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Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
D. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. 824-892). 204-261=A. They were sources of prestige and proﬁt. drowning the genuine one’s. Under these circumstances.800 traditions out of a total of 500. 819-875).000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . and later on the Abbasides. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. particularly the Alids. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. great passions were generated.iii other reasons.in short.000. 202-275 = A. This was found in the Sunn¯h. 817-888) u a¯ and others. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers. 810ail ai 870). they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them.was a great thing. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. H. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. Spurious traditions were coming into being. It is said that he collected 600. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. H. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. In this struggle. 209-279=A. D. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. D. a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. There was an even more pressing reason. 194-256=A. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A. in the practice a of the Prophet.000 traditions but accepted only 7. A hundred years after Muhammad. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . H. the Ummayads.000 of them as authentic. The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. H. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. D. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. There were also more personal motives at work. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. or what they thought were the right theological views. There were many motives at play behind this development. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. Soon after Muhammad’s death. It is also u a¯ said that 40. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited.
the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . his forehead. rather all too human. about a man. H. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating. is rather unedifying. But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind.000 as genuine. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. which were in vogue died away in due course. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet.“the two authentics. 151 (A. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. The of the Had is. Of these. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. The lapse of time helps the process. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. Muhammad Ashraf). Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. 32). reveals their more earthly motives. The believers have handled. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. 85 and died in A. To clarify certain points. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. the Had¯ the context. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore. or collections. and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. which only the Had¯ provides. and only six collections. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. H. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. we must thank Dr. narrated.” they are called. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today. who was born in Medina in A. In fact. Over a thousand collections. H. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. 768) a in Baghdad. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. It ih provides the base. D. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies.iv accepted only 2. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. the hero looms larger. As the distance grows. is a and provides them with the necessary locale. a i. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. but they contain much that is factual and historical. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. 1958).
but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. Here and there. their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. with a large Muslim population.081 footnotes. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda. In ih a is. In India. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims.v whose mother tongue is English. In a Sah¯ containing 7. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. and install in their place their own godling. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. and even India. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. the old mission is being revived. in Malaysia. Dr. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism.” i. or “countries of peace.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. Isl¯m. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. If anything. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. we have also quoted from the notes ..e. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . When we read Dr. All¯h.about forty-ﬁve times . Indonesia. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore.. Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. They buy local politicians. a i. a Even in the best of circumstances. is again a on the march. Sidd¯ ¯ translation. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. having been dormant for several centuries. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of . In fact. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates.e.
Indeed. This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. is In this volume. though. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. and thus. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. And. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. derived from the available symbols of their culture. it resists any change. a is a is . It gives us 7. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. While we have in this way touched on many points. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. But on calm reﬂection. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage.243 chapters. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins.vi the country. dictatorship comes in its wake. a is. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution. According to some thinkers. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. It has one drawback. similarly. in many cases.190 traditions divided into 1. motivated by a compulsive atavism. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. Wherever it triumphs. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. both of commission and omission. it is also something more. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. was unavoidable. we have discussed none in full. Therefore. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. For this purpose. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. It is a weapon of self-defense. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. On the other hand. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view.
Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel .but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. like other Had¯ collections. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. mating. no cosmetics. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. The Sah¯ Muslim. hating. comprising 180 traditions. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism. but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. praying. In our quotations from this literature. although such instances are rather rare. containing 583 traditions. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. they were All¯h’s own acts. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts. could have found this story so inspiring. There is no makeup. breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. .vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. generation after generation.” A similar formula. “may peace be upon him. For example. “may All¯h be pleased with him. eating. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. One is also left to wonder how the believers. dispensing justice. In regard to the title of the book. Here one comes to know him.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. no posturing for posterity. Similarly. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). the moral is whatever he did. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering.
For example. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. now both resident in America. one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. but we have made it do also for another sound. Shri A. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. the Arabic alphabet’s se. a by the English s. te (soft dental) and toe by t. in order to avoid them as far as possible. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. both have to be learned by ear. ze. P.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. C. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. z¯l. Shri L. Gupta. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. Sisir Kumar Ghose. and zw¯d by z. C. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. Shri P. RAM SWARUP . I thank them all gratefully. they have preferred to remain anonymous. Dr. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). Shri H. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value. Jain. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. ain. and Mrs. Therefore.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRIDAY PRAYER . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . .
. MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEFT. URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . Bequests. . . . . . . . . . . . Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . . . DEBTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . . . . . . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . Greetings. . 116 GARLIC . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . Vi- . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . Decorations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LUCK . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . VISIONS .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 HELL . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION .
. . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . . . . . .
” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar. inform me about al-Isl¯m. when the inquirer is gone. pay Zak¯t. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage.” Later on. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. and you establish prayer.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. in the resurrection. ih In quoting them. ifa. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). in the hereafter. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. yet without any sign of fatigue. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. 1 1 . a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. and says: “Muhammad. we give their numbers in parentheses. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone. faith in His Book. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. in His angels.
This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. his father and the whole mankind. in the history of Isl¯m. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place.rather. that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. Doomsday. is. Sah¯ Muslim. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad.prayer. and if they accept this. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child.” Other things mentioned are prayer. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. . All¯h and his Messenger . war booty (ghan¯ a imah). but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. . and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth). Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission. Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. Ramz¯n.) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). and many teachers. . Similarly. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. . FAITH (IM AN) ah. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33). whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27). Hell. many philosophies. “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. to name the more important ones. zak¯t. Paradise. Muhammad and his God . and they establish prayer. The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218).” Muhammad tells the believers (71). and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). zak¯t. In the same vein. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. Ramz¯n.
e.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. Ab¯ Zarr. spoils. For example. In fact. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. u if the man committed adultery and theft.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156).” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation.” he replies (148). . except to convert them by sword. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). .” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. but moral values are not altogether neglected. moral or spiritual.” a “What next?” he is asked. The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m . and jizy¯. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion. When asked. But on being asked. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. one’s past crimes are obliterated. Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing.” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion. monotheism.” but who were ready to join him. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a . sincerity is a universal human value.” i. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise. He has no obligations. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. nation. Jar¯ b. the narrator of the had is. But no morally wicked act .3 In the eyes of Muhammad. But in Isl¯m. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). it is a limited to Muslims. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. If polytheism is the worst of crimes. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah.can prevent his entry.not even adultery and theft . even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). toward non-Muslims as part of the human race. The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. by the same token.. is the best of virtues. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. very little to others. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. Muhammad replies: “Yes. and a future ones hold no great terror. “Jih¯d. His Book.
