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Malaysia

CURRICULUM SPECIFICATIONS

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

FORM 5

Ministry of Education Malaysia

2006

Copyright © 2006 Curriculum Development Centre

Ministry of Education Malaysia

Aras 4-8, Blok E9

Kompleks Kerajaan Parcel E

Pusat Pentadbiran Putrajaya

62604 Putrajaya

utilisation of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or

other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying,

and recording is forbidden without the prior written permission from the

Director of the Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education

Malaysia.

CONTENTS

Page

RUKUNEGARA (iv)

National Philosophy of Education (v)

Preface (vii)

Introduction (ix)

A6. Progressions 1

A7. Linear Law 4

C2. Integration 5

G2. Vectors 7

T2. Trigonometric Functions 11

S2. Permutations and Combinations 14

S3. Probability 16

S4. Probability Distributions 18

AST2. Motion Along a Straight Line 20

ASS2. Linear Programming 23

PW2. Project Work 25

RUKUNEGARA

DECLARATION

OUR NATION, MALAYSIA, being dedicated

• to achieving a greater unity of all her peoples;

• to maintaining a democratic way of life;

• to creating a just society in which the wealth of the

nation shall be equitably shared;

• to ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse

cultural traditions;

• to building a progressive society which shall be oriented

to modern science and technology;

WE, her peoples, pledge our united efforts to attain these

ends guided by these principles:

• BELIEF IN GOD

• LOYALTY TO KING AND COUNTRY

• UPHOLDING THE CONSTITUTION

• RULE OF LAW

• GOOD BEHAVIOUR AND MORALITY

Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort

towards further developing the potential of

individuals in a holistic and integrated

manner so as to produce individuals who are

intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and

physically balanced and harmonious, based

on a firm belief in God. Such an effort is

designed to produce Malaysian citizens who

are knowledgeable and competent, who

possess high moral standards, and who are

responsible and capable of achieving a high

level of personal well-being as well as being

able to contribute to the betterment of the

family, the society and the nation at large.

PREFACE The use of technology in the teaching and learning of Additional

Mathematics is greatly emphasised. Additional Mathematics taught in

Science and technology plays a critical role in realising Malaysia’s English, coupled with the use of ICT, provide greater opportunities for

aspiration to become a developed nation. Since mathematics is instrumental pupils to improve their knowledge and skills in mathematics because of the

in the development of scientific and technological knowledge, the provision richness of resources and repositories of knowledge in English. Our pupils

of quality mathematics education from an early age in the education process will be able to interact with pupils from other countries, improve their

is thus important. The Malaysian school curriculum offers three proficiency in English; and thus make the learning of mathematics more

mathematics education programs, namely Mathematics for primary schools, interesting and exciting.

Mathematics and Additional Mathematics for secondary schools.

The development of this Additional Mathematics Curriculum Specifications

The Malaysian school mathematics curriculum aims to develop is the work of many individuals and experts in the field. On behalf of the

mathematical knowledge, competency and inculcate positive attitudes Curriculum Development Centre, I would like to express much gratitude and

towards mathematics among pupils. While the Mathematics curriculum appreciation to those who have contributed in one way or another towards

prepares pupils to cope with daily life challenges, the Additional this initiative.

Mathematics curriculum provides an exposure to the level of mathematics

appropriate for science and technology related careers. As with other

subjects in the secondary school curriculum, Additional Mathematics aims

to inculcate noble values and love for the nation in the development of a

holistic person, who in turn will be able to contribute to the harmony and

prosperity of the nation and its people.

Additional Mathematics is an elective subject offered to the upper (MAHZAN BIN BAKAR SMP, AMP)

secondary school pupils. Beginning 2003, English is used as the medium of

instruction for Science and Mathematics subjects. The policy to change the Director

medium of instruction for the two subjects follows a phased implementation Curriculum Development Centre

schedule and is expected to be completed by 2008. The teaching and Ministry of Education

learning of Additional Mathematics in English started in 2006. Malaysia

(vii)

INTRODUCTION

are also stressed in the process of learning Additional Mathematics. When

A well-informed and knowledgeable society, well versed in the use of pupils explain concepts and their work, they are guided in the use of correct

Mathematics to cope with daily life challenges is integral to realising the and precise mathematical terms and sentences. Emphasis on Mathematical

nation’s aspiration to become an industrialised nation. Thus, efforts are taken communications develops pupils’ ability in interpreting matters into

to ensure a society that assimilates mathematics into their daily lives. Pupils mathematical modellings or vice versa.

are nurtured from an early age with the skills to solve problems and

communicate mathematically, to enable them to make effective decisions. The use of technology especially, Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) is much encouraged in the teaching and learning process.

