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Mark Scheme (Results) Summer 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI01/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code US023567 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6BI01_01 1006

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 1(a)

Answer

Mark (1) Mark (1) Mark (1) Mark (1) Mark (1) Mark (1) Mark (1)

A;
Answer

Question Number 1(b)

C;
Answer

Question Number 1(c) Question Number 1(d)

C;
Answer

D;
Answer

Question Number 1(e)

D;
Answer

Question Number 1(f)

C;
Answer

Question Number 1(g)

A;

Question Number 2(a)

Answer 1. atria / atrium; 2. aorta ; 3. left ; 4. artery ; 5. vena cava ;

Mark

(5) Mark

Question Number 2 (b)

Answer 1. diastole / atrial systole ; 2. the {atrioventricular / bicuspid / tricuspid} valves are open / semi-lunar valves are closed ;

(2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 3(a)(i)

Answer 1. phospholipids ; 2. phosphate (head) ; 3. (two) fatty acid (tails) ; 4. reference to location of glycerol ; 5. correct reference to ester bonds ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(a)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to {hydrophilic / polar / charged} part ; 2. reference to {hydrophobic / non polar / uncharged} part ; 3. reference to orientation of molecule in relation to water; 4. idea that aqueous environment is {on two sides / cytoplasm and {environment / tissue fluid / eq}} ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 3(b)

Answer Active transport: 1. idea that molecule {binds / fits into} {protein / carriers} ; 2. idea that {protein / carrier} changes shape ; 3. (molecules move) against a concentration gradient / eq ; 4. reference to use of {ATP / energy} ; [Submax 2 marks] Facilitated diffusion: 5. reference to proteins as {channels / gates / pores / carriers} ; 6. idea that {channels can open or close / carriers change shape} ; 7. for {large / polar / charged} molecules (to pass through membrane) ; 8. (molecules move) down a concentration gradient / eq ; [Submax 2 marks]

Mark

max (3)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 3(c)(i)

Answer 1. idea that both types of protein in fused cell in correct context ; 2. idea that the proteins are {intermingled / mixed / eq} ; 3. same original number of protein / eq ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 3(c)(ii)

Answer 1. idea that {phospholipids / molecule A} allow {fluidity / movement/ eq} ; 2. idea that {fluidity / movement / eq} allow membranes to fuse; 3. idea that {fluidity / movement / eq} allows protein to {move / intermingle / eq} ;

max (2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 4(a)(i)

Answer 1. idea that frequent cocaine use results in {higher / an increase in / eq } levels in both blood components (compared to occasional use) ; 2. correct manipulation of figures to approximate the increase in levels of one of the blood components ; 3. frequent use increases fibrinogen beyond normal range / eq ; 4. idea that the levels of both the blood components are within the range for normal levels in occasional users ;

Mark

max (3) Mark

Question Number 4(a)(ii)

Answer Any one of the following ideas 1. the levels are given as a {range / not one level / blood components within normal level range} 2. no indication of data analysis e.g. spread of data, statistics 3. no indication of number in {samples / study / eq} 4. no indication of other variables / named variable / eq ;

max (1)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 4(b)

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. idea that von Willebrand factor results in platelets sticking to {the endothelium /each other} ; 2. reference to release of thromboplastin (from platelets) ; 3. (as a result) the blood clotting process is triggered / eq ; 4. credit one correct detail of clotting process ; 5. reference to more fibrinogen resulting in the clot {being larger / growing faster } ; 6. reference to von Willebrand factor making the platelets stickier ; 7. as a result of {platelet stickiness /platelets sticking together} the {clot grows faster / blood flow is decreased / eq} ; 8. If the blood is flowing slower then there is an increased chance of blood clotting / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 4(c)

Answer 1. idea that a correlation is {a relationship between two factors / when one factor changes another factor changes} ; 2. fibrinogen increases with (cocaine) use / eq ; 3. heart attacks increase with cocaine use / eq ; 4. idea that increased fibrinogen levels have not been shown to result in the increase in heart disease ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number *5(a) QWC

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. reference to CFTR {protein / channel} eq ; 2. reference to a different {amino acid / sequence of amino acids / eq} (on defective CFTR protein) ; 3. reference to change in protein ; 4. reference to role of protein in transporting chloride ions ; 5. reference to (chloride) ions not {moving out of cells / going into mucus} ; 6. reference to sodium ions moving in ; 7. water does not move out (of cells) / water moves in (to cells) /eq ; 8. by osmosis / eq ; 9. mucus (on cell surface) {is not diluted / becomes thicker / becomes stickier} / eq ; 10. (thickened mucus) cannot be moved by {cilia / coughing} ;

Mark

max (5)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 5(b)(i)

Answer 1. idea that mucus {traps / eq} {bacteria / pathogens} ; 2. idea that {bacteria / mucus containing the bacteria} cannot be removed (by cilia); 3. idea that mucus provides conditions for bacteria to {live / grow / develop / eq} ; 4. reference to antibodies not being effective ; 5. reference to trauma caused by coughing ; 6. idea that resident {phagocytes / macrophages} cannot destroy bacteria ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 5(b)(ii)

Answer 1. {increase / eq} with age ; 2. (increases) {from 0 to 25 / up to 25} ; 3. {constant /eq} 25 to 35 ; 4. {decreases / eq} 35 to 45 ; 5. credit correct manipulation of figures ;

max (3)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 5(b)(iii)

Answer 1. Overall increase in P and decrease in S ; 2. At 0 more S than P / between 0 and 7 years S is greater than P ; 3. After 7 years P is greater than S ; 4. S starts to decrease at year 15 but P {decreases at 35 years / continues to increase} ; 5. Maximum P is greater than maximum S ; 6. S {stays constant / is at its highest} between 10 and 15 years but P {stays constant / is at its highest} between 25 and 35 years ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 6(a)

Answer 1. reference to {enzymes / biological catalysts} reducing activation energy / eq ; Biological catalyst 2. produced by {organisms /cells}; 3. speeds up (rate of) {reactions / processes} / eq ; Activation energy 4. energy needed for a reaction to occur / eq ; 5. By causing bonds to {break / weaken / form} / by increasing the number of collisions / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 6(b)

Answer 1. idea that there should be enough substrate molecules to saturate the enzyme ; 2. (to ensure that) substrate is not a limiting factor/ eq ; 3. {fastest / highest} rate / decreases after initial rate / eq ; 4. as reaction proceeds substrate concentration decreases / eq ; 5. as substrate gets used up {by enzyme / in reaction / eq } ; 6. substrate concentration should be constant (in each test) / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 6(c)

Answer Any two pairs pH ; buffer ; temperature ; water bath ; not room temperature time of reaction ; stopwatch ; volume of {enzyme / substrate} ; not amount measuring cylinder / pipette ; type of enzyme ; same batch of enzyme ;

Mark

(4)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 7(a)(i)