H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . but if he embraces Isl¯m. This means. . They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. and the universal is turned into the sectarian. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists.4 Muslim” (102). Everything good began with Muhammad. FAITH (IM AN) Again. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr. . a . other moral values are given the same twist. some people were greatly perturbed. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. a revelation. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. To rob a whole people is piety. THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. Thanks to this approach. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. We are told that one Hak¯ b. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary.” On hearing this. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre. but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. in the state of ignorance” (222). that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. they become fruitful and are credited to his account. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. a God-ordained mission. They are no longer wasted. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. as another text puts it. there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. it is a a diﬀerent story. THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia.
and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. And understandably so. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms . Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians.” When a woman asks him why it should be so. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. “O womenfolk . . for the hellﬁre is on his side.” a Muhammad tells us (6668). I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. the Peoples of the Book. This would also.5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. “the a . but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. Muhammad says. His past is forgotten a unless it is good. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there.we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. his future is assured. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. incidentally.” the translator tells us (note 2967). Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire. MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283). The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. . but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us.
In short. (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. a famous Arab divine of his time. (2) childbirth. London: University of Durham Publications. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. The dreaded day (yaum). that is the end of it according to Muhammad. (16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). as he tells them. and the proof of their failing in religion.that is one sign. ’Aisha. (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. says that “All ah. D. pp.that is one of the signs of Doom. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). Ratlam. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). But. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). the Prophet’s wife. . 164-165). (6) a lesser share in inheritance. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. Paradise and Hell. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce. (5) not having control over her own person. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master .6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. or of “separation” (fasl). a work in Hindi (author and publisher. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). Deva ¯ Prakash. only one of which is attributable to women. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. In the Qur¯n. when you see barefooted. 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). 1058-1111). but for a woman to have only one husband. India). (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. it seems. ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. He be praised. (4) pregnancy. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. naked. 1971.
a a im. but you go to Jesus. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. Christians will be summoned and asked. The translator makes this statement clearer for us. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382).” He will appeal to All¯h.” All¯h will tell them.” They will go to Jesus.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this.the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better. a you better go to Muhammad. “Jesus. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383). but go to Moses. no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad. but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. All¯h “will gather people. and his intercession will be granted a (377). a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427). “What did you worship?” When they reply. and it is really hell.26).” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im.” Then they will be asked what they want. the water is no more than a mirage.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited.” They will go to a Moses. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son.” Then they will come to Muhammad. inﬁdels. On this day. If this is true.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389). but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. I have. for example. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided. “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted. of course. and polytheists are strictly kept out. Muhammad a . Considering that unbelievers.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted.” They will be given a certain direction. They will say: “Thirsty we are. however. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that. will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians .” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349). For example. and with it is decided their fate. Thanks to his special role. the son of All¯h. “You tell a lie. “I am not ﬁt to do this. and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). Unbelievers.
Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). but needst not go out of your way to save them. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯. are not my friends. . God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. . . even though they were their kith and kin. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. . FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). therefore.8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. Ri’l Zakw¯n. he told a questioner: “Verily. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). On the Day of Resurrection. that Muhammad was consistent. He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). and a a a in his own apostleship. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416). About him. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. fed the poor. . But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. their good works will not avail them.” declares Muhammad (417).” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. a a a Usayya. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. Ab¯ T¯lib. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. a In any case.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. ’Aisha. Regarding his father. however. the Prophet’s young wife. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. For example. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion.
He will break crosses. or “circles” (as Dante called them). and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty. a . In fact. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” . So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy.” Muhammad proclaims a (287). his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical. Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief. and abolish jizy¯. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. But on the advice of Moses. and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge.one prayer will now count for ten . Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. In any case.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. Similarly.for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). this belief. the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule.” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions. “an animal white and long. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve. of heaven. Then he met All¯h. riding on al-Bar¯q. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. Moses in the sixth. But if we look at the matter closely. Jesus in the second. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. and Abraham in the seventh. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. kill swine. a One night.
judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288).10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. Jesus will. a . “the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. therefore. as the translator explains. FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad. For.
g. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. (3) tayammum. total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. physical and ritualistic. and childbirth (nif¯s). defecation. prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. a a menses (hayz). become ritualistically unclean. It deals with such matters as ablution. nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). He 11 . (4) ﬁtra. literally “nature. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). and abstersion.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. the major. or impure: coitus (jim¯). (5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers..Chapter 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. (2) ghusl.
and clipping the moustache. then washed his left arm like that. . For the a identiﬁcation of faces. plucking the hair under the armpits. then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed.” he said (487). all his previous sins are expiated” (436). trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). then washed his left foot. shaving the pubes. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. . for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). . . . cutting the nails. He then washed his face three times. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . . About the moustache and the beard. he must clean his nose three times.12 ¯ CHAPTER 2.” and so on.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. According to Muslim canon scholars. Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . . and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice. This became the standard ablution. then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times. . The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. . . the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists. the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. then wiped his head. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often.
O stone. and in performing ablution” (515). Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. but Moses took his bath alone. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. wash it seven times. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia. while taking his bath. Once. toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination.. and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose.. In this connection. He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts.e. my clothes. in wearing shoes. Moses put his clothes on a rock. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. my clothes. a . Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669). i. But God vindicated him. but the rock moved away.e. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551). He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). and said: “By All¯h. in combing.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504).” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man.” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667).” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. When they asked him about their provision of food.
and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is. and that should be as good as ablution with water. bathing is not obligatory for you. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance. who was sitting by him. The Prophet. and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). but ablution is binding” (676). A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684). But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. The translator . A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. pointing to ’Aisha. The man said yes. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685). The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman. And on yet another occasion. having experienced orgasm.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. There is another had¯ of similar import. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. i.e. “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No.. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). you can take to tayammum.
in some respects. . . “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. and when it was referred to the Apostle. for except for coitus all . The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap.15 explains why. but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse. . and he was presented with a some food. O Commander is a of the Faithful. Therefore. MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. in fact. This chapter too. . Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). for both have to do with ritualistic purity. and the people reminded him about ablution. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). and you ﬁnd no water. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686). All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . Muhammad’s practice appears. But later on this command was abrogated. On the subject of menstruation. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). some cross-reference is inevitable. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). . or you have touched women. So keep away from women in their course.
’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya.” ’Aisha reports (584). ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating. and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. Umm Salama reports the same (581). ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. and recite the Qur¯n” (591). then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. and drink. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it.16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. For example. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. But Muhammad did not go that far. His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man . The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. this question to Muhammad directly. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point. SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. or scriptural studies. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice.
SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes.” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer.17 ¯ (semen). When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. The same obligation lay on women. and sometimes he performed ablution only.” he was told (593). Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606). he a ﬁrst washed his hands. ” (616). he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). had¯ 124). then purify yourselves” (5:6). he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. “You humiliated the women. there should be an ablution” u is. coitus. . a believers (603). . and pollutio nocturna. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept. ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. puerperium. the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. I.” they told her (610. 611). In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. . or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. (605). a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses.
many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. I.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. had¯ 108). And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel. Muhammad was not bound by them. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. in this case. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. is . II. moreover. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). which. i. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. There were no glaring lights. had¯ 1584). Two other wives of Muhammad. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). He had his Apostle’s privilege. they took their bath in pitch darkness. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. 631).
problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. 741). one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers. As there is one All¯h. with 1. the system of the human voice was introduced. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. who later became blind. as the Christians did. the Christians. Bil¯l. prostrating and rising.Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). and the Fireworshippers. as the Jews did. one Book. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted. It is the longest. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. In the beginning. there is also one Prayer. a who was very loud-throated. To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. But in all these pages. and so on. As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. the prayer for rain. caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula. 737. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. others a horn. 19 . There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured. one Guide. All these methods were ruled out. Umm Makt¯m. and ’Abdullah b. the prayer relating to the dead. in Medina. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. postures like bowing. some suggested using a bell. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735.
All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. “Apostle of All¯h. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very eﬀective. a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. he stopped” (745). He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. . but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. so if he heard an Az¯n. Where it was heard. with Muhammad as Messenger. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. 808). he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯. “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. therefore. will be assured of my intercession. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. He would listen to the Az¯n. it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity).20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. sitting or standing. which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. and his wives and his oﬀspring . d in In seeking blessings for himself. and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). He who blesses me once. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. In a variation on this theme. The Holy Prophet.” says Muhammad (747). Another saw his “hands lifted .” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). “When Satan hears the call to prayer. One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing.
the knees. When someone once a did this. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth.” he tells them (817). palm to palm. when-he rises up. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. and then lifted them .21 opposite to ears. you a should also prostrate. And when prostrated. he prostrated between the two palms” (792).” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991). one of them should lead them” (1417). “When he prostrates. Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer.” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. he brought out his hands from the cloth. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860). And when he was about to bow down. . he prayed facing . Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. you should also rise up. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. In the beginning. . and then to put them between one’s thighs. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). 1057). . It should be led by an im¯m. when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. . The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. Also. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing.” The seven bones are: “The hands. when there is a valid reason for doing so.
2 Ab¯ Huraira should know.22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. foe or friend. the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. Immediately 1 . He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. “I have been helped a is by terror. my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting. their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate. and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). . they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters. But later on. I have been sent to all mankind. 2 u is That is. It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance . 1 . One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. . . Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah. a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. Other ah¯d¯ mention other points.” says Muhammad. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. is which other prophets lack (1058). Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). . . It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. . For example. Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. . spoils have been made lawful to me . He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning.
established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. . the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year. DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668).000 to 9. 5.000 dirhams. For example. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him.000 dirhams a year. and their children.000 dirhams a year. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it.. 2. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). But within two decades everything changed.000 dirhams a year. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118). everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date.000 dirhams a year. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. pp. But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. vol. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). The diw an. II.23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration. or Civil List. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). For a fuller account of the Civil List. 476-479. after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate. for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. According to another tradition. Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation. The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665). To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden). he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front. 4.
” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). One Friday. For example.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. one should ﬁrst take food. they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. But though Muslims “are the last. but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). a An interesting story is reported in this connection. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. during a war. Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. “On it Adam was created. . he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon.” says Muhammad (1134). The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. First things ﬁrst. . the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. on it he was made to enter Paradise. PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan. PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists.24 ¯ CHAPTER 3. “We were guided a aright to Friday. on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856). Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). Qur¯n a 62:11). there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived. .
every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938). “Thereafter.” a is But even though cursed. MUSIC.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two. DANCE. and it was the day of Id” (1942). similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. I meant to seize him. make the most of this had¯ a is. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face.’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. Muhammad. with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885). One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). he did not retreat. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. leave them alone” (1946). On the same occasion. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. in which music plays an important role.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. his voice a rose. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. . his eyes became red. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon.
Ab¯ Salama has died.’ to those who are dying. and the good which it contains. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers.’ So I said this. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds.” ’Aisha a tells us. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). Ub¯da. ‘There is no god but All¯h. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. and Muhammad married her four months later. “If the dead person was good.” says a the Prophet (1996). She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). supplicate for good. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. When you visit the sick or the dead. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a . u He died at Uhud.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3. However. and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. to whom she had borne many children. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. what evil it contains. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. “Exhort to recite. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature.” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. and the good of that which it was sent for. ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy.
Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. had¯ 912. IV. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. p. over his expiring child. according to certain traditions. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead. who was only eighteen months old. a but He did not grant it to me. is . His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. 165.27 the heart feels.” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue]. Life of Mahomet. I. and He granted it to me” (2129). vol. i. also William Muir. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave.
PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.
no sense of a larger human brotherhood. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. In this form. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling.” those who collect and administer the funds. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. the ﬁrst phrase. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. and most of them. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since.” a a 29 .Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax). and for the wayfarers. In the begina ning. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m. But with him it became a tax. conventional recipients of charity. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage. of All¯h. an old Arab practice. “in the service. being migrants. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. and everyone else was excluded on principle.” All these are a in]. or zak¯t. and to be spent by its representatives. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. or way. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy.
