. y. For out next example. except that clicking the buttons changes the text of the label. Note that you must also add the components to the panel. (We will use this example in Section 7. Then the setBounds() method of each component is called to set the size and position of the component: .

150. } // end constructor It’s reasonably easy. you have to respond to changes in the container’s size by recomputing the sizes and positions of all the components that it contains. // Light green. Consult a Java reference for more information about ComponentEvents. // A dark green background. /* Create the components and add them to the content pane. 120. in fact.) . It’s much more difficult to do your own layout if you want to allow for changes of size.java.setFont(new Font("Serif". // I will do the layout myself! setBackground(new Color(0. newGameButton = new JButton("New Game").").0)).255. (The complete source code for this example is in NullLayoutDemo.20. If you don’t add them to the a container. setPreferredSize( new Dimension(350.240) ). add(resignButton). message. add(message).) add(board). setBorder( BorderFactory. resignButton.setBounds(20. However. 30). 30).164. 350-by-240. 200. */ board. resignButton.createEtchedBorder() ). Any component generates an event of type ComponentEvent when its size changes (and also when it is moved. 60. resignButton = new JButton("Resign"). 330. 120. message. Font. defined elsewhere. 30). /* Set the position and size of each component by calling its setBounds() method.292 CHAPTER 6. in this case. you can register an appropriate listener with the container. 120.setForeground( new Color(100.setBounds(210. 14)). message. even if you set their bounds! */ board = new Checkerboard(). hidden.BOLD. // I assume that the size of the panel is.addActionListener(this). try to find a layout manager to do the work for you. to get an attractive layout. newGameButton.164). In that case. message = new JLabel("Click \"New Game\" to begin a game.setBounds(210.100) ). newGameButton. If you want to respond to changes in a container’s size. You can register a ComponentListener with the container and respond to size change events by recomputing the sizes and positions of all the components in the container. // (Checkerborad is a subclass of JPanel. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING public NullLayoutPanel() { setLayout(null). or shown).addActionListener(this). add(newGameButton).setBounds(20. they won’t appear. my real advice is that if you want to allow for changes in the container’s size.

After completing one game. // BorderLayout with 3-pixel gaps. or by running the program as a stand-alone application. BorderLayout. BASIC LAYOUT 293 6. add(board. you win.50. The main panel uses a BorderLayout. setBackground( new Color(130. and lays out the components: public HighLowGUI() { // The constructor.4.) You’ve seen a text-oriented version of the same game in Subsection 5. If you make three correct predictions. If you predict wrong.200. Hand. add(buttonPanel. . The constructor of the HighLowGUI class creates all the other components. I have chosen to let the drawing surface object do most of the work of the game: It listens for events from the three buttons and responds by taking the appropriate actions.40) ). let’s look at something a little more interesting as a program. The drawing surface is defined by a nested class named CardPanel. // The subpanel that holds the buttons.6 A Little Card Game For a final example.3. In this GUI version of the game.6. which is a subclass of JPanel. you click on a button to make your prediction. The main panel is defined by HighLowGUI itself. JButton higher = new JButton( "Higher" ). and the other three positions of the layout are empty. (Aces have the lowest value in this game.4 also introduced Deck. You can try out the game in the on-line version of this section. setLayout( new BorderLayout(3.7. Here is what the game looks like: The complete source code for this example is in the file HighLowGUI. JPanel buttonPanel = new JPanel().3) ). // Where the cards are drawn.java. The overall structure of the main panel in this example should be clear: It has three buttons in a subpanel at the bottom of the main panel and a large drawing surface that displays the cards and a message.180) ). you can click the “New Game” button to start a new game. and Card classes that are used in the game program. you lose.SOUTH). The drawing surface occupies the CENTER position of the border layout. sets up event handling. which is another subclass of JPanel. CardPanel board = new CardPanel().setBackground( new Color(220. BorderLayout.7. The example is a simple card game in which you look at a playing card and try to predict whether the next card will be higher or lower in value. Section 5. buttonPanel.CENTER). The subpanel that contains the buttons occupies the SOUTH position of the border layout.

This method simply calls one of three other methods. } . */ void doNewGame() { if (gameInProgress) { // If the current game is not over.50.3 is not appropriate here. less obvious aspect of the state: Sometimes a game is in progress. newGame. then all the state variables should be set to appropriate values for the beginning of a new game. These values are stored in instance variables. We don’t want to let the user start a new game if a game is currently in progress. It’s a good idea to keep track of this basic difference in state. buttonPanel. repaint(). text-oriented game in Subsection 5. The message is a String.addActionListener(board). buttonPanel. it is an error to try // to start a new game. return. CardPanel.40). JButton lower = new JButton( "Lower" ).4. how the state can change. In any case. The CardPanel class uses a boolean instance variable named gameInProgress for this purpose. lower. doLower().) It is important to think in terms of the states that the game can be in. Start a new game. If a game is in progress. If a game is not in progress. The cards are stored in an object of type Hand. It’s in these three eventhandling methods that the action of the game takes place.add(higher).createLineBorder( new Color(130. buttonPanel.addActionListener(board). The state of the game includes the cards and the message. doHigher(). the response in the newGame() method is different depending on whether the state variable gameInProgress is true or false.add(lower). That would be cheating. setBorder(BorderFactory. and called by actionPerformed() if * the user clicks the "New Game" button. The CardPanel class implements the ActionListener interface and defines an actionPerformed() method to respond to the user’s clicks. The approach that produced the original. (See Subsection 6.addActionListener(board). the message instance variable should be set to show an error message. the board must be repainted so that the user can see that the state has changed.add(newGame). // The CardPanel listens for events. and the user is supposed to make a prediction about the next card.294 CHAPTER 6.4. The state of the game can change whenever the user clicks on a button. } // end constructor The programming of the drawing surface class. depending on which button was pressed.5. and the user is supposed to click the “New Game” button. and how the response to events can depend on the state. JButton newGame = new JButton( "New Game" ). So. 3) ). Sometimes we are between games. is a nice example of thinking in terms of a state machine. message = "You still have to finish this game!". Trying to think about the game in terms of a process that goes step-by-step from beginning to end is more likely to confuse you than to help you. There is also another. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING higher. The complete newGame() method is as follows: /** * Called by the CardPanel constructor. or newGame().

message = "Too bad! You lose on ties. } else { message = "Got it right! Try for " + cardCt + ". return.7.dealCard() ). } repaint(). repaint(). Card thisCard = hand. hand = new Hand(). If a game is in progress.". Card prevCard = hand. * Check the user’s prediction. message = "Is the next card higher or lower?".".getValue() ) { gameInProgress = false. the board is repainted to show the new state. message = "You win! You made three correct guesses. // The previous card. // Card just dealt. deck. } else if ( cardCt == 4) { gameInProgress = false.1 ).". */ void doHigher() { if (gameInProgress == false) { // If the game has ended. } hand. // Deal a card to the hand. a new card should be added to the hand and the user’s prediction should be tested. This only makes sense if a game is in progress.getValue() < prevCard. // So set up an error message and abort processing. This is called when the user clicks the “Higher” button.". } // end doHigher() .dealCard() ). BASIC LAYOUT deck = new Deck(). if ( thisCard.6. message = "Click \"New Game\" to start a new game!".getCard( cardCt . gameInProgress = true. it was an error to click "Higher". } // end doNewGame() 295 The doHigher() and doLower() methods are almost identical to each other (and could probably have been combined into one method with a parameter.shuffle(). Let’s look at the doHigher() routine. } else if ( thisCard. // Deal the first card into the hand. int cardCt = hand. // Create the deck and hand to use for this game.addCard( deck. Game ends if user guessed * wrong or if the user has made three correct predictions.getCardCount(). Here is the doHigher() method: /** * Called by actionPerformmed() when user clicks "Higher" button.getValue() == prevCard. repaint(). If the value is false.getCard( cardCt . if I were more clever).addCard( deck. the value of the state variable gameInProgress must be set to false because the game is over. hand.getValue() ) { gameInProgress = false.2 ). In any case. If so. so the first thing doHigher() should do is check the value of the state variable gameInProgress. message = "Too bad! You lose. The user might win or lose at this time. then doHigher() should just set up an error message.

8 We Menus and Dialogs have already encountered many of the basic aspects of GUI programming. HighLowGUI. but in this section we look briefly at a few more basic features that are essential for writing GUI programs. Drawing the cards requires some care and computation. This class is used for the applet version of the program in the on-line version of the book. There is one little tricky bit: If a game is in progress.class. The <applet> tag lists the class file for the applet as code="HighLowGUI$Applet. but professional programs use many additional features.296 CHAPTER 6.7. I decided to write an applet version of the program as a static nested class named Applet inside the HighLowGUI class. applet.) 6. However. This is admittedly an unusual way to organize the program. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING The paintComponent() method of the CardPanel class uses the values in the state variables to decide what to show. Card card. The paintComponent() routine decides where to draw each card and calls this routine to do the drawing. (Nested classes were discussed in Subsection 5. int x. We will cover some of the advanced features of Java GUI programming in Chapter 12.y). which is not in the hand. “void drawCard(Graphics g.java. You can check out all the details in the source code. to represent the next card in the deck. The class contains a main() routine so that it can be run as a stand-alone application. I wrote a method. and stand-alone program defined in separate classes. I will discuss these features in the context of a “MosaicDraw” program that is shown in this picture: . In addition. Since this is a nested class. its full name is HighLowGUI.2. It draws each of the cards in the hand.Applet and the class file that is produced when the source code is compiled is named HighLowGUI$Applet. and it is probably more natural to have the panel.class". int y)”. it draws an extra face-down card. the main() routine simply opens a window that uses a panel of type HighLowGUI as its content pane. which draws a card with its upper left corner at the point (x. ∗ ∗ ∗ One further note on the programming of this example: The source code defines HighLowGUI as a subclass of JPanel. writing the program in this way does show the flexibility of Java classes. It displays the string stored in the message variable.

8. AbstractButton. I will not be discussing all aspects of the code here. a JMenuItem is created using a constructor that specifies the text of the menu item.8. but I encourage you to at least read the comments in this file to learn about the API for mosaic panels. such as: JMenuItem fillCommand = new JMenuItem("Fill").1 Menus and Menubars MosaicDraw is the first example that we have seen that uses a menu bar.) There is a menu bar above the drawing area. which let the user set squares back to their default black color. which is a picture made out of small colored stones in which there would be some natural color variation. Fortunately. The drawing area of the program is a panel that belongs to the MosaicPanel class. but it does support setting the color of each individual square. (It could have gone into the MosaicPanel class. The MosaicDraw program installs a mouse listener on the panel. it leaves a trail of little colored squares.java and MosaicDrawFrame. along with MosaicDrawController. It also creates the menu bar that is shown at the top of the program and implements all the commands in the menu bar. Menu items are used in almost exactly the same way as buttons. The “Color” menu lets the user select the color that will be used when the user draws. As for MosaicPanel. a subclass of JPanel that is defined in MosaicPanel. if I had not decided to use that pre-existing class in unmodified form.java. Most of the programming for MosaicDraw can be found in MosaicDrawController. the mouse leaves a trail of single squares.) It is the MosaicDrawController class that creates a MosaicPanel object and adds a mouse listener to it. menus are very easy to use in Java. (This is meant to make the picture look a little more like a real mosaic. that defines their common behavior. but you should be able to understand it all after reading this section. There is some random variation in the color of the squares.java.java. JMenuItem and JButton are both subclasses of a class. It does not directly support drawing on the mosaic. MENUS AND DIALOGS 297 As the user clicks-and-drags the mouse in the large drawing area of this program. it uses some techniques that you would not understand at this point. It has an instance method getMosaicPanel() that returns a reference to the mosaic panel that it has created.swing). along with a few options that affect the appearance of the picture. These methods are used to obtain the panel and menu bar so that they can be added to an applet or a frame. The files MosaicDrawApplet. the mouse listener responds to mousePressed and mouseDragged events on the panel by setting the color of the square that contains the mouse.java. To get a working program. Using the default “Draw” tool. The items in a menu are represented by the class JMenuItem (this class and other menu-related classes are in package javax. The “Tools” menu affects the behavior of the mouse. the mouse leaves a swath of colored squares that is three squares wide. an object of type JApplet or JFrame is needed. There are also “Erase” tools.java define the applet and frame versions of the program. You can add an ActionListener to a JMenuItem by calling the menu item’s addActionListener() . In particular. These are rather simple classes. Using the “Draw 3x3” tool. In fact. This is a nice example of applying a listener to an object to do something that was not programmed into the object itself.6. MosaicPanel is a highly reusable class for representing mosaics of colored rectangles. The “Control” menu contains commands for filling and clearing the drawing area. and it has another instance method getMenuBar() that returns a menu bar for the program. I urge you to study these files. they simply create a MosaicDrawController object and use its mosaic panel and menu bar. 6.