Answer Any two from: genetic, diet qualified, increasing age, male, high blood pressure, smoking, {inactivity / lack of exercise / eq} ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 7(a)(ii)

Answer 1. idea that it makes the {results / data / study} {representative / reliable} ; 2. idea that there are {many potential risk factors / large variation between individuals}; 3. idea that side effects more likely to show up ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 7(b)

Answer same treatment method as for drug S e.g. solvent used for drug S / saline / water / sugar tablet / empty capsule / eq ;

(1)

Question Number 7(c)

Answer idea that {CVD is not an immediate disease / side effects may take time to become apparent / need to see if drug works over a long time} ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 7(d)

Answer 1. the number of {deaths / all events / eq} is {similar to / no higher than / less than} placebo group ; 2. Credit correct manipulation of figures ;

Mark

(2)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 7(e)(i)

Answer 1. correct values selected (8.7 and 11.8) ; 2. correct subtraction (11.8 – 8.7 = 3.1); 3. correct multiplication by 10 000 [Consequential errors apply]

Mark

÷

100 ;

(3)

Question Number 7(e)(ii)

Answer it has been shown to reduce {CVD / stroke} / eq ;

Mark (1)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 8(a)

Answer 1. tumour has {decreased in size / grown less / eq} ; 2. decrease in size quantified ; 3. rats survive longer / eq ; 4. idea that {more rats survive / higher survival rate / lower death rate} ; 5. 80% ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 8(b)(i)

Answer 1. reference to (virus acting as a) vector ; 2. idea that virus is used to get the {gene / DNA} into the cells ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 8(b)(ii)

Answer reference to {neurones in spinal cord / endorphins being made in spinal cord / spinal cord connects to brain / eq} ;

Mark

(1)

Question Number 8(b)(iii)

Answer idea that endorphins have pain-reducing properties / more {endorphins / endorphins secreting cells} produced ;

Mark

(1)

6BI01_01 1006

Question Number 8(b)(iv)

Answer 1. {little change / eq} in control but treated rats {rise and fall / eq} ; 2. in first {2 weeks / ½ month} level of tolerance is {(almost) the same in both groups slightly higher in control group} / eq ; 3. after the first 2 weeks the level of tolerance is higher in the rats given gene therapy / eq ; 4. between 2 weeks and 2 months there is an increase in tolerance in rats given gene therapy but control group {remains the same / drops (slightly)} / eq ; 5. ref to decrease in tolerance in group given gene therapy {in last month / after two months} and (slight) increase in control group ; 6. credit correct comparative manipulation of figures ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI01_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code US023567 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI01_01 1006

Mark Scheme (Results) June 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI02/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code US023556 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

Question Number 1 (a) (i)

Answer 1. 2. alleles ; loci / locations / positions / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 1 (a) (ii)

Answer 1. 2. 174 (cm) ; 172 (cm) ;

Mark

(2) Mark

Question Number 1 (b) (i)

Answer 1. 2. {genotype / eq} ; {environment / eq} ;

(2)

Question Number 1 (b) (ii)

Answer C; A; B;

Mark

(3)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number *2(a) QWC

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. undifferentiated cell / eq ; 2. that can give rise to other {types of cell / eq }; 3. idea that no limit to division ; 4. correct reference to {totipotent / pluripotent /eq} ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(b)

Answer 1. cord blood /umbilical cord / placenta ; 2. {fertilised egg / zygote / eq} / blastocyst / (early) embryo ; 3. detail of site within blastocyst 4. bone marrow / eq ; 5. {brain / connective / skin / liver} cells / eq ; 6. addition of adult nucleus to enucleated egg cell ;

Mark

max (3) Mark

Question Number 2(c)(i)

Answer 1. decide on max age of embryo allowed for research / eq ; 2. idea of setting or considering {ethical / legal} aspects / judging what is acceptable / follow a code of practice ; 3. example of what {is / is not} acceptable ; 4. checking that source of stem cells is acceptable / eq ; 5. stopping of cloning (of humans) / eq ;

max 6. appropriate reference to unnecessary repeating of (2) research / eq ;

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 2 (c)(ii)

Answer people involved in embryo research: 1. idea of being able to (fully) understand the science / recognise what is possible {benefits / risks / eq} / judge in an informed manner ; people not involved in embryo research: 2. idea of giving a {balanced /alternative / wider / named} view ;

Mark

(2)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 3 (a)(i) Question Number 3 (a)(ii) Question Number 3 (a)(iii) Question Number 3 (a)(iv)

Answer C;

Mark (1)

Answer B;

Mark (1)

Answer far right-hand box ;

Mark (1)

Answer Bacteria / Eubacteria / Archaebacteria / Archaea ;

Mark (1)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number *3(b)(i) QWC

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. cellulose ; 2. as microfibrils ; 3. (cellulose molecules) held together by hydrogen bonds / eq 4. detail of microfibril (e.g. {bundle /correct stated number of}) cellulose molecules) ;; 5. correct reference to arrangement of microfibrils (in primary cell wall) ; 6. reference to {matrix / hemicelluloses / pectins / eq} ; 7. reference to primary and secondary cell walls ; 8. detail of different laying down arrangement (in secondary cell wall) /reference to lignin ;

Mark

max (4)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 3 (b)(ii)

Answer

Mark

Feature described site where there was no cell wall and the cytoplasm linked the two adjacent cells dark line that is the boundary between one cell and the next cell

Name of feature plasmodesmata / plasmodesma ;

middle lamella ;

(2)

6BI02_01 1006

Answer Question Number 4 (a) a b A B

Mark

D e

d E (1)

Question Number 4 (b) (i)

Answer P = crista ; Q = matrix ; R = outer (mitochondrial) membrane / envelope / double membrane ;

Mark

(3) Question Number 4 (b)(ii) Answer 1. (they carry out) (aerobic) respiration ; 2. provide {ATP / energy / eq} ; 3. to {move / drive the / eq} {flagellum / tail} ; 4. allows sperm to swim / eq ; 5. towards the {egg / eq} / {towards /along} the oviduct / eq ; Question Number 4 (c)(i) Answer 0.065 (%) ;; Question Number 4 (c)(ii) Answer 16 ; max (3) Mark (2) Mark (1) Mark

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 5 (a)(i) Question Number *5(a)(ii)QWC

Answer {α/ alpha} glucose ;

Mark (1)

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. made up of {many / eq} glucose (monomers) ; 2. reference to {energy / eq } storage / glucose is the respiratory substrate / synthesis of organic molecules / eq ; 3. idea that it is {large / eq} ; 4. so is un-reactive / insoluble /no osmotic effect ; 5. molecule coiling / compact / reference to amylose /eq ; 6. more can be stored (in available space) / eq ; 7. reference to branches / reference to (glycosidic) 1-6 bonds / amylopectin ; 8. {rapid / increased / eq } mobilisation of glucose units / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

Question Number 5 (b)(i)

Answer Allow converse 1. increase in temperature {decreases / eq } (the mean percentage of amylose present)/ negative correlation ; 2. but by differing percentages in all 3 varieties / C, then A & then B ; 3. credit correct manipulation of the data for 1 variety (e.g. by 4.0 % in variety A / 1.5% in variety B / 5% in variety C) eq ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 5 (b)(ii)

Answer 1. (variety) B ; 2. idea of smallest difference between (means / amylose content) in B for the two different temp regimes ; 3. idea of {biggest error bars / widest spread} ; 4. idea that error bars for the 2 different temp regimes overlap ; 5. explanation of overlap e.g. some of the data for the lower temp falls within that of the higher temp ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 6(a)

Answer Niche: 1. the {role / function / eq} (of a species / organism) ; 2. {within the community / ecosystem /habitat / environment / eq } ; Species richness: 3. number of (different) species ; 4. in a {habitat / eq } / at any one time ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number *6 (b)(i)QWC

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. (cheetah has) {lowest genetic diversity / least genetic variation } (of the listed cats) ; 2. correct reference to lack of adaptation / example / no selective advantage (when environment changes) ; 3. (therefore) less likely to survive / eq ; 4. (therefore) more at risk of {extinction / eq} ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 6 (b)(ii)

Answer 1. {greater / eq} genetic diversity (amongst the litter) / eq ; 2. greater chance that will {survive / eq} ; 3. increased chance of fertilisation / pregnancy / eq ; 4. increase in population size / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 6 (c)

Answer 1. increases genetic diversity /eq ; 2. (because it) allows {outbreeding / mating / eq} with (genetically) different individuals / eq ; 3. stop/reduces {inbreeding / mating with parents / siblings} ; 4. (which) reduces genetic diversity / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 6 (d)

Answer cheetahs that are exclusive to one continent ;

Mark (1)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 7 (a)(i)

Answer 1. line drawn correctly e.g. from pollen grain, down style to start of ovary ; 2. to micropyle (around the edge) ;

Mark

(2) Mark

Question Number 7 (a) (ii)

Answer

Labelled structure A B C D E

Tick ( ) if chromosome number increases at fertilisation

Comments given if more than 2 ticks and if use cross or crosses and ticks

(2)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 7 (b)(i)

Answer 1. both {increase / positive correlation / eq} ; 2. (pollen tube) length (always) {greater/ eq} when boron present / eq ; 3. idea of rate of growth greater with boron ; 4. linear without boron (for 25 / 30 hours) and not linear with boron / eq ; 5. correct comparative manipulation of the data ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 7 (b)(ii)

Answer idea that pollen tube does grow even in the absence of boron ; Answer boron {increases / speeds up / eq} rate ;

Mark (1) Mark (1)

Question Number 7 (b)(iii)

Question Number 7 (b)(iv)

Answer 1. more likely to reach the ovule /eq ; 2. fertilisation more likely to occur /eq ; 3. idea of fertilisation in shorter time period ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 8 (a)(i)

Answer 1. (increasing or doubling nitrate ion concentration) decreased mitosis / negative correlation / eq ; 2. manipulation of the data (e.g. by 6 cells (per 500 cells) / reduces by 24%) ;

Mark

(2) Mark

Question Number 8 (a)(ii)

Answer 1. only two concentrations were used / additional nitrate ion concentrations should be used ; 2. no {trend / eq} (as only 2 data sets) ; 3. If one of the two sets of data was {anomalous / eq} ; 4. reference to one with no nitrate ions present ;

max (2) Mark

Question Number 8 (a)(iii)

Answer Two appropriate safety risks given ; ; One appropriate precaution, linked to one of the risks above ;

(3)

6BI02_01 1006

Question Number 8 (b)

Answer 1. 3 + / sensible range of nitrate ion concentrations ; 2. reference to repeats (at each concentration) ; 3. reference to uniformity of seedlings (e.g. all from same parent plant, same age, same original root length) ; 4. idea that solution used should contain other mineral ions / named mineral ions ; 5. mention one other variable maintained / kept constant (e.g. temp, all run for same length of time, light intensity, volume of mineral solution) ; 6. reference to mechanism of judging root {growth /eq} (to measure optimum nitrate concentration) ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI02_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code US023556 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI02_01 1006

Mark Scheme (Results) June 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI07/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code US023567 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6BI07_01 1006

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

6BI07_01 1006

Question Number 1(a)(i)

Answer 1. temperature ; 2. 55 oC ; 3. pH ; 4. >7-14 ; 5. size of film / thickness of gelatine ; 6. appropriate reference to linear dimension / area / no greater than 5 x 5 (cm) / not > 2mm (thickness) ; 7. volume of enzymes /eq ; 8. >=5<100 ml ;

Mark

max (4) Mark

Question Number 1(a)(ii)

Answer Allow appropriate reference to risk and method of reduction. 1. respiration / breathing problems / eq ; 2. use coated enzymes / eq / wear mask ; 3. possible skin reaction to enzyme /eq ; 4. wear gloves / wash with copious water / wash bench down / dry up spills ; 5. getting enzyme into blood through cut ; 6. wear plaster / gloves ; 7. high level of alkali damages skin / eyes ; 8. gloves / goggles as appropriate ; 9. reference to enzyme damage to eyes ; 10. wear goggles / eq ;

max (4) Mark (1)

Question Number 1(b)(i)

Answer 236 ;

Question Number 1(b)(ii)

Answer 1. axes correct (x-[Savinase], y- 1 ÷ time*1000) ; 2. axes labelled with units for x axis ; 3. correct plotting (7 points including origin) ; 4. suitable line of best fit / line joining points drawn with straight edge ;

Mark

(4) Mark

Question Number 1(b)(iii)

Answer 1. as concentration goes up , rate (accept in this case (ecf) / 1 ÷ (mean) time *1000, goes up) / eq ; 2. ref to increase in number of active sites / eq ; 3. above 2% concentration (or their graphs suggestion (ecf) of E, higher concentrations, have no effect on rate / reaches plateau at 2% (or suitable from their graph) ; 4. substrate concentration limiting / eq ;

max (3)

Question Number 1(b)(iv)

Answer 1. reference to wide range / variability of data ; 2. greater reliability for data at {1% / 4% / 5%} / eq ; 3. reference to more data needed for 1.5% to allow better assessment of reliability ; 4. reference to outliers / anomalies ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI07_01 1006

Question Number 1(b)(v)

Answer 1. reference to (idea of) best concentration to use (ignore value) ; 2. reference to no improvement above this concentration ; 3. enzyme costs money ; 4. reference to reduced cost effectiveness at higher concentrations ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI07_01 1006

Question Number 2(a)(i)

Answer title should refer to columns 1 and 2 ;

Mark (1) Mark

Question Number 2(a)(ii)

Answer 1. check for any bias of sponsor (e.g. funding source) ; 2. check for credentials of contributor ; 3. reference to cross check with another source ; 4. reference to evidence of peer reviewing ;

max (2) Mark

Question Number 2(a)(iii)

Answer 1. no does not / eq ; 2. (because) numbers generally rise over time / eq ; 3. (but) numbers do rise (much) in 1990s / fall 1994 to 1996 ;

(3) Mark

Question Number 2(b)(i)

Answer No mark for type of visual chosen 1. any diagram which depicts (roughly) correct proportions ; 2. bar or histogram should have axes labelled / pie chart needs title and percentages in the segments ; 3. pie has key to what segments are or directly labelled; bar / histogram has key or bars labelled on axis ;

max (2)

6BI07_01 1006

Question Number 2(b)(ii)

Answer 1. yes they would ; 2. as they think habitat loss is considered most important reason for species loss ; 3. (lines 30-39) discuss (better) spending of money on this ; 4. majority would NOT agree with points made in these lines about hunting (accept converse answer) ;

Mark

max (3) Mark

Question Number 2(c)

Answer 1. need to add IUCN red list reference to book / website / address / url ; ®just IUCN 2. date, 1996 ; 3. Wikipedia article url / address / title of article ; ® just Wikipedia 4. date site visites ; 5. IUCN leaflet ; ® just IUCN 6. date 2008 ; 7. reference to title of newspaper / journal with household questionnaire ; 8. some detail included, date, institution(s), author(s) ;

max (4)

Question Number 2(d)(i)

Answer 1. Economic ; 2. about possible uses of money in conservation of different types / eq ;

Mark

(2)

6BI07_01 1006

Question Number 2(d)(ii)

Answer (Cannot have same ref. as (d)(i)) First mark for implication and line reference Next two marks for reasons e.g. 1. ethical, lines 47-48 ; 2. ethics of keeping animals in zoos ; 3. cage environment ; 4. ethical, lines 38-39 ; 5. ethics of hunting animals ; 6. (wrong if) for ornaments, dubious medications, trophies etc / might lead to extinction ; 7. social, lines 49-54 ; 8. part of this (social) is education ; 9. teaching, awareness ; 10. environmental, lines 30-31 ; 11. correct reference to appropriate habitat ; 12. as only place organisms can properly exist ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI07_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code US023567 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI07_01 1006

Mark Scheme (Results) June 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI04/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code UA023560 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6BI04_01 1006

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 1(a)

Answer cross next to degree of muscle concentration ;

Mark (2)

cross next to signs of decomposition ; Question Number 1(b) Answer 1. idea of SD {measures / shows} {spread / range / eq} of data ; 2. Idea of most readings are within {+ 1 x SD / + 2 x SD} e.g. approx 60% readings within (+ )1 x SD / approx 90% readings within (+) 2 x SD ; 3. idea that as length of time increases, SD increase / eq ; 4. idea of more variability (in temperature) as time increases / eq ; 5. comment on change in reliability of time of death with time / eq ; 6. estimate (of time of death) can only be within a {4 / 5 / 6 / 7} hour period ; 7. use of manipulated data ; Question Number 1(c) Answer three from the following: {(body) mass/ BMI / weight / eq} {(subcutaneous) fat /eq} surface area, {ambient / eq } temperature immersion in water age (of person at death) skin colour thickness of hair gender clothing blood loss humidity air movement {core / body} temperature at time of death ;;; Mark max (4) Mark

(3)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 2(a)

Answer 1. idea of reflection ; 2. reference. to {incorrect / eq } {wavelength / colour / frequency} ; 3. idea of {not hitting the {chloroplast / chlorophyll}} / it is transmitted ; 4. idea of light being in excess e.g. at max. photosynthesis so more light can be used ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 2(b)(i)

Answer {joules / energy} per {square metre / metre squared /(unit) area} per {year / unit time} ;

Mark

(1) Question Number 2(b)(ii) Answer Award 2 marks for correct answer (84.8 / 84.84) 1. correct subtraction (24.4 – 3.7 / 20.7) ; 2. correct multiplication by 100 ÷ 24.4 ; (2) [consequential errors apply] Question Number 2(b)(iii) Answer B; (1) Mark Mark

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 2(c) [QWC]

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. reference to {thylakoids / thylakoid (membranes)} ; 2. in {granum / grana} ; 3. (light energy) raises energy level of electrons / {chlorophyll / electrons}excited / eq ; 4. electrons released from {chlorophyll /photosystem / eq} / eq ; 5. reference to electron {carrier / eq} ; 6. reference to series of {redox / oxidation & reduction / eq} reactions ; 7. reference to energy level of electrons {falls / eq} ; 8. reference to {synthesise ATP from ADP +P / phosphorylate ADP} ; 9. reference to photophosphorylation ; 10. reference to ATP {synthetase / synthase / ase} ; 11. reference to {chemiosmosis / eq} ; 12. idea of electrons from {photolysis / eq} used to replace those lost ; 13. reference to involvement of {accessory pigments / named example} ;

Mark

max (6)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 3(a)(i) Question Number 3(a)(ii) Question Number 3(b)(i) Question Number 3(b)(ii)

Answer C;

Mark (1)

Answer C;

Mark (1)

Answer temperature ;

Mark (1)

Answer 1. rate of growth increases as temperature increases {between 13oC and 22oC / up to 22oC} ; 2. rate of growth decreases {between 22oC and 25oC / above 22oC} ; 3. use of manipulated data to support above e.g. increases by {0.7 (a.u.) / 4.5 times}, decreases by 0.1 (a.u.) ; 4. reference to enzymes involved (in growth) ; 5. molecules {move about more / have more kinetic energy}, as temperature increases ; 6. (therefore) {enzyme and substrate (molecules) collide more / rate of enzymesubstrate complexes formation increases} as temperature increases ; 7. correct reference to denaturation of some {enzyme / protein / eq} (molecules) ; 8. (therefore) rate of {growth / reactions} decreases as fewer enzyme molecules available ;

Mark

max (4)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 3(b)(iii)

Answer 1. idea that (each temperature) has same light intensity ; 2. correct reference to must be above {threshold / compensation point} ; 3. (below which) no net photosynthesis takes place / eq ; 4. reference to {so light is not limiting factor / so temperature is the limiting factor}; 5. photosynthesis produces {material / eq} needed for growth / eq ;

Mark

max (3)

Question Number 3(b)(iv)

Answer

Mark

1. {wavelength / colour / frequency} of light ; 2. CO2 concentration / eq ; 3. pH / eq (of solution) ; 4. reference to {mineral / eq} ; max (2)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 4(a)(i) Question Number 4(a)(ii) Question Number 4(b)(i)

Answer C; Answer A;

Mark

(1) Mark

(1) Answer Mark

D = antigens / (glyco)proteins ; E = B {lymphocytes / cells} / plasma cells ; F = antibodies / immunoglobulins ; G = macrophage / phagocyte / eq ; H = enzymes / lysozyme ; (5)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 4(b)(ii)

Answer

Mark

1. reference to protein nature of {antigens / antibodies} ; 2. antigens are specific (to each bacteria) / eq ; 3. antibodies need to be {complementary / specific} (to the antigen) ; 4. idea that {binding / eq} can take place ; 5. (some bacteria) have {different / changed} antigens / eq ; 6. idea that this is a primary infection ; 7. reference to {mucus / slime} {coat /capsule} (of bacterial cells) ; 8. idea that some bacteria are inside body cells ; 9. idea of antibodies already present e.g. from passive immunity or breast feeding ; max (3)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 5(a)

Answer

Mark

Description Polymer formed from a single strand of nucleotides Pentose present in the nucleotides Adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine present Nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bonds

DNA only

RNA only

Both DNA and RNA

all rows correct 2 marks two or three rows correct 1 mark Question Number 5(b)(i) 1. DNA strands {separate / unzip / eq} ; 2. idea that one DNA {strand / eq} used as template (to form mRNA) / eq ; 3. from free nucleotides / eq ; 4. reference to complementary base pairing ; 5. reference to hydrogen bonding ; 6. correct reference to {RNA-polymerase / DNA helicase} ; 7. credit correct sequence of bases on {mRNA / DNA} ; Answer

(2) Mark

max (3)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 5(b)(ii)

Answer

Mark

1. reference to specific amino acid attachment to tRNA ; 2. idea that anticodon (on tRNA) {attaches / binds / lines up / eq} to the {codon / triplet} on mRNA ; 3. example quoted using the information in the diagram e.g. tRNA with alanine has CGA anticodon which binds to GCU on mRNA ; 4. idea that two tRNA held in ribosome (at any one time) ; 5. reference to formation of peptide {bonds / links} (between adjacent amino acids) ; 6. reference to peptidyl transferase ; Question Number 5(c) 1. stop codon ; 2. used to end the {sequencing / further attachment of tRNA / eq} ; 3. release of the {polypeptide / ribosome} /eq ; max (2) Answer max (3) Mark

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 6(a)

Answer

Mark

1. idea that individuals of a species can {interbreed / eq} ; 2. to produce fertile {offspring / eq} ; 3. the {hybrids / offspring} can flower and produce viable seeds / eq ; Question Number 6(b)(i) Answer max (3) Mark

1. {variety / eq} of alleles ; 2. in a gene pool / eq ; (2) Mark

Question Number 6(b)(ii)

Answer

1. different alleles in each of the two {populations / eq} ; 2. each {population / species} is adapted to live {in different environmental conditions / at different altitudes / eq} ; 3. there will have been different mutations in each population ; 4. reference to alleles from different {species /eq } will mix / hybrids receive alleles from both { species / eq} ; max (2)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number *6(c) QWC

Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. reference to original population increasing in size and spreading into a wider diversity of {habitats / eq} ; 2. reference to mutations ; 3. leading to diversity in flowering times / eq ; 4. (and) other plant features / eq ; 5. reference to reproductive isolation ; 6. restriction in gene flow / eq ; 7. between extremes of population / eq ; 8. reference to different environmental factors in each region ; 9. each region has different selection pressures / eq ; 10. idea of plants adapted to a region ; 11. reference to survival and breeding ; 12. reference to change in allele frequencies (over time) ; 13. (leads to) differences between gene pools / eq ;

Mark

max (6)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 7(a)

Answer

Mark

1. reference to {carbon / organic / eq} compounds in plant material ; 2. idea that digestion provides respiratory substrates ; 3. carbon dioxide released (from respiration) ; 4. (this carbon dioxide is) available for photosynthesis ; 5. reference to woodlice {eaten / decompose} ; max (3)

Question Number 7(b)(i) Question Number 7(b)(ii)

Answer A;

Mark

(1) Answer Mark

1. {wavelength / colour / frequency} of light ; 2. light intensity / shading ; 3. temperature ; 4. moisture content of {air / substratum / eq} / humidity ; 5. {pH / chemical composition / eq} of {substratum / eq} ; 6. air currents / wind / eq ; 7. texture of substratum / eq ; 8. reference to {oxygen / carbon / methane} ; max (2) Mark

Question Number 7(c)(i)

Answer

8 9 10

3 1 1 (1)

All three answers correct to 1 significant figure ;

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 7(c)(ii)

Answer

Mark

1. woodlice move about / eq ; 2. (therefore) difficult to count / eq ; 3. some might be {counted more than once / missed out} / eq ; max (2) Mark

Question Number 7(c)(iii)

Answer

1. for results to be (scientifically) valid ; 2. only one factor needs to be varied / eq ; 3. other factors need to be kept constant / eq ; 4. reference to {many / biotic / eq} factors (in a garden) ; 5. (these factors are) {difficult to control / eq} ; 6. reference to difficult to set test factor values ; max (3)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 8(a)

Answer

Mark

Description Enclosed by outer smooth membrane inner membrane folded forming cristae Long strand-like structure extending out from the cell Used for locomotion Small, circular loop of doublestranded DNA

Name of structure Mitochondrion / mitochondria

P, E or B E / eukaryotic

Flagellum / flagella

B / both

plasmid

P / prokaryotic (3)

1 mark for any two correct cells ;;; Question Number 8(b)(i) Question Number 8(b)(ii) 1. cell wall {weaker /cannot form properly / eq} ; 2. {cell / cell wall} bursts (easily) / eq ; 3. during division /eq ; max (2) Answer bactericidal ; (1) Answer Mark Mark

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 8(b)(iii)

Answer

Mark

1. reference to antibiotic acting as selective pressure ; 2. reference to some bacteria resistant (to antibiotic) ; 3. idea that resistant bacteria survive and {reproduce / pass on resistance / pass on gene / eq}; 4. idea that antibiotic no longer effective ; 5. reference to some infections cannot be treated with antibiotics ; max (2)

6BI04_01 1006

Question Number 8(c)

Answer

Mark

1. idea of bacteria distributed evenly / description of technique e.g. lawn spreading ; 2. description of method used to apply different antibiotics at known positions e.g. multidisks, wells in agar ; 3. reference to control of antibiotic concentration ; 4. reference to {sterile / aseptic} technique ; 5. reference to incubation at a suitable temperature ; 6. description of how effect is assessed e.g. measure {clear area / inhibition zone / eq} ; 7. reference to replication (with same bacterium) ; 8. reference to repetition with different bacteria ; max (4)

6BI04_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code UA023560 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI04_01 1006

Mark Scheme (Results) June 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI05/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code UA023563 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6BI05_01 1006

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 1(a)

Correct Answer 1. nature of abnormality e.g. bleeding, ref. to density ; 2. {location / eq} of abnormality ; 3. {extent / size/ eq} of abnormality ; 4. likely problems e.g. accessibility for surgery ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 1(b)

Correct Answer 1. (found in) different {regions / eq} of brain / eq ; 2. the right hand brain has {more / two/ eq} abnormalities ; 3. different areas of brain have different functions / eq ; 4. {symptoms / eq} depend on region of brain affected / eq ; 5. idea of different types of abnormality can cause different symptoms ;

max (2) Mark

Question Number 1(c)

Correct Answer 1. detects level of oxygenation of the blood /measures changes in blood flow within brain / eq ; 2. {increased flow / more oxygen / eq} suggests increased activity / eq ; 3. study brain activity related to {stimuli / tasks / eq} ;

max (2)

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Question Number 1(d)

Correct Answer

Mark

W Regulating core temperature Climbing stairs Regulating carbon dioxide in the blood Choosing a gift

X

Y

Z ; ; ; ;

(4)

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Question Number 2(a)

Correct Answer 1. depolarisation of adjacent {membrane / eq} / eq ; 2. changes PD across membrane / eq ; 3. opens sodium {gates / eq} ; 4. sodium ions move into (the neurone) ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 2(b)

Correct Answer

Position on diagram A D Question Number 2(c) Correct Answer

Permeable to sodium ions

Permeable to potassium ions ; ; (2) Mark

1. correct {reference to / description of} diffusion gradient (of potassium ions) ; 2. correct {reference to / description of} electrochemical gradient ; 3. increased permeability (of membrane) to potassium ions / eq ; 4. reference to potassium {gates / eq} open / eq ; 5. reference to sodium {gates / eq} closed / eq ; max (3)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 2(d)

Correct Answer 1. PD less negative / eq 2. idea that the membrane remains permeable to potassium ions ; 3. potassium ions {move because of charge difference / eq} ; 4. into {nerve cell / neurone / axon / eq} ; 5. idea that potassium ion is removing a positive charge (from the outside) ; 6. idea that equilibrium is established e.g. diffusion gradient balanced by potential difference ;

Mark

max (3)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 3(a)

Correct Answer 1. carbon dioxide produced in respiration / eq ; 2. affects {volume / pressure} of gas / eq ; 3. allows measurement of oxygen used / eq ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 3(b)(i)

Correct Answer Two marks for correct answer 0.8 (mm min-1) ;; if incorrect allow one mark for correct working 1. 48 ; OR 2. ÷ 60 to give answer ; OR 1. 12 ; 2. ÷ 15 to give answer

(2)

Question Number 3(b)(ii)

Correct Answer 1. no oxygen available/no oxygen uptake ; 2. reference to anaerobic respiration ; 3. carbon dioxide produced is absorbed / eq ; 4. no (net) change of {volume / pressure} of gas ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 3(b)(iii)

Correct Answer 1. {mass / eq} of organism may differ ; 2. use same mass / express results per unit mass / eq ; 3. temperature changes / eq ; 4. control temperature using a water bath / eq ; 5. pressure may affect volume of gas / eq ; 6. use of control with no organisms, at the same time / eq ;

Mark

max (4)

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Question Number 4(a)

Correct Answer 1. {initiates / eq} heartbeat / eq ; 2. (starts) wave of excitation / depolarisation ; 3. {determines / eq} heart rate ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 4(b)

Correct Answer 1. {increased / eq} impulses to SAN / eq ; 2. (via) sympathetic {nervous system / eq } ; 3. stimulates more frequent depolarisation in SAN / eq ; 4. increases {heart rate / cardiac output} /eq ;

max (2)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number *4(c)

Correct Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. changes {electrical activity / depolarisation} of heart / eq ; 2. peak is reversed / eq ; 3. idea that peak is earlier than expected ; 4. no change in pressure in pulmonary artery ; 5. (because) little blood in ventricles ; 6. missed normal wave after E / longer gap before next wave / eq ; 7. missed (effective) contraction after E ; 8. early depolarisation leaves ventricle insensitive ; 9. idea that the wave of depolarisation is prevented ; 10. reference to refractory period / eq ;

Mark

max (5)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 4(d)

Correct Answer 1. idea that (absolutists) say drugs should not be used at any time ; 2. should not allow athletes to be pressured into using drugs ; 3. risk to health / eq ; 4. gain unfair advantage / eq ; 5. other harmful substances banned / eq ; 6. burden on care services / eq ; 7. idea that (relativists) say that drugs could be used under some circumstances ; 8. idea that they could be used for medication ; 9. drugs (in the body) can be difficult to legislate for / eq ;

Mark

max (2)

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Question Number 5(a)

Correct Answer Mark for each correct row Muscle contracted when Muscle Extensor Flexor Holding steady X X X ;; Lifting upwards

Mark

(2) Mark (1)

Question Number 5(b) Question Number 5(c)

Correct Answer tendons ; Correct Answer 1. idea that muscles cannot extend themselves ; 2. need opposing muscle to extend / eq ; 3. antagonistic muscle allows control (of movement) / eq ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 5(d)

Correct Answer 1. all fibres same length and width as original ; 2. Z lines closer together ; 3. more overlap of actin and myosin ;

(3)

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Question Number *5(e) QWC

Correct Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) 1. reference to {vesicles / t-tubules / sarcoplasmic reticulum} contain calcium ions ; 2. {binds / eq} to troponin ; 3. tropomyosin moves exposing binding sites / eq ; 4. for myosin /eq ; 5. needs ATP to remove calcium ions / eq ; 6. ATP provides energy for changing shape of myosin / eq ; 7. ATP is required to {break cross bridges / eq} ; 8. ATP for synthesis of neurotransmitter / eq ;

Mark

max (5)

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Question Number 6(a) Question Number 6(b)

Correct Answer ATPase / ATP synthetase ;

Mark (1)

Correct Answer 1. (H+ ions) from reduced NAD / eq ; 2. H+ ions pumped into inter membrane space / eq ; 3. reference to energy needed (for pump) / eq ; 4. reference to movement of electrons along ETC /eq; 5. (ETC on) inner membrane / cristae;

Mark

max (3) Mark

Question Number 6(c)

Correct Answer 1. H+ ions follow diffusion gradient / eq ; 2. idea that this causes an energy change or makes energy available ; 3. ATP is formed / eq ; 4. idea that this occurs on stalked particles ; 5. ATP is energy source for (biological processes) / eq ;

max (2)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 7(a)

Correct Answer 1. idea that enzymes are proteins ; 2. reference to transcription ; 3. gene / eq ; 4. reference to mRNA ; 5. reference to translation (of mRNA) ; 6. reference to genetic code / eq ; 7. reference to {ribosome / polysomes} ; 8. reference to tRNA ; 9. idea that amino acids bonded / polypeptide produced ;

Mark

max (4) Mark

Question Number 7(b)

Correct Answer 1. adrenoceptors are {proteins / glycoproteins} ; 2. phospholipids can move in the membrane / eq ; 3. can be {added to / removed from / move around in} {phospholipid bilayer / membrane} ; 4. adrenroceptors can interact with phospholipids e.g. {hydrophobic / hydrophilic} interactions ;

max (2) Mark

Question Number 7(c)

Correct Answer 1. {incomplete / insufficient} data / eq ; 2. different interpretations of data / eq ; 3. & 4. credit any two examples from the text e.g. evidence from noradrenaline, electrical stimulation, multifactorial problem, antidepressant drugs, pain killers, gender ;;

max (3)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number *7(d)(i)

Correct Answer (QWC – Spelling of technical terms (shown in italics) must be correct and the answer must be organised in a logical sequence) Drug therapy 1. idea that it affects the whole brain ; 2. idea that it is difficult to get dose right ; DBS (Deep Brain Stimulation) 3. targets specific area of the brain / eq ; 4. relieves tremors /eq ; 5. has effects on {other areas of the brain / other cell types} ; 6. has short term side effects e.g. laughing, crying ; 7. has long term side effects e.g. depression, mood swings, suicidal tendencies ; 8. invasive procedure has risk / eq ; Gene therapy 9. corrects chemical imbalance / eq ; 10. precise group of cells affected / eq ; Light therapy 11. very precise effects / eq ; 12. requires genetic modification / eq ; 13. genes from different species / eq ; General (Gene or light therapy) 14. dangers of using virus as vector / eq ; 15. ethical issues of genetic modification / eq ;

Mark

max (7)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 7(d)(ii)

Correct Answer 1. both caused by {lack / eq} of neurotransmitter ; 2. Parkinson’s {lack / eq} of dopamine ; 3. depression {lack / eq} of serotonin ;

Mark

max (2) Mark

Question Number 7(e)

Correct Answer 1. light affects pigments / eq ; 2. rhodopsin / iodopsin (in mammals) ; 3. (changes in pigment) result in action potentials /nerve impulses / eq ; 4. pigments (in cones) respond to {specific / eq} wavelength / eq ;

max (3) Mark

Question Number 7(f)

Correct Answer 1. virus acts as a vector ; 2. reference to human cold virus ; 3. virus has specific surface proteins / eq ; 4. match surface{proteins / receptors / eq} of target cell ; 5. binding to surface protein promotes entry to cell / eq ; 6. idea that genes can be incorporated into {host DNA / eq}

max (3)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 7(g)

Correct Answer 1. {causes / involved in / eq} inflammation / eq ; 2. vasodilation / eq ; 3. increased blood flow / eq ; 4. increased {permeability / leakage} of blood vessels ; 5. Oedema / swelling / eq ; 6. reference to temperature increase ; 7. reference to histamine / mast cells ; 8. idea that phagocytes / macrophages move to site ;

Mark

max (2)

6BI05_01 1006

Question Number 7(h)

Correct Answer 1. representative sample / eq ; 2. (sufficiently) large sample / eq ; 3. double blind testing ; 4. reference to placebo ; 5. objective measurement of effects / eq ; 6. (collecting / analysing) separate data sets for males and female / eq ; 7. other factors need to be {controlled / measured} e.g. hormone levels in females, socioeconomic, nutrition ; 8. reference to other models e.g. animals, tissue culture ; 9. appropriate comment on safety issues e.g. toxicity ; 10. consideration of time e.g. between dose and observation, long term data ;

Mark

max (4)

6BI05_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code UA023563 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI05_01 1006

Mark Scheme (Results) June 2010

GCE

GCE Biology (6BI08/01)

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH

Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com.

If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can speak directly to a subject specialist at Edexcel on our dedicated Science telephone line: 0844 576 0037

Summer 2010 Publications Code UA023570 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2010

6BI08_01 1006

General Marking Guidance
• • All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners must mark the first candidate in exactly the same way as they mark the last. Mark schemes should be applied positively. Candidates must be rewarded for what they have shown they can do rather than penalised for omissions. Examiners should mark according to the mark scheme not according to their perception of where the grade boundaries may lie. There is no ceiling on achievement. All marks on the mark scheme should be used appropriately. All the marks on the mark scheme are designed to be awarded. Examiners should always award full marks if deserved, i.e. if the answer matches the mark scheme. Examiners should also be prepared to award zero marks if the candidate’s response is not worthy of credit according to the mark scheme. Where some judgement is required, mark schemes will provide the principles by which marks will be awarded and exemplification may be limited. When examiners are in doubt regarding the application of the mark scheme to a candidate’s response, the team leader must be consulted. Crossed out work should be marked UNLESS the candidate has replaced it with an alternative response.

• • •

• •

Quality of Written Communication Questions which involve the writing of continuous prose will expect candidates to: • • • write legibly, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make the meaning clear select and use a form and style of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex subject matter organise information clearly and coherently, using specialist vocabulary when appropriate. Full marks will be awarded if the candidate has demonstrated the above abilities. Questions where QWC is likely to be particularly important are indicated (QWC) in the mark scheme, but this does not preclude others.

6BI08_01 1006

GENERAL INFORMATION
The following symbols are used in the mark schemes for all questions:
Symbol ; semi colon eq / oblique {} curly brackets () round brackets [] square brackets [CE] or [TE] Crossed out work
If a candidate has crossed out an answer and written new text, the crossed out work can be ignored. If the candidate has crossed out work but written no new text, the crossed out work for that question or part question should be marked, as far as it is possible to do so.

Meaning of symbol Indicates the end of a marking point Indicates that credit should be given for other correct alternatives to a word or statement, as discussed in the Standardisation meeting Words or phrases separated by an oblique are alternatives to each other Indicate the beginning and end of a list of alternatives (separated by obliques) where necessary to avoid confusion Words inside round brackets are to aid understanding of the marking point but are not required to award the point Words inside square brackets are instructions or guidance for examiners Consecutive error / transferred error

Spelling and clarity
In general, an error made in an early part of a question is penalised when it occurs but not subsequently. The candidate is penalised once only and can gain credit in later parts of the question by correct reasoning from the earlier incorrect answer. No marks are awarded specifically for quality of language in the written papers, except for the essays in the synoptic paper. Use of English is however taken into account as follows: • the spelling of technical terms must be sufficiently correct for the answer to be unambiguous e.g. for amylase, ‘ammalase’ is acceptable whereas ‘amylose’ is not e.g. for glycogen, ‘glicojen’ is acceptable whereas ‘glucagen’ is not e.g. for ileum, ‘illeum’ is acceptable whereas ‘ilium’ is not e.g. for mitosis, ‘mytosis’ is acceptable whereas ‘meitosis’ is not candidates must make their meaning clear to the examiner to gain the mark. a correct statement that is contradicted by an incorrect statement in the same part of an answer gains no mark – irrelevant material should be ignored

• •

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 1(a)(i)

Answer Factor suitable factor stated e.g. temperature /age / storage / duration / prior treatment with solvent / pH / bile salts /eq ; Hypothesis hypothesis must be testable ;

Mark

(2) Mark

Question Number 1(a)(ii)

Answer 1. reference to effect on the permeability of the membrane (of cell or vacuole) ; 2. reference to which part of the membrane affected e.g. {phospholipids / proteins} ; 3. explanation of how membrane component affected e.g.{ movement or solubility of phospholipids / denaturation of protein} / eq ; 4. reference to {betalain / pigment / red colour} leaking from the {cells / vacuoles} ; 5. suitable trend suggested for stated factor e.g. increasing temperature has {no / little effect} at low temperature but a greater effect at high temperature / increasing alcohol concentration increases permeability ;

max (3)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 1(b)(i)

Answer 1. {volume / mass / surface area} of beetroot (cylinders) used / eq ; 2. {type / source / variety / eq} of beetroot used; 3. age of beetroot / eq; 4. volume of water used / eq ; 5. time spent in {solution / water / tube / eq} ; 6. pH ; 7. any other suitable variable ;

Mark

max (2)

Question Number 1(b)(ii)

Answer Factor controlled 1. suitable control method described e.g. temperature by using a water bath / eq ; Description of effect 2. description of likely effect on the dependent variable provided e.g increased temperature increases leakage of pigment / eq ;

Mark

(2)

Question Number 1(c)

Answer 1. reference to measuring colour of solution ; 2. appropriate method of reducing error described e.g. use of suitable reference {cuvette / solution} / reference to calibration / reference to suitable filter used / eq ;

Mark

(2)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 2(a)

Answer there will be no significant difference in the number of red blood cells in the blood of the athletes before and after the mountain training / eq ; Answer 1. suitable table format ; 2. correct column headings with units ; 3. all differences calculated correctly ; 4. differences include suitable – sign for A and I ; Number of red blood cells (x1012)per dm3 Difference after before mountain mountain training training 5.0 4.9 -0.1 5.1 5.3 0.2 4.9 5.7 0.8 5.3 5.5 0.2 5.4 5.6 0.2 5.0 5.4 0.4 4.8 5.3 0.5 5.1 5.6 0.5 5.5 5.1 -0.4

Mark

(1) Mark

Question Number 2(b)

Athlete A B C D E F G H I

(4) Question Number 2(c) Answer 1. athlete A / C / I ; 2. for {A / I} red blood cell count decreased (after mountain training) / for C increase greater than others / eq ; Mark

(2)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 2(d)

Answer 1. {5.1 / 5.12} x1012 / eq ; 2. {5.4 / 5.38} x1012 / eq ;

Mark

(2) Question Number 2(e) Answer A axes correct orientation and scale with units and labels ; F data plotted as bar chart ; P bars plotted correctly ; B range bar included ; Question Number 2(f) Answer 1. the value of t is greater than {critical value / 2.12} / eq ; 2. at the 95% confidence level /reference to probability 0.05 / significance {5% /0.05} / eq ; 3. therefore there is an increase in the number of red blood cells (per dm3 of blood) in the athletes after (2 weeks of mountain) training / eq ; (3) Mark Mark

max (3)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 3(a)

Answer 1. reference to an appropriate sampling technique e.g. need some form of systematic sampling to provide a suitable range of distances seeds are placed apart from each other ; 2. & 3 . credit any two appropriate safety issue e.g. suitable reference to lack of danger, consideration as to whether parsnip seeds are poisonous, reference to dangerous animals, washing hands ; ; 4. reference to an appropriate ethical issue e.g. lack of ethical considerations in growing parsnip seedlings ;

Mark

max (3) Mark

Question Number 3(b)

Answer 1. practice method / see if method will work / eq ; 2. check most suitable {conditions / seasons / eq} for {growth/ germination} (of parsnip seeds) ; 3. select suitable timescale (for measuring germination / growth rates) / eq ; 4. identify other variables that may need to be taken into account / eq ; 5. reference to use same {source / variety} of parsnip seeds ; 6. to determine appropriate dependent variable / eq ;

max (4)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 3 (c)

Answer 1. clear statement of dependent variable i.e. exactly what is to be measured stated (percentage / eq} of seeds germinated / mass of {parsnips / eq) ; 2. measurement method described ; 3. clear statement of a suitable independent variable e.g. sowing density ; 4. {distances apart / densities} for parsnip seeds suggested ; 5. reference to consideration of source of the parsnip seeds (to reduce variation) ; 6. suitable medium for germination of seeds suggested (compost / moist cotton wool / plant tissue culture / eq) ; 7. some clear consideration of time period over which the seeds will be {measured / allowed to germinate / eq} ; 8. identification of one other variable that could affect growth / germination ; 9. description of how this variable can be controlled ; 10. identification of a second variable that could affect growth / germination ; 11. description of how second variable can be controlled ; 12. clear reference to need for repeats ;

Mark

(8) + (2) QWC

6BI08_01 1006

QWC award up to 2 marks level Mark Descriptor Level 1 0 The account is very disorganised and is very difficult to follow. Scientific vocabulary is very limited with many spelling and grammatical errors. There is some disorganisation in the account which is not always in the correct sequence. Some relevant scientific vocabulary is used. The account is not always in continuous prose and there are grammatical errors and some important spelling mistakes. The account is well organised with no undue repetition and a correct sequence. There is good use of scientific vocabulary in the context of the investigation described. The account is written in continuous prose which is grammatically sound with no major spelling errors.

Level 2

1

Level 3

2

Question Number 3(d)

Answer 1. clear table which matches method description with headings and units ; 2. reference to means calculated from repeat data ; 3. graph format appropriate to data ; 4. statistical test appropriate to data e.g. use of {Spearman’s Rank / eq} for correlation / suitable test to compare numbers germinated {t- test/ Mann-Whitney U test/ Chi – squared / eq} ; 5. statistical test justified /eq ;

Mark

max (4)

6BI08_01 1006

Question Number 3(e)

Answer

Mark

1. difficult to control all factors (affecting yield) / eq ; 2. impossible to control natural variation of seeds / genetic factors / eq ; 3. timing of germination may be erratic / eq ; 4. measuring {germination / eq} does not necessarily correspond to yield of crop / eq ; 5. {controlled / experimental / eq} conditions may not represent natural growing conditions / eq ; 6. any other appropriate limitation ; max (3)

6BI08_01 1006

Further copies of this publication are available from Edexcel Publications, Adamsway, Mansfield, Notts, NG18 4FN Telephone 01623 467467 Fax 01623 450481 Email publications@linneydirect.com Order Code UA023570 Summer 2010 For more information on Edexcel qualifications, please visit www.edexcel.com/quals Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales no.4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London, WC1V 7BH

6BI08_01 1006

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