Mathematics is essential in preparing a workforce capable of meeting the Pupils’ understanding of concepts can be enhanced as visual stimuli are

demands of a progressive nation. As such, this field assumes its role as the provided and complex calculations are made easier with the use of

driving force behind various developments in science and technology. In line calculators.

with the nation’s objective to create a knowledge-based economy, the skills

of Research & Development in mathematics is nurtured and developed at Project work, compalsory in Additional Mathematics provides opportunities

school level. for pupils to apply the knowledge and skills learned in the classroom into

real-life situations. Project work carried out by pupils includes exploration of

Additional Mathematics is an elective subject in secondary schools, which mathematical problems, which activates their minds, makes the learning of

caters to the needs of pupils who are inclined towards Science and mathematics more meaningful, and enables pupils to apply mathematical

Technology. Thus, the content of the curriculum has been organised to concepts and skills, and further develops their communication skills.

achieve this objective.

The intrinsic values of mathematics namely thinking systematically,

The design of the Additional Mathematics syllabus takes into account the accurately, thoroughly, diligently and with confidence, infused throughout

contents of the Mathematics curriculum. New areas of mathematics the teaching and learning process; contribute to the moulding of character

introduced in the Additional Mathematics curriculum are in keeping with and the inculcation of positive attitudes towards mathematics. Together with

new developments in Mathematics. Emphasis is placed on the heuristics of these, moral values are also introduced in context throughout the teaching

problem solving in the process of teaching and learning to enable pupils to and learning of mathematics.

gain the ability and confidence to use mathematics in new and different

situations. Assessment, in the form of tests and examinations helps to gauge pupils’

achievement. Assessments in Additional Mathematics include aspects such

The Additional Mathematics syllabus emphasises understanding of concepts as understanding of concepts, mastery of skills and non-routine questions

and mastery of related skills with problem solving as the main focus in the that demand the application of problem-solving strategies. The use of good

teaching and learning process. Skills of communication through mathematics assessment data from a variety of sources provides valuable information on

(ix)

the development and progress of pupils. On-going assessment built into the 7 debate solutions using precise mathematical language,

daily lessons allows the identification of pupils’ strengths and weaknesses,

and effectiveness of the instructional activities. Information gained from 8 relate mathematical ideas to the needs and activities of human beings,

responses to questions, group work results, and homework helps in

improving the teaching process, and hence enables the provision of 9 use hardware and software to explore mathematics, and

effectively aimed lessons. 10 practise intrinsic mathematical values.

AIM

ORGANISATION OF CONTENT

The Additional Mathematics curriculum for secondary schools aims to

develop pupils with in-depth mathematical knowledge and ability, so that The contents of the Form Five Additional Mathematics are arranged into two

they are able to use mathematics responsibly and effectively in learning packages. They are the Core Package and the Elective Package.

communications and problem solving, and are prepared to pursue further The Core Package, compulsory for all pupils, consists of nine topics

studies and embark on science and technology related careers. arranged under five components, that is:

OBJECTIVES • Geometry

The Additional Mathematics curriculum enables pupils to: • Algebra

• Calculus

1 widen their ability in the fields of number, shape and relationship as

well as to gain knowledge in calculus, vector and linear • Trigonometry

programming, • Statistics

2 enhance problem-solving skills, Each teaching component includes topics related to one branch of

mathematics. Topics in a particular teaching component are arranged

3 develop the ability to think critically, creatively and to reason out

according to hierarchy whereby easier topics are learned earlier before

logically,

proceeding to the more complex topics.

4 make inference and reasonable generalisation from given information,

The Elective Package consists of two packages, namely the Science and

Technology Application Package and the Social Science Application

5 relate the learning of Mathematics to daily activities and careers, Package. Pupils need to choose one Elective Package according to their

6 use the knowledge and skills of Mathematics to interpret and solve inclination in their future field.

real-life problems,

(x)

The Additional Mathematics Curriculum Specifications is prepared in a In the Points To Notes column, attention is drawn to the more significant

format which helps teachers to teach a particular topic effectively. The aspects of mathematical concepts and skills to be taught. This column

contents of each topic are divided into five columns: consists of:

• limitations to the scope of a particular topic;

• Learning Objectives;

• certain emphases;

• Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities;

• notations; and

• Learning Outcomes;

• formulae.

• Points to Note; and

The Vocabulary column consists of standard mathematical terminologies,

• Vocabulary. instructional words or phrases that are relevant in structuring activities,

All concepts and skills taught for a particular topic are arranged into a few asking questions or setting task. It is important to pay careful attention to the

learning units that are stated in the Learning Objectives column. These use of correct terminologies and these needs to be systematically introduced

Learning Objectives are arranged according to hierarchy from easy to the to pupils in various contexts so as to enable pupils to understand the

more abstract concepts. meanings of the terms and learn to use them appropriately.

The Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities column lists some

examples of teaching and learning activities including methods, techniques, EMPHASES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

strategies and resources pertaining to the specific concepts or skills. These,

however, are mere sample learning experiences and are not the only The teaching and learning process in this curriculum emphasise concept

activities to be used in the classrooms. Teachers are encouraged to look for building and skills acquisition as well as the inculcation of good and positive

further examples, determine the teaching and learning strategies most values. Beside these, there are other elements that have to be taken into

suitable for their pupils and provide appropriate teaching and learning account and carefully planned and infused into the teaching and learning of

materials. Teachers should also make cross-references to other resources the subject. The main elements focused in the teaching and learning of

such as the textbooks, and the Internet. Additional Mathematics are as follows:

The Learning Outcomes column defines clearly what pupils should be able Problem Solving

to do after a learning experience. The intended outcomes state the

mathematical abilities that should transpire from the activities conducted. In the Mathematics Curriculum, problem-solving skills and problem-solving

Teachers are expected to look for indicators that pupils have acquired all of strategies such as trial and improvement, drawing diagrams, tabulating data,

the abilities stated. identifying polar, experiment/simulation, solving easier problems, finding

analogy and working backwards have already been learnt. Further

strengthening of the above strategies must be carried out in the process of

(xi)

teaching and learning of Additional Mathematics. Besides routine questions, up pupils’ minds to accept mathematics as a powerful tool in the world

pupils must be able to solve non-routine problems using problem-solving today.

strategies. Teachers are also encouraged to demonstrate problems with

Pupils are encouraged to estimate, predict and make intelligent guesses in

multiple problem-solving strategies.

the process of seeking solutions. Pupils at all levels have to be trained to

Communication in Mathematics investigate their predictions or guesses by using concrete materials,

calculators, computers, mathematical representations and others. Logical

The skills of communication in mathematics are also stressed in the teaching reasoning has to be absorbed in the teaching of mathematics so that pupils

and learning of Additional Mathematics. Communication is an essential can recognise, construct and evaluate predictions and mathematical

means of sharing ideas and clarifying the understanding of mathematics. arguments.

Through communication, mathematical ideas become the object of

reflection, discussion and modification. Communicational skills in Making Connections

mathematics include reading, writing, listening and speaking. Through

In the teaching and learning of Additional Mathematics, opportunities for

effective mathematical communication, pupils will become efficient in

making connections must be created so that pupils can link conceptual

problem-solving and be able to explain their conceptual understanding and

knowledge to procedural knowledge and relate topics within mathematics

mathematical skills to their peers and teachers. Therefore, through the

and other learning areas in general.

teaching and learning process, teachers should frequently create

opportunities for pupils to read, write and discuss ideas in which the The Additional Mathematics curriculum covers several areas of mathematics

language of mathematics becomes natural and this can only be done through such as Geometry, Algebra, Trigonometry, Statistics and Calculus. Without

suitable mathematical tasks that are worthwhile topics for discussion. connections between these areas, pupils will have to learn and memorise too

many concepts and skills separately. By making connections, pupils are able

Pupils who have developed the skills to communicate mathematically will

to see mathematics as an integrated whole rather than a string of

become more inquisitive and, in the process, gain confidence. Emphasis on

unconnected ideas. When mathematical ideas and the curriculum are

mathematical communications will develop pupils ability in interpreting

connected to real-life within or outside the classroom, pupils will become

certain matters into mathematical models or vice versa. The process of

more conscious of the importance and significance of mathematics. They

analytical and systematic reasoning helps pupils to reinforce and strengthen

will also be able to use mathematics contextually in different learning areas

their knowledge and understanding of mathematics to a deeper level.

and in real-life situations.

Reasoning The Use of Technology

Logical Reasoning or thinking is the basis for understanding and solving

The use of ICT and other technologies is encouraged in the teaching and

mathematical problems. The development of mathematical reasoning is

learning of Additional Mathematics. Technologies help pupils by increasing

closely related to the intellectual and communicative development of pupils.

their understanding of abstract concepts, providing visual input and making

Emphasis on logical thinking, during teaching and learning activities opens

(xii)

complex calculation easier. Calculators, computers, software related to where it provides pupils with a better understanding and appreciation of

education, web sites and learning packages can further improve the mathematics.

pedagogy of teaching and learning of Additional Mathematics. Schools are

Suitable choice of teaching and learning approaches will provide stimulating

therefore encouraged to equip teachers with appropriate and effective

learning environment that enhance effectiveness of learning mathematics.

software. The use of software such as Geometer’s Sketchpad not only helps

Approaches that are considered suitable include the following:

pupils to model problems and enables them to understand certain topics

• Cooperative learning;

better but also enables pupils to explore mathematical concepts more

effectively. However, technology can’t replace a teacher. Instead it should • Contextual learning;

be use as an effective tool to enhance the effectiveness of teaching and • Mastery learning;

learning mathematics.

