Understanding Isl¯ m Through a H¯ d¯ a is
Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
H. Soon after Muhammad’s death. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. 824-892). Spurious traditions were coming into being. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. It is also u a¯ said that 40. 194-256=A.iii other reasons. There were also more personal motives at work. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. H. a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. There was an even more pressing reason. D. H. D. There were many motives at play behind this development. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. 817-888) u a¯ and others. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. 209-279=A. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. drowning the genuine one’s.in short. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. and later on the Abbasides. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. 204-261=A. D. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. H. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. 819-875).000 of them as authentic. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims.000 traditions but accepted only 7. Under these circumstances. They were sources of prestige and proﬁt. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. 810ail ai 870).000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai
. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. It is said that he collected 600. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life.000. 202-275 = A. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. in the practice a of the Prophet. or what they thought were the right theological views. A hundred years after Muhammad. In this struggle. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire.was a great thing.800 traditions out of a total of 500. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. D. great passions were generated. the Ummayads. This was found in the Sunn¯h. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. particularly the Alids.
151 (A. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind. is rather unedifying. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those
. D. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. Over a thousand collections. The believers have handled. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. which were in vogue died away in due course. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. To clarify certain points.iv accepted only 2. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. The lapse of time helps the process. his forehead.000 as genuine. a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. H. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. the Had¯ the context. a i. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original.“the two authentics. In fact. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. 1958). narrated. Muhammad Ashraf). 768) a in Baghdad. It ih provides the base. H. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. we must thank Dr. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. who was born in Medina in A. but they contain much that is factual and historical. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is.” they are called. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. or collections. Of these. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. the hero looms larger. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. rather all too human. H. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. The of the Had is. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. 85 and died in A. As the distance grows. and only six collections. which only the Had¯ provides. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. about a man. reveals their more earthly motives. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. 32). is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore.
looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. In ih a is. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. All¯h. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of
. Dr. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. or “countries of peace.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3.e.e. Here and there. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. having been dormant for several centuries. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs.” i. and even India. If anything. a Even in the best of circumstances. Indonesia. the old mission is being revived. Sidd¯ ¯ translation. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. we have also quoted from the notes . a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top.081 footnotes. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. In a Sah¯ containing 7. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. Isl¯m. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. is again a on the march. In India. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. and install in their place their own godling.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself.. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. a i. They buy local politicians. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. in Malaysia. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. with a large Muslim population.v whose mother tongue is English..about forty-ﬁve times . They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. When we read Dr. In fact. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country.
this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. It has one drawback. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. And. it resists any change. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. On the other hand. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material.190 traditions divided into 1. similarly. According to some thinkers.243 chapters. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. While we have in this way touched on many points. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. dictatorship comes in its wake. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. For this purpose. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. it is also something more. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. and thus. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. a is a is
. Therefore. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. we have discussed none in full. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. derived from the available symbols of their culture. Indeed. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. though. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. It gives us 7. It is a weapon of self-defense. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. is In this volume. in many cases. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. Wherever it triumphs. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. was unavoidable.vi the country. But on calm reﬂection. a is. both of commission and omission. motivated by a compulsive atavism.
” A similar formula. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . “may peace be upon him. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. dispensing justice. no cosmetics. no posturing for posterity. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. Similarly. eating. generation after generation. they were All¯h’s own acts. although such instances are rather rare. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. containing 583 traditions. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. The Sah¯ Muslim. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. In our quotations from this literature. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering.
.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions.but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. but through his more workaday ideas and actions.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . Here one comes to know him. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. For example. comprising 180 traditions. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. the moral is whatever he did. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. “may All¯h be pleased with him. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. There is no makeup. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. One is also left to wonder how the believers. like other Had¯ collections. mating. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). In regard to the title of the book. could have found this story so inspiring. praying. hating.
and Mrs. Shri H. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. z¯l. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. Jain. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. a by the English s. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. and zw¯d by z. Shri A. Therefore. Shri P. te (soft dental) and toe by t. For example. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. both have to be learned by ear. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. Gupta. C. C. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. they have preferred to remain anonymous. Dr. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. the Arabic alphabet’s se. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. ze. Sisir Kumar Ghose. in order to avoid them as far as possible. ain. Shri L.
. now both resident in America. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. I thank them all gratefully. but we have made it do also for another sound. P. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13
. . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents
¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . JESUS . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26
SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS
CONTENTS . . . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS .
xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59
6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii
CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) .
. . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85
8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . .
ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . .xiv
CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99
¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi-
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . Decorations. . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . HARES . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi
CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . Food and Drink
GAME . . . . . . . . . 106
11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . Dreams
SILK . . . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO INFECTION . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . . . . . 120
HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii
SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . 149
THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . 151 IL ¯
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B.
Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . Destiny. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . 154 15 Virtue. . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165
THE POOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . 156 NONVIOLENCE . 166
. . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155
OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx
CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . 170 HOURIS . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195
MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . .CONTENTS
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . I 181
SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . 197
THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187
¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . 198
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . 207
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxii
’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205
¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla
All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. in the resurrection. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. in His angels. ih In quoting them. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad.Chapter 1
¯ a Faith (Im¯n)
The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. when the inquirer is gone. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). ifa. inform me about al-Isl¯m. faith in His Book. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith.
. we give their numbers in parentheses. yet without any sign of fatigue. and you establish prayer. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. and says: “Muhammad.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. in the hereafter. pay Zak¯t. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage.” Later on. ¯
¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH
Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar.
Paradise. Doomsday. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. In the same vein. FAITH (IM AN)
ah. Ramz¯n. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. All¯h and his Messenger .prayer. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27).) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). his father and the whole mankind. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t.
. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. . “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. zak¯t. zak¯t. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. and they establish prayer. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety.2
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Ramz¯n. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. in the history of Isl¯m. is. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. Similarly. This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. to name the more important ones. and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth). Muhammad and his God . jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. many philosophies. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. Sah¯ Muslim. and many teachers. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). and if they accept this. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. Hell. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad.” Other things mentioned are prayer.
GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS
What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. . .rather. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise.” Muhammad tells the believers (71).
Muhammad replies: “Yes. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. is the best of virtues. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. sincerity is a universal human value.” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion.e. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a
. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. and a future ones hold no great terror. and jizy¯. the narrator of the had is.” i. His Book. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. nation. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. but moral values are not altogether neglected.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. But in Isl¯m. Ab¯ Zarr. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion. moral or spiritual. “Jih¯d.can prevent his entry. He has no obligations. The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m . monotheism.. . toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. spoils. a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. In fact.3 In the eyes of Muhammad.” he replies (148). Jar¯ b. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). But on being asked. very little to others.not even adultery and theft . “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. For example. except to convert them by sword. If polytheism is the worst of crimes.” but who were ready to join him. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. one’s past crimes are obliterated. by the same token. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah.” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing. But no morally wicked act . u if the man committed adultery and theft.” a “What next?” he is asked. . When asked. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220).
Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). it is a limited to Muslims.
but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists. a revelation. This means. a
. Everything good began with Muhammad.
THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS
No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. They are no longer wasted.
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. We are told that one Hak¯ b. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. .” On hearing this. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. and the universal is turned into the sectarian. came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre. other moral values are given the same twist. but if he embraces Isl¯m. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. To rob a whole people is piety. a God-ordained mission.4 Muslim” (102). in the state of ignorance” (222). they become fruitful and are credited to his account. Thanks to this approach. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. as another text puts it. referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. . it is a a diﬀerent story.
THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS
Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. FAITH (IM AN)
Again. some people were greatly perturbed. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle].
” a Muhammad tells us (6668). The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms . but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. his future is assured. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. the Peoples of the Book. . The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. “the a
. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. for the hellﬁre is on his side. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. His past is forgotten a unless it is good.
MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283).5
EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS
A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. Muhammad says. This would also. And understandably so. . Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. incidentally. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284).we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses.” the translator tells us (note 2967). “O womenfolk .
(4) pregnancy.that is one sign. London: University of Durham Publications.6
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. but for a woman to have only one husband. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. a work in Hindi (author and publisher.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). or of “separation” (fasl).that is one of the signs of Doom. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . 1971. naked. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. Deva ¯ Prakash. it seems. pp. (16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. The dreaded day (yaum). Paradise and Hell. India). (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. (2) childbirth. D. and the proof of their failing in religion. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. He be praised. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. But.
. In the Qur¯n. when you see barefooted. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). (6) a lesser share in inheritance. ’Aisha. and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. 164-165).
2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. FAITH (IM AN)
evidence of two women is equal to one man”. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. says that “All ah. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. 2
THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). 1058-1111). a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. In short. (5) not having control over her own person. only one of which is attributable to women. a famous Arab divine of his time. as he tells them. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. Ratlam. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). the Prophet’s wife. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. that is the end of it according to Muhammad.
will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . and polytheists are strictly kept out. All¯h “will gather people.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. They will say: “Thirsty we are. and with it is decided their fate. I have. the water is no more than a mirage. but go to Moses.” They will be given a certain direction. a you better go to Muhammad.” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349).” Then they will come to Muhammad. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). The translator makes this statement clearer for us. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. and it is really hell. of course. Muhammad a
.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son. inﬁdels. but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. the son of All¯h.” He will appeal to All¯h. Christians will be summoned and asked. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word.” Then they will be asked what they want. Unbelievers. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. “You tell a lie. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. and his intercession will be granted a (377). it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382). for example.” They will go to a Moses. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383). If this is true. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. a a im. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. “I am not ﬁt to do this. Considering that unbelievers. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). however.26). for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. “Jesus. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny.” All¯h will tell them. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that. Thanks to his special role.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. “What did you worship?” When they reply. For example. and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided. but you go to Jesus.” They will go to Jesus.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. On this day.
But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle.”
THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES
We must admit. and a a a in his own apostleship. a a a Usayya. God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). For example. . “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). he told a questioner: “Verily. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. are not my friends. even though they were their kith and kin.
. but needst not go out of your way to save them. ’Aisha.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. the Prophet’s young wife. therefore. . look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . Ab¯ T¯lib. their good works will not avail them. Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering. . On the Day of Resurrection. .” declares Muhammad (417). that Muhammad was consistent. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. Regarding his father. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. however. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. About him. FAITH (IM AN)
reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). a In any case. Ri’l Zakw¯n. fed the poor. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line.8
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah.
The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left.” Muhammad proclaims a (287).” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions.one prayer will now count for ten . no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven.
Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. But on the advice of Moses. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290).9
MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN
Various other matters. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. a
. on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. He will break crosses. Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. “an animal white and long. riding on al-Bar¯q. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. or “circles” (as Dante called them). kill swine. When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. Jesus in the second. Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” . and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. But if we look at the matter closely. Moses in the sixth. Similarly. In any case. a One night. this belief. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. and abolish jizy¯. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. In fact. So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy. Then he met All¯h. and Abraham in the seventh. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief. of heaven.
For. as the translator explains. a
. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288). FAITH (IM AN)
but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. therefore.10
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. Jesus will.
He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k).
ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯
Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness.g. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). literally “nature. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. (2) ghusl.. The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. or impure: coitus (jim¯). It deals with such matters as ablution.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. the major. defecation. and abstersion. become ritualistically unclean. cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. physical and ritualistic. a a menses (hayz). (5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. (4) ﬁtra. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m).Chapter 2
Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a
The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. He 11
. and childbirth (nif¯s). and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. (3) tayammum.
then washed his left foot.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . . He then washed his face three times. About the moustache and the beard. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times.
CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a
Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. . “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. all his previous sins are expiated” (436).12
¯ CHAPTER 2. and clipping the moustache. cutting the nails. then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. then washed his left arm like that. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. . This became the standard ablution. . shaving the pubes. .
CLEANSING THE NOSE
The nose should be properly cleansed. . . . PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. he must clean his nose three times. For the a identiﬁcation of faces. trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . plucking the hair under the armpits. then wiped his head. . the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep .
THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra)
There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision.” and so on. According to Muslim canon scholars. so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard.
.” he said (487). There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457).
while taking his bath.
¯ TATH IR
Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts.” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). but the rock moved away. and in performing ablution” (515). ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act.. wash it seven times. my clothes. my clothes. and said: “By All¯h. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. i. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512).13
Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). But God vindicated him. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504). He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy. Moses put his clothes on a rock. In this connection. and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose.e. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision.. Once. Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). in combing. O stone. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts.e. a
. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. When they asked him about their provision of food. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669). in wearing shoes.
DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS
Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. but Moses took his bath alone. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia.
but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance. pointing to ’Aisha. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but ablution is binding” (676). “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees.
BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION
There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570).e.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. i.. and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). and that should be as good as ablution with water. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). bathing is not obligatory for you. having experienced orgasm. you can take to tayammum. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674).
If water is not available. The translator
¯ CHAPTER 2. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. The Prophet. The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation. And on yet another occasion. who was sitting by him. There is another had¯ of similar import. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). The man said yes.
and you ﬁnd no water.
The third book is on menstruation. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). . and the people reminded him about ablution. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. . The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). some cross-reference is inevitable. and he was presented with a some food. “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. Muhammad’s practice appears. or you have touched women. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. O Commander is a of the Faithful.
FOOD AND ABLUTION
Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686). This chapter too. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. . then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. . Therefore. . But later on this command was abrogated. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. in some respects. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. in fact. So keep away from women in their course. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse.15 explains why. On the subject of menstruation. and when it was referred to the Apostle. for except for coitus all
or scriptural studies. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. But Muhammad did not go that far. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. and drink. this question to Muhammad directly. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque].16
¯ CHAPTER 2.” ’Aisha reports (584). and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man
. and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. For example. The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). and recite the Qur¯n” (591). Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet.
SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION
’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. Umm Salama reports the same (581).
he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). . a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. then purify yourselves” (5:6).
For the exercise of prayer. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. The same obligation lay on women. coitus. 611). there should be an ablution” u is. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). “You humiliated the women. had¯ 124). and sometimes he performed ablution only.” he was told (593). he a ﬁrst washed his hands. .17 ¯ (semen).” they told her (610. (605). The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. a believers (603). This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. ” (616).” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. I.
. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. puerperium. he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts .
SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS
Unlike ablution. or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. and pollutio nocturna. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept.
