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21103520 Spoken English in 24 Hours From Telugu

21103520 Spoken English in 24 Hours From Telugu

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Published by Nagarjuna Velecheti

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Published by: Nagarjuna Velecheti on Dec 29, 2010
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06/09/2011

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FIRST HOUR

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~JsJ Six
~~~ Seven
oJCille5 Eight
'~r5 Nine
._
I~~ Ten
aoS,'J Leven
~e5.s Twelve
~oe515 Thirteen
$S8;!5 Fourteen
e.::
~\Pe3:;) Fifteen
~sJe5.!5 Sisreen
i065oe3,'5 Seventeen
.;)Q))e3~ Eighteen
~oe§.'5 Ninteen
qsoe5 Twenty .;)~g)Je. eg>g)]Je.

::JcyaexolU ;;JetJo~

oSo{sg):)JC) ~6:i;;SEl

-2-4-tf-o-~-€-=-- -(t;-$-, _,c:-) -~-o,...,-"-li~-.-,~':"'",v-s-on-§?"""'. g_,"""' -------~--;;;2:::t1; ,;,;,

65 Thirty ~c;}..)~ aoftii\J OD<tnlo»Je> ~~
• e,:. &oSc:se ;;30
~~ Forty ;:Se.ua)~ e3"~~~6 January
-, ~lro05a Feburary ~lEO<6f) ~e)
~~ , Fifty ctS:Jt><p5
"e, March OSJoaJ ~o
~s~ Sixty @6:l055 oiJt>Oj
e;J. ~l].!e) April ::J@d5J6 ~b
~~0e5 Seventy aa:rJ~ May ~ ;;30
3,
")0J)e5 Eighty ,;);;)ro6 June lli""':S ;;3v
W":'S
~~e§ Ninry &0<Dc5 July W"~ ;5v
~E
~,.,,~@e Hundred 0506, ~I:SJ @~ August @X~ ~eJ
_;;:;"":'S@c @OG ss Hundred and one <S..."'eJ a..se5 ~~otnO September ~~0e:J~ ~v
e:l
eo) @gGe:lDJ ;;3v
tl.J" 0::."" o@c Two hundred ooc:;, cS06en @g8a:;o October
eo)
e.:J
l~ oJooLct5 Three hundred ~~ OS06e:D 0505 OeJ 0 November ;:SjO<DOJ ;;30
~o ';;""o@E Four hundred N"e.ul'\, 0506 en e.~02J0 December ~ ~0<D6J i30
~c5 oY>o@c Five hundred 6JliJ jo6en -SOlla m410im qbarS~ o}tiQIDeJ)
~§..)oY>o@c Six hundred .~CJ cSo6e.n @i3 Oft 6 OJ t:.SJ 11"
~~.!5 oJ<>o@c Seven hundred ;0t&J cSocSen
@~.!5 Often c;}e.u~~
~O:Ue) :;:'I"O@~ Eight hundred ~::)g}J5 jocSen Often times @~~ <6~cI:»o5JJe.u
@~~E~J
;J.!5 <Joo@c Nine hundred ~~J8 o5ocSen @~ _tj&J Of times <6G3;;Sa
._
@"G;lOC Thousand ;,)Qj,j~, Q)8oSocSe.n <0Jo:'S Soon 6,,67l"
"'.
~G1»eS5ID ~lib ~ere1 ~ @n10 Again cSJ6v
- ...
._ ~;:Sd.~~(a~ )
~~~ Sunday @50J"6oS:lJ ~cSo Never
05J~a Monday fJ6~0J"6o:m .;)055 Ever .;)Q;;§~V$)
tm:s~C; Tuesday o5JoX~<>r>6~ 0.'5 Then @Q)J>6
;,)C:~~~ Wednesday illJ<:;5~605JJ ;,).'5 When ~Q)J>e"
tPojC~ Thursday rU6:l;;:N50::00 ~a.)~ Always .;)~c;}J>6
~a Friday 8,dXJ§ Yearly <0o;:)6,)605JJ;:SSJ
-a,~~6c:m Monthly ~~ 05Jt>~~
~~oa Saturday if~CJ"6 0::00 GS:Jo~
24 Ifo~et (.;5$ ~) GlOA~ ~son ~qJ 23
~
22 24 tfoeJ~ (.;5$ f!) GlQ.6,;;$) t;,..)llQ/I S£~ SIXTH HOUR.

~~Jw~1 ~~o\Sc.S:lJ& (!90 ~i:$~S"@o~~

Q

1!J~~~o~ !S~i:$.)

E·ASY GRAMMAR

iillltSlkPTHEPARTSOFSPEECH (O~8~~:iI~~t'l)

. .

LIiJ"~~ Ss ~lOO~~~·;S jC:So:m~ G~6o:m~i:$ ;:')OJ0;Sa,:)~a-~. 6~~6!:<)§) hen @;fu ~.:5;6xJ h.e.n ®~i c:):crI>C:J o)4l"e) §'e)0XI!3& ~6Jt,

S£e iJeJ @:::J @tJ<'!"h. s,;:'.))ot). . .

eJ 'Q"'CJ,.. ~I

~ag)QOIT' ~fW);:S o)W"e.JJ ~W", aoc:J ~!3 @o~soi6 .,;)s,J,o) O)r::J'>O

Se)cm13 ~e);:S ;:;'CS~~6J~~oEl. oSGJDe);:6) @g) OY's~o& ;::)6.;sg,y,o~ ~~o6 ZJ~ aJ::J~5 <?,J"1l"W1l" ~~<£oW"6J. OJ"e5:o parts of speech (zy>iZ' ;;ScSzy>r);6xJUI) @g:) @otr'1:$:).

A~ the words in En~li.sh are divided into eight kindsaccording to their use and these kinds are called "Pans of Speech".

1. Noun (N"'c;'i)OY'.:)stm) 2. Pronoun (;;stS.s;:;y>~~)

3. Adjective (::J~oJ.~<5JJ) 4. .. Verb (@o)))

5. Ad-verb (@c:lS.,p ~i1oS.rn~) 6. Prepostion (!lO.§sg ~C).;:).)J)

7. Conjunction (jj,;.)~®:5JJ) 8. Interjection

(O'"S~s ~~b.;J"6S.;:).)J)

. <1>

~,~;l"~S~

Abdul, boy, child, daughter, a~D.l ~e3g;:6oa)oQoD;:S ~~?

;;5)<SJ _.. (9)<'- "" p" . "'''' ~ ><'- .,;

oj,) . <;>.,.I ';')oroO...,OW'" OJ'-;\;(. @eJ"n ...... , ...

Am, ba.t, cat, dog, elephant, fox a.:6b,J aloeiJo5)e,)SJ ;:6oroOQow;:S

24

~6S~~~

Ramu is just sixteen year"S old. Ramu has no brothers and sisters.

Ramu's birthday is on June 7th. Ramu's father is a farmer .. Rarnu helps Ra~u's, father in Ramu's spare time.

i?p'<:.l;::D ea. g)1?OrT" 1?~;:ScSJO. ~~~<6;:S::r> W"eJ" ®;:Jc:J:oalOrT" tl'loe:nOQ,

S"roe3 6~~ ;:60<6 g)c;lOrT" !§l"'~[).

(.J ~

Ramu is just sixteen years old. He has no brothers and sisters.

His birthday is on June 7th. His far her is a farmer. He helps his father in his spare time.

~ paragraph 6' @O~5 Ramu @~ OJ"aroc))e)J He, His @iO

a.05Cfu:>F\otSc&o Z35noQ,

:J;§~s~

L Ramu is a boy. 2 .. Ramu 1S a clever boy.

EOoc:;, o::J"~Sime.l<6J K;;))~ot), 00(5<;) <iYSijo5.JJ8 clever ®~ ;;5?5tm

w6;:S;;)x.1l" :;:5oJro~<soE). eao56~ ,@.:5<6c:mrT" .;)o6.?~ ~6J2.)~<SG).zyUl:O

cfulSz" rPE:<l;tro;:5.) 3e))~eJSJ.

L Swathi is an innocent girL What kind of? Innocent girl.

~@

@d5;:l @oi6 ~g)jes? 05:0 (action or work).

carry, drink, eat, play, read, walk, write ag) .il0).) oS;6.:JW? @oB OJ"~Sime);6:J05e.§[)9;.tm.

1. I lit the lamp ~.~ B;;J;;.ID·;:6);;'3Df'lon~iO)

.~.@'o :Jl~~~

l§dS:J<> g);a;;if:go:o;, @<S1l"-;36:b ? L§oil<fug)~~ot:)ac.).J;6e e , Rosy walks slowly. Rosly walks. How? Slowly.

:)~~&~ ;,)G$~

The book is on the table .. (:::,,,;;Ss~ ~e.:lJe) £no e;;SJEl)

_, '-'IG-'......ll, 0-

A preposition is a word used to show relation between two words in the sentence.

Ex: In Bo.r,nhay,at thestation, from London, for sacrifice.

~~~J~~

@<Sn" a.;§ Parts of speech S 005<5 ;;)O"v;::i) i6Y>l~;& Conjunct jon (~~t:5JO'5J.~) ~EUC0eiJocl<SJ.~~.

Be strong and wise. (50~ adjecrives D sex;~e:;) SO;;)cl. conjunctions:

1. and = o:»5cti:o

3. but = 5";:)

5. yet = @O,),);:);5]o

2 .. or =e:J~, e30" 4. still = ao~;:$)

V3~~ ~~W~~~~

iill;:)~)&~e;,)KJ @l~~,)J!3 e30" KotltS~<S zy>~~;:$) eex;~ <t<g;Xov~ 'Interjection' @;:) ~6J.

Alas! She is dead .. (@CB.Jos, @:ill iS~S)6O,),);SQ) RJi'iibOJitij!:iifuJvt9m U~omen

aJ";;3o©dSJG5:0vt3 ~50i5z.:Jc;" V~&lbilJ<6:><ne3 nouns (N"(S)0J"i5~G5:0ex;)

a-- ~ c......J.. ~

;:) 006 l;;)Q"rS .;S~~e.nIT' g)~~ot:S<S.:DJ<6:>.

1. Proper Noun (;So:;! el'a ~o~ ~~.;:,'\5~~):

Definition: A proper noun is the name of a particular person place or thing.

:J6S~;S;5:0: Zv~ lf$Ss~rS .;S~§ .IT'g), ~e)oS.TI;S~ n"~aO" <S~~;S~ IT'::J aoc5JrS~ tJ6l es i:J6l IfJ$S!3~IT' a.,S5~ a1:l a.,~ .;S~~s as a.,~ ~e)~;S~ i:lo61<6:>. be3Kl Proper Noun @o(\.JoOJ. 1?;)6 ~i5"J ~d5n;6<0CJ ~cle5 @~c~ Caplital Letter raJ~ @~6bilJ) ~cJ5J"~1

Ex: Raju, Lucy, Mr. Bush. Mrs. usha Narayan, Auntie, Dad, Mum, Uncle Tom. Asia Africa, Austria, Athens. G Park A venue Wilson Street, Assembly Bhavan.

Things: Aristocrat suitcase, Nescafe, Royal Gold Tea .. Miscellaneous: Autumn, Christmas, Friday, October, the

Hindu. . ..

2. Common Noun

.. a..s <2"® as 6SoilJ;;$!3J DOQrS CS~S rr>~, ~v~;;$SJ r1"'~ dO" .;5;fu<;:SSJ r1"'~ ao6J~e3tJc~ eEU;;J) <;j"~OJ"iSs;:m;6~ 'Common

-o~ f.) ,...."

N owl' (~~;6J) e30" a3"® N";fuW"i.5sQfu;;) @~ i:J6l.

Persons: captain, cricketer girl, teacher, son, student. Places; village, town, city, country, river, ground, mountain, Things: blade, book, chair, machine, plate, slate, table Miscellaneous: bird.znonth, war, week, metal, gas.

Collective N oun (~:;m:.;jS6S N"~W"t:Ssc::oo) ·0

6J~~Le$ !_§)iillf.'<l~ (Unit) IT" ;;)eK~ot:lea..s 6s~ oSS~~p dCJ"

3.

oS~~v ~;fu)O"dSJ~;;n 'Collective Noun' @oe.J'>~.

4. Material Noun (;:;sl;i aa ;sag (~oSS' mass) ~.~.;:,'\S~o)

g) e ~c.I1'" ;;$J ot$s 2..;§ ~c$ IT' i'1":';) , /"\:H~..) f1'>rr> ~ Lcl;;S;:m rT" n"::J

t;) C.)

OJ"dfu~IT' ~~ eoc$;6e5 ;;)0"6;:fu.)e) i:J6;6) ~el)<0 ;;)tS~e>~ 'Material

. ~ ~ ~

or Mass Noun' @~ "t6l.

5. Abstract Noun (lilQ~~ ;,-~.~~):

~~o©dSJ;;::roe);3 . Lr1~o;;5a:lCS sOSe)o c:S:J;6CiD,.);5 ~~O;;)a:lCJ a.,S <5~~ CibJs& ;6~e;?<S~ aO" K:;f.'<l~ ~6Jfi'>:';) ;;5~fi'>.;J 60" ~® i:J6Jl1"gJ abstract noun @~~0<5.

ARTICLES @l12~~

I!!I06; ~~& .;),@I~,e a, an, the @~ ;;:ID>~ ;)CS~.)e) Ke)~. tli!3gJ @I~~~ , Articles' @obo6l. £Je5 e;;)ffiJoK~<fu @el);fuS"<6:>b @';s~C;;))KJ ;6);;5. qJ"~e)& £)e5 ~~.()~ s~~oiS6J.

;.) a

E'd an

o the

~. a : @;611" a.,S 9,<5 q)eJ"i'J" @~ tj;;5JO:l. ®oc))~ 6::):';) ~oSJo;6S N";;J.;OJ"t:5s;:llie) ~olSJ C!;;;)dbof\o.6.:>6J.

A. boy si~{5)J;;:5:;) A Girl

A pen

® K(o)e5: ®~.!5 :

a.!3 to"[)S a,!3 !3 e.l ,;:fuj e.,S SJBj

A chaires ~o

~Q"6mo1i" .;) ID"cill oJ (;68, .~"@;!5 ®;:J ·et::5J506J6:I.®EJ <55S"cs,. (!£it) iu;6 @e.lOJ"'bJ cSJoL~;&.

s<'5(an) @;61i" z..,S: ';QB ::fuo~ q)eJ"N" @~ B05J6. ®o6J~ 8:o~ $J'>14' ~oiP;:5,s N"o:DGJ"'iS§cfulo ~ocSJ ,~;;S03Jt>noei:l6J. 6<'D:O ;)05Jl t$Jo ~05(fuollo05;)a3i ~Ul<0J !:UoCJ"o:Xo.

@)06 @~6;;me:.r& ~j,8.,ro,e..,o~a,e,i,o,u e;p ®i$)Je:;;D ,;i);:S!fu eod5:0;:5). ;;:pes, ;;S52?;6 Cl:~6~ a.e.i.o,u GS6Jc:J1i" @,.J,S).,&',d5:0 e1.) 13.;Jrir:;o .;:o;6;fuJ ~6JJ§"';o a).;o.;J<>J.~~' s,~" ;:S;)QQ;;55@,,;6 Cl:W"'J 6m.:5cSJi:;s.;o ~oS~f\o..:sOSe.ld5:0<SJ,~)e;:J" ;:::l"Q).);;:;oiSs oSC$O'iD ®, ;), s, G..., e ~S;6)e.J& t?6o~rS ~. <:6tStm omo6 @J.!5 ;::So a;)d3J"lloi:) i96CSe3t:5J.

~: an ant ~.!5 @oe5 z...S' f);ill

an egg

an owl

an umbrella @.!5 @o@.l~ a.~ ~~rU

~ oo~ C:!J~!3e1J ~e_,-oi\l" @:O i);)jltJ e3t5), 5":0 ;be.s:o ai5atJ~e5' @~i3~ (Indefinite Articles) ,@oe;o6;l. q)eJ'>N" @;:J a<6jl;:S05jle.iJ 'fY (The) ~ 6;;S0li'>f'lO~6). '8' (The) eO'iCi3JoKollie woO" :oc;ti)Q).)ollie1JKe.l~. OJ"e5:O ;ill;6~ ~6:lo::1"e'jBe.Xl<6JS"rScS~J<5J. 'CJ:c:.l.,)e5 S ;::)6J,JS":D;:S OJ"'e3 ;:j;;JSQ5)~& §"~ <;:J"i3S~e.l;6J l§:l"d5:0tJ;;jtlJJWoc..

28

,HOUR

ru~ 3UJ?1 ~~oi:S~e1l we; ~~~~@~ eJo~ZQ;'J @tS~ ~t:e~o

omo~ ;iiJI!I~iMJvtiD~oa (J1t~tJD1(i) LSt'bCIDibl GPC1iloa

th6J, s,c:.lJe3a56SJ @;5s OJ'>c.J!3 ;)c);;$:ue);::Su <J"e3 ~w~ys~;:S;J 6ell~roNd.;;5.x;J. OJOe5;6:Od.0eB~ e;)03Jt>f'loD w;;SjD;:SJ_ .iJ"S;~e:;<6:J @:l"dfutl ~tbJ~Or:::l".;)n,

~1S:J 61. @OGl e[)~;;S <SCl"vi:SJ ;;:§e$)J!§;l~6:l. OJ"e5~ oe;pr\) ej.~ot:" i:la.i:l (u~o~!:?q5e;y>:Js @SdSJuJ.0tSot,,6a @ot) ~e;s01i" liJo~~ i3cfuoc.

It, he, she, boy, girl,. table, chair,ok, fruit, an, a, is are. rhey, we you etc ...

8l!l:ll'l:l& .iJ"!3~ ;QO"J_mo:Dvi6S;J 8.0D.~& ;Y>s~ ;'JOOJ-EW:O§ W"O' ~r:;o

~;6clG). -Ga a06<iJ'>~ID& oil"'sJi :OO"JP~~ Bc:fuJ;6~~ <:0r:::l"e» ~6JJ W"O" ~~~ zQ)oe.noi3.

Ex: She is a girl ~~a3 . .;) K(o)6 1.!;3;fu .a..i3 .wDs.

(She = ~.~ is= ftj~5 a= &.1'3 girl = to"€l!3:) @Ci'lJ e;6J.5. e..s to"[)S es @;:.'b a..s a.J'>i)~ ffi;6J_o @:O o1§<:5Jo5Jr. BdDSJoCcS". ~;6 Q'~ ~CBPKiro;:5) 8)~o.b e§"6Jjy> Bd5JcSc<5J, as ..:5Jococ,.

;1'. ~ 0JJre CO):J No he is in

1 go If I go

acS" @d:Di5 e't:ie:; e~6

0>.

~<SJ ~~J6;6)

j<5J ;;3{it2;6~CO)~

~d)J r;S @:5} e» ae5' We go up to it oSJ;6(fm 0":0 ;5~!3J Q£~ti~

ae3eW @ ~a It is a. chair ®B eA~th

41 c;y>sStille:.<6:l ~~ @O€) ~6) iSElg) oiJ6e> l§J"o5.;o8.

They are boys. It is a wall

We are boys It is a book

. They are girls It is a pen,

It is a fruit It is a pencil

(~6J 65~;6 t:)~f9 ~al1" ~;;:}.l5 a:J5 ~ ~iJ".)6c;e.J.w ~5..::l.J<.«))s6oe,.)

1. a. @l5 &cm~, (c3 @O e;&aue3)

2. tl @j tJOXJ8 ($cfu e80 tf'OXJa)

3. a e8 Ken ca e80 K6~)

4. :Qe.n ~ ~e) (ae5eaa @ ~e))

5. ';Qe.n @ eJOo ( 'iQ6 eaa @j OJ"e5)

6. ';Qe{) ss eJ.)s (~e5 ~a <!8 ems)

7. 8.~ @ @:5 (ae:5 ~a @ ~:5)

8. Q~ @ ~:J.Je5 (Qe) ~a e8 ;:'~Jo)

VERB ACl1J

-

::J6Si:S;S~: ;;');fue:.<:5J, ~ei:Je.J;::).), ~Df'ldSJJo6b;fu@eJJ~;;S:y>be.JS:l

"l~d5JeJJ" @g] 1J6J. .

Functions of the Verb (~CIil ::J6sQ.oi:l:l ::'J~w): ,;:.oQ"tlE'<101l" ~do r:Y'eJJr\) Q');fue)cS.:l t3«))o5 @g) :

1. S"~ a~ ~~ (Action done by the subject) : sg ~g)J t3ctm~ deJJ~<5.:>.

Ex;

1. That boy lent me his book

2)~~~ ~.~ .~~~ o:l~w (Action done to the subject) : sg,!3:> ~g)J ed57'\r:f @eJJ;:0;fu ..

Ex:

1. The hippopotamus was shot by some one.

3) s~ ~~ ~!)ft~oGi.1 aw~~.

Ex:

L We have a scooter.

~~- 6s'~~: .2 6S"OJ arJ'".lo.:lJ.

1. Main or Principle Verbs (@Q";S ~~<:;l;I)

2. Auxiliary or helping Verbs (~;;.J'@s'6 ~@~)

30

EIGHTH HOUR

&~3w~1 L~oSo..:s~e~ De:l~ a~~e s~~~ ~iS~ot1 e~ L~a.t9S.»(136f.)

VERB - TENSE AdiJa. -~vom

-

Spoken English d> Tense @eSSoeS ~Q"~~eS ~~~~d.06J<5 ~ @o.a~;::).) a"lKgrl" ~1))J~~vdS.u;6J,

TENSE . KINDS (Ll~O:OOe.JJ) l.Present Tense (~~oe.) ~~)~eSsoe.JcS.xJ II.Pasr Tense (~~ ~~j) ~~soe.J~

ill" Future Tense (~tSD D~J) rPg)~;§ S"e.Joi:D

L PRSESNT TENSE (oS~~;S S"e.>~): ~ T ease ~~~o

CB6JfueiJ~d. t:)gJ;:_) BeJJ~ei:JOO.

Example: We buy a television today (~cDJ axm oJ ~tlg)2:liJ ~a)

~ & 2:l" ;fu.:fuJ T. V. §''Otn''''d,05.:n

II. PAST TENSE (~dS"~~) : .~ Tense ed5f'lKl£cm;;:} oS;O;:)

rb5of) eeJJ~8Jo5.

Example: We bought a scooter. yesterday (~cfu a,""e_) oJ 'i6Jo&bD oJg5B)

~~ ;&o5.:n 'i6JolreJo ~i'J'd_oi:D

HI. FUTURE TENSE Wg:)~E S"~~) : 6a Tense ;;'m<5.:>Jol$)

2:l6JK&dbo:.~xO KJ50D "§Ul~6JOQ.

Example :We will go Mumbai tomorrow (~cm g) r5 Ff' ;;:mo axm bJoS,r>OS)

-a~ ~oilJ ~oe:>cm ~'f10~~;fu).

31

I_?)@ lsd5:Jd';fu soe:;<iD e:):6::J .tiJ:J<.6.i) Otill OJ f1Ti ~<p~0,:S0:5 iilJrS:l.

1. Indefinite (simple) Tenses. 3. Perfect Tenses.

2 .. Continuous Tenses. 4. Perfect Continous Tenses

~ .;)001l" Verb <66 ~~o 3 x. 4 = 12 6!3cS.:DeJJ Ke>~.

Present tense

L Simple present tense: I go to school (~<6J. ID~§ ~~6JrS:l) 2 .. Present continous tense: I am going to schoo1~;5.) co6§ &J&~t:5Y-> ~~.-6J) a;~6 retUrnh- eiSd,6.

J. Present perfect tense: T have gone to school (;.;3rS:l GJc§ ciJtl"d5xioe9Kl) <;:51l<6 CJ'>~~ c;;,;;)Je.Jg ;:SoGJoc:;5oS:lJ;6,lS ea S"eJo:m~ e;;S<lb<>flo~6:l.

4. Present perfect Continuous tense: I have been going to school

Past tense : ~<6;J aJ6§ SJScQ)t:5Y-> cQ)oe5CJ (aQ;;sce l~60~ @3 ~;o ~cJ.)es§ ~bJr\)t:5Y-> cQ)01&05e3;;iJ)

1. simple past tense: 1 went to chool j;6.) 8)c,s ZH'JJ@:O)

2. Past. Continuous tens e : I was going to school 0<6:l aJG:.s ~~Ji$:rc

cQ)N'd~)

3. Past perfect tense: 1 had gone to school ~<6:l aJ6s SJSa:o ~oe3~)

4. Past perfect continuous tense: I had been going to school (~;6J roes &J8~tSJo ~oes:o)

Future tense:

L I shall go to school c;5<6:l aJ6s ~~6J;:$))

2.1 shall be going [0 • chool (~<6:l co~s ~~i:S.Jt> ~oc5J;6.))

3. I shall have gone to school (;5;ill8;)c:..§ ;:5t>~di:uo6 Ci'5JJac5J~)

4. I shall have been going [0 school (~~ roc:.§ ~t1i)i$:rc d5JJoc dill at$:;;:$))

~~ g)oSeo~~ CJOS"~f)d_ cS0~8 ~oi5:lS"~;6 ~ r0a66iJcfroff ~g)Oa:m11" o)p~ d o:)eJ ;? aJ'" XJ 11" ~ In dS.:D<6J. ;Q<ill05 a e3 ;B <6J6 §" Dd_OJ" S"Se.;·;S:: ~ fl'>a<l§a:mno L;;J'>c\:5:0bSJ, i5tD~bS:> ~d5:J@J.0.::506. ~ g)~1l" £n6J a&;6& ~6J r0:JeJ2,)OI1" so6~;fu j6.:lJ~o6J6J.

32

~<S a;;J.J~;:Sd_ LSdJJe)<SJ oociJ tSSOe::lJ11" g)Qe:I0 W"1:5J. 1. Strong verbs 2. Weak verbs

, STRONG AND WEAK VERBS

(iihofi @lOS g)§ 'Ci16~

-P

<6JiS ?,.1"oSQ5:ne);S) oS~~ jd'W;:S~CJ @g) ~ S"vO'll><S6 ~oE)~~3' ~ g)~~l1" aC" ~cS~~e);;m~ ~;:so-mecJ~F'lo.;;D GJO~~W' ~o~ln. a~~~o5J::5o GSS§o.)5i3 .GJO~o a.m~J. ~cSo <S5lh ~oCSCSJ. ~ iJodG'SJJ6' .~d5:J6 rie.l 12 6JocJ~e,,<SJ tnrSo @OSd));:So t3'8"~. S"co~ .ea I§d))e,,;fu ~6:liS,)l1"ecSd3JcF\o{) @crue.l 1SJ.>~~eJ<6J oSJiSoSJ:> &~~['lt' ;;§6.:lJsS,;;Se,)~ ~rSd.a. a.~ ,;Sy>Q~ ;;31'& ;;36;) ~;;,)~e)) oS~ C"~~ Strong verb @eY' S"~oo ,@dSl~ t:J056& ed, d, t;;(j a...~e!l ~tlJQ ~eJoi"i'> ~6S"~tS.J6;o o:l"e3~ Weak verb@oeJ'o6.:l. !btlJ ea Strong verb <6:l 8J'""/'U['lt' @OSd5:J;:So jd))oSe:)~ ~o<illoEl.

STRONG VERBS

be was
ID 05a
eal ate
~6 ~ej
draw drew
IF' p
bite bit
Ee5 [Jej
chide chid
t::lG;: ;:)c
do did
-e cc been being
£JiJ bQDon
eaten eanng
.eatJ~ ~esor;
drawn drawing
l~B LC"aDoFi
bitten biting
ID~~ ~e3oR
chidden chidding
1:)c~ tl~or;
done ,
aOlng
1&5 ~Q).)or;
33.:10 fall fell fallen falling
i;Jo<5 ~i5 ~a:;) ~Von &~3LU~1
forbear forbore forborne forbearing NINTH ~Q5oi:5~&~ ~lS~~ oas ~~~
Q ..... CJ
q)6e5cr c;loefo q)oefOd._ qS5aeon ~~56-Q~ Ln"oE: ~OL!!.;l~ ce,~~

forget forgot forgotten forgetting HOUR. 8:0&47 ~eS' ~IS~~ !&el~
q)one5 c;l5rF'e.)" C;SO(jD~~ ~one.'3on' WEAK VERBS
forswear forswore forsworn forswearing .~ i§o5 OJ"e3~ ~CJ";:Sonc .:;56;;S~;:)§ l;jd:SJiSd._oi:Soe
;;So-t.s0 q)o~o c;lo~od. qSfiiJ.sfJon burn burnt burnt burning
freeze froze frozen freezing lead led led leading
@!§ @"& @S&i5 ~e:!on speed sped sped speeding
knell knelt knelt kneeling
ride rode 'riden riding
ight lit lit lighting
oC;; '0£[£ eas E~ol) lose lost lost loosing
o.._,
arise arose artsen ansmg Sit sat sat sitnng
@£ffi @uffi @Qes:5 @oe:!on wind wound wound winding
:1.._.
awake awoke awoken awaking heave hove have heaving
@;n§ @~s @sSs:;s smell smelt smelt smelling
@3'sori deal dealt dealt dealing
bear bore borne bearing dig dug dug digging
830 Bo z15d_ a350Fi bring brought brought bringing
beget begot begotten begetting pay paid paid paymg
sell sold sold selling
2J;;6 aJ7i"e5 aJli"~,~ al71i3oFi find found found finding
rise rose risen r1Slng bend bent bent bending
,2K) fiffi Oa>,!5 2_e:!oFi mean meant meam meamng
"- dream
foreknow foreknew foreknown foreknowing dreamt dreamt dreaming
S;SD~ tif.6;:i,~ leave left left leaving
i1'0,~'t5 ~D;jOlJoF-i smell smelt smelt smelling
teach taught taught teaching
34 24 lfo~et (QS/5 a) Qloll.;:p 00~oll gS~ 24 lfo~~ (oiSZ a) Qloll~ ~Jsofl sBq) 35 "Ii. beat. beat beaten
burst burst burst
cut cut cut
hun hun hun
rid rid rid
sec Set set
shut shut shut
split split split
thrust thrust thrust PREPOSITIONS m(S~~ oJtSome»

';9,06~ ;:SOe;:l"~E;'il& Prepositions iJo~ iJ"V' L;;:S~q) ~;:So ;5gy~o5. !3~S !l~~ t'\:l6otJ g);;SCOrT" 6KJ;;S ~OS.sC~;:S6. @c3 g)c;5orP ';9,5 ~;D;j"iSS~<Ss, OJ'>!'3$om&~ 8:66 <P"l'iom<5~ Xv ;:SoeJoQ,;i:v;;:D@enQ21<55, Please meet me at 3 p.m. on Sunday

~a ~6 !D @eJ 4 ~. clli.ill @~ ;:J~ C

6o:S:Jcl:SJJoc:, <5~J. ~B0J"6QS:o ~d5JoS"e.Jo 4 Koe.:>v~ sen;6J§"<5J6. ~ LR:JiJO~~c!JJ;iJ@;::i)r)J& ~;:1~~ aoS~~v~, ~<if~g!3~;:S

®oSSdiia:IDv:O, .fl<@ ~e§Sd5:i;tIDv~ @o6:J6:J. 6! Q:}"'s£oS:nv<il !3JcW" ~6;tro.

There is a cow in the field (05c2 oJ SO 8:5 6 [,6)

• , r;;

@I :iJovaS:oC a,!3 @I~ SvclJ.

He is fond of sweets no 4:! ~oc' @~ ~.s~ @e§:O§ ~.s~ @oti 8:~oSx.

.. ~ !!ci)J~,D\~.-.) l'iobi1JoL'So&

1. ~Q"'6E<l l~~e:lQ'S..'5J

at, by, for, form, in, of.m off on, our, through, rill, to with, up .... 2. S"o~o6 @iPe:lQ'S.<:.iJJ a by ;;io;:SJ.r'UD?ej~ i3tDj.J oSv;;S~6Je,<s ~~e:l;;S,~ oJocJ5n! 5)Q'Sei£g e;;;)oJ~;fu.;voc5J()). ®~g) :

36

about, above, across, amidst, among, amongst, around, before. behind, beside, below, between, 'beyond, inside, outside, within.

without etc. ' '.~'-- -.'.

- 3. ~:fr>a'3c6.;6e) ~~~ (~~§6Sg e<iSrS~g; ~t,;:S <iStS rSo:mCl"d1:>im)·

according to,a long with, away from, because of, by means of, by reason of, by way of, in case of, in course of, in favour of, in order

to, i.n place of, on account of. etc .

WORDS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS That book about computers is very interesting There is a crow on the branch above you

Do this problem according to the way you have been shown The little boy ran across the street

To day bus after bus passed by without stopping Don't lean against the wall

Divide this cake amon.g you

She threw a stone at the fierce dog I walked before her

The child is hiding behind the tree.

You are not allowed to hit below the waist. in boxing I saw a boy standing beside me

Besides his relatives he invited his [riends also. He divided the money between Raju and me. The cake was cut by my sisiterwith a knife Sentries guarded the camp during the night The girl cried for help but no use

Our school is one kilometre distance from the Railway Station . She is in the kitchen

She was waiting inside the cinema Put the pencil into the box

Keep off the grass

A week consists Qf_seven days The cap is on his head

He hit the ball over the boundary She has been reading since 5'0 clock Is she realted to you

The dog is under the table

She cut the bread wirh a knife.

You must pay me back the money within one year.

TENTH HOUR

&~3w~1 l;;5;;5oiS<:::w& ~a ~~ e-o"eisO KeJ ~e GS!~ ~~e~oG:J ~~a'>Z

NOUN· GENDER ~i6J~~am -l)olSiiW

;:SeE~e)S:l ~~;& Sex Gotpoa. :o6~eJ~ GoC::lfu.@Q)J~ Gender

el -

@;;:D;:S6 ;:Se§~oS:l ~Bdfu :::Je~o~ oS5;:J:Joa s;6)s Gender, Sex @;6)

~ ,-JII....JJ

Q)D"eJ ~e;S~ ;:0.se)J~<6 ~kS;;m ~ot.J:lo6. axe, bag, chair @;:$_:, ;;Jr::J'>eJfu Sex. eocC'iJ 11":0 Gender GotmOGl.

(Do~~e.:o - d!5~e.:o) ;;:0,J~e:o ;:S;;S:J~ ~0'5 ~~~eJ;fu ;;J<';O l)oK;;m<6J eJe5 N"eJ.:lrP 6S~eJ.:ln" g)~e;:Oi:l"1:SJ. C!:!Jg) :

e.)

1) Masculine Gender .:

~<6J~€.eJ&i6J. c6§?eJd'<6J ~5ctm :Qei6 <zo~~eJo:me<fu e<6J_ ~KW":O;:;) 6eJ.:l;;J) ;)cSaS:o

Ex: actor, boy; cock, dog, father, uncle.

2) Feminie Gender: o:Di6J~SeJe;fu, OS§?eJd'<6J, ;6)5 aei6 ~o~ ~v;till& r5J~J. ~6~e:o ew~ OSClo-m.

-

Ex: actress, girl, hen, bitch, mother, woman, aunt.

J) common Gender : ~e;$Cfu<> .:fuKCiJ.F ~tl011" i!jeJ.:lQ)~ oo6§ G~i~fl'90'5~o-t:5J;6~ ail.,) Noun .

Ex: Friend, student, child.jhief

I

4) Neuter Gender: @C ;fuK c::!"'eiJeJi6J ;;o6Q)Jo;;JmCSS"v:O :o6oS~;6

~ ~ a_

o'5~~;fu ee:o~ Noun &0013& VoK<SXl

Ex: axe, book, chair, pen, slate, table

38

PRONOUN (FOR NOUN) i;'lrs.siiJi'~om

Noun (N"o))QJ'>t:Ss~ );:5SJ eJ~VJI1" eoScfu»f\o0c 0'5 cS~;6SJ Pronoun (c66'\N";ill.;Xu) @~ ~1:SJ.

A pronoun IS a word used in place of a noun or non-phrase to

avoid its repetition. .

Ex: I, we, you, he, she, it, they, me, rrune myself, us, our,

ours, ourselves, who, which, etc.

Pronoun. Kinds (c:',)~S~~~ - 6~~~): Pronoun ~ @o6 g)e;So:ron"

~z;1~oi:S;;S-t:5Jj~.~~ :

1. .Pe.rsonal Pronouns (~~Ka: dD" ~60,frog!3 ;.Jtl~N"oiJ;tille)J)

2. Interrogative Pronouns (L;;S~OB.)oe;S c6O,;yv";illo.mru)

3. Relative pronouns (;:JOB.)O~ efQs e3CJ" ~OB.)oQ"gS;:Jtt;:J"~oiDen)

4. derno nstrarive Pronouns (:0~~~~ acp :06J"<:.5~6J~ ;.JO~r:J'!~;6naJ )

5. Reflexive Pronouns (@~J.;:j ;;3oogs aoo ~e3q)eJOtlB ;6~N";fuoS:uttJ)

6. Emphatic or Emphasizing pronouns (c5,JQ"~~ 60'> eJeJ~<6 c6 o~r;p;;));tillaJ)

7. Reciprocal Pronouns (@:;:f-SN"sgs r6t5,;s;;J-'oiJoS:uru)

8. Indefinite pronouns (@~~~ e:§C"l @:o~~~ 6Ci" C!:!J:0tl6 ;6 6.sN"o'5:Jc:m eo )

9. Disrri butive pronouns (Lc6e1~S"g13 g);;5&N"a:JS c66.sN"o).)oiDeJ.»)

10. Possessive Pronouns (~~ .;)Q~~s c66,SN";;P~ru)

1. Personal Pronouns

(~g!I'i@ aC' ~~~~s ~6S~~~~)

Definitoin : Personal Pronouns <ire those which stand for the person speaking, spoken to or spoken of.

;,)6S ~ j~: oSP~ ~i5J;6J. CJ":Os",,:O oJ 6:Je5 OJ"~§ IT';:J aD" ;yf,?/1'

(~S6-;;3) .~~ OJ";:Js 1l":0 ooc5J;6~ Pronouns-Sse "Personal Pronouns" (!!I~. iJ~.

31

Ex: I am hungry (~;:i> ~!3l)R"~ E;i0'd_;S)) Note: Here 'I' is the person speaking.

We watched the film on T.V (;&oS.;u tl.g).& ~~~ .,:S,p'8<'~)

2) Interrogative Pronouns (~i"l~oa;)QO ~6s~~;;m<:l:l)

~e cJ6:Je5CJ"o:'J ().)5oE) ee.:o00~.

Ex: YOLL are a far-sighted man.

"You": The Pronoun "you" may be used in singular or plural

contexts ..

Ex: You are yourself to blame. You are yourselves to blame.

3) Relative pronouns

(;Joa;)oQ t1Q~ ~a ;JOi'.:loQ"~~ ~6S~~~@) He she it, they e». rQ;) oJ'2,&c!' e30" l;;)!3b~ er5d_ QJ"e:o e30" CJ"e3:O /"D5aD @e),)~;::i;. (9r511" .::Jc55g:) eJO" a:'J:O i'U50B t:S5jot:.laJCS ee.:o;;J)~. (the person spoken of)

Ex: He is looking at the statue, She is washing the dishes.

It has been found in the park. They returned at sunset.

Note: 1)Ist;;))5Cifu IInd persons &:0 Prououns xioco [)oxffiQoS:n

(Sex difference) e36J. 2) Ilnd person e5";:i>~ "Thou" @;5.) Singular "Pronoun - 0":0 6PQ'}o:lJJe:::D sc5eo poetry&~ c5Jli~tKoq5o:lJJeJ&~ o);o~;& 6;;)~f\~i0'd_CiJ. 3) IIlrd person 6' ~;5d_ He @~ Pronoun CJ1>g:} 6.J0050e<6J ~K·6J'>e~ ~6am ~OC0CJ eJc~<Q)eJ~ oe));;J)t::l~ 60)cfiJof\~6). 4) Illrd person {} ;::))~ She ®~ Pronoun CJ"g:} 6Jo;;:Pe;;))

.@6;;;:ro5N ;5)Bcrm @6@o~c:0 eJo~~eJ<6J, e..Ce.:o ;;:mIl KJ 03"tl:o 8e.:o<\']eJ~ eo)cfucf)~<:)). 5) IIlrd person 8 ;6,;r5d_ It@;;)) Pronoun CJ"~ 6Jo~eJ::6.:> ~ ~OSo e3i:) OSS~e);;)), [)oK~do @[)d5J~ aD" @O~ @OS;615o a~ §"g:}J.

eJo6.::>~e.lofu(':ko~b~ 6cJdlJt>f)~t)).. 6) IIIrd persond' ~r6d.. They •

@;;)) Pronoun t.;p~ 6,.,-o;;:Pe.J;;)) He, She, it @;;)) Singular pronouns r5~ \~

j

40

1

I

)

I. 1 .... '" =,~,,~CiJ 7). Theytu50ii 0":0 6P~eo.x:r6 them, their

p urai 7l'" Q,:,:) ... u...-r., '-" .

(heirs, themselves!:J E)KJ;,j ;6o0CaJirne.JoC:O ~CiJ:rof\~.:s,~ a) Everybody,

'somebody OSoe5 Indefinite pronouns 8o<Se3 .

Everybody should have their .(his/he:) .re~ords wnh~them .

Somebody has parked (his/her) Jeep m front ot my drive.

Subject Pronouns:

Person Singular Plural
I I We
nod You You
Illrd He, She, It They 2) lnrerrogative Pronouns (l?~~ ~6S~~~II..l:)):

~-a'd.~ ~c:i:SJJtl~· ~;;)OJ.y>K;jCJ Pronouns D 'Inrerrcgative

Pronouns' @0eJ'>~.

Definitioa : An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that is

used to ask a question.

Ex: what, who, whom, who. which .

3) Relative Pronouns (~Ct:lO~~S: ~6S~<>SJ~e:o):

!:J6St:Sc:Siro : oo~ &;;)OY'SsOS.lm;;)) Sexl~i:$)o, <6:uotS:> CJ"sS~&:o Noun c:SS;J Tl":O ~O". Pronoun ;:sa,; 1"\":0 ro6:ie.:o71" E;~CfuoF\o~ ;;)6~r6~

Relative PronoUll@:O -fu6:l.

Definition: Relative Pronoun is one which refers to some noun or pronoun going before and also joins twO clauses like a conjunctm,

Ex: who, whom, whose, which, what, that, but, as 1 have come for my uncle who lives in this village. He sold the house which his father had built.

5) Reflexive Pronouns (<!9iS4~ ~C"g~ ~ISSN"o5J~II..l:):

~tS.siS~~ : '2,~ a~;5 ;;)~ Oil:ls6-q)[)~~<$) s~~ V>o1:5Jb;:6.) 6ex>~b~~~cw>f\ot:n Pronounsb Reflexive Pronouns @o~fu.

Definition: A Reflexive pronoun shows that the action done by the subject turns back upon the subject ..

Ex; myself, ourselves, thyself, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself itself th_:::lSelves.

41 \I"

The carpenter hun himself, while mending the bench; I availed myself of the opportunity. . This ring was given me by my boss himself.

He bas made himself very unpopular.

6) Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronouns (,::$~r;;"g~ iS6S~~~e,)J):: :JCSS.:$<6~ :: a.,~as CbQi1§.,)~<SJ ~:)t:SJ"~ot:X>eJSJ ti;.QJCU)· e F\oij Noun:O Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronouns woeJoOJ.

Definition: An Emphasizing pronoun is one used for the

sake of emphasis.

Ex: She herself said so .. He himself did it.

Reflexive use Emphatic use

1) He hurt himseIf. 1) He himself hurt it..

2) We hid it ourselves. 2) We ourselves hid it,

3) I did it myself. 3) r myself did it.

4) She dressed herself. 4) She hel'self dressed .

.5) He bought it himself 5) Be himself bought: it.

7) Reciprocal Pronouns (C!O).1~~sgs: <S6.sN"oSo~eJ.}):

:J6.si:S~~ ; a..S5§,,1S~ ~d;:JJS~ z..,!;:i ;;);D:O a:l6:J.~;:St;9. @ru~b~

6;;JdJ.y>FloiD Pronouna 'Reciprocal Pronouns' @ot?tU.

Definition; A Reciprocal Pronoun denotes a mutual action. Ex: The two sisters hated each other,

The girls in the hall helped one another in the examination.

S) Indifinite Pronouns (~~~oi.tg!& <S1S.s~,~~e.)j):

~6.siS~~ .: 8,E)ijSeJ"N" @~ ~~~OSnrF Q;;JJ~' ;Jcjrj a,§6J, i;Jef' a,~i!5 @g) @."O~~.<6nrF oUJJi6J.

. Definition: An Indefinite pronoun refers to persons or things

!D. general way but not to anyone in particular.

Ex: Nobody is prepared to ruin his own career, Somebody has taken my calculator.

All are dr owned int he river.

Som.e say she was drowned intentinally.

Nobody knows what happened yesterday evening ..

9) Distributive Pronouns (~~.s~6~ <SO.s~~~e.u):

rJlS.siS;:5~, ;z..,f5'(}3&f)r:J NBoD ~J$~ ~kQ~ Nouno Pronouns @oe.;r>tD.

42

Definition: A Distributive Pronoun is one which tef~TS to

persons or things one at a time. . '. ,

. Ex: Each of the boys gees a pnze

Either of these roads leads to the park.

~er of the statements is correct.

10) Possessive Pronouns (~~ g)~~g~ iSt$S~~;;S:oe,)J):

iOt$.siS~~ : e,s ;;S~~CfuJ~& Ownership ~ ~Ul<0e,,~ 6;;JcJjylF\otS

Pronoun D 'Possessive Pronoun' @otJD6J.

Definition :: A. Possessive Pronoun is one used to denote the

possession or ownership of a thing.

Ex: This pen LS mine. (not .!!!Y. pen) These books are~, (not our books) That necklace is hers. (not her necklace) That is my hat, !I costs sixty rupess.

S"~ ;)oc56~tme)o6,) "It.' ~S~~oc5J Subject r? ryog) aD" Object

11" ri":tl f§D" e.;;)~FloL5e)~<5:J. (!£IoJJ'd:l @O ~ Noun;:Slfu rotSJe..urF aQ)c'BJ"F'lo.tDroCOJ. @oc5J.:6e);:S ~& Person ~ 80~ @cSs<>.to at$), s~§ @o Impersonal Pronoun n">&lQ);:)mdJ6.:JoQ.

Ex:: It is very luck} that I have nor eaten any of the poisoned food.

riQi,:J~': It @ rS:lQJ6~ Impersonal Pronoun 11" €t;<:-JGl:~f\oiSlDt:;/:r;:i

r;;r>iOs "@B" @;:::) 11":J 00'" "0":0:0" @g) l1"~ @D;;;roO"dJ. @0ii1;;Se)c:J

0" .

C"iOlO ;:Jj~;6(1,iS:JtJ!3J e,.,~ phrase 10 r?lOaP'" a...~ clauseD l1"/O 00>/0 ~s&;:S &;)al.:r<>f\o6C;.oa3eb~e'boo.

1) "It" is a Third Persona'! Pronoun, denoting neuter Gender.

Ex: It is mv scooter.

--=='"' ;;

2) When "it" does not refer to any person or thing, it is called

Impersonal Pronoun.

Ex: Here .15 your staples; take it away.

3) For animals unless we clearly wish to speak of them as male .or female.

Ex: She: loves her cat and cannot be without i:t.

4) For a Joun? child, if we do not wish to refer to the sex.

Ex: When I saw the child, !!. was cry·ing ..

24 lfot,.,~ (~; ~J :i<(J~~~J§;on !?~

43

T~7u:NTH

,J...L;VL _ _

HOUR

&fJ3w~1

agU~~ e3V~~ ~o~o S"D~e.l~Q~ $'o~ ~e.:I.S."·,,o~ia.se.-e

THE ADJECTIVES m~momm

N"~~i:lsi:o:l (aO" ;:;)d.sN";,S.,~) oms,?" /'))£<l g);§;4~~;6) @e.XJ~

o}6iro~ Adjective ~ob>C~ !be" @e.lJ;$)SJ~6;,.

Ex:

1. Ramp. is a beautiful girL

2. He has a little knowledge in computer Science.

3. I don't have any pens.

Kinds of Adjectives:

l,;)o£<l,Je) e30" Q)~~e) oms& ruE4)~e)t:S:J, 6S~e:J;fu, OoliJe);6) ae.XJ~

Ex:

He is a good boy. You are a smart girl. She is a foolish lady.

2. Quantitative Adjectives (;;:.o.;s.,.Q'~s ':;'~olQ~~)

The Adjectives that tell the quantity of a thing taken are

known as Adjectives of quantity.

Ex:

She has not much money in her account, He did not eat any rice.

All students have completed the work.

J. Demonstrative Adjectives (;J~~~s" !:l~olQ~e.:IJ) o:IDe;t$.)ijoS.Jroe,<6 C'SJ;6)~S~li"~, Bao~~<6Jn"'.~ aD'" ;6~~~fi"~ ~~~;fuJT1" i§OJJr::o.

Ex:

Do you know this girl?

N ever make such a mistake again. ~ toys are Lucy's.

4. Numeral Adjectives (;;JO~S.~s !)~olE4);;S.;i;)~)

.,)o6iS:loo ;;SS~U) BO" ;;S~~U) &'<6J..8" OJ"DJ aD" @.;) ~ lS~~&

e<6J..3' aOJ~ OJ"~~ ";:6oW'Sg!:!l g);5~wo5J::)l!X)" @oa6:J.

~8 Adjective S:l ;;S~ 0SJJ0~· ~c;S~U) ao er-e» ,

Positive Comparative Superlative
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
Tall Taller Tallest
Short Shorter Shortest
Small Smaller Smallest
Sweet Sweeter Sweetest
Kind Kinder Kindest
Great Greater Greatest
Brave Braver Bravest
Happy Happier Happiest
Old Elder Eldest
Merry Merrier Merriest
Fat Farrer Fattest
Good Better Best
Little Less or Lesser Least
Much More Most
Many More Most
Beautiful more Beautiful most Beautiful
Difficult more Difficult most Difficult
Courageous more Courageous most Courageous
Bold bolder boldest
Red Redder Reddest
Fine Finer Finest
White whiter Whitest
cheap Cheaper Cheapest
Easy Easier Easiest.
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
l\.ind Kinder Kindest ---...,.....----....,...___,,....--....,...----------4:-::'!5,' .jII.

24 lfoe,t! css a) ~o.6~ ~.)~on sO~

ADVERBS

~ct:iJ;l m.fiCil18omm

.o6sw;:).:il;>; l§d5J cil,l)S6rF-O. ~-i.;:i~oilJ ciillS,J!1"-O aCJ'> oiJBcliu.§' ~diJo rl-i.;:i£<)<>lli cliuSJrr'-O ~g<>lli;ill ,v.i~ot:J ~4.)) .;)CS'~;5; "Adverb(LlJd'Jy. ,v;i~woiJJ "~oeJt>d;J,

Ex:

1. Y au are driving rapidly.

2. Radha is a ~ clever gir1.

Kinds of Adverbs

Adverbs are 7 types (1) Adverbs of place, (2) Adverbs of time, (3) Adverbs of manner, (4) Adverbs of quantity, (5) Adverbs of reason, (6) adverbs of quantity, (7) Adverbs of affirmation and negation.

l)Adverbs of place (~~~~ ~i:)o~ ~@- :'i~;;J.e;Jj;;oe;o) here, there, everywhere, within, backward

(2) Adverbs of time (S"~~;:S.) ~wo~ ~@ ::l~~e:;l~e;o)

\X/hen, now, late, age, lately, soon, daily, already, never, formarly etc.

(3) Adverbs of manner (:Jc;i~ e:l0" ;:''Z8:.l ~-wo~ ~~ ::lt~;!w~) clearly, breavely, soundly sadly etc.

(4) Adverbs of frequency (.0oa ~~~J(P ~;'j ;6J"wo~ ~@;:)i~t<l~Q;))

Often, twice, seldom, once, frequently, always again etc. (5) Adverbs of reason (S'"6",,~;:s') ~woi:SJ ~@ ::l~~~~e;o) hence therefore etc.

(6) Adverbs of quantity (;;';Jo;S...-e:;l;!w;:S.) ~wo~ ~~ ::l1~~~e;o) Fully, too, very, pretty, partly, quite, enough etc.

46

~ TWELTIH 'HOUR

&~3w~1. ..

1~05o,;;$~e ~a ~Q ~~

1;:, . Q

§s~ ~lh£ffi;§

AYEIAIAP'¥ ~PBt fnJ~<th~ §,tt»en)

2...8 Main verb OJJJ8J, tense, voice, mood e)C'SJ iSe.xl<0bSJ ~~~r;~CJ ~d5:>e)8J "Auxiliary Verbs" @otJ'>1:U. '~.e ~Q"~ol1" ooCJ

1) Primary Auxiliary Verbs 2) Modal Auxiliary Verbs

1) Primary Auxiliary Verbs: ao6J& am, is, are, was, 'were @;6) be 6JoiFe.n, have, has, had @;6) t5J"iJoe:n, have @tSJ 6.J<.iJoe.n, do, does did @;:S:J do 6JoiJotn e~o.:o.

2) Modal Auxiliary Verbs: ao6J& shall, should, will, would, can, could may might, must, ought (to), dare need, used (to) @~;:S~ tlN'dOXl.

Uses of Primary Auxiliary Verbs Be 1) Auxiliary Verb l1"

tJ6:t1 Continuous tense 6' e;;)~F\~1:U,

Ex:

1. I am waiting for you. (;;§;6:J ~§t>;;)O ,;)t\6Jti,...,,~ es~-:o)

2. They are swimming in the canal. (W'6J S"woSVO ea6Jtil~6:» 2) a~ Passive VOIce ;:P ~6j6iS.:lb~e;:)c53Jt>Il~6:>.

Ex:

1. 1 ~ offered a chair by him.

2. Good news ~ expected.

2) Main Verb rr

Linking Verb rT" ci:;;;')(fuollitlSJ. Ex:

1. That ~ a we.ighing machine.

2. We are very happy.

47 ...

Have6J';;:)~~ Auxiliary Verb 11' 1) Perfect Tenses ;Sot)) e.;;)~F\~6J.

_.,

Ex:

1. I have taken your pen.

2. I had heard of this before.

2) 0 bligation zo E1e:JJ;;J)eJSJ.

Ex:

1. I have to go now.

2. Do you have to get up early?

Priniciple Verb 11' S[Jf\ci'S.DoCJeJ ti!5l<:S:> @tio5xJdi Q

Ex:

1. Do you have a pen?

2. They are having a party for their friends.

Do 6Jo:'~OJ Auxiliary Verb 11' 1) L;;)'t!d OJ"~e'i;;:ille);::)) :Ji:Sjt5tiJbSJ Ex:

1. I ate it. Did you eat it?

2) N ega ti ve OPSil;;Sne;c6:> 6 ci:5.Y>6J;3d5:0eJSJ Ex:

L He came yesterday. He did nor come yesterday.

3) ;S§~t:3¢).Jb$)

Ex:

1. I saw her yesterday. I did see her, yesterday.

Main Verb rr

Main Verb S[)fld5:006b ($I;::)) @1:S~& Q

Ex.:

L You do this sum. (~~ ~ as&i6J ;3d5:0~) Auxiliary Verb rr

Negative, Interrogative, Emphatic senrences D ~1:Sj1:StiJeJ~. Ex:

1. I did not go there yesterday.

2. Does he go there regularly?

48

2) Question Tag~ ;:)oru Ex:

1. You smoke, don't you?

Modal Auxiliary Verbs

a~ 13 eli"'d_Q)). ag) soSe;o Auxiliary Verbs /1"~ ;;J~a~Q)).

1. shall 2. should 3. will

4. would 5. can 6. could

7. may 8. might 9.. must

10. ought to 11. need 12.. dare

13. used to

1. Shall 6~ past tense 6Joo.)~ should.

Usage of shal1:

1. Shall :D Ist person W eoJ~not:);:S Simple Futurity (~~;:SS <?g)~@ ~e)j,x))g) Be).) ;;J)<:S:>.

Ex; I shall take tomorrow (~;::D d~ .9lfuSJoe.J<><fu) Shall I go there? (~;fu @13J.CSJ ~giJ~?)

2. Shall g) Ilnd, Illrd person if' cl:\;;JCfuof\ot:);:) Coloured Future no Command «(!ga:l)j Determination (Rl6 :Dl:5dSJo). Cerrainity

~ Q t<1 ~

(~c;,)jg)~a), Promise (CJ"r;;c6;;Sn), Threat (e3Qao~)Eje:JJ~;::)).

Ex: You shall pay the five tomorrow (!J~ d;;J) ala~N" ~~oiJ"[)) You shall apologise for your rude behaviour (D~ ~ i:$:J1:SJ;6J ~~6;S~ SQ)y>;;Jt'Cl §OO"[))

..... ......

Should: a5 shallam132,. past tense 6:,,,,,c;,)~ @Q)J;$~ ~Q"~roor? eoJdl.Jof\owOStiJJ;::))'

Usage of should:

1. Obligation (aJOo.~6, s1:SoSw)<6J fje:JJ~e.;,~

eJ ~ eJ

Ex: You should go now. (~~ a<iJJc:> ~~[J)

We should respect our teachers. (~;:S eSi'ioJg) 0:»;60 n"1:S.DoW"'[))

1. Request (@<psg<6)<6:J 6e.n~eJ$)

Ex; I should like to ask you one question.

Will; Uses of Will (Win;:) cl;;;)(fuoF\oiil ;::)oc51SJ~e;o)

1. 8,6 IInd SJ5cti:o Illrd Person Pronouns & e§L3" Nouns {J/J

~Q".o.f:Q r;5~~0 S"eJc5;nrSJ (2O"D~oa,

Ex: He will leave for his native place, (@e1Ci:J ~.~ <0S~eJD~§ ~C;a>~C,)

You: shall get ready before Lcome, (;;3;6) ~;5j<>'mo6Ci ~~ B6 @l~ID)

2. l1nd person &" ~~e)o6Polire RequestD oW" Polite Invitation toeru~;6,),

Ex: Will you lend. me twenty .rupees please? (Polite request) (c5®~~ 20 bJoIIW @~.J ~~O"?)

3. Will ~ Ist person [j> 6;;;5&u~F\oD~ (a) ,oil"re;r:Jc:ill (Promise) (1) a)6eo~ (Threat) (c) ~tS~gdiliillJ (Determination) (d) ~~ile5o (Intention) (e) ;::)ifuJ_@ (Willingness) ~ @e.:o~~,

Ex: I will help you every month. (Promise)

I will teach you a bitter lesson. (Threat)

I will not accept your proposal. (Intention)

Would: Uses of Will (Would:0 6<.JdlFF\o-4J ,<0otS6&1<:lllw)

a.E'l will;fuedfu past tense ~~;tm. would;.) 6a.5~F\o.::5J;;JoC$tSJo:me.lJ L (Suggesion) D;6.) Polite Request (cfuO"~c5~,",,6Stl @8,'l~g<6) e;;:) @eJ0;;J);6),

Ex; Would you accompany her to college?

S"d~§ @~§J &dlll" ~~i1P03"?

2, (!ll~<5oS:o (Invitation), ~';sSiSJ<.~b (Offer)C)~i§eJJ;;JJ;::5J, Ex: Would you cue to start with me?

~!3J r;JOg!i@oc:Sb>;Js 8.S;;;5cB"03"?

e.:l

Cam cjg)s Past tense 'could'.

can ;;'J ~:;JQi,"'f\o& <3odtl;:)oS:ow

L ~~~im (Ability) ;J@w;;J)tJ8J

50

Ex:

I cannot-answer the question. ;5;:i, es ~.a.lSJ e;1;;Y>a;p a,OS.s8<6J.

2, ~<6:>~8 (Permission) to ~tSJbl:b Ex:

Can 1 borrow your scooter? !J<6Jo2,.bO (!l)m~ ~~CJ"'?

Could: 6;;5<fu>hoiil <6oCStl~~e.),)

1, K6o&(O ~~~;):o (Abilityin the past) ;J ~e.:o~bSJ

r could lift a bag of rice when I was 15.

15 ;;:SOlie,) O'SctO;;):)J& ;:OCSJ aJdile')o .ai~ ~~KID7'\~E.~ ..

2. @~o:o@ (Perrnissionj D §m~tJSJ Ex:

Could I accompnay her to college? S"8cM i3t$) @~SJ [j>t!;;rT"~~JO"?

May: 6~s Past tense 'Might', May ~ e.oSc:fu<>F\oiSJ ;;:SoCS6~~~

1. cw$'e')g;:s (Request) ~ 6e.lJ;;JJtJS:>

Ex:

May J have your match box, please? t$o503~ ®f'I ~~ ~iJ.>oo?

o ,eJ ....sA

2., @;::'i)O'SJ8 (Permission) iO SStSJbSJ <5J5c6:l o:DO<2""OJ 3c:ti.JJtJS:>, Ex:.

May I come in, sir? ~.~ &05 ID§ooO') t:1'J ?

You may go our.

!J~ eJdSJlJ!:D ~ ~;St$),} Might: i05:;J~F\otiu ;:Jot$tl~oS:oe;o 1. @8,'lJig;5 (Request)::J ~e:o<0tJ!il

Ex:

Might I use your pen for <I. while? S"ot3o ~<0 fJ Se:lO <iJ"6!1G'SW'J?

2. ;6o<?Q.'S~ (Possibility) fj 6W<0b!3J Ex:

He might not be in Hyderabad at all, @~CJ ~cSO"aPC;eT60~S~~i:SJJ' Must : rl>;JCfu:>t'\ot:D ;Got56;:)<:mru

1. aN;Ss~ (Obligation) ;') ~ko~b~ Ex:

You must go there today itself. fJ~) @S~~§) .ea oGill ~t"'Je:l.

2, @Q.'S;666 (Necessity) ~ ~ru~eJ!3:;.

Ex:

You must go there quickly fJ~ @lS&~~ ';];;)Js 6,S6l1" ~Y"'J[)' Ought to: e;;)Cfu:>F'lo,::)j rSo66.0.::me.:o 1. s~~S~ (duty):;:) gru~b!3J

Ex:

You ought to help your parents. fJ~ fJ @~c5o~e;!3J ;6;;JBcl5,,;JC"'[).

Need: e~dJJoFlo..:5:J ;:6oc56JoS:oe.:o L @.;S;G6~ (Need) ;0 ~e.:oc;j)b~ Ex:

Yo need go there.

tl~ @lS&C!3J ~'liJ.;Soci:Sx>~.

Dare : 6;JdJJoRo-tiJ ;6otS6aJ~ru 1. 26~o;;u r::iJoDo..:5Jb~

Ex:

Dare she go there alone?

~;:;x,SJ @s&~!3J a.,o6J6il" 63~J 26so e!3oO"?

52

THIRTEENTH HOUR

_-r- ..... ~;;SoiS~& ~G ~~ lXoq;"eJ~o 'if;;]o?i>a,&;:; e a;:;$5 i3~~6 E~e

CON]UNCTIO.NS (Connecting Words)

