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org/wiki/Chemical_vapor_deposition Chemical vapor deposition Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films. In a typical CVD process, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. Frequently, volatile byproducts are also produced, which are removed by gas flow through the reaction chamber.
Microfabrication processes widely use CVD to deposit materials in various forms, including: monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and epitaxial. These materials include: silicon, carbon fiber, carbon nanofibers, filaments, carbon nanotubes, SiO2, silicon-germanium, tungsten, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, titanium nitride, and various high-k dielectrics. The CVD process is also used to produce synthetic diamonds. Contents [hide] 1 Types of chemical vapor deposition 2 Substances commonly deposited for ICs 2.1 Polysilicon 2.2 Silicon dioxide 2.3 Silicon nitride 2.4 Metals 3 See also 4 References 5 External links Types of chemical vapor deposition
PECVD processing allows deposition at lower temperatures.A CVD process in which the precursors are transported to the substrate by means of a liquid/gas aerosol. Remote plasma-enhanced CVD (RPECVD) . Reduced pressures tend to reduce unwanted gas-phase reactions and improve film uniformity across the wafer. . These processes differ in the means by which chemical reactions are initiated (e. Removing the wafer from the plasma region allows processing temperatures down to room temperature. Heating only the substrate rather than the gas or chamber walls helps reduce unwanted gas phase reactions that can lead to particle formation. Ultrahigh vacuum CVD (UHVCVD) .A CVD process in which the precursors are in liquid form (liquid or solid dissolved in a convenient solvent). Liquid solutions are injected in a vaporization chamber towards injectors (typically car injectors). Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) . Classified by physical characteristics of vapor Aerosol assisted CVD (AACVD) .CVD processes that utilize a plasma to enhance chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Direct liquid injection CVD (DLICVD) . This technique is suitable for use with involatile precursors. crystalline films.CVD processes at a very low pressure. Low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) .CVD processes that use heating lamps or other methods to rapidly heat the wafer substrate. Rapid thermal CVD (RTCVD) . Particular materials are deposited best under particular conditions. Most modern CVD process are either LPCVD or UHVCVD.A number of forms of CVD are in wide use and are frequently referenced in the literature. which can be generated ultrasonically.g.CVD processes at subatmospheric pressures. a lower division between high and ultra-high vacuum is common. Uses a hot filament to chemically decompose the source gases. Then the precursors vapours are transported to the substrate as in classical CVD process.CVD processes based on metalorganic precursors. Vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) Substances commonly deposited for ICs This section discusses the CVD processes often used for integrated circuits (ICs).Also known as Catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD) or hot filament CVD (HFCVD).. Caution: in other fields. See Atomic layer epitaxy. typically below 10-6 Pa (~ 10-8 torr). Classified by operating pressure Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) . activation process) and process conditions.CVD processes at atmospheric pressure. This technique is suitable for use on liquid or solid precursors. which is often critical in the manufacture of semiconductors. often 10-7 Pa. Plasma methods (see also Plasma processing) Microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD) . Atomic layer CVD (ALCVD) – Deposits successive layers of different substances to produce layered.Similar to PECVD except that the wafer substrate is not directly in the plasma discharge region. Hot wire CVD (HWCVD) . High growth rates can be reached using this technique.
Polysilicon Polycrystalline silicon is deposited from silane (SiH4). silane produces a lower-quality oxide than the other methods (lower dielectric strength. This may have two purposes. Silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide (usually called simply "oxide" in the semiconductor industry) may be deposited by several different processes. Phosphorus is deposited from phosphine gas and oxygen: 4PH3 + 5O2 → 2P2O5 + 6H2 . P-glass softens and reflows at temperatures above 1000 °C. Diborane increases the growth rate. dichlorosilane at around 900 °C. Oxides containing 5% to 15% impurities by mass are often used for this purpose. and TEOS between 650 and 750 °C. Si(OC2H5)4). but arsine and phosphine decrease it. The reactions are as follows: SiH4 + O2 → SiO2 + 2H2 SiCl2H2 + 2N2O → SiO2 + 2N2 + 2HCl Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + byproducts The choice of source gas depends on the thermal stability of the substrate. but thermal oxidation can only be used in the earliest stages of IC manufacturing. using the following reaction: SiH4 → Si + 2H2 This reaction is usually performed in LPCVD systems. or a solution of silane with 70-80% nitrogen. During further process steps that occur at high temperature. An alternative process uses a hydrogen-based solution. In addition. This process requires a phosphorus concentration of at least 6%. The hydrogen reduces the growth rate. However. with either pure silane feedstock. silicon dioxide alloyed with phosphorus pentoxide ("P-glass") can be used to smooth out uneven surfaces. for instance. if gases such as phosphine. aluminium is sensitive to high temperature. Polysilicon may be grown directly with doping. CVD oxide invariably has lower quality than thermal oxide. arsine or diborane are added to the CVD chamber. Silane deposits between 300 and 500 °C. Temperatures between 600 and 650 °C and pressures between 25 and 150 Pa yield a growth rate between 10 and 20 nm per minute. but the silane reaction is also done in APCVD. or tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS. and it deposits nonconformally. the impurities may diffuse from the oxide into adjacent layers (most notably silicon) and dope them. Any of these reactions may be used in LPCVD. Oxide may also be grown with impurities (alloying or "doping"). but the temperature is raised to 850 or even 1050 degrees Celsius to compensate. but concentrations above 8% can corrode aluminium. Common source gases include silane and oxygen. dichlorosilane (SiCl2H2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). for instance).