CONSERVING BODY HEAT
If one lost too much body heat during the bath. II. many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up. I. There were no glaring lights. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. Muhammad was not bound by them. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH)
Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. i. they took their bath in pitch darkness. He had his Apostle’s privilege. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. in this case. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. had¯ 1584). had¯ 108). and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. which. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol.18
¯ CHAPTER 2. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. 631). is
. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. moreover. Two other wives of Muhammad.
in Medina. there is also one Prayer. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. who later became blind. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers. problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. as the Christians did. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. one Book. the prayer relating to the dead. In the beginning. Umm Makt¯m. caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula. and ’Abdullah b. All these methods were ruled out. As there is one All¯h. As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times. and the Fireworshippers. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. one Guide. There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured. postures like bowing. and so on. the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. some suggested using a bell. 737. the Christians. 741). 19
. prostrating and rising.Chapter 3
Prayer (Sal¯t) a
The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). the prayer for rain. It is the longest. as the Jews did. Bil¯l. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735. the system of the human voice was introduced. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). with 1. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. But in all these pages. a who was very loud-throated.
We are told how the institution of az¯n began. others a horn.
He would listen to the Az¯n. and his wives and his oﬀspring . sitting or standing.
POSTURE DURING PRAYER
Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). “When Satan hears the call to prayer. He who blesses me once. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. . how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. d in In seeking blessings for himself. One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. PRAYER (SAL AT)
Az¯n is very eﬀective.” says Muhammad (747). . which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. 808). if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. Where it was heard. he stopped” (745). with Muhammad as Messenger. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. will be assured of my intercession. The Holy Prophet. “Apostle of All¯h. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). In a variation on this theme. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. so if he heard an Az¯n. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. Another saw his “hands lifted
ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS
Az¯n became a great indicator.20
¯ CHAPTER 3. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity).
BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD
When men hear the mu’azzin. therefore. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751).
Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). Also. and then to put them between one’s thighs. the knees. Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. .21 opposite to ears. . And when prostrated.
¯ THE IM AM
Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. . And when he was about to bow down. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). one of them should lead them” (1417). he prayed facing
. you should also rise up. . when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. you a should also prostrate.” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056.” The seven bones are: “The hands. “When he prostrates. when-he rises up. he prostrated between the two palms” (792). and then lifted them . When someone once a did this. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. In the beginning. 1057). when there is a valid reason for doing so. It should be led by an im¯m. he brought out his hands from the cloth. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092).” he tells them (817).” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). palm to palm. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him.
THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA
Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth.
The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina. 1 .
¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY
While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. I have been sent to all mankind. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. . is which other prophets lack (1058). This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h.” says Muhammad. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. PRAYER (SAL AT)
their temple in Jerusalem. For example. . . Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. . It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). . . Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. spoils have been made lawful to me . Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . . their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). foe or friend. “I have been helped a is by terror. In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. . Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment.22
¯ CHAPTER 3. Immediately
. But later on. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting. 2 u is
That is. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters.
vol. 476-479. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year.000 dirhams a year. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr.000 dirhams. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). For a fuller account of the Civil List. or Civil List.23
WOMEN AND MOSQUES
Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116).000 to 9. 2.. For example. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it.000 dirhams a year. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden).
after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. 4. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually.000 dirhams a year.
DOS AND DON’TS
There are many dos and don’ts. 5. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula.
. But within two decades everything changed. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. and their children. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. The diw an.000 dirhams a year. According to another tradition. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation. pp. II. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932).
But though Muslims “are the last.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . Qur¯n a 62:11). there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. First things ﬁrst.24
¯ CHAPTER 3. PRAYER (SAL AT)
CURSE ON THE JEWS
It is meritorious to build a mosque. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon.
PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER
According to Muslim jurists. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. “On it Adam was created. “We were guided a aright to Friday. on it he was made to enter Paradise. . Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. during a war. on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). For example. a An interesting story is reported in this connection.” says Muhammad (1134). one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan.
DINNER BEFORE PRAYER
This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer.
. One Friday.
Friday is a special day. one should ﬁrst take food. .
with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face. “Thereafter. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. On the same occasion. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. his voice a rose. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too.25
MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER
J¯bir b. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. I meant to seize him. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. leave them alone” (1946). And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. he did not retreat. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885).’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). his eyes became red. similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something.
MUSIC. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. DANCE. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938).” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. Muhammad. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. in which music plays an important role.
.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. AND SPORTS
’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s.” a is But even though cursed. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. make the most of this had¯ a is. and it was the day of Id” (1942).’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee.
PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD
There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. and the good of that which it was sent for. Ub¯da. He regarded clouds and winds with terror.’ to those who are dying.’ So I said this. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. Ab¯ Salama has died. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. u He died at Uhud. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it.26
¯ CHAPTER 3. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a
. what evil it contains. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. to whom she had borne many children. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. PRAYER (SAL AT)
PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS
There are prayers for rain. “Exhort to recite.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. supplicate for good. and the good which it contains. ‘There is no god but All¯h. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). and Muhammad married her four months later. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation.
WEEPING OVER THE DEAD
Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). When you visit the sick or the dead. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. “If the dead person was good. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h.” says a the Prophet (1996). He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. However. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059).” ’Aisha a tells us.
IV. according to certain traditions. who was only eighteen months old. 165. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. and He granted it to me” (2129). Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. is
. Life of Mahomet. also William Muir. meaning loud lamenting” (2010).” 3
MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER
Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead. over his expiring child. i. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency.27 the heart feels. p. a but He did not grant it to me. vol. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep.
Tirmiz¯ vol. had¯ 912. I.
¯ CHAPTER 3. PRAYER (SAL AT)
The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a
The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). or way. conventional recipients of charity. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. In this form. or zak¯t. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). and to be spent by its representatives. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity.” All these are a in]. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. But with him it became a tax. and everyone else was excluded on principle. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage.
¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS
According to the Qur¯n. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. and for the wayfarers. In the begina ning. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since.” those who collect and administer the funds. the ﬁrst phrase. and most of them. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. being migrants.” a a 29
. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. of All¯h. “in the service. an old Arab practice.
When he reported that Khal¯ b. They had to be ransomed. a heavenly sanction. who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. Faz¯r. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
means religious warfare. . “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. ’Abb¯s. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). The resentment against zak¯t was general. and children back to Medina as hostages. a Ghif¯r. Aslam. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. After is the conquest of Mecca.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. as it still has for his followers. This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. ’Umar was appointed the collector. . . There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. Also. a had refused to pay the tax. The second phrase. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. and several other tribes. hearts. I shall be responsible a a . ’Umar. or reconciling. on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. when the power of Muhammad became supreme.
EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES
There was a lower exemption limit. “gaining over.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). equipment. a
AN UNPOPULAR TAX
There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. a a and horses.30
¯ CHAPTER 4. women.
. and as for ’Abb¯s. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). it had for the Prophet. or 1 pound]” (2134). the collection of the tithe became aggressive. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts. and after this the tax collection became smoother. or jih¯d. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. bear in mind.
The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. . and they wait a turn of fortune against you. But he taught.
CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME
There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. and then on other good deeds. For example. but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. then on one’s wife and children. when the Day of Resurrection would come. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. . the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . then on relatives and friends. plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. he called him and asked him if he had any other
.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. And when these cool down. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. “a sandy plain would be set for him. In fact. Following a common practice. as extensive as possible. When Muhammad heard this. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them.” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). that charity should begin at home. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered.
The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. and in some ways wisely.
the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa.e. . Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight.” There is another story that makes the same point. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. of course. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. . . you would have a greater reward” (2187). it should be spent on your family. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). or helping him load his luggage upon it.32
¯ CHAPTER 4. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle.
. not polytheistically or pantheistically. and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. and if anything is left. When informed about it. and a good word is a Sadaqa. saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. A lady set her slave-girl free. and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). there is a Sadaqa . .
Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date.
URGINGS AND PLEADINGS
Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
property. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i. The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. In the same vein. is a Sadaqa. ¯ (2197-2204). The man replied no. and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic.. but it agrees with the general practice. Nor was it really revolutionary. gave the money to the owner.
for instance. is but are not visited by two angels. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted.
CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION
There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. he remembered his command and remained where he was. a and the other says: O All¯h. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). then to a a thief. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds.
THEFT. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. PARADISE
Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. When Muhammad returned. FORNICATION.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). give him more who spends. One of them says: O All¯h. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. a
. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. Muhammad left him to go some other place. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. For example. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. A man is gives charity.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. ﬁrst to an adulteress. By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. then to a rich man. with praise to All¯h. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. This is true.
They went a to Muhammad with their request. it is zak¯t. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. and Haris b. Its distribution created a lot of a
. a Khums. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. He took it. it is war booty. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. ’Abb¯s. freed slave.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). when it is distributed among the ummah. gifts were welcome.
Within a very short period. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY
Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury.” said the Prophet (2340). ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s.
Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. but on the other. has two aspects. whether as zak¯t for the poor. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. zak¯t became secondary.” i.34
¯ CHAPTER 4. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. il. In fact. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. a al-Muttalib and their posterity.e. or on the “Path of All¯h. it is zak¯t. On the one hand. the distinction between the two was soon lost. it is still war booty. ’Abd i. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad.. But though sadaqa was not permitted. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. When it is a acquired. or as gifts for his Companions. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils.
. both mundane and celestial. Tufail” (2319). ’Uyaina b. that is. Umayya. and ’Alqama b.35 heart-rending among his followers. like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. or merit. .than they got. Aqra. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. There are other instances of the same type. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty.
GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS
The principle of distribution was not always based on need. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. combined with threats. Ulasa (2303-2314). ’Abdullah b. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. Many of them thought they deserved more . whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy.or at any rate that others deserved less . so that I may incline them to truth. H¯bis. Aqra’ b. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. Muhammad had other considerations as well. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . . Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). . I often bestow something on a person. Hisn. Harb. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. Safw¯n u a a b. Zaid al-Khail. justice.” says Muhammad (2303). He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing.
” This silenced the men. and Aqra. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. while the Quraish. and shaven head. fear All¯h and do justice. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. after the conquest of Mecca.” On hearing this. were closer to him). i Muhammad showed favoritism. but one of them. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. u a Safw¯n. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. Mird¯s. . Muhammad “was deeply angry . and his face ¯ became red”. were merely his “outer garments”. thick beard. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. To cajolery. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. who had received the spoils. Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. . The ans¯rs a were happy. ’Uyaina.
According to another tradition. but he showed patience” (2315). a man with deep-sunken eyes. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. When some people complained.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. In its distribution. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons.36
¯ CHAPTER 4. who would do justice if I do not do
.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar..” This angered a a Muhammad. In other cases when similar complaints were made. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. prominent cheekbones. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
But this course was not without its problems. stood up. Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n. and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. he added theology.
¯ THE KHWARIJ
’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad.” a canal in heaven (2313).e. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood.
who later on were called the khw¯rij. but it would not go beyond their throat. them. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327).”
. These men. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i.37 justice?” ’Umar. . took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. he and his posterity were denounced. It was about them.” Though the man was spared. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . who was present. kill them. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. .
THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT)
¯ CHAPTER 4.
“Take meal a little before dawn.” a 39
. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal). Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). it is compulsory. waiting for the stars to appear. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence. Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. This has its disciplinary role. a
There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. who ate early and broke their fasts late. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn.Chapter 5
Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj)
The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj).” says Muhammad (2413). and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. the gates of mercy are opened. In Isl¯m. This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy.
FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation.” In addition. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . by observing a two-month fast or. ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama. failing that. . Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450).40
CHAPTER 5. Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. . . At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently. It has a divine sanction. by feeding sixty poor men . a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. and would observe fast” a (2454).” and retracted his previous position (2451). failing that. the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives.
SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN
The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). “They have better knowledge. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. a a
. he said. Muhammad’s wives. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). . Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. In fact. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. Hafsa. in the month of Ramz¯n. ’Aisha.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. .” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). ’Aisha and Salama. he should still go on with his fast. and Salama. Prior to Isl¯m. This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). Muhammad’s wives.
Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered.e. but after a
. but with his permission” (2238). and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387).e. i. And she should not admit any mahram in his house. “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives. a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). “Fast if you like and break it if you like.” i. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). For example. . but a I could not do it .. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. . ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n.
Several other fasts are mentioned.” Muhammad tells the believers (2486).” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. while the husband is present. and in the pre-Isl¯mic days. in the act of jih¯d. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. One is the Ashura fast. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry.41
FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES
Under certain circumstances fasting was optional.. so break the fast. a fast during a journey could be broken. The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah.
providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food.” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers.” He said: “Bring that. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast.
THE MERITS OF FASTING
There are many merits in observing the fasts. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. He may spend it if he likes.” After some time. “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). On the Day of a Resurrection. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. some food came as gift. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense.” Muhammad tells us. a a a because of this day.
The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous. One day. “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. but nothing was available. but we need not go into them here.42
AN IDOLATROUS IDEA
Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad. Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a
.and when the last of them has entered. All¯h would remove.
” After the fall of Mecca. or trouser or cap” (2647). For his dress. a call to submission. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. Even so. 612). or hajj.” she adds in another had¯ (2685). Two years later. He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. It was also. “As the caravan moved on. and a victory it turned out to be. unlike the last time. by a kind of delayed action. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. Thus. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. their response on this occasion was great. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. the number of participants swelled.
¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM
The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. they knew. but not before and after. D. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. In the sixth year of the Hijra. according to some of the narrators. is
. as the Qur¯n puts it. was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. for no booty was promised and they thought. it reached more than 130. but their response was lukewarm. partially armed.” until. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. at their own convenience and for their own gods. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. ih p. In this year of victory. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). In order to swell the number. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12).” Great preparations were made for the occasion. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it. pilgrimage.” says ’Aisha (2683). a Two years later. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. in March A. 632. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. “The best of perfume. Mecca succumbed.
At every turn. The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous. he should not shave or pare his nails. and then kissing the stick. O All¯h”). and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone.” Muhammad never relaxes. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . and he should be conspicuous” (2919). but he declined it. the two “Signs of All¯h.
CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING
After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. . crow. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad).” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass. For the same reason.
.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). .44
CHAPTER 5. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. . we would have accepted it from you” (2704). this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. .. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). two seamless wrappers. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. rat and voracious dog. He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song.e. Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. I would not have a kissed you” (2912).” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). “Talbiyah. After arriving a a in Mecca. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . so that people should see him. He hath performed His promise. ’Umar said: “By All¯h. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him.
and Ishmael. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. and then he marked them. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened.“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. While doing this. also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. On the tenth a day. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). I do this. While sacriﬁcing the camel. a is and on the best time for throwing them. God. and then sent them to the House.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979).
Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. and after that . It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce . and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. and garlanded them. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. the Almighty. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. on their size and number. There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven).on the 11th . Abraham. The pebbles should be small .” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. therefore. Their number should be odd. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. the casting of the pebbles.” says the Prophet (2982).45
CASTING THE PEBBLES
Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). he chants: “In the name of a ir. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). or a cow or a camel. Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies.
