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Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
H. This was found in the Sunn¯h. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. great passions were generated. H.000 traditions but accepted only 7. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. 824-892). To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. A hundred years after Muhammad. 194-256=A. D. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. D.000. 817-888) u a¯ and others. There were many motives at play behind this development. and later on the Abbasides. 204-261=A. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. There were also more personal motives at work. D.000 of them as authentic. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. Spurious traditions were coming into being. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . Under these circumstances. drowning the genuine one’s. It is also u a¯ said that 40. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. It is said that he collected 600. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. There was an even more pressing reason.was a great thing. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. They were sources of prestige and proﬁt.iii other reasons. 202-275 = A. D. or what they thought were the right theological views. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims.in short.800 traditions out of a total of 500. Soon after Muhammad’s death. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. In this struggle. in the practice a of the Prophet. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. 209-279=A. H. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. the Ummayads. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. H. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. 819-875). particularly the Alids.000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. 810ail ai 870).
1958). Over a thousand collections. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore. H. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. the Had¯ the context. H. As the distance grows. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. which were in vogue died away in due course. The lapse of time helps the process. The of the Had is. and only six collections. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. It ih provides the base. 768) a in Baghdad. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. 151 (A.“the two authentics. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. rather all too human. or collections. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. H. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. reveals their more earthly motives. 32). It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . narrated. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n.000 as genuine. but they contain much that is factual and historical. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. Muhammad Ashraf). his forehead. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A.iv accepted only 2. which only the Had¯ provides. a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. about a man. a i. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. The believers have handled. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. Of these. we must thank Dr. who was born in Medina in A. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . In fact. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. D. 85 and died in A. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A.” they are called. To clarify certain points. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. the hero looms larger. is rather unedifying.
Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. In a Sah¯ containing 7. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. If anything. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship.” i. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. In India. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. in Pakistan and Bangladesh.e. a i. or “countries of peace. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. having been dormant for several centuries. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. we have also quoted from the notes . the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. and install in their place their own godling. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. addition to clarifying obscure points and references.e. Dr. All¯h. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country.. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right.081 footnotes. Indonesia. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. in Malaysia. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . In fact. They buy local politicians. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire.about forty-ﬁve times . a Even in the best of circumstances.. Here and there. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. In ih a is. Isl¯m. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of . their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. and even India. When we read Dr.v whose mother tongue is English. is again a on the march. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. with a large Muslim population.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. Sidd¯ ¯ translation.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. the old mission is being revived.
This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. And. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. a is a is . against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. was unavoidable. it is also something more. similarly. For this purpose. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. dictatorship comes in its wake. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. a is. both of commission and omission. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. it resists any change. Therefore. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. though. On the other hand. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. Indeed. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. It is a weapon of self-defense. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. is In this volume. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. It gives us 7. we have discussed none in full. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. in many cases. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. But on calm reﬂection. While we have in this way touched on many points.243 chapters. derived from the available symbols of their culture. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. It has one drawback.vi the country. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. motivated by a compulsive atavism. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. Wherever it triumphs. and thus.190 traditions divided into 1. According to some thinkers.
For example. like other Had¯ collections. although such instances are rather rare. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. generation after generation. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. In our quotations from this literature. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . but through his more workaday ideas and actions. “may peace be upon him. Similarly. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . comprising 180 traditions. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. no posturing for posterity. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts.” A similar formula. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. eating. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. Here one comes to know him. In regard to the title of the book. . the moral is whatever he did. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. they were All¯h’s own acts. mating. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering. containing 583 traditions. One is also left to wonder how the believers. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. The Sah¯ Muslim. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. praying. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. no cosmetics.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. There is no makeup.but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. could have found this story so inspiring. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. hating. dispensing justice. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. “may All¯h be pleased with him.
The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. Shri A. Dr. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. Sisir Kumar Ghose. ain. both have to be learned by ear. Therefore. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Shri H. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. I thank them all gratefully. te (soft dental) and toe by t. C.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. in order to avoid them as far as possible. RAM SWARUP . but we have made it do also for another sound. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. Jain. C. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. the Arabic alphabet’s se. now both resident in America. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. Gupta. a by the English s. P. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. Shri L. and zw¯d by z. Shri P. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. they have preferred to remain anonymous. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. For example. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. and Mrs. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. z¯l. ze.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . LOCUSTS. . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . 120 DOGS .CONTENTS sions. . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hell. 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . .
faith in His Book. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. ih In quoting them. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. we give their numbers in parentheses. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient. inform me about al-Isl¯m. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone. in the resurrection. So also are the notes and comments of the translator.” Later on. and you establish prayer. ifa. A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. when the inquirer is gone.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). pay Zak¯t. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). in His angels. 1 1 . in the hereafter. yet without any sign of fatigue. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. and says: “Muhammad.
that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. and they establish prayer.) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). . Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. many philosophies.” Other things mentioned are prayer. All¯h and his Messenger . It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. Muhammad and his God . In the same vein. to name the more important ones. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27).2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. and if they accept this. This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. Hell. “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. Similarly. . is. Doomsday.rather. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). Paradise. Ramz¯n. and many teachers. . FAITH (IM AN) ah. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. Sah¯ Muslim. and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth). his father and the whole mankind. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). Ramz¯n. . Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. in the history of Isl¯m. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God.prayer. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. zak¯t. zak¯t. GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places.
’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a . except to convert them by sword. and a future ones hold no great terror. Muhammad replies: “Yes. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. His Book. moral or spiritual.. When asked. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98).3 In the eyes of Muhammad. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds.not even adultery and theft . toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. spoils. u if the man committed adultery and theft. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. by the same token. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. monotheism. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. nation. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion. and jizy¯.can prevent his entry. but moral values are not altogether neglected.” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion. But on being asked. it is a limited to Muslims. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). “Jih¯d. the narrator of the had is.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156).” i. sincerity is a universal human value.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170).” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. . one’s past crimes are obliterated. But no morally wicked act . He has no obligations. is the best of virtues. If polytheism is the worst of crimes. .” but who were ready to join him. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise.e.” he replies (148). Ab¯ Zarr.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. For example. But in Isl¯m.” a “What next?” he is asked. The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m . The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. In fact. very little to others. Jar¯ b.
but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). and the universal is turned into the sectarian. FAITH (IM AN) Again. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. a . Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. To rob a whole people is piety. This means. Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. it is a a diﬀerent story.” On hearing this. . came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. in the state of ignorance” (222). H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . They are no longer wasted. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. as another text puts it. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin.4 Muslim” (102). a God-ordained mission. THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. Everything good began with Muhammad. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Thanks to this approach. . referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). We are told that one Hak¯ b. some people were greatly perturbed. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. a revelation. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. other moral values are given the same twist. but if he embraces Isl¯m.
But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). And understandably so. “O womenfolk . I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. incidentally.” a Muhammad tells us (6668). Muhammad says. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. . This would also. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms .” the translator tells us (note 2967). Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. the Peoples of the Book. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. his future is assured. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283).we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief.5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. . “the a . he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). His past is forgotten a unless it is good.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. for the hellﬁre is on his side. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian.
’Aisha. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. when you see barefooted. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. a famous Arab divine of his time. D. as he tells them. (5) not having control over her own person. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. (2) childbirth. (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. (6) a lesser share in inheritance. India). says that “All ah. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce.that is one of the signs of Doom. 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . it seems. Paradise and Hell. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. but for a woman to have only one husband. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. He be praised. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. naked. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master .that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). 164-165). Ratlam. 1058-1111). (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. London: University of Durham Publications. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). (16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. 1971. Deva ¯ Prakash. and the proof of their failing in religion. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. (4) pregnancy. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). . only one of which is attributable to women. pp. In short. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. The dreaded day (yaum). or of “separation” (fasl). (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not.that is one sign. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. But. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A.6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. In the Qur¯n. the Prophet’s wife.
“You tell a lie. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. If this is true.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). On this day. a you better go to Muhammad. “What did you worship?” When they reply.26). For example. They will say: “Thirsty we are.” They will go to a Moses. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word.” Then they will come to Muhammad. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians .” He will appeal to All¯h. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. of course. All¯h “will gather people. “Jesus.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). and polytheists are strictly kept out. Muhammad a . Considering that unbelievers. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71.” Then they will be asked what they want.” They will go to Jesus. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im.” They will be given a certain direction. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. I have. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. the water is no more than a mirage. Unbelievers. Thanks to his special role.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349). but you go to Jesus. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383). and with it is decided their fate. Christians will be summoned and asked. but go to Moses. He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. the son of All¯h. inﬁdels. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. “I am not ﬁt to do this. but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this.” All¯h will tell them. a a im. for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. and his intercession will be granted a (377). The translator makes this statement clearer for us.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. and it is really hell. and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. for example. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. however.
he told a questioner: “Verily. are not my friends. a a a Usayya. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . For example. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). . a In any case.” declares Muhammad (417). even though they were their kith and kin. About him. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). . Ab¯ T¯lib. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). Ri’l Zakw¯n. however. and a a a in his own apostleship.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. ’Aisha. Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering. .8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. their good works will not avail them. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. fed the poor. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. but needst not go out of your way to save them. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. . u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. . On the Day of Resurrection.” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. Regarding his father. the Prophet’s young wife. therefore. the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. that Muhammad was consistent.
Jesus in the second. or “circles” (as Dante called them). Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. Then he met All¯h. In any case. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. riding on al-Bar¯q. on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” . The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. and abolish jizy¯. So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. this belief. of heaven. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. a One night. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. and Abraham in the seventh. “an animal white and long. In fact. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. a . When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. But on the advice of Moses. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. Similarly. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. But if we look at the matter closely. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven. we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge.one prayer will now count for ten . and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. kill swine. Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. Moses in the sixth. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. He will break crosses.
as the translator explains. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. a . “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288). Jesus will. For. therefore.10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1.
(5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). and abstersion. or impure: coitus (jim¯). He 11 . total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. It deals with such matters as ablution. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. the major. physical and ritualistic. and childbirth (nif¯s). that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. (2) ghusl. cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). literally “nature. defecation. The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. (4) ﬁtra.g. become ritualistically unclean.. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets.Chapter 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). (3) tayammum. a a menses (hayz).
cutting the nails.” and so on. There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). . so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). all his previous sins are expiated” (436). . then washed his left foot.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. . . Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . . trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500).” he said (487). . This became the standard ablution. shaving the pubes. CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. . then wiped his head. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. he must clean his nose three times. According to Muslim canon scholars. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). then washed his left arm like that. About the moustache and the beard. He then washed his face three times.12 ¯ CHAPTER 2. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . For the a identiﬁcation of faces. . The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. . He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. and clipping the moustache. CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. plucking the hair under the armpits. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . .
and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. Moses put his clothes on a rock. in wearing shoes. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden.. When they asked him about their provision of food. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504).” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903).” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. my clothes. a . In this connection. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). in combing.e. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. my clothes. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. i. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i.e. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. Once. but Moses took his bath alone. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. and in performing ablution” (515). ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil.. and said: “By All¯h. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. wash it seven times. But God vindicated him. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). but the rock moved away. O stone.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669). while taking his bath. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts.
wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. bathing is not obligatory for you. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance. you can take to tayammum. The translator .” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No. who was sitting by him.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”).e. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but ablution is binding” (676). There is another had¯ of similar import. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse.. i. a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. The man said yes. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. And on yet another occasion. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). having experienced orgasm. BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. pointing to ’Aisha. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). The Prophet. and that should be as good as ablution with water. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted.
and the people reminded him about ablution. He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. in some respects. . But later on this command was abrogated. On the subject of menstruation. then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). Muhammad’s practice appears. . in fact. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). . and when it was referred to the Apostle. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. So keep away from women in their course. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686).15 explains why. O Commander is a of the Faithful. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. . and you ﬁnd no water. This chapter too. and he was presented with a some food. MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. some cross-reference is inevitable. for except for coitus all . when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. or you have touched women. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. . but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). Therefore. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689).
” ’Aisha reports (584). then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. this question to Muhammad directly. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. and drink. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. But Muhammad did not go that far. and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated.16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. For example. His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man . Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). Umm Salama reports the same (581). SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). and recite the Qur¯n” (591). PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. or scriptural studies.
a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. puerperium. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. had¯ 124). “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse.” they told her (610. . BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. “You humiliated the women.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. coitus. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. a believers (603). The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. and pollutio nocturna. and sometimes he performed ablution only. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. then purify yourselves” (5:6). “sometimes he took a bath and then slept.” he was told (593). One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. . . when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. 611).17 ¯ (semen).” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). I. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). there should be an ablution” u is. he a ﬁrst washed his hands. or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. The same obligation lay on women. ” (616). When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. (605).
also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. had¯ 108). CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up. which. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. There were no glaring lights. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). they took their bath in pitch darkness. had¯ 1584). is . I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). in this case. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. moreover. Muhammad was not bound by them. II. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. i. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. He had his Apostle’s privilege. I. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. 631). is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. Two other wives of Muhammad. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i.
As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times. Umm Makt¯m. 741). postures like bowing. one Book. As there is one All¯h. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). the prayer for rain. there is also one Prayer. the system of the human voice was introduced. Bil¯l. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted.Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). others a horn. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. and the Fireworshippers. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. 19 . caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula. It is the longest. one Guide. and ’Abdullah b. prostrating and rising. some suggested using a bell. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. who later became blind. with 1. a who was very loud-throated. To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. All these methods were ruled out. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. in Medina. as the Christians did. the Christians. In the beginning. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. the prayer relating to the dead. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. But in all these pages. and so on. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers. 737. as the Jews did.
They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. He who blesses me once. POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. and his wives and his oﬀspring . “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). sitting or standing. 808). will be assured of my intercession. . “Apostle of All¯h. a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. Another saw his “hands lifted . All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. with Muhammad as Messenger. One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. so if he heard an Az¯n.” says Muhammad (747). PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very eﬀective. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. “When Satan hears the call to prayer. . and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). therefore. it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity). The Holy Prophet. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. he stopped” (745). In a variation on this theme. He would listen to the Az¯n. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758).20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. Where it was heard. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. d in In seeking blessings for himself.
.” The seven bones are: “The hands. When someone once a did this. one of them should lead them” (1417). The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. when-he rises up. . and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). In the beginning. “When he prostrates. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. the knees.” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. he brought out his hands from the cloth. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. Also. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth. Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. palm to palm. It should be led by an im¯m. . you should also rise up. And when he was about to bow down. Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. when there is a valid reason for doing so.21 opposite to ears. and then to put them between one’s thighs. 1057). But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). And when prostrated. when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . you a should also prostrate. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. he prayed facing . and then lifted them . . But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997).” he tells them (817). He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). he prostrated between the two palms” (792).
This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. . a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. .” says Muhammad. He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina. . they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. I have been sent to all mankind. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. . The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. 2 u is That is. spoils have been made lawful to me . Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. But later on. foe or friend. Immediately 1 . my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism.22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. 1 . Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. “I have been helped a is by terror. . . Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). is which other prophets lack (1058). . and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). . Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). For example.
but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). 2. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12.000 dirhams a year. vol. a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6.. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668).000 dirhams. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year. But within two decades everything changed. pp.000 dirhams a year. According to another tradition. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. 476-479. 4. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden).23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation.000 to 9. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. The diw an. For example. II. and their children. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration.000 dirhams a year. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. For a fuller account of the Civil List. . The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. 5. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. or Civil List. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665).000 dirhams a year. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133).
PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. one should ﬁrst take food. People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan. . the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). “We were guided a aright to Friday. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. “On it Adam was created. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic.24 ¯ CHAPTER 3. on it he was made to enter Paradise. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon.” says Muhammad (1134). But though Muslims “are the last. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). a An interesting story is reported in this connection. The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. . one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. For example. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. Qur¯n a 62:11). One Friday. for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. during a war. they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. First things ﬁrst.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. .
’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. and it was the day of Id” (1942). The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. MUSIC. I meant to seize him. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. “Thereafter. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. DANCE. he did not retreat. his voice a rose.” a is But even though cursed. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. make the most of this had¯ a is.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. Muhammad. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face. On the same occasion. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h. in which music plays an important role. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. his eyes became red. leave them alone” (1946). and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. . every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938).’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something.’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons.
and the good which it contains. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. and Muhammad married her four months later.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. He regarded clouds and winds with terror.” ’Aisha a tells us. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. However. When you visit the sick or the dead. and the good of that which it was sent for. Ab¯ Salama has died.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3. PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. ‘There is no god but All¯h. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature.” says a the Prophet (1996). it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). Ub¯da. She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. what evil it contains. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. to whom she had borne many children. supplicate for good.’ So I said this. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds. “Exhort to recite. “If the dead person was good. u He died at Uhud. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety.’ to those who are dying. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015).
according to certain traditions. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. IV. p. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). and He granted it to me” (2129). who was only eighteen months old. I. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency. had¯ 912. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. is . Life of Mahomet. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead. over his expiring child. a but He did not grant it to me. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade.27 the heart feels.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. also William Muir. 165. vol. 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. i.
PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.
and everyone else was excluded on principle. and most of them. or way. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. and for the wayfarers. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. “in the service. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. But with him it became a tax.” a a 29 .” those who collect and administer the funds. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. the ﬁrst phrase. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. of All¯h.” All these are a in].Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). being migrants. and to be spent by its representatives. or zak¯t. In the begina ning. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling. In this form. conventional recipients of charity. an old Arab practice. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention.
This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. ’Umar. Also. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts. bear in mind. a heavenly sanction. . the collection of the tithe became aggressive. The resentment against zak¯t was general. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). . The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. equipment. When he reported that Khal¯ b. or 1 pound]” (2134). hearts. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. a a and horses.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. as it still has for his followers. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. Faz¯r. or reconciling. a Ghif¯r. who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men. it had for the Prophet. They had to be ransomed. The second phrase.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. a had refused to pay the tax. or jih¯d. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). I shall be responsible a a . ’Abb¯s. ’Umar was appointed the collector. women. . and after this the tax collection became smoother. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168).30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. and several other tribes. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. “gaining over. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. and as for ’Abb¯s. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. After is the conquest of Mecca. a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. when the power of Muhammad became supreme. . “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). Aslam. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. and children back to Medina as hostages. on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons.
All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. “a sandy plain would be set for him. he called him and asked him if he had any other . Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. . then on one’s wife and children. But he taught. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). as extensive as possible. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. when the Day of Resurrection would come. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. then on relatives and friends. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. and in some ways wisely.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . Following a common practice. the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. And when these cool down. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). . an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. that charity should begin at home.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. In fact. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. For example.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). and then on other good deeds. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. When Muhammad heard this. but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be.
And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i. and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. And. The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). or helping him load his luggage upon it. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. ¯ (2197-2204). and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. Nor was it really revolutionary. The man replied no. URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. gave the money to the owner. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight.32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically. . THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. of course. . . Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). it should be spent on your family. and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife .e. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. and if anything is left. ¯ 1 . .. and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). but it agrees with the general practice. When informed about it. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. is a Sadaqa. not polytheistically or pantheistically. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248).” There is another story that makes the same point. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. there is a Sadaqa . A lady set her slave-girl free. In the same vein. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . you would have a greater reward” (2187). and a good word is a Sadaqa.the a a omission is supplied by the translator].
he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). FORNICATION. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. One of them says: O All¯h. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. with praise to All¯h. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. This is true. is but are not visited by two angels. THEFT. a and the other says: O All¯h. For example.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. then to a a thief. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. give him more who spends.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). telling him to stay where he was until he returned. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. then to a rich man. Muhammad left him to go some other place. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. ﬁrst to an adulteress. for instance. When Muhammad returned. A man is gives charity. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. he remembered his command and remained where he was.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. a .33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers.
freed slave. gifts were welcome. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. zak¯t became secondary. On the one hand. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. the distinction between the two was soon lost. whether as zak¯t for the poor. ’Abd i.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). or on the “Path of All¯h. He took it. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. it is zak¯t. but on the other. But though sadaqa was not permitted. il.. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. ’Abb¯s. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. a al-Muttalib and their posterity. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. when it is distributed among the ummah. it is war booty. In fact.” i. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). a Khums.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. Its distribution created a lot of a . it is still war booty. and Haris b. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. it is zak¯t.e. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own.” said the Prophet (2340). but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. When it is a acquired. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. or as gifts for his Companions. They went a to Muhammad with their request. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. has two aspects.
Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. ’Abdullah b. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. Safw¯n u a a b. ’Uyaina b.than they got.” says Muhammad (2303). many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. and ’Alqama b. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. .or at any rate that others deserved less . The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. . . so that I may incline them to truth. that is. Tufail” (2319). Muhammad had other considerations as well. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim.35 heart-rending among his followers. Aqra’ b. Umayya. Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. There are other instances of the same type. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. H¯bis. a . He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. both mundane and celestial. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. or merit. combined with threats. Aqra. justice. Harb. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Hisn. like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. I often bestow something on a person. Ulasa (2303-2314). Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. Many of them thought they deserved more . in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). Zaid al-Khail.
prominent cheekbones. he added theology.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). a man with deep-sunken eyes. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. stood up. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought.” This angered a a Muhammad. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems.” This silenced the men. In its distribution. ..” a canal in heaven (2313). Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. and Aqra. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils. were merely his “outer garments”. The ans¯rs a were happy. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters.” On hearing this. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. who had received the spoils. Mird¯s. ’Uyaina. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. In other cases when similar complaints were made. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. Muhammad “was deeply angry . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition. thick beard.e. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. but one of them.36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. and shaven head. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. were closer to him). . ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. and his face ¯ became red”. To cajolery. u a Safw¯n. i Muhammad showed favoritism. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. while the Quraish. but he showed patience” (2315). Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. who would do justice if I do not do . fear All¯h and do justice. after the conquest of Mecca. When some people complained. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening.
It was about them. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). who was present. he and his posterity were denounced. them. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. kill them. These men. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . . but it would not go beyond their throat. If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327).37 justice?” ’Umar. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n.” . . according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i.” Though the man was spared. who later on were called the khw¯rij. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h.
38 ¯ CHAPTER 4. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .
Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). waiting for the stars to appear. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. the gates of mercy are opened. This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence.” says Muhammad (2413). but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). Enjoined in the Qur¯n. “Take meal a little before dawn.” a 39 . and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). who ate early and broke their fasts late. it is compulsory. This has its disciplinary role. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. In Isl¯m. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal).
all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. . and would observe fast” a (2454). . by feeding sixty poor men . Muhammad’s wives. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation.” In addition. he should still go on with his fast. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). It has a divine sanction. failing that.40 CHAPTER 5.” and retracted his previous position (2451). Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. failing that. by observing a two-month fast or. he said. Hafsa. Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). Muhammad’s wives. Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. in the month of Ramz¯n. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. a a . . At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently. ’Aisha and Salama. Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. In fact. “They have better knowledge.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . . Prior to Isl¯m.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. and Salama. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. . “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama. Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. ’Aisha.
For example.” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. but with his permission” (2238).” i. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). “Fast if you like and break it if you like. and in the pre-Isl¯mic days. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). And she should not admit any mahram in his house. . “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. but after a .. One is the Ashura fast. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h.e. . so break the fast.41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. while the husband is present. but a I could not do it . A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah.e. in the act of jih¯d. a fast during a journey could be broken. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. i.. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522).” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission.
his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570).” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. some food came as gift. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. All¯h would remove. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a . On the Day of a Resurrection.” He said: “Bring that. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. He may spend it if he likes. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology.” After some time. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. a a a because of this day. but nothing was available. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth.42 CHAPTER 5. but we need not go into them here. One day. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad.and when the last of them has entered.” Muhammad tells us. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers.
The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. a Two years later.” she adds in another had¯ (2685).43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. 632. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. “The best of perfume. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. for no booty was promised and they thought. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). It was also.” Great preparations were made for the occasion. Mecca succumbed. Even so.” says ’Aisha (2683). as the Qur¯n puts it. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). their response on this occasion was great. at their own convenience and for their own gods. was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. called the Treaty of Hodeibia.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. but not before and after. In order to swell the number. “As the caravan moved on. Thus. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him. For his dress. He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. by a kind of delayed action. In the sixth year of the Hijra. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. it reached more than 130. is . Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. Two years later. and a victory it turned out to be. partially armed.” After the fall of Mecca. but their response was lukewarm. the number of participants swelled. D. pilgrimage. a call to submission. ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. 612).” until. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. they knew. or hajj. In this year of victory. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. in March A. ih p. unlike the last time. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. according to some of the narrators. or trouser or cap” (2647).
run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). crow. . He hath performed His promise. then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). two seamless wrappers.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921).e. he should not shave or pare his nails. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. O All¯h”). I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . but he declined it. . “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. so that people should see him. the two “Signs of All¯h. After arriving a a in Mecca.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717).” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks. . and he should be conspicuous” (2919). At every turn. we would have accepted it from you” (2704). its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. I would not have a kissed you” (2912).. . ’Umar said: “By All¯h. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). “Talbiyah. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i.44 CHAPTER 5.” Muhammad never relaxes. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. and then kissing the stick. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. For the same reason. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. rat and voracious dog. . He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad.
the casting of the pebbles. he chants: “In the name of a ir. I do this. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. On the tenth a day. the Almighty. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. God. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980).45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). The pebbles should be small .” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature.“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. on their size and number. and after that . therefore. and garlanded them. and then he marked them. It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). While doing this. Abraham. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. Their number should be odd.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). and then sent them to the House. The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. or a cow or a camel.on the 11th .” says the Prophet (2982). the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). and Ishmael. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). . and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce . also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). While sacriﬁcing the camel. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. a is and on the best time for throwing them. One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby.
241-244). “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). vol. he sacriﬁced sixty camels. Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. and when it was cooked. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). we are told by J¯bir. pp. he said: “Draw water. I would have drawn it along with you. he took it. . O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. . nab¯ a soft drink. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one.” To his followers. a Even Jehovah. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. II. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures.46 CHAPTER 5. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6). Though the nab¯ iz. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. Muhammad took part of the content. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805). his biographers tell us. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . would be considered unhygienic by the impious. . So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). gives us one further detail which a a i. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands.by spitting into it. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. had declared that He “desired mercy. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased. iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. the God of the Jews. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you.
and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. p. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. 620). . This was All¯h’s own command. their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. All¯h. and take them and besiege them. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. He then called a for a barber and. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. . So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. turning his right side to him. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). from others. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. a Now the pilgrimage is over. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. Before a returning home.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. The diﬀerence is striking. kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. . 1 . 29). the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. All ah will enrich you from His grace . the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. and prepare for them each ambush . Before leaving Mecca. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . . But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. let him shave him. and sacriﬁced the animal. after which he turned his left side. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. . . Shaving should begin from the right side. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacriﬁce.
48 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .
one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). II. but not in our own selves. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. A woman is a great safety valve. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. he should come home and cohabit with his wife. p. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. he should come to his wife. “I will not marry women”. 146). “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. ¯ 1 49 . but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. he has no a relation with me” (3236). vol. another said.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). number of wives” (Tabaq at. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. One of his Companions said. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. Zainab. and yet another said. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. “I will not lie down in bed. I observe fast and suspend observing them. 1 In fact. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). We are all too ready to see the devil in others.Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. he is the best who has the largest a i. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. “I will not eat meat”. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. so when one of you see a woman.
Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. Later on. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. consanguinity. IYas b. Verily. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. This is the law. this restriction a was relaxed. on the authority of his father. and do not transgress.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia. ’Abdullah b. rank. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. A. except those who are your hands as slaves . It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. Salama reports. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry].50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. besides this. For example. Also. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). And it is allowed you. Generally speaking. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. . Qur¯n 5:87). but it is not entirely so. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. . H. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). 8] and then forbade it” (3251). etc. aﬃnity. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. God is knowing. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a . religion. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. He told another group: “Yes. with modest conduct. and without fornication.
part II. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. Rauzat-us-Safa. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter.” he told her (3354). and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). . He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. Aﬀ¯n. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). p. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. not even an iron ring for a dowry. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). “A believer is the brother of a believer. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. a One should also not outbid one’s brother. I. The new dispensation led to another abuse. thrice) before severing it.e. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. “Your wives are your tilth. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. vol..51 by Muhammad himself. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. . The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage.” reports Usm¯n b. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . But this point is controversial. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. F¯timah. 2 . The man said yes.” But the man possessed nothing. but made no decision” about her. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. he was sexually weak). But man is inventive. 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. 269). 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356).” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. and he disposes what Allah proposes. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband.
she can seek a divorce. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). but we also desired ransom for them. for that is in the hand of All¯h. and her silence implies her consent” (3307). CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures. The father and the grandfather are i). So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. . and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. as the commentators tell us. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah).” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). . Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. and we desired them . She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. and took some excellent Arab women.” They consulted Muhammad. . Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . And a virgin should also be consulted. . if the husband fails to provide it.” that is. WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. . “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. ¯ According to some schools. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. but it should be through one hole” (3365). a woman has her rights. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat).52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. . Theoretically. those women. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. which means vagina only.
An Arab woman named ’Umra. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. the daughter of one Jaun. .” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. Most High. from “head to foot”.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315).53 whether married or unmarried. All¯h. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger. based on an old moral code. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. The a man replied: “Yes. It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424). “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. but All¯h now gave a new one. “For four Uqiyas. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. . A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. and Muhammad talked to her. . sent down a [the above verse]” (3432).” the man replied.” “For what dower did you marry her. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives.” Muhammad inquired. or holy war. We have nothing which we should give you. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. . a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. A believer came to Muhammad. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman.” Muhammad asked. “Did you cast a a glance at her.” They saw each other. But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions. She was “sitting with her head downcast. who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. serve us drink” (4981). Then.
taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453).” When the morning prayer was announced. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. a believer should visit his wives by turn. . and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). tells us that when Muhammad married her. . she “caught hold of his garment”. Anas. One of the problems. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. he spent three nights with her. . . Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. come u a for prayer. In order to be impartial. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). hearing their voices. one of the servants of Muhammad. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. When he intended to leave. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). But while he is in bed with one of them. Umm Salama. ’Aisha. for example. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. he is allowed to have his other wives around. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). one wife could make over her day to another. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code.54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. one of the wives of Muhammad. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. All¯h is very accommodating. Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). when Zainab came there.
” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). and when you enter. a beautiful girl of seventeen years.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. a a a ‘yes. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes.” the Prophet tells us (3471). Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336). you have the enjoyment” (3462).’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. have you married?’ I said. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when . Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. Saf¯ iyya. they also swelled his harem. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. 3464). SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar.
p. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. “Torture him until you extract a what he has.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). In the morning. after that you may go in to her. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. in violation of his own command. was put to a cruel death (3325). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. Kin¯na. of them. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. you shall not treat her as a slave. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. and her people. was more considerate. p. her husband. 515). were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. “We took Khaibar by force. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). 517).56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception. so I was afraid for you on her account. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b.” according to Anas. and till recently she was in unbelief. then you shall bring her home to your house. Then. and many others were taken prisoners. Many other women. if you have no delight in her. Akhtab. al-’Aww¯m. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. whom Muhammad often followed. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. and be her husband. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. a In any case. and she shall be your wife. Gabriel or no Gabriel. Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. many people were butchered. The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. and you take them captive. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. Dihya was strikingly handsome. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. you shall let her go where she will. Saf¯ iyya.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb. the daughter of Huyayy b. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). ¯ ¯ 4 . spades and strings driving their cattle along. but you shall not sell her for money. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah.” (Incidentally. Her husband. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina.
man or woman. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”. Mustaliq. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. and she was immediately put to death. in the eyes of the Arabs. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. and He revealed His plan. present and future. There was another girl. a pp. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel. who had seen her father. fearing a public scandal. 493. named Zainab.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. as good as his own daughter-in-law. told him to keep his wife for himself. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. p. When Zaid heard about it.” And indeed. and was aroused.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. but Muhammad. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. he oﬀered to divorce her. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. 252-255). according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). Suspecting something wrong. Zaid. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. and therefore. iya a In the division of the booty. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. saw her in a state of seminudeness.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. ¯ ¯ . again Jewish.57 concubine. I detested her. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. On that very day.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. He was saved. II. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). vol. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. and uncle killed. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. husband.
“All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). after three successive menses.” but in Isl¯mic law. With such easy conditions of divorce. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. Somewhat later. a senior Compana ion.times. and ’Umar. According to the Shias. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. adviser. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. Muhammad. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. two of whom were bondswomen. exclusive of slave concubines. According to the translator. Hasan. Ab¯ Bakr.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. married seventy . ’Abdullah. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). who do not count. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. the divorce becomes operative. For example. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured.some say ninety . the son of ’Umar. and friend of Muhammad. . the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. Wives were constantly replaced. The procedure is not diﬃcult. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. People in his day called him the Divorcer. Yet there are certain restrictions. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements.
A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. “that a which covers a sin”). . but it did not fully dissolve the marriage.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. In this form. The broken vow could be expiated. vol. Muir. and according to some traditions. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. a In due course. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. pp. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . As they sat together at a supper. . Life of Mahomet. II. 272-273. son of Rabi. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. In zih¯r. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). For example. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). on emigrating to Medina. or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. . Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. . if not. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. In this sense of the term. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. a a i.
we take them up. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you.” so he tried to calm him down. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. Muhammad. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face.” he told her. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. a As ’Umar entered. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad.” she shouted. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. and jeering. In visiting his numerous wives. His angels. what trouble do you feel from your wives. the beautiful Coptic concubine. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . He was admitted. Hafza was furious.” he told Rah¯b. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all. I entered the mosque. verily All¯h is with you. By All¯h. “O Rah¯b. excitement. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. however. and very soon everybody knew about it. Gabriel.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. Mika’il. on my day and in my own bed. told ’Aisha. promised never to visit Mary again. Muhammad was very angry. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium).” Muhammad relaxed. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. Muhammad’s doorman. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza]. a a I would certainly do that. The request was disregarded. a “I have nothing to do with you. who had even given Muhammad a son. In fact. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. In fact. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. So our women began to learn from their women. trying to pacify her. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. but he insisted. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. She wept bitterly. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. a a kept himself away from his wives. and a if you had divorced them.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. He separated himself from them. let us provide some background information. Hafza. but instead she found him with Mary. “In my room.
” ’Umar narrates. when Muhammad lacked funds. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina.for your hearts have swerved! . they broadcast it. and the angels after that will back him up. ¯ The matter blew over. they were under two of our righteous servants.” All¯h warned them.but if you back each other up against him. or to those charged with authority among them. threatening his wives with divorce. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if . But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. He is the sovereign. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. had¯ 3507). “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. and it was said. . . On this occasion. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). asking for extra money. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506). and Gabriel. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. . and he laughed. All¯h.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. some of them centering round money.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. craving to please thy wives? . Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. verily. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. [but] he visited them. In this new mood.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. . .61 on his face .” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. and they became his wives again. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. and the righteous of the a believers.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment.
but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). Once ’idda has ended.e. and the latter was poor. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. In their place. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima.” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. and could get rid of their wives so easily.62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. .. The wives chose the latter. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. the son of his slave and adopted son. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. Thus. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. observing: “By All¯h. a mere woman. u a Muhammad advised against them both. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. Zaid. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. he beat his wives). but when it is really intended.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. She had two suitors. Zaid (3512). Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult. died. one of Muhammad’s wives. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say.
or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. tribute. a close companion of the Prophet. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. One of a them must be lying. he shall have to consume anger.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. The fact is that slavery. for unless he has four witnesses. for that is forbidden. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. you will kill him. you would lash him.a slave. which is on business transactions . nor can he make an accusation against his wife. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. They were the property of their master (saiyid). Zubair.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. which is most likely in such a case. and if he speaks about it.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. Similarly. but this closes the chapter. even in a their wildest dreams. was no more than a chattel. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. he cannot kill the adulterous man. solve this problem” (3564). a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. The word a a literally means “oath. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. and if he kills. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. and if he keeps quiet. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. owned one thousand slaves when he died. . But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. But the fact remains that Muhammad. Mirkhond. both male and female. after all. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. besides thirty-eight servants. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims.
In any case. of course. mortgaging them. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. In the second. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. gifting them away. In the ﬁrst. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. and marriage. when the naked. and a very common one. To Muhammad. One way. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. however.” She was brought. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. When Muhammad was consulted. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. lending them. not a matter of justice. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master.” according to him (4). selling them. he said: “Bring her to me. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. inheritance. 4:24. 4:25. hiring them out. 23:6) permitted this. wanted to free her. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . Slaves had no property rights. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.these are some of the signs of Doom. On the other hand. On the whole. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia.” says Muhammad (129). in contrition. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive.
any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). though ready to free her for cash money. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself.65 of All¯h. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. even his private parts a for his” (3604). “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. He cannot seek any new alliance. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). he a has two rewards for him” (4097). but must not be overburdened” (3582).” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. Bar¯ ira. . One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. she is a a believing woman” (1094).” But the owner. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. It has its own reward. the condition of a slave is no great evil.” she answered. and emancipate her. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave].
He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). says: “He is. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. .66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. i. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. . and it also records the words of the prophet . . .
Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. Inheritances.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). were also made unlawful. Sal¯ b.Chapter 7 Business Transactions. Gifts. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). During Muhammad’s own lifetime. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. a 67 . He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). Because of their speculative nature. his injunctions became state policy. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands. so his views on the subject should be of interest. Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). Bequests. The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people.
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
by All¯h. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. something which Jesus forbade. a I would not swear. should do that which is better and break his oath. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. One day he said. Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. GIFTS. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. and she gave birth to a premature child. but he found something else better than that. a An oath can be broken.” But only one of them became a pregnant. But he allows you to swear by God. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. INHERITANCES. Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i.” observes Muhammad. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. “He who has to take an oath.” Muhammad says (4038). the vow a a must be fulﬁlled. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070).” says Muhammad (4043). “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be.” But immediately after they were gone. . BEQUESTS. “He who took an oath. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not.e. I would see better than it. but if later on. I cannot provide you a a mount. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. nor by your father. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044).72CHAPTER 7. “Do not a a swear by idols. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). if He so wills.. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed.” says Muhammad (4057). a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled.
eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). and taz¯ Hadd a ir. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). ﬁfteenth. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. qis¯s.. accusing her of adultery. mutilated. (pl. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. or retaliation.e. the procedure of investigating them. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. a ¯ Qis¯s. cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah. Though the Qur¯n a 73 . and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. only one-third is permissible in such cases. but since a slave is a piece of property. one hundred lashes for is. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. only half of the blood-price is due. or killed another. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5).Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. Qur¯n 5:38-39). Had ud) a The fourteenth. but according to one school. cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery. If a slave is killed. For the death of a woman. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. The law also permits qis¯s. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. a i. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). a ihs In cases of murder. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). a his owner must be compensated with his full value. Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd.
When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). and the identity of his killer is unknown.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. ’Ali burnt them to death. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it.is death. He gave us their names. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. though not by burning. he said: If I had been in his place.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. Once a Muslim was found slain. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. wash their hands over the heifer. and he would be surrendered to you. 2 i. and Muhammad adopted a it. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127).74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. For example. QIS AS. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. ih . but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. But when we went to him to take his leave.for giving up Isl¯m . when a man is found slain. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword. The climate of Medina did not suit them. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. he said. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. The a punishment for apostasy . break its neck. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. 1357). 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. ih ¯ i if. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. This establishes their innocence. I. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country.
or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. according to many jurists). an eye for an eye. But in another case. but they were not given water” (4132). Away from the control of the Prophet. a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. The apostates were brought back. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. they killed the shepherds. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. and their feet. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. in Muslim a law. or if he has killed someone (i. bloodwite was allowed.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. When the case was brought to Muhammad. or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints.. someone who is a Muslim. it is retaliatory punishment. and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). . Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132). but technically. The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. which involved the sister of one of the Companions.e. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. She had broken someone’s teeth. and put out their eyes.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative).” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138).
and death for apostasy.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. Zaid. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). the penal law of Isl¯m. “Hers was a good repentance. an exemplary punishment from All¯h. in a long two-page note. when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. Thus. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). Although Us¯ma b. PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). a interceded in her behalf. the beloved of Muhammad. stoning to death for adultery. a a The translator. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. as we have already seen.” ’Aisha adds (4188). ¯ HAD UD Had ud. ’Aisha reports a similar case. HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). . The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. a woman committed some theft. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. her hand was cut oﬀ. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185).76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. causing her to have a miscarriage. and also for drinking wine. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. a hundred stripes for fornication. The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ. nor made any noise. QIS AS. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.
and gave a small quantity of milk. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). the people may forget it and may say. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯.77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). a woman of Gh¯mid. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . “I was one of those who stoned him. She was spared till she had given birth to her child.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. All¯h has ordained . with the lapse of time. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. In this sense. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. a branch of Azd. Therefore. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. By All¯h. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. He repeated his confession four times. . is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. . Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. the term includes adultery as well as fornication. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. ‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h.” says J¯bir b. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. in case I get hold of him. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. receive teaching from me. “The whore and the whoremonger.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). Similarly. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. ’Abdullah. . And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such.
a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz.” The woman was punished for adultery. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. . the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. . a chest-deep hole is dug for her. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23).” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. QIS AS. . Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. in fact. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). And then the multitudes follow. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . but when the case was brought before Muhammad. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. When a woman is to be stoned.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). iya. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. participating believers. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. No such hole need be dug for a man.
and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.79 Among the Jews themselves. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. and he committed me to ﬂog her.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). A slavewoman. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). ’Al¯ says: “O people. “I was one of those who stoned them. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. and if she was unmarried.” he adds (4211).” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. those who i are married and those not married. then avoid it. According to one tradition. by the time of Muhammad. even if she was married. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. . So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). The Prophet was a merciful a man. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses. stoning had fallen into disuse. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. the son of ’Umar. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. but if he gives verdict for stoning. if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. then accept it.” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. 47). a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her. then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes).” says ’Abdullah. was not to be stoned to death.
be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. QIS AS. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. and if he is sick. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. he has two rewards. several days. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. When the i number forty was reached. class of punishment. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). cases. While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. If he does his best but errs. PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). They hold that the number of stripes is to. he still has . ’Al¯ counted the stripes. In such ir. the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. and ¯ to lash him. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. the third Khal¯ a ifa. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237).80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion.
are also discussed in this book. recently published in Pakistan. 1981). November 15. According to the Qur¯n. such as hospitality. but a apparently this is not really so. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). and carpets from mosques. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. Fresh vegetables. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. In cases involving had ud. mats. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. and bread. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. cement. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. such as books. Christians. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. Nor is the testimony of Jews. Also exempt are bricks.81 one reward (4261). In a dispute regarding property or debt. According to some. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. a fruit and ﬁrewood. marble. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. . birds. glass.
QIS AS. HAD U D) . CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8.
Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i.. . but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . . if they respond to you. . and inform them that. All¯h. the spoils of war. . Make a holy a a a war. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven. do not embezzle the spoils. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m.e.Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. if they do so. .” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. If they refuse to a a pay the tax. All¯h. Theologically. demand from them the Jizy¯ . tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. If they refuse to migrate. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294). . a a trying to be universal through conquest. . they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. accept it from them a . By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. . a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. . a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. Historically. Medina. 83 .
All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. But if they are killed.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9. al-Madina. this shocked the Arabs. If need be. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance.” says the Qur¯n a . and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia.” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d. As the Prophet a says. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. unknown to the Arabs before. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. this requirement can be waived. “cunning. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. had¯ 4324). or. Sa’b b. All is fair in love and war. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. no song need be made about it. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. it is lawful and pure. as some others have translated it. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. “Eat ye the spoils of war. “war is a stratagem” (4311). Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder.
This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1).” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. It belongs to the Cause. Muhammad told them that the next time. material incentives had to be provided. ¯ . Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. “Permit us to follow you. and also as a favor and extra incentive. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. he a a is given a share in it. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. If he fought for such accessory rewards. as administered by his Apostle. in this case the cause of God. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). DIVISION Essentially. a In fact. i. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. In fact. where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. in commenting on i.” but he would answer. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. and their dwellings. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). they would say. when it would be easy to win booty. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. For example. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. “Ye shall by no means follow us. 1934). The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m.85 (8:69). all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. he fought from wrong motives. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war.. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri.
Commenting on this verse. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). restore what he misappropriated. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol.86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion.” the muj¯hids demanded. suspicion. p. which he took by surprise. 594. . The booty was very large. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. believed in by any sensible person. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . and was full of claims. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. he shall. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. pretty rough. II. MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. ¯ ¯ .” said All¯h (3. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. grievances. after the capture of Hunain. and supernal intervention had i. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. . surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him.-161).” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. and accusations. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. recriminations. in fact. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. Within a few months. . The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. on the Day of Judgment. If any person is so false.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. had¯ 868). then if you obey.
The economic view prevailed. pp. to His Apostle. any such property that cannot be carried away. it is entirely at his disposal. vol. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. or children. His Apostle.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. And at his command. “They are our kith and kin. One of these was Nassar b. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. belongs wholly to the Prophet. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives.” which ’Al¯ readily did. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. . This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. at least in this case. I. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. Alh¯ris. The fai’. A Muslim combatant. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. on the other hand. According to this code. O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head. as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ. . should be destroyed. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. whether men. except for a few who were killed. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools. and a the traveller” (59:7). and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. 3 .” he advised. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. part II. Muqd¯d. all prisoners. 338-339). i fellow was Utbah. orphans. the poor. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. the traveller a . it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. women. when they are no more. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. During a retreat. In due course. gains from a war not actively fought. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. He advised that they should be put to death. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. to the Muslims in general. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. . his family. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land.” (8:41). When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. including the cattle. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca. Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers. Another unfortunate i. Along with the khums. the poor. the orphans. his family.
such a as their public prayers and festivals. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. but later on. they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. language in every age. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers. called jizy¯. they are not to ride is on horseback. those to whom the Book has been brought. and mosques). until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). They are not to build new churches and temples. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. II. 889). p. forts. . This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u . also belongs to the fai’. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. as the Muslim empire grew. in short. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762).” as the translator puts it (note 2230). “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. Imperialism has the same is. but more often this was not done. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. Another imposition.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. they cannot engage in public worship. though they can repair old ones. and for the building of bridges. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. it was extended to other subject peoples.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. . and . It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain.
Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. . . “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people .89 after embracing Isl¯m. They got a large number of camels as booty. he had properties at Khaibar. . and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. . whether slaves or women or property. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). As a chief. according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. were conﬁscated by Muhammad. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina.” he says (4340). These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. u ir. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. So did the others. He also had seven other gardens in Medina. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. He u ir. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. . As the amount of war booty increased. Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. a but kept a large part for himself.” his Coptic slave-wife. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof.
are described by name. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. u a Many battles. the Prophet’s daughter. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. raids. decide between me and this sinful. It was not much of charity. The denial a i. or as it is popularly known. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). and battles of the Muslims. though. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. ’Abdullah. There are other traditions too. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352).” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). of this property so angered F¯tim¯. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). u Prophet. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). the Battle of Badr a (4394). the number a was twenty-one. i]. for example. the Prophet’s uncle. Arqam.” But. ghazw¯t and sariya. According to Zaid b. a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. treacherous. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. The conquest of . there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. 4465). the Battle of the Ditch (4412). Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. In due course. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. Instead. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. According to J¯bir b. “Commander of the Faithful. Zaid (4469). ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives.” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. not always in the order in which they were fought.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. the Battle of Azh¯b. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. They took their dispute to ’Umar. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). These are of two kinds. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa.
’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot. . if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. several miracles are mentioned. p. J¯bir b. numbering one thousand men. EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. and thy Lord has sent me to thee .” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425).91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. For example. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. On another occasion. . We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). On many an occasion. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. at the Battle of Badr. II. I would do that. . During the Battle of the Ditch. We went out . People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. . Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. . If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth.” When the answer a . To the consternation of J¯bir and his family.” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). 467). “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. O All¯h. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. .” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. vol. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. In most of the battles. Muhammad came with a the whole army. and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. a The water welled up. Either he prayed or spat into the well.” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. part II.
and some ye made prisoners. [they] spent the night in prayer.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. repeating passages from their scriptures. . we have arrived. By God. were dug in the market-place . and cast terror into their hearts. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. . their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. And He made you heirs of their lands. A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. III. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. Mahomet. . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. until they too fought against him. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. and distributed their women. vol. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. During the night graves or trenches . the son of ’Umar (4364). According to ’Aisha. [so that] some ye slew. we haven’t laid down ours. . So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. . their houses. Then he killed their men. himself a spectator of the tragedy. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. pp. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. a where they had gathered for shelter. . We give the story as summarized by W. . 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards .” “Where?” Muhammad asked. children and properties among the Muslims . . So march against them. Each company was made to sit down .” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. . . gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. . they surrendered . when these were ready in the morning. and granted favour to them u ir. . Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle.” we are told by ’Abdullah. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). . and exhorting one another in constancy.” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive.
” Ibn Ish¯q adds. The booty was divided into four classes . Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. . cattle. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . He received to each inquiry the same reply . When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . He replied. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. Tabari a i. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. an aged Jew. 303-304. and chose to remain (as.But slay me also. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. of Huwey.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. chattels.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. ¯ ikh i. .they had all been slain already . pp. For Zoheir. . He invited her to be his wife. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses. . indeed. having refused marriage. and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. took his seat there. Having sated his revenge. . till the whole were slain . and gave him over to another. another biographer. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. . provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. . they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. strike high and hard. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. but she declined. . she had no alternative) his slave or concubine. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. There were (besides little children. I entreat thee. it is sharp. and slaves.of K¯b. from his share of these.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. and butchered in cold blood.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. I. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon .land. . of Ozz¯l. . in exchange for horses and arms. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. . . a i. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. of female slaves and servants. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end.” S¯bit refused. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. and there beheaded. Here take my sword. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up.
” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. but God the most High has given thee victory. Rauzat-us-Safa. They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. .” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . 465. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. . Thus. Besides the aged Zoheir. . he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. . p.” He too was brought before Muhammad. .” Then he sat down. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. a Jewish leader. 752. The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. ’Aisha says of her. 476. p. They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. his head was struck oﬀ. vol. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. 464. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. II. Akhatab.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. Huyayy b. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. God’s command is right. A book and a decree.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. and at a signal from Muhammad. p. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. and there is no remedy . A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction. before dying. 7 In fact. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. and has made me thy judge. . ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. saying. p. He who forsakes God will be forsaken .94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. ¯ ¯ . u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. part II. .
p. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. 480. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. ¯ ira. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. and. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. I. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. Umro b. struck the idol with his pickaxe. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. “O God.” he prayed to All¯h. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. . in A. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. pp.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. and not to the Emigrants. I. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. pp. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. a u a a and Sa’d b. their goddess. 546. who were from Medina. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. pp. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. Shu’ba. 9. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. His people killed him.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. H. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. A little later. i a ¯ vol. therefore. . He took Mecca by surprise. 484-486). Kh¯lid b. . Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. 12 ibid. 544. Deserted by Her servants. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. if. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. wipe them out. one of u a ira their kin.. to demolish the idol of All at. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. When you meet them tomorrow. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. In ﬁghting the Meccans.
accompanied by some accomplices. True. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. Spiritual darkness. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. whether Jehovah or All¯h. The permission was given. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. selfa a churning. he lured his intended victim outside. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). “Who will kill Ka’b b. self-shedding. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. ASSASSINATION Assassination. asmit a). a After the conquest of Mecca. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). Then the assassin. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397).even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. According to the Yogas. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . self-discovery. Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. in egoistic life (aham. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. or falsehood.” said Muhammad. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h.96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. went to Ka’b’s house at night. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. and His Messenger. Wonderful! To say the least. the Exalted. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. . a more psychological and mystical religion. like jih¯d. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. Through them. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. u Similarly. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. has a source deep in our being.
.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over.97 like the voice of murder.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. On learning this. 369. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. p. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. the unlucky victims of his aggression. 13 Hass¯n b. travelling by night a with their light swords. ¯ ¯ ibid. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. Further details are available in various other accounts. 368-369. 368. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374).” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. he should respond to the call.. Another Ka’b. 14 . Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet. Sabit. Maslama and his foster brother. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. another poet. 15 ibid. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. p. pp. describes the assassins “bold as lions. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer. Very soon. a poet. as we have seen. Ab¯ M¯’ila.” He went down and was killed (4436). When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. u Some.
98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). When the man said he did not. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. For example. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. . Safw¯n b. (4472). According to the translator. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. and a both were polytheists. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns.
food. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs. The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. in all matters. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. So in a Muslim polity. dress. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. general morality. rather. is. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. marriage. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. zak¯t. and so on. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. In Isl¯m. and pilgrimage. political and intellectual. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). non-Muslims. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind.
his wife F¯tima. the Prophet’s daughter. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. a As a result.be Thou kind to him. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. the holy lands of Isl¯m). a . may one day revive this idea. helped by petrodollars. though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad.” Muhammad says (4476). and scholars. Thanks to Muhammad. and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. “O God. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. ﬁnancial tycoons. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. the Saiyids. being subservient to the unbelievers among them.” says Muhammad (4473-4474).be Thou hard upon him. In another version. 1299-1326). Later. and Ruler of the Faithful. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. rulers. The present-day Sauds. A branch of them. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. D. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. and i. They were warriors.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494).100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. emerged in Egypt. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. for six hundred years. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. necessary foundations. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them . and the disbelievers among them.
and should appeal to me for help. but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. have to invoke God at every step. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). This is a big loophole which was fully used. “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). a Qur¯n 4:59). His Apostle. and to his moral and spiritual sense. In fact. Very thorough.101 There are other conventional exhortations. “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. then that person is designated as the . a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. for as we know. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). a Some exceptions are mentioned. not to the oﬃcer. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). As he lay dying. obey All¯h. it is a religious obligation. “O you a who believe. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. . he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. If the electors choose someone unanimously. and this is a gift presented to me. War booty is sacred. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). gifts are given to the oﬃce. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. .
If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. ’Umar. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. 68. 3. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). answering a follower. .” Under the circumstances. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565).” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. If there is an equal division. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). “Kill him. men of authority. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched.102 Khal¯ ifa. ¯ CHAPTER 10. 1 All four points are taken from S. Shiaism. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. then those two should be killed. Ghaﬀari. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. you should listen and obey” (4554). WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. 4. his own son and one of the electors. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. p. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees.
which is also an a important subject of this book. or pregnancy (note 2331). In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. when he was ﬁfteen. he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). Again. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. but the Prophet did not accept him. Yet again. nocturnal emission. For example. This is understandable. Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). there will appear a number of impostors. ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. and this time he was accepted. That decided the issue. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a . Similarly. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). “Beware. You are to guard against them” (4483). but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). for purposes of marriage. strength consists in a is archery. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult. The next year. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances.
But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. “I love to ﬁght in the . they became desperate. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. . “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted . So the rules were changed. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). but since this is not always practical. one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year.” In fact. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles.104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. According to some ﬁqh schools. his body will not decay. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. After a the conquest of Mecca. All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). Having no home and no livelihood. “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. . Muhammad had the same desire for himself. Without jih¯d. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. if he dies in the Way of All¯h. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. there is no Isl¯m.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb).
praying. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. . and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. a such as fasting. . “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). . Therefore. but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. . “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). . What is that act? . The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). and going on pilgrimage. had¯ 4638).” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. . One said: “I do not care. to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. Muhammad was consulted. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . . and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. .105 way of All¯h and be killed. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer. [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). if after embracing Isl¯m. But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great.
a stone struck him and he died a martyr. Another puzzle seeking a solution. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). In the engagement.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. . one the slayer and the other the slain. . [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. Two men. Two men. We may give here another paradox. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). 519 ¯ ¯ . both go to Paradise. When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. Asked to explain why. But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. p. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. . he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659).” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. without having had the time to say a single prayer. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. go to hell but never “gathered together.
Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). II. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. In such instances. i.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. is . and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. Give them time to separate. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb.” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). had¯ 571). and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. Two men did not heed this command. Homely wisdom. let them not be taken by surprise.
108 ¯ CHAPTER 10. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .
Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). then eat what these a hounds have caught for you. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. cutting the windpipe. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h.” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). some mub¯h (permitted).Chapter 11 Hunting. When slaughtering an animal. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. one should draw the knife across its throat. All¯h is great”). even if the game is killed. a a a However. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. a its ﬂesh is not lawful.” says the Qur¯n (2:172). One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). and softened them a good deal. with the help of a particular incantation. GAME There are similar restrictions on game. ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 . for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog.
Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. a cheetah. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755).a falcon. “When you shoot your arrow. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). . “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. CHAPTER 11. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. . It fed them. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. they ate a a even the dead animal. The beast was dead.” and as they were hard pressed. There is a story behind this particular permission. . for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). But if it cannot be avoided. and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). HUNTING.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water. do not eat from their utensils. “three hundred of them. recite the name of All¯h. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. . ASSES It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778).” J¯bir tells us. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes.” he says. then wash them before using them” (4743). “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. During the journey. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting . and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull .” for a month till they grew bulky. The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734).
To illustrate. Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. so when you kill. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything.” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. caught and slaughtered it. we give another tradition. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). and he accepted them” (4801). as is legally required” (4768). KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. . the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). nor do I prohibit it. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. LOCUSTS. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts.” came the order. HARES The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. . LIZARDS. So every one of you should sharpen his knife. He did not accept it. The eating of locusts is permissible. saying: “I neither eat it. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. “Throw away your pots.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. slaughter in a good way. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. a a HORSES The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. . when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses. u a u Similarly. The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. narrated by R¯ﬁ b. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). Shadd¯d b. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847).” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803).
except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). is But in order to be meritorious. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. I. They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen.” Muhammad tells us. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h. THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). In Muhammad’s lifetime. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. which means “to split or pierce. which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. HUNTING. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. i. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837). In many religious traditions. the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h. had¯ 1392). before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29).112 CHAPTER 11. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. and from blood. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. and from things strangled. In Isl¯m. . the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. too.” Another word used is nahr. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter.
” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. O All¯h. but we have no knives with us. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). This is understandable.” He then said to ’Aisha. . for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. “Give me the large knife. “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845). but more than six months’ age]” (4836). then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce. Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it. we have made for you as among the symbols from God . and when they are a . black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow.” When she did.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. unless it is diﬃcult for you. PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). is “As for the nail. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams. he took the knife and the ram. .” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). the translator explains. According to Ab¯ Huraira. it is bone.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. While sacriﬁcing.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs.
and Ubayy b.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. a and he thus turned upon his heels. . We experience a new togetherness. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. and came out” (4881). Mu’¯z b. Ab¯ Duj¯na. he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. Ka’b drinking.114 CHAPTER 11. but when he returned. . there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. ’Abd al-Muttalib. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. “Hamza’s eyes were red. HUNTING. We made animals subject to you. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). Liquor was forbidden. who put on his mantle. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. DRINKS The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). Ab¯ Ayy¯b. a a Let it be so if you like. went to where Hamza i was. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. people said. Baiad¯. In animal sacriﬁce. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. and he a i a brought his camels along. . “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. and began to reprimand him. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. Jabal. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. esting story. narrates an interi. . the Prophet’s uncle. Ab¯ Ubaida. He tied them up outside. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . that reaches All¯h. all this changes. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. a new reverence for all living beings.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. “It is not their meat nor their blood.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. the ﬂesh comes to us. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl.
Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). or hollow stumps (4913-4995). the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. there is not even a disapproval. he tells ’Umar. gourds. u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971). We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. mention the name of All¯h. Ibn ’Abb¯s. a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. In another tradition. green pitchers. MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982).115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. together (4896-4912).” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). the Prophet’s cousin.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). . a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. . . They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. . How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. it is not forbidden. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant.
’Abdullah b. In ordinary course. one “must vomit” (5022). Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. he left it” (5121). It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. and thanks for the mothers. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. with the blessing of the Prophet. HUNTING. but it is permissible for other Muslims. and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040).116 CHAPTER 11. because Muhammad did so (5072). Still. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. . Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. In fact. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. he ate it and if he did not like it. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). if one drinks water standing. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. thanks for the farmer who produced it. for feeding 130 persons (5105). A laudable practice. sisters and wives.
Similarly. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.117 However. ¯ a negate Him. That way we really profane Him. no God can legitimize it. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. Be a meat-eater if you like. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. .
118 CHAPTER 11. FOOD AND DRINK . HUNTING.
for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). he promised to wash them. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). were considered excellent (5179-5180). Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). The mantles of Yemen. General Behavior. on the other hand. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). Magic. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). “Do not wear silk. Decorations. SILK Silk is also forbidden. ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. 119 .Chapter 12 Clothing. These were striped and made of coarse cloth. “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). Poetry. Greetings. Visions.
His head and his beard were white like hyssop. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). . [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. CLOTHING. MAGIC. In fact. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. . The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. HAIR Not only clothes.” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals.” reports Maim¯na. the father of Ab¯ Bakr. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). DECORATIONS. whether of birds or animals or men. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. On seeing portraits on a curtain. They eﬀectively keep out the angels. “Then on that very morning.120CHAPTER 12. . met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. GREETINGS. POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. so oppose them” (5245). ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). . On the day of the conquest of Mecca.
having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. He forbade women to add false hair to their head. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”). Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. ’Abdullah. This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310).” and it is a perfectly good name. and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). a . having the same meaning (5338). Yas¯r (“wealth”).121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. the son of ’Umar. ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. Rab¯h (“proﬁt”). or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309).. those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). i. and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. Barra means “pious. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”).e.
it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. DECORATIONS. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. . . A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. a a When other Muslims objected. gave birth to a baby. MAGIC. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. . Q¯sim. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. Asm¯. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. Muhammad called for some dates.122CHAPTER 12. He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. When a man seeks permission three times. DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. and it is not granted. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. GREETINGS. . “he should come back” (5354). The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). CLOTHING. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head.
oﬀer him greetings. but Muhammad did not respond. and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). .’ you say. “All¯h. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book.123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations. went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself. . Also. when he invites you to a feast accept it. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). and when he falls ill visit him. you should say: “The same to you” (5380).” the Prophet replied a (5400). And all should greet the children (5391-5392). when he seeks your counsel give him. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h.” an ans¯r asked. Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”).” “But what about the husband’s brother. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’.” says ’Aisha a (5397).” His hope was fulﬁlled. or if that cannot be helped. then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377).” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”. “Husband’s brother is like death. the Exalted and Glorious. “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). and when he dies follow his bier” (5379). who was tall in stature. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian. we recognize you. The Prophet himself followed this practice. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯. “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. When you meet him. One day. .
it caused his last illness. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classiﬁcation. poisons. DECORATIONS. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. and according to some traditions. you should take a bath” (5427).” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact. I.” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. 156. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. ¯ . by All¯h. the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. GREETINGS. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . spells. CLOTHING. medicine. those who had brought it about. or. of course. vol. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. p.e. A’sam id [who cast the spell].” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. 1 Tabaq at. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. and the way they did it. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. “could not come at his wives.. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him. but. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. MAGIC.” and that “it was Lab¯ b. and incantations. a u In the same S¯ra.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. During this period.124CHAPTER 12.e. 1 On another occasion. the Prophet got well. and deposited at the bottom of a well. it had no power over him (5430). In fact.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness.. This saved him for the time being. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. As the knots were untied. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428).
. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. Among others. so you may go” (5541). reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). Cool it down with water. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at.e. NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina.” and “no star promising rain. NO HAMA. It has a sexual potential. LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers. it is a wonder drug. don’t run out of it” (5493). no epidemic disease. and when it has broken out in the land where you are. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. On another occasion. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad.” Muhammad says (5484). the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444).125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. He says that according to some Muslim scholars. .” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). i. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). don’t go to it. no ghouls. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. According to the Arab belief of that time. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance.
For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. and fortune-tellers.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins.126CHAPTER 12.are very diﬀerent. “There is no transitive [i. including India. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature.e.. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. DECORATIONS. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true. but good omens please me. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. GREETINGS. augurs. Muhammad corrected . no divination. MAGIC. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable.. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today. The two worlds . epidemic] disease. and the law of causality.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. then it is in a horse. nature.” the translator assures us (note 2603). POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). CLOTHING.e. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. i. soothsayers. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. According to the translator. a belief found in the lore of many countries. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. he believed in good omens and luck. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). the woman and the house” (5526).” he says (5519). ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.
Muhammad explains: “All¯h.” So they too should be killed (5545). the Exalted and the Glorious. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. Like snakes. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538).’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it.” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. . Their sight ﬁlled him with fear. WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. and Jinn (72:8-10). Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says.127 this belief and provided another explanation. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. ANTS. S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10). In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. the jinn has his chance. a is SNAKES. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. had¯ 1963). then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18).” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other.
p. DECORATIONS. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). as in the cases of ’Asm¯. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. When Mecca was conquered. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. One relates to the use of correct words. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. his brother. according to Ibn Ish¯q. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . MAGIC. At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). POE Ants fared better. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). . 597. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. True. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). he did not think highly of them. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. If you do not do that. the only status he cared to claim. “Catch the Satan. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. a u had already ﬂed in all directions. Ka’b b. the daughter of a Marw¯n.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). then get to some safe place. POETRY. CORRECT WORDS. ¯ ¯ . Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. even by the method of assassination. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself.” Muhammad commanded. . and Ka’b ibn Zuhair.128CHAPTER 12. The book ends on a compassionate note. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. VISIONS The next three books are very small. CLOTHING. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik.” he advised. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. who was already a convert. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Ab¯ Wahb. “O Apostle. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. GREETINGS. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats. . But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one.” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. He punishes it through His living Apostle. Ummaya. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). “He asked me to count them. many of them by Anas. the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729).133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain.” the recipient said (5730). ’Aisha. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. He found Muhammad most valorous. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. however. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). most courageous. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. provided it was no sin” (5752). Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. but when it did. The man was overwhelmed. I would give you so much. embrace Isl¯m. This was called his charitable disposition.
a is He used to part his hair. eyes. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. One is called jih¯d. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. His perspiration “shone like pearls.134 CHAPTER 13. or charity. Rob Peter to pay Paul. “He put on a red mantle over him. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. the other sadaqa. and even heels. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). He a also found his face very handsome. hair. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. appearance. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771).” His body a was also fragrant. a is complexion.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. so All- . Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. The Prophet’s body was soft. “Do not be angry. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa.
He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. ” (5765). Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). Umm i. . . in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. J¯bir. Muhammad’s wife. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. . younger u than he. and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). and his head was lowered (5767). according to the translator. PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). According to Ub¯da. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. “his forehead perspired” (5764). .135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). under its inﬂuence. Another man. that a revelation was involved in the matter. His hair was collected. Salama. . . a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). ’Abdullah b. In fact. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. Furthermore.
a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. Sometimes. MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. and do not go after my personal opinion.. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. When Muhammad. a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. In one place. Muhammad a gave his decision. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. had¯ 5817). the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. is. I do not think this approach can go very far. he said: “If there is any use of it. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. then they should do it. i. It suﬃced him . Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve.” As a result. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. in another three hundred (5658). Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . learned this. On another occasion. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined.his father’s sister’s son. by the Lord.136 CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. a practical man.e. “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). then do accept it. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h.
” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. the Arab Bedouins. and Moses. a dispute rose. though on his own terms.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854). For example. He knew his own people. on the day of Uhud. narrated the whole story.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). Their religion is. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. But when he failed in his bid. the Jew said: “By All¯h. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. Who chose Moses amongst mankind. During the dispute. Speaking of himself and Jesus. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. But he could not . To the Jews and Christians. Muhammad’s world was not very large. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. Recognizing the other prophets. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. having diﬀerent mothers. On the battleﬁeld. and supplicated him. served a still greater purpose. a is Abraham. Therefore. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. the tribes allied with them. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. It provided him with an apostolic lineage.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. and therefore they were as good as apostates. he oﬀered his leadership. a Jew was selling goods. however. the neighboring Jews and Christians.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. “Had you not weighed it.
for one is also the other. seldom both. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too. for they are all part of one human brotherhood.138 CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs. . don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. for they all express the same Truth. an attitude of either/or. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah.
628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). members of his family like F¯tima. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. “the father of the maiden. he answered: “ ’Aisha.” Muhammad said u a (5873). ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. ’Aisha’s 139 . To be saved. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. ’Umar. Salama. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. Husain. and ’Usm¯n.” the maiden being ’Aisha. but he soon came to be known by another name. and u a a i.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. D. it is enough to be subservient. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. ’Al¯ Hasan. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. The followers need have no other. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. and Zainab.
the Prophet’s cousin and uncle. “To Ab¯ u Bakr. ‘God kill him. Even ’Aisha. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. pp. even half-believingly. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. I said. 527-528). Outside. p. struggle for power began in earnest. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. 1 2 . ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. I. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. p. Eventually. one of their own tribesmen. made the most of his dead body. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. as the u a a chief. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. ’Ub¯da. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). u Zubair. his favorite wife.” ’Umar threatened them. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m.140 CHAPTER 14. and her brother too. we jumped on Sa’d b. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. The next day. during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. was kept in the dark about it . with a sword in his hand. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died.” Muhammad answered (5878).’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. u so that he might write a document. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. ’Ali a respectively.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. 279. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. “In doing this. her father. “Either take the i.. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. and you are our Wazeers. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. As soon as Muhammad died. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. 529). for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). Ab¯ Bakr. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him.
“Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). KHATTAB ’Umar b. ’Umar. And lo. modestly mentions a only three. however. Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. and ’Umar that they be a killed. Had it not been for a previous . The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. nor stand at his grave. while asleep. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . Once. by a divine injunction. ’Umar wept when he was told about it. a But Muhammad persisted. Badr” (5903). Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. as he prayed. ’Umar was fanatical. . the direction was changed to Mecca. narrow-minded. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. for they rejected God and His Apostle. the place of the Jewish Temple. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. . All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. . The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. In fact. and strong in his hatred. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away.” When he inquired. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904).” Muhammad observed (5885). ’Abb¯s. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. and in case of the prisoners of a im.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. Later on.
we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld.” he told Muhammad. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. himself drawing water from a tank. even including newborn babes.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. he made it clear. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. In the Muslim annals. his name appears only once. a founder par excellence. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. by L¯t and Uzza. III. a i. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). a True. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. Life of Mahomet. but u he drew only “two buckets”. on another occasion. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism.” he said (4360). and said to him tauntingly.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. and the necessary religious rhetoric. an ideology.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). the son of Soheil. But after him. “Well. you are beaten now.” The man said. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head. a continuing motive. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. spread of Muslim hegemony. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. He forged new instrumentalities. a new incentive. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. p.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head.142 CHAPTER 14. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. as we have already seen. . a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. “Nay. who provided it with a theory.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. its real founder was Muhammad himself. it was something to be proud of. 3 On another occasion. These ah¯d¯ we are told. An Arab. provided a new taste for booty. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. on the state’s payroll. He put every Arab. there was also “weakness in his drawing. vol. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. 110. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs.
the man is a false Muslim. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. Rauzat-us-Safa. who was taken prisoner i. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond. Hash¯m b. the family to which u a he belonged. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. in the Battle of Badr. p. u According to Muslim tradition. releasing him without any ransom. ¯ ¯ . Only a few decades ago. vol. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. II. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. 301. After she died.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. did not like this.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. Umm Kuls¯m. so contrary to human nature and custom. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. When this reached the ears of Muhammad.” he said aloud. p. and also to spare his uncle.” he said. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. al-’As. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. in Russia and even in China. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. But one Muslim. part II. he was much troubled. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. al-’Abb¯s. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. 507. p. Ab¯ Huzayfa. who replied. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. But there is nothing unusual about it. al-Mugh¯ a ira. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. 739. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. a ¯ ’USMAN B. whom he married. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. “O Ab¯ Hafs. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. In the same battle. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.
. the Book of All¯h . From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is.” Other doctors of theology and law. is such that it excluded . “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). saying.” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family. and Husain. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family.144 CHAPTER 14. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. did not agree with this conclusion. and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. It can be subtle about nothing[s].” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913). . am leaving behind you two weighty things: . “O All¯h.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). a convert from the proletarian strata. with great ingenuity. . the order of truth it deals with. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. at the hands of his brethren in faith. reclining against a pillow .” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. a a family. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. But when ’Usm¯n came. . Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. and its way of arriving a at truth. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. is receiving a visitor. Hasan. In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. they are my i. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. was a burdened with work that was too heavy.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. therefore. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. [and] the members of a my household. From the arguments advanced on both sides. it was Ab¯ Bakr. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. ’ALI B. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died.” he said (5915). There is another interesting had¯ given under this head.
it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. Kh¯lid b. 8 On another occasion. a man of ninety years. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. his own saliva as a cure. II. p. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. Ja’far. The Prophet was furious. ¯ ¯ ikh i. 5918). and applied i. ’Al¯ is from me. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. pp. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. a i. During the Battle of the Ditch. II. At one i point in the contest. p.” ’Umar says (5917). vol. 9 After Muhammad’s death.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. All¯h is partial. 7 .” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. he took a slave-girl i. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. i saying: “I shall never do it. therefore. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. involving a complaint of a similar nature. ’Amr i b. vol.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. i. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. 521).e. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. Wal¯ the second-ina id. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. ’Abb¯s. complained to Muhammad. When Muhammad was dying. part II. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. 292-293.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. command. thou hast deceived me.” The story is given by Mirkhond.” But ’Al¯ declined. I. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. 456. ’Abdu Wudd. On the day of Khaibar.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. II. had¯ 1582). vol. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i.” (Tabaq at. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. Let us. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. people will never give us the Caliphate again. thy brother i is coming behind thee. his uncle. II. i i” i.” at the complaint. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. “his face becoming red with anger.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). had¯ 1569)..
he got Zaid to divorce her and married her.” This. . Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. ’Aisha tells us. 112). by order of his lordship i the apostle . . “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. was the old polytheistic morality. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). following the old Arab custom. . the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. he was also his executioner. He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). After he was appointed to this responsibility. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz.146 CHAPTER 14. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. 10 ¯ SA’D B. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. eight hundred strong. Until now.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . HARIS Zaid b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. however. he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid. . AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. . . and when the night set in. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. We give one example.. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. obey them not” (29:8. pp. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. 477-478. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. had¯ 5933). This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. but after this marriage.
’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija.147 natural father. Muhammad himself says that “women. was the best of the women of her time (5965). and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. Once. II. though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. For example. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. . Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. 147-164). a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. therefore. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. had¯ 5956). and food. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. . Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. perfumes. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). I il ate from it.” (Tabaq at. Another woman. dispatched home.” Muhammad said (5966). and Zainab. the marriage was not consummated. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. Salama. in a ﬁt of jealousy. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. According to Muhammad. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. ija. newly married. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. pp. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. She was turned out. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. and his Lord . Ibr¯h¯ died. the daughter of Imran. The marriage was consummated when she was nine. ¯ . Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. vol. she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. i With some women. his ﬁrst wife. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. just as Mary. I often heard him praise her.
. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. she went back. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. “Where I would be . by the Lord of Muhammad. they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. But. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her.” Muhammad made no answer. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. Even during his last illness. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima.” a as ’Aisha puts it. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. . Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. in the words of ’Aisha. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. and having been thus silenced. you say: ‘No. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. On another occasion. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet.” ’Aisha generously agreed. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977).” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.” “O daughter.” About Muhammad’s own behavior.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa.’ and when you are annoyed with me. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. I will never talk a to him about this matter. verily. but all very convenient. his daughter. She said yes. A time-honored a practice. When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority.” ’Aisha narrates. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. as luck would have it. A rule within a rule. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984).148 CHAPTER 14. Once. though a strict code might call this bribery. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. . but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . to him.
” ’Aisha tells us (5985). “And when it was my turn. his cousin. meaning “masters. ’Aisha took the hint. She had two surviving sons. Tabaq at. if.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. and they agreed. Muhammad looked at it intently. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. “the virgin.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997).” ’Aisha adds.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. Fat¯ u u ima. pp. p. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. took the twig from her brother’s hand. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. I would not allow them. and in my bosom. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. i. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them.149 tomorrow. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. During his last illness. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. just a few days before his death. After Mecca was conquered. vol. and even. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. known as the Saiyids. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. his wife. in the last moment of his death. I. “The Prophet died in my room. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. He Just before Muhammad died. for my daughter is part of me. on my day. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. put it in her mouth. Hasan and Husain. ¯ ¯ 12 . but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. our salivas mingled. complained about it to Muhammad. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. 678-679. In fact. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife. 282).” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings.
some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. Mu’az. p. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. she was his only wife while she lived. THE MERITS OF SA’D B. but his bier was very light to carry. MU’AZ When Sa’d b. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). ¯ There are other traditions about him. Hakam in revenge. 469. In the battle over the succession that raged later on. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. During the Battle of Uhud.150 CHAPTER 14. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). one Marw¯n b. ¯ ¯ . He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. Therefore. Thanks to his political connections. the third Khal¯ a ifa. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. Sa’d was a a fat man. In the case of Khad¯ ija. sitting on a camel.
in Mecca. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. he said. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. an important Companion. Umayya b. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. On the day of the Battle of Badr. Khalaf and his son. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. Umayya.” he replied.. Khalaf. The next a day. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. “Yes. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. more kind a and compassionate. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n.” he added. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book).151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba.” Muhammad said to him. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. Consistent with his lowly position. Seen through less-believing a eyes. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. the Aus. p. he “had looted. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. a carrying coats of mail” which. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. . Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. the poet. “By God. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). Mu’az. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. 301.” he said.
part of an aggressive politics. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. When Mecca was conquered. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. Muir. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. father. Sim¯k b. They cried in pain and horror. Just then. 18 In fact. At the Battle of Khaibar. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. 68. ¯ ¯ W. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. as they have always been. whose husband. “By God.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. 302-303.” The Muslims gathered. 16 17 .” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld. pp. the son of Ab¯ Jahl.” In later days. I will. Umayya a b. ’Akrama. 611-612). But organized conversions are now. vol. decided to become a Muslim.152 CHAPTER 14. Life of Mahomet. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. after the great carnage of the day. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. There is a telling example. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. by their hands. They bring no change in the individual. vol. and brother had just been murdered. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. Bil¯l kept shouting.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. now his prisoners. pp. p. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. often they make him worse. IV. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. II. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose.
give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. . u a which he knew very well. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. and commissioned them to write satires. the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. One of them was the son of ’Umar.” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. M¯lik. . On another occasion. . Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. and Huraira. . Gabriel is with you” (6074).” And to All¯h Himself. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger .” With that end in view. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . . Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. the daughter of Bakr. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. . He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . Understanding the intricacies. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. .” he said to Muhammad. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . . Muhammad sent for two poets. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. . According to her. ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. . S¯bit. “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. he petitioned: “O All¯h. . the other was the son of Zubair by Asma.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. Sabit.
At the end of the book. “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. 220). According to one important opinion.. 120 years.” she said a a (6075). the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything.e. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. the Prophet comes ﬁrst. . 6081). as the last Companion died in A. Then those nearest to them. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. they become better. but when they were in his service. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. 170). H. though all the participants were ﬂogged.” says ’Aisha (6079. As things converge toward Muhammad. . H. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour. H. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. do not revile my Companions” (6167). the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. . but as they proceed further away from him. then those nearest to them” (6150). the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. then come his Companions.154 CHAPTER 14. In this ranking and ordering. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. 110). “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. it was a diﬀerent matter.
he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. Destiny. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). A Muslim should visit his sick brother. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. And. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). If he suﬀers pain. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . of course. Good Manners. all Muslims should help each other. it is a reward. Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. . “The believers are like one person. In short. if his head aches. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. . “When a Muslim falls ill. . “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. the whole 155 . the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). his wealth and his honour” (6219). Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. the one supporting the other” (6257).Chapter 15 Virtue. Knowledge. stand by each other. Monday and Thursday. “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. All Muslims are one body. and feel for each other. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. even to the extent of stepping on a thorn.
Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263.156 CHAPTER 15. All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). VIRTUE. a Similarly. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. and 6306). NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. It is meritorious to speak the truth. should help him. as the Prophet himself explains. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). DESTINY. and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). All¯h would a meet his needs. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). 1 The face should be avoided because. spoils. 6265. 1 . and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. he should spare his face” (6325). and he who meets the need of a brother. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. KNOWLEDGE. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). in fact. who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek.
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. false witness. his livelihood. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. a DESTINY The thirty-ﬁrst book. . Each person passes through a series of stages. and prurience. murders. his deeds. An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. as might be expected. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. fornications. his fortune and misfortune. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. “This I have power to do. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. there can be no higher ethical life. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr).All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. 280. theft. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. vol. as Muhammad called him. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. But. violence.” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source. and tribute. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. blasphemies. it gives the theology of a Moloch . LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness.” he said. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). True. it imposes only an outer code. his death. adulteries. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. O Lord.” As a result. war booty. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . ¯ . Without inner puriﬁcation.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). For example. II. p. . garbing itself in pious clothing. but thou.
KNOWLEDGE. DESTINY. VIRTUE. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. But in spite of these warnings.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. a a “Verily. you would follow them in this also.” he remonstrates with the believers.” and do not dispute about it . even smaller than the previous one. Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). do perform good deeds. “Verily. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. of course. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. If everything of men is decreed in advance. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). by seeking to explain them. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book.that is knowledge. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). Here is another theological riddle and another answer. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. “Recite the Qur¯n. he says” (6450).” On the other hand. He also warns against hair-splitting. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. One day. the reverse may also happen (6390). the Prophet warns the believers” (6443).162 CHAPTER 15. And. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting.
a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. conquest. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. and Paradise if we fall. Muhammad’s god. I rush towards him” (6471).163 away the scholars” (6462). “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. he retained His audible names. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. and earnestness. in compassion. and so on. it means walking toward the Light within. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed).” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. in wisdom. Muhammad explains” (6476). And if he walks towards Me. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. I draw near him a by the cubit. our reward is booty.” Muhammad a tells us (6475). the inﬁdels. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. and empire if we succeed. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. in conciliation. in brotherliness. slaves. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. In the mystic tradition. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. polytheist. In the prophetic tradition. and forced conversions. faith. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. like his moral teaching. inﬁdel. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . in purity.
as a gift. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant. Demonology is the other side of theology. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. KNOWLEDGE. p. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. VIRTUE. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577).” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). For example. one to ’Usm¯n. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. and the second to ’Umar. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan.164 CHAPTER 15. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. DESTINY. ¯ ¯ . so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. the daughter of Hil¯l. 593.
In book thirty-four. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. On the other hand. Their Inmates. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). “amongst the inmates of Paradise.Chapter 16 Paradise. 165 . the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). According to another tradition. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. Hell. they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597).” women will “form a minority” (6600). the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). If they so wish.
THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day . will take in His grip the earth . between afternoon and night” (6707). Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). PARADISE. All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). Thanks to his reward in this world. the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above. . B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). The believer will be doubly blessed. . giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment.” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord.166 CHAPTER 16.. the Exalted and Glorious. and of Paradise and Hell. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. On this day. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. Muhammad said. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737).e. HELL. . then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. . .the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection. THEIR INMATES.” he told them.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. “the earth would turn to be one single bread . i. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings.
a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). Allah will ask the nonbeliever. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. whether. THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse. . “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. and heedless. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). For example. the “moon was split into two. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suﬀering. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. it is still not a fair deal. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. no Jew . On the Day of Resurrection. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. In fact. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. The nonbeliever will answer yes. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. . but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie.” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. it is cheating. THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. even the one least tormented.167 Either way. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing. aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). . this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars.
particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. more precisely. Literally. In the Qura an. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. the word means “the one in united” (pl. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. a devil. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. THEIR INMATES. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. pandemonic. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also.168 CHAPTER 16. HELL. . PARADISE. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. the latter is pandaimonic or. “Verily. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. in the Sunn¯h. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia.” 43:36. also see 41:25). but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil].” Muhammad declared (6752). a prophetic one. quran¯). SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief. the demons are only attached to inﬁdels.” Muhammad declared (6711).
121 times. moral action occupies a secondary place.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. then after them others in ranks” (6796). when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). but if you fail. The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. . “Observe moderation” in your doings. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). In the Prophet’s eschatology. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. . he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. he advises. Its Description.” Muhammad says (6760). “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. and Its Inmates”. which appears 76 times. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. O Lord. An-N¯r. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. Paradise and Hell go together. It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. Then those who would be next to them. . there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). appears with still greater frequency . Its Bounties. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). In the Qur¯n. a “In Paradise. A man is justiﬁed by faith.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. A constant Bower of Bliss. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars .169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . a “the Fire. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates.
Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. HABITATION. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits .170 CHAPTER 16. the height of Adam and even of God. . ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). nor will they spit” (6795). THEIR INMATES. nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. a joy to those who drink. and the shades of the Garden will come low . “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. less than ih on earth. The immeasurable is measured. the Exalted and a Glorious. nor void excrement. HELL. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797). PARADISE. . LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. . The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. his length being sixty cubits. any that they may desire” (56:2021). THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. “they will have fruits. rivers of wine. incidentally. “All¯h. For food. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805).” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809).
but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. For example. 55:46-76. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses.171 over them. retiring glances. golden vessels. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. a 56:15-40. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. 4:13. wine. will dwell his wives. with whom he will make love successively. HOURIS Houris are promised. . beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). 10:9-10. 52:17-24. describe the a i. 66:8. and others. According to ’Abdullah b. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). for ever virgins. a i. 47:15. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). ‘couches’ means ‘women’). A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. 76:12-22. the bunches of fruits will hang low. houris with swelling bosoms. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. 9:111. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. We can only mention the subject here. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. so he will have women galore in Paradise. which we have already mentioned. ’Umar.
According to Anas. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. every room will have seventy couches. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. According to him. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. four thousand virgins. these women will put on see-through dresses.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. p. and she will have a crown on her head. in the Muslim Paradise. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. HELL. Each houri will u have seventy garments. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. 1980). According to ’Abdullah b. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. ’Umar. still furu ther. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs.172 CHAPTER 16. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. when a believer embraces any such houri. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. 112. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. . According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. and seventy-two women. though rather mathematically expressed. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. and eight thousand women who have known men. the number of slaves is ten thousand. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. holding the train of her robe. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. THEIR INMATES. According to another tradition. PARADISE.
Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija. his senior. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. In the S¯ras from this period. the son of Abraham. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. Luhayy b.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). According to Muslim thinking. and as-s¯’iba. ira. . In Hell. dragging his intestines in Fire. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. “I saw ’Amr b. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. u a 4:57). ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. are severely punished. In caloric heat. Similarly. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b.” as the translator explains (note 2999). Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). to some up to their knees. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. But as his harem swelled. There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816).D. to some up to their waists. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831).173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). Cam’a b. Khinzif. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity.
said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. . You would live forever therein” (6829).” Muhammad revealed (6859). “As polytheists. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. O inmates of Hell. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. Verily. . Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). . And I sent the Book to you . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. Muhammad said: “Behold. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. but they lack the power to reply. PARADISE. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. the chapter is closed forever. THEIR INMATES. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. . . . . “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. . . . Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died.” Muhammad told him. Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. and addressing each of them by name. Then he sat by the side of the bodies. they would break my head . I said: My Lord.174 CHAPTER 16. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. . . my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . there is no death for you. there is no death for you. The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey. It begins immediately after their death. .” somebody replied. what I am saying to them. You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. . thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). HELL. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this .
will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. thermodegree. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha. Hell has many names. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief.e. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. and inmates. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). that should be of interest to Freudians. But woe unto the unbeliever. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. and more scorching are conceived. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. i. more blazing. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. each with a its own potency.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. naked and uncircumcised. In a .. even Muslims must go to Hell.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. So hells increasingly more smoky.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. “the Fire. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). The is. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger.
The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians.g. Similarly. ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure. 17:60. weary. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. . nor leaves anything alone” (74:28)..” According to some commentators. THE LAST DAY order to fulﬁll the letter. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre.e. polytheists.. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly.” i. of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. which shall burst their bowels . Christians. HELL.” is mentioned. “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. another terrible food. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). Saqar for the Magi. and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees. PARADISE. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. Jah¯ for idolaters. and never has any light. THEIR INMATES. . they shall be given water like molten copper . It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. . In other S¯ras (e. 56:52. the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents . In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. in the language of u the last S ura. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. loathsome in smell. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. is for the Christians. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. i u 44:43-46). the Day of Judgment). like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. . “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. inﬁdels.” There are other traditions in the same vein. toiling. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. . if not the spirit.176 CHAPTER 16. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). . The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. which shall dissolve everything in their bellies. hypocrites. of All¯h’s command. It is called Jahanam. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. idolaters. .
All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites. And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. . killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre. But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). 6906). referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. Arabia. but in the case of . While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. . I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. but He did not grant it” (6904.177 and an equal number of scorpions. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah).” he said (6881). . The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. “He granted me two. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years.
” (7039). It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). . the Dajj¯l . red in complexion. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951).178 CHAPTER 16. HELL. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). . will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. blind in the left eye and a a is. who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship. THEIR INMATES. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. or the servant of All¯h. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009).” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). a Before the Last Hour comes. According to the translator. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). come and kill him. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. there is a Jew behind a me. “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. PARADISE. SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. which is painful to touch. the smoke. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961).
” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. . a a made the very same claim for himself. dukh. According to another story. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time.179 him. Pointing to a young boy. Muhammad “did a not like it. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status.” Then there was a competition between the two. in fact. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. permit me that I should kill him. ‘He only chanted dhukh. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. That gave point to his claim. ready to do his bidding. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children. you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke).” the translator tells us (note 3037). he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). Like the early Christians. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. “Thereupon ’Umar b.
180 CHAPTER 16. THE LAST DAY . THEIR INMATES. PARADISE. HELL.
All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). I We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. 181 . . forgive me my sin.” The servant committed yet a third sin. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). the Exalted and High. According to Muhammad. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. In fact.” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). do what you like. It helps him as well as his Maker. but now a He added: “O servant. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. . It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. “If a you were not to commit sins. forgive me my sin.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. and All¯h responded in the same way. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. and All¯h. Sin is doubly blessed.
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
Also. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. and make not a dazzling display.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. “And a stay quietly in your houses. p. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. like that of the former times of Ignorance.” he said. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. 499. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). by One. we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. 498). I have never unveiled any a woman. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Of course. I in a poem. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. according to ’Aisha. According to another tradition. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. p. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. and though young he died soon a after. For example. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. 33). 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. in Whose hand is my life.186 CHAPTER 17. In retaliation. ¯ ¯ .” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. “Hallowed be All¯h.
Even in Muhammad’s time. and the disloyal. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. He used the carrot as well as the stick. 1 187 . the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. it was combined with other. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. M¯lik.Chapter 18 Repentance. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. Islam was not all theology. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. negative as well as positive. and ideological untouchability. political boycott. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. but the For a fuller discussion.110 002). But from the beginning. 2/18 Ansari Road. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. Apostasy was severely punished. spiritually speaking. the indiﬀerent. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. more secular appeals. constia is. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. New Delhi .
II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. in fact. But this campaign was to be of long duration. ’Al¯ Zubair.but even worse. Muheiasa. besides inviting more concrete punishments. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. One had oneself played safe in the past. and the weather was dry and hot. 789. his own son-in-law. They had become governors. In oﬀending the Prophet. for he died soon afterward. or party. a lordly sum. generals. I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand. was ever present. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. p. They gave generously. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. ’Amr ibn Omeya. it was his largest and also his last. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A.) ¯ ¯ . now others do the same in turn. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. the toughs of the ummah. and traders. D. which were now reduced to submission. you not only oﬀended All¯h .the i. Talha. S¯lim b. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. Umayar. MALIK) fear of the strongman. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). Sa’d. is. REPENTANCE. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. In planning other campaigns. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. Muhammad ibn Maslama. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. ’Usm¯n. Because of its unusually arduous nature.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . you oﬀended ’Umar.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. the boss. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. He collected tithes from the tribes. ’Abdullah . 630. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. who were now rich and powerful. and so on. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. contractors. This could be a very coercive phenomenon.
For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. Of such people. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. which now included. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). For example. Thou knowest them not. but We know them. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. But even so. That is best for you. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . whether equipped lightly or heavily. in the cause of All¯h. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. and strive and struggle. In the Islamic tradition. “Go ye a forth. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. and when you said. But Him you would not harm in the least. . they would all without doubt have followed thee. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. at least nominally. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. their spirit was considered praiseworthy.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42).189 soldiers. and journey easy. so they put forward many excuses for not going. say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. Twice shall we punish them. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. if only they could understand” (9:81). with your goods and your persons. . Though they were sent back. ‘Go not forth in the heat. the whole Arab world. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth.” All¯h said of them (9:97).’ Muhammad. He also took more secular measures. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101).
Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. . the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. This eﬀectively dealt with them.” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. I left you behind because of what I had left behind. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. Ru’ba. it found there was not much to do. one-third of which was cavalry. . . So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. sang: a My salams to you. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. . Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. According to some traditions. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. . Are you not content. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. or else pay tribute. I will not accept from you a single thing. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . REPENTANCE. because the Byzantine army. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. although many of its members were still disgruntled. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. 783. This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i. p. According to some traditions. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . Al-Dahh¯k. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. which was easily done with such a large show of force. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. One of the victims. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. was also there in consida erable force.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). was nowhere in sight. But eventually he did not go. the Christian prince of Ayala. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. Believe. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. But if you oppose and displease them. . To Yuhanna b. ¯ ¯ .
that the Prophet had departed. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition.” he said to himself. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. Of the many who had remained behind. the Byzantine Empire]”. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. and Ka’b.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him. . to his dismay. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. he decided to speak the truth. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad. Ka’b. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing. Hil¯l. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned.” But later.e. neither age nor health nor lack of means. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr.” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. The next day Muhammad arrived. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. 4 . a place near Min¯ in Mecca. “more than ten thousand people. he kept it as a secret.” he says. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. .. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. D. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. he says the expedition was big. who was a poet.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina.
. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. This also is a calamity. he sent his wife .” As Ka’b was young. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. “Verily. “No. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. He replied. REPENTANCE. he did not respond to my greetings. I greeted him but. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did. “By All¯h.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. . by All¯h. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. . ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. whether He would punish them. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h. “As I read that letter I said. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. . as I had when I stayed behind. I never possessed so good means . Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth.” a Muhammad dismissed him. so I burnt it. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. When Ka’b’s turn came.) Later. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began. a While he was enduring this mental torture.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. MALIK) persons. .” This communication could be very incriminating. or turn in mercy” [9:106].¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . and he was my cousin. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b.” When forty days had thus passed.” This comforted him somewhat. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife.” Ka’b says. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. and I had the greatest love u a for him. .
” Muhammad told her. M¯lik. when Muhammad heard this. as he was a “a senile person”. ¯ . “By All¯h.” he says. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. also Tabaq at. 505. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. Meanwhile. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. By All¯h. and the latter received him with a smiling face. Prophet’s biographer. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use.” she replied. p. vol. The same message was sent to the other two. he has no a such instinct in him. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. that they might repent. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace.” 5 5 W. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. and so did their souls become straitened within them. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. Life of Mahomet.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. Some of them even began to sell their arms. even until Antichrist appear. “But don’t go near him. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). he spends his time in weeping. vol. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). saying: “The wars of faith are now over. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). there is glad a tiding for you. 201.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. IV.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. Then He turned to them. I. Muir. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day. p.
Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. Peace was eventually restored.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. p. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. he found that his sexual organ had been cut.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations.) a ikh i. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. Mary. 504. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. I. the center of great jealousy in the harem. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. REPENTANCE. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. but in order to avoid further complications. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. . who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out.
” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre. men and a a women. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. . men of incomplete faith. skeptics. a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre.Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. others out of chivalry. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. . men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . the Fire of Hell. and some out of spite for the Meccans. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). called Mun¯ﬁq in. and the rejecters of Faith. therein shall they dwell . It is a small book. a H¯wiyah.some out of conviction. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. Some of the citizens saw. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times). For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. or S ura. named after ¯ ¯ them. such doubts were morally the most heinous. and there is a whole chapter. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . But in the peculiar theology of Islam. They were doubters. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell.
“You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. If we had kept our own for ourselves. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. Muhammad (Pelican Books. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. many of them believed in war spoils. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. pp. Muhammad detested them. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. 676). “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. They could put their ideas into verses. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. and much of it could also be bought. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan.” she sang. The opposition could now be intimidated. related to Aws Man¯t. p. 624 brought him the opportunity. But the realization came too late. converts. and soon they seized a whole yard. Auf. 1 . INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in. 157-158. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. D. 1973). they a would have gone somewhere else. then by All¯h. His victory at Badr in January A.
¯ ¯ . Muhammad treated it in his usual way . But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. oﬀered to assassinate her. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. 676. because of his open sedition and verses. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. look ye here. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. including the two assassins named above. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Life of Mahomet. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. 132.” he told the departing assassins. a new equation. Also. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . p. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet.” he told them. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. p. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. . We have already mentioned his case. This turned out to be only too true. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. The assassin had a powerful patron. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. W. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. Muir. had not fought at Badr. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. Most of the local converts. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯. III. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. a new apprehension. but nothing a happened. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. p. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. .” Muhammad had assured him.” he prayed.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. “Lord. There was something new in the atmosphere. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. They were too cowed. This they did by these perﬁdious acts. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. vol.he spat on it and it was healed. 368.
. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. . now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. ¯ ¯ . . a common ideology and passion. 676. common interests. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. . u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. Huwayyisa. but they are indeed liars . . 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. They had promised each other a u ir.” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. Mas’¯d. They are enemies. the doubters among the local converts.” says Ibn Ish¯q. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. Ibn Ish¯q. . But this period of caution did not last long. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect. . it had no ideology but only certain grievances. . 622. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. He exclaimed.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. I would have cut your head oﬀ. chided him: “You enemy of God. The demoralization was complete. A seal is set on their hearts . so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. a common goal. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. they say. Furtive in action. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. They have made their oaths a screen . ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . but the opposition was badly divided. As his power increased. p. 369. it said one thing and did another. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. a 5 6 ibid. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. a Muslim convert. The killer’s brother. D. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. “By God. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. . p. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. a Jewish merchant. Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power.
I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. and his importance declined fast. D. but if patriotism. these will not go forth with them. Three years later. We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. 363. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. 92. But after the arrival of Muhammad. but their hearts are separated. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. and his appeal was also a threat. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. . 624. Thou dost reckon them as one body.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. because of his inﬂuence. and loyalty are qualities. It is said that just before Muhammad came. When they surrendered. But even then. he was not an unworthy man. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. ¯ ¯ . and if they be fought against. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. . by God. . would you cut them down in one morning? By God. . Muhammad besieged this tribe. a new force entered the scene. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. (See pp. He was once the leading citizen of Medina. p.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . leaving their goods behind to the victor. . Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. in March-April A. 627. D. independence of judgment. This was in February A. . their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. But God bears witness that they are liars. these will not help them. If they be driven forth. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15).) 7 Ibn Ish¯q.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. and if you be fought against we will help you . his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. and if to save is better than to kill.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you .
” 8 Later. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. and later. he gave it serious thought. when confronted with this statement. . Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. 491. Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. The booty included two hundred families.’ But when we return to the Medina city. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. Tempers were frayed on both sides. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. . He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands. p. ¯ ¯ . who was a chief of the Khazrajites. the stronger will drive out the weaker. You have let them occupy your country. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. he was spared. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. Ibn Ubayy. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. but it rankled in his mind. 8 Ibn Ish¯q.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. But Muhammad was cautious. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. about ’Abdullah. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. On the way back. On this occasion. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. denied it. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. Aws and Khazraj. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. two thousand camels.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. also heard about it. He had an image to protect. a fanatic Muslim. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. Huzair. at a more opportune moment. and you have divided your property among them . But wiser counsels prevailed.” he advised. All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). so he accepted the denial. he consulted Usaid b. with his usual weakness. With all the proposals and consultations.
they heard ’Abdullah b. 492. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him. ¯ ¯ . INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. The latter. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.201 Later on.” ’Umar submitted.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. the Prophet. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. he had u already become a back number. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677).” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. By this time. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. on oath. at his a is son’s request.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. who narrates the whole story.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him.D. p. who questioned ’Abdullah. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. and he was isolated from his people and allies. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. denied having said any such thing. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. according to Ibn Ish¯q. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. 625). i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. Now. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. with this background. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. Some of the persons who were with them came back. Zaid b.
. Thus intimidation had started quite early. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. the owner of a red camel.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. Other traditions identify him as Harr b. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). they were twelve men. AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions.202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. . and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a . The hereafter will take care of itself. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. the hill of Mur¯r. . but the earth again threw him out . Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. They again dug the grave . certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons.” All were pardoned except one man. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. At last they left him unburied” (6693). HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. this should not be done” (6684). According to Huzaifa. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. but the earth again threw him out. and the other one said: No. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. Qays. One group said: We would a kill them. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. They again dug .” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. . who was forbidden to divulge the information. this hill. . . But the man replied: “By All¯h. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. his sins would be obliterated.
it threatens and promises. DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. It tells us about the time. According to other traditions. It is feverish in tone. who had already chosen his pastures. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. merely an exaggerated. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. the circumstances of their revelation. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina.behind them often a . there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. hereafter. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa.. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). and deluded mind (i.e. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. sensuous copy of the here. the place. angry. but that the trances of a passionate. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks. india a vidual men. it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. but with the a . Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. dvesa. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. and moha) are not to be trusted . a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. Ibn ’Umar. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. incidents in the life of the Prophet. .
I yield my turn to ’Aisha. then in her forties. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. the eighth S ura. It contains only ﬁfty traditions. This is understandable. on the Day of Resurrection. the majority of men and women in the world. ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. which makes such a tall claim. the ﬁfty-ninth S ura. a completed favour upon you. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). had¯ 899). Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). or “Banish¯ ment”). K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). ¯ condemnation. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. II. Resurrection Day was far oﬀ. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. But I want to be there. . The information throws no particular light on this revelation. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. among your wives. and adds nothing essential to its subject.” Muhammad agreed. ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. and do even now. ¯ the very last.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. For example. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife.according to Sir William Muir. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information.204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). but chronologically it is one of the last .
New York. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. Delhi: Kitab Khana. H. Muhammad Ashraf. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Qur¯n Majeed. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. Lahore: Sh.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Translation by E. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. Reprint of English translation by Dr. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. 1973-1975. popular and much in use. 1973. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Glorious Qur¯n. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. London. ih a if. Palmer. translation. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m. James Robson. Muhammad Ashraf. 205 . ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n.usc. Lal Kuan. i if. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. 1980.. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. Urdu translation in 2 vols.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. Lahore: ih Sh. Abridged Urdu ih a i.
A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. 1 and 2. Karachi: Nafees Academy. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. India. Guillaume. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. reprinted. E. Urdu translation in 11 vols. Mahmud. London: Royal Asiatic Society.. D. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. 1885. popularly known as Mirkhond. Ibn Sa’d. Scholarly. H. London: Smith. trans. vols. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. 1861.206 CHAPTER 20. i. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. 1893. 310 (A. Ghaﬀari. S¯ a ikh i. Tehran: Shahpur Square. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. Elder & Co. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. Oxford. Edinburgh and New York: T. Khavendshah b. 922). a Shiaism by S. New York. edited by James Hastings. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. . The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. 1980. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. Urdu translation in 8 vols. & T. Karachi: Nafees Academy. translated and edited by A. ¯ died in A. English translation. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. 1973. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. Tehatsek. Ali Raza. 3rd ed. and his S¯ of Muhammad. Scholarly and pioneering study. 1976. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Delhi-6.. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. Clark. 4 vols. letters. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. by Syed a i. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. Pelican Books. 1976. Selections from sermons. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. The Life of Muhammad.
Publishing House.. 3rd impression. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. reprinted. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. 2005.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir.] . Ratlam (M. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. 1st ed. Among other things. 1980. All¯habad: R. 1897. New Delhi. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash.)-India. S.P. Hindi publication in 3 vols. New Delhi: Impex India. Rupa & Co. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids.
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