• investigation;

APPROACHES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING • Enquiry; and

• Exploratory.

Advancement in mathematics and pedagogy of teaching mathematics

demand changes to the way mathematics is taught in the classroom. TEACHING SCHEMES

Effective use of teaching resources is vital in forming the understanding of

mathematical concepts. Teachers should use real or concrete materials to To facilitate the teaching and learning process, two types of annual schemes

help pupils gain experience, construct abstract ideas, make inventions, build are suggested. They are the Component Scheme and the Title Scheme.

self-confidence, encourage independence and inculcate the spirit of

In the Component Scheme, all topics related to Algebra are taught first

cooperation. The teaching and learning materials used should contain self-

before proceeding to other components. This scheme presents the Additional

diagnostic elements so that pupils know how far they have understood

Mathematics content that has been learnt before moving to new ones.

certain concepts and have acquired the skills.

The Title Scheme on the other hands allows more flexibility for the teachers

In order to assist pupils develop positive attitudes and personalities, the

to introduce the Algebraic and Geometrical topics before introducing the

mathematical values of accuracy, confidence and thinking systematically

new branches of Mathematics such as the Calculus.

have to be infused into the teaching and learning process. Good moral

values can be cultivated through suitable contexts. Learning in groups for Between these two teaching schemes, teachers are free to choose a more

example can help pupils develop social skills, encourage cooperation and suitable scheme based on their pupils’ previous knowledge, learning style

build self-confidence. The element of patriotism should also be inculcated and their own teaching style.

through the teaching and learning process in the classroom using certain

topics. Brief historical anecdotes related to aspects of mathematics and

famous mathematicians associated with particular learning areas are also

incorporated into the curriculum. It should be presented at appropriate points

(xiii)

COMPONENT SCHEME TITLE SCHEME

A6.Progressions

A7.Linear Law Trigonometric Component

C2. Integration

T2. Trigonometric Functions PW2. Project Work

C2.Integration Statistics Component

Combinations

Geometric Component

S3 Probability

G2.Vectors T2. Trigonometric Functions

S4 Probability Distributions

S3. Probability

Science and Technology Social Science Package

Package

ASS2. Linear Programming

AST2. Motion Along a Straight S4. Probability Distributions

Line

PW2. Project Work PW2. Project Work or

ASS2. Linear Programming

(xiv)

PROJECT WORK EVALUATION

Project Work is a new element in the Additional Mathematics curriculum. It Continual and varied forms of evaluation is an important part of the teaching

is a mean of giving pupils the opportunity to transfer the understanding of and learning process. It not only provides feedback to pupils on their

mathematical concepts and skills learnt into situations outside the classroom. progress but also enable teachers to correct their pupils’ misconceptions and

Through Project Work, pupils are to pursue solutions to given tasks through weaknesses. Based on evaluation outcomes, teachers can take corrective

activities such as questioning, discussing, debating ideas, collecting and measures such as conducting remedial or enrichment activities in order to

analyzing data, investigating and also producing written report. With improve pupils’ performances and also strive to improve their own teaching

regards to this, suitable tasks containing non-routine problems must skills. Schools should also design effective internal programs to assist pupils

therefore be administered to pupils. However, in the process of seeking in improving their performances. The Additional Mathematics Curriculum

solutions to the tasks given, a demonstration of good reasoning and effective emphasis evaluation, which among other things must include the following

mathematical communication should be rewarded even more than the pupils aspects:

abilities to find correct answers.

• concept understandings and mastery of skills; and

Every form five pupils taking Additional Mathematics is required to carry

out a project work whereby the theme given is either based on the Science • non-routine questions (which demand the application of problem-

and Technology or Social Science package. Pupils however are allowed to solving strategies).

choose any topic from the list of tasks provided. Project work can only be

carried out in the second semester after pupils have mastered the first few

chapters. The tasks given must therefore be based on chapters that have

already been learnt and pupils are expected to complete it within the duration

of three weeks. Project work can be done in groups or individually but each

pupil is expected to submit an individually written report which include the

following:

• title/topic;

• background or introduction;

• method/strategy/procedure;

• finding;

• discussion/solution; and

• conclusion/generalisation.

(xv)

LEARNING AREA:

A6

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use Use examples from real-life (i) Identify characteristics of Begin with sequences to sequence

the concept of arithmetic situations, scientific or graphing arithmetic progressions. introduce arithmetic and series

progression. calculators and computer geometric progressions.