That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . he took it. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one. and when it was cooked. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. . a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805).46
CHAPTER 5. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. had declared that He “desired mercy. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands. . Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased.by spitting into it. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). vol. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. he sacriﬁced sixty camels. Muhammad took part of the content. Though the nab¯ iz. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803).
.” To his followers. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. a Even Jehovah. nab¯ a soft drink. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. II. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. we are told by J¯bir. pp. 241-244). Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib.
Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. I would have drawn it along with you. the God of the Jews. he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6). iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. he said: “Draw water. gives us one further detail which a a i. his biographers tell us.
” it was declared on his behalf (3125). a Now the pilgrimage is over. . and sacriﬁced the animal. and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. 620). The diﬀerence is striking. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. from others. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. turning his right side to him.
There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. . after which he turned his left side. Before leaving Mecca. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. . let him shave him. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28.
. All¯h. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. Before a returning home. All ah will enrich you from His grace . Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). 29). p. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them.47
SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR
After the sacriﬁce. This was All¯h’s own command. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. Shaving should begin from the right side. . So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. and prepare for them each ambush . was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. He then called a for a barber and. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). . . The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure.
KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS
The Ka’ba. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. and take them and besiege them. But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation.
CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ)
for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). 1 In fact. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. he is the best who has the largest a i. and yet another said. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. A woman is a great safety valve. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. p.
According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. “I will not lie down in bed. vol. II. number of wives” (Tabaq at.Chapter 6
Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a
The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. One of his Companions said. 146). Zainab. “I will not eat meat”. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). We are all too ready to see the devil in others. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. he should come home and cohabit with his wife. he has no a relation with me” (3236). ¯
. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. he should come to his wife. another said. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. so when one of you see a woman. but not in our own selves. I observe fast and suspend observing them. “I will not marry women”. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239).
It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. Verily. Later on. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest.50
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. And it is allowed you. rank. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. and do not transgress. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. Generally speaking. God is knowing. A. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). . IYas b. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5).” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. on the authority of his father. Salama reports. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). etc. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah)
Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. Qur¯n 5:87). Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). H. but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). and without fornication. We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. Also. religion. but it is not entirely so. He told another group: “Yes. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. . Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. aﬃnity. this restriction a was relaxed. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). to seek out wives by means of your wealth. except those who are your hands as slaves . an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. For example. with modest conduct. ’Abdullah b. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a
. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). besides this. . There are many restrictions on grounds of number. we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). This is the law. a
The law appears to be quite indulgent. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. consanguinity.
A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. and he disposes what Allah proposes. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). The man said yes. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother.” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar.” reports Usm¯n b.
THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS
A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . I. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. thrice) before severing it. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284).” he told her (3354). “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. The new dispensation led to another abuse. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a
Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. but made no decision” about her. part II.” But the man possessed nothing. vol. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. But this point is controversial. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. . The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. p.e.51 by Muhammad himself. . But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. “Your wives are your tilth. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. Rauzat-us-Safa. F¯timah. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. Aﬀ¯n. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. he was sexually weak). One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage.. a One should also not outbid one’s brother. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. 269). It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. But man is inventive. not even an iron ring for a dowry. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. “A believer is the brother of a believer. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go.
Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. a woman has her rights. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr).
In return. Theoretically.
COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl)
Coitus interruptus is permitted. ¯ According to some schools. she can seek a divorce. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. and her silence implies her consent” (3307). . And a virgin should also be consulted. . but it should be through one hole” (3365). So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. those women. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. . the angels curse her until morning” (3366).” They consulted Muhammad. but we also desired ransom for them.” that is. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
(2:223). and we desired them . if the husband fails to provide it. for that is in the hand of All¯h. which means vagina only. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. as the commentators tell us.
Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. The father and the grandfather are i). but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. and took some excellent Arab women. She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. . 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her.
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. . “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah).
He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter.53 whether married or unmarried. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. a
CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY
It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. An Arab woman named ’Umra. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). and Muhammad talked to her.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. We have nothing which we should give you. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower). informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. the daughter of one Jaun. so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. A believer came to Muhammad. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. “For four Uqiyas.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions.” the man replied. . “Did you cast a a glance at her.
. All¯h. It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424).” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics.” “For what dower did you marry her. from “head to foot”.” Muhammad asked. but All¯h now gave a new one. based on an old moral code. Then.” They saw each other. She was “sitting with her head downcast.” Muhammad inquired. But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident. . who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. The a man replied: “Yes. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s . She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. Most High. A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). serve us drink” (4981).” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. or holy war.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger. .
and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. But while he is in bed with one of them. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. come u a for prayer. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES
Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. tells us that when Muhammad married her. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. one of the wives of Muhammad. One of the problems. when Zainab came there. she “caught hold of his garment”. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). Umm Salama. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. . taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453).” When the morning prayer was announced. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. for example. a believer should visit his wives by turn. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). Anas. All¯h is very accommodating. he spent three nights with her. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. one wife could make over her day to another. When he intended to leave. hearing their voices. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449).
We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. one of the servants of Muhammad. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. In order to be impartial. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. he is allowed to have his other wives around.54
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. . . But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. ’Aisha.
and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. you have the enjoyment” (3462). The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir.” the Prophet tells us (3471).” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). they also swelled his harem.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion.
THE ORIGINAL SIN
“Had it not been for Eve.
Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when
. was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. a beautiful girl of seventeen years. Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks.
Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336). a a a ‘yes. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). have you married?’ I said.
Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. 3464). and when you enter. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. Saf¯ iyya.55
ON MARRYING A VIRGIN
In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458).
and you take them captive. In the morning. The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. Dihya was strikingly handsome. and till recently she was in unbelief. so I was afraid for you on her account. 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. a In any case. p. her husband. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. spades and strings driving their cattle along. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. Then. 517). “We took Khaibar by force. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
they had come out with their axes. Gabriel or no Gabriel. but you shall not sell her for money. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife.” (Incidentally. the daughter of Huyayy b. whom Muhammad often followed. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. Many other women. and be her husband. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). Muhammad kept her as his
Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. you shall not treat her as a slave. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. then you shall bring her home to your house. Akhtab. was more considerate. Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. p. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). you shall let her go where she will. many people were butchered.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). Her husband. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women.” according to Anas. Kin¯na. of them. and her people. and she shall be your wife. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. 5
¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA
Saf¯ iyya was no exception. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. al-’Aww¯m. after that you may go in to her. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. Saf¯ iyya.56
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. was put to a cruel death (3325). and many others were taken prisoners. ¯ ¯
. And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. in violation of his own command. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. if you have no delight in her. 515).
She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. saw her in a state of seminudeness.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. as good as his own daughter-in-law. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). fearing a public scandal. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. present and future. and He revealed His plan. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. but Muhammad. and therefore. Mustaliq. he oﬀered to divorce her. named Zainab. 252-255). Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). p. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. Suspecting something wrong. Zaid. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle.” And indeed. iya a In the division of the booty. in the eyes of the Arabs.”
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. husband. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. a pp. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. who had seen her father. man or woman.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. again Jewish. I detested her. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer.57 concubine. On that very day. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. 493. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. When Zaid heard about it. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. There was another girl. and was aroused. vol.
ZAINAB BINT JAHSH
Here we shall mention another Zainab. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. told him to keep his wife for himself. and she was immediately put to death. and uncle killed. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. ¯ ¯
. He was saved. II. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her.
“All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. The procedure is not diﬃcult.some say ninety . exclusive of slave concubines.
. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). ’Abdullah. According to the Shias. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. Hasan. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. Ab¯ Bakr. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. a senior Compana ion. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. the son of ’Umar. Yet there are certain restrictions. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time. and ’Umar.” but in Isl¯mic law. People in his day called him the Divorcer. who do not count. adviser. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. two of whom were bondswomen. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. According to the translator. The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. Wives were constantly replaced. the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). For example. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. With such easy conditions of divorce.times. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
Thus reassured. married seventy . Somewhat later. and friend of Muhammad. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. the divorce becomes operative. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone.
The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493).58
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.
DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a
Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. Muhammad. after three successive menses. or whether three times at one sitting is enough.
MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES
¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted
K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. In this sense of the term. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. “that a which covers a sin”). Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. son of Rabi. and according to some traditions. if not. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. . Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. pp. a a i. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). vol. . Muir.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7
¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’
There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’.
. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. 272-273. In zih¯r. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. a In due course. As they sat together at a supper. Life of Mahomet. In this form. . The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. For example. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. II. on emigrating to Medina. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. The broken vow could be expiated. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months.
I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
twenty-nine days. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. a a I would certainly do that.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). a As ’Umar entered.” so he tried to calm him down. He separated himself from them. His angels. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. and jeering. “O Rah¯b. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. In visiting his numerous wives. but instead she found him with Mary. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza]. Muhammad was very angry. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. She wept bitterly. Gabriel. let us provide some background information.” he told her.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. Hafza. Hafza was furious. By All¯h. told ’Aisha. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. “In my room. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared
. verily All¯h is with you.” he told Rah¯b. So our women began to learn from their women.60
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. excitement. I entered the mosque. we take them up. Mika’il. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. but he insisted. Muhammad. and a if you had divorced them. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. a a kept himself away from his wives. In fact. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. however. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. The request was disregarded. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. a “I have nothing to do with you.” she shouted. promised never to visit Mary again. on my day and in my own bed. He was admitted. who had even given Muhammad a son. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. Muhammad’s doorman. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. trying to pacify her. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face.” Muhammad relaxed. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all. what trouble do you feel from your wives. and very soon everybody knew about it. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. In fact. the beautiful Coptic concubine. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is.
. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina. threatening his wives with divorce. and Gabriel. . ¯ The matter blew over. “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. and the righteous of the a believers. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. . and it was said.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). some of them centering round money. In this new mood.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. had¯ 3507). and the angels after that will back him up. craving to please thy wives? . Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him.” ’Umar narrates. they were under two of our righteous servants. the famous verses descended on the Prophet.” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. On this occasion. asking for extra money. . and by now only twenty-nine days had passed.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. and they became his wives again. a is
OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE
It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. verily. and he laughed. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if
. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. .for your hearts have swerved! . All¯h.” All¯h warned them. [but] he visited them. He is the sovereign. they broadcast it. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. or to those charged with authority among them. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary.but if you back each other up against him. when Muhammad lacked funds. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506).61 on his face .
but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. u a Muhammad advised against them both. a mere woman. one of Muhammad’s wives. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. Zaid.
. Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. and could get rid of their wives so easily. Thus. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. died. The wives chose the latter. but when it is really intended..62
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima. since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden.e. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult. he beat his wives).” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. the son of his slave and adopted son. Zaid (3512). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). In their place.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538).
A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. She had two suitors. Once ’idda has ended. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child.”
NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE
F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. and the latter was poor. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. observing: “By All¯h.
and if he kills. But the fact remains that Muhammad. besides thirty-eight servants.
. tribute. This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. The word a a literally means “oath. you will kill him. They were the property of their master (saiyid). names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. Zubair. a close companion of the Prophet. which is on business transactions . for that is forbidden. was no more than a chattel. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. he cannot kill the adulterous man. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. both male and female. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book.63
INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a
If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. owned one thousand slaves when he died. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. solve this problem” (3564). Similarly. which is most likely in such a case. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. and if he keeps quiet. you would lash him. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities. Mirkhond. he shall have to consume anger. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves.
EMANCIPATING A SLAVE
For some unexplained reason. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions.a slave. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. for unless he has four witnesses. after all. but this closes the chapter. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. even in a their wildest dreams. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. and if he speaks about it.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. The fact is that slavery. One of a them must be lying.
hiring them out. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). lending them. 4:24. 4:25. inheritance. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. and a very common one.
WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION?
Only a believing slave deserves freedom. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
who could dispose of them as he liked.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger
.these are some of the signs of Doom. 23:6) permitted this. In the ﬁrst.” says Muhammad (129). Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. he said: “Bring her to me.64
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. In any case. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. however. when the naked. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. In the second. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. and marriage. not a matter of justice. selling them. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. gifting them away.” She was brought. Slaves had no property rights. On the other hand. When Muhammad was consulted. On the whole. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. wanted to free her. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him. To Muhammad. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . One way. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master.” according to him (4). he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. mortgaging them. of course. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. in contrition.
EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES
The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia.
Bar¯ ira. she is a a believing woman” (1094). Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. It has its own reward. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance.
. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. the condition of a slave is no great evil. and emancipate her. though ready to free her for cash money. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). He cannot seek any new alliance. a
A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600).” But the owner. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her.
WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY?
Even if a slave’s person was freed. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed. even his private parts a for his” (3604). but must not be overburdened” (3582). wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. a
SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD
Beyond all that may be said or done. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl.” she answered.65 of All¯h. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave].
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ)
PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS
We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries. . and it also records the words of the prophet . . says: “He is. who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. .
. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601).
. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. Bequests. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Sal¯ b. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). Gifts.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). Vows and Oaths
The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). were also made unlawful. his injunctions became state policy. Because of their speculative nature. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. so his views on the subject should be of interest. The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. Inheritances.Chapter 7
Muhammad forbids speculation. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands.
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled.” observes Muhammad.72CHAPTER 7. But he allows you to swear by God. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). a
ABROGATION OF AN OATH
All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be.” says Muhammad (4057). “He who has to take an oath. but he found something else better than that. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. nor by your father. I would see better than it.
. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h.” says Muhammad (4043). Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. but if later on. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. “Do not a a swear by idols. Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i. the vow a a must be fulﬁlled. a I would not swear. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. something which Jesus forbade. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed.e.
THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE
If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h. if He so wills.” Muhammad says (4038). the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). I cannot provide you a a mount.. One day he said. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. by All¯h. INHERITANCES. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. and she gave birth to a premature child. a An oath can be broken. BEQUESTS. should do that which is better and break his oath.” But only one of them became a pregnant. GIFTS. “He who took an oath.” But immediately after they were gone. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do.
cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. a i. and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. only half of the blood-price is due. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). Qur¯n 5:38-39). or killed another. a ¯ Qis¯s. cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. Though the Qur¯n a
. the procedure of investigating them. qis¯s. only one-third is permissible in such cases. Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. a ihs In cases of murder. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). mutilated.Chapter 8
Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. (pl. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). or retaliation. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. one hundred lashes for is. The law also permits qis¯s. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. but since a slave is a piece of property. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. If a slave is killed. ﬁfteenth. accusing her of adultery. Had ud) a
The fourteenth. For the death of a woman. but according to one school. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded.e. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). and taz¯ Hadd a ir.. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian.
neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). ih ¯ i if. QIS AS. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. though not by burning. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. HAD U D)
gives the broad outline. wash their hands over the heifer. The a punishment for apostasy . But when we went to him to take his leave.74
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8.for giving up Isl¯m . for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219).” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. and Muhammad adopted a it. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. This establishes their innocence. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa
1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. is
The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). he said: If I had been in his place. when a man is found slain. Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. He gave us their names. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. I.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. a a
DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION
One can accept Isl¯m freely. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. ’Ali burnt them to death. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image.is death.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. The climate of Medina did not suit them. ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. 2 i. ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword. ih
. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. and he would be surrendered to you. For example. and the identity of his killer is unknown. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. he said. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. Once a Muslim was found slain. break its neck. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. 1357).
or if he has killed someone (i. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. but they were not given water” (4132). bloodwite was allowed. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. She had broken someone’s teeth. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132). they killed the shepherds.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). The apostates were brought back. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). in Muslim a law. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. But in another case. someone who is a Muslim.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer.e.. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138). or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. but technically. according to many jurists). it is retaliatory punishment. and their feet. and put out their eyes. a
¯ QIS AS
Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”.