which may crack films thicker than 200 nm. However. Silicon nitride Silicon nitride is often used as an insulator and chemical barrier in manufacturing ICs. respectively). a viable CVD process for copper did not exist. but stability in air can be difficult to achieve. TEOS produces a relatively pure oxide. whereas silane introduces hydrogen impurities. they absorb water from the air due to the incorporation of silanol (Si-OH) in the glass. Besides these intentional impurities. Crystals of BPO4 can also precipitate from the flowing glass on cooling. BPSG) undergo viscous flow at lower temperatures. these crystals are not readily etched in the standard reactive plasmas used to pattern oxides. it has higher resistivity and dielectric strength than most insulators commonly available in microfabrication (1016 Ω·cm and 10 MV/cm. Phosphorus oxide in high concentrations interacts with ambient moisture to produce phosphoric acid. and dichlorosilane introduces chlorine. As of 2002. Metals Some metals (notably aluminium and copper) are seldom or never deposited by CVD. The following two reactions deposit nitride from the gas phase: 3SiH4 + 4NH3 → Si3N4 + 12H2 3SiCl2H2 + 4NH3 → Si3N4 + 6HCl + 6H2 Silicon nitride deposited by LPCVD contains up to 8% hydrogen.that is. and the metal was deposited by . but worse electrical properties (resistivity 106 to 1015 Ω·cm. Infrared spectroscopy and mechanical strain as a function of temperature are valuable diagnostic tools for diagnosing such problems.Glasses containing both boron and phosphorus (borophosphosilicate glass. Another two reactions may be used in plasma to deposit SiNH: 2SiH4 + N2 → 2SiNH + 3H2 SiH4 + NH3 → SiNH + 3H2 These films have much less tensile stress. and dielectric strength 1 to 5 MV/cm). Ozone glasses have excellent conformality but tend to be hygroscopic -. around 850 °C is achievable with glasses containing around 5 weight % of both constituents. and will result in circuit defects in integrated circuit manufacturing. CVD oxide may contain byproducts of the deposition process. It also experiences strong tensile stress (physics). Lower temperature deposition of silicon dioxide and doped glasses from TEOS using ozone rather than oxygen has also been explored (350 to 500 °C).
B.I. CVD processes for molybdenum. (2002). Thin-Film Deposition: Principles and Practice. In general.K. a more precise and conformal coating technology Physical vapor deposition. Mo.electroplating. from their pentachlorides.E. Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition. titanium and tungsten are widely used. the deposition of materials from vapor without chemical reactions References ^ Schropp. Ta and Ti are deposited by LPCVD.M. P. ISO 3529/1-1981 Vacuum Technology . which may be deposited in two ways: WF6 → W + 3F2 WF6 + 3H2 → W + 6HF See also Atomic Layer Deposition. Aluminium can be deposited from tri-isobutyl aluminium. Dobkin and Zuraw (2003).. "Film Deposition". These metals can form useful silicides when deposited onto silicon.part 1: General terms As quoted by UK National Physical Laboratory . Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.A. Richard C. tantalum. the reaction is as follows: 2MCl5 + 5H2 → 2M + 10HCl The usual source for tungsten is tungsten hexafluoride. Materials Physics and Mechanics: 73–82.T. Jaeger. Donald (1995). "Hot wire CVD of heterogeneous and polycrystalline silicon semiconducting thin films for application in thin film transistors and solar cells" (PDF). Rath.T. Brockhoff. but physical vapor deposition methods are usually preferred.Vocabulary . However. Smith. MacGraw-Hill. Stannowski. van Veenendaal and J. ISBN 0-201-44494-7. for an arbitrary metal M. R. Introduction to Microelectronic Fabrication. Kluwer. A.
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