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Line authority is authority within an organization's or unit's chain of command.

authority gives a manager the right to direct the work of his or her employees and make
many decisions without consulting others. Line managers are always in charge of
essential activities such as sales, and they are authorized to issue orders to subordinates
down the chain of command.

Staff authority supports line authority by advising, servicing, and assisting, but this type
of authority is typically limited. For example, the assistant to the department head has
staff authority because he or she acts as an extension of that authority. These assistants
can give advice and suggestions, but they don't have to be obeyed. The department head
may also give the assistant the authority to act, such as the right to sign off on expense
reports or memos. In such cases, the directives are given under the line authority of the

The span of control is the number of people a manager supervises.

Organisational communication is the different ways in which information about the
organisation and its environment is shared between members. It can be formal or
informal as well as internal or external.

An organisation is a social unit of people, systematically arranged and managed to meet
a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis.