Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

Index
■ Abstract ■ Introduction ■ Why The Name Blu- Ray? ■ The Use of Blue Laser ■ Blu- Ray Disc Formats ■ Structure of Blu Ray Disc ■ Data Writing Speed ■ Supported Formats of Encoding ■ Blu Ray Disc Storage Capacity ■ Blu Ray vs DVD ■ Will Blu Ray Be Backward Compatible? ■ Features of Blu Ray Disc ■ Future Scope ■ Conclusion ■ Reference

DCPE, HVPM, Amravati (Maharashtra)

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Abstract
Optical discs share a major part among the secondary storage devices. Blu-ray disc is a next generation optical disc format. The technology utilizes a blue laser diode operating at a wavelength of 405nm to read and write data. Because of the blue laser it can store enormous amount of data than was ever possible. Data is stored on a BD in the form of tiny ridges on the surface of an opaque 1.1mm thick substrate. This lies beneath a transparent .1mm protective layer. With the help of Blu-ray recording devices it is possible to record upto 2.5 hrs of very high quality audio and video on a single BD. Blu-ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Bd can have a unique ID written on them to have copyright protection inside the recorded streams. Blu-ray Disc takes the DVD technology one step further just by using a laser with a nice color. Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions.

DCPE, HVPM, Amravati (Maharashtra)

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Introduction
The standards for 12-cm optical discs, CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray rewritable discs (BD-RE Standard) were established in 1982, 1996, and 2002, respectively. The recording capacity required by applications was the important issue when these standards were decided. The requirement for CDs was 74 minutes of recording 2-channel audio signals and a capacity of about 800 MB. For DVDs, the requirement as a video disc was the recording of a movie with a length of two hours and fifteen minutes using the SD (Standard Definition) with MPEG-2 compression. The capacity was determined to be 4.7 GB considering the balance with image quality. In the case of Blu-ray, a recording of an HDTV digital broadcast greater than 2 hours is needed. Two hours of recording requires a recording capacity of 22 GB or more. This capacity is about 5 times that of DVDs, which cannot achieve this capacity by merely increasing their recording density.

To obtain this capacity a number of techniques have been developed such as: employing a blue violet laser, increasing the numerical aperture of objective lens, making the optical

DCPE, HVPM, Amravati (Maharashtra)

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope. beam passing substrate thin, 0.1mm, and evenly thick, using an aberration compensation method of pickup adapted to the substrate thickness and dual layer discs. Blu-ray (BD) is a next generation disc format. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs. A single layer BD can hold up to 25 GB that means 2 hours of HD (High Definition) video and 13 hours of SD (Standard Definition) video. A double layer BD can hold up to 50 GB that means 4.5 hours of HD video or more than 20 hours of SD video. The Blu-ray Disc format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers, with more than 170 member companies from all over the world. The Board of Directors currently consists of: · Apple Computer, Inc · Dell, Inc · Hewlett Packard Company · Hitachi, Ltd · LG Electronics, Inc · Matsushitha Electrical Industrial Co. Ltd · Mitsubishi Electric Corporarion · Pioneer Corporation · Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd · Sharp Corporation · Sony Corporation · TDK Corporation · Thomson Multimedia · Twentieth Century Fox · Walt Disney Pictures · Warner Bros. Entertainment

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Why Name Blu- Ray?
The name Blu-ray is derived from the underlying technology, which utilizes a blue-violet laser to read and write data. The name is a combination of "Blue" and optical ray "Ray". According to the Blu-ray Disc Association, the spelling of "Blu-ray" is not a mistake. The character "e" is intentionally left out because a daily-used term can’t be registered as a trademark. The first blue laser was developed in 1996 by Shuji Nakamura (Nichia Corporation).By employing a short wavelength blue violet laser; the Blu-ray Disc successfully minimizes its beam spot size by making the numerical aperture (NA) on a field lens that converges the laser 0.85. In addition, by using a disc structure with a 0.1mm optical transmittance protection layer, the Blu-ray Disc diminishes aberration caused by disc tilt. This also allows for disc better readout and an increased recording density. The Blu-ray Disc's tracking pitch is reduced to 0.32um, almost half of that of a regular DVD, achieving up to 27 GB high-density recording on a single sided disc. Because the Blu-ray Disc utilizes global standard "MPEG-2 Transport Stream" compression technology highly compatible with digital broadcasting for video recording, a wide range of content can be recorded. It is possible for the Blu-ray Disc to record digital high definition broadcasting while maintaining high quality and other data simultaneously with video data if they are received together. In addition, the adoption of a unique ID written on a Blu-ray Disc realizes high quality copyright protection functions. The Blu-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easy-to-use way. The transfer rate is 36 megabits per second. At 1x speed, it takes approximately 1.5 hours to record an entire single layer BD. As with conventional CDs and DVDs, Blu-ray plans to provide a wide range of formats including ROM/R/RW.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►The Use of Blue Laser
Blue laser beams have a smaller spot size and are more precise than red laser beams, which lets data on blue laser optical storage discs be stored more densely. The spot size of a laser beam is one determining factor, along with the materials in the optical disc and the way the laser is applied to the disc, in the size of the pits the laser makes on an optical disc. Laser beams with larger spot sizes typically create larger pits than those with smaller pit sizes. Blue lasers are desirable because blue light has the shortest wavelength among visible light. A blue laser operates at a shorter wavelength of about 405nm than a red laser at about 650nm. A nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter, one-millionth of a millimeter, and one thousandth of a micron. One inch is equal to about 25.4 million nanometers. A human hair is about 50,000nm wide. This makes it very easy to store a large amount of data in the disc of same size as that of a CD or DVD. The blue laser also enables the recording of HD videos efficiently, giving a good storage media for all our HD content.

►Blu Ray Disc Formats
As with conventional CDs and DVDs, Blu-ray plans to provide a wide range of formats including ROM/R/RW. The following formats are part of the Blu ray Disc specification: ●BD-ROM - read-only format for distribution of HD movies, games, software, etc. ●BD-R - Recordable format for HD video recording and PC data storage. ●BD-RE - Rewritable format for HD video recording and PC data storage. There's also plans for a BD/DVD hybrid format, which combines Blu-ray and DVD on the same disc so that it can be played in both Blu-ray players and DVD players. It is composed of two DVD layers and a third BD layer storing 33.5 GB total.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Structure of Blu Ray Disc
Figure A shows the outline of a Single Layer BD Read-Only disc and Figure B shows the outline of a Dual Layer BD Read-Only disc.

Fig A- Single layer BD

Fig B- Dual layer BD DCPE, HVPM, Amravati (Maharashtra) 7

Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

To improve scratch resistance, the cover layer can optionally be protected with an additional hard coat layer. One of the features that differentiate Blu-ray Disc from DVD recording systems is the position of the recording layer within the disc. For DVD, the recording layer is sandwiched between two 0.6-mm thick layers of plastic – typically polycarbonate. The purpose of this is to shift surface scratches, fingerprints and dust particles to a position in the optical pathway where they have negligible effect - i.e. well away from the point of focus of the laser. However, burying the recording layer 0.6 mm below the surface of the disc also has disadvantages. Due to the injection molding process used to produce them, disc substrates suffer from stress induced birefringence, which means that they split the single incident laser light into two separate beams. If this splitting is excessive, the drive cannot read data reliably from the disc.

►Data Writing Speed
According to the Blu-ray Disc specification, 1x speed is defined as 36Mbps. However, as BD-ROM movies will require a 54Mbps data transfer rate the minimum speed we're expecting to see is 2x (72Mbps). Blu-ray also has the potential for much higher speeds, as a result of the larger numerical aperture (NA) adopted by Blu-ray Disc. The large NA value effectively means that Blu-ray will require less recording power and lower disc rotation speed than DVD and HD-DVD to achieve the same data transfer rate. While the media itself limited the recording speed in the past, the only limiting factor for Blu-ray is the capacity of the hardware. If we assume a maximum disc rotation speed of 10,000 RPM, then 12x at the outer diameter should be possible (about 400Mbps). This is why the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) already has plans to raise the speed to 8x (288Mbps) or more in the future.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Supported Formats of Encoding
●MPEG-2 - enhanced for HD, also used for playback of DVDs and HDTV recordings. ●MPEG-4 AVC - part of the MPEG-4 standard also known as H.264 (High Profile and Main Profile). ●SMPTE VC-1 - standard based on Microsoft's Windows Media Video (WMV) technology. ●Dolby Digital (DD) - format used for DVDs also known as AC3, offers 5.1- channel surround sound. ●Dolby Digital Plus (DD+) - extension of DD, offers increased bit rates and 7.1- channel surround sound. ●Dolby TrueHD - extension of MLP Lossless, offers lossless encoding of up to 8 channels of audio. ●DTS Digital Surround - format used for DVDs, offers 5.1-channel surround sound. ●DTS-HD - extension of DTS, offers increased bit rates and up to 8 channels of audio.

►Blu Ray Disc Storage Capacity
A single-layer disc can hold 25GB. A dual-layer disc can hold 50GB. To ensure that the Blu-ray Disc format is easily extendable (future-proof) it also includes support for multi-layer discs, which should allow the storage capacity to be increased to 100GB-200GB (25GB per layer) in the future simply by adding more layers to the discs. How much video can you fit on a Blu-ray disc? Over 9 hours of high-definition (HD) video on a 50GB disc. About 23 hours of standard-definition (SD) video on a 50GB disc.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Blu Ray vs. DVD
Will Blu-ray replace DVDs? Yes, that's the expectation. The Blu-ray format has received broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today's DVD format. Seven of the eight major movie studios have already announced titles for Bluray, including Warner, Paramount, Fox, Disney, Sony, MGM and Lionsgate. The initial line-up is expected to consist of over 100 titles and include recent hits as well as classics such as Batman Begins, Desperado, Fantastic Four, Fifth Element, Hero, Ice Age, Kill Bill, Lethal Weapon, Mission Impossible, Ocean's Twelve, Pirates of the Caribbean, Reservoir Dogs, Robocop, and The Matrix. Many studios have also announced that they will begin releasing new feature films on Blu-ray Disc day-and-date with DVD, as well as a continuous slate of catalog titles every month. However, the two formats (Blu-ray and DVD) will most likely co-exist for quite some time until HDTVs become more widespread. For a complete list of the announced movies, please see our Blu-ray Movies section.