(ii) Determine whether a given characteristic

software to explore arithmetic

sequence is an arithmetic Include examples in

progressions. arithmetic

progression. algebraic form. progression

(iii) Determine by using formula: common

a) specific terms in arithmetic difference

progressions,

specific term

b) the number of terms in

arithmetic progressions. first term

a) the sum of the first n terms of consecutive

arithmetic progressions,

b) the sum of a specific number Include the use of the

of consecutive terms of formula Tn = S n − S n −1

arithmetic progressions,

c) the value of n, given the sum

of the first n terms of

arithmetic progressions,

(v) Solve problems involving Include problems

arithmetic progressions. involving real-life

situations.

1

LEARNING AREA:

A6

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the Use examples from real-life (i) Identify characteristics of Include examples in geometric

concept of geometric situations, scientific or graphing geometric progressions. algebraic form. progression

progression. calculators; and computer common ratio

software to explore geometric (ii) Determine whether a given

progressions. sequence is a geometric

progression.

a) specific terms in

geometric progressions,

b) the number of terms in

geometric progressions.

(iv) Find:

a) the sum of the first n terms

of geometric progressions,

b) the sum of a specific number

of consecutive terms of

geometric progressions,

c) the value of n, given the sum

of the first n terms of

geometric progressions,

2

LEARNING AREA:

A6

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

Discuss:

(v) Find:

a) the sum to infinity of As n → ∞ , rn Æ 0 sum to infinity

a

geometric progressions, then S∞ = 1 – r

recurring

b) the first term or common

S∞ read as “sum to decimal

ratio, given the sum to infinity

infinity”.

of geometric progressions.

Limit to 2.recurring

.. digits

such as 0.3, 0.15, …

geometric progressions. a) combination of

arithmetic progressions

and geometric

progressions,

b) cumulative

sequences such as,

(1), (2, 3), (4, 5, 6),

(7, 8, 9, 10), …

3

LEARNING AREA:

A7

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use the Use examples from real-life (i) Draw lines of best fit by Limit data to linear line of best fit

concept of lines of best fit. situations to introduce the inspection of given data. relations between two inspection

concept of linear law. variables.

variable

(ii) Write equations for lines of best

fit. non-linear

Use graphing calculators or relation

computer software such as

Geometer’s Sketchpad to (iii) Determine values of variables linear form

explore lines of best fit. from:

reduce

a) lines of best fit,

b) equations of lines of best fit.

linear relations. linear form.

(ii) Determine values of constants

of non-linear relations given:

a) lines of best fit,

b) data.

a) lines of best fit,

b) equations of lines of best fit.

4

LEARNING AREA:

C2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use the Use computer software such as (i) Determine integrals by reversing Emphasise constant of integration

concept of indefinite Geometer’s Sketchpad to differentiation. integration. integral

integral. explore the concept of

integration. indefinite

(ii) Determine integrals of axn, where

a is a constant and n is an integer,

∫ ydx read as “integration integral

of y with respect to x” reverse

n ≠ –1.

constant of

(iii) Determine integrals of algebraic integration

expressions. substitution

indefinite integrals.

from functions of gradients.

integrals of expressions of the

∫u dx,

n

where u = ax + b.

constants, n is an integer and

n ≠ –1.

5

LEARNING AREA:

C2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the Use scientific or graphing (i) Find definite integrals of Include definite integral

concept of definite integral. calculators to explore the algebraic expressions.

∫ kf ( x)dx = k ∫ f ( x)dx

b b

limit

concept of definite integrals. a a

b a

volume

∫ f ( x)dx = − ∫ f ( x)dx

a b

region

Use computer software and (ii) Find areas under curves as the Derivation of formulae not rotated

graphing calculator to explore limit of a sum of areas. required. revolution

areas under curves and the

significance of positive and (iii) Determine areas under curves Limit to one curve. solid of

negative values of areas. using formula. revolution

Use dynamic computer Derivation of formulae not

software to explore volumes of region bounded by a curve is required.

revolutions. rotated completely about the

a) x-axis,

b) y-axis

as the limit of a sum of volumes.

(v) Determine volumes of revolutions

using formula.

Limit volumes of

revolution about the

x-axis or y-axis.

6

LEARNING AREA:

G2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use the Use examples from real-life (i) Differentiate between vector and Use notations: differentiate

→

concept of vector. situations and dynamic computer scalar quantities. Vector: ~a, AB, a, AB. scalar

software such as Geometer’s Magnitude:

→ vector

Sketchpad to explore vectors. (ii) Draw and label directed line

|a|, |AB|, |a|, |AB|.

segments to represent vectors. ~ directed line

segment

(iii) Determine the magnitude and Zero vector: ~0 magnitude

direction of vectors represented

Emphasise that a zero direction

by directed line segments.

vector has a magnitude of zero vector

zero. negative vector

Emphasise negative

vector:

→ →

−AB = BA

(iv) Determine whether two vectors

are equal.

(v) Multiply vectors by scalars. Include negative scalar.

7

LEARNING AREA:

G2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

are parallel. a) collinear points non-parallel

b) non-parallel

collinear points

non-zero vectors.

non-zero

Emphasise: triangle law

If ~a and ~b are not parallel

parallelogram

and ha ~ = kb,

~ then law

h = k = 0.

resultant vector

2 Understand and use the Use real-life situations and (i) Determine the resultant vector of polygon law

concept of addition and manipulative materials to two parallel vectors.

subtraction of vectors. explore addition and

subtraction of vectors. (ii) Determine the resultant vector of

two non-parallel vectors using:

a) triangle law,

b) parallelogram law.

three or more vectors using the

polygon law.

8

LEARNING AREA:

G2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

a) Parallel, a~ – ~b = ~a + (−b)

~

b) non-parallel.

(v) Represent a vector as a

combination of other vectors.

(vi) Solve problems involving

addition and subtraction of

vectors.

3 Understand and use Use computer software to (i) Express vectors in the form: Relate unit vector ~i and j Cartesian plane

explore vectors in the Cartesian ~

vectors in the Cartesian a) xi~ + yj to Cartesian coordinates. unit vector

~

plane. plane.

⎛ x⎞ Emphasise:

b) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ .

⎝ ⎠

y ⎛1⎞

Vector i = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ and

~ 0

⎝ ⎠

⎛ 0⎞

Vector j = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

~ ⎝1⎠

9

LEARNING AREA:

G2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

(iii) Determine unit vectors in given to 3.7, all vectors are given

directions. in the form

(iv) Add two or more vectors. ⎛ x⎞

xi + yj or ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ .

~ ~

(v) Subtract two vectors. ⎝ ⎠

y

(vii) Perform combined operations on

vectors.

Limit combined operations

to addition, subtraction

and multiplication of

vectors by scalars.

10

LEARNING AREA:

T2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand the concept Use dynamic computer (i) Represent in a Cartesian plane, Cartesian plane

of positive and negative software such as Geometer’s angles greater than 360o or 2π rotating ray

angles measured in degrees Sketchpad to explore angles in radians for:

Cartesian plane. a) positive angles, positive angle

and radians.

b) negative angles. negative angle

clockwise

2 Understand and use the Use dynamic computer (i) Define sine, cosine and tangent of Use unit circle to

software to explore any angle in a Cartesian plane. determine the sign of anticlockwise

six trigonometric functions

of any angle. trigonometric functions in trigonometric ratios. unit circle

(ii) Define cotangent, secant and

degrees and radians.

cosecant of any angle in a quadrant

Cartesian plane. Emphasise:

reference angle

Use scientific or graphing sin θ = cos (90o – θ)

calculators to explore cos θ = sin (90o – θ) trigonometric

(iii) Find values of the six tan θ = cot (90o – θ) function/ratio

trigonometric functions of any trigonometric functions of any

angle. cosec θ = sec (90o – θ) sine

angle.

sec θ = cosec (90o – θ)

cosine

cot θ = tan (90o – θ)

tangent

Emphasise the use of

triangles to find cosecant

special angles 30o, 45o and

cotangent

60o.

special angle

11

LEARNING AREA:

T2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

3 Understand and use Use examples from real-life (i) Draw and sketch graphs of Use angles in modulus

graphs of sine, cosine and situations to introduce graphs trigonometric functions: a) degrees domain

tangent functions. of trigonometric functions. a) y = c + a sin bx, b) radians, in terms of π.

range

b) y = c + a cos bx,

c) y = c + a tan bx Emphasise the sketch

Use graphing calculators and

dynamic computer software where a, b and c are constants characteristics of sine, draw

such as Geometer’s Sketchpad and b > 0. cosine and tangent graphs.

period

to explore graphs of Include trigonometric

trigonometric functions. functions involving cycle

modulus. maximum

Exclude combinations of

solutions to a trigonometric trigonometric functions. asymptote

equation using sketched graphs.

using drawn graphs.

12

LEARNING AREA:

T2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

4 Understand and use Use scientific or graphing (i) Prove basic identities: Basic identities are also basic identity

basic identities. calculators and dynamic a) sin2A + cos2A = 1, known as Pythagorean

computer software such as Pythagorean

b) 1 + tan2A = sec2A, identities. identity

Geometer’s Sketchpad to c) 1 + cot2A = cosec2A.

explore basic identities.

(ii) Prove trigonometric identities Include learning outcomes

using basic identities. 2.1 and 2.2.

(iii) Solve trigonometric equations

using basic identities.

(i) Prove trigonometric identities Derivation of addition addition formula

addition formulae and software such as Geometer’s

using addition formulae for formulae not required.

double-angle formulae. Sketchpad to explore addition double-angle

formulae and double-angle sin (A ± B), cos (A ± B) and Discuss half-angle formula

formulae. tan (A ± B). formulae. half-angle

(ii) Derive double-angle formulae for formula

sin 2A, cos 2A and tan 2A.