“gaining over. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. The second phrase. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). women. bear in mind. and after this the tax collection became smoother. ’Abb¯s. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. I shall be responsible a a . when the power of Muhammad became supreme. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle.30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). or jih¯d. . a had refused to pay the tax. ’Umar was appointed the collector. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). . a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. ’Umar. When he reported that Khal¯ b. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. The resentment against zak¯t was general. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. a heavenly sanction. a a and horses. hearts. Faz¯r. as it still has for his followers. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. it had for the Prophet. Also. and several other tribes.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. or 1 pound]” (2134). or reconciling. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. and children back to Medina as hostages. Aslam. There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. equipment. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. . After is the conquest of Mecca. and as for ’Abb¯s. . on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. They had to be ransomed. It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful. who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men. The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). a Ghif¯r.
and in some ways wisely. then on one’s wife and children. but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. But he taught. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. and then on other good deeds. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self. then on relatives and friends. And when these cool down. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. that charity should begin at home. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). as extensive as possible.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths .” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). for God both hears and knows” (9:98). the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. “a sandy plain would be set for him. he called him and asked him if he had any other . For example. In fact. CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. When Muhammad heard this. when the Day of Resurrection would come. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. . an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. . Following a common practice.
you would have a greater reward” (2187). In the same vein. All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically. Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. And. and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. The man replied no. ¯ (2197-2204). saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa.the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams. and if anything is left. not polytheistically or pantheistically. . There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i. Nor was it really revolutionary. A lady set her slave-girl free. . and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. When informed about it. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. or helping him load his luggage upon it. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). . there is a Sadaqa . Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is. but it agrees with the general practice. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. gave the money to the owner. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). ¯ 1 . So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. is a Sadaqa.” There is another story that makes the same point. Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). it should be spent on your family. . of course. And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer..e. Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date .32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. and a good word is a Sadaqa.
Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. a and the other says: O All¯h. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. ﬁrst to an adulteress. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. telling him to stay where he was until he returned. give him more who spends. he remembered his command and remained where he was. is but are not visited by two angels. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). For example. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207). When Muhammad returned. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). A man is gives charity. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. a . for instance. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. then to a rich man. Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. One of them says: O All¯h.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. then to a a thief. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. FORNICATION. Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. with praise to All¯h.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. THEFT. Muhammad left him to go some other place.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds. This is true. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity.
This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. it is zak¯t.” said the Prophet (2340). ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. He took it. But though sadaqa was not permitted. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. it is war booty. ’Abd i.e. the distinction between the two was soon lost. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing. but on the other. a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. They went a to Muhammad with their request. it is zak¯t. it is still war booty. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury.. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. In fact. ’Abb¯s. “The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). On the one hand. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. or as gifts for his Companions.” i.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. When it is a acquired. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. or on the “Path of All¯h. gifts were welcome. Its distribution created a lot of a . two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. whether as zak¯t for the poor. il. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. when it is distributed among the ummah. a Khums. and Haris b. freed slave. a al-Muttalib and their posterity. zak¯t became secondary. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. has two aspects.
Many of them thought they deserved more . ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). ’Abdullah b. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. Zaid al-Khail.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. both mundane and celestial. Aqra. I often bestow something on a person. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. Aqra’ b. a . There are other instances of the same type. H¯bis. ’Uyaina b. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. Umayya. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs. justice. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. Tufail” (2319). . like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. Muhammad had other considerations as well. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). combined with threats. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. so that I may incline them to truth. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. Ulasa (2303-2314). Hisn. Harb.35 heart-rending among his followers. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. and ’Alqama b. Safw¯n u a a b. that is. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty.” says Muhammad (2303).or at any rate that others deserved less .than they got. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. . . Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing. or merit.
and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. he added theology. . Mird¯s. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils. and his face ¯ became red”.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. were merely his “outer garments”. fear All¯h and do justice. Muhammad “was deeply angry .” This angered a a Muhammad. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. . And he who is let down today would not be elevated.” On hearing this. stood up. ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. ’Uyaina. after the conquest of Mecca.36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. u a Safw¯n. In other cases when similar complaints were made. To cajolery. who would do justice if I do not do . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition. but he showed patience” (2315).. In its distribution. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them. thick beard. Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. a man with deep-sunken eyes.” a canal in heaven (2313). The ans¯rs a were happy.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. but one of them. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307). and Aqra. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood.” This silenced the men. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. while the Quraish. who had received the spoils. and shaven head.e. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me. i Muhammad showed favoritism. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. When some people complained. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. prominent cheekbones. were closer to him). and said: “Messenger of All¯h.
These men. who later on were called the khw¯rij.” Though the man was spared. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. them. . he and his posterity were denounced. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). . who was present. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. but it would not go beyond their throat. If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327). kill them.37 justice?” ’Umar.” . It was about them.
THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .38 ¯ CHAPTER 4.
and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night.Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj).” says Muhammad (2413). Enjoined in the Qur¯n. The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence. who ate early and broke their fasts late. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. waiting for the stars to appear. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. This has its disciplinary role. “Take meal a little before dawn. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. In Isl¯m. the gates of mercy are opened. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. it is compulsory. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m.” a 39 . but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal).
. failing that. by observing a two-month fast or. In fact. At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently.” In addition. Muhammad’s wives. . The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. It has a divine sanction. . and Salama. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. Prior to Isl¯m.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). “They have better knowledge. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting. ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting. and would observe fast” a (2454). Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491). in the month of Ramz¯n. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. he should still go on with his fast.40 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation. . Muhammad’s wives. he said. ’Aisha. failing that. by feeding sixty poor men . Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457).” and retracted his previous position (2451). Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. a a . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). ’Aisha and Salama. Hafsa. but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama.
” i..e.” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). . and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. while the husband is present. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. And she should not admit any mahram in his house. so break the fast. a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). i. One is the Ashura fast. “Fast if you like and break it if you like. For example. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives.e. in the act of jih¯d. but with his permission” (2238). “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission.41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast.. . “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499).” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. but a I could not do it . but after a . OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. a fast during a journey could be broken. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). and in the pre-Isl¯mic days.
” He said: “Bring that. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. He may spend it if he likes. On the Day of a Resurrection. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise.” Muhammad tells us.and when the last of them has entered.” After some time. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad.42 CHAPTER 5. THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts. Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. some food came as gift. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). but we need not go into them here. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. One day. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. but nothing was available. All¯h would remove. “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a . “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. a a a because of this day.” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous.
but not before and after. D.” she adds in another had¯ (2685).43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. “The best of perfume. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers.” Great preparations were made for the occasion. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. Even so. 612). was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12). Thus. it reached more than 130. partially armed. In the sixth year of the Hijra. 632. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. and a victory it turned out to be. “As the caravan moved on. is . by a kind of delayed action. a Two years later.” says ’Aisha (2683). he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him. pilgrimage. Two years later. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it.” After the fall of Mecca.” until. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. they knew.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. or trouser or cap” (2647). He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men. their response on this occasion was great. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. Mecca succumbed. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself. in March A. In order to swell the number. It was also. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. for no booty was promised and they thought. or hajj. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina. as the Qur¯n puts it. In this year of victory. Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). called the Treaty of Hodeibia. ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. the number of participants swelled. according to some of the narrators. For his dress. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. at their own convenience and for their own gods. a call to submission. but their response was lukewarm. unlike the last time. ih p.
saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f).” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921). . rat and voracious dog. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). and he should be conspicuous” (2919). and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone. He hath performed His promise.e. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship.” Muhammad never relaxes. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . At every turn. “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). so that people should see him. . ’Umar said: “By All¯h. two seamless wrappers. the two “Signs of All¯h. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . O All¯h”). but he declined it. “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite.44 CHAPTER 5. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. . we would have accepted it from you” (2704). The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. and then kissing the stick. After arriving a a in Mecca. Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass. CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe.. . “Talbiyah. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts. .” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. crow. its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. he should not shave or pare his nails. For the same reason.
also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil.” says the Prophet (2982). There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. and Ishmael. and then sent them to the House. Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). the casting of the pebbles. One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. and garlanded them. and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven).on the 11th . It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). the Almighty. I do this. and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. and after that . he chants: “In the name of a ir. and in hatred of the Devil and his shame. the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars.“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. While sacriﬁcing the camel. and then he marked them. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). Their number should be odd.” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened. God. The pebbles should be small . or a cow or a camel. On the tenth a day. on their size and number. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. While doing this. a is and on the best time for throwing them.45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). Abraham. . ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). therefore.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce . This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980).
241-244). a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage.” To his followers. and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. . . pp. a Even Jehovah. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. nab¯ a soft drink. whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). the God of the Jews. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). II. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands. I would have drawn it along with you. . The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. we are told by J¯bir. gives us one further detail which a a i. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased. so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805). he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. and when it was cooked. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well .46 CHAPTER 5. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6). iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures. On a similar pilgrimage the next year. his biographers tell us.by spitting into it. Though the nab¯ iz. had declared that He “desired mercy. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. vol. he said: “Draw water. Muhammad took part of the content. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. he took it. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. he sacriﬁced sixty camels. Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here.
So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets. . whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. and prepare for them each ambush . and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. a Now the pilgrimage is over. Shaving should begin from the right side. turning his right side to him. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony. 620). after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. and take them and besiege them. the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). . after which he turned his left side. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger. A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. . and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). from others. Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. All ah will enrich you from His grace . . Before leaving Mecca. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. The diﬀerence is striking. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . . until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. and sacriﬁced the animal. 1 . was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. let him shave him. kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. . The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. He then called a for a barber and. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. Before a returning home. “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5).” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 29). This was All¯h’s own command. But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacriﬁce. p. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. All¯h. There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times.
FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .48 CHAPTER 5.
I observe fast and suspend observing them. According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. 1 In fact. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). he should come to his wife. so when one of you see a woman. number of wives” (Tabaq at. he should come home and cohabit with his wife.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). Zainab. popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. vol. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. One of his Companions said. 146). ¯ 1 49 . II. “I will not eat meat”. and yet another said. he is the best who has the largest a i. “I will not marry women”. but not in our own selves. another said. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). “I will not lie down in bed. One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. A woman is a great safety valve. p. We are all too ready to see the devil in others. a Muhammad forbids celibacy. he has no a relation with me” (3236). I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h.Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240).
And it is allowed you. and do not transgress. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. consanguinity. Qur¯n 5:87). etc. For example. There are many restrictions on grounds of number. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. ’Abdullah b. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a . Also. “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. aﬃnity. except those who are your hands as slaves . with modest conduct. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). besides this. this restriction a was relaxed. rank. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. to seek out wives by means of your wealth. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. H. Later on. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). and without fornication. He told another group: “Yes. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. This is the law. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. but it is not entirely so. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). . 8] and then forbade it” (3251). a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. God is knowing. on the authority of his father. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. Salama reports. IYas b. . A. Generally speaking. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. . Verily.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. religion.
Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. thrice) before severing it. 2 . but made no decision” about her. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter.” But the man possessed nothing. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. part II.e. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go.51 by Muhammad himself. Aﬀ¯n. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). not even an iron ring for a dowry. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. . the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. “A believer is the brother of a believer. and he disposes what Allah proposes. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage.” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission. p. The man said yes. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294).” reports Usm¯n b. But man is inventive. a a quoting the Prophet (3281). “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. The new dispensation led to another abuse. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. But this point is controversial.” he told her (3354). so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother. . “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage. 269). a One should also not outbid one’s brother. vol. F¯timah. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation.. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . “Your wives are your tilth. he was sexually weak). she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). I. Rauzat-us-Safa. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them.
. . And a virgin should also be consulted. she can seek a divorce. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. . It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures.” They consulted Muhammad. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. the guardian (wal¯ who does it. 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). but we also desired ransom for them. ¯ According to some schools. . Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. if the husband fails to provide it. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). Theoretically. and we desired them . as the commentators tell us. “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223).” that is. and took some excellent Arab women. WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. and her silence implies her consent” (3307). The father and the grandfather are i). She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. but it should be through one hole” (3365). a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. the angels curse her until morning” (3366).52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. a woman has her rights. . but in practice it is her nearest kinsman. for that is in the hand of All¯h. Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. which means vagina only. or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. those women. for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371).
She was “sitting with her head downcast. The a man replied: “Yes. All¯h. sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists.” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424).” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .” the man replied. “For four Uqiyas.” Muhammad inquired. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower).” “For what dower did you marry her. But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident. . based on an old moral code. from “head to foot”. “Did you cast a a glance at her. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. .” Muhammad asked.” They saw each other. so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. .” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). but All¯h now gave a new one. a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry. . He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24). or holy war.” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. We have nothing which we should give you. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger.53 whether married or unmarried. serve us drink” (4981). There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. Then. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives. An Arab woman named ’Umra. who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. Most High. and Muhammad talked to her. the daughter of one Jaun. A believer came to Muhammad.
and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. . come u a for prayer. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. . one of the servants of Muhammad. for example. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). he said: “Messenger of All¯h. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . when Zainab came there. One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499).” When the morning prayer was announced. one of the wives of Muhammad. he is allowed to have his other wives around. Anas. hearing their voices. for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. one wife could make over her day to another. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). All¯h is very accommodating. In order to be impartial. . But while he is in bed with one of them. All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. she “caught hold of his garment”. Umm Salama. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. he spent three nights with her. tells us that when Muhammad married her. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. . Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. One of the problems. ’Aisha. When he intended to leave.54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. a believer should visit his wives by turn. taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449).
SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband. Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). Saf¯ iyya. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. a a a ‘yes. or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts. they also swelled his harem. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. and when you enter.” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. have you married?’ I said. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336). a beautiful girl of seventeen years. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. you have the enjoyment” (3462). was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late.” the Prophet tells us (3471). Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when . THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. 3464).
in violation of his own command. and see among the captives a beautiful woman. ¯ ¯ 4 . Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. was more considerate. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). In the morning. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. a In any case. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there.” according to Anas. And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb. and her people. and till recently she was in unbelief. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah. the daughter of Huyayy b. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses. spades and strings driving their cattle along. many people were butchered. The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. 515). 517). the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. p. so I was afraid for you on her account. “We took Khaibar by force. and she shall be your wife. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. but you shall not sell her for money. if you have no delight in her. you shall let her go where she will. and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. then you shall bring her home to your house. after that you may go in to her. Gabriel or no Gabriel. Akhtab. her husband. and there were gathered the prisoners of war. Then. and be her husband. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. Kin¯na. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. Many other women. was put to a cruel death (3325). p.” (Incidentally.56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and many others were taken prisoners. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. whom Muhammad often followed. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. of them. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). and you take them captive. Saf¯ iyya. Her husband. you shall not treat her as a slave. al-’Aww¯m. Dihya was strikingly handsome.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty.
and uncle killed. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. present and future. husband. man or woman.57 concubine.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. and was aroused. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. I detested her. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. saw her in a state of seminudeness. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. and He revealed His plan. he oﬀered to divorce her. When Zaid heard about it. On that very day. as good as his own daughter-in-law. ¯ ¯ . a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. He was saved.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. in the eyes of the Arabs. who had seen her father. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. but Muhammad. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. named Zainab. Suspecting something wrong. a pp. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. p.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer.” And indeed. There was another girl. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. II. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. iya a In the division of the booty. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. Mustaliq. fearing a public scandal. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel. 493. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. again Jewish. 252-255). He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. and therefore. Zaid. and she was immediately put to death. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). told him to keep his wife for himself. vol.
When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. The procedure is not diﬃcult. and ’Umar. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. after three successive menses. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. According to the Shias.times. married seventy . “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). Hasan. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q.” but in Isl¯mic law. With such easy conditions of divorce. Wives were constantly replaced. Somewhat later. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time.some say ninety . “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. Ab¯ Bakr. . ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. exclusive of slave concubines. ’Abdullah. a senior Compana ion. The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. For example. who do not count. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). According to the translator. Yet there are certain restrictions. Muhammad. the Prophet had twenty-two wives. two of whom were bondswomen. and friend of Muhammad. But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. the son of ’Umar. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. “All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). People in his day called him the Divorcer. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. adviser. the divorce becomes operative. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. or whether three times at one sitting is enough.
Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional.” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. a In due course. 272-273. . the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. pp. Life of Mahomet. vol. if not. The broken vow could be expiated. . son of Rabi. In zih¯r. In this form. the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. In this sense of the term. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. . the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d.59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). For example. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. and according to some traditions. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). a a i. . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. on emigrating to Medina. “that a which covers a sin”). II. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. Muir. As they sat together at a supper.
we take them up. who had even given Muhammad a son. He separated himself from them. I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. Hafza was furious. verily All¯h is with you. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. Mika’il. In fact. and jeering. By All¯h. a a I would certainly do that. I entered the mosque. and a if you had divorced them. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad.” he told her. Muhammad’s doorman. what trouble do you feel from your wives. So our women began to learn from their women. Gabriel. a As ’Umar entered.” Muhammad relaxed. In visiting his numerous wives. promised never to visit Mary again. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch. Hafza. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. She wept bitterly. the beautiful Coptic concubine. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is. on my day and in my own bed. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. “O Rah¯b. He was admitted.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. Muhammad was very angry. trying to pacify her. In a long had¯ ’Umar b.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. In fact. “In my room. a a kept himself away from his wives. The request was disregarded. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . let us provide some background information. excitement. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck.” he told Rah¯b. but he insisted. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza]. and very soon everybody knew about it.” she shouted. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. told ’Aisha. His angels. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. however. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip. a “I have nothing to do with you. but instead she found him with Mary. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger.” so he tried to calm him down. Muhammad.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6.
¯ The matter blew over. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. . and it was said. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506).” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. threatening his wives with divorce. asking for extra money. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10).61 on his face . verily. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. On this occasion. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83. had¯ 3507).” All¯h warned them. and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him.” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. . [but] he visited them. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. and they became his wives again.” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. and he laughed. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. .” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. they were under two of our righteous servants. and the righteous of the a believers. or to those charged with authority among them.but if you back each other up against him. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if . .” ’Umar narrates. they broadcast it. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. craving to please thy wives? .for your hearts have swerved! . and Gabriel. freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. . “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. He is the sovereign. a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). some of them centering round money. All¯h. In this new mood. and the angels after that will back him up. when Muhammad lacked funds. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle.
who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. Zaid. he beat his wives). and could get rid of their wives so easily.e.” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. Zaid (3512). It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. the son of his slave and adopted son. Once ’idda has ended. and the latter was poor. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. . Thus. The wives chose the latter. She had two suitors. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. a mere woman. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b. Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. observing: “By All¯h.62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima..” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad. but when it is really intended. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. one of Muhammad’s wives. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). died. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524). the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n. In their place. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. u a Muhammad advised against them both. the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden.
solve this problem” (3564). was no more than a chattel.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves. which is on business transactions . for that is forbidden. One of a them must be lying. a close companion of the Prophet. and if he speaks about it. A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy.a slave. both male and female. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. you will kill him. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. besides thirty-eight servants. Mirkhond. They were the property of their master (saiyid). The fact is that slavery. Zubair. he cannot kill the adulterous man. owned one thousand slaves when he died. which is most likely in such a case. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. . And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. and if he kills. you would lash him. and if he keeps quiet. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions.” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. tribute. An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. The word a a literally means “oath. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. for unless he has four witnesses. EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. he shall have to consume anger. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. But the fact remains that Muhammad. after all. Similarly. The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. even in a their wildest dreams. but this closes the chapter.
23:6) permitted this. When Muhammad was consulted.” She was brought. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. mortgaging them. not a matter of justice. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. wanted to free her. To Muhammad. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. he said: “Bring her to me. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). 4:25. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. hiring them out.” says Muhammad (129). On the other hand. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. however. In the ﬁrst. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. in contrition.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger .these are some of the signs of Doom. lending them. inheritance. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. 4:24. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world.64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. selling them. One way. of course. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. Slaves had no property rights. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. and marriage. gifting them away. when the naked. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways.” according to him (4). In any case. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. In the second. On the whole. and a very common one. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked.
for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). even his private parts a for his” (3604).65 of All¯h. “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well.” she answered. Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. It has its own reward. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. Bar¯ ira. WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed. though ready to free her for cash money. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. He cannot seek any new alliance. to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance. and emancipate her. she is a a believing woman” (1094). One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. the condition of a slave is no great evil. any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). but must not be overburdened” (3582). a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him. .” But the owner.
of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. and it also records the words of the prophet . . . This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries.66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. . ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. . MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). says: “He is. who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. i. He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator.
were also made unlawful. as the control of Arabia passed into his hands. The injunction was implemented with the help of the police. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. his injunctions became state policy. During Muhammad’s own lifetime. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant. Gifts. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. Sal¯ b. Inheritances.Chapter 7 Business Transactions. Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714).” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). Bequests. SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. so his views on the subject should be of interest. Because of their speculative nature. Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). a 67 .
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
.” But only one of them became a pregnant.72CHAPTER 7. a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do.e. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers.” Muhammad says (4038). the vow a a must be fulﬁlled. “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). BEQUESTS. should do that which is better and break his oath. a An oath can be broken. Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. “Do not a a swear by idols. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed.” says Muhammad (4043). Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i.” But immediately after they were gone. I cannot provide you a a mount. if He so wills. nor by your father. but if later on. “He who has to take an oath. something which Jesus forbade. a I would not swear. GIFTS. by All¯h.. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m.” observes Muhammad. but he found something else better than that. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. I would see better than it. and she gave birth to a premature child.” says Muhammad (4057). One day he said. INHERITANCES. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. “He who took an oath. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). But he allows you to swear by God.
cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery. If a slave is killed. only one-third is permissible in such cases. ﬁfteenth. mutilated. It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded. The law also permits qis¯s. Qur¯n 5:38-39). Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). accusing her of adultery. death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). (pl.e. they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). one hundred lashes for is. only half of the blood-price is due. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. a i. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. the procedure of investigating them. Had ud) a The fourteenth. but according to one school. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. a ¯ Qis¯s. or retaliation. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. qis¯s. a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). a ihs In cases of murder.Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. For the death of a woman. but since a slave is a piece of property. cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah. Though the Qur¯n a 73 . or killed another. and taz¯ Hadd a ir.. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status.
he said: If I had been in his place. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). This establishes their innocence. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. I. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom. though not by burning.” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. The climate of Medina did not suit them. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). ih . When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword. He gave us their names. ih ¯ i if. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. and Muhammad adopted a it. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. he said.for giving up Isl¯m . and the identity of his killer is unknown. But when we went to him to take his leave. 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. and he would be surrendered to you. The a punishment for apostasy . Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. wash their hands over the heifer.” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. 1357). 2 i. ’Ali burnt them to death. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. when a man is found slain. for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219). QIS AS. ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. and the identity of his slayer is unknown. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m.is death. For example. Once a Muslim was found slain. break its neck. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8.
or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). Away from the control of the Prophet. or if he has killed someone (i. they killed the shepherds. someone who is a Muslim.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). it is retaliatory punishment. but technically. in Muslim a law. But in another case. The apostates were brought back.” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. and their feet. When the case was brought to Muhammad.. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. and put out their eyes. but they were not given water” (4132). took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. She had broken someone’s teeth. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138). bloodwite was allowed.e. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. . Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132). a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. according to many jurists). he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130).75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). an eye for an eye. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law. The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered.
At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150). HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). a woman committed some theft.” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. her hand was cut oﬀ. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). a interceded in her behalf. and death for apostasy. QIS AS. he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. the penal law of Isl¯m. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. in a long two-page note. . causing her to have a miscarriage. a a The translator. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. ¯ HAD UD Had ud. Zaid.76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Although Us¯ma b. nor made any noise. as we have already seen. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). Thus. a hundred stripes for fornication. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. “Hers was a good repentance. when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole.” ’Aisha adds (4188). and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185). who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. and also for drinking wine. an exemplary punishment from All¯h. ’Aisha reports a similar case. the beloved of Muhammad. stoning to death for adultery. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h.
though there is one for the larger category of zin¯.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him.77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. ’Abdullah. and gave a small quantity of milk. “The whore and the whoremonger. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. .” says J¯bir b. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . He repeated his confession four times. he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196). By All¯h. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year.’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. “I was one of those who stoned him. in case I get hold of him. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. Therefore.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. a branch of Azd. with the lapse of time. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. ‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. All¯h has ordained . receive teaching from me. one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. a woman of Gh¯mid. the term includes adultery as well as fornication. Similarly. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). . A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. the people may forget it and may say. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. In this sense. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191).
a chest-deep hole is dug for her. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. When a woman is to be stoned. but when the case was brought before Muhammad. Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. QIS AS.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). And then the multitudes follow. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. . The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). .” The woman was punished for adultery. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion .” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. iya. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. No such hole need be dug for a man. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. in fact. just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). participating believers. .” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. The stoning is begun by the witnesses. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication. and let a party of the believers witness their torment.
He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses. those who i are married and those not married.” says ’Abdullah.” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. by the time of Muhammad. ’Al¯ says: “O people.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. they a are the iniquitous” (5:45. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. even if she was married. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. was not to be stoned to death. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. “I was one of those who stoned them. stoning had fallen into disuse. then accept it. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. and if she was unmarried. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. According to one tradition. A slavewoman. the son of ’Umar. then avoid it. The Prophet was a merciful a man. 47). but if he gives verdict for stoning. she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes).” he adds (4211). then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225). The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction.79 Among the Jews themselves. .” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. and he committed me to ﬂog her. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned.
PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. QIS AS. If he does his best but errs. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. he still has . but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. cases. While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. the third Khal¯ a ifa. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is. In such ir. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. and ¯ to lash him. JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes.80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. They hold that the number of stripes is to. several days. and if he is sick. he has two rewards. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. When the i number forty was reached. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. class of punishment. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime. but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes.
is not covered by Isl¯mic law. are also discussed in this book. In cases involving had ud.81 one reward (4261). and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). Fresh vegetables. . The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). and carpets from mosques. 1981). a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. such as hospitality. such as books. the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. marble. According to some. and bread. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad. November 15. birds. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. Nor is the testimony of Jews. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. Also exempt are bricks. Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. In a dispute regarding property or debt. mats. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. cement. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. According to the Qur¯n. but a apparently this is not really so. Christians. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. a fruit and ﬁrewood. recently published in Pakistan. glass.