►Will Blu-ray be backwards compatible with DVD?
Yes, several leading consumer electronics companies (including Sony, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung, Pioneer, Sharp and LG) have already demonstrated products that can read/write CDs, DVDs and Blu-ray discs using a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical head, so you don't have to worry about your existing DVD collection becoming obsolete. In fact, most of the Blu-ray players coming out will support upscaling of DVDs to 1080p/1080i, so your existing DVD collection will look even better than before. While it's up to each manufacturer to decide if they want to make their products backwards compatible with DVD, the format is far too popular to not be supported. The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) expects every Blu-ray Disc device to be backward compatible with DVDs.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

Capacity Wave Length of Laser Numeric Aparture of lens Data Transfer Rate Disc Diameter Thickness of the Disc Diameter of Center Hole Audio Recording Format Visual Data

23 25 27 GB (Single Layer Disc) 405 nm 0.5 36 Mbps 120 mm 1.2 mm 15 mm AC3, MPEG-1, Layer2 MPEG-2

►Features of Blu- Ray Disc
Life span In the case of ordinary discs, the disc life is less. In the rewritable versions, most probably rewriting is done repeatedly to one area of the disc, the inner perimeter which limits the disc life. BDFS (Blu-ray Disc File Structure) is designed so as to avoid this problem, by using a system that uses free disc spaces with equal frequency. Large Recording Capacity The Blu-ray disc enables the recording, rewriting and playback of HD video up to 25GB on a single sided disc. It is enough to put 2.5 hours of HDTV recording on it. It can also

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope. record over 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting using the standard definition picture quality. High Speed It has a data transfer rate of 36 Mbps. Because of this high speed transfer rates it can also record the data in very little time. In a perfect environment it would take 2.5 hours to fill the entire BD with 25 GB of data. More than enough transfer capacity for real time recording and playback. Resistance to Scratches and Fingerprints The protective layer is hard enough to prevent accidental abrasions and allows fingerprints to be removed by wiping the disc with a tissue. An artificial fingerprint reagent is placed on the disc surface to resist fingerprint oils. Compatibility The BD drives are designed to be backward compatible, i.e. CDs and DVDs work equally well with the BD drives. Security Blu-ray discs are better armed than current DVDs. They come equipped with a secure encryption system -- a unique ID encryption system -- a unique ID that protects against video piracy and copyright infringement. Easy to use disc cartridge An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints.

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope. Highly compatible with digital broadcasting MPEG2 transport stream compression technology for video recording can record digital broadcasting including HDTV while maintaining its original picture quality. Ease of Use DVD recording devices are very simple to use. Even children can use them. There are no complexities to the use of blue laser recording devices. They are used just like any regular red laser DVD recording device. An easy to use optical disc cartridge protects the optical disc's recording and playback phase from dust and fingerprints. Safety and Security Blue laser light helps in detecting some chemical and biological weapons because it causes them to give off light. So it could be used in airports and other places that have security screening to detect such a weapon.

►Future Scope
1. Blu Ray disc is the only storage device which can store and read HD content. Hence, Blu ray disc promises a bright future and is going most used data storage media. 2. Increasing the data storage capacity of Blu ray discs also helps the usability of Blu ray discs. 3. Blu ray disc may bring a revolution in the portable storage devices field.

DCPE, HVPM, Amravati (Maharashtra)

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Created by- Mr. Pratik S. Dhope.

►Conclusion
In conclusion the Blue-ray Disc is a technology platform that can store sound and video while maintaining high quality and also access the stored content in an easyto-use way. Blue lasers have a shorter wavelength, which means the laser beam can be focused onto a smaller area of the disc surface. In turn, this means less real estate is needed to store one bit of data, and so more data can be stored on a disc. This will be important in the coming broadband era as content distribution becomes increasingly diversified. Companies involved in the development will respectively make products that take full advantage of Blue-ray Disc's large capacity and high-speed data transfer rate. They are also aiming to further enhance the appeal of the new format through developing a larger capacity, such as over 30GB on a single sided single layer disc and over 50GB on a single sided double layer disc. Adoption of the Blue-ray Disc in a variety of applications including PC data storage and high definition video software is also being considered. There is a lot of talk about blue-laser-based systems being focused around high-definition television, which has heavy data needs. But Blue-ray Disc groups are also considering development of write-once and read-only formats for use with PCs.

►Reference: www.wikipedia.org www.bluraydisc.com www.bluray-talk.com www.bdaassociation.com

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