. an eye for an eye.
A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY
A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). When the case was brought to Muhammad. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. Away from the control of the Prophet.
and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). her hand was cut oﬀ. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ.
¯ HAD UD
Had ud. QIS AS. he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. causing her to have a miscarriage. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h. and also for drinking wine. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. a a The translator. Thus. ’Aisha reports a similar case. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185). when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. “Hers was a good repentance. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. and death for apostasy. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. Although Us¯ma b.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. a hundred stripes for fornication. HAD U D)
Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). an exemplary punishment from All¯h. stoning to death for adultery. as we have already seen. Zaid. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.” ’Aisha adds (4188). which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. the beloved of Muhammad. in a long two-page note.
. The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. nor made any noise.
PUNISMENT FOR THEFT
’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). a woman committed some theft. a interceded in her behalf. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate.76
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. the penal law of Isl¯m.
‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯. ’Abdullah. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. All¯h has ordained . Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a
. Similarly. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. in case I get hold of him. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female.” says J¯bir b. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). . In this sense. “I was one of those who stoned him. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. . and gave a small quantity of milk. Therefore. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. a woman of Gh¯mid. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. receive teaching from me. the people may forget it and may say. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h.77
ADULTERY AND FORNICATION
Adultery is severely punished. He repeated his confession four times.
There are some gruesome cases. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). . the term includes adultery as well as fornication. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. with the lapse of time. “The whore and the whoremonger. a branch of Azd.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. By All¯h. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him.
No such hole need be dug for a man.
. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. ¯
These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. but when the case was brought before Muhammad. And then the multitudes follow. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. . so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended. a
A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED
The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). The stoning is begun by the witnesses. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. When a woman is to be stoned. in fact. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. . the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion .” The woman was punished for adultery. QIS AS. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. HAD U D)
then stoned to death” (4025). just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). a chest-deep hole is dug for her.78
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. iya. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). participating believers.
FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED
In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. and let a party of the believers witness their torment. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom.
. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. then avoid it. “I was one of those who stoned them. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. The Prophet was a merciful a man. and if she was unmarried. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. and he committed me to ﬂog her. A slavewoman. if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224).” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. even if she was married. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her. the son of ’Umar.” says ’Abdullah. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. stoning had fallen into disuse. 47).79 Among the Jews themselves. According to one tradition. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. was not to be stoned to death. then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221).
A SLAVE ADULTERESS
A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. ’Al¯ says: “O people. she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes). but if he gives verdict for stoning. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. those who i are married and those not married.
FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED
If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. then accept it.” he adds (4211). by the time of Muhammad. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction.
but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). ’Al¯ counted the stripes.” So did Ab¯ Bakr.
PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD
At the end. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. several days. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. class of punishment. he has two rewards. They hold that the number of stripes is to. be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. he still has
PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING
The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. and ¯ to lash him. and if he is sick.80
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. In such ir. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. cases. depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264).
The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. HAD U D)
On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. a
¯ TA’Z IR
Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. the third Khal¯ a ifa. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. If he does his best but errs. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. QIS AS. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. When the i number forty was reached. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237).
Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. but a apparently this is not really so. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. Fresh vegetables. and bread. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. marble. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). glass. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. birds. Nor is the testimony of Jews. Also exempt are bricks. cement. Christians. a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. a fruit and ﬁrewood. such as books. According to the Qur¯n. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286).81 one reward (4261). such as hospitality. According to some. In cases involving had ud. In a dispute regarding property or debt. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law.
. mats. 1981). is not covered by Isl¯mic law. are also discussed in this book. recently published in Pakistan.
CRIME WITH IMPUNITY
The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. November 15. the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. and carpets from mosques. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity.
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. HAD U D)
. QIS AS.82
¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8.
the spoils of war. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. .
Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. Historically..Chapter 9
Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a
The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m.” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. . . seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294).e. Medina. do not embezzle the spoils. If they refuse to a a pay the tax. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. . All¯h. and inform them that. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. If they refuse to migrate. . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . . Theologically. if they do so. accept it from them a . All¯h. . demand from them the Jizy¯ . Make a holy a a a war. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. . 83
. a a trying to be universal through conquest. Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. if they respond to you. . . the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m.
If need be. had¯ 4324). So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks.
SPOILS OF WAR
The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. this shocked the Arabs. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. All is fair in love and war. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. no song need be made about it. as some others have translated it. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. But if they are killed. al-Madina. “war is a stratagem” (4311). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
RAID WITHOUT WARNING
It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance. All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. Sa’b b.”
CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS
In jih¯d. “Eat ye the spoils of war. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder.
JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES
Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. this requirement can be waived. or. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. “cunning. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. unknown to the Arabs before. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. As the Prophet a says. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5.” says the Qur¯n a
. it is lawful and pure. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra.84
¯ CHAPTER 9.
It belongs to the Cause. i. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. 1934). and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). In fact. “Ye shall by no means follow us. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. they would say. For example. in this case the cause of God.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the
’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war. he a a is given a share in it. and their dwellings.” but he would answer.85 (8:69). “Permit us to follow you. in commenting on i. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. If he fought for such accessory rewards. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander.
Essentially. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone.” 1
A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE
Despite the pious rhetoric. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. material incentives had to be provided. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. and also as a favor and extra incentive. Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it. where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ. when it would be easy to win booty. a In fact. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). ¯
. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. he fought from wrong motives. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. as administered by his Apostle.. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. Muhammad told them that the next time. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327).
pretty rough. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. recriminations. which he took by surprise. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war .
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.
MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS
The spoils of war were most welcome. restore what he misappropriated. had¯ 868). If any person is so false. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). II.86
¯ CHAPTER 9. after the capture of Hunain. and was full of claims. suspicion.-161). he shall. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
hard way. .” said All¯h (3. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. believed in by any sensible person. on the Day of Judgment. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. Within a few months. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346).” the muj¯hids demanded. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. ¯ ¯
. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. Commenting on this verse. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. p. then if you obey. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. 594. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. in fact. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16).” 2
¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’
There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. . grievances. and supernal intervention had i. . the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. The booty was very large.” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. and accusations. The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue.
to the Muslims in general.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. i fellow was Utbah. In due course. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. when they are no more. except for a few who were killed. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. A Muslim combatant. to His Apostle. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied. Another unfortunate i. the poor. 338-339). were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. According to this code. including the cattle. should be destroyed. O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. “They are our kith and kin. his family. vol. the traveller a . and a the traveller” (59:7). The economic view prevailed. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools. or children. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca.
. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. women. His Apostle. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their
Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. During a retreat. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h.” (8:41). Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. . One of these was Nassar b. When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ. whether men. And at his command. I. . belongs wholly to the Prophet. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. any such property that cannot be carried away. the poor. gains from a war not actively fought. Alh¯ris. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers. the orphans. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. on the other hand. it is entirely at his disposal.” which ’Al¯ readily did. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. The fai’. Along with the khums. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. his family. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. Muqd¯d. . pp. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. orphans. at least in this case. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. all prisoners. part II. He advised that they should be put to death.” he advised.
. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. Another imposition. Imperialism has the same is. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain.” as the translator puts it (note 2230). The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. They are not to build new churches and temples. called jizy¯. those to whom the Book has been brought. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims.
THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD
After Muhammad established himself in Medina. they are not to ride is on horseback. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. but later on. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
land on the payment of half the harvest (3762). also belongs to the fai’. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . There are many other disabilities of the same kind. . II. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. as the Muslim empire grew. they cannot engage in public worship. but more often this was not done. language in every age.on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. it was extended to other subject peoples. and . they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol.88
¯ CHAPTER 9. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians. forts. and mosques). 889). Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. p. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. such a as their public prayers and festivals. though they can repair old ones. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. in short. and for the building of bridges. This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u
according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly.
. to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. They got a large number of camels as booty. So did the others. . a but kept a large part for himself.
In the distribution of the booty. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. He also had seven other gardens in Medina. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy.89 after embracing Isl¯m. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people . and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375).” he says (4340). he had properties at Khaibar.” his Coptic slave-wife. whether slaves or women or property. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. He u ir. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. . part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. were conﬁscated by Muhammad. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. u ir. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated. . . These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. As the amount of war booty increased. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. As a chief.
the number a was twenty-one. It was not much of charity. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. According to Zaid b. The conquest of
. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). These are of two kinds. the Prophet’s daughter. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. Arqam. i]. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. “Commander of the Faithful.90
¯ CHAPTER 9. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES
After Muhammad died. In due course. the Prophet’s uncle. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). the Battle of Badr a (4394). Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. the Battle of Azh¯b. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). raids. According to J¯bir b.” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. Zaid (4469). u Prophet. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. There are other traditions too. The denial a i. They took their dispute to ’Umar. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. and battles of the Muslims. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. ghazw¯t and sariya. decide between me and this sinful. a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). though. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. u a Many battles. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. or as it is popularly known. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. Instead. more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. treacherous. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives.” a
RAIDS AND BATTLES
The book refers to many forays. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). are described by name. not always in the order in which they were fought. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). 4465).” But. that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. ’Abdullah. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. for example.
the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. .” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). and thy Lord has sent me to thee .” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). p. part II. several miracles are mentioned. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. O All¯h. . throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth.
In the accounts of these battles. I would do that. In most of the battles. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h.” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. II. On many an occasion. numbering one thousand men. On another occasion. We went out . vol.” When the answer a
. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. Muhammad came with a the whole army. “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. During the Battle of the Ditch. at the Battle of Badr. . To the consternation of J¯bir and his family. J¯bir b. People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. For example.” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. . 467). Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. a The water welled up. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). . We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450).
EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS
“I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. . accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. Either he prayed or spat into the well. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot.
¯ CHAPTER 9. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. . [so that] some ye slew.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. and cast terror into their hearts. . 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . We give the story as summarized by W. [they] spent the night in prayer. Each company was made to sit down
. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
was unsatisfactory. . He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. repeating passages from their scriptures. we have arrived. pp. By God.
¯ THE BANU QURAIZA
The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. . vol. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. the son of ’Umar (4364). III. and exhorting one another in constancy. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. . and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. and some ye made prisoners. Mahomet. we haven’t laid down ours. All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. . . when these were ready in the morning. himself a spectator of the tragedy. and granted favour to them u ir. . And He made you heirs of their lands. were dug in the market-place . So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . .” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. So march against them. Then he killed their men. and distributed their women. children and properties among the Muslims . Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. their houses. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. until they too fought against him. The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363).” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive.” we are told by ’Abdullah. According to ’Aisha. a where they had gathered for shelter. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. . . gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. Ban¯ Qainuq¯. their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). . During the night graves or trenches . A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. they surrendered . .
. . of Huwey.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. indeed. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. and chose to remain (as.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. 303-304. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. I. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims.land. and there beheaded. took his seat there. a i. pp. of female slaves and servants. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. and gave him over to another. and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. of Ozz¯l. He invited her to be his wife. . . for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses. . the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man . .”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . she had no alternative) his slave or concubine.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. . chattels.of K¯b. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . Tabari a i. strike high and hard. Here take my sword. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage. and slaves. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. in exchange for horses and arms. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . an aged Jew. from his share of these. .But slay me also. cattle. For Zoheir. Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. He replied. to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith. ¯ ikh i. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man.” Ibn Ish¯q adds. Having sated his revenge. till the whole were slain . . When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle.
. but she declined. He received to each inquiry the same reply .” S¯bit refused. another biographer. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. The booty was divided into four classes . who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . and butchered in cold blood. I entreat thee. There were (besides little children. having refused marriage.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. and therefore were u
4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. . it is sharp.they had all been slain already . . whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre.
7 In fact. . In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. Akhatab. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus.” He too was brought before Muhammad. part II. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. 465. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. and has made me thy judge.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . 476. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. but God the most High has given thee victory.
Sirat Ras¯l All ah.” Then he sat down. u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. . “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper. .” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. his head was struck oﬀ. II. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. Rauzat-us-Safa.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. . They must become a participants in its blood-rites. vol. and at a signal from Muhammad. a Jewish leader. ¯ ¯
. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. saying. p. They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town.94
¯ CHAPTER 9. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. . Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. God’s command is right. p. He who forsakes God will be forsaken . and there is no remedy . but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. Huyayy b. p. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. 464. A book and a decree. before dying. Thus. ’Aisha says of her. p. They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. Besides the aged Zoheir. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. . . He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. 752.
Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. pp.” he prayed to All¯h. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. pp.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. pp. I. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. one of u a ira their kin. He took Mecca by surprise. . the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. When you meet them tomorrow. i a ¯ vol. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. ¯ ira. 12
ibid. a u a a and Sa’d b. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. 480. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . 9. if. . Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying:
We weep for our Protector. in A. Kh¯lid b. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. Deserted by Her servants.. therefore. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396).” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. In ﬁghting the Meccans. struck the idol with his pickaxe. 546. “O God. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. who were from Medina. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. to demolish the idol of All at. and. p. His people killed him. and not to the Emigrants. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. I. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. H. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. Shu’ba. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. A little later. their goddess. 544. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. Umro b. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men.
. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. 484-486). 10
THE CONQUEST OF MECCA
Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. wipe them out. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing.
” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . went to Ka’b’s house at night. According to the Yogas. The permission was given. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. asmit a). has a source deep in our being. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. self-discovery. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. or falsehood.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. and His Messenger. selfa a churning. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. the Exalted. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). Through them. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. a After the conquest of Mecca. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. in egoistic life (aham.96
¯ CHAPTER 9. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). Then the assassin. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. True. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. a more psychological and mystical religion. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. whether Jehovah or All¯h.