:J6S~;5~: oo~ a,s 6s<fuJ;;5:;i) ao~;;s DSGS.troe:l;;)) 11"g:), Phrases D rf'~. Clauses ~ (1"'~ e30" ~Ss.:ti.;.)e;;6.) l1";!) Se.lJ<0 Q.i.""bS:l conjunction (;;)~i:$JdSJom) @~ "t6:>.

Definition: A conjunction is a word used to join together tWO similar words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Ex:

1. Raju and Ramya are friends.

2. Meet me at the park or at the club.

3. r could not come because ir was raining heavily. kinds of Conjunctions

(;:!I;);o~~ct5J~ - 6~~~)

Conjunctions o @lg) ~6~o6J g)~')eJ~ 2.)~ 3 6~.::s.ue.l)f1" g)Q~oL5~o ~5F\o6. @.;) : 1) Co-ordinating Conjuctins

2) Correlative conjunctions

3) Subordinating Conjuctions 1) Co-ordinating Cojunctions:

1) and Our friends came and seperated the

fighters.

2) but

3) or

4) yet

5) so

He is poor but honest. Do or die

He lSvery poor ~ cheerful

He was weak, so he could not walk

with us. -

He did not come to school, fo.r he

6) for
was ill.
7) still He deceived her still she believed him.

2) Corrolative conjunctions :

1) both and He is both rich and generous.

2) either or That fellow either t1ed or' hid somewhere, --

He applied neither for permission

3) neither '" nor nor for leave.

4) Whether.,. or

Tell me whether you accompany or stay here,

He not only scolded his wife, but also beat her.

me

5) not. only .. , but also

INTERJECTION - @J~(Jit-a~SQID

;fu:6;::5..)..)~' SOJKJ ~S~J.S~;:S 0GJO Kob6a,JT>;6.:5::l.'Je,)c5J @ill~ @gtSiboei~;:S ~CSoine,)~ "interjection" @~ t6:J, An Interjection is: word or a sound which expresses an emotion (a strong and sudder feeling) or excitement.

Examples:

1 ) .:JW"Ci~ (Grief) ~ 6UJ~;S.:l : Alas! Ah, Ohl, Alack!

2) eiJCig~ (Surprisej zc a~~~;J : Oh! What, Ah!, Ha!

3) e5J(I~oo;S (Approval) ;SoJaUJ~;so : Bravo!

4) ;~og;;s,~ IT oy) ~ aUJ~;so: Ohl, Ha!, hal

5) !l;:;:@~ ('Triumpth) ~ aUJ~;so: Hurry!

6) ~QJ~ (Call);S~ ~;Je ;5~,);S;J: Helloo!, HOl, behold!

7) ;SOQoJ-~~ aUJ~~~ Q~o:lJ"6~~~;') : Humph!, Hem!, Hum!

8) e;S~ii, :JoGS, t~;m.~ ;5~~CiWJ~~a~~ri~~;S';): Poohl, tutrurl, Bash!, Fiel, Pshaw! Lo! Hush! gee!, Yeah!, Yippee!~II;S;J,

SOME EXAMPLES:

Oh! waht a thing to happen!

Alas I What will the poor man do now? Hush! Don't. say anything to anyone Hurrah! We have won

Hark! There the bell goes.

54

&~'3W~1

~~_ ~~o.:S~Q @u ~lS ~<i!"e.Jso Ke;; ;:se QA~ lS~eS"&~ ~~2S"~

HOUR

COMPLIMENTS - ~i6o~

~o6~ ;6o~W"dSJo& iJ<;;""'S"o!ie;o t3~.JtJo !:iJot:? ZJ"1"1" ~enlU& d3;:Sd.El,oSe,)seo~~ "at;; e..S zy>Xc:ll:lf1";;3 a~.Js6~iS:>J;:S.;' ~Q"Oe:i>Oil" ~ Compliments ;0 'Congratulations' @o~;;:S,x., ea·~ cJeJ"oe3 ;:JocS~~ i);:;J.J'uol1, ~ i6ot'56~o& cJeJ" r;:r>r;:;c8' oSJ;6g aJ"fi"~ e)[lR'l eoe.:Doo. ~oS.J~

a.S?/~ §"~oe3~ t:5.Y>~o!

Congratulations (~Q"'6e:i>OiF;;3 aEl plural) @~;6oCS;6

Congratulations on passing the exam

sooFi5Dac6.~J @.!5 iJo~oR 6 .;)~&

c0esiP;6cm;6 ;:JoCStS,;;S;;u"., ,a,q'S"'oSex>

...... !Ii ......

Wish you a happy new year

g)~ diu ~ ~t ~~ OJ)dilo ;::)pe);6 rJo;6e:btS ~q'S"o~ex>

8,o6~& a..S ~~oS.3Jgnboej Wish you .... @;6,1 e§6J5P~ ;;St3J ()o(jtS~;;S;;u;6J ID~ ;fu;6c:m es tSJot>[lJ. jtSJJEfwoll. <0eg;:SQ'iap, oSe~& ~KDS";:Sbo, ~yoEc::3-' ,a,zy'S"osru ::J6tJ ~6oSJ~ ~e,J"S"'o~en, g)c-3

~ ~ ~

oSd5:l;6o eJ"oe3 g),

Wish you good luck g)~ d:SJ.J<> (DC o§

May you prosper ~ din &~;;)O

May happy returns of the day ~fJ o::,-G~ BbodJ @~ e:, j

55

~

May you have the best of both the worlds i:J o"J.).J ;0 .... ,5 Q e3~ ~~ 6'~ Q ~6~

!l; e;)o:SJ6"S"~ bJlil ®~S~e§ q':)iDtlJo e;<OoLS.:irT"S Hearty felici ration on your birthday

.iJ6~ ~VIM5 05..'5.,) @:5 cfu)i)S0 <noe

_.,

!DS;J ~e3;:st18::}' .a)~S"oSel)

I!) -Uo.L

Congratulation on your increment t3°rot5:JS~05.~.,) @5dfu<5o ~o~~oe) fu~ ~ejo ~5f\~otS:J~ @~;:::SoCS;:::Se.l)

Wish you. all the best

g)~ Cl5xJ @e') 6 ro~

e.:,

.fb <6~ ~~c:i))<5060 S"CJ"e;~ @S"o!~N'd~' We felicitate him on his election

~cfu ~[)~~eJ gy.,fu ~;S ~e§ a":le.1S·:5

......

a":l~clS(ID;:::SOc:SJru @6~d. @<t);:::SoE.)oW"o

He felicitate me on the birth of my daughter ~. ~V~e::l6 .;)) @5 b GJO ~~ ill I:?t:JB

~ ._

SJoeil6:> ~~;:::Sot5JS;J <;p~ ~GJ"S"o~el) aV®e3-t)O~.

Please remember me to your brother/sister/uncle &83" 5;fuOGJB g)J e:o d5JJ;5B ~6o/fu~o/@o~e,)

!b ~imJW@;:::Sd.di';J;~/@s?P"?J.e.l)/~:J'<5®s':J/~~Ol)r.J/ ~g~;:::scl:O @e,f\;:::St;Q ;3c6.Jot, ..

Please convey my regards/compliments to your mother/father ~a s~oS ;p., eli"~j S'>o~~oen bJ crmOSB <5:;60/ ~6B

to @;fuJIi"5s/ N" r6d_Ii"Bs N" ;:::S<5:;~6-0"e.l) @':J ;3c6.Jo6.

My compliments to you/your wife

~ S"o~~oe...~ e:o d5:xJ/crm<5B .~.~

~$;Jlt:n !!5g)cs ~<P"S"o§.exJ

56

~~ 31Op..1

L~Q5 o.;;$~Q ~lt ~.z 4S<Soa Q),t,)[)Q:;) iiJDe5!&~

FIFTEENTH HOUR

.MEETING AND PARTING 8lJ~VID ~vO'ibo- Rlvcm ACfug&Q'ibo Good Morning!

rut, ~edon

Its my pleasure s.e.n e ~reB

I'm glad to see you co' ,fu f);G en ~ cl5.;"

g:nO'iJJe;r6J~[)~;6oCSJ~ ;vo$;J W"'a' ;60&<6.071" eot>

Very well, thank you, 'and how about you?

~6 ~e) Q"osc.:lfut>, @oB ~ @iJ"e5 dfu

~a'~ @oC!" tooa' e~6J?

It's been a long time since we met

s.~Jll.'5 oJ a'oR ~.fu i:Pa'S"e_)o~6Jo:Y'~ SID~G'S:o

~~ ~db ;fueJ

Ok. see you again/o.k.we'll meet again

a,. s. tdSxl oJn~1 L. s ;60 ;fu~ Sel)O"'Qix,

<l- ,....., Q

~cm g)e) fuej @~:5

God bless you fi'> l5 ~ ~ cfu:,

Must you. go/leave now ~~ dixJ.. Ff' I tJ!J~

57 til.

Have a pleasant journey ~~ .;) 11.~oeJ ~6d

May good luck be with you ;& rUB e.lS a:l ~@ d5JJ

~d5y:.~o ;:))t+lOIT" &0:>r<0IT"!3 "

, "

@CJtio ~~Je;.~ .::s(Jo;:))IT"S I was there, but I returned/came back last week

1». oS<E aa, e:JeJ so otJ0dQ j§.fuaJ"~s eJ .... ~ !ls

eoaOJOc..tl, sJ€CO;)<S0J"6;& ,~(Jf\ ;;S~;:J;.

I'he heard a lot about you

B)'~~ 0:,""0 .;) eJ"e) .;)~e3" --.(--

c u..u;

gnO'mJe.l~ fuBo~ W"eJ" ~N'd<Sot. nJofi)la-O~O~ oDaOeD

cSJ;:)~.;);;S~r:J'> oil;:)~ OJ"a~oeJg;. "£J6oL1'>~~, 'ii:?6?!', ~flg;&JID1J

e.:l "" ~

oS~;:Sg) z"~Jl3Joa~ 8CJ"'! ®eJ";;3 zA651'f :;:;;~tl~oiJ~;;JN" ~;:S<:m ~[)D<S'

._

<Sot:So,)O'm6' ;:':}'I1Ja8:i)S05.:5::JrSJ. ;;)'I1JeJ~ ~Q.)J;:S ~2{)o6~ iiJ"BS ;J0'5Bot) 3z).)8"O'm. "~fu @;:s:'§"$:J" so and so ~6E9O'ID O'5v;6 IYB!3 &J£d5Jt><:m, a~:i)Sei fu aoe3-g .::sq;'c:D~ ;,;S;,o ~oe.J~iJt>6 e:JdDQ)alYo:rn. @;6,;§"!3Jo<:? 0'5J0 eJ"0'5cfu56 iiJOl'fJJ iiJO'I1J ~~oeJo:rn&' ;::JoJS 5n"o.,. O"BS~d5Jt>e-m, 0";:S06:>!3:J g)W"oo ;;S~o j~O'ID.

Thank you, but I fear I may not come (l3oSJo$j E!)eJ 5) ~ctDo sa i5J OJ<'eJ s~ o.:ful' ~IDW"6J,2J"IT'i5 600, S'?~ O"a;.:j~ I won't be able to do as you wish

5) ;;} ~ aJ ~(ill6 en (f,) di""~ 05:0 g)5_

toill g;a;:s~ j;fu jd5Je3!:;S)6oSt:$),}

Sorry for refus.ing your gift i'Jo6 q;a o~~~ofi o'$x;0'55 f\~

tn S"rSJ~;fu @;:J)g6.::s~0 Bt:S.:l ,~.lli @rS:JgEt;;oc.

58

SIXTEENTH HOUR

&5J '~k.op,1 @JDJO~~~ &:>li ~~ ~o& .;J~ ~~ ;aDJ.~e5 ~5a.. (u.S.A.)

eJCtQi'~lS8)DlCliJa~~l)oll,ID Q)Oi:b~IDO

oiJ<6.tm 8,06!3.J ~ot:0c5d!3:J ~c,J"~o§.Q), ®~;$o6;6D) :ihJt$e.llUOJ"'e3 ?\JBaD 8exJ;6)!3:J~tm. ;;)aW~~d ,.;)eJ".Q~ es~e3~~, 6J~W"&~!&J.>C'" @e;~~ ~~~dwo[). ;60~~ ;::S.fucriJ.>v& c;l)~O'm ~~ejoa .~~~ .;)V" f!;;ab;JoeJ ~~ eexJ;6)!3CJ"'! ~6~ ~~<6 O1"'I1J&i @ iJo;6~S.;J", 'UOV" '(;;ofi''tJ.o' ~,)~~ aJ'>r;.,0t:S~ ~~v;fu$)~~6 cfu<. ~~ ~tJ,fut> W"eJ" B..l"r\JOO @~ ;::So~aIT" ~2.),)zy';6:u. 4a ~Ool"f' oil;:S ;:Jo&~~ c6Jt>betc5~o j~c5JJ. OJ"ej~ ~o6.~& ;)e)" ~!3€J~~ a.o6!3:J ,0000ot:S.:l ~;;S':?~rJdO'm ~O"!

;:5o~iJ:>~ .;)eJ":Q~ ~s€J~~ @eJ"~ ~wodos ~C'" §"~des~e,,;;)e.l) G"'d_O)), @g) .;)eJ" Goad))oeJ @~!iJo;;So! .;)o~ ;;S~ reaf\oeY 'a.o~ ®~d,5)o .;)~£OJ<' 6oCJ"'!, .;)06 ¢do, '8,06 <\5'dilO!3tl~;:S ;;Se~~ ;;SK;:;:r>E,13 !3JoC" c5tg eJ"G:lJ'! (Q~ 0::0;60 ,;)i::J"O"'~d ~!3e5 o~ ;fu:otJexJ.

Condolences, condole, @~ c6Jt>bQ) ';)oS.2;:;J" i5~iJ£co;);;Sc;)Jci:l .o5J;6O'm ;;:Jtl~ ~O"~~oi5~~§ QJ<i~ .~~e).), Gil O)CJ"'v13 @go:- 'an, expression of grief'; 'to express pain or grief at the distress or misfortune of another; to express sympathy to one in grief; D"~~ oil;:) -q:>~tf ;;Soo~a.J0i5co @~ cfu::6o OJ"6ep~. 'They went to condole with her On her husband's death'. OJ"e0 @;;3J ai~ &¥oOJj;:So6J!3.J @;}Ji6:> ;;.)O"o.'S.J0.J0tSe,)·c~s;Sti"J~ @~ @@o;;:)<E,oo.

~;:So:m ao6!&J o:moa 3oSJlSJ~o:m ~O'> (,)e.l~(J000e)EG W"e.J'" expressions eoeJ"cto~. @eJ"~ DSO".:;il6,Je)!3:J ~co S"'~d. expressions

(~[) d)n.) 6JLSJ b ) e, 0 eJoOJJ. OJ"'e.3:O .;m 0 c5J r1" eJ eo <6JS£ ,;:pi). .;) eJ" oes <6oci6~om& .,JeJD ~;6)~~ ~.md$)~ctiJo& gDd$)~iJ6ejiJ"eJD ~q)06J~ c;SCB"<6.Xi.

I am so sorry

6JdSJoc5:J fjS ~5

How tragic

~ ~2SS oJ06 GJ"Q"~60

I am sorry to here this sad news

6J d5Jt>.fu ~5 e.JJ gy,o:5:;o o~ oS"c ~'IS~ ~eJ"0e5 c,O"".J9s GJ"OIl"~oEl. How cruel (any happening) ~ &d5Je)'

I lament over/the loss/the death ro e§~06 L~o e eJ"'iJ/ & ag

~ ;:S~.Ds/c5JJ&s iJ"'eJ'> cSnt\)J.01l" 600.

I sympathise with you rega.rding this sad event 6J fuooJ9<2 g)g dfu· Br1"50n e~ 'ffDE. ~;;)oe.)

.,_ (;;

~. 6:l~~J.0 ;tnsoot ~~ @0e1

t'i~o[P. iiJaJOl:PlFI. @Jer:.~Oijo[P ,Q)f)~"O

;fuCY'Sci ~6~~0ll" ~6rY'cl @CK'bo, ;.i:.CY'~til1" ~~cC::Ot @ politeness & .;)~ oS"'ru e~03Jo, W"e3:o .,JeJD express jdS:J.>& i5J0~z;m 130"! ~commallding sentences oJV' 'e5oe..,-md1Jct:5Jo9;.:;)n. ~ @zr;gs .:;:ro~e:o @O~ @go ~~e 6exl~? e'1le;5 ~oiJ"2J) ~C'" 605. '@~'g!30 ®oe:3 @Z7~ot:Sbo,'B"~ot:Sbo @QS"DO Q<::Oo~ 6)QO(1" ~eJ'>cco.

~ ~ ~

oJeF' ®olJ~~[)d ~~c:50rexl, e5t5t:5J g)D"'S~eJ~t clile:l~:O oSiOOY''1{);6) ,

@~;0t:5J ~;6 ~06W"e& ~~E,;6~, OJ"5 ~bq! ~~;60 i3eJ1>Q.).)~0. @;6);6t,):) eo e» 0 5. t6J 0 [) ~ D'" • ~ CS iJ'o em t5;6 \ 03"'!i0 \ 'aeJ"~ e1;6 0

,......, QQ 0.: 'f:i ,_...Q

60

, t>~ rD~~ ;m06J B6.:len ~~SJ:O GJ"GlF! 8"0i30 eae~Do ~oJl~~ ~~to::::J ~19<Sy.>eJ"t:7";6;6)sOoE,? .,JeJD eobJ05? i5J0~;60J''608'' ~ 05Jcz;;)y>:O t:SiSJj6CZlo:Da @:O @;6)~0eJ'>6J. CJ<'5s. 66JW"e1~s&;6 OY-'OJ ~O' g)0)t>

-ac:S'!,6J. ~ ~~ tJfor:J"'& 6;6J~6J ;0~<:wrr-';;} ~~~o :;;3eJ"an~6J. '

~ ~23"~oi:5co @;;Sn"..o ~;:j$) O"~e) S"e)0 ro~SJ~f~i,oE'l· .;)OScJct

a'

.':l;:S~e1;:So& @~~t>:l~e:o i3~J;;S sorn, ;:fu;6o Historye' -i:ltl:l~!§J;5 'O"~P.)

0-

~o;e.:o ~~,o s~,);:moclJ eexJe.)''''1I'' ~6JrU~ eoe.::Joe. ~;:S '@~' @oe:3

O"~w;;la>OJJo:a ~~;6~;;:i @<S:Jruo~ ;::);:"jl& sow ~~;6~. '@~t @~ 't:J6oe @o~ ®90 6;6,}<6Job QJ"~j~. ss ~tls @~fJeJ1> @o~ g)P.)§_£'d~;:S @DO 0"0J"e)~ i;)g:))e36J. ~Q"6~0f1", @eJ"'0e) ordereoct>i5JJ. W"eJ"

Q

co~1.mandi.ng IT' ;;)y>e.,~B fiDo&l eoc::t>.:i>j. 5":0 i imperative sentences'

@o£l '\~)qsg!:;@;:s OJ"'Sbe:D' @;;:) @go. @g) ~~&i~~~ ~oC;6t:D,j. ~i5JBS a1Jg)1'1" eot:,;;S.:iJj' @;0e:D ~o~§ @~s, @~e')g;6s ~.C" ~toe3! a..sb'Please', 'Kindly' @~ pgN"gt:i ;;)r:J"'e:D 36J,Y,) 6;::).) "Please do tills' @o~ @<\5sg<s 'Do this' @o[3 @~. S"'::::J at3?:,c;6J<s;6.)oev 2... g)~d:bo ru~ot:$)g;OJ"'V.'Please' @~~~ti~6~~~;::S c;S6<SJJ t35J;606 ;;);Jo~;:S @fJ.,) &QcfuDS~~~~ S"'~, a..~ 6r:J"'QJo6ro ~q;;iu: - 'Please shut

up' ®~;;):;;6)~oc,. D"'~@go\;S£l:SJ~c:6JSc:D;§'71"c:S~oe., @5 16,)ryS6 ~6~~~;::Sc5g)J S"6J.@o6J~iO oi:JoclJ r,J"~~d i.0~o.:5c:Sa;6).

Come here

s~ iJ.>o:no listen

Go straight r? l2COJe3

Let me go 06 ~ Ff

61

Mind your own business @oC; dSJJ~o e..:5 ID1S~f3 ' Keep a close warch on him

.,

,§~ ;) ~~ W"Q ~~ !r-!5J

M

Close the discussion

~a 5 8.~SoJ,~

a!3' .:56J @~c6.;Joc; Smoking, drinkiug is prohibited

~§oi\ ~§on eare @"~~ sJo~~fo.S;J@"MoeD br::ns%Soo ~~

Observe the procedure -

Don't. be late again. Ef';s aJ Be.) ';)'RiJ

eJ .__-

~©.J aoSS~e @e_);:0so a~~~ BELIEVING 8).a.s~Oi:DID

Don't you believe ~t c_;6 Z di:o wb:i '<Qe.5'

eJ

It's irnpossibel <Q~ qo~~me)

I have full confidence in him SJ ~:i ~e) S"~~a3.J 3l,i5 ~~

@6;o £b6 woSJ ~~ '(J~i'o/ o)~;:6o ~oE).

It's only a rumour <Q~ e.,~ .;) ~~o

Should! can we trust this stranger '4ltE/SfS ~dD ~~ 5:5 l2o~o

~ S"~ 05~ ~ ;6~Js;motS05.:iJJN" ?

6.2

.&~'3w~1 L?;;SoiS~& ~u -:.,~ ~cS~o .' 2305Q6g ~~ ~es~o

SEVENTEENTH HOUR.

f»Op~oiS20D eJo6~Q)J~ olePt O£dn! .,~.:;I) 'Exclamatory'@oe5 .;).))oOJrI" ci):l;6o @bo ee.l)<6JgbW"[) !3t::l" 'Ke5no

o e;)

@605t:10', ss~d5Joo (!!)oi!3 rff>rfJo&~. eJ"'t:;;iii!i' , .;6og5~o~ Karl"

eJ

@6~oo. Surprise ~ (@{)6~o) se)no3 05Jce.Jv;6J.o5Jc6. 'How beautiful

'What a pity' @)(ful>~ i7>~o eJ"o~

expressions @);6d_.:;i..--ob. @o~ ~oa 8£·~o,j;o ;::)YOl1"gj, o:l"~[?~, ;::Joq):ib;6l1"::J ~;6~ @~6Soe oS:ooi3~€POJJ. z.l:&eS e3.S oo~ o5JcOe.l) 0:0;6 <',Y".;}D~ f'S6)~OJJ. '@eJe)j~ '~o6eJ<'fUo5' .;)08 (;');0 ;5iJo~'! '~~'! @;O 6wrlJ&' ;&i;;$o ;;S::,;6 1?,_)--o;:Y:O[)cl ~Se3o~;6e;2, 8.ottOiJ& SJ"~ ~~e5o.s;;Si:XJj. English &' .<,1"0') ~Sb::S€;)g)cl 'How', 'What' @);3 ~cSoIDV&j ;;:meSa' a"OJJ.

Marvellous!

05.;---oO.sa~!

By God's grace! E l"f'c'l0 ~~! How terrible! $ t36m6! Beautiful!

cu,"'tSeJ ~01 Really!

5Ci5)~r

How disgusting]

~ Q~K:t:Joll!

eJ

.;)o~ c:no66o~

a3

How sad! ~ '0"'[,1 Wonderful! Q)oCo~e)! Excellent! cJs,.)e3ot3'l. Fine!

"£:5! Shameful! tfuq],61 Lovely! a>il!

How hot! ci:fO'" ;:J6e5!

What a plesanr day! QJ'>6' ~ ~<:806 a! evening! taste! ~~::JolV~~!

What a peace of work QJ'>e5 cJ ~~ ~~ .;-sol-

is man!

~$ ;&;Sr

Many happy returns of the day

~~ ;fu~ oJf>~ 5t)0dJ @~ Q i11 <5l,eJ"o~ ~Ci56N"0) @;;3so O"'OJ"[)! Welcome Sir!

~e5S~ ;:;So! ~K60, iY6~£)dfue_)S:Jl

What an ideal

64

~\,~ 3U)~1 ~:;Jc..::so&;o $®D;$.)_ i1pO~~ ~l.Jv~

EIGHTEENTH HOUR

~od!!b CiJ'iiiSQ)al'ri)ts!j(j~n)O~Ol(8eD

~ei\J" Tour ~()J;SO).?~ General IT' hotel room @~~oeJ'>;;'ill @e;~oe.:>t:..J6 ~ei1 rJo~~~Ci);fu qS&C Sl.W"JoSxl. a6 L;;)& e...S&5s ~~ a..S j.S.)(fuoe? @~;66;;)6~)o6. 6.,...,6 [?SdS.J.>~ex il~b;;)y6 O"'~oso::J O"''fjo6' , ';));sS:J~mdSJ!:) qo;;5. ~~a LoJ&e.> 9S:JO~ communication ~ e...S6, English ~~~.

Tourist

Good morning, Madam r\)c.~!:)oFi, ;&C:~! r:);n1?,;&C;fu

Good morning, Sir [What can I do for you? r\)c.~!:)ori, <00 ! OJ"eJ 5:5 S) G..., q)o d'ill?

;6.;)) ~ ~o ! £b-g,lli S"0J"[i?

~ .

Receptionist

Tourist

I would like [Q have an accommodation IDee E§ bJ cJ6!iJd5.Jo5 cJS";fua;;5.,!5

N" $.) OS;:;S{g S" c5a;::D

Sure sir, would you like to have single or double? ~5 ;66, ~C dill ES e» .;:'fo~ ~o{)6 @o c,mo? ~<6..)~oG" ;::Jo, to$) ~oK6 CJ>o S"0J"eJ", Cco6 DJt>o so OJ"eJ"?

Single room, please ~oK6 CJ>5:>, ~&

c5cfuiiro~, 1'0olieJ' 6Y>fu a~.soe, AC or non - fCC si.r?

~.~ @O ;;)<'.:5 - ~.~ .. ;:;So?

;;;. ~ CJ>.;'S.Jo e3S i0"~ - ~~ ~~ ??o?

~~--~~~--~--~~~~------------------~~~

24 lfoe;~ (~J5 c) ~o.6~ ~Jsoll g6~ 65

Recep ti 0 nist

T ourist

Receptionist

Tourist ,: Non-A.C with telephone facility, please.

r:J'>;5-~, ~J ~e 6D~;t5 ·GJRJ~·e5, ~ffi

ro

~5-6::1.Rl ~,fu ~D~,!5 ~S6so (20~e.,", 6c6J;JRl

~cSo')ot..

Receptionist We have an excellentroom.in third floor O)efu ;;;5 ~~. oJSjeJoe.) ~.m ~Z liSg ~IS ~C:oS ®o~~e ~oD 6.Jo.fuec6d,t':l fJolS.

Tourist I want the room fully ventilated and with a view over the ciry

rn OJ"o66 6J<>,fu ~~ ~oesatJQ; @oe g),§ ;) ~S z_.cSo Q ~e§.

eJ'>rr' l1"£i ';s;3J ciDBdSn CSK6Q t:5J"ck:;"~6- £)u\o~ 6Jo& ~;:S.;)06.

AU the rooms are ventilated well, but to have view over the city I will provide an another room in

the first Hoar instead of the room mentioned

earlier

@eStS 6J<>~ @o;;:Joeja~C; 36, f06 e» ;;:...sci5 e.:o c;) ~~ iLcSo ~ ~eS SJ g).e)" ~~Q; @r6c55 1iJ".ill ~,~ ~ ;;;)~ ~o 'd,;57JE @~ i::i.F.fu;fu;S:5 C;)5d5J5. w

"" .eJo::(c:.,....,

@!OJ 6Jo.ille.u .8.;"""'rro rr:>1D cS~OJ). @Q.).)~ r6K6o i:SJt.7v

~ID) S";;:P~N'dt$) ~;fus ~~ ~~e3 @o~(~& 6;00 a.~~ ~ocSJl1" .£:b~ a.~CSc6,:l6.,,,,o~ ;ncSJaJ1'?, Thank you madam! May I have a look at it Q"o~i) ~c t ;fu SJ ~-£~ oJ rns oJ&.') '61.6

Or6ijW"C)QeJJ ! ~3'S;}:5 6Jt.fu i5.J0C:';s~?

SUTe Sir, Boy ..

~~6 <00, &cfu .

e§O::';,)~oG'" '<00, &cfu ..

Yes Madam

ctU~, ~C:.ill

Receptionist

Tourist

Receptionist

Boy

66

Recept.ionist : Show [his gentleman room no 108 and here is the Key ...

ps E)~ Z::l0e560SJ0~ 6JDoill ;.'30. 108 @oc ~c.l5Jo ~<2 1:) ~

108cS::5oe:Jo~fu @d5J~,r1"a& ~~oiSJt g,g)ne a"t;"exJ.

Boy Ok ! Madam. Please come with me sir ! a;§ fu.::;fu !. ~e3 ~~ g)H OJJ (65!

@eJ"R~C:~ ! 6dS:J~~ wo& 60e ;(ie.

Receptionist How is the room sir? ~ ~aa§ t5 6Y>,fu <60?

6.Y>~eJ'>X:Jo6ot, ?

Tourist

It's go; I will take it.

-a~, rue, SJ 0)1'3 &j§ 8,6 ZJ"K:JoQ. ;5;fu ~<6J~oe.;",,;6.), Then please fill this form a:'S ~ffi ZJe) tJ~ :::""0'

~ I ~- :s

[$o:n$ ~ ~6o ~o~o6

Could you guide me how to fill this? !&Jt; diu TIC; OJJ ~.,~ ~o 0% ? CSci$.:;BRl .,;)eJ'> ~eBc:fu.;>&a~O"?

...., .....

Receptio nis:

Tourist

Sure sir, please write your name here. ~'6 ;05. ~re 06 ~CSO ;5.ill ~.dS:Jo

iJ .,..., "-

6~,'y~)oW", 6dS:J~~ £:b~B!3&C: LDJOctUoc'

Then

~tUDJOe§

Write your profession and permanent address over here, and write the purpose of your visit to this town here.

;ei5' cJ.5J.;.;5o L~~c5.~ @oc:; oS6~;;306 f$l¢~ e..,OSIJ iiPdS)lJ. @oE, 26 E) 05tSJ~ @~ dSpOS5 ~<se3' bJ E)~ B".'0~©5 g)y cSJ§ ;;))5~ @lfSr:)) 9,~&C. ~d5Joc, 9.0s<' ~6J ~ ~d'i3";D6- ,oJo6:lSS;0o ;{;WOJf1' ~®oc'.

2?:4;-;tfo:-eJ:-oO-::;...,O-(~-:-::5=-· s: -z:-ofj-=-~-:-iV-::-~~:'s-o-11-g8-::-g.-,Q---=--------67

Tourist Ok ! take it a,s ! eJs aeJ

........ ,...

LGJ"dSJ~o @o:lJOC) ! &<6JsSo6.

Receptionist Please wait a minute sir you have to sign in our register and you have to pay three days rent asadvance.

~e3 ~(ll)es ;J g):,~e.) ~15. dSD oJt.5 bJ ~~ s.~ @GSB'

~ ......

5<!5;::J5 @oc cn"". ;;JS~ ~ t 19 ~~ DOes c.l:5Joe! @C"\~\.

f;) "";.;

2...~&~lli~o ~o !be 5~~od' rJo6so ;3~ 3 ~2:l->e

@~ @~~J 6.J.>t:Jo& 'Cl,o:y.~PJ eoe..uoo.

Tourist But 1 will scay here only for two days.

IDe.) SJ :'.)6 1J ~d))o i,~ ss tlJ a%.

e:J ,....,

S"~ ;:5~sJ.~ 006 ~z;s>a eoeJo'(6).

Receptionist Even then we keep three days rem as advance sir, [he balance will be returned to you by the time you vacate.

ea~i3 a~ :Dcfu §~ lt9 c% ooe.) 05Jcc3 ®~~.J;61) e a;"'~a5J tJrlf !J 5eJ0dc e» ciS::u EO ~;n dS.l:l ;;JSeJ ®()));5oSJe3 § ~;ip 3 f1'Z;S>e:J @~ @C",S;fuJ @ocS iZ;;.)) ~~ llir,[){$o £t6J ~f; aiJe.:>oJ,J6 !b§:J a5r, s.~;;.)))

Tourist Well, how much should 1 have to pay now? ci3 e. ~ ;;.))0 ~c ID ;i:fo%) bJ 1, ;;;r ? @eJ"':R, 'OI.~6 ~~o~ ~~ ~~<D?

Receptionist It's only Rs. 900/- sir a4J a,~ Rs. 900/- ;60 900 6,;'-oiJod5:Je.J) ~~j;&;6oc.

Tourist Here you are. .tr>ciX:o d5x @,5 8,g)F0 B<illsE'oG

Receptionist Thank you sir, we hope you will ejnjo}' your stay here.

Q"o~ ;015 ... ~d5J o::F.~ dill ;;)eJ ~o:z"'Ocillcfu,c55 ~ ~()5)5. Cl.s&-~ ;:.:;;:5 B~;:soc5Js.) Q;6~<J'c5cmvot. - 1:JJBs&d

oJo&;;J_OrT" aow-e.J~ ~6JSJob:J~~.· _

NINTEENTII HOUR

_7'""'tlI. i!S~oiS~~ ~~ ~~ ~K'6~ ~oC:J

Q)OG~oJ~IDS ID~m §Do~msO)tti6o')o1r.&J ,@lOS(dIS~i3 J1)ozylCi\m

~6S~g)606' .;i,<6o shopping;3~ ;6oq)Je.:><6e.n W"eJ" 60.::).)1l" oS~ob>())). (9V"oe3 rJ06~v& a..~ ro~e) {;S)S"Edo8 ~5r,<6 ~ rJ01P"~~ K;fug)o 60 c.

Sales girl : t6'n"~

,~I

Customer: s;6,;S,o

I.:;

Sales girl

tJe.'1jrT"<Y

Good evening, sir. (uc:.ea~;oon

Good evening

ruCK ~~~on

What would you like to have, sir?

GJ"6 ac diu ~s tJj oJS.5, ~o?

tb~o S"OJDV ;Joo?

Customer ,: I would like to have some shirts, please.

~<0~O . 6:J &;c: as bJ ti>%) ~~ ~o' ~§

e,) ~ • ,:._ , e:Jf'o.ol' ..--.

Sales girl fuesyT"..?

'"

Customer: ~~illo

e

Sates girl

N"'SJ o:.~J S"~[).

Cottons or synthetics, sir?

S"b.!5.J ~O fuo\'tie3§..) ;61)? S"'eJ~o::i" e§~ ~e))QJ", ;60

0-

Cotton for casual wear, please.

S"b15J ~o SOS~~6 35, ~~ S"b~g) 6"8<'&llSori" D3"'6S";:Sub8:>

Sure sir, over here, if you don't mind. \¥le have an excellent range of shirrs in cotton casuals. These checks are new arrivals.

69

Customer: ~t0o:Sua

E:.)

Sales girl

Customer .:

Sales girl

Customer:

Sales girl

Customer:

Sales girl

Customer :

;;~"''>85 ;:JB, a,;;)o~d5J6, 8,~ (i).)) &oe§' ~oe. ~cm ;;Jil,£ diro~ oJ~)aoes b06 @~ oS.~.,J 8,15 S"bJ5 ~ffi"o:S4J.etf WSJ' @O ~~ @o;;Se')\.

t: eJ a...._ N

@eJ"R ¢l.tnI:50C. ~5, g}yo~ @~oe§60 as8JS;§ S"tJ)5S"wc:s~·

~-J ~ cS~1:5 iJ"eJ'> e~cm. 4 K~ Gitill SV~r1" ~~Jcm. I don't like chekcs;.I always like to wear stripes.

6:J rtoti ~§ 8SJ,6:J @6~S ~s b:J je; ~~J

N"&1 ri~ol3 8,~Ocl;oc£6:J,W"6e;1oe3 <J".$:l ~~o,

Would you like to wear half sleeves or fulJ sleeves sir?

6C din Q§ ~ tj"d:$)o ~;,s~ &~) @6 ~e) ~~, <6B? to6 ~~ j~~ &5";;' 0"6(08"0" as aJ"1:5Jt5eiJ€XJt5"S"& §" 6K:J B"O"?

Half sleeves, please ~5fu5~ ~ .. §

M (V' .~

1i1oes~~)lDoS.~\ 6d5Jtj~ ~c,)OQ.

e.:J ,. eJCV

Have a look at these. sir 'oJS~ ;)ens oJeJ 6t!.,rS5 be3~ a.,s~e ~c::oc.rSO.

Please, bring me that blue one with yellow stripes ;t:§ IBJong)J 66 Z)JQ &liS g).!} 2J& I~J'~'

~-"l- \..:: .--., (-""> ~ cv

es ZJJtl oS.DtjrSJ~t:JOl:5&ffioa @Q @~!:b6oc.

'~e,) "

Well) that is generally for college .students, but ..... ci56. 66 $ae§'. ~;:SI:S[) <;So S"e3e§" <6J<.c;oe.5.~ , eJ6 ....

1"""'11 - e.J N

,~t') .J!il;.;)(1" S"ae§' ;;:J:pi30t:D\ OJ"Ca"CJ S"~ •...

cr eJ N

Could you take it out, please?

@[:; o'fu 66 ~e5 ~e5, ~&?

"'"

cSdi:!-::ii'0 @E:ll9;:.).)$:l <5~U"?

Here you are, sir

£.,'''di:!o cifu @D, rS.O 8.6~oe,

How much does it cost? :;:;~ ;;5:;,'5 l&e§' S).eJ S"'~?

eJ·

. .;)o~ 6'CJ gpetSJ?

70

Sales g.il.·l . That's three hundred and fifty SIX rupees and we have a. special discount WIJ/Ia less OD cottons as summer

o~. . ~

b~ @ C::;"'oLC':c @oe ~~ iJ~) 6J~~ (!fJOQ ~cfu ~.i) ~! ~J~6CfJ'iPe!) @~ 10% a5 @);i 5"tJ~ ci5J.>& ;:;);:S.:ii' @~O.

@O 356, ~ti1>cfuen, z3;:;)g) @o,So @o6 1 0% aroc6.o~ 6(~W'd~.

C W.~·eU, I would like W [I"V it on?

ustomer: ./

~6,SJ ~C; es ex. ~. 9,e.) @~? ~<6J a,~~5 ';;3~ iSJo~s,oeJo;S".

Sales girl Sure sir; go straight and tum right, you will find the dressing room.

~~}5 ;::S8, f1' ffio:o6 @OQ tJod_:2e5 am ~e5 ~oC; .6 ©~Jon bJo~,

~c,)J~oW" <00, @;;Sdf1" J3~J~ce~m @6n~ LC::~JJon bJoo S~~~o6.

(After some time .... ) (@:to ~~ ~o, .... ,) (5"06 -t;;Se5 6t»W"'~ ... )

Customer:

Ok, please pack it for me a,g, ~$<i:P~s 9,e) ~5 ~

a,g. 6ctOB~ 8.6 ti1>ss Bd:5:loG. .

Here is your bill sir. You can collect the packet at the counter after paying the bill.

~cfuo&8 ~;SO tJeJ' ;::)5. ~ s~ !3a~ Q .;}>eSst) @ej o S"otJo ~c,)o -tcmon Bl £16.

.£n &16 'Cl.5rf~c ~o. fulS:l~~;otJo8 ~aJ.)J ~~ot:);:S ~se3";:SJ @o6JSS<5i5:U

Thank you, madam. Bye. WO~e5' 0SJ-0C::5J. 2·

Good-bye sir, please visit again iUa-ro ;6o,~ffi~~e5 @n5r

?be a;6o &en c5o5J~cti,oc,

~ ,

Sure

~o eioJJ!3JO~

Sales girl

Customer :

Sales girl ;

Customer :

71

""

20TH HOUR

&~Ju\~1 L;;5;;So~~e <!!l~ .~Ci a.t~

Q

O£_C<l <!!l:il:Je~&;o Lii;l~e5'

t!9iiJi'~l\. saUmavW ~6IDSelibi6Q)JlM @)Q")nlU@~ nlo~Glm

Patient ~~oe)

'&f\ Donor C"!5o

eo)

~tSJ~6 Patient

Doctor

Patient

Doctor

Patient

Doctor

Good evening, DOCTor. f)Jc ~g):Dori, ~SO.

e:J

~~~6-60, C"g071"fu.

Good evening, please be seated. f)JC0ag)~Orl, ~~ tJ ~e3E;.

~~~2,.60, $:F>~o~.

Thank you.

Q"os.,""S

sJe§~e}e:D

What's your Trouble?

eJ"e{) ctm~o ~ane5?

£:0 aJ"~ ~~e.'l?

I haven't been feeling well for two days. B) ~i506 ·tJ~~~oFi ~6 ~o ~ ~~. 006 ~a:-'rn71" r;JOs>&X,so ;:.son" atSJ.

Tell me, what exactly your problem. is? e3e5 .lli. eJ"e5 .J~~criJ.);5o l~!g~ 6a<2 ? g)yo arC:;S ~g)Jd ~qjej071" 00).pC.?

I have ~een suffering from indigestion for a long time. EO ;]63 [j~ ;6q56on i,&.fu S'li5~~~i5q)o .J (J"'oFi e3fu. ~r:SJ O"'eJ"S"e.;o r:SJo~ ~:!g@i aJ"~;;J6~~;6). ~

Any more problems?

.Jh ;0,_""O L~~:fuJ?

'CQOS" ~;;:bc;:p e:P6e.ui'JO"\~?

Q.._ • d. .

72.

PaDent

Doctor

Patient

Doctor

Patient

Doctor

Yes Doctor I don't feel like eating anything. I feel' pain in stomach lately. And tiredness while work.

oJr,) G"'g5, 8:) c?o6 ~e5~S ~e.'l oR .J~lPon, 8) ~e5' oJ ~cm~ a~ ~~s 6e)"[). @oc ~5C;~~ ~o cSe&Orl.

~;6j C3"gOrl"b), @g)J 8;voe:J:DtJo6co 8tSJ. ~~& r'5"':ilJ1T' Goe?oB .;5:.~~. ~~6rT" @e)R>i)S;56o SPC" a3C)~i:S:J~e. AU right .. Let me check your pulse. Give me your wrist, please .. There's nothing wrong with the pulse. Let me check up your blood pressure. B.P .. is also normal, Have yuu had any fever.

@l~6, eJ6~ as ctmcSo ~e)t} f\~g)j ci..:J~0 e~. ~a3, 130' ~e3 ;6l$on O"on ~.3 6 Q)q). e56 g)J i.3S <!!l~ ctmcSo ~c ~;;S,o. [).~. ~~ @d:J c;:p6J6 ~-t~ dfu ~-sc .;)~ ~;50 .. @eJ"~, tn oS~ i:SY>6:DcS.soc.. £:0 i.3OJJ~ a;eJ"" a;cS.soc. ;vot:,& ;§r::? ~o 86, !b ~c ~os.o 0S i3~;6j, .D.tJ SPr::? ;6e71";:5 dID~e. Sa ~QS ,,)<;').,j£;::J'" Cd,S60 O)LbO"?

No doctor, But I have had a bad taste in mouth since I have been sick.

;j C3"gO', 10)6 6:l ;;:J-££) oJSo oJ e?SE, ~t a;~ 05J""~ fui5,j B) ;;JS£)' os fuS.

e3dJ W"gC){l" 6) , S"gj CdcmaJQ.'S~;6c)Je3;fuoc. $>6:; i36Jn" 630t:oOa.

O.K

i3.,s

e!Ja>'R

I hope there lS nothing serious Doctor. SJ cY~ em 6aa3 <SQO(\ ~eciJ,,~ (;>"130.

e.l

~6 Cd~'~ S"6~SJo~r:SJ r:;oso.

o -w D

No, Nothing serious I am prescribing an Antacid

syrup which has to be taken 2 spoons before each meal, and the capsule twice aday for 3 days.

73 1!10.

Patient

;f, ~Qor, ~,)ecfuS, Ii) ci'5J"o @~&[)or; c6Jr.>5 oi..w~tJ~~j' ~6~ os ;J!is bJ Kl Bs5 2 ~J;~ aJ~oo'3a5 tol!'5,.· eao~ c5 S"~~z)e:)~W3 .;.) BCj55 @ ~~,

~~ ~~ ~.~~ S"6J .. £bSJ ~;::)) &'13 b6g) a~;5j, ~~~e ~o:B1.i ~oti:l 2' t:.oW"w OY'coc. S"~Se.lf &aJo'~ ao~ S';:;)S;:S ~6 o£iwe)J o::Pdo6,

Shall I attend my regular job, Doctor? ~r5 0:) @~oC;:ib otU~e;Jo Bgoe5,~so?

c,_ i!l Gl

;;5oil N" ~&SKo;5~ ~'liJ~i:J<',j, ~~o?

Why not, just take it easy gentleman, you will recover soon.

~ r:JCeJ, a3~ tj§" ~eJ .~~ .§oe3e)o:lJo~ dXo gj,ff El$~o r6J0i5.

c..... ~

Doctor

Patient

i5t3)~:0~\;;St5)',. &:baa 230K ~bJs"so8 e§,tlrPEfe.JJruot,""tSJ.

D- I'8'W 'eJ ~

What about my regular food docror?

OJ'>eJ el!f:S'eJ ~of'b~1D6~E; w-:so?

o...,_ v f.)

l;6tJieGe:p ~ &<fulfu:;::3 @;:JS6 g);:;).ctiJo~oe3 t:;"'SOl1"tlJ?

\:: 0

Avoid spicy food, Drink milk and have milk products as much as you can.

@l;SOJ".OJJC;~~~C;, Lc.oS g)J1!'5J, @OC; ~:5 g})e)6- LiJoc~ d5.J"& ~~ .ci):lo,g cfuJ 85.

~~&e.JJ ~f\o-t5oc,. i}>w, ;;Jon ;:;)woooe;() ~SJ);;S ®;:'J)g:>oc.

II 0 17

Ok Doctor, Good bye]

L"§cosoi'0c aJ !

G)' - c.....

@U"~ D~O li"'c" ~ff'~~CSJl Bye .!

~

~~bo8.

Doctor

Patient

Doctor

74

21St HOUR

1;:;5. oSoi$~& IWD ~i!S .~V" h~

-..: Q e:;

l?o~~ 5l,08.d$;l'o (8,000 sq .. nus)

Personalletters 1~t.:lc~r:?6

t.:: ,,.

1. Paper SJ ~<P"Ko& SJ6~~ station, Date @Y'd5Jt>[) @oe3 ~;S

ObJC;P;;iro letter SJc,~~ l§:P~, ~5~ z3dSJoID. 'a13&C station ~tilOJ"~ , (Comma)eoW"[). Date e§tDoY'~' (Full stop) eoW'"e:i.

2. e§6:>OJ"~salutation ®oe;§ <00&016 ~;:So letter LOJ'>t ':;S~r;) ro~ eoe.::ooQ, eO" :

My dear Dad My dear uncle,

(t;:;cili@;;S t:r~r!"BV

(L~d5J~;;S '<J"'?J"O))/~<!nd5J~SJ)

Dear brother, (L~d'D~;6 8£tStSJ;:S!:b)

My dear daughter Subhagya~ (L5Jcfu~;:S l3.J~g_ ::illQ"KJj!3J)

My dear Pradeep (~®~;6 L~6~SJ)

3. 66:J;;;:r:>,§ Body of the 1etter i§:r"d5Jo~,@o6 <!noSo .~ g)cS.ctl:J'>~J. ~160 ~O"" ~EDcfu~d5J::.ID<fu!3JOeJJ~~ C?~J L~ctU""'e:l,

4, leave ta1cing@oe3 -t3eJ~ ;;;],;5.:JJ~;sco D<;S~ e~0"'~c:mf1oDb~6

Yours affectionately Yours affectionate son. Yours loving son Yours loving daughter Yours friendly

fu L~ di1~;:S

tt L~o::Dte;:S SJo:lJo6:>6

!b @o5J .i]:>L~~;:S!3J~t$:)t::l ,fu ~~bJ-c@..;ooE;6 !3":J&>£ ,fu "'fuJ.~4~

be3~ AHectionatel y yours, friendly yours ~bE;6 g)e;5or!" b-C'" l§3t'cfu;St;ly\. S:eJO l.;;J"'8"~ LSotS ,fuc, <606.130 t3®2;.ID~,,)~obJoa. ~s to

w

Vijayawada, n-07-2002..

Dear Venu, ~ow do youdo? Hope you receive this letter in good sp.irits and fine health. It's quite a long time, we both have met.

How did you write your examinations? I invite you to our place. for this su~er vaction. Our friends are also expecting you, here ill. these holidays, We are planning to have a picnic along with you in these holidays.

W rite a .reply about your visit to here, so that I could pick

you up at Railway station, .

Yours loving friend, Prabhakar.

Address:

Mr. Venu Gopal A. S/o. Raghuramaiah, 22-23/3-4,

Brodipet, GUNTUR

~ (';!l~~5~ a~ ~ ®~~e§. !b~ e;Jt;)o ~~l:b;6 ~t5a

(01

o:SJ;::)~ @~S"es leave letter oJeJ'> submit t3c6Jv~ @~6 Sla5JlCJ

~iYo.

c

Vijag, 8-8-2002.

To The Branch Manager,

XYZ co. Ltd.,

Vijayawada-IO.

Respected Sir,

As lan~ having an important personal work, I am unable to attend w.e oifice. Hence I request that I may be granted leave for three days from today. i.e from 13-8-02 to 15-8-02.

Thank you Sir,

Faithfully yours, RamaRao. B,

Sales Executive.

76

2. Sister marriage ~ CrlOv";)e)O~ 6 days leave applyi3dSJCio.

Vijag . 8-8-2002.

From

Raghuram, v., Junior Accountant, ABC ltd .. , Vijayawada ..

To

The Accounts Manager, ABC co., ltd., Vijayawada,

Sir,

We are going to attend our sister's marriage held at Vijayawada on 9th of this month. Being the elder brother I have to attend and see the arrangments a little hit earlier. Hence in this account I requesr you to grant five days leave from today ie from 20-8-02 to 24-8-02. I also request you to grant permission to leave over the station.

Thanking you Si!',

Very faithfully yours,

RaghuRam. V.

Application for a correspondent clerk's pos~

To ~

1I11-A/1l6-FG,

Rayapuram, Chennai,

25th July, 02.

Sir,

Having seen your adverr isement in todays Hindu for an experienced correspondent clerk, I beg to offer my service for the appointment.

. I have had over twelve years of office work experience, having been employed by Messrs. Harty andco. of Chennai for five years and having for the last four years served as correspondence clerk to Messrs. Rarna and Co, Chennai, in whose service still I am"

. I beg to enclose copies of testimonials from my former as well as my present employers, and to refer you to them for any further information you. may wish [Q have regarding me. Hoping that my application will be favour ably considered.

Yours obediently,

Ratna Rao.

HOUR

22na.

Atmosphere Atom Attachment Attempt Attendance

Artention Attestation Attitude

Auction

Audience Auditor

Author Authority

o:l"B"c56~~ c;515~ero~

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Autobiography ~ctUiS5~

Aurocrar Autonomy Autumn Average Award

Axe

Buffoon

Bue -p

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Building Bulb Bulk Bull Buller Bulletin Bullock Bump Bunch Bund Bundle Burden

Burglar Burial

Burrow

Capitalism Capitalist Captain Caption Captive Capture Car

Ch]li

Chimney

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78

Cbin Chama-ware

Chip

Chisel Ch.itchat Choice Chorlls Choultry Christianity Chronicle

Cruelty Crumb

Cursr

Cn.1T,th Crysml Cub

Cube Cuberoot Cubi[ Cuekoo Cucumber CUdgel Culprit Culriv3tion Clllriv3ror ClIlt\!re Cumin

Cup Cupboard Curd

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Curtain

Curbature Curbe Cushion Custodian Custody Custom

Customer

Cur-throar CyeIe Cyclic Cyclone Cylinder Cynic Cynicism Cyst

Czar' Defamation

Default Defaulter Defect Defence Defendant

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9'

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.i)o6SL~£a"tJ~ ~6

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79

Defiance ®i:5ii:ro2,1j:iliJ Due O"OSeJ~~6, 2J"§ Elegy .g6q)fI~ O"m Epitome ~~oJ.~~
Defic.iency 6SJ&;;5, &t:~ Dung '6J~ Element ,fu_;-'e)so5:lJ. ~~;;:;m Equality <6[fu~,;)~
Deficit &~ Dunghill 1J6~Q)' Enl)' , ®~~Ci1J Expedition ?:$o6cti.J<.@
~
Definiation ~o,Si5~om Duodenum. ~o@~e,)<5:0 Epic ;;Q@QJS;:StID Expenditure 4J~J
Degree fEO~~. ~<S.:6xI. Duplicate @)@. <S13e.lO Epidemic @Q~OJ"Se Expense ~Sclli.:6xl
~ til .
Diamond OSl~ifu.J Duration ~eJoSJJ Epidermis 2J"~i56J.:6xI Experience ®ifu<',iOStrn
Diaphragm g)~~~.:6xI Dusk ;:;Soab~el Epigram ~~DJ"~e5~ Explanation g)~6~o.'ill
Dictation ;3~J~ano~tJ Dust (;))omJ, iJ"oa Episode &>~~S~oSJJ Explorer ®~.!)o.l.~~
Dictator :J OoS:l.oJCJ Duty s_g~o5:lJ,06J,<:m. Epitaph i56~~SoSJ.) Explosion JjJrnb
Diction ~[) ;:',»O!:l;;W Epithet g)~~oaoSlJ Export .,JrI:loSJ~
Dictionary ,~;;l:ioex,~ Dwarf ;fu&IJKJ~' Epitome !l:!;'\woSJ.) Exporter .,J/'Uo:':o~0"i:5J6
es
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Diet @j;jOt).;in, t: 4lSiw Dye ooKJ Expedition 6oc~@ Extolment ~l!1iw
Difference 00c;ID Dynamo ~6JSE:;i6:J Enterprise .oJ",sQ»t)~ Extra @es~oS, ~~;;S_~oS
-- -. Q....
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Drawback @@G)0l;);S::u, &;,;~ Editorial (.)0~6tclli.?:ill Enthusiasm G~;;Ja~ Eye s;6,)d_
Drawer ~t5J1'U Education g)6S Entrance wo.s6~. @S~-B';fu) Eyeball ~oe5l{U~
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- 0
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Dress G)~e;o Efficacy ~osc:m Enumeration Koa;j Feast g)Q~
.., <;)
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Drowsiness ~6Jt5cfu~ Elasticity ~J§~~S.ts Epidemic @ob:JOJ"SO Fee ii4cS::.J, r&:r>V
~ CD -JI,
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• to-'
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e.:. • Epithet g:r~;;:S,EQlO5.x.
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Formality Formation

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Hosiery @MCS~~exl Indication ~t:5;S
Q ~
Geaveyard ;::SJil";S o:m Gunny ffle§o5JJ Hospitality ®®~;::S~6om Indifference a~~
Gravitation (!3~~~.a! Head ~e,) • .v<>®SJc, Host @~OS:l;;.:::b,)W"til Indigestion ®c§go5JJ
Gravity (!!js~E<l~! zy>6CfuJ Headache ~e)i5"~J Hostel :l~~o;tl«)M.G""cS::J Indi vid ual a.SCSS§
Heading .§~s ~ Q oS5L-aoil
Greatness R"oS..)~;;Soio Hound ~tl~~6- Industry
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;;)~~50~ Health @lOSK,so&> House i29.~, ;6~. ;;So.a~ Infant t:l;Sd_oB.aJ ;:j)
Gripe oS~,eJ"O Heap @6rU,O"-5 Household !§JbJ oe:JOSD Infanticide oB-tJ;;:y.,~S
Groaning ~wrU Hearing g);5)t;> -Housewife ";,)1:io~ Infection @ob)OSKoio
Grocery @~6iJo~l0J€)®oKe, Hearsay 05c5o~ Hue eorU. @8!)a2) Inferiority &;S~~
Q
Groove Il"t. Heart ~c5®o&> Hull ~g')ob) Infinity @;::So6~~o:m
,~ ~
Gross ~~tm Hearth ~~ Humanity ~~OS~<fu:l, Influence oSe:D~<'Je
Ground ;:5e,), (!!;6fu, @lQ"Oc5:D Heat ~e~ ;;:jy>;S OS r£" 0) Information ;::S;:)y>W"t) oio
Ground-nut ;;36:1 ~;SX, 5"6 Heaven ~~O'ill . Humidity @g6 Injury ;;5£:0
Group NO~ Heaviness 106J~ .Hunger @S£) Injustice @N"'Scti:J~
Grove &eJ Hedge 130a Hunter ~e::J71"6 Increment ~o~, ~.:lJ,)
Growth 05~t;; Hedgehog QSx;o~;.')oe, Hunting ;i§b Indent :saQ$eJ·~;:6 i:P~~v ~~
Grudge ;.')K, a.')Ci3.;;.'ID Home ~.sriJc:Ju;;.'ID Hurdle ~cs, @6 Independence ~~o~S~
c.
Gruel KOe3, 25"'05, @Oe:J[) Homestry !O<S"<m~ Hurricane ei:>~;fu Index. ;::JJoDi3
Cuarantee ~tJ Honey ~~ Hurry &'066 Index-finger t:S:roOJl~ @exl
Guard 6g_SJ~. S"OS£).3Ycb Honey-bee ~;;:le5K Hurt f1"®oin, ID"'4) Indication ~t:S<5
Guardian rJo6sSJCJ Honorarium. rr6<5~)~ Husband ~~ Indifference ti;@S
.... ......
Guova cioc:));;:)oQ Honour R" 6 OS;6:n , @J~~ Husbandry SJ~' lO6e~ Indigestion @~60i0
'"
Guest @@~ Hood. i.'Jocm<0~K Husk SPtm Individual e,'!:§OS~
e_,
e.;;sa~tm Hut r))e;~ Industry oS5L-t:;5:l
Guidance Hoof as&. Hygiene ISla" l\)-a-> ~oi:.:J
Gu.ide woe;;S.,o ~iiJ'>CJ Hook ~J,.~ Hyperbole @eM<fuo§ Infancy ~~;;S<fuJ
Guilt j6C'lli @)~0"4).;m Hope @-tl Hypocrite S;;Je'} In:fam w;;Sd_-o-tJ~, .-
Gulf i'Jo<;SJ'<P~ Horoscope G:3"e)s;6:n Hypothesis i!5a;;Jo Infanticide £-tJGJ-"~~
Gullet ~~s Horror ~~, ~o:D;m fiy:s£er:ia ~6,}®;;:)~J6tm Infection @)oex.ot'X;&,
Gum tlXJ6J Horse t"Gooom Index-finger i:5.Y>0"j)~@e;v Inferiority b>;S~)B
"" '"
Guu ei:>.iJo§ Horticulture fll(J"S;:S <6:60 24 lfo!J~ (;.S:3 a)5lo.a~ fJJsofl .s&qj 85 !lIo
84 24 Ko~rtt (;.S$ t) ~ob~ ~~of} s6~ Infinity Influence Inf'irmation Injury Injustice Inn

Innocence Innovation Insect Insecticide Instinct

Institute Institution Instructor Insrrument

Insult

Insurance

Integration Intelligence Intensity Intention Interest Interjection fntimacy Intoriarion Intoxication

"",,0- <DVi'J

Investigation Invitation

Invoice

lata

605o~ ~;;s')<5.:0 ~o)o6~

...... Q

itle5c?t\)c5v

@N"~ctiJc;'ID Iron

rSl~c:m. ~t!J~'lfJa~ Iron y

€!J;;S.,-"Cli:J!3~ Irrigarion

l?g~e.J.J;;:) !\b!3;;m! @.lli @.lli;:Sot:JS5~

rSO<0

e

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@[)D, rJ~iJ"6c:m b~6

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1-&;J.:.:iD, ~;od.gy,S~)O ~6cS:-.J

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Irritatioa

l1!lt(1o:Juom, SSdSiru, 6~

5g)

DrJd.6~

l?5i~~§ oiS:Jb

;:Jo6@. g)QJOOOO.;l(fu)

Island Isle

Islet Isolation Issues

Jot Journal Journalism journalist Journey Joy

Jubilee Judge Judgement Judiciary Jug

Juggler juice

.;y.>~~@~

;;S 1§Js->6t:5;;:S 05@so6i5OJJ6 lcja:lJ.>~;:::ro ;:Jod~om

~a:lJ.>Q;;sa

iJl6:JJ' @~L.;:,ncfu;:'ill .:sO"Jt6 ;;:)c:m

SYoa<>, e3"C)

i1"6 t,0J"6

6;:Sim,. ~6.:fu:>

Intricacy {)SJ& Junction

Introduction t;J;;§-toill, e~~6;;m_ jnncrure

Invasion

rJOQ, Se.;OJ)$ 66J~om

Jungle Kinsfolk

®6!:3So:m a)o~~eJJ

86

Kiss

Kit Kitchen Kite Kitch Kitten Knave .K.Q.avel1' "Knee Knif~ Knight Knob

KnOt Knowledge

Lenience

Lens Leopeard Lesson Letter

Levy Lexicon

Liabili.ry Liar Liberty Librarian

Library Licence

[06, wl:lOSe._,<:ID Q

i:$.) e._, c.S:o en e)

t>~~;5 .(5y><J:F1"~

.;)ClroS I '1;:;:5;:'ill; CS5t5dSJ.;:m

clctil, !3:Os6~ S6S~

{)~~;;0[) .:i}o0~ ®~6~, Well

:O;;UOQ:J~

@;;J,J. <?"tS.s~ @;:;S6,som' i3~y<J"'6 -":. t:S

~.D

l(ioQ"'e>d5J->Qso5

lKoc;:Pvdi)C5._,::, @;s'Qi)@

Life Lifetime Light Lighming Like Liking Limb Lime

Limekiln Maxim Maximum Mayor Meadow Meal

Meaning Means

Measure

i§J"E.<l,~, r6C:.>Sc. &~6soe;J0Sn soo@, ~Vs

~em~ ~~~ ~~om

e:J

l!o;o'>dD;;5~, ;)e;r'rl~

S"VJ;;S~~e (6);S,6JlCJe.'l

0; :.J

8gb!. ~~e§

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os.C{)s S)d5;ien ¢~;S;5)j, g;,oc.' @6c:m

9

0"<00, ~O;S~

g'>e)e§

Measurement S"e>e1

Meat

Medal Mediator Medicine Meditation Medium Melody Member

Membrane

Metal

;5.)Q~.>S_g ;5.)oC):,

Q"'S;5.;m

;5)Oe3ifu.;5;J, ~4SOS~ ;5.)~6;:'~6o:S:r; ;;S?$~6

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Lid

87

Metaphor Meteor Meter

Method

Metre Microphone

~e>6-

.§"(QJi5J~ ElM;S;o Q5CS~

Q

t:btJriJ

Nun Nuptials Nurse

Nunture

NUL

Microscope rJJt>~C5e.Jg;)

Midday .iPO"S~~

Multiplier t<IJtilSc:m

M ulritudeaJ"';;J.;otis;;m Mumps K;;StS8:l'lfJUJ Municipali ry ,006~f..)srJo;;l:l~

Murder Murderer Muscle Museum Mushroom Music Musical

Musk Musket Nostril Note

Notice

Noun

:00";:5~ !&es6.Ji6.;j'>e_j !3JS&ff6JK':I ;:0o.A~o:'o:l

rJoAe$ci)W"..'p;illdJ s~e

~[MJ~s

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Nourishment 0£oS.til

Novelty Nucleus Nudity Numerator

Nurriment Office Officer Offspring Ogle

Oil

Ointment Omen

Omission OniON

Onlooker Opener Opening Opera Oracle Orange Oration

Ortor

Orbit. Orachard

IF~CS;;So:ID Ordeal

~o~so, .]WO~~ Order

~oX&Jt5o.sQID Ordinance

f..);;),:;:m Ordnance

~a~

.O"~

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Q

ao~6o:ID. 60.(90.,

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88

Organ. @oK<:ID

Organism !S.il, ~~

Organiz:apOD ';;S-o~;:6::iJ Orlfic"e 6o.~~

Origin OrDain,ent

Orphan Orphamage Oscirla~ioll Ostrich Outlet Outlook Oul

Owner

Ox Penalty Penance

Pencil Pendulum Pefume

Pericarp Peril Periphery Permanence Bennission

Perplexity Person Personality Perspiration

,;;r.,.e;)<im ~2$6~<5:0

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Pessimist

Pes[

pestle

Pew Prologue Prominence

Promise

Promotion

Pronoun

O)oo;a:o.;::r>i5, o'l''Owat~[J

~O'b6~;;:m-

r:?Q"r:iso:ro ,ij'>("i";S;6:n o

@&l;;)J~' -;;tS<6d_o

;6c,sN";;fu;:l:o

P! onunciation 6JW06~

Proff :OcS6J<6G'll;, C;,e,p,<5)

Proposition

"<f:D{;#~05oS.-n Proprietor .

i'U~KJoZJ Prosody

diJu;;5y;o Prospect

~6J Prospectus

(;)

~.~'!!l;;)o"O~. e¥V"~N"

L~®~<6:D Prosperity

~g),.)UI Prostration

&eY~.:m Peliole

~3-~6;S d$)(2~i.)

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es

g)~;S;;ID~8Jo6 Petitioner

@)~o:5JoS.-n Phial

.E.;::r>6~ Philanthropist

"8".t.s~o5JJ Philosopher

@;;$:>050~ $f!);Sl5lfu;. <6:J<6:J~ t:J, 05~ 05me)s~ i301,.,t)

Richness

Ridge Ridicute Rim Ring

w;$~<me

0.. W

&~05S"e

e)e§~i?'~;i§1 liliScS~· K~ ~K8"~

@0.t;5:) G>o!'\6<5JJ

89

Riot Risk Rituals Rival Rivalry

River

Rivulet Road Robber "Robbery Rob

Roe

Rogue Roguery Role

Rope Rose-water.

Rose-wood Rotation Scorpion Scoundrel] Scrap Scream

Screw

Script Sui pture Scroll

Scruting Sculprtor Sculpture

sdJS"o~ ~e5CJ"~6 bJ5e5

;;:)El D~~1)) aJ"eJ

Ei"oK O"oKei~tm 13~J @66:l!lJ ;;L"'r6nn6

.:;5d~, ~@ ;fr,s,

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sof\6;;JJ d:l~ 0>13' ;;)513 ~ .....

Tl[JJ

Sea Seal

r6oml¢op ~l¢

l:D~ @~S5

e;)'

;5futtS ®6<:m

~eom, ro.m~~

Seam Seashore Season Sen

Secrarary Secretion Section Sector Security Seed

:sotistSc;g @c;6~

~K<:m G'S~g,illo6om tiSSOl~, ~fb "

......

Segment Selection

Self-Confidence @~J .i)~r6tm

Self-defence @@J 6g_~

Service ~;5

Summary r6oll1oY>om

Summer Summit

Surname

-nill6o, .otpO"Il1r6<';l ao6"t6J

Surplus Surprise Swimming Swine Swoon

@QSc.'ill @~JtiSoSJJ *6

~41

&J*c.'ID ~6S~!"i\~G))om woJ~oin fT-';;).O)~

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Sword Syllabus Symbol Symmetry

90

24th HOUR

Sympathy Symptom Syndicate Synonym Synopsis Synthesis

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Q

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System ;;)~3, ~Q";6c6:n

Transformation 6J<>fr>o~6c:i.n

Translation Transport Trap

Trash

Tree

Trend Trial Triangle Tribe Tribunal Tributary Trick Trident Trifle

tiOJ"'W t1'~, ;:)e)

iJ~

iJe.xJ

eo

Trio

Trip Triumph Troop Trophy Trouble Truck

Trumpet Trunk

Trust Trustee Truth Tub

N"Sd5:l;()~ tll;;);SEl

~§, ~crin§ ~i.Joe:J;;J;D

T " t3~fbb

ngger

T rigonornetery La§'" :O~

Tuft

Tuition Tune

Umbrella Umpire

Unanimity Uncle

@dSJ;5n @5di,."roc:m &d.'))c:m

~<SS.tm, ;:5~oJoQ'ill g)ald$}w~d.Q'ill

eJ"(;S

r66J~e:Je:lOe.

eJ"S"

;:Je.:n&a, ;;:mo(;!c5xJ,

eJ

~;furu §"oC::~

;;S;:DJ~ c.:':w 4it5J~~

;:J~S,fuj

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R"'~.tm. N"~c5xJ ri~, 6:lo~ fut:l.:lJ

&o~

O"Xc.:':w

fi"'t:.J1"0

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91

Understanding re";6~, !3[)~ Vessel '~L6
~ OPPOSITES
;605JJ_8ow;6,5 Vial i')<6.le:o~
Uneasiness ~1ile.l0S::0 Vice a.>;;S~, tSJ~f'bf:dO alien ~a~ x nanve rS.sG3.s
. etS~C:l
Unfair ®~eiS:lQ Victim aY'e6JciJ asssertrve c,SJCr:,~~ X negative
Unification eo!:i,soSDildfutJ Victory .rlex;tu;;ID attract ~l3eot:D X repell ~S~pt:D
<>l..
U niio nul ty ~sg)i;lOS::o View 6d-il'~0S::0 ancient <00t0~rS x modern (!!lOJ(OS
Union 6Jso»e),scfuJ Vigilance eroKOJoM arrive O"s. X depart ~l3
Unity ~s~SO'm Vigour aJe.lO'm, -il'~ admit @l;fua))~o~ x deny (oO"SOo~
Universe g)-il'".s0S::0 Weaver ~dfuGY'6 always .J~r:,.Jd:l x never ~c.)J>~~a(O
University .D.if.s.D0",S~d5J~ Wedding .DtJ":::Jo oSxl awake ~ru§"~ x asleep (O©o~
Vally &d:iJ Weed Se.lJOJl~s,;;, ascending @l~~""£'C) x descending ~oS~~£'C)
Valour <60"~;6;J0S::0 Week ;;;:p>6;;5.x! assemble e.,se5l1"dt5JJ x disperse ~cl2:3e,))
,..,
Valuation o»ooQJ) Weight 2.)o,~, G.>""'oo:m appowt :Oo:);)~o~ x dismiss §"e.l Flo tS:J
Value .De.uoS, ;;)e) \'V'elcome ?Jo~~~ all ®o6CJo, @fJ.,1 some S" otS6.J , §" (0.,1
x
Valve SOJ<>e.;O'm Welfare ~ot;fuO'm all @~, @o66J ~.§N",~ e..~"'"
x any
Vanity @lCoa:J605:l;> Well aY'.D bless o OJ 0,:5) ~~o.;:5)
X curse
Vapour @ig)5 Well-wisher @Cfur>~e.J"~ bold 2oJ)~;S timid ~es@lrS
x
Variation ~6JJ ~g)QSO WesT <660$)6
brave 2oJ)e;S x timid ~e§~;s
Vase ~~ Whale ®.D:loKe.lo:m
buy S"<SJtJ x sell @~t.J
Vegetables SJ.>e:Srr>®e.u Wheat nsOJ~e.lJ
bright soo8oSoa~;S x dim o::o~saJ"5;S
Vegetarian il"!IJ"0.'J65 Wheel R";:D, is ljo5:o
Vehicle bad i3C:l x good ;fuoD
OJ"~.;:s;;5.x! Whip ~e:St3"
Veil 66, o5:o;:J:Il'U Whirlpool ~6&<6Je, bind GJoQo.;:5) x release g)btS~t3d5.n
Vein ltJe:S Whirlwind ;:fu~n"(l calm '3"o8e§ x violent S0~8
Velocity ;jKo:m Whistle 6ae.l cancel oCS:l;;)6J~ x sustain tSJ~jt5Jt:)}
0
Venison cSJ~.,)o5Joo~o Wick os~ cool i$~:O x warm ~t:Sj(O
Venue ~~;j-il'~e.lo5JJ Widow .Deio6J~ cruel !3e.I"t5~ ;S x kind e:5di>r'le)
Q
Verb @d:iJ Widower Q'S)Kg)e'§oefi dicit eh_JJ x surplus @QS~
Verse o;)~o5:o Width ~ce.u.,) democracy 1§}(l3Q~<illeS° x autocracy ~t50S:l~e1.s0
Version ;;S~~oeio5:o Wife ~"'e:Ss difficult s~;;:b;6 x easy ~[)s;6
e)'_ ...__
dilute ;;) e:l) Ll ;S5ctill x concrete Ke3j6JiSJ
9,2 .24 noe"ct (;;S:5 Zf)"'Io.a~ R.J~on ~~ eJ
24 /foeJei (~$ ~) ~o.a.;i:> ~!Jotrg5qj Ji'
93 defeat oJlJ"& d5:Jo x victory ~e:ldS:lo !!!l@~ x care .a~
neglect l:! 0
dry ~6@~ x wer ,ejE,~~ otaJUlr"J v.:~~;6 x artificial ~ella~
deep &~;6 x shallow &~e:§~ oral ~'e3 ~t.JrY" x wrrrteri ~~~6.5~'0f1'>
enemy .a~~ x friend ~@Jt'.J ;o->o@ x war ~6:0
pelice 0
ever ';)oJJe3 g ~ x never .;) oJjlCJrSJtl ~ ,.pardon ~~o~ x punish CSoeoiS:J
,""l
expel :Bii,/Fi" 9:? x welcome ~ri~~ permane.;m: '5"if.s~tro x temporary l5'-6"ifS~~
economical lfr>tilGS5 x extrayagantco.~lJ"~~ permIt e!J;6.)~@ot:S:J x prohibit '~~eo&
friendship ~~"'o enunity .t6~6.:i0 l'igid s(!)rS~;6 J\ flexible ~~lSJ~;6
x
from OS:oocil back ~;:5)s ,rude' @)~lJ"S6 x polite OSJO"$CS
x
fresh W.1El stale ~6e, reap g66§'icfulb x sow g)6i:\J"e.J:) alent,)
x _. ..,
freedom ~r)o~so slavery eJ"~;:S6o')o rapid ;;3K~;6 x slow ;;3o'),J5
x
honesty ;O~Q,))® deceit ~..,,;:so:m send c6o~b x receIve :0~..)§"';:5)~
x
heavy light f§t>E~ sharp !)"j~~;6 x dull 0.),0 tllIDEHib;S
e::J6:>~rS x Q~
high shut ~o:mb x open e16t':Db
';)~;6 x low' <00olJQJJrS
...., soh ill~::J hard K6JE;6
0- X
host aJOtil8 . ..::DJ;S~ x guest @@O
sorrow aPQ"!36~<6 x JOY @;6oCS~;6
harsh ~~;6@rS x pleasant ~oe§ifurS tall short
.~ ~C0~;6 x root3abrS
hide 0",:)) show e.:l"-
x i5J<>~o~ thick thin
c6JoCSom x ~e.XJ-::S~
hit S"tDb x Ill1SS KJ5t~j>b a..~j> false ~oSjl'
(!.) true x
lend ~~8.t5D x borrow @ ~Jl<0t':DJ§"';:5) qJ"t>~;6 full ;O,o~~
vacant x
long KJo~lU x short ~el voluntary e§;:5)8:>8";6;J1l" compulsory 6c6.J~;:65""
e.J X
little S"o~o x lot woO" vertical ;oe.l)~"" horizontal @Com""
x co
large ~cle x small 5rSJ.t'i v:ariety Q)e;o6~.:6:lJ~;6 x uniformity a..§6~c6JOJ);:)
0
last ,:)~e x: first ~clb win r,e.l)LDb x lose z.,E,sJ£~
light S"oB~o6@;6 x dark ;;));:5SaJ05rS work :6<0 x rest ~tB"o~
multiply l'i)~oi:Db x divide ~"'F\oi:DeJ WIse ~[)~<6 X' foolish e1~g)a~
major @os~rS x minor @eJJ~;6 worship ~z(l0i5J ;,: detest ao')~ot:5J
make e§d5J"6J,~dfu x spoil ~~t3om young ctD~.s;6o x old ;;in;6E)ei':6o
marriage g)W";;:''''';:m x celibacy @~Ji$Cso zeal e6'>..)c:Joo x dejection ~6:J6'>..)c:Joo
94 24 tfobel (;5$ a) ~o.6~ ~gon seq) 2~ lfoaq! (;5$ ~) ,z;o.6~ ~soli' gS~ 95 correct ~Bdb;5 x incorrect ;:;)Bso~
dt "-
efficient. ~~OJc., x inefficient @~~~~
d Q
JustICE r;J"~dil~ x injustice @N"S®iiS:o
d dependent c<eSl5Je,)~ 9Q"6;;J~ independent ~~~o~~<S
X
e: discipline ~~-8~~ x indiscipline ~~-a.!£'Cla~
e decent .tl:i~clrro x indecent @~0"S6n"
e experienced (y)~itl~oi"if) x inexperienced @ifu~OSoa~
e gree a..o:)j'S";6)e" x disagree a,~Jl§"~~&J6QJ\t:l
£ allow ~~JaoiSJ x disallow ;()~i~ot:i:l~o6c!J
f connect ~Ul~c!J .x disconnect, .oct¥' tlJt:l
CJ
f please ;:SO&;;S,~~b x displease .DW"6~e.x>b
CJ ~
f happy :;So.gs~o x unhappy ;6o~~PS"~
lucky @6~~o x unlucky c5Jo6~~o
'0
natural ~~J~~g~;s x unnatural (?)!3eJ@';;)6Jg~;:s
real ;Oa:;~;s x unreal ;:)e30S"~
usual ~~~~;:S x unusual @~;:l;-O;:SS~;S
manage ;o6.s~ot:Db x mismanage ~;:.JJll1":06.s~oi:5.JeJ
belief ;S~J.!30 x misbelief @<6;S;fuJ.~o
conduct ~o~;:S~~ x misconduct t56;:S~~
fortune @c5eJ~o x misfortune t5.:l66eJ~o
polite ~6~~;:S x impolite @n"6~~;:S
"-
possible i?4SS@;:S x impossible @;:JoQS~;S
practical @;6)$cSoKe; x impractical @c5J<p~oaD 000

96

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