colorMenu. drawCommand. All this works in exactly the same way as for a JButton. // Create a menu item.addActionListener(listener). INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING method. . The final step in using menus is to use the menu bar in a JApplet or JFrame. // Add listener to menu item. . Once a menu has been created. // Create a menu item. controlMenu. and toolsMenu. A menu bar is just a container for menus. // Create a menu with name "Tools" JMenuItem drawCommand = new JMenuItem("Draw"). . where listener is a variable of type ActionListener: JMenu toolsMenu = new JMenu("Tools"). // Add listener to menu item. // Create and add other menu items.getMosaicPanel(). toolsMenu. the menu bar is created by a MosaicDrawController object and can be obtained by calling that object’s getMenuBar() method.add(colorMenu). A JMenu has a name. setContentPane( content ). menuBar. A menu bar is represented by the class JMenuBar.getMenuBar().add(toolsMenu). and you can enable it and disable it using the setEnabled(boolean) method. The actionPerformed() method of the action listener is called when the user selects the item from the menu. . JMenuItem eraseCommand = new JMenuItem("Erase"). setJMenuBar( menuBar ). // Use the menu bar from the controller. and it has an add(JMenuItem) method that can be used to add a JMenuItem to the menu. toolsMenu. The main difference between a menu item and a button. the MosaicDraw program uses three menus.addActionListener(listener). MosaicPanel content = controller. which is specified in the constructor. not contained inside the content pane. A menu in Java is represented by the class JMenu. It does not have a name. is that a menu item is meant to appear in a menu rather than in a panel. So. It has an add(JMenu) method that can be used to add menus to the menu bar. // Add menu item to menu. and its constructor does not have any parameters. // Add menu item to menu. Both the JApplet and the JFrame classes include an instance method setMenuBar(JMenuBar) that can be used to set the menu bar.” The menu bar is another component of the applet or frame. menuBar. (There can only be one. the “Tools” menu in the MosaicDraw program could be created as follows. it must be added to a menu bar. menuBar. We could create a menu bar and add the menus to it with the statements: JMenuBar menuBar = new JMenuBar(). You can change the text of the item by calling its setText(String) method.) In the MosaicDraw program. // Use panel from controller as content pane. eraseCommand.add(drawCommand).add(controlMenu).add(eraseCommand). so this is a “set” method rather than an “add” method. of course.298 CHAPTER 6. JMenuBar menuBar = controller. Here is the basic code that is used (in somewhat modified form) to set up the interface both in the applet and in the frame version of the program: MosaicDrawController controller = new MosaicDrawController(). We have already seen that an applet or frame has a “content pane. For example.

from selected to not-selected or from not-selected to selected. is the code that handles the “Use Randomness” command: if (command. // Add the menu item to the menu. to get the action command of the source of the event. to decide whether or not to add a random variation to the color of the square. It just changes the state of the program so that future drawing operations on the part of the user will have a different effect. The actionPerformed() method of the listener object uses the statement String command = evt. When the user selects the “Use Randomness” command from the menu. This is not a particularly good design. defined by subclasses of JMenuItem. Here. Create menus and add them to the menu bar. The menu item that corresponds to the “Use Randomness” option in the “Control” menu could be set up with the statements: JMenuItem useRandomnessToggle = new JCheckBoxMenuItem("Use Randomness"). One can be used to turn the random color variation of the squares on and off. for example. that can be added to menus. Selecting the “Show Grouting” option does have an immediate effect: The picture is redrawn with or without the grouting. . The “Use Randomness” JCheckBoxMenuItem corresponds to a boolean-valued instance variable named useRandomness in the MosaicDrawController class. the return value must be type-cast to the correct type.3). Its value is tested whenever the user draws one of the squares. but it is easy to implement for a small program like this one. Then menu item is the source of the event that is being processed. the user’s drawing is reflected horizontally and vertically to produce a symmetric pattern. Use the menu bar in a JApplet or JFrame by calling the setJMenuBar() method of the applet or frame.getSource(). selected or not selected. the state of the JCheckBoxMenuItem is reversed.addActionListener(listener). The listener tests the value of command to determine which menu item was selected by the user.6. And the third check box menu item shows and hides the “grouting” in the mosaic. This variable is part of the state of the controller object. depending on the state of the menu item. Three JCheckBoxMenuItems are used in the “Control” menu of the MosaicDraw program. // Randomness is initially turned on. My program uses a single ActionListener to respond to all of the menu items in all the menus. The “Use Symmetry” option in the “Control” menu works in much the same way. Note that selecting the menu command does not have any immediate effect on the picture that is shown in the window. A JCheckBoxMenuItem has the same functionality and is used in the same way as a JCheckBox (see Subsection 6. ∗ ∗ ∗ There are other kinds of menu items. The listener can get its hands on the menu item object by calling evt.setSelected(true).getActionCommand(). and it changes the value of useRandomness to match. which represents menu items that can be in one of two states. Create menu items and add them to the menus (and set up listening to handle action events from the menu items).6. useRandomnessToggle. // Set up a listener.8. MENUS AND DIALOGS 299 Using menus always follows the same general pattern: Create a menu bar. this will be the text of the menu item. useRandomnessToggle. when symmetry is turned on. Since the return value of getSource() is Object. Another turns a symmetry feature on and off. The ActionListener for the menu item checks whether the menu item is selected or not.equals("Use Randomness")) { // Set the value of useRandomness depending on the menu item’s state. controlMenu.add(useRandomnessToggle). The “Show Grouting” option is a little different. the grouting is the gray lines that are drawn around each of the little squares in the mosaic. If the menu item is a JCheckBoxMenuItem. the listener must check the state of the menu item. One of these is JCheckBoxMenuItem.

When a modal dialog is created. The dialog box is dependent on its parent. Every dialog is associated with a frame (or another dialog). a dialog box is represented by an object belonging to the class JDialog or to a subclass.) It is very easy to do this in Java: You can add one JMenu to another JMenu using a statement such as mainMenu. the dialog box will also be closed. However. In Swing. the submenu pops up. In the MosaicDraw program.showDialog(Component parentComp. single purpose interactions with the user.2 Dialogs One of the commands in the “Color” menu of the MosaicDraw program is “Custom Color. so they seem a lot more like independent windows. 6. which is called its parent window . The first parameter specifies the parent of the dialog. the “Control” menu contains a separator. String title.getSource().add(submenu). I will not give any examples here of using JDialog directly. For example. Modeless dialog boxes do not block their parents in the same way. Swing has many convenient methods for creating many common types of dialog boxes. however. The name of the submenu appears as an item in the main menu.addSeparator(). Unlike a frame. a dialog box is a separate window. (There is no example of this in the MosaicDraw program. but in that case an invisible frame is created by the system to serve as the parent. } ∗ ∗ ∗ In addition to menu items. When the user moves the mouse over the submenu name. a menu can contain lines that separate the menu items into groups. The JDialog class is very similar to JFrame and is used in much the same way. the parent window of the dialog will be the window (if any) that contains parentComp. . which is a subclass of JDialog. to ask the user a question. to let the user select a file to be opened.300 CHAPTER 6. That is. A dialog is a type of window that is generally used for short. useRandomness = toggle. a new window appears where the user can select a color. It is possible to create a dialog box without specifying a parent.8. a dialog box appears that allows the user to select a color. The second parameter is a string that appears in the title bar of the . or to let the user select a color. if the parent is closed. In practice. ”. For example. The JColorChooser class has a static method that makes color choice dialogs very easy to use: Color JColorChooser. Like a frame. its parent frame is blocked. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING JCheckBoxMenuItem toggle = (JCheckBoxMenuItem)evt. a dialog box can be used to display a message to the user. this parameter can be null and it can itself be a frame or dialog object. a JDialog can be created and used in the same way as a JFrame. For example. modal dialog boxes are easier to use and are much more common than modeless dialogs. This window is an example of a dialog or dialog box . A JMenu has an instance method addSeparator() that can be used to add a separator to the menu. the color choice dialog that appears when the user selects the “Custom Color” command in the MosaicDraw program belongs to the class JColorChooser. A menu can also contain a submenu. . Color initialColor) When you call this method. When the user selects this command. the separator in the “Control” menu was created with the statement: controlMenu. Dialog boxes can be either modal or modeless.isSelected(). All the examples we will look at are modal. For example. the user will not be able to interact with the parent until the dialog box is closed. Aside from having a parent. a dialog is not completely independent.

Finally. And the third parameter. The user (hopefully) reads the message and dismisses the dialog by clicking the “OK” button. String question) The return value tells you the user’s response.showMessageDialog(Component parentComp. you can write one line of code that will let the user select an arbitrary color. MENUS AND DIALOGS 301 dialog box. Swing also has a JFileChooser class that makes it almost as easy to show a dialog box that lets the user select a file to be opened or saved. you will have to convert the return value into a number.2. The JOptionPane class includes a variety of methods for making simple dialog boxes that are variations on three basic types: a “message” dialog. to specify the icon that appears in the dialog. Note that the return value can be an empty string (which is not the same as a null value). (The variations allow you to provide a title for the dialog box. then the return value of the method is null. an “OK” button. A message dialog can be shown by calling the static method: void JOptionPane. String message) The message can be more than one line long. JOptionPane. it is possible to omit the Cancel button from a confirm dialog by calling one of the other methods in the JOptionPane class. a “confirm” dialog. String question) Again. “No”. null is returned as the value of the method. Lines in the message should be separated by newline characters. the question can include newline characters. title. If the user clicks “OK”. question. if the user clicks “OK” without typing anything in the input box. You can show an input dialog by calling: String JOptionPane. By using this predefined color chooser dialog.7. If the user clicks “Cancel”. a confirm dialog presents a question and three response buttons: “Yes”. A message dialog simply displays a message string to the user. in that case.YES OPTION — the user clicked the “Yes” button • JOptionPane. A confirm dialog can be shown by calling: int JOptionPane.CANCEL OPTION — the user clicked the “Cancel” button • JOptionPane. and “Cancel”. New lines will not be inserted automatically. see Subsection 3.NO OPTION — the user clicked the “No” button • JOptionPane. initialColor. Just call: JOptionPane.8.showConfirmDialog(Component parentComp. specifies the color that is selected when the color choice dialog first appears. the dialog box closes and the selected color is returned as the value of the method. By the way. and a “Cancel” button.) The on-line version of this section includes an applet that demonstrates JOptionPane as well as JColorChooser. I will only cover the most basic forms here. The dialog box will contain an input box.CLOSE OPTION — the dialog was closed in some other way. If you want to use an input dialog to get a numerical value from the user. An input dialog displays a question or request and lets the user type in a string as a response. even if the message is very long. \n.YES NO OPTION ) . and to add other components to the dialog box. and an “input” dialog.6.showConfirmDialog( parent. then the return value is the string that was entered by the user.showInputDialog(Component parentComp. The user can also click a “Cancel” button or close the dialog box in some other way. or closes the dialog box in some other way. It is one of the following constants: • JOptionPane. The dialog has a sophisticated interface that allows the user to change the selected color. When the user presses an “OK” button.

Note that it will only work correctly if every component in the window has a correct preferred size.width . } public MosaicDrawFrame() { super("Mosaic Draw").getHeight())/2 ). The next line is something new. setLocation( (screensize.getMosaicPanel() ). The definition of this class is very short. The next three lines of the constructor set up the contents of the window. setJMenuBar( controller. (In this case. I created a JFrame object in a main() routine and installed a panel as the content pane of that frame. window. (screensize. 250) ). that is. then the statement window. but a more objectoriented approach is to define a subclass of JFrame and to set up the contents of the frame in the constructor of that class. Dimension screensize = Toolkit. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING The final parameter is a constant which specifies that only a “Yes” button and a “No” button should be used.getDefaultToolkit(). of course. and you should set a preferred size by hand. .setVisible(true).EXIT ON CLOSE).3 Fine Points of Frames In previous sections. If you would like to see how dialogs are created and used in the sample applet.pack() will resize the window so that its size matches the preferred size of its contents. pack(). window. For example: panel.java. “pack()” is equivalent to “this. 6.302 CHAPTER 6.getMenuBar() ). The parameter specifies a title that will appear in the title bar of the window. and the content pane and menu bar of the window are obtained from the controller. If window is a variable of type JFrame (or JDialog ).) The pack() method is usually the best way to set the size of a window.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.pack()”. a MosaicDrawController is created. This is only a problem in two cases: when a panel is used as a drawing surface and when a panel is used as a container with a null layout manager. it refers to the window that is being created by the constructor.setPreferredSize( new Dimension(400. MosaicDrawFrame is defined as a subclass of JFrame. you can find the source code in the file SimpleDialogDemo. The third parameter is a string that will be displayed as the title of the dialog box window. which calls the constructor in the superclass. whenever I used a frame. } } The constructor in this class begins with the statement super("Mosaic Draw"). This works fine.getScreenSize().height . but it illustrates several new features of frames that I want to discuss: public class MosaicDrawFrame extends JFrame { public static void main(String[] args) { JFrame window = new MosaicDrawFrame(). JFrame. MosaicDrawController controller = new MosaicDrawController(). In both these cases there is no way for the system to determine the correct preferred size automatically. This is what I did in the case of the MosaicDraw program.8. setContentPane( controller.getWidth())/2.

MENUS AND DIALOGS 303 The last two lines in the constructor position the window so that it is exactly centered on the screen.HIDE ON CLOSE — when the user clicks its close box. The size of the screen is screensize.DISPOSE ON CLOSE — the window is closed and any operating system resources used by the window are released. we don’t want to end the program just because the user has closed one of the windows. There are other possible values for the default close operation of a window: • JFrame. half of the extra vertical space is above the window. and half is below. The line Dimension screensize = Toolkit. which will open as a separate window on the screen. In that case. It is not possible to make the window visible again.width . This is the value that is used if you do not specify another value by calling setDefaultCloseOperation. as a static method.DISPOSE ON CLOSE. the MosaicDrawFrame class includes a main() routine. but that at the end of the constructor.getScreenSize(). and it could (and perhaps should) be in a separate class. It would be possible.height pixels in the vertical direction. the window is not yet visible on the screen. Note that the constructor has created the window and set its size and position. The window can be made visible again by calling window. This makes it possible to run MosaicDrawFrame as a stand-alone application. Similarly. . In addition to the constructor. The expression “screensize. The setLocation() method of the frame sets the position of the upper left corner of the frame on the screen. You can accomplish the same thing by calling the instance method window.dispose(). Furthermore. to write a program that lets the user open multiple MosaicDraw windows. When the user clicks the button.setVisible(false) were called. An applet is not allowed to “terminate the program” (and it’s not even clear what that should mean in the case of an applet). determines the size of the screen.setVisible(true).) I’ve written an applet version of the MosaicDraw program that appears on a Web page as a single button. • JFrame. (This is the proper way to permanently get rid of a window without ending the program. has nothing to do with the function of a MosaicDrawFrame object. (The main() routine. which means that the program will end when the user closes the window. Note that this is not done in the constructor because doing it there would make MosaicDrawFrame less flexible. window. • JFrame.width pixels in the horizontal direction and screensize.EXIT ON CLOSE). You can try the applet in the on-line version of this section. the applet sets the default close operation of the window to JFrame.8. It also calls window. but the visual representation of that object on the screen has not yet been created. (More exactly. the applet opens a MosaicDrawFrame. and attempting to do so will produce an exception.getDefaultToolkit(). it is possible for an applet to create a frame.) To show the window on the screen.DO NOTHING ON CLOSE — the user’s attempts to close the window by clicking its close box will be ignored. it will be necessary to call its instance method.) The main() routine creates a MosaicDrawFrame and makes it visible on the screen. the window will be hidden just as if window. for example.setVisible(true). In this case.getWidth()” is the amount of horizontal space left on the screen after subtracting the width of the window. This is divided by 2 so that half of the empty space will be to the left of the window. leaving the other half of the space to the right of the window.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.6. the constructor has created the window object.

4 discusses how a jar file can be used for an applet. for example.304 CHAPTER 6. The Java Development Kit includes a command-line program named jar that can be used to create jar files. If you hit the “Browse” button next to the “Main class” box. Jar files can also be used for stand-alone applications. (Click the “Browse” button next to this box to select the file name using a file dialog box. When the window is open. the text reads “Launch MosaicDraw”. Right-click on the selection. you can select the class from a list of classes that contain main() routines.jar *. is how to create a jar file. and the computer must be configured correctly for this to work. at least on Windows and Mac OS. At the bottom of this screen is an input box labeled “Main class”. In the Eclipse IDE.2.class where JarFileName can be any name that you want to use for the jar file. The “*” in “*. for example. If there is no window. usually by double-clicking the icon of the jar file. it’s usually a good idea to place all the classes that are required by the program into a jar file. In fact. If you are creating a regular jar file. The configuration is usually done automatically when Java is installed. it’s done as follows: In the Package Explorer pane. Subsection 6.) The question. (The user’s computer must have a correct version of Java installed. The listener responds to WindowEvents that are generated when the window opens and closes. Then give the command jar cf JarFileName.) The name of the file should end with “. then. You could do this. When creating a program that uses more than one class.6. The change is implemented by attaching a WindowListener to the window. If all your classes are in the default package (like the examples in this book). Any IDE (Integrated Programming Environment) for Java should have a command for creating jar files. it changes to “Close MosaicDraw”. if the jar file contains an applet but no main program. One interesting point in the applet is that the text of the button changes depending on whether a window is open or not. In the window that appears. you can hit “Finish” at this point.8.4 Creating Jar Files As the final topic for this chapter. not an executable one. we look again at jar files. hit the “Next” button twice to get to the “Jar Manifest Specification” screen. and the jar file will be created. Recall that a jar file is a “java archive” that can contain a number of class files. To create an executable file. and clicking the button will close the window. since then a user will only need that one file to run the program. Once you’ve selected the main class. It is also possible to create jar files on the command line. you can click the “Finish” button to create the executable jar file. and choose “Export” from the menu that pops up. change to the directory that contains the class files that you want to include in the jar. In the window that appears next. The answer depends on what programming environment you are using.java contains the source code for the applet. select the programming project (or just all the individual source code files that you need). You have to enter the name of the class that contains the main() routine that will be run when the jar file is executed. A user can run an executable jar file in much the same way as any other application. it is possible to make a so-called executable jar file. enter a name for the jar file in the box labeled “JAR file”.jar”. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING The file MosaicDrawLauncherApplet.class” is a wildcard that makes *. This means . you can look at the source code for an example of how they can be used. 6. Although I will not discuss window events further here.class match every class file in the current directory. To create a non-executable jar file on the command line. The two basic types of programming environment—command line and IDE—were discussed in Section 2. select “JAR file” and click “Next”. then the jar command is easy to use.

jar *.class to create the jar file. (Things get more complicated if your classes are not in the default package. and use a command of the form jar cmf ManifestFileName JarFileName. For example. the class files must be in subdirectories of the directory in which you issue the jar file. you can run it on the command line using the command “java -jar”.6. The first parameter to the command. separated by spaces. In that case.) By the way. tells it which operation to perform.6. There has to be some way of specifying which class contains the main() routine.) Making an executable jar file on the command line is a little more complicated. if the main() routine is in the class MosaicDrawFrame.8. For example: java -jar JarFileName. If you want to include only certain class files. MENUS AND DIALOGS 305 that all the class files in the directory will be included in the jar file. You can give the manifest file any name you like. you can name them individually. This is done by creating a manifest file. such as “cf” or “cmf”. then the manifest file should read “Main-Class: MosaicDrawFrame”.jar . See Subsection 2. Put it in the same directory where you will issue the jar command. (The jar command is capable of performing a variety of different operations.4. The manifest file can be a plain text file containing a single line of the form Main-Class: ClassName where ClassName should be replaced by the name of the class that contains the main() routine. if you have successfully created an executable jar file.

Modify this class so that the modified version will continue to draw figures as the user drags the mouse. “void drawDie(Graphics g. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING Exercises for Chapter 6 1. its a good idea to write a subroutine. (Note that in the original version. Here is a picture of my solution: The source code for the original panel class is SimpleStamperPanel. I drew a black outline around each shape.4. the panel should simply be cleared and no figures should be drawn even if the user drags the mouse after shift-clicking. specifies the value that is showing on the die. See the discussion of dragging in Subsection 6.) 2. the mouse will leave a trail of figures as the user drags the mouse. the panel is cleared instead.4. Write a panel that shows a small red square and a small blue square. I decided that it would look better to draw a gray outline instead. except that when the user shift-clicks. the dice should be rolled (that is.2. int y)”. Assume that the size of the panel is 100 by 100 pixels. The user should be able to drag either square with the mouse. int x.) The user can drag the square off the applet if she wants. it’s gone. to draw a die at the specified (x.java. In the SimpleStamperPanel example from Subsection 6. That is.4. Here is a picture of the applet: . In the modified version. An applet that uses this class can be found in SimpleStamperApplet. The second parameter. val.306 CHAPTER 6. 3.java. Since you have to draw two dice. Each die should be drawn as a square showing from 1 to 6 dots. if she does this. When the user clicks on the panel. int val. Also write an applet that uses your panel as its content pane. Use your panel either in an applet or in a stand-alone application (or both). However.java. Use your panel in either an applet or a stand-alone application. and a main program that uses the panel in a frame is in SimpleStamper. a rectangle or oval is drawn on the panel when the user clicks the mouse. Write a panel that shows a pair of dice. if the user shift-clicks. (You’ll need an instance variable to remember which square the user is dragging. the dice should be assigned newly computed random values).y) coordinates.

3. To do this exercise.) Write your program as a stand-alone application. There is room at the top of the panel to display these numbers. The panel should include a JTextField where the user enters a number. If the user clicks the square that is selected. and the standard deviation. the statistics displayed on the labels should change. you’ll have to read the source code closely enough to understand how it works. The user enters a number by typing it into the JTextField and pressing return. Hilite the selected square by drawing a colored border around it. Here is a picture of my solution to this problem: . That is. show a short animation during which the values on the dice are changed in every frame. you wrote a pair-of-dice panel where the dice are rolled when the user clicks on the panel Now make a pair-of-dice program in which the user rolls the dice by clicking a button. You can start with the existing source code. from the file SubKillerPanel. it becomes unselected. For this exercise. so your panel should register itself to listen for ActionEvents from the JTextField. no square is selected. In Exercise 3.6. (Recall that a JTextField generates an ActionEvent when the user presses return. you only have to add a half-dozen lines to the source code. StatCalc.2 involved a class. 7. Modify the game so it keeps track of the number of hits and misses and displays these quantities. Write your program as a stand-alone application. the number of misses goes up by one. Every time the depth charge falls off the bottom of the screen without hitting the sub. But you have to figure out what they are and where to add them. When the user clicks on a square that is not currently selected. Every time the user enters a new number. that could compute some statistics of a set of numbers. so that each square on the checkerboard is 20 by 20 pixels. the mean. it becomes selected. Exercise 5. you drew a checkerboard. When the applet is first created. It should have four labels that display four statistics for the numbers that have been entered: the number of numbers. In Exercise 6. the number of hits goes up by one.5. This means creating a new StatCalc object and resetting the displays on the labels. To do this. For this exercise. There should be a “Clear” button that clears out all the data. My panel also has an “Enter” button that does the same thing as pressing the return key in the JTextField. The animation is supposed to make the dice look more like they are actually rolling. instead of just showing the new value. The button should appear under the panel that shows the dice. 6. you should modify the SubKiller game from Subsection 6. write a checkerboard applet where the user can select a square by clicking on it. Assume that the size of the applet is exactly 160 by 160 pixels. Write a program that uses the StatCalc class to compute and display statistics of numbers entered by the user.Exercises 307 4. 5.4. The panel will have an instance variable of type StatCalc that does the computations. every time the depth charge blows up the sub. Also make the following change: When the dice are rolled.java.java. the sum.

Write a panel with a JTextArea where the user can enter some text. When the user clicks on the button. the number of words in the user’s input. Lines in the String are separated by the new line character. Essentially. so the number of lines is just the number of new line characters in the String. The number of characters is just the length of this String. . you want to count the number of characters that are first characters in words. Recall that if textInput is a JTextArea.6. Don’t forget to put your JTextArea in a JScrollPane.java. just as was done for the graphical HighLow card game in Subsection 6. The applet should draw the user’s cards and the dealer’s cards. The structures of the HighLow panel and the Blackjack panel are very similar. Exercise 3. with the computer as the dealer. Write a Blackjack program that lets the user play a game of Blackjack. Words are a little harder to count. plus one. and the number of characters in the user’s input. then you can get the contents of the JTextArea by calling the function textInput. This information should be displayed on three labels in the panel.4 has some advice about finding the words in a String. You can use the source code for that game. Here is a picture of my solution: 9. for some ideas about how to write your Blackjack game. The panel should have a button. the panel should count the number of lines in the user’s input. and add the scroll pane to the container. ’\n’.7. INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 8. HighLowGUI. Scrollbars should appear when the user types more text than will fit in the available area.getText(). not the text area.308 CHAPTER 6. This function returns a String containing all the text from the text area. You will certainly want to use the drawCard() method from the HighLow program.

The user should play the game by clicking on “Hit” and “Stand” buttons. you should not call doNewGame(). The bet that the user places might be more money than the user has. Hand. in the constructor for the drawing surface class. Then the subroutine can take responsibility for enabling and disabling the buttons. The “New Game” button should be disabled when there is a game in progress. You should detect these errors and show an error message instead of starting the game. You should assume that the panel is just wide enough to show five cards. For your program. The user’s bet should be an integral number of dollars. and that it is tall enough show the user’s hand and the dealer’s hand. Deck. When the game begins. not when it ends. that player wins immediately. Recall that if bttn is a variable of type JButton. Here is a picture of my program: . the user can click on the “Hit”. In the Blackjack game from Exercise 6. make it possible for the user to place bets on the Blackjack game. then bttn. Note that the design of a GUI Blackjack game is very different from the design of the text-oriented program that you wrote for Exercise 5. It would be better if the buttons were disabled at the appropriate times.setEnabled(true) enables the button. The instance variable gameInProgress tells whether or not a game is in progress. check the amount of the bet. 10.java.setEnabled(false) disables the button and bttn. The user should have a chance to set a bet amount before the game starts. you should include commands to display the amount of money that the user has left. The “Hit” and “Stand” buttons should be disabled when there is not a game in progress.java.5.9. So. This rule is used in some casinos. When the applet starts. Add a JTextField to the strip of controls along the bottom of the applet. In the paintComponent() method.java. “Stand”. and BlackjackHand. You have to decide what happens when each of these buttons is pressed. There should be a “New Game” button that can be used to start another game after one game ends.setEditable(true) and betInput. Your program will need the classes defined in Card. so you just have to make sure that the buttons are properly enabled and disabled whenever this variable changes value. the applet should not start a new game when it is first created. Add the following rule to that description: If a player takes five cards without going over 21. You don’t have much chance of getting this right unless you think in terms of the states that the game can be in and how the state can change.Exercises 309 You can find a description of the game of Blackjack in Exercise 5. because several errors can occur: The contents of the JTextField might not be a legal number. You should do this when the game begins. If betInput is the JTextField. I strongly advise writing a subroutine that can be called whenever it is necessary to set the value of the gameInProgress variable. you can make it editable and uneditable by the user with the commands betInput. You might want to display a message such as “Welcome to Blackjack” before the first game starts.5. give the user $100. As a second (and more difficult) improvement. it means that you only have to allow room for five cards. and “NewGame” buttons even when it doesn’t make sense to do so. It would be a good idea to make the JTextField uneditable while the game is in progress. There is one other thing to think about: Ideally.java.setEditable(false). The user can enter the bet in this JTextField. or it might be <= 0.

INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING .310 CHAPTER 6.

and discuss how a program might respond to those events. } 6.7? . Discuss two ways in which JPanels can be used.10.j. What is meant by a component? What are some examples? 9. i = i + 50) for (int j = 10. 3. What is the function of a LayoutManager in Java? 10.60). for (int i=10.Quiz 311 Quiz on Chapter 6 1. Give at least two different examples of events. Draw the picture that will be produced by the following paintComponent() method: public static void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. Explain carefully what the repaint() method does. Java has a standard class called JPanel. j = j + 50) g. i <= 210. 2. as illustrated. Programs written for a graphical user interface have to deal with “events. Suppose you would like a panel that displays a green square inside a red circle. What type of layout manager is being used for each of the three panels in the following illustration from Section 6.paintComponent(g). Write a paintComponent() method for the panel class that will draw the image. 5. What is HTML? 4. j <= 210.drawLine(i. What is the purpose of this class? What does an object of type MouseEvent do? 8. One of the main classes in Swing is the JComponent class.” Explain what is meant by the term event. 7. Java has a standard class called MouseEvent.

312 CHAPTER 6. i m y o n a c r w r g o e n h h i s t o . INTRODUCTION TO GUI PROGRAMMING 11. Explain how Timers are used to do animation. r n o e l n o o c p n . s t . 12. What is a JCheckBox and how is it used? . n s l x w i e o s n h a g s p n i e n e i r a t h n T o c .

programmers build complicated data structures by hand. which is set when the array is created. In Java. For example. an array might contain 100 integers. the appropriate data structure consists simply of a sequence of data items. A record is essentially the same as a Java object that has instance variables only. We’ll look at these custom-built data structures in Chapter 9. but it has records. which do not support objects in general.” The data items in a record—in Java.util. Computers 7. by linking objects together. 313 . make an array containing all the buttons in a GUI program. which in C go by the name “struct. Some other languages. For example. The distinguishing characteristics of a record are that the data items in the record are referred to by name and that different fields in a record are allowed to be of different types. so that you could. In many cases.Chapter 7 Arrays get a lot of their power from working with data structures. Each item is referred to using a field name. The term “record” is not used in Java. Data structures of this simple variety can be either arrays or records. They can also be references to objects. is not object-oriented. the result is a data structure. if the class Person is defined as: class Person { String name. The C programming language. A data structure is an organized collection of related data.ArrayList. but in many applications. the items in an array are always numbered from zero up to some maximum value.1 Creating and Using Arrays When a number of data items are chunked together into a unit. for example. Data structures can be very complex. An array is a data structure consisting of a numbered list of items. but this type of data structure—consisting of a fairly small number of named instance variables—is just the beginning. nevertheless do support records. In Java. for example. but no instance methods. It also covers the standard class java. This chapter discusses how arrays are created and used in Java. An object is a data structure. An object of type ArrayList is very similar to an array of Objects. but it can grow to hold any number of items. But there is one type of data structure that is so important and so basic that it is built into every programming language: the array. field names are just the names of the instance variables. The items in an array can belong to one of Java’s primitive types. numbered from zero to 99. an object’s instance variables—are called the fields of the record. where all the items are of the same type.

1 Arrays Like a record. The field names are name. properly speaking. or of type String. Like any object. the second is A[1]. The type of the individual items in an array is called the base type of the array. it is referred to as an “array of ints. one of the primitive types. and so forth. all the items in an array must be of the same type. 7. int. even though arrays are objects. Furthermore. “A[k]” is really a variable. It is better thought of as a list of variables of type int. the items in an array are numbered. and it can be used just like any other variable. The items in an array—really. Java arrays are objects. instance variables in the array object. birthday. The array is the container. int age.1. The first element is A[0]. In Java. or of some other type. That is. The number of items in an array is called the length of the array. As always. Values are stored in an array. and Date. No variable can ever hold an array. there are differences between arrays and other kinds of objects. Then the element at index k in A is referred to as A[k]. or a class name.314 int id number. you can . the index of the first element in the array is zero. and age. the elements in an array are always numbered starting from zero. an array is a sequence of items. an array belongs to a class. and individual items are referred to by their position number. This has several consequences. } CHAPTER 7.” An array with base type String is referred to as an “array of Strings. Any variable that can refer to an array can also hold the value null. Nevertheless. I will not discuss them further. However. then the index of the last element in the array is N-1. The definition of an array is: a numbered sequence of items. If the base type of an array is int. The position number of an item in an array is called the index of that item. not the values. essentially. an array is not. except that they are referred to by number rather than by name. Once an array has been created. Note that the fields are of various types: String. a variable can only refer to an array. and there are a number of special language features in Java for creating and using arrays. which are all of the same type. Each position can hold a value of a specified type (the base type of the array). Arrays are created using a form of the new operator. 7. a list of integers or strings or other values.” However. there is some potential for confusion between the two uses of a variable: as a name for a memory location and as a name for the value stored in that memory location. The base type of an array can be any Java type. The elements of the array are. where items in a record are referred to by name. meaning that it doesn’t at the moment refer to anything. You can assign values to it. which like all classes is a subclass of the class Object. ARRAYS then an object of class Person could be considered to be a record with four fields. If the length of the array is N.1. Because records are just a special type of object. The value can be changed at any time.2 Using Arrays Suppose that A is a variable that refers to an array. or an interface name. the individual variables that make up the array—are more often referred to as the elements of the array. Date birthday. that is. id number. its length cannot be changed. Each position in an array acts as a variable.

[ [ [ [ [ t t t t t t s s s s s s i i i i i i l l l l l l ) 0 0 0 0 0 5 ( " t . .length. creates a variable named list of type int[ ]. As an example. just keep in mind the syntax array-variable [ integer-expression ] for referring to an element of an array. e e m d e t t f h n u v s s e i i T a n fi r l l t g n ] ] ] ] ] e 1 l 0 2 3 4 . s I e b a t a s w i o r c . “BaseType[ ]” is read as “array of BaseType” or “BaseType array. you are not allowed to change the value of list. s e t a t e r s i e a s t h i r l l o h n T c " t t i . which holds a value of type Shape. that is. the array type int[ ] is derived. “[]”. y . the length of an array. list. . All of this will be discussed in more detail below. The syntax for using new with arrays is different from the syntax you learned previously. t n e a l i t e i o m n s h w o e a t t e d n r a s : n n t a e e t a s f c t = . More generally. The new operator is used to create a new array object. Although every array. d a s ] e r e n s r 1 i h g [ t n a a t i n t e s s a e r i a n t l e a h h o . using arrays of integers as our first example. which can then be assigned to list. f o e n y t h o h g t t o a r d e r g g t r e o e n n n r a b s i r e e l l . then the class ClassA[ ] is automatically a subclass of ClassB[ ]. The brackets. can be referred to as list. If the name of the type is BaseType. belongs to some class. an object belonging to the class BaseType[ ] is an array of items. The length of the array is an instance variable in the array object. This variable is capable of referring to an array of ints.length. In fact. the number of elements that it contains. are meant to recall the syntax for referring to the individual items in the array. Each item in an array of type Shape[ ] is a variable of type Shape. The value N in brackets specifies the length of the array. the array type Shape[ ] is derived. as an object. list = new int[5]. This value can be either null or a reference to an object belonging to the class Shape. From a class named Shape. int[] list. e y ] s v i a l 5 t fi [ r t n r s d . but initially its value is null (if list is a member variable in a class) or undefined (if list is a local variable in a method). From the primitive type int. Once a type exists.) The situation produced by the statement “list = new int[5]. that is. (This includes objects belonging to subclasses of Shape. n t v ] c c i o h 0 n g c c [ i e o i t t b s h h s s l c i t c l ' a i w e m j n h t . For now.) ∗ ∗ ∗ Let’s try to get a little more concrete about all this. which holds a value of type int. one whose value cannot be changed after it has been initialized. The base type of an array can be any legal Java type. (However. the constructor “new BaseType[N]” is used to create an array belonging to the class BaseType[ ].” It might be worth mentioning here that if ClassA is a subclass of ClassB. Since int[ ] is a class. then the name of the associated array class is BaseType[ ]. creates an array of five integers. For example. Each element in an array of type int[ ] is a variable of type int. . and you can pass it as a parameter to a subroutine.” can be pictured like this: h . so it’s really a “final” instance variable. where each item is a variable of type BaseType. array classes never have to be defined. CREATING AND USING ARRAYS 315 use it in expressions. it can be used to declare variables. Note that the array “knows” how long it is. the corresponding array class exists automatically.1.7. That is to say.

list.” is only legal inside a subroutine. The computer must determine which memory location is being referred to.” There are two things that can go wrong here. you can declare the variable and initialize it in a single step. default value: zero for numbers. 7. ARRAYS Note that the newly created array of integers is automatically filled with zeros. and the value stored in list[1] is printed. are referred to as list[0].3 Array Initialization For an array variable. list = new int[5]. To the computer. array references can be much more general than this. This is called an “array index out of bounds” error. a newly created array is always filled with a known. i < list. } The first time through the loop.length.length. int[] list = new int[5]. then this is exactly equivalent to the two statements: int[] list. If that is the case.” since the assignment statement “list = new int[5]. and list[4]. This is a typical example of using a loop to process an array. it is the value stored in the variable list[0] that is printed. false for boolean. For example if indx is a variable of type int.” with “int[] list. Go to the k-th position in the array. The second possible error occurs if list does refer to an array. then list doesn’t even refer to an array. list. Every use of a variable in a program specifies a memory location. Think for a moment about what the computer does when it encounters a reference to an array element. list[k]. i is 0. list[2].length” is no longer true. while it is executing a program. The second time through the loop. Get the value of k. the following loop would print all the integers in the array.) . list[3]. However. Thus. i is 1. The loop ends after printing the value of list[4]. then list[indx] and list[2*indx+7] are syntactically correct references to elements of the array list. Suppose that the value of list is null.1. The attempt to refer to an element of an array that doesn’t exist is an error that will cause an exception of type NullPointerException to be thrown. i++) { System. the character with Unicode number zero for char. When an error of this type occurs. then of course you can’t simply replace “int[] list = new int[5]. list[k] means something like this: “Get the pointer that is stored in the variable. list = new int[5]. (Note again that the index for the last item is one less than list. (If list is an instance variable.out. and that’s the memory location you want. If list is a local variable in a subroutine. to standard output: for (int i = 0. and list[i] refers to list[0]. Follow this pointer to find an array object. when i becomes equal to 5 and the continuation condition “i < list. I’ll discuss more examples of array processing throughout this chapter. This will happen if k < 0 or if k >= list. you should be mindful that both types of errors are possible. When you use arrays in a program.println( list[i] ).) However. So. list[1]. array index out of bounds errors are by far the most common error when working with arrays. In Java. For example. an exception of type ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. The brackets in an array reference can contain any expression whose value is an integer.316 CHAPTER 7. The elements in the array. just as for any variable.length. but the value of k is outside the legal range of indices for that array. and null for objects. list.

25.BLACK. // light blue Color. for example. For example. CREATING AND USING ARRAYS 317 The new array is filled with the default value appropriate for the base type of the array—zero for int and null for class types.0). since seven values are provided in the initializer. new Color(0. (The rather odd syntax is similar to the syntax for anonymous classes. For example. 36. in the same way that anonymous nested classes are convenient. However. By the way. "Next". 49 }. this is done with an array initializer .GREEN. the value of list[1] will be 4. Color. separated by commas and enclosed between braces. 36. Color.RED. 343 }. 9. This means that it can be used in any context where an object of type base-type [] is expected. similar notation for creating a new array that can be used in an assignment statement or passed as a parameter to a subroutine. you could use: list = new int[] { 1. list.255). int[] list = { 1. 27. which were discussed in Subsection 5. you could say: makeButtons( new String[] { "Stop". instead of saying: . 8. 216.. because it is implicit in the list of values. The items in an array initializer don’t have to be constants. A list initializer of this form can be used only in a declaration statement. 4. // dark green Color. Being able to create and use an array “in place” in this way can be very convenient.WHITE }.1. 16. In a declaration statement that creates a new array. and 49. However. it is perfectly legal to use the “new BaseType[] { . For example. The length of the array does not have to be specified. 9. the following declaration creates an array of eight Colors. 64. and sets list to refer to that new array.7. there is another. }” syntax instead of the array initializer syntax in the declaration of an array variable. creates a new array containing the seven values 1. 16. For example. and so forth. new Color(180. 4. 25. if makeButtons is a method that takes an array of Strings as a parameter. 125. to give an initial value to a newly declared array variable. "Previous" } ).3.180.. provided that their values are of the appropriate type.BLUE. Some of the colors are given by expressions of the form “new Color(r.g. The length of list is seven. that was declared previously. The general syntax for this form of the new operator is new base-type [ ] { list-of-values } This is actually an expression whose value is a reference to a newly created array object.180.) For example to assign a new value to an array variable.PINK. Color. An array initializer takes the form of a list of values. "Go". They can be variables or arbitrary expressions. It cannot be used in an assignment statement to assign a value to a variable that has been previously declared.7. The notation uses another form of the new operator to both create and initialize a new array object at the same time.b)” instead of by constants: Color[] palette = { Color. Java also provides a way to initialize an array variable with a new array filled with a specified list of values. The value of list[0] will be 1.

An informal algorithm for doing this would be: Start with 0. . this becomes: . I prefer to use the second form.1 ]. 11. 7. 5.318 int[] primes = { 2.1 Arrays and for Loops In many cases. equivalently. . which is a syntax used in the languages C and C++. Suppose that the goal is to add up all the numbers in the array. can also be written as int list[]. Add A[ A. 3. ∗ ∗ ∗ One final note: For historical reasons. 19 }. This section introduces some of the basic ideas of array processing in general. and it is probably best avoided. (process the second item in A) . for example. Add A[0]. .4. processing an array means applying the same operation to each item in the array. an array declaration such as int[] list. (process the last item in A) Putting the obvious repetition into a loop and giving a name to the sum. 5. 7. 17. and techniques for processing arrays are among the most important programming techniques you can learn. this alternative syntax does not really make much sense in the context of Java. 19 }. After all. CHAPTER 7. 3. 17. rather than use a special notation that works only in the context of declaration statements. i++) { .” syntax for such declarations.length . the intent is to declare a variable of a certain type. 11. that A is an array of type double[ ].2. (process the first item in A) Add A[1]. However. int[] primes = new int[] { 2. 13. It makes sense to follow the “ type-name variable-name .length. In fact. Two fundamental array processing techniques—searching and sorting—will be covered in Section 7. and the name of that type is “int[ ]”. 7. ARRAYS you can say. A loop for processing all the elements of an array A has the form: // do any necessary initialization for (int i = 0. // process A[i] } Suppose. 7.2 Programming With Arrays Arrays are the most basic and the most important type of data structure. . i < A. This is commonly done with a for loop.

2. There is no element at position A. // Start with 0 items counted. the value of count is the number // of items that have passed the test of being < 0 Replace the test “A[i] < 0.7. not “<=”. It’s important to use “<” here. We’ll store the largest number found so far in a variable called max. for (int i = 0.length in A. i++) { if (A[i] == A[i+1]) count++. After the whole array has been processed. so the test in this case is “if (A[i] == A[i+1])”. i++) { if (A[i] > max) max = A[i]. PROGRAMMING WITH ARRAYS double sum..1 319 Note that the continuation condition. i++) sum += A[i]. for (int i = 0. max is the largest item in A . As we look through the array. } Another typical problem is to find the largest number in A.length. . // The sum of the numbers in A. i++) { if (A[i] < 0. implies that the last value of i that is actually processed is A. for (int i = 1. “i < A.0) // if this item is less than zero. Here is a variation on the same theme. The strategy is to go through the array. if you want to count the number of items in an array that satisfy some other property. But there is a catch: This test cannot be applied when A[i] is the last item in the array. // add A[i] to the sum. for (int i = 0. keeping track of the largest number found so far. 1. A.. for // i = 0. I will give a few more simple examples. Eventually. i < A.then count it } // At this point..length. since “<=” would give an array index out of bounds error.. // .. you should just about be able to write loops similar to this one in your sleep. This just means that we have to stop one item short of the final item: int count = 0. i < A. i < A. // For counting the items. The only question is. Suppose you want to count the number of times that an item in the array A is equal to the item that follows it. Here is a loop that will count the number of items in the array A which are less than zero: int count. max is the largest item in the array overall. starting from A[1]..0”. what should the original value of max be? One possibility is to start with max equal to A[0].. // Start with 0.length-1.length”. } // at this point. and then to look through the rest of the array. whenever we find a number larger than the current value of max. i < A. count = 0. sum = 0.length .length.1. The item that follows A[i] in the array is A[i+1].length . for larger items: double max = A[0]. since then there is no such item as A[i+1]. which is the index of the final item in the array. count++. The result of trying to apply the test in this case would be an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException. we change the value of max to that larger value.

each value from the array is assigned to item in turn and the body of the loop is executed for each value. System. . In that case. It is being declared as a variable of type BaseType. All it does is declare a new array variable and make it refer to the same object to which A refers.4. int count) where sourceArray and destArray can be arrays with any base type. Copying values from one array to another is such a common operation that Java has a predefined subroutine to do it.) To make a new array that is a copy of A. it is necessary to make a new array object and to copy each of the individual items from A into the new array: double[] B = new double[A.0 introduced a new form of the for loop. However. (So that. If anArray is an array of type BaseType[ ]. is a static member subroutine in the standard System class. where BaseType is the base type of the array. the “for-each loop” that was introduced in Subsection 3. The for-each loop is meant specifically for processing all the values in a data structure. int destStartIndex.arraycopy( A.length. item is the loop control variable. A[0] doesn’t exist. Anyway. System. 7. what would it mean to ask for the largest item in an array that contains no items at all?) As a final example of basic array operations. to make a copy of the array. // Copy each item from A to B. you would say: double B = new double[A.2 Arrays and for-each Loops Java 5. a for-each loop can be used to perform the same operation on each value that is stored in the array. Its declaration has the form public static void arraycopy(Object sourceArray. The subroutine.length].320 CHAPTER 7. int sourceStartIndex. } In this loop. ARRAYS (There is one subtle problem here. using this subroutine. a change to A[i] will automatically change B[i] as well. the loop control variable must be declared in the loop. it is not sufficient to say double[] B = A. since this does not create a new array object. i < A. and the reference to A[0] in the first line gives an array index out of bounds error. 0.4.2. Thus. // Make a new array object. consider the problem of copying an array. then a for-each loop for anArray has the form: for ( BaseType item : anArray ) { . B. // process the item . The count tells how many elements to copy. // the same size as A. for (int i = 0.length]. Object destArray.length ). When used to process an array. (In a for-each loop. Values are copied from sourceArray to destArray. 0. It’s possible in Java for an array to have length zero.arraycopy(). To make a copy of our sample array A. the above loop is exactly equivalent to: .) When this loop is executed. A. for example. A. zero-length arrays are normally something that you want to avoid in real problems. For example. i++) B[i] = A[i]. Values are taken from sourceArray starting at position sourceStartIndex and are stored in destArray starting at position destStartIndex.

item. When the body of the loop is executed. it does make it a little easier to process all the values in an array. The statement item = 17 replaces that copied value but has no effect on the array element from which it was copied. there is no simple way to use it to process the items in just a part of an array. it can be used as the type of a formal parameter in a subroutine. PROGRAMMING WITH ARRAYS for ( int index = 0. then we could print all the values from A with the for-each loop: for ( int item : A ) System. For example. However. In particular.7. } 321 For example. since it eliminates any need to use array indices. index++ ) { BaseType item.2. this has nothing to do with the array. then the return value is also null */ public static double[] copy( double[] source ) { if ( source == null ) . so it can be used in all the ways that any other Java type can be used. // Get one of the values from the array . and we could add up all the positive integers in A with: int sum = 0. 7. For example. if source is null. // process the item . // This will be the sum of all the positive numbers in A for ( int item : A ) { if (item > 0) sum = sum + item.println( item ). not the elements (where an element means the actual memory location that is part of the array). index < anArray. . It can even be the return type of a function. it might be useful to have a function that makes a copy of an array of double: /** * Create a new array of doubles that is a copy of a given array. if A is an array of type int[ ]. for ( int item : intList ) { item = 17. } The for-each loop is not always appropriate. is a full-fledged Java type. * @param source the array that is to be copied. } // INCORRECT! DOES NOT MODIFY THE ARRAY! The assignment statement item = 17 assigns the value 17 to the loop control variable. It’s important to note that a for-each loop processes the values in the array. However. For example. consider the following incorrect attempt to fill an array of integers with 17’s: int[] intList = new int[10]. the value from one of the elements of the array is copied into item.out. the value can be null * @return a copy of source.3 Array Types in Subroutines Any array type. the value in the array is not changed. item = anArray[index].2. such as double[ ].length.

Here. for (int i = 0. the strings in this array are the command-line arguments from the command that was used to run the program. if the name of the class that contains the main() routine is myProg.2. You’ve seen this used since all the way back in Section 2. This extra input becomes the command-line arguments. For example. cpy.println("You entered " + args. command-line arguments are often the names of files to be processed by the program. every element of the array is equally accessible at any given time.out.out. the elements of the array were processed one after the other in the sequence in which they occur in the array. i < args. when I discuss file processing. In practice.322 CHAPTER 7. args. and “three”. } The main() routine of a program has a parameter of type String[ ].println(" " + args[i]). if (args. We . but I haven’t really been able to explain it until now. for example. The user can include extra input in this command. beyond the name of the program. return cpy. When using a command-line interface. System. but it might be an array of length zero.1. 7. let’s look at a well-known problem called the birthday problem: Suppose that there are N people in a room. there are no command-line arguments. i++) System. What’s the chance that there are two people in the room who have the same birthday? (That is. is a short program that simply prints out any command line arguments entered by the user: public class CLDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { System. double[] cpy. When the system calls the main() routine. The parameter to the main() routine is an array of Strings. As an example. I will give some examples of this in Chapter 11. cpy = new double[source. they were born on the same day in the same month.length]. // A copy of the source array. But one of the big advantages of arrays is that they allow random access. all my examples of array processing have used sequential access. ARRAYS return null.) Most people severely underestimate the probability. In this case. “two”.arraycopy( source. is never null when main() is called by the system.length. but not necessarily in the same year. The system puts these strings into an array of Strings and passes that array as a parameter to the main() routine. 0.4 Random Access So far. the user types a command to tell the system to execute a program. then the user can type “java myProg” to execute the program. That is.println("They were:"). But if the user types the command java myProg one two three then the command-line arguments are the strings “one”.length > 0) { System. source. } } // end main() } // end class CLDemo Note that the parameter. 0. That is.length ).out.length + " command-line arguments").

random()*365). If used[i] is false. birthday = (int)(Math. count++. we need to keep track of whether or not we have already found a person who has that birthday. Initially. then this is the second person with that birthday. */ private static void birthdayProblem() { boolean[] used. When we select someone whose birthday is day number i. (We’ll ignore leap years. The days of the year are numbered from 0 to 364. The value of used[i] is true if someone has been selected whose birthday is day number i. if ( used[birthday] ) // This day was found before. A value // of true in used[i] means that a person // whose birthday is the i-th day of the // year has been found. We are done.println("A duplicate birthday was found after " . while (true) { // Select a birthday at random. used. If the birthday is the same as one that was seen previously. int birthday. break. // The selected birthday. // For recording the possible birthdays // that have been seen so far.7. To hold the data for all 365 possible birthdays. used[birthday] = true. all the values in the array. we first check whether used[i] is true. // The number of people who have been checked. in the subroutine. There are 365 different possible birthdays. // Otherwise. all entries are false. but we can simulate the experiment with a computer program and run the program several times to get an idea of how many people need to be checked on average. are false. PROGRAMMING WITH ARRAYS 323 will actually look at a different version of the question: Suppose you choose people at random and check their birthdays. the answer in a particular case depends on random factors. we can use an array of 365 boolean values: boolean[] used. and output the number of people who were checked. // Initially. } System.out. there are no simulated people. * stop. from 0 to 364. only simulated birthdays): /** * Simulate choosing people at random and checking the day of the year they * were born on.2. record the birthday as used. and we go on to the next person. true or false. To simulate the experiment. The answer to this question is a boolean value. used = new boolean[365]. It’s a duplicate. quit. Here is a subroutine that carries out the simulated experiment (of course. // If the birthday has already been used. int count. we set used[i] to be true to record the fact that we’ve encountered someone with that birthday. If so. we need to keep track of each birthday that we find. How many people will you check before you find one who has the same birthday as someone you’ve already checked? Of course.) For each possible birthday. used = new boolean[365]. count = 0.

2 was an applet that shows multiple copies of a message in random positions. font.324 CHAPTER 7. This would be accomplished by the paintComponent() method public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. colors. The data for a given copy of the message is spread out across several arrays. // (Fill with background color. } } This approach is said to use parallel arrays. There is .setFont( font[i] ). the i-th copy of the string would be drawn at the point (x[i]. i < 365. the array is filled with new random values and the applet is repainted using the new data. If we wanted to reuse the same array in a second simulation. In the paintComponent() method. MESSAGE COUNT. int[MESSAGE COUNT].java. These arrays would be filled with random values. color. Its color would be given by color[i].4. colors."). 7. and font of MESSAGE COUNT strings would be to use four arrays: int[] x = new int[] y = new Color[] color Font[] font = int[MESSAGE COUNT]. g.drawString( message. the number of copies of the message is given by a named constant. Like several other examples from that chapter. and array font in the fourth—then the data for the i-th string can be found along the i-th row. One way to store the position.y[i]).2. the applet had a flaw: It didn’t have any way of storing the data that would be necessary to redraw itself. Arrays provide us with one possible solution to this problem. new Font[MESSAGE COUNT]. we would have to reset all the elements in it to be false with a for loop: for (int i = 0.) for (int i = 0. The program that uses this subroutine is BirthdayProblemDemo.paintComponent(). i < MESSAGE COUNT. x[i]. When the user clicks on the applet. y[i] ). In this applet. When the content pane of the applet is painted. When the user clicks on the applet. An applet version of the program can be found in the online version of this section. and fonts are changed to new random values. So. } // end birthdayProblem() This subroutine makes essential use of the fact that every element in a newly created array of boolean is set to be false. the only time that the picture will change is in response to a mouse click. array color in the third. ARRAYS + count + " tries. so the applet will paint itself correctly whenever it has to be redrawn. the positions. g. and color of each string. i++) used[i] = false. = new Color[MESSAGE COUNT]. i++) { g. array y in the second.5 Arrays of Objects One of the examples in Subsection 6. We can write a new version of the RandomStrings applet that uses an array to store the position. And it would be drawn in the font font[i]. If you think of the arrays as laid out in parallel columns— array x in the first column.setColor( color[i] ). and fonts. this information is used to draw the strings.

font. */ private static class StringData { int x. Like any object variable. the idea is to store data for the i-th copy of the message in the variables stringData[i]. and stringData[i]. This is important: Remember that a newly created array whose base type is an object type is always filled with null elements. The base type of this array is StringData. I made a simple class to represent all the data that is needed for one copy of the message: /** * An object of this type holds the position. and font * of one copy of the string. color. each element of the array can either be null or can hold a reference to an object. since the objects are not in the array. the array can only contain references to objects. y.) When the stringData array is first created. Of course. That object contains instance variables. stringData[i]. For the RandomStrings applet. the value of each element in the array is null. because all the data for one copy of the message is physically in one place. The data needed by the RandomStrings program will be stored in objects of type StringData.” Variable names can get even more complicated than this. so it is important to learn how to read them.) The objects are created with the for loop for (int i = 0. If we follow this rule. but it does go against the object-oriented philosophy of keeping related data in one object. the paintComponent() method for the applet could be written . i < MESSAGE COUNT. This means that the elements of the array are variables of type StringData. This is done in the init() method of the applet with the statement stringData = new StringData[MESSAGE COUNT]. which is a class. I decided to create the StringData objects in the applet’s init method. with the name stringData: StringData[] stringData. i++) stringData[i] = new StringData(). I use an array of type StringData[ ]. stringData[i]. Then go to the instance variable named x in that object. when I wrote the applet. The array is declared as an instance variable.7. the value of stringData is null until an actual array is created and assigned to it. Using the array. Color color. // The coordinates of the left end of baseline of string. The notation stringData[i]. but no such objects exist yet. PROGRAMMING WITH ARRAYS 325 nothing wrong with using parallel arrays in this simple example.y. stringData. (It could be done in other places—just so long as we avoid trying to use an object that doesn’t exist. // The font that is used to draw the string.x.x tells the computer: “Find your way to the object that is referred to by stringData[i].) To store the data for multiple copies of the message. } (This class is actually defined as a static nested class in the main applet class. So. There are no objects in the array until you put them there. (Note that the term “array of objects” is a little misleading. Make sure that you understand the notation here: stringData[i] refers to an object.color. then we don’t have to imagine the relationship among the data.2. // The color in which the string is drawn. We say that stringData is an array of objects. Font font. All we have so far is an array of variables that are capable of referring to such objects.

data. // A random integer in the range 0 to 4. case 2: randomFont = font3. int rand. switch (rand) { case 0: randomFont = font1. font2. x. break. stringData[i]. data. an alternative would be to use a for-each loop: public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. The variables were named font1.setFont( data. font3. the loop control variable. g. } } In the loop. ARRAYS public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super.color ).x. stringData[i]. color. // One of the 5 fonts. g. To select one of these fonts at random. i < MESSAGE COUNT.y ). data. RandomStringsWithArray.setColor( stringData[i]. g.setFont( stringData[i].java.paintComponent(g). case 4: . Once again. ∗ ∗ ∗ The RandomStrings applet uses one other array of objects. the use of a for-each loop has eliminated the need to work with array indices. The font for a given copy of the message is chosen at random from a set of five possible fonts.x.drawString( message. break. holds a copy of one of the values from the array. a switch statement could be used: Font randomFont. In the original version of the applet. and y. with random values. which has instance variables named color. That value is a reference to an object of type StringData.font ). and font5. for ( StringData data : stringData) { // Draw a copy of the message in the position. If you are interested. since the for loop is processing every value in the array. g. data. There is still the matter of filling the array. case 3: randomFont = font4. i++) { g. break.drawString( message.326 CHAPTER 7.) for (int i = 0. // (Fill with background color. you can look at the source code for the applet.font ). chosen at random. break. there were five variables of type Font to represent the fonts.setColor( data. font4. rand = (int)(Math. } } However. g. font. // and font stored in data.random() * 5).color ). case 1: randomFont = font2.paintComponent(g). y ).

Java 5. these numbers have to be translated into the names January.PLAIN. // A random number in the range 0 to 4.6 Variable Arity Methods Arrays are used in the implementation of one of the new features in Java 5. Font. Simple array indexing does the translation for us! 7. If mnth is a variable that holds one of the integers 1 through 12. randomFont = fonts[ fontIndex ]. "June".random() * 5) ]. Before version 5. This makes it much easier to select one of the fonts at random. In a . The translation can be done with an array. Font. 36). // One of the 5 fonts. "March". Sometimes. } 327 In the new version of the applet.ITALIC. break. "August". int fontIndex. The array can be declared and initialized as static String[] monthName = { "January". "December" }. February.ITALIC. 20).BOLD. 14). The array is created in the init() method of the applet. "May". "February". "September". . Months are often stored as numbers 1. Font("Dialog". December. then monthName[mnth-1] is the name of the corresponding month. . 2. (The arity of a subroutine is defined as the number of parameters in a call to the method.0. . the five fonts are stored in an array. We need the “-1” because months are numbered starting from 1. PROGRAMMING WITH ARRAYS randomFont = font5.random() * 5). Font. chosen at random. "October". Font("Serif".7. 24). fonts[0] fonts[1] fonts[2] fonts[3] fonts[4] = = = = = new new new new new // Create the array to hold the five fonts. . the number of parameters must be the same in every call to the method.0. 3. . Font("Monospaced". .) In a fixed arity method.2. while array elements are numbered starting from 0. Font. In fact.BOLD + Font. The switch statement has been replaced by a single line of code. Font("Serif".2. however. This array is declared as an instance variable of type Font[ ] Font[] fonts. "November". and each element of the array is set to refer to a new Font object: fonts = new Font[5]. 30). Here is another example of the same sort of thing. fontIndex = (int)(Math. Note that this example uses the random access property of arrays: We can pick an array index at random and go directly to the array element at that index. "July". the preceding four lines could be replaced by the single line: Font randomFont = fonts[ (int)(Math.PLAIN. every method in Java had a fixed arity. This is a very typical application of arrays. Font("SansSerif". . It can be done with the statements Font randomFont. 12. Font. which is named fonts. "April".0 introduced variable arity methods. .

which was introduced in Subsection 2. } . numbers[1]. // The sum of all the actual parameters. // Add one of the actual parameters to the sum. A complete definition of the method would be: public static double average( double. As an example. return average.17). where an object of type Point has two instance variables. but writing one requires some new syntax. and the values of the actual parameters would be numbers[0]. } Note that the “. } average = sum / numbers.. The points are given as values of type Point. average(3. of any types. The integers will.375). in the body of a method.. but it can have any number of additional parameters.printf must be a String.. When the method is called. i < numbers. different calls to the method can have different numbers of parameters.) for (int i = 0. In the average example. the formatted output method System.out. i++) { sum = sum + numbers[i]. In this case. is a variable arity method. then it would be legal to call average(salesData).2.. The length of the array tells you how many actual parameters were provided in the method call.3). numbers ) { Here. the . Calling a variable arity method is no different from calling any other sort of method.length. sum = 0. consider a method that can draw a polygon through any number of points.y ).. and this would compute the average of all the numbers in the array. be automatically converted to real numbers. the values of all the actual parameters that correspond to the variable arity parameter are placed into an array. Note that actual parameters of type int can be passed to average. i++) { // Draw a line from i-th point to (i+1)-th point g. if salesData is a variable of type double[ ].length .4. As another example. points[i]. for (int i = 0. as usual. double. The first parameter of System. and so on. average(0. That is. the method has one ordinary parameter— the graphics context that will be used to draw the polygon—in addition to the variable arity parameter: public static void drawPolygon(Graphics g. x and y.x. points[i+1].. a variable arity parameter of type T actually looks like an ordinary parameter of type T[ ]. so that for example average(1. The definition of such a method could begin with: public static double average( double. ARRAYS variable arity method..length > 1) { // (Need at least 2 points to draw anything. and even average() are all legal calls to this method. double average.y. For example. points[i+1]. // The average of all the actual parameters.4.printf.. instead of a list of individual values. consider a method that can compute the average of any number of values of type double. Point. and it is this array that is actually passed to the method.1. the body of the method would see an array named numbers of type double[ ].. For example.328 CHAPTER 7.length. i < points.drawline( points[i].2. The number of actual parameters in the method call would be numbers.14. points) { if (points. after the type name.length.out.” can be applied only to the last formal parameter in a method definition. numbers ) { double sum.. of type int. Note also that it is possible to pass an actual array to the method.x. indicates that any number of values of type double can be provided when the subroutine is called.

the question is.x. we could write a method that strings together the string representations of all its parameters into one long string: public static String concat( Object. however.. we need some way to deal with cases where the number of data items in an array is not fixed. the number of data items that are actually stored in the array varies with time. a separate counter variable must be used to keep track of how many spaces in the array are in use. points[0]. a program that reads positive integers entered by the user and stores them for later processing. numbers. g. (Of course. See Subsection 5. a variable arity parameter of type “Object. values ) { String str = "". draw a line back to the starting point. if (obj == null ) str = str + "null". // Start with an empty string. Then the size of the array can be fixed at 100. Clearly. Let’s say that no more than 100 numbers will be input.length-1]. Similarly.. The input numbers can be kept in an array.2.. points[points.3. every space in the array has to contain something. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS // Now.7. how many spaces contain useful or valid items?) Consider. // Represent null values by "null". let’s write a program that will read the numbers input by the user and then print them in reverse . Each time a number is stored in the array..3.3. of type int[ ].out.length-1]. Since the size of the array can’t actually be changed. because of autoboxing. the method definition for System. else str = str + obj..) For example. points[0]. (A primitive type value belonging to a type such as int is converted to an object belonging to a “wrapper” class such as Integer. } } 7. Consider the following examples: An array that stores the lines of text in a word-processing program. Even primitive type values are allowed.y ).toString(). The program stops reading when the user inputs a number that is less than or equal to zero. As a rather silly example.printf could begin: public void printf(String format. numCount must be incremented by one.1 Partially Full Arrays Consider an application where the number of items that we want to store in an array changes as the program runs.” can take actual parameters of any type whatsoever. for ( Object obj : values ) { // A "for each" loop for processing the values.y. for example. it can use an integer variable.3 Dynamic Arrays and ArrayLists The size of an array is fixed when it is created. An array that holds the list of computers that are currently downloading a page from a Web site. values) { This allows the printf method to output values of any type.drawLine( points[points. } } 329 Because of automatic type conversion. numCount. But the program must keep track of how many numbers have actually been read and stored in the array. In many cases. For this. Object.. 7.x. An array that contains the shapes that have been added to the screen by the user of a drawing program.

getlnInt(). A list of all players who are currently in the game could be stored in an array. numCount = 0. Let’s look at another. } TextIO. num = TextIO. and the player objects representing the players will be stored in the array elements playerList[0]. Note that the array element .put("? "). you could declare the variables as: Player[] playerList = new Player[10]. . TextIO. // At the start. TextIO. such as finding the sum or average or maximum of the numbers. i >= 0. there are no players. of type Player[ ]. As a good object-oriented programmer.putln("Enter up to 100 positive integers. numbers[numCount] = num. 1. But it is also the index of the next available spot in the array. // Space for 100 ints. playerList[playerCt-1]. playerCt will be greater than 0. while (true) { // Get the numbers and put them in the array.putln("\nYour numbers in reverse order are:\n").330 CHAPTER 7. For example. // The number of numbers saved in the array. enter 0 to end. int playerCt = 0. you will also need a variable. at least. you probably have a class named Player to represent the individual players in the game. // An array for storing the input values. playerList[1]. to record the number of players currently in the game. 2. if (num <= 0) break. Remember that many types of processing. When the time comes to print out the numbers in the array. . int num. } // end class ReverseInputNumbers It is especially important to note that the variable numCount plays a dual role. Suppose that you write a game program. if 4 numbers have been stored in the array. It is the number of items that have been entered into the array. playerList. . Since the number of players can change. they occupy locations number 0. // No numbers have been saved yet. (This is.1. for (int i = numCount . int numCount. the last occupied spot in the array is location numCount 1. // Up to 10 players. more realistic example. numCount++. i--) { TextIO. playerCt.1 and going down to 0. can be done without saving the individual numbers. and that players can join the game and leave the game as it progresses. so the for loop prints out values starting from location numCount . ARRAYS order. and 3. After some players have joined the game. } } // end main()."). a processing task that requires that the numbers be saved in an array.putln( numbers[i] ). numbers = new int[100].) public class ReverseInputNumbers { public static void main(String[] args) { int[] numbers. Assuming that there will never be more than 10 players in the game. The next available spot is location 4. // One of the numbers input by the user. .

Player k+2 fills the spot left open when player k+1 is moved. But it’s only in the occupied or valid part of the array once. rectangles. int shapeCt = 3. If you are not worried about keeping the players in any particular order. the situation created by the statements Shape[] shapes = new Shape[100]. ovals. playerCt--.7. . . As another example. // And increment playerCt to count the new player. } playerCt--. The Player objects themselves are not really stored in the array.3. newPlayer. only references to them. players who are wizards.1]. . to the game is simple: playerList[playerCt] = newPlayer. . Player. playerCt++. The player previously in position k is no longer in the array.1 is now in the array twice. Player k+1 replaces player k.5. and that it has subclasses to represent specific types of shapes such as lines. And so on. The player previously in position playerCt . (By the way. who is out of the game. suppose that a class Shape represents the general idea of a shape drawn on a screen. but only the values in positions 0 through playerCt . regular human players. as discussed in Subsection 5. since you don’t want to leave a “hole” in the array. // Keep track of number of objects in array. The procedure for adding a new player. // Put some objects in the array. shapes[2] = new FilledOval(). The code does still work in this case. shapes[1] = new Line(). filled-in ovals. Suppose you want to delete the player at index k in playerList. ∗ ∗ ∗ It’s worth emphasizing that the Player example deals with an array whose base type is a class. // Put new player in next // available spot. shapes[0] = new Rect().) To do this. . (Maybe because they take turns in the order in which they are stored in the array. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS 331 playerList[playerCt] is not in use. Deleting a player from the game is a little harder. For example. all the players in positions k+1 and above must move down one position in the array.5. you should think about what happens if the player that is being deleted is in the last position in the list. rounded rectangles. Note that because of the rules for assignment in Java. Remember that every element of the array has to hold some value. then one way to do this is to move the player from the last occupied position in the array into position k and then to decrement the value of playerCt: playerList[k] = playerList[playerCt .) Then an array of type Shape[ ] can hold references to objects belonging to the subclasses of Shape. the objects can actually belong to subclasses of Player.1 will be looked at or processed in any way. i++) { playerList[i-1] = playerList[i]. i < playerCt. What exactly happens?) Suppose that when deleting the player in position k. since playerCt has decreased by one. Thus there could be different classes of players such as computer players. An item in the array is either null or is a reference to an object belonging to the class. (Shape itself would be an abstract class. you’d like to keep the remaining players in the same order. // Array to hold up to 100 shapes. all represented by different subclasses of Player. The code for this is for (int i = k+1. and so forth.

but we can make a new. it would be nice if we could increase the size of an array at will. Why should a program work for 100 data values. with room for additional data. If the Shape class includes a method. i < shapeCt. such an arbitrary limit is undesirable. This is nice example both of polymorphism and of array processing. i++) shapes[i]. a given array can only hold a certain maximum number of items. 7.” calls the redraw() method belonging to the particular shape at index i in the array. but what is possible is almost as good. The array could be used to hold a list of shapes to be displayed. a a a a a s h h h h h s s s s s e p a h s . we also have to copy the contents of the old array into the new array.3. Suppose that we don’t want to put a pre-set limit on the number of players. The statement “shapes[i]. Since the size of an array is fixed. 100 Shapes. bigger array object and change the value of the array variable so that it refers to the bigger array. for drawing the shape in a graphics context g. We can’t make the array bigger. If a new player joins the game and the ] ] ] ] ] h 0 1 2 3 4 t [ [ [ [ [ g s s s s s n e e e e e e l p p p p p . In many cases. This is not possible. “void redraw(Graphics g)”. It just holds a reference to an array object. then all the shapes in the array could be redrawn with a simple for loop: for (int i = 0. in which playerList is an array of type Player[ ] and playerCt is the number of spaces that have been used in the array. Of course. an arbitrary limit was set on the number of items—100 ints. And what if someone is using a computer that could handle as many data values as the user actually wants to process. ARRAYS Such an array would be useful in a drawing program. since it is no longer in use. The array variable then refers to an array object that contains all the data of the old array. but not for 101? The obvious alternative of making an array that’s so big that it will work in any practical case is not usually a good solution to the problem. The old array will be garbage collected. a lot of computer memory will be wasted on unused space in the array. so that repeated executions of the statement can produce a variety of different shapes on the screen. Remember that an array variable does not actually hold an array.redraw(g). Let’s look back at the game example.2 Dynamic Arrays In each of the above examples. Each object knows how to redraw itself. It means that in most cases. but doesn’t have enough memory to accommodate all the extra space that you’ve allocated for your huge array? Clearly. 10 Players.332 could be illustrated as: s e p a h s CHAPTER 7.redraw(g). That memory might be better used for something else.

length). it would be nice to define a reusable class to handle the details. } /** * * * * * * Get the value from the specified position in the array. int newSize = 2 * playerList.and count it..v) must be used instead of A[i] = v.arraycopy(playerList. Make a new. playerList = temp. playerList. An array-like object that changes size to accommodate the amount of data that it actually contains is called a dynamic array . // Set playerList to refer to new array. if (playerCt == playerList. we just make a new. // and set playerList to refer to the new array. a value of 0 is returned. In a dynamic array class.set(i. we KNOW there is room in the array.get(i) must be used instead A[i]. class DynamicArrayOfInt { // An array to hold the data. will refer to the new array. even if the current array is full. bigger one. Here is some code that will do this: // Add a new player. */ public DynamicArrayOfInt() { data = new int[1]. Player[] temp = new Player[newSize]. bigger array. Here. playerList[playerCt] = newPlayer. and A. Note that after this is done.. but the value stored in playerList[0] will still be the same as it was before. // The new array. The notation A. the put and get operations must be implemented as instance methods. temp. playerList[0] will refer to a different memory location. System. playerList. } // At this point. But there is no upper limit on the positions that can be used (except those imposed by the size of the computer’s memory). 0. playerCt++. The same variable. is a class that implements a dynamic array of ints: /** * An * of * of */ public object of type DynamicArrayOfInt acts like an array of int unlimited size. for example. 0. A dynamic array supports the same operations as an array: putting a value at a given position and getting the value that is stored at a given position.7.length) { // Array is full. when the specified position lies outside the actual physical size of the data array. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS 333 current array is full. /** * Constructor creates an array with an initial size of 1.3. * but the array size will be increased whenever a reference * is made to an array position that does not yet exist. If we are going to be doing things like this regularly. Note that a negative value of position will still produce an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException... // Size of new array. // Add the new player. . // .length. // copy the contents of the old array into it. private int[] data. Since all array elements are initialized to zero.

Here’s the program: public class ReverseWithDynamicArray { public static void main(String[] args) { DynamicArrayOfInt numbers.num).length).length. int newSize = 2 * data. TextIO. or if that still does // not include the specified position.put(numCount. If numbers is a variable of type DynamicArrayOfInt.println("Size of dynamic array increased to " + newSize). 0. if necessary. } data[position] = value. The function numbers. then the command numbers. int numCount.out. else return data[position]. The first example in this section used an array to store positive integers input by the user. int[] newData = new int[newSize]. */ public void put(int position. newData. // To hold the input numbers.putln("Enter some positive integers.”. but that array is discarded and replaced by a bigger array whenever necessary.put(pos.get(pos) returns the value stored at position number pos. data. System. The statement “numbers[numCount] = num. // The following line is for demonstration purposes only !! System. . Enter 0 to end"). A reference to numbers[i] is replaced by numbers.334 */ public int get(int position) { if (position >= data. int value) { if (position >= data.length) { // The specified position is outside the actual size of // the data array. } CHAPTER 7. set the new size // to 2*position. // One of the numbers input by the user.get(i). * The data array will increase in size to include this * position. ARRAYS /** * Store the value in the specified position in the array.length) return 0.val) stores the value val at position number pos in the dynamic array. 0. We can rewrite that example to use a DynamicArrayOfInt. } } // end class DynamicArrayOfInt The data in a DynamicArrayOfInt object is actually stored in a regular array.” is replaced by “numbers.arraycopy(data. // The number of numbers stored in the array. if (position >= newSize) newSize = 2 * position. while (true) { // Get numbers and put them in the dynamic array. Double the size. numCount = 0. data = newData. numbers = new DynamicArrayOfInt(). int num.

0. the size of an ArrayList can be increased at will. Java already has a standard class named ArrayList that serves much the same purpose.3 ArrrayLists The DynamicArrayOfInt class could be used in any situation where an array of int with no preset limit on the size is needed.put("? ").3.put(numCount. That class.get(i) ).getlnInt(). for (int i = numCount . once and for all. and it is illegal to refer to a position in the ArrayList that lies outside its size.putln("\nYour numbers in reverse order are:\n"). This is not true generic programming. numCount++. num). numbers.1. and then we will look at the change that was introduced in Java 5. num = TextIO. With version 5. } // end class ReverseWithDynamicArray 335 // Store num in the dynamic array. It would be nice to be able to write some kind of source code. The ArrayList class defines many instance methods. However. given the type of value that we want to store.util. then we could store objects of any type. if (num <= 0) break.0. there is no need for us to define a DynamicArrayOfObject class. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS TextIO. if we want to store Shapes instead of ints. Java introduced true generic programming. i >= 0. A full discussion of generic programming will be given in Chapter 10. We will first consider the almost-generic programming that has been available in Java from the beginning. and it doesn’t apply to the primitive types such as int and double. i--) { TextIO. Some programming languages. But it does come close. This means that every object can be assigned to a variable of type Object. including C++. a DynamicArrayOfPlayer class. every class is a subclass of the class named Object. Similarly. you should put the directive “import java.” at the beginning of your source code file. } TextIO. In fact. 7.3. we could define a DynamicArrayOfDouble class.7. have had support for generic programming for some time. But there is something a little silly about this.ArrayList. it would be replaced by the type “Shape”. // Print the i-th number. since all these classes are close to being identical. but even before that it had something that was very similar: One can come close to generic programming in Java by working with data structures that contain elements of type Object. I’ll describe some of the most useful. so if you want to use it in a program. and so on. Any object can be put into an array of type Object[ ].util. would look exactly the same as the DynamicArrayOfInt class except that everywhere the type “int” appears. If we defined a DynamicArrayOfObject class. we would have to define a new class to do it. Then we have: . This would be an example of generic programming . probably named “DynamicArrayOfShape”. } } // end main(). an ArrayList is more like a regular array. In Java. In this. However. that could be used to generate any of these classes on demand.putln( numbers. The ArrayList class is in the package java. The ArrayList class differs from my DynamicArrayOfInt class in that an ArrayList object always has a definite size. Suppose that list is a variable of type ArrayList.

A call to the default constructor new ArrayList() creates an ArrayList of size zero. in the ArrayList.remove(N) — For an integer. In this case the object that is returned by the function is actually of type Player. can refer to an object of any type. All this works very nicely. if player is a variable that refers to the Player that is to be removed. only the first copy is removed. N. If the object is not found. • list. If newPlayer is a variable that refers to a Player object.get(i) to get the value stored at position i in the ArrayList. you could say players. or it can be null. • list. The size of the ArrayList decreases by 1. this removes the N-th item in the ArrayList. and initialized to refer to a new. and if player number i leaves the game.remove(obj) — If the specified object occurs somewhere in the ArrayList. to position N in the ArrayList. then the position number where it is found is returned.size()-1. Calling this function is similar to referring to A[N] for an array. N must be in the range 0 to list. it’s usually necessary to type-cast it to type Player : . • list. ARRAYS • list. the new player would be added to the ArrayList and to the game by saying players. empty ArrayList object with players = new ArrayList(). The size of the ArrayList decreases by 1.size() — This function returns the current size of the ArrayList. it is removed from the list. obj. an error of type IndexOutOfBoundsException occurs. The only valid positions in the list are numbers in the range 0 to list. • list.remove(player). This variable would be declared as ArrayList players. increasing the size by 1.get(N) — This function returns the value stored at position N in the ArrayList. The integer N must be in the range from 0 to list. If obj occurs more than once in the list.size()-1. The parameter. Note that the size can be zero. Or.size()-1. For example. • list. The only slight difficulty arises when you use the function players. obj. If N is outside this range.get(N) on the left side of an assignment statement. A call to this function is equivalent to the command A[N] = obj for an array A.indexOf(obj) — A function that searches for the object. In order to do anything useful with the returned value. replacing the item previously stored at position N. then -1 is returned.set(N. If the object is found in the list. it is only necessary to say players.size()-1. obj) — Assigns the object. A. • list.add(obj) — Adds an object onto the end of the list. except that you can’t use list. suppose again that players in a game are represented by objects of type Player. N must be an integer in the range 0 to list. Any items in the list that come after the removed item are moved down one position.remove(i). obj.add(newPlayer). The return type of this function is Object. The players currently in the game could be stored in an ArrayList named players. Any items in the list that come after the removed item are moved down one position.336 CHAPTER 7.

For-each loops work for ArrayLists just as they do for arrays. Here is another version of the same idea. I discussed a program. 337 For example. .5. is one of the objects from the list. This gets an item from the list. Shift-click a rectangle to move it out in front of all the other rectangles. The program supports the following operations: Click the large white drawing area to add a colored rectangle. then the code for letting every player make a move is for (int i = 0. and then calls the makeMove() method on the resulting Player. I just want to look at the parts of the program that use an ArrayList. ∗ ∗ ∗ In Subsection 5.height. if the Player class includes an instance method makeMove() that is called to allow a player to make a move in the game. The objects that are stored in the list belong to a static nested class.makeMove(). i < players. Hold down the Alt key and click on a rectangle to delete it. plr. (The color of the rectangle is given by a “rainbow palette” along the bottom of the applet. which defines the color palette shown at the bottom of the applet.java. The parentheses around “(Player)players. // Size of the rectangle. Color color.makeMove().3. that uses ArrayLists. } The two lines inside the for loop can be combined to a single line: ((Player)players. simplified to make it easier to see how ArrayList is being used. i++) { Player plr = (Player)players.get(i)” are required because of Java’s precedence rules.get(i)). DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS Player plr = (Player)players. For example.size(). the value of the loop control variable. The parentheses force the type-cast to be performed before the makeMove() method is called. You can try an applet version of the program in the on-line version of this section.) Drag rectangles using the right mouse button. plrObj. The applet uses a variable named rects. ShapeDraw. (You can also take a look at the file RainbowPalette.5. This object must be type-cast to type Player before it can be used. } ColoredRect holds the data for one colored rectangle. the for loop used above to let each Player make a move could be written as the for-each loop for ( Object plrObj : players ) { Player plr = (Player)plrObj.y.7. // Color of the rectangle.get(i). ColoredRect { // Upper left corner of the rectangle. of type ArrayList. } In the body of the loop. int width.makeMove(). You should be able to follow the source code in its entirety. if you like. Source code for the main panel for this program can be found in SimpleDrawRects. to hold information about the rectangles that have been added to the drawing area.java. click the palette to select a new color.) Here. the type of the loop control variable must be Object. But note that since the items in an ArrayList are only known to be Objects.get(i). ColoredRect. that is defined as /** * An object of type */ private static class int x. type-casts it. players. plr.

then the following code draws all the rectangles that are stored in the list rects (with a black outline around each rectangle): for (int i = 0.y) is inside this rect.setColor( Color. rect.height .width. I wrote the function /** * Find the topmost rect that contains the point (x. Bringing a given rectangle out in front of all the other rectangles is just a little harder.1. from the drawing area is simply rects.drawRect( rect.add(rect). that contains the point where the user clicked the mouse.338 CHAPTER 7.y. to get access to the data that it contains. ARRAYS If g is a variable of type Graphics. i--) { ColoredRect rect = (ColoredRect)rects. int y) { for (int i = rects. g. Since the rectangles are drawn in the order in which they occur in the ArrayList. The code for removing a ColoredRect.y && y < rect. . To do this.height ) return rect. } return null. if any. Since this method returns a value of type Object.height). g.y + rect. // Add it back. repaint(). the return value must be typecast to its actual type. g. it will be placed in the last position. i++) { ColoredRect rect = (ColoredRect)rects.size() .x && x < rect. the rectangle that is in the last position in the list is in front of all the other rectangles on the screen. // Remove rect from the list. * the one on top is seen first and is returned. */ ColoredRect findRect(int x.remove(rect). To implement the mouse operations.remove(rect) (followed by a repaint()).width .x + rect. if ( x >= rect.y.x. i < rects.get(i). Return null * if no rect contains that point. rect. it must be possible to find the rectangle. rects.size(). This can most easily be done in a slightly tricky way using built-in ArrayList operations: The rectangle is simply removed from its current position in the list and then added back at the end of the list: void bringToFront(ColoredRect rect) { if (rect != null) { rects.get(i). rect.get(i). } // No rect containing (x. So we need to move the selected rectangle to the last position in the list. You can look in the source code for more details. ColoredRect. rect. g. rect. i >= 0.fillRect( rect.setColor( rect. } The i-th rectangle in the list is obtained by calling rects. rect.y).width && y >= rect.color ). } } This should be enough to give you the basic idea.x. The rects in the ArrayList are * considered in reverse order so that if one lies on top of another.1. rect.BLACK ). // (x.1).y) was found.

drawRect( rect.3. } You can use ArrayList<ColoredRect> anyplace where you could use a normal type: to declare variables. When an object is retrieved from the list.3.height . g. it’s just part of the name of the type.height ). g. and no type-cast is necessary.0 introduced parameterized types. it is possible to use ArrayList<BaseType>.get(i) You can even refer directly to an instance variable in the object.1 ). g. Compare this to arrays. This has at least two unfortunate consequences: First.x. there is no way for the compiler to detect an attempt to add the wrong type of object to the list. the name of a class or of an interface. Second. When a statement such as rects.width . rect.1. ArrayList is an example: Instead of using the plain “ArrayList” type.color ). the compiler can check whether x is in fact of type ColoredRect. as the type of a formal parameter in a subroutine.fillRect( rect. An array of type BaseType[ ] can only hold objects of type BaseType. such as rects. rect. technically speaking.BLACK ).x. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS 339 7. Note that if a for-each loop is used to process the items in rects.) ArrayList<BaseType> can be used to create lists that can hold only objects of type BaseType. You can say simply: ColoredRect rect = rects. the compiler will report a syntax error.get(i). Java 5. ArrayList<ColoredRect> is not considered to be a separate class from ArrayList.setColor( rect. To address this problem. the error will be detected only at run time when the object is retrieved from the list and the attempt to type-cast the object fails.setColor( Color. or as the return type of a subroutine. This makes using ArrayList<ColoredRect> very similar to using ColoredRect[ ] with the added advantage that the list can grow to any size. rect. the type of the loop control variable can be ColoredRect.color. If not. For example. so no type-cast is necessary. the compiler knows that the object must be of type ColoredRect. The funny-looking name “ArrayList<ColoredRect>” is being used here in exactly the same way as an ordinary class name—don’t let the “<ColoredRect>” confuse you. and there is no need to type-cast items that are retrieved from the array back to type BaseType. An attempt to store an object of the wrong type in the array will be detected by the compiler.add(x). ArrayList<ColoredRect> rects. You can even create a subclass of ArrayList<ColoredRect>! (Nevertheless. sets rects to refer to a newly created list that can only hold objects belonging to the class ColoredRect (or to a subclass). since any type of object can legally be added to the list. rect. For example.y. where BaseType is any object type. declares a variable named rects of type ArrayList<ColoredRect>. the code for drawing all the rectangles in the list could be rewritten as: for ( ColoredRect rect : rects ) { g. (BaseType cannot be one of the primitive types. rect. when using ArrayList<ColoredRect> as the type for the list rects. that is. it makes it necessary to use type-casting in almost every case when an element is retrieved from that list.4 Parameterized Types The main difference between true generic programming and the ArrayList examples in the previous subsection is the use of the type Object as the basic type for objects that are stored in a list.y. rect. and rects = new ArrayList<ColoredRect>().7. occurs in the program.width. An object of .

Curves that are drawn by the user when the symmetry option is on are reflected horizontally and vertically to produce a symmetric pattern. So. which removes the most recently drawn curve from the screen. to redraw the curve. we can use a variable curves declared as . so to store all the data necessary to redraw the entire picture.add(x)” is actually adding an object to the list. the compiler will automatically do double-to-Double and Double-to-double type conversions when necessary. For this list. } However. the user can sketch curves in a drawing area by clicking and dragging with the mouse. because of autoboxing. For example. // The color of the curve.2. In this program. // Are horizontal and vertical reflections also drawn? ArrayList<Point> points. // The points on the curve. Thus. this is not such a big drawback as it might seem at first.) The only drawback to using parameterized types is that the base type cannot be a primitive type. The data structure is implemented using ArrayLists. a “Clear” command that removes all the curves. However. Since each object of type Double holds a value of type double. there is no such thing as “ArrayList<int>”. we need a list of objects of type CurveData. this new version uses a data structure to store information about the picture that has been drawn by the user. not just one. All the data that is needed to redraw the curve can be grouped into an object of type CurveData that is defined as private static class CurveData { Color color. (A Point object contains two public integer variables x and y that represent the coordinates of a point.add(x)” as being equivalent to “numlist. where java. This data can be stored in an object of type ArrayList<Point>. ∗ ∗ ∗ The sample program SimplePaint2. because of the “wrapper types” and “autoboxing” that were introduced in Subsection 5. “numlist.java demonstrates the use of parameterized types.) However. You can try an applet version of the program in the on-line version of this section.4. Unlike the original SimplePaint program in Subsection 6. the picture is covered and then uncovered. A wrapper type such as Double or Integer can be used as a base type for a parameterized type. This means that the compiler will treat “numlist.340 CHAPTER 7. the picture doesn’t disappear when. we also need to know its color. and we need to know whether the symmetry option should be applied to the curve. and a “Use Symmetry” command that turns a symmetry feature on and off. The background color of the drawing area can also be selected using a menu. boolean symmetric.add( new Double(x) )”. The curves can be of any color. but it looks a lot as if you are working with a list of doubles. but the compiler restricts the type of objects that can be added to the list. for example. then the value of x can be added to the list by saying: numlist. ARRAYS type ArrayList<ColoredRect> actually belongs to the class ArrayList.3. and the user can select the drawing color using a menu. Furthermore. it’s almost like having a list of doubles. An object of type ArrayList<Double> can hold objects of type Double. If numlist is declared to be of type ArrayList<Double> and if x is of type double.4. a picture can contain many curves.awt.Point is one of Java’s standard classes. And there is a “Control” menu that contains several commands: An “Undo” command. The main data for a curve consists of a list of the points on the curve. This data is used in the paintComponent() method to redraw the picture whenever necessary.add( new Double(x) ). behind the scenes.

the new point will be part of the picture.points. currentCurve. and repaint() is called. currentCurve. new points are added to currentCurve. // The point where the user pressed the mouse is the first point on // the curve. DYNAMIC ARRAYS AND ARRAYLISTS ArrayList<CurveData> curves = new ArrayList<CurveData>().points.setColor(curve.points = new ArrayList<Point>(). curves.paintComponent(g).size(). As the user drags the mouse. go to points. The basic structure is a for-each loop that processes the data for each individual curve in turn. We can refer directly to the x-coordinate of the i-th point as: curve. The instance variables in the new CurveData object must also be initialized. and a new CurveData object must be created and added to the list of curves. currentCurve.points.symmetric = useSymmetry. // Draw the curve represented by the object. This has the form: for ( CurveData curve : curves ) { .get(i). useSymmetry. // Create a new point list object. // The color of the curve is taken from an // instance variable that represents the // currently selected drawing color.7. for ( CurveData curve : curves) { g. When the user clicks the mouse on the drawing surface.add( new Point(evt. The i-th point on the curve can be obtained by calling the get() method of this list: curve. curve.add(currentCurve).get(i). currentCurve. // The "symmetric" property of the curve // is also copied from the current value // of an instance variable. get the instance variable named x. curve. } In the body of this loop. This returns a value of type Point which contains instance variables named x and y.getX().points is a variable of type ArrayList<Point> that holds the list of points on the curve. 341 Here we have a list of objects.color). .3. Here is the code from the mousePressed() routine that does this: currentCurve = new CurveData(). but it’s a nice example of a complex name that specifies a path to a desired piece of data: Go to the object. get the i-th item. Inside curve. Inside points. i++) { . evt.x This might seem rather complicated. The paintComponent() method has to use the data in curves to draw all the curves. A new Point object is created to hold the coordinates // of that point and is added to the list of points for the curve. // Create a new CurveData object. for (int i = 1.points. And from that item.color = currentColor. . When the picture is redrawn. Here is the complete definition of the paintComponent() method: public void paintComponent(Graphics g) { super. curve. // Add the CurveData object to the list of curves.getY()) ). of type CurveData. where each object contains a list of points as part of its data! Let’s look at a few examples of processing this data structure. i < curve. it’s the start of a new curve.

• vec. Early versions of Java did not include ArrayList. • vec.size()-1. You can still see Vectors used in older code and in many of Java’s standard classes.points.x.get(i). .drawLine(w-x1.setSize(N) — sets the size of the vector to N.y2). for an integer N. creates a vector with no elements.removeElementAt(N) — removes the N-th element.y1.x. 7.5 Vectors The ArrayList class was introduced in Java version 1. SimplePaint2. Then we have: • vec.util. Only the first occurrence is removed.setElementAt(obj. The ArrayList class. ARRAYS // Draw a line segment from point number i-1 to point number i. the extra elements are removed. it also serves as another example of creating and using menus. so it’s worth knowing about them. • vec. int h = getHeight().342 CHAPTER 7.obj) for an ArrayList.addElement(obj) — adds the Object. to the end of the vector. If there were more than N elements in vec. N must be in the range 0 to vec.removeElement(obj) — removes obj from the vector.N) — sets the N-th element in the vector to be obj. Suppose that vec is a Vector.java. We’ll look at these “collection classes” in Chapter 10.y.y2).drawLine(x1.y1. as one of a group of classes designed for working with collections of objects.get(i). g. new Vector().x2. for an integer N. The default constructor.x2.w-x2. This is the same as get(N) for an ArrayList. Like an ArrayList. extra spaces are filled with null.elementAt(N) — returns the N-th element of the vector. obj.h-y2). Using a Vector is similar to using an ArrayList.points.3. int y2 = curve.size()-1.Vector. does not have a setSize() method. int w = getWidth().w-x2.points.symmetric) { // Also draw the horizontal and vertical reflections // of the line segment. and some instance methods in one class don’t correspond to any instance method in the other class. • vec. This is the same as remove(N) for an ArrayList. This is the same as set(N. a Vector is similar to an array of Objects that can grow to be as large as necessary.h-y1. if (curve. int x1 = curve. } } } } // end paintComponent() I encourage you to read the full source code. int x2 = curve.get(i-1). • vec. In addition to serving as an example of using parameterized types.2. g.h-y1.drawLine(w-x1. • vec. except that different names are used for some commonly used instance methods. g. if it occurs. N must be in the range 0 to vec. This is the same as the add() method of an ArrayList.size() — a function that returns the number of elements currently in the vector.drawLine(x1. N must be in the range 0 to vec. int y1 = curve.size()-1.y.points.get(i-1). unfortunately. This is the same as remove(obj) for an ArrayList. If there were fewer than N elements. g. but they did have a very similar class named java.h-y2).

(This kind of sorting can get you a cheaper postage rate on a large mailing. but these are probably the most commonly used. the search is finished. But I’ll also give a few examples using records and keys. For example. 7. then Vector<BaseType> represents vectors that can hold only objects of type BaseType. If so. That is. Note that in Java 5. and we want to search or sort the array based on the value of one of the instance variables in that array. city and zip code. 7. state. the array might be a mailing list. the method returns the value -1 as a signal that the integer could not be found: /** . you might want to look up that person’s address. then you can be sure that the item is not in the array. This is an example of searching. Another example would be to order the elements of the array according to zip code before printing a set of mailing labels. In this section. If the integer is not in the array. We refer to each of the objects in the array as a record .” which are just large. Here is a method that will search the array for a specified integer. Searching here refers to finding an item in the array that meets some specified criterion. in a theoretical sort of way. If the integer is found. Sorting and searching are often discussed. most of my examples follow the tradition of using arrays of numbers. Vector can be used as a paramaterized type in exactly the same way as ArrayList. more interesting types of data are usually involved.1 Searching There is an obvious algorithm for searching for a particular item in an array: Look at each item in the array in turn. It’s easy to write a subroutine to implement this algorithm. Sorting means moving the records around in the array so that the key fields of the record are in increasing (or decreasing) order. Searching then means finding a record in the array that has a specified value in its key field. each record would contain a name and address.4 Searching and Sorting Two array processing techniques that are particularly common are searching and sorting .4. using an array of numbers as an example. since you want to find the object in the array that contains the given name. We can use some terminology here that originated in work with “databases.7. the method returns the index of the location in the array where it is found. In the mailing list example. Sorting refers to rearranging all the items in the array into increasing or decreasing order (where the meaning of increasing and decreasing can depend on the context). if BaseType is any class or interface name. organized collections of data. street address. to remind you of the more practical applications.) This example can be generalized to a more abstract situation in which we have an array that contains objects.4. The instance variables in an object are then called fields of the record. and each element of the array might be an object containing a name and address. one of the fields is designated to be the key field. The fields of the record might be the first name. and check whether that item is the one you are looking for. One example of sorting would be ordering the elements of the array so that the names are in alphabetical order. SEARCHING AND SORTING 343 The Vector class includes many more methods. Let’s say the array that you want to search is an array of ints.0. though. Given the name of a person. In practical situations. It would also be useful to be able to sort the array according to various criteria. last name. If you look at every item without finding the one you want. For the purpose of searching or sorting.

These locations can be eliminated as possible locations of the number 42. Suppose you check item number 500 in the array. it would still take only 20 steps for binary search to search the array! (Mathematically. The next obvious step is to check location 250. we can conclude that if 42 occurs in the array at all. The next test will limit the search to about 125 locations.