Assassination. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. Spiritual darkness. self-shedding. he lured his intended victim outside. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. Wonderful! To say the least. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. like jih¯d. u Similarly.
. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. “Who will kill Ka’b b. accompanied by some accomplices. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds
This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth.” said Muhammad.
Further details are available in various other accounts. as we have seen. describes the assassins “bold as lions. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event. 368-369. Ab¯ M¯’ila.” He went down and was killed (4436).” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear.” 15
¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER
Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer.97 like the voice of murder. Very soon. p. Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet. 13 Hass¯n b. pp. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. 15 ibid. Maslama and his foster brother. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). On learning this.
¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD
The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty.” Muhammad asked
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet.. travelling by night a with their light swords. 368. the unlucky victims of his aggression. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. a poet. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life.. another poet. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. he should respond to the call. Sabit. u Some.
. ¯ ¯ ibid. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. 369. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. Another Ka’b.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. p.
¯ CHAPTER 9. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. Safw¯n b. According to the translator. When the man said he did not.
. (4472). “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD)
him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. and a both were polytheists. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. For example. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology.
God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. and so on. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. non-Muslims. political and intellectual. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. is. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. In Isl¯m. general morality. food. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. and pilgrimage. zak¯t. in all matters. with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs.
THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH
At the very beginning. rather. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99
. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer.Chapter 10
Government (Al-Im¯ra) a
The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. So in a Muslim polity. marriage. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. dress.
though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad. Thanks to Muhammad. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them . They were warriors. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. Later. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. may one day revive this idea. D. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. a
. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. the Saiyids. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. a As a result. his wife F¯tima. for six hundred years. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. and the disbelievers among them. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad.
Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. and Ruler of the Faithful. and i.” says Muhammad (4473-4474).
¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA
“The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. emerged in Egypt. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . In another version. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. rulers. The present-day Sauds.100
¯ CHAPTER 10. 1299-1326). necessary foundations. are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. the holy lands of Isl¯m).” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494).be Thou hard upon him. the Prophet’s daughter. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. and scholars. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. “O God. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. ﬁnancial tycoons. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. helped by petrodollars.be Thou kind to him. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. A branch of them. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. Successor of the a a Apostle of God.” Muhammad says (4476).
he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. gifts are given to the oﬃce. for as we know. . An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). “O you a who believe. This is a big loophole which was fully used. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. it is a religious obligation. Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). If the electors choose someone unanimously. Very thorough. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense. have to invoke God at every step. His Apostle. obey All¯h. . and to his moral and spiritual sense. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. and this is a gift presented to me. a Qur¯n 4:59). But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. War booty is sacred. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. then that person is designated as the
.101 There are other conventional exhortations. “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment .
OBEDIENCE TO RULERS
Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. a Some exceptions are mentioned. not to the oﬃcer. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. and should appeal to me for help. As he lay dying.” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. a is
WARNING AGAINST SCHISM
Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. In fact.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1.
If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. answering a follower. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders.102 Khal¯ ifa. Ghaﬀari. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. men of authority. 4. 3. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines.” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
All four points are taken from S.
¯ CHAPTER 10.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553).
. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. his own son and one of the electors. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. then those two should be killed. p. “Kill him. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. you should listen and obey” (4554). 1
SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP
“Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). Shiaism. ’Umar. If there is an equal division. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched.
WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES
Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b.” Under the circumstances.
“Beware. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. nocturnal emission. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). strength consists in a is archery. For example. and this time he was accepted. there will appear a number of impostors. but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a
. ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. a
THE AGE OF MAJORITY
Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. You are to guard against them” (4483). among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. Similarly. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. or pregnancy (note 2331). when he was ﬁfteen. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult. Again. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is.
Jih¯d appears again. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. Yet again. That decided the issue. This is understandable. and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. but the Prophet did not accept him. The next year. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. for purposes of marriage. which is also an a important subject of this book.
HORSES AND ARCHERY
There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses.
“Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted .104
¯ CHAPTER 10. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. So the rules were changed. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. but since this is not always practical. . Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. “I love to ﬁght in the
. After a the conquest of Mecca. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. According to some ﬁqh schools. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. . and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. they became desperate. Muhammad had the same desire for himself. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. his body will not decay. Having no home and no livelihood. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. a
¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD
“All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles. one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year.” In fact. there is no Isl¯m. when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). Without jih¯d.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). if he dies in the Way of All¯h. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. a
¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION
After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood.
the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. One said: “I do not care. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636).” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. Therefore. All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). . . Muhammad was consulted. if after embracing Isl¯m. a such as fasting. . The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God.105 way of All¯h and be killed.
. . to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer.
¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS
The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. . What is that act? . But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth .
THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID
The rewards of being a Muslim are great. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. praying. . and going on pilgrimage. had¯ 4638). .
. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. 519 ¯ ¯
¯ CHAPTER 10. [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. Two men. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h.” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. . But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two. Two men. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
THE STORY OF A MARTYR
The promise of heaven was tempting. . without having had the time to say a single prayer. In the engagement. a stone struck him and he died a martyr. go to hell but never “gathered together. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. p. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. Another puzzle seeking a solution.
Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. On the way to the Battle of Uhud.” 2
AN EARTHLY NOTE
After all this Paradise-mongering. both go to Paradise. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). one the slayer and the other the slain. Asked to explain why. We may give here another paradox. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. When we came back a
Sirat Ras ul All ah.
and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). In such instances. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men.” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. II. Homely wisdom. Two men did not heed this command.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. Give them time to separate. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. is
. had¯ 571). Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. let them not be taken by surprise. i.
¯ CHAPTER 10. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA)
a its ﬂesh is not lawful. a a a However. even if the game is killed. a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. with the help of a particular incantation. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109
. Food and Drink
The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734). Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. cutting the windpipe. and softened them a good deal. When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog.Chapter 11
Hunting. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733).” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). All¯h is great”). When slaughtering an animal. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87).
There are similar restrictions on game. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. one should draw the knife across its throat. some mub¯h (permitted).” says the Qur¯n (2:172). then eat what these a hounds have caught for you.
except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water.
It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). But if it cannot be avoided.
FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL
The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). they ate a a even the dead animal. During the journey.
. recite the name of All¯h.” and as they were hard pressed. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756).a falcon.” for a month till they grew bulky. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h.
CHAPTER 11. “When you shoot your arrow. The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. . The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. . “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. a cheetah. do not eat from their utensils. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound.
DOS AND DON’TS
“If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians]. The beast was dead. “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. then wash them before using them” (4743).” J¯bir tells us. for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). HUNTING.” he says. There is a story behind this particular permission. It fed them. “three hundred of them. and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). . and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . FOOD AND DRINK
What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting .
KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE
The Prophet was not without compassion. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . as is legally required” (4768). slaughter in a good way. Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. and he accepted them” (4801).
. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). . LOCUSTS. narrated by R¯ﬁ b. To illustrate. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. So every one of you should sharpen his knife. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388).
LIZARDS. a a
The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782).” came the order. u a u Similarly. so when you kill. The eating of locusts is permissible. . He did not accept it. caught and slaughtered it. Shadd¯d b. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. saying: “I neither eat it. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury.” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar.” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses. Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). HARES
The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). “Throw away your pots. nor do I prohibit it. the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. we give another tradition. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800).
The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. which means “to injure the jugular vein”. and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. and from blood. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. In Muhammad’s lifetime. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. and from things strangled. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. is But in order to be meritorious. which means “to split or pierce. In Isl¯m. i. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart.
THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE
The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced. HUNTING.” Another word used is nahr. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter.” Muhammad tells us. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. I. had¯ 1392). They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce. the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h. They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). In many religious traditions.
. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837). are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h.112
CHAPTER 11. too. FOOD AND DRINK
Intimately connected with the above is the next book.
black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. the translator explains. This is understandable. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. .” When she did. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). unless it is diﬃcult for you. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce. so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal.” He then said to ’Aisha.”
SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY
The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845).) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. According to Ab¯ Huraira. . Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams. “Give me the large knife. in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year. but more than six months’ age]” (4836). he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels.113
As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. he took the knife and the ram. While sacriﬁcing.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war.
It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. O All¯h. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. and when they are a
. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). we have made for you as among the symbols from God . but we have no knives with us. it is bone. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. is “As for the nail. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h.
but when he returned. and Ubayy b. Ab¯ Ayy¯b.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. Liquor was forbidden. a and he thus turned upon his heels. We made animals subject to you. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. all this changes. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. and he a i a brought his camels along. Mu’¯z b. We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). “Hamza’s eyes were red. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. who put on his mantle. He tied them up outside. and came out” (4881). the Prophet’s uncle. FOOD AND DRINK
down on their sides eat of them . a is u u u u a a Sahil b. . he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. a a Let it be so if you like. Ab¯ Duj¯na. In animal sacriﬁce. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. a new reverence for all living beings.114
CHAPTER 11.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. that reaches All¯h. went to where Hamza i was. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. . Baiad¯. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). We experience a new togetherness. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. Ka’b drinking. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad.
. the ﬂesh comes to us. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. Jabal. “It is not their meat nor their blood.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. and began to reprimand him. people said. a
POT AND PIETY
On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. Ab¯ Ubaida. esting story. . ’Abd al-Muttalib.
The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. HUNTING. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. narrates an interi.
Ibn ’Abb¯s. a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. the Prophet’s cousin. . and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012).
MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING
There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. In another tradition.” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. green pitchers. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971). If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor.115
Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. together (4896-4912). “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. it is not forbidden. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. he tells ’Umar. u
Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. mention the name of All¯h. .
Muhammad approved of drinking milk. or hollow stumps (4913-4995).” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). gourds. . there is not even a disapproval.
PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS
It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. with the blessing of the Prophet. if one drinks water standing. A laudable practice. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. In ordinary course. FOOD AND DRINK
One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). and thanks for the mothers. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040).
DO NOT FIND FAULT
Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. one “must vomit” (5022). ’Abdullah b. because Muhammad did so (5072).116
CHAPTER 11. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. for feeding 130 persons (5105). sisters and wives. so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. a
Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. he left it” (5121). he ate it and if he did not like it.
Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). HUNTING. In fact. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. thanks for the farmer who produced it. Still. but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027).
. Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). but it is permissible for other Muslims.
. Be a meat-eater if you like. but one ought not to feel so pious about it. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. ¯ a negate Him. no God can legitimize it. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. That way we really profane Him.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal.117 However.
CHAPTER 11. FOOD AND DRINK
Silk is also forbidden. These were striped and made of coarse cloth. Magic. Decorations. Visions. on the other hand. 119
. Poetry. he promised to wash them. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. “Do not wear silk. Greetings. The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140).Chapter 12
Clothing. were considered excellent (5179-5180). for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). The mantles of Yemen. General Behavior. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). Dreams
The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173).
.” reports Maim¯na. On seeing portraits on a curtain. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). “Then on that very morning. .
Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). . Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot.
. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. In fact.
Not only clothes. u
PICTURES AND STATUES
The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). whether of birds or animals or men. MAGIC.120CHAPTER 12. GREETINGS. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. so oppose them” (5245). for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). POE
Sandals are recommended. DECORATIONS.” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. They eﬀectively keep out the angels. the father of Ab¯ Bakr. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). GENERAL BEHAVIOR. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). CLOTHING.
Rab¯h (“proﬁt”). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. ¯
FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE
Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. having the same meaning (5338). and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”)..e. Yas¯r (“wealth”). Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. the son of ’Umar. He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). Muhammad also disapproved of qaza.” and it is a perfectly good name. a
. ’Abdullah. He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334). having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”).” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310).
GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS
The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). i. Barra means “pious. He forbade women to add false hair to their head. those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298).
“chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. GREETINGS. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . “he should come back” (5354). it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). POE
NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD
People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate.122CHAPTER 12. Q¯sim. When a man seeks permission three times. Muhammad called for some dates. DECORATIONS. . All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.
DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE
It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. . a
Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger.
ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE
One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). a a When other Muslims objected. MAGIC. and it is not granted. . but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. CLOTHING. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. Asm¯. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). gave birth to a baby.
Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”.” the Prophet replied a (5400). and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). who was tall in stature. Also. When you meet him. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. And all should greet the children (5391-5392). went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h.
“The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. . then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). “Husband’s brother is like death.” says ’Aisha a (5397).
’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). we recognize you. but Muhammad did not respond. “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations.” an ans¯r asked.” His hope was fulﬁlled. oﬀer him greetings.’ you say. The Prophet himself followed this practice. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book. “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389).123
SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS
“Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . when he seeks your counsel give him. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯.” “But what about the husband’s brother. . when he invites you to a feast accept it.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. and when he dies follow his bier” (5379). One day. “All¯h. the Exalted and Glorious. and when he falls ill visit him.
. or if that cannot be helped.
the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic.. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. GREETINGS. those who had brought it about. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. of course.124CHAPTER 12.. and deposited at the bottom of a well. 1 On another occasion. p. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that.” and that “it was Lab¯ b.
Tabaq at. “could not come at his wives. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact. ¯
.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. During this period. MAGIC. it had no power over him (5430). DECORATIONS. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. you should take a bath” (5427).” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. vol.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. by All¯h. A’sam id [who cast the spell]. 156.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. This saved him for the time being. I. In fact. POE
MAGIC AND SPELLS
With rather slovenly classiﬁcation. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm .” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. the Prophet got well. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him. As the knots were untied.e.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. a u In the same S¯ra.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha. CLOTHING. but. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. and incantations. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. poisons. medicine. it caused his last illness. spells.e. and the way they did it. and according to some traditions. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. or. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry.
don’t run out of it” (5493).” and “no star promising rain. NO INFECTION
Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. 3 ¯ a
¯ NO EVIL OMEN. it is a wonder drug. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579).125
CURES BY INCANTATION
Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457).e. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). no epidemic disease.
2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury. and when it has broken out in the land where you are. According to the Arab belief of that time. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). Cool it down with water.. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. NO HAMA. i. It has a sexual potential. On another occasion. so you may go” (5541). no ghouls. and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. Among others. He says that according to some Muslim scholars.
Don’t mix with lepers.” Muhammad says (5484).” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed.
. don’t go to it.
the woman and the house” (5526).126CHAPTER 12.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist .e. POE
Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. The two worlds . and the law of causality. CLOTHING. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today.. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. “There is no transitive [i. According to the translator. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. augurs. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. no divination. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true.” he says (5519). epidemic] disease.e.” the translator assures us (note 2603). a belief found in the lore of many countries. DECORATIONS. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet.
Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain.. but good omens please me. soothsayers. and fortune-tellers.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. he believed in good omens and luck. Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). Muhammad corrected
. including India.are very diﬀerent. a
Muhammad was against k¯hins. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. MAGIC. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). nature. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). GREETINGS. i. then it is in a horse.
’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it.” So they too should be killed (5545). a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). the jinn has his chance. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world.
WINDS AND CLOUDS
The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. Their sight ﬁlled him with fear. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. Like snakes. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”.” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. Muhammad explains: “All¯h.” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain.127 this belief and provided another explanation. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. the Exalted and the Glorious. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. ANTS. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18). S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10).
. and Jinn (72:8-10). CATS
’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. had¯ 1963). His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. a is
” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. Ab¯ Wahb. the daughter of a Marw¯n. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . as in the cases of ’Asm¯. MAGIC. “O Apostle. GREETINGS. The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. “Catch the Satan. the only status he cared to claim. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt.
CORRECT WORDS. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. CLOTHING. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. Ka’b b. who was already a convert. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. 597. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. When Mecca was conquered. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. a u had already ﬂed in all directions. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). ¯ ¯
. even by the method of assassination. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). POETRY. p. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry. then get to some safe place. If you do not do that. . Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611). VISIONS
The next three books are very small. his brother. POE Ants fared better. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). according to Ibn Ish¯q. One relates to the use of correct words.128CHAPTER 12. True. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets.” he advised. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. . This taught many of the a u others to behave better. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. he did not think highly of them. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. DECORATIONS. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. The book ends on a compassionate note.” Muhammad commanded. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. He found Muhammad most valorous. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. He punishes it through His living Apostle. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. most courageous.
Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. embrace Isl¯m. This was called his charitable disposition.
. a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats. but when it did. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). “He a went back to his people and said: My people. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. I would give you so much. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729).” the recipient said (5730). Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. however. The man was overwhelmed. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717).
The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him.133
A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE
When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. ’Aisha. “He asked me to count them. provided it was no sin” (5752).” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. many of them by Anas. Ummaya.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins.
” His body a was also fragrant. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. and even heels. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”.134
CHAPTER 13. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). a is complexion. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads.
THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE
Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. eyes. the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. a
THE PROPHET’S HAIR
There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. His perspiration “shone like pearls. the other sadaqa. “Do not be angry. He a also found his face very handsome. hair. Rob Peter to pay Paul. so All-
. “He put on a red mantle over him. or charity. appearance. a is He used to part his hair. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). a
THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE
There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). One is called jih¯d. The Prophet’s body was soft. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub.
. Umm i. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. Another man. That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). J¯bir. ’Abdullah b. according to the translator. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . Muhammad’s wife. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . . and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). His hair was collected.
THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD
His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. younger u than he. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). ” (5765).135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. According to Ub¯da. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. “his forehead perspired” (5764). . Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790).
PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY
According to ’Aisha. Furthermore. under its inﬂuence. Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. In fact. . Salama. that a revelation was involved in the matter. .
. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). and his head was lowered (5767). a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty.
everyone was enabled to perform ablution. a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas.. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle.his father’s sister’s son. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. i. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. It suﬃced him
. On another occasion.136
CHAPTER 13. Muhammad a gave his decision. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay.” As a result. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). In one place. “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. and do not go after my personal opinion. he said: “If there is any use of it. a practical man. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. learned this. in another three hundred (5658). a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. then do accept it. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. but when he placed his hand in the vessel.
The book also reports many miracles. people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). had¯ 5817). is. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. then they should do it. Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. by the Lord. I do not think this approach can go very far. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65.e. Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . When Muhammad. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE
The Prophet had the best knowledge. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. Sometimes. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet.
On the battleﬁeld. Muhammad’s world was not very large. During the dispute. the Jew said: “By All¯h. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. the Arab Bedouins. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. the neighboring Jews and Christians. the tribes allied with them. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. however. He knew his own people. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. To the Jews and Christians. Who chose Moses amongst mankind. and Moses. Speaking of himself and Jesus. But when he failed in his bid. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. a dispute rose. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). Their religion is. having diﬀerent mothers. on the day of Uhud. though on his own terms. narrated the whole story. a Jew was selling goods. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. a is Abraham. Recognizing the other prophets. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). Therefore. and therefore they were as good as apostates.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854).” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. But he could not
. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles.
At the end of the book.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). and supplicated him.
PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’
Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. “Had you not weighed it.” The Jew went a to Muhammad. he oﬀered his leadership. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him. For example. served a still greater purpose.
for one is also the other. an attitude of either/or. seldom both.
. don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs. for they are all part of one human brotherhood. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. for they all express the same Truth. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too.138
his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. Salama.
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ
The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. and u a a i. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. ’Aisha’s 139
. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. “the father of the maiden. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. members of his family like F¯tima. ’Umar. ’Al¯ Hasan. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine.Chapter 14
The Prophet’s Companions
The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. D. and Zainab. and ’Usm¯n. To be saved. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. Husain. The followers need have no other. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. it is enough to be subservient.” the maiden being ’Aisha.” Muhammad said u a (5873).” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. but he soon came to be known by another name. he answered: “ ’Aisha. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best.
the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants.” He told them: “We are the Ameers. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. and her brother too. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. with a sword in his hand. as the u a a chief. 279. made the most of his dead body. ’Ub¯da. one of their own tribesmen. “To Ab¯ u Bakr. during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. was kept in the dark about it . u so that he might write a document. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. and you are our Wazeers. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle.” Muhammad answered (5878). Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country.140
CHAPTER 14. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
father. I. As soon as Muhammad died. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. Outside. pp. u ifa a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. even half-believingly. her father.she was sleeping in another hut at this time..” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. we jumped on Sa’d b. ’Ali a respectively. I said. p. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. u Zubair. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. Ab¯ Bakr. “Either take the i.” ’Umar threatened them. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. The next day. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. Even ’Aisha. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. struggle for power began in earnest. Eventually. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m.
. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. 529). p. “In doing this. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). his favorite wife.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. ‘God kill him. 527-528). u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors.
Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. ’Umar was fanatical. Had it not been for a previous
. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . modestly mentions a only three.” Muhammad observed (5885). while asleep. The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. and strong in his hatred. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. nor stand at his grave. as he prayed. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. Once. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904). are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. a But Muhammad persisted. . All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away.” When he inquired. In fact. the direction was changed to Mecca. and in case of the prisoners of a im. however. by a divine injunction. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. . and ’Umar that they be a killed. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave.141
¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. for they rejected God and His Apostle. Badr” (5903). ’Umar wept when he was told about it. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). the place of the Jewish Temple. Later on. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. ’Abb¯s. And lo. ’Umar. . ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. narrow-minded.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. KHATTAB
on the state’s payroll. But after him. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. and said to him tauntingly. p. spread of Muslim hegemony. He forged new instrumentalities.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. 110. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. An Arab. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. it was something to be proud of. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar.” The story is quoted in full in
W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. Life of Mahomet. there was also “weakness in his drawing. you are beaten now. vol. III. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough.” he said (4360). “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. “Nay. but u he drew only “two buckets”. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head. and the necessary religious rhetoric. as we have already seen. a True. its real founder was Muhammad himself. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. provided a new taste for booty. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud.
.” The man said. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism.” said Muhammad (5890-5896). “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. a founder par excellence. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. a new incentive. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
ordainment from All¯h.142
CHAPTER 14. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). he made it clear. by L¯t and Uzza. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. the son of Soheil. 3 On another occasion. even including newborn babes.” he told Muhammad. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. These ah¯d¯ we are told. a continuing motive. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. He put every Arab. an ideology. He met Mabad ibn Wahb. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. “Well. on another occasion. In the Muslim annals. his name appears only once. we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. himself drawing water from a tank.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. a i.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. who provided it with a theory.
The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. al-Mugh¯ a ira. releasing him without any ransom. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. In the same battle.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them. p. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. al-’Abb¯s. who replied. Only a few decades ago. ¯ ¯
¯ ’USMAN B. did not like this. in Russia and even in China. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. p. But there is nothing unusual about it. Umm Kuls¯m.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. and also to spare his uncle. 739. “O Ab¯ Hafs. u According to Muslim tradition. so contrary to human nature and custom. Ab¯ Huzayfa.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. p. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. who was taken prisoner i. in the Battle of Badr. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. 301. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages.” he said aloud. vol. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. whom he married. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. 507. the man is a false Muslim.” he said. ’AFFAN
’Usm¯n b. But one Muslim. After she died. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. Rauzat-us-Safa. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. When the Emigrants a
Mirkhond. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. II. part II. he was much troubled. Hash¯m b. the family to which u a he belonged. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. al-’As.
” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas.” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children.” Other doctors of theology and law. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. is such that it excluded
. a a family. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. they are my i. . and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. But when ’Usm¯n came. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). Hasan. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. and its way of arriving a at truth. . saying. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. therefore. a convert from the proletarian strata. Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. . “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). is receiving a visitor. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and.
’ALI B. the Book of All¯h . In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. reclining against a pillow .” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family. From the arguments advanced on both sides. . I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank.144
CHAPTER 14. “O All¯h. [and] the members of a my household. with great ingenuity. AB¯ TALIB I
’Al¯ b. the order of truth it deals with. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . did not agree with this conclusion. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. and Husain. was a burdened with work that was too heavy. it was Ab¯ Bakr.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. at the hands of his brethren in faith.” he said (5915). There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance.
go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. complained to Muhammad.. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. II. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. command. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. and applied i. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. his own saliva as a cure. ¯ ¯ ikh i. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. II. ’Abb¯s.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. I. p. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. thy brother i is coming behind thee. When Muhammad was dying. Let us. a i. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death.e. p. During the Battle of the Ditch. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. 456. had¯ 1569).” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. ’Abdu Wudd. II. i saying: “I shall never do it. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. ’Al¯ is from me. and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). vol.” But ’Al¯ declined. All¯h is partial. ’Amr i b. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. therefore. vol.” The story is given by Mirkhond. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. part II. On the day of Khaibar. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar].” As ’Amr looked to his rear. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. “his face becoming red with anger. a man of ninety years. Wal¯ the second-ina id.” ’Umar says (5917). Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle.” at the complaint. people will never give us the Caliphate again. The Prophet was furious. his uncle. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. had¯ 1582). Ja’far. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man.
.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. Kh¯lid b. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. 8 On another occasion. vol. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. pp.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. thou hast deceived me. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. At one i point in the contest. he took a slave-girl i.” (Tabaq at.” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. 9
After Muhammad’s death. involving a complaint of a similar nature. 292-293. 521). II. 5918).” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. i i” i. i.
a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses.. . .” This.146
CHAPTER 14. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. and when the night set in. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. he was also his executioner. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith.
¯ SA’D B. is
THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. pp. HARIS
Zaid b. was the old polytheistic morality. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. AB¯ WAQQAS I
Sa’d b. had¯ 5933). following the old Arab custom. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). ’Aisha tells us. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. eight hundred strong. obey them not” (29:8. . Until now. We give one example. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. however. But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. 112). 477-478. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. he again began to be called by the name of his
ibid. but after this marriage. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). .” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. After he was appointed to this responsibility. by order of his lordship i the apostle .
’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. vol. newly married. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. and Zainab. Another woman. in a ﬁt of jealousy. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. dispatched home. though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years.147 natural father. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976).” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else.” Muhammad said (5966). probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. i With some women. Salama. II. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. According to Muhammad. the marriage was not consummated. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. a a is
THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA
In the list of merits. perfumes. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. and his Lord . just as Mary. . and food. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty.” (Tabaq at. Muhammad himself says that “women. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. ija. The marriage was consummated when she was nine. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. I often heard him praise her.
THE MERITS OF ’AISHA
The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. 147-164). his ﬁrst wife. I il ate from it. For example. ¯
. Once. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. . At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. was the best of the women of her time (5965). Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. pp. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. She was turned out. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. therefore. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. the daughter of Imran. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. had¯ 5956). and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought
11 Muhammad married many women. Ibr¯h¯ died. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5.
they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. his daughter. as luck would have it. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). she went back. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority. . Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him.” ’Aisha narrates. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. to him. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. but all very convenient. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. But. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. Once. verily. A time-honored a practice. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima.” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). in the words of ’Aisha. I will never talk a to him about this matter. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. On another occasion. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. . Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion.” Muhammad made no answer. She said yes. by the Lord of Muhammad. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.” ’Aisha generously agreed. Even during his last illness.” “O daughter. you say: ‘No. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). and having been thus silenced. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey.148
CHAPTER 14.” About Muhammad’s own behavior. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. “Where I would be
. A rule within a rule.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him.” a as ’Aisha puts it. .’ and when you are annoyed with me. though a strict code might call this bribery. Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet.
complained about it to Muhammad. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. vol. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. put it in her mouth. i. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. pp. and in my bosom. if. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. “And when it was my turn. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. and they agreed.” ’Aisha adds. here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings. known as the Saiyids. After Mecca was conquered. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. meaning “masters. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. our salivas mingled.149 tomorrow. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. 678-679. his wife.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997).” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. his cousin. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. ’Aisha took the hint. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. and even. During his last illness. I would not allow them. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. on my day. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. I. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. Muhammad looked at it intently. ¯ ¯
. In fact.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired.
THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA
Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife. She had two surviving sons. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. for my daughter is part of me. He
Just before Muhammad died. took the twig from her brother’s hand. just a few days before his death.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. “the virgin. Fat¯ u u ima. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. 282). is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. Hasan and Husain. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. “The Prophet died in my room.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. Tabaq at. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. p. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. in the last moment of his death.
CHAPTER 14. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . Sa’d was a a fat man. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. but his bier was very light to carry. Mu’az. Thanks to his political connections. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. Hakam in revenge. ¯ ¯
. During the Battle of Uhud. 469. who u
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. ¯ There are other traditions about him. In the battle over the succession that raged later on.
THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA
Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. In the case of Khad¯ ija. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence.
THE MERITS OF SA’D B. MU’AZ
When Sa’d b. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. the third Khal¯ a ifa. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). he later became the richest u person in Arabia.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. she was his only wife while she lived. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. p. sitting on a camel. one Marw¯n b. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). Therefore. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n.
” he said. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. On the day of the Battle of Badr. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing.
. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza.. “Yes. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. Mu’az. “By God. Umayya. p. he “had looted. more kind a and compassionate. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. in Mecca. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. the poet. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. Consistent with his lowly position. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. the Aus. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. The next a day.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward.” Muhammad said to him. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. Khalaf and his son. Seen through less-believing a eyes. 301. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution.” he added. Umayya b. he said. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf.” he replied. u
B¯ AL IL ¯
One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. a carrying coats of mail” which. Khalaf. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you
ibid. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. an important Companion.
Life of Mahomet. decided to become a Muslim.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. and brother had just been murdered. 611-612). vol.152
CHAPTER 14. the son of Ab¯ Jahl. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. II. IV. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners.” The Muslims gathered. At the Battle of Khaibar.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. They bring no change in the individual. I will. “By God.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. now his prisoners. p. Sim¯k b. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. They cried in pain and horror. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040).
¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA
Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. There is a telling example. But organized conversions are now. often they make him worse. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. 68. 18 In fact. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. father. by their hands. part of an aggressive politics. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. ¯ ¯ W. Muir. ’Akrama. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
have. When Mecca was conquered. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. 302-303. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. Just then. whose husband. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld.” In later days.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. as they have always been. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. vol. Bil¯l kept shouting.
. Umayya a b. pp. after the great carnage of the day. pp.
An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. the daughter of Bakr. The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . he petitioned: “O All¯h. the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. . M¯lik. u a which he knew very well. and commissioned them to write satires. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years.” And to All¯h Himself. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. . I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). . the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a
. S¯bit. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years.” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow.
¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . Muhammad sent for two poets. He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . and Huraira.” With that end in view. . Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions. The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176).153
THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS
The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. Sabit. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. . ifa
THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA
On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. . “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. According to her. for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. Gabriel is with you” (6074). help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). Understanding the intricacies. . Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. .” he said to Muhammad. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . On another occasion. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. One of them was the son of ’Umar. give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah.
then come his Companions. As things converge toward Muhammad. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour. ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. 6081).
MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER
Muhammad is at the center of everything. though all the participants were ﬂogged.. 220). H. “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). 110).” says ’Aisha (6079. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . In this ranking and ordering. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. According to one important opinion. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). 170). they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. but when they were in his service. then those nearest to them” (6150). “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. but as they proceed further away from him. “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A.
. . Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. 120 years. as the last Companion died in A. and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. H. .” she said a a (6075). H. do not revile my Companions” (6167). it was a diﬀerent matter. the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i.e. the Prophet comes ﬁrst. Then those nearest to them. At the end of the book. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS
and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction.154
CHAPTER 14. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. they become better.
of course. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. “The believers are like one person. “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). Destiny. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). If he suﬀers pain. “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . “A believer is like a brick for another believer. And. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. his wealth and his honour” (6219). all Muslims should help each other. All Muslims are one body. “When a Muslim falls ill. Good Manners. Remembrance of God
The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. Knowledge. it is a reward. if his head aches. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. In short. . the whole 155
. and feel for each other. Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. the one supporting the other” (6257). “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. Monday and Thursday. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). stand by each other. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. . .Chapter 15
If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. as the Prophet himself explains. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. a Similarly. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). a
Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). in fact.
Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. DESTINY. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). It is meritorious to speak the truth.
Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). he should spare his face” (6325).156 CHAPTER 15. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. 1 The face should be avoided because. All¯h would a meet his needs. 6265. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. and he who meets the need of a brother. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife.
. and 6306). if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. spoils. who a
This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. KNOWLEDGE. VIRTUE. should help him. and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship.
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
garbing itself in pious clothing.” he said. vol. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. his fortune and misfortune. p. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. false witness. blasphemies. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). his death. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. violence. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. his livelihood. fornications. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. II. For example. But. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. war booty. a
The thirty-ﬁrst book. True.” As a result. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. 280. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). “This I have power to do. murders. O Lord. but thou. Without inner puriﬁcation. and tribute.
LACK OF INWARDNESS
Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. . Each person passes through a series of stages. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. it imposes only an outer code. it gives the theology of a Moloch . .All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. and prurience. his deeds. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. adulteries. ¯
. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. there can be no higher ethical life. as might be expected. theft. as Muhammad called him. it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has
Tabaq at.” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source. after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga.
Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. “Verily. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). KNOWLEDGE. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking
. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. And. VIRTUE. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them.” On the other hand.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action.162 CHAPTER 15. a a “Verily. He also warns against hair-splitting. even smaller than the previous one.” and do not dispute about it . The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars. the reverse may also happen (6390). The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). DESTINY.that is knowledge. “Recite the Qur¯n. If everything of men is decreed in advance. It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. But in spite of these warnings. by seeking to explain them. One day. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442).
The thirty-second book. he says” (6450). “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). of course. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). do perform good deeds. you would follow them in this also. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400).” he remonstrates with the believers. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians.
” Muhammad a tells us (6475).
¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP
’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. and Paradise if we fall. the inﬁdels. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise.
¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH
The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. in conciliation. polytheist. and empire if we succeed. inﬁdel. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. our reward is booty. in brotherliness. in compassion. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. I draw near him a by the cubit. and forced conversions. In the prophetic tradition. I rush towards him” (6471). faith. like his moral teaching. and earnestness. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. And if he walks towards Me. slaves. he retained His audible names. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. in wisdom. “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a
. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. In the mystic tradition. and so on. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). it means walking toward the Light within. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. Muhammad explains” (6476). in purity. conquest. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h.163 away the scholars” (6462). Muhammad’s god.
i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. the daughter of Hil¯l. 593. KNOWLEDGE. Demonology is the other side of theology. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. ¯ ¯
. so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. 7
¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING
We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. For example. as a gift. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. one to ’Usm¯n. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). and the second to ’Umar. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. DESTINY. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. VIRTUE.164 CHAPTER 15. p.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother.
Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). “amongst the inmates of Paradise. the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor.” women will “form a minority” (6600). the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. On the other hand. the Last Day
The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. If they so wish. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). In book thirty-four. Their Inmates. they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. Hell. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour.
The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. According to another tradition. 165
. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604).Chapter 16
i. between afternoon and night” (6707). On this day.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. Muhammad said. will take in His grip the earth .” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. . . giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday.” he told them. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. “the earth would turn to be one single bread .. . Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey.” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. HELL. . the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739).
. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). Thanks to his reward in this world. THE LAST DAY
THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r).
On the Day of Resurrection.
The Last Day .e. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above.
Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). the Exalted and Glorious. THEIR INMATES. B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710).166
CHAPTER 16. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. PARADISE. The believer will be doubly blessed. and of Paradise and Hell.
. On the Day of Resurrection. even the one least tormented. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie.167 Either way. no Jew
. For example. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. In fact. But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. The nonbeliever will answer yes. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698).” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. whether. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. .
THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON
Besides the power to curse. it is cheating. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. it is still not a fair deal. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). a
¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE
All¯h is long-suﬀering.
THE JEWISH SCHOLARS
While Muhammad had power over nature.
All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. . Allah will ask the nonbeliever. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). the “moon was split into two. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. and heedless.
A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. HELL. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers.” 43:36. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. pandemonic. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. the demons are only attached to inﬁdels.
SATAN AND THE PROPHET
Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. a devil.168
¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN
Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775).” Muhammad declared (6752). more precisely. “Verily. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. in the Sunn¯h. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers.
. Literally. In the Qura an. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man.” Muhammad declared (6711). also see 41:25). quran¯).
MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS
’Abdullah b. the latter is pandaimonic or. THEIR INMATES. a prophetic one. PARADISE. the word means “the one in united” (pl. THE LAST DAY
would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam.
In the Prophet’s eschatology. Paradise and Hell go together. a “the Fire. and Its Inmates”. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. .121 times.“The Garden”)
The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. but if you fail. then after them others in ranks” (6796). he advises. moral action occupies a secondary place. A constant Bower of Bliss. . a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. a “In Paradise. Its Description. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). Its Bounties.169
PARADISE (Al-Janna . Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. “Observe moderation” in your doings. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). appears with still greater frequency . “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). Then those who would be next to them.
Paradise is not without its hierarchy. which appears 76 times.” Muhammad says (6760). In the Qur¯n. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. O Lord. The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars . It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. A man is justiﬁed by faith. An-N¯r.
In religions where theology is supreme.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell.
nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797).
¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE
The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. less than ih on earth. . THE LAST DAY
Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. HELL. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. THEIR INMATES. nor will they spit” (6795). any that they may desire” (56:2021). They will be “reclining on raised thrones. LAVATION
For his habitation in Paradise. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. a joy to those who drink. . So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . The immeasurable is measured. “All¯h. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). the Exalted and a Glorious.170
CHAPTER 16. his length being sixty cubits. the height of Adam and even of God. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). “they will have fruits. rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15).
The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise.” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). nor void excrement. and the shades of the Garden will come low
. . The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible.
HABITATION. rivers of wine. “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). PARADISE. For food. incidentally. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl.
describe the a i. For example. wine.
. with whom he will make love successively. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. a i.
Houris are promised. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). 55:46-76. will dwell his wives. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. for ever virgins. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. ’Umar.
Other traditions. We can only mention the subject here. so he will have women galore in Paradise. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. golden vessels. a 56:15-40. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). the bunches of fruits will hang low. and others. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl.171 over them. 4:13. 9:111. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. houris with swelling bosoms. retiring glances. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. 10:9-10. 52:17-24. According to ’Abdullah b. 66:8. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). 76:12-22. which we have already mentioned. 47:15.
the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. PARADISE. THE LAST DAY
NUMBER OF SLAVES
According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. According to Anas. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number.
According to Ab¯ Sa’id. the number of slaves is ten thousand.
. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the
Aldous Huxley. and eight thousand women who have known men. when a believer embraces any such houri. four thousand virgins. and seventy-two women. in the Muslim Paradise. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. p. though rather mathematically expressed. ’Umar. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. 1980). every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. According to him. every room will have seventy couches. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. and she will have a crown on her head. According to ’Abdullah b. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. THEIR INMATES. holding the train of her robe. Each houri will u have seventy garments. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. these women will put on see-through dresses. According to Ab¯ Sa’id.”
NUMBER OF HOURIS
Anas stinted on women.172
CHAPTER 16. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. still furu ther. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. HELL. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. 1
NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN
It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. According to another tradition. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. 112. every orgasm will last for six hundred years.
D. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. ira.
Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. According to Muslim thinking. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). his senior. to some up to their knees. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. In caloric heat. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. In Hell. and as-s¯’iba. to some up to their waists.
. There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. Khinzif. In the S¯ras from this period. Luhayy b. Cam’a b. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. Similarly. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. But as his harem swelled.” as the translator explains (note 2999). the son of Abraham. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831). The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. are severely punished. u a 4:57).” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). “I saw ’Amr b. dragging his intestines in Fire. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25.
you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this . but they lack the power to reply. Verily. there is no death for you.
. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . . All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. You would live forever therein” (6829). the chapter is closed forever. . what I am saying to them. . Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey. . It begins immediately after their death. . THE LAST DAY
After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. “As polytheists. Then he sat by the side of the bodies. there is no death for you. You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). HELL.” Muhammad told him. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). even you cannot hear more distinctly than they.” somebody replied. THEIR INMATES. they would break my head . . . “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. PARADISE.” Muhammad revealed (6859). . . said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. . and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. . . “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell.174
CHAPTER 16. and addressing each of them by name. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. And I sent the Book to you . O inmates of Hell.
While delivering a sermon one day. I said: My Lord. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. Muhammad said: “Behold. .
The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise.
will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. Hell has many names. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. In a
. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized.
THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT
On the Day of Resurrection. “the Fire.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. So hells increasingly more smoky.
THE SEVEN REGIONS
Curiously enough. each with a its own potency.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71).175
There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. and more scorching are conceived.
¯ THE QURANIC HELL
As was also noted in regard to Paradise. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief. and inmates. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. that should be of interest to Freudians. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. i. naked and uncircumcised. even Muslims must go to Hell. thermodegree. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger.e. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. The is. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is.. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. more blazing. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. But woe unto the unbeliever. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell.
“It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. THEIR INMATES. 56:52. . the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. Saqar for the Magi.” According to some commentators. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. another terrible food. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. PARADISE.e. hypocrites. HELL. the Day of Judgment). The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. of All¯h’s command. i u 44:43-46). and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). In other S¯ras (e. weary. if not the spirit. which shall burst their bowels . which shall dissolve everything in their bellies.” is mentioned.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. THE LAST DAY
order to fulﬁll the letter. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents
. they shall be given water like molten copper . and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure. Jah¯ for idolaters. and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre. . It is called Jahanam. Similarly.. in the language of u the last S ura. . . polytheists. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). which leaves nothing a unconsumed.176
CHAPTER 16. of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians.g. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. and never has any light. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. idolaters. toiling. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. 17:60. The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones. loathsome in smell. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. . inﬁdels. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. . “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims.. is for the Christians. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). .” i. like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. Christians.” There are other traditions in the same vein.
Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. but in the case of
. Arabia. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah.
THE LAST HOUR
The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). a And I have seen its eastern and western ends.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. 6906). “He granted me two. but He did not grant it” (6904. All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites.” he said (6881).
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH
Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. . “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre.177 and an equal number of scorpions. . referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. .
PARADISE. blind in the left eye and a a is. come and kill him. the smoke. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961). or the servant of All¯h. ” (7039). who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. red in complexion. which is painful to touch. a Before the Last Hour comes.
Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. According to the translator. .178
CHAPTER 16. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). THEIR INMATES. It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). . the Dajj¯l . a
¯ IBN SAYYAD
A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004).
SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR
The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). HELL. a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a
. will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. there is a Jew behind a me. a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. THE LAST DAY
Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009).
he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. in fact. permit me that I should kill him. ‘He only chanted dhukh. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. Like the early Christians. According to another story. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. That gave point to his claim. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives.” the translator tells us (note 3037).179 him.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l].” Then there was a competition between the two. dukh. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). a a made the very same claim for himself.
. ready to do his bidding. you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered. Pointing to a young boy. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad “did a not like it. “Thereupon ’Umar b.
CHAPTER 16. THEIR INMATES. PARADISE. THE LAST DAY
a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. do what you like. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). Sin is doubly blessed.Chapter 17
Repentance (Tauba). According to Muhammad. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. and All¯h. In fact. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. and All¯h responded in the same way. the Exalted and High.
SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING
A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. but now a He added: “O servant. All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. It helps him as well as his Maker. . I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. “If a you were not to commit sins. . I
We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. forgive me my sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . 181
. forgive me my sin.” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba).” The servant committed yet a third sin. It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives.
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
In retaliation. 499.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. ¯ ¯
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. in Whose hand is my life. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. like that of the former times of Ignorance. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. I have never unveiled any a woman. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. Of course. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. “And a stay quietly in your houses. Also. ¯ ¯
. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. p. 33). we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. I
in a poem. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k.
Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. and make not a dazzling display.” he said. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). For example. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. according to ’Aisha.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. p.186
CHAPTER 17. 498). and though young he died soon a after. by One. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. “Hallowed be All¯h. According to another tradition. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence.
110 002). But from the beginning. He used the carrot as well as the stick. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. and ideological untouchability. M¯lik) a
We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. and the disloyal. Even in Muhammad’s time. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. 2/18 Ansari Road. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. it was combined with other. constia is. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. New Delhi . the indiﬀerent. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India.Chapter 18
Repentance. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. spiritually speaking. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. political boycott. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. negative as well as positive. Islam was not all theology. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b.
. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. but the
For a fuller discussion. M¯lik. more secular appeals. Apostasy was severely punished.
They gave generously. In planning other campaigns. REPENTANCE. the toughs of the ummah. contractors. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. ’Al¯ Zubair. is. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. ’Amr ibn Omeya. and traders. now others do the same in turn. 630. was ever present. which were now reduced to submission. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). S¯lim b. a lordly sum. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. Muheiasa.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. and the weather was dry and hot. MALIK) fear of the strongman. One had oneself played safe in the past. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life.
¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN
Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. and so on. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. They had become governors. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. Sa’d. or party.the i.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . But this campaign was to be of long duration.but even worse. He collected tithes from the tribes. it was his largest and also his last. In oﬀending the Prophet. D. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. 789. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. besides inviting more concrete punishments. you not only oﬀended All¯h . Umayar. for he died soon afterward. the boss. in fact. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. Muhammad ibn Maslama. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. ’Usm¯n.) ¯ ¯
. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. you oﬀended ’Umar. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a
He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. Because of its unusually arduous nature. his own son-in-law. who were now rich and powerful. ’Abdullah . Talha. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. p. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. generals. I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand.
Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house
. . For example. and strive and struggle. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. But even so. they would all without doubt have followed thee. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. Thou knowest them not. say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. and journey easy. at least nominally. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. Twice shall we punish them. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). their spirit was considered praiseworthy. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. But Him you would not harm in the least. In the Islamic tradition.” All¯h said of them (9:97). Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. a a
OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN
Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. and when you said. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). but We know them. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts.’ Muhammad. whether equipped lightly or heavily. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101).” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). Of such people. in the cause of All¯h.189 soldiers. if only they could understand” (9:81). and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. ‘Go not forth in the heat. “Go ye a forth. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. so they put forward many excuses for not going. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . with your goods and your persons. which now included. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you. He also took more secular measures. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. That is best for you. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. the whole Arab world. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. Though they were sent back. .
One of the victims. was also there in consida erable force. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. This eﬀectively dealt with them. . the Christian prince of Ayala. According to some traditions. . although many of its members were still disgruntled. Are you not content. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments .
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. But if you oppose and displease them. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. one-third of which was cavalry.” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. . so go back and represent me in my family and yours. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. . To Yuhanna b. I left you behind because of what I had left behind. I will not accept from you a single thing. because the Byzantine army. ¯ ¯
. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. Al-Dahh¯k. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. sang: a My salams to you. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. According to some traditions. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . 783. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on.
SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT
When the expedition reached its destination. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. was nowhere in sight. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. Believe. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. p. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. or else pay tribute. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. . which was easily done with such a large show of force. REPENTANCE. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). But eventually he did not go. 3
A LARGE ARMY GATHERED
Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. Ru’ba. This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. . it found there was not much to do.
where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A.” But later. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing. . neither age nor health nor lack of means. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad.191
When Muhammad returned to Medina. Hil¯l.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. who was a poet. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition.” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate. the Byzantine Empire]”. he decided to speak the truth.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. that the Prophet had departed. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. Ka’b. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty
This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so.” he says. he says the expedition was big. . D. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina.” he said to himself.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. The next day Muhammad arrived..
. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. and Ka’b. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed.e. to his dismay. Of the many who had remained behind. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. “more than ten thousand people. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. he kept it as a secret.
“As I read that letter I said. MALIK) persons. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. When Ka’b’s turn came. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. I never possessed so good means . We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. and he was my cousin.
Then the ordeal began.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. . “By All¯h. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b. This also is a calamity. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. and I had the greatest love u a for him. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time.” This comforted him somewhat. REPENTANCE.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. . by All¯h. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. He replied.” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God. I greeted him but. he sent his wife
. .” As Ka’b was young. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h.” This communication could be very incriminating.) Later.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. “No. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. he did not respond to my greetings. or turn in mercy” [9:106]. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h. . “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . as I had when I stayed behind. a While he was enduring this mental torture. so I burnt it. some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case.” Ka’b says.” a Muhammad dismissed him. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. .” When forty days had thus passed. whether He would punish them.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. . “Verily. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her.
he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth.” she replied.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. and the latter received him with a smiling face. “But don’t go near him. also Tabaq at. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. p. that they might repent. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. and so did their souls become straitened within them. His followers heaved a sigh of relief.
The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. vol. I. The same message was sent to the other two. ¯
. Life of Mahomet. “By All¯h.” 5
W. p. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). 505. when Muhammad heard this. he has no a such instinct in him. he spends his time in weeping. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). Meanwhile.” he says. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use.” Muhammad told her.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. IV. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). there is glad a tiding for you. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. vol. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. Prophet’s biographer. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice. M¯lik. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. 201. Muir. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. Then He turned to them. Some of them even began to sell their arms. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. a
At last the dark days ended. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. even until Antichrist appear. By All¯h. as he was a “a senile person”.
The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. p. the center of great jealousy in the harem. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body.) a ikh i. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. MALIK)
THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL
At the end of the “Book of Repentance. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. I. but in order to avoid further complications. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. REPENTANCE. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. Peace was eventually restored. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood.
. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. Mary. 504. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life.
therein shall they dwell . others out of chivalry. . It is a small book. They were doubters. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. named after ¯ ¯ them. Some of the citizens saw. a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre. But in the peculiar theology of Islam. such doubts were morally the most heinous. men of incomplete faith. and some out of spite for the Meccans. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public. skeptics. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195
. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness.Chapter 19
Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in)
The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. and the rejecters of Faith. or S ura. For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. the Fire of Hell.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68).some out of conviction. a H¯wiyah. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves.
MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY
Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times). men and a a women. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. and there is a whole chapter. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. called Mun¯ﬁq in. .
Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
with them all that we possessed. 157-158. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most.
The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. converts. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. they a would have gone somewhere else.” she sang. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad. Muhammad (Pelican Books. and much of it could also be bought. D. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. His victory at Badr in January A. 624 brought him the opportunity. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. Muhammad detested them. related to Aws Man¯t. then by All¯h. 676). “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them.
Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. many of them believed in war spoils. They could put their ideas into verses. Auf. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. p.
. If we had kept our own for ourselves.196
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. pp. 1973). It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. The opposition could now be intimidated. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. But the realization came too late. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. and soon they seized a whole yard. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage.
including the two assassins named above. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯.197
ASSASSINATION OF POETS
“Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. The assassin had a powerful patron. . because of his open sedition and verses. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. 4
A NEW FEAR DESCENDS
According to ancient Arab custom. look ye here. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. There was something new in the atmosphere. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. a new apprehension. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. 676. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. vol. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. . oﬀered to assassinate her.he spat on it and it was healed. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. They were too cowed.” he told the departing assassins. Muir. Most of the local converts. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. “Lord. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. We have already mentioned his case. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . 368. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task. p. W. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. Life of Mahomet. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. 132. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her.” he prayed. p. This turned out to be only too true. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. a new equation. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet. had not fought at Badr. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . but nothing a happened. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. p. III. ¯ ¯
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” Muhammad had assured him. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident.” he told them. Also. This they did by these perﬁdious acts.
” Thereupon Muhayyisa b.. . 6
THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION
Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. “By God. and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. The killer’s brother. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. A seal is set on their hearts . Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna.198
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. They had promised each other a u ir.” says Ibn Ish¯q. Huwayyisa. but the opposition was badly divided. a Muslim convert. common interests. it said one thing and did another. They have made their oaths a screen . a
ibid. 676. But this period of caution did not last long. ¯ ¯
. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. Mas’¯d. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). a common ideology and passion. a Jewish merchant. D. . did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. . Furtive in action. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . 622. They are enemies. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. a common goal. Ibn Ish¯q. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. p. a
THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED
Muhammad’s party had a common command. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. . “When the Hypocrites come to thee. The demoralization was complete. . . As his power increased. but they are indeed liars . All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. He exclaimed. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. I would have cut your head oﬀ. 369.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. . chided him: “You enemy of God. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. they say. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. . 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect. p. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. the doubters among the local converts.
It is said that just before Muhammad came. We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. He was once the leading citizen of Medina. If they be driven forth. . Three years later. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. But even then. independence of judgment. I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. and his appeal was also a threat. Thou dost reckon them as one body. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. .” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . he was not an unworthy man. and loyalty are qualities.)
Ibn Ish¯q. . leaving their goods behind to the victor.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina. but their hearts are separated. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. these will not help them. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. but if patriotism. his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. and if you be fought against we will help you . Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. But God bears witness that they are liars. p. and if to save is better than to kill. because of his inﬂuence. a new force entered the scene. 627. This was in February A. (See pp. 92. in March-April A. . a
’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY
There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . D. . D. and if they be fought against. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. these will not go forth with them. 624. But after the arrival of Muhammad. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). by God. and his importance declined fast. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. . ¯ ¯
. 363. When they surrendered. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. Muhammad besieged this tribe. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black.
” 8 Later. and later. but it rankled in his mind. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). p. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. . With all the proposals and consultations. two thousand camels. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. He had an image to protect. also heard about it. He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands. he was spared. a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. about ’Abdullah. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. and you have divided your property among them . On this occasion. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. . he gave it serious thought. Huzair. Tempers were frayed on both sides. Ibn Ubayy. But Muhammad was cautious. he consulted Usaid b. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. denied it.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. with his usual weakness. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. The booty included two hundred families. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. You have let them occupy your country. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him.
Ibn Ish¯q. when confronted with this statement. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. On the way back. at a more opportune moment. the stronger will drive out the weaker. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. 491.200
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19.’ But when we return to the Medina city. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. so he accepted the denial. ¯ ¯
. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES
Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted.” he advised. a
THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED
’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. a fanatic Muslim. But wiser counsels prevailed. Aws and Khazraj.
Some of the persons who were with them came back. 492. ih
’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS
Zaid b. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. on oath. with this background. the Prophet. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. he had u already become a back number. By this time. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom.
PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN
The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. who narrates the whole story.D. 625). but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677).” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina.” ’Umar submitted. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. p. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him. denied having said any such thing. Zaid b. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value. at his a is son’s request. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. Now. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. and he was isolated from his people and allies. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. ¯ ¯
. they heard ’Abdullah b. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). The latter. who questioned ’Abdullah.201 Later on.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that.
Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. The ¯
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. according to Ibn Ish¯q.
They again dug the grave . A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul.” All were pardoned except one man. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. At last they left him unburied” (6693). and the other one said: No.
AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE
According to certain traditions. who was forbidden to divulge the information. Qays. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. the hill of Mur¯r. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. this hill. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. but the earth again threw him out. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a
. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. . This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet].202
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. . but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. they were twelve men. But the man replied: “By All¯h. Thus intimidation had started quite early. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. The hereafter will take care of itself. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. his sins would be obliterated. the owner of a red camel. One group said: We would a kill them. They again dug . Other traditions identify him as Harr b.
AN OUTSTANDING ARAB
J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. but the earth again threw him out . and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). all veiled and only half-glimpsed. Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. According to Huzaifa. this should not be done” (6684). . . . The Prophet cursed them all (6690). .
and moha) are not to be trusted . It tells us about the time. but with the a . and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. hereafter. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696).
DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE
The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. who had already chosen his pastures.
“THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY”
The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. According to other traditions. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. but that the trances of a passionate. and deluded mind (i. merely an exaggerated. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance.
. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. india a vidual men.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. the circumstances of their revelation. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks. angry. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. incidents in the life of the Prophet. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. sensuous copy of the here. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. It is feverish in tone. the place. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. Ibn ’Umar. dvesa.. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa.behind them often a . it threatens and promises. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad.e. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses.
the ﬁfty-ninth S ura. The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion.” Muhammad agreed. ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. Resurrection Day was far oﬀ. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). ¯ condemnation. the majority of men and women in the world. among your wives. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). or “Banish¯ ment”). and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then.according to Sir William Muir. the eighth S ura. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. It contains only ﬁfty traditions. The information throws no particular light on this revelation. It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. But I want to be there. For example.
. a completed favour upon you. in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). I yield my turn to ’Aisha. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN)
This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). and do even now. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. and adds nothing essential to its subject. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. which makes such a tall claim.
¯ THE LAST S URA
Sa’¯ b. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i.204
¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. II. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). had¯ 899). ¯ the very last. This is understandable. on the Day of Resurrection. then in her forties. but chronologically it is one of the last .
Ishaitu’l Isl¯m. 1980. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. Abridged Urdu ih a i.usc. 1973. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot.
The Kor¯n. Delhi: Kitab Khana. Qur¯n Majeed. H. 1973-1975. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. London. Muhammad Ashraf. popular and much in use.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. Palmer. Muhammad Ashraf.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Lahore: Sh.Chapter 20
[The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Lal Kuan. ih a if. James Robson.. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. Urdu translation in 2 vols. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Lahore: ih Sh. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. New York. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. i if. 205
. Translation by E. Glorious Qur¯n. translation. Reprint of English translation by Dr. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes.
English translation. New York. Urdu translation in 11 vols. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. Karachi: Nafees Academy. 922). edited by James Hastings. Ali Raza. 1893. Mahmud. reprinted. Urdu translation in 8 vols. A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. letters. Selections from sermons. Ghaﬀari. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. Karachi: Nafees Academy. 1 and 2. Delhi-6. London: Royal Asiatic Society. vols. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. & T. 1976. Tehran: Shahpur Square. by Syed a i. Tehatsek. trans. India. Edinburgh and New York: T. i. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. E. The Life of Muhammad.
Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Oxford. Guillaume. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. 1976. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Scholarly. Ibn Sa’d. Elder & Co. translated and edited by A. 4 vols. H.. London: Smith. Pelican Books. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies.
Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. S¯ a ikh i. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. ¯ died in A. and his S¯ of Muhammad.
. a Shiaism by S. 1980. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. Khavendshah b. D. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. 3rd ed. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD
S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. 1861.206
CHAPTER 20. Scholarly and pioneering study. Clark. 1973.. popularly known as Mirkhond. 1885. The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. 310 (A.
. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. All¯habad: R. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. Among other things. 1897. Publishing House. Rupa & Co. 1st ed. Ratlam (M. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. New Delhi.. 2005. S. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids. reprinted. 3rd impression. 1980. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg.207
The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir.)-India. New Delhi: Impex India. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. Hindi publication in 3 vols.P.