(iii) Prove trigonometric identities Exclude

using addition formulae and/or a cos x + b sin x = c,

double-angle formulae. where c ≠ 0.

(iv) Solve trigonometric equations.

13

LEARNING AREA:

S2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

concept of permutation. a) Introduce the concept

by using numerical

examples.

b) Calculators should only

be used after students

have understood the

concept.

Use manipulative materials to (i) Determine the total number of Limit to 3 events. multiplication

explore multiplication rule. ways to perform successive rule

events using multiplication rule. successive

(ii) Determine the number of Exclude cases involving events

Use real-life situations and

computer software such as permutations of n different identical objects. permutation

spreadsheet to explore objects. Explain the concept of factorial

permutations. permutations by listing all

arrangement

possible arrangements.

order

Include notations:

a) n! = n(n – 1)(n – 2)

…(3)(2)(1)

b) 0! = 1

n! read as “n factorial”.

14

LEARNING AREA:

S2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

permutations of n different objects arrangement of objects in

taken r at a time. a circle.

(iv) Determine the number of

permutations of n different objects

for given conditions.

(v) Determine the number of

permutations of n different objects

taken r at a time for given

conditions.

2 Understand and use the Explore combinations using (i) Determine the number of Explain the concept of combination

concept of combination. real-life situations and combinations of r objects chosen combinations by listing all selection

computer software. from n different objects. possible selections.

n

combinations r objects chosen n

Cr = r

P

from n different objects for given r!

conditions.

15

LEARNING AREA:

S3

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use the Use real-life situations to (i) Describe the sample space of an Use set notations. experiment

concept of probability. introduce probability.

experiment. sample space

Use manipulative materials,

(ii) Determine the number of event

computer software, and

scientific or graphing outcomes of an event. outcome

calculators to explore the equally likely

concept of probability. (iii) Determine the probability of an Discuss:

event. a) classical probability probability

(theoretical occur

probability)

b) subjective probability classical

c) relative frequency

probability

(experimental theoretical

probability). probability

Emphasise: subjective

Only classical probability relative

is used to solve problems. frequency

Emphasise: experimental

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) –

(iv) Determine the probability of two P(A ∩ B)

events: using Venn diagrams.

a) A or B occurring,

b) A and B occurring.

16

LEARNING AREA:

S3

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the Use manipulative materials and (i) Determine whether two events are Include events that are mutually

concept of probability of graphing calculators to explore mutually exclusive. mutually exclusive and exclusive

mutually exclusive events. the concept of probability of exhaustive. event

mutually exclusive events.

exhaustive

Use computer software to (ii) Determine the probability of two Limit to three mutually

simulate experiments involving independent

or more events that are mutually exclusive events.

probability of mutually exclusive. tree diagrams

exclusive events.

3 Understand and use the Use manipulative materials and (i) Determine whether two events are Include tree diagrams.

concept of probability of graphing calculators to explore independent.

independent events. the concept of probability of

independent events. (ii) Determine the probability of two

Use computer software to independent events.

simulate experiments involving

probability of independent (iii) Determine the probability of three

events. independent events.

17

LEARNING AREA:

S4

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Understand and use the Use real-life situations to (i) List all possible values of a discrete random

concept of binomial introduce the concept of discrete random variable. variable

distribution. binomial distribution.

independent trial

Use graphing calculators and (ii) Determine the probability of an Include the characteristics

Bernoulli trials

computer software to explore event in a binomial distribution. of Bernoulli trials.

binomial distribution. binomial

For learning outcomes 1.2 distribution

and 1.4, derivation of

formulae not required. mean

variance

deviation

(iv) Determine mean, variance and

standard deviation of a binomial

distribution.

binomial distributions.

18

LEARNING AREA:

S4

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the Use real-life situations and (i) Describe continuous random continuous

concept of normal computer software such as variables using set notations. random variable

distribution. statistical packages to explore

normal

the concept of normal (ii) Find probability of z-values for Discuss characteristics distribution

distributions.

standard normal distribution. of: standard normal

a) normal distribution distribution

graphs

b) standard normal z-value

distribution graphs. standardised

Z is called standardised variable

variable.

normal distributions, X, to distribution function to

standardised variable, Z. determine probability is

not required.

(iv) Represent probability of an

event using set notation.

(v) Determine probability of an event.

(vi) Solve problems involving

normal distributions.

19

LEARNING AREA:

AST2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

the concept of following symbols: fixed point

displacement. s = displacement

displacement

v = velocity

a = acceleration distance

t = time velocity

where s, v and a are

acceleration

functions of time.

time interval

Use real-life examples, graphing (i) Identify direction of displacement Emphasise the difference

calculators and computer of a particle from a fixed point. between displacement and

software such as Geometer’s distance.

Sketchpad to explore

displacement. (ii) Determine displacement of a Discuss positive, negative

particle from a fixed point. and zero displacements.

line.

(iii) Determine the total distance

travelled by a particle over a time

interval using graphical method.

20

LEARNING AREA:

AST2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the Use real-life examples, graphing (i) Determine velocity function of a Emphasise velocity as the instantaneous

concept of velocity. calculators and dynamic particle by differentiation. rate of change of velocity

computer software such as displacement. velocity

Geometer’s Sketchpad to explore function

Include graphs of velocity

the concept of velocity. uniform velocity

functions.

rate of change

(ii) Determine instantaneous velocity Discuss:

of a particle. a) uniform velocity maximum

displacement

b) zero instantaneous

velocity stationary

c) positive velocity

d) negative velocity.

(iii) Determine displacement of a

particle from velocity function by

integration.

21

LEARNING AREA:

AST2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

3 Understand and use the Use real-life examples and (i) Determine acceleration function Emphasise acceleration as maximum

concept of acceleration. computer software such as of a particle by differentiation. the rate of change of velocity

Geometer’s Sketchpad to explore velocity. minimum

the concept of acceleration. velocity

(ii) Determine instantaneous Discuss: uniform

acceleration of a particle. a) uniform acceleration

acceleration

(iii) Determine instantaneous velocity b) zero acceleration

of a particle from acceleration c) positive

function by integration. acceleration

d) negative

(iv) Determine displacement of a acceleration.

particle from acceleration

function by integration.

along a straight line.

22

LEARNING AREA:

ASS2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

linear

1 Understand and use the Use real-life examples, (i) Identify and shade the region on Emphasise the use of solid programming

concept of graphs of linear graphing calculators and the graph that satisfies a linear lines and dashed lines.

inequalities. dynamic computer software inequality. linear inequality

such as Geometer’s Sketchpad

dashed line

to explore linear programming.

solid line

(ii) Find the linear inequality that

defines a shaded region. region

define

satisfy

(iii) Shade region on the graph that Limit to regions defined

satisfies several linear by a maximum of 3 linear

inequalities. inequalities (not including

the x-axis and y-axis).

a shaded region.

23

LEARNING AREA:

ASS2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

2 Understand and use the (i) Solve problems related to linear feasible solution

concept of linear programming by: objective

programming. a) writing linear inequalities and function

equations describing a parallel lines

situation,

vertex

b) shading the region of feasible

vertices

solutions,

c) determining and drawing the optimum value

objective function ax + by = k maximum value

where a, b and k are minimum value

constants,

d) determining graphically the Optimum values refer to

optimum value of the maximum or minimum

objective function. values.

Include the use of vertices

to find the optimum value.

24

LEARNING AREA:

ASS2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

1 Carry out project work. Use scientific calculators, (i) Define the problem/situation to be Emphasise the use of conjecture

graphing calculators or studied. Polya’s four-step problem-

systematic

computer software to carry out solving process.

project work. (ii) State relevant conjectures. critical

evaluation

Pupils are allowed to carry out (iii) Use problem-solving strategies to Use at least two problem-

mathematical

project work in groups but solve problems. solving strategies.

reasoning

written reports must be done

individually. (iv) Interpret and discuss results. justification

conclusion

(v) Draw conclusions and/or

Pupils should be given the generalisation

generalisations based on critical

opportunities to give oral

evaluation of results. mathematical

presentations of their project

work. communication

(vi) Present systematic and Emphasise reasoning and

comprehensive written reports. effective mathematical rubric

communication.

25

LEARNING AREA:

PW2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

CONTRIBUTORS

Curriculum Development Centre

Curriculum Development Centre

Advisors (Head of Science and Mathematics Department)

Curriculum Development Centre

(Head of Mathematics Unit)

Curriculum Development Centre

(Head of Language Department)

Curriculum Development Centre

Curriculum Development Centre

26

LEARNING AREA:

PW2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

27

LEARNING AREA:

PW2

LEARNING OBJECTIVES SUGGESTED TEACHING AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

Form 5

POINTS TO NOTE VOCABULARY

Pupils will be taught to… LEARNING ACTIVITIES Pupils will be able to…

WRITERS

Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre

Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre

Lau Choi Fong Dr. Pumadevi a/p Sivasubramaniam Bibi Kismete Kabul Khan

SMK Hulu Kelang Maktab Perguruan Raja Melewar SMK Dr. Megat Khas

Hulu Kelang, Selangor Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Ipoh, Perak

SMK Jenjarom SMK Kampong Pasir Putih SM Teknik Butterworth

Jenjarom, Selangor Ipoh, Perak Pulau Pinang

SM Sains Pasir Puteh SMK Sains Seremban

Pasir Puteh, Kelantan Seremban, Negeri Sembilan

Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre Curriculum Development Centre

28

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