QIS AS. HAD U D) .82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH.
it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. the spoils of war. . . a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina.” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m. . if they do so. . THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. Historically. All¯h. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. . . All¯h. . Theologically. . if they respond to you. By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. Make a holy a a a war. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294). but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a .e. they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. .Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). demand from them the Jizy¯ . . accept it from them a . 83 . do not embezzle the spoils. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. and inform them that. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven.. a a trying to be universal through conquest. If they refuse to migrate. Medina. If they refuse to a a pay the tax.
this shocked the Arabs. had¯ 4324). So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. it is lawful and pure. “Eat ye the spoils of war.” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed.” says the Qur¯n a . it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. al-Madina. Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). If need be. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. this requirement can be waived. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. as some others have translated it. or. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids. As the Prophet a says. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. “war is a stratagem” (4311). no song need be made about it. unknown to the Arabs before. All is fair in love and war. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance. But if they are killed. “cunning. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. Sa’b b. All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9.
a In fact. he fought from wrong motives. Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). in this case the cause of God. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. “Ye shall by no means follow us. and their dwellings. the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. i. and also as a favor and extra incentive.” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. DIVISION Essentially. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them.. Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it. they would say. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. when it would be easy to win booty. 1934). and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone. It belongs to the Cause. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war. ¯ . he a a is given a share in it. If he fought for such accessory rewards. as administered by his Apostle.” but he would answer. in commenting on i. material incentives had to be provided.85 (8:69). and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land. the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. For example. He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”. Muhammad told them that the next time. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. “Permit us to follow you. In fact. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah.
which he took by surprise.-161). he shall. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. and supernal intervention had i. surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. p. The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. pretty rough. Commenting on this verse. in fact. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. and was full of claims. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. and accusations. restore what he misappropriated. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. II. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein.86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. grievances. suspicion. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. ¯ ¯ . recriminations. after the capture of Hunain. Within a few months. he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. then if you obey. . RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. 594. . The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. Muhammad was mobbed by the men.” said All¯h (3. The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. .” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346).” the muj¯hids demanded. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. If any person is so false. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome.” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. had¯ 868). The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. on the Day of Judgment. believed in by any sensible person. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). The booty was very large. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.
as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ. the traveller a . were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. Along with the khums. gains from a war not actively fought. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. . for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). His Apostle. 338-339). During a retreat. the poor. except for a few who were killed. deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. pp. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. at least in this case. “They are our kith and kin. his family. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. on the other hand. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. The economic view prevailed. When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. Alh¯ris. . should be destroyed. Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers. In due course. whether men. to the Muslims in general. and a the traveller” (59:7).” which ’Al¯ readily did. According to this code. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. He advised that they should be put to death. the orphans. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. The fai’. And at his command. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. all prisoners. the poor. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. Muqd¯d.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. orphans. his family. any such property that cannot be carried away. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. part II. women. Another unfortunate i. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. or children. i fellow was Utbah. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head. it is entirely at his disposal. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied. when they are no more. 3 . belongs wholly to the Prophet. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca. . I. vol. One of these was Nassar b. the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner.” (8:41). A Muslim combatant. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. to His Apostle. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. including the cattle. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel.” he advised.
they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells. in short. and for the building of bridges. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. as the Muslim empire grew.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. but more often this was not done. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . p. “In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. such a as their public prayers and festivals. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. . The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons.” as the translator puts it (note 2230). Imperialism has the same is. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762).on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. language in every age. . Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. Another imposition. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. they cannot engage in public worship. also belongs to the fai’. and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. They are not to build new churches and temples. and . though they can repair old ones. but later on. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. 889). He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. they are not to ride is on horseback. II.Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. called jizy¯. This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u . The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers. and mosques). forts.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. those to whom the Book has been brought. it was extended to other subject peoples. THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians.
Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. . and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). So did the others. were conﬁscated by Muhammad. Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376). He also had seven other gardens in Medina. . . As a chief. Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. whether slaves or women or property. the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. . Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated. They got a large number of camels as booty.89 after embracing Isl¯m. As the amount of war booty increased. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. a but kept a large part for himself. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). “a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people . according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy.” he says (4340). The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. he had properties at Khaibar. u ir.” his Coptic slave-wife. Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. He u ir. . to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated.
the Battle of the Ditch (4412). there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives. u a Many battles. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). the Battle of Badr a (4394).” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. u Prophet. Arqam. for as Ab¯ Bakr says. and battles of the Muslims. Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). what we leave behind is charity” (4351). The denial a i. These are of two kinds. the number a was twenty-one. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441).” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. the Battle of Azh¯b. are described by name. ’Abdullah.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. 4465). There are other traditions too. “Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). or as it is popularly known. not always in the order in which they were fought. The conquest of . the Prophet’s daughter. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. treacherous. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. They took their dispute to ’Umar. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). ghazw¯t and sariya. the Prophet’s uncle. for example. Instead. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. “Commander of the Faithful. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. In due course. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s. According to J¯bir b. raids. i]. a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). It was not much of charity. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. According to Zaid b. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. Zaid (4469).” But. though. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. decide between me and this sinful.
On many an occasion.” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). We went out . “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. . Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. Muhammad came with a the whole army. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims. Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). part II.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). O All¯h. In most of the battles.” When the answer a . p. Either he prayed or spat into the well. and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. During the Battle of the Ditch. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. For example. 467). . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. several miracles are mentioned. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. J¯bir b. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. at the Battle of Badr. To the consternation of J¯bir and his family.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). . MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond.” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. II. accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. .” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. vol. If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360). But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews. . Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. . numbering one thousand men. I would do that. a The water welled up. On another occasion.
. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. According to ’Aisha.” we are told by ’Abdullah. those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). vol. Each company was made to sit down . and distributed their women. we have arrived. So march against them.” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. Mahomet.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. And He made you heirs of their lands. their houses. they surrendered . . . a where they had gathered for shelter. All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. . we haven’t laid down ours. [so that] some ye slew. until they too fought against him. and some ye made prisoners. [they] spent the night in prayer. pp. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. . Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. the son of ’Umar (4364). . . Then he killed their men. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. During the night graves or trenches . their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). and granted favour to them u ir. were dug in the market-place . repeating passages from their scriptures. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. . A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. Muir in his Life of Mahomet. children and properties among the Muslims . . He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. . and cast terror into their hearts. Ban¯ Qainuq¯.” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive. when these were ready in the morning. and exhorting one another in constancy. . We give the story as summarized by W. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza. III. Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. himself a spectator of the tragedy. 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . . So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. By God. .
an aged Jew. indeed. . the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man .93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. Here take my sword. ¯ ikh i. Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. having refused marriage. 303-304. whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. . She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith.” Ibn Ish¯q adds. There were (besides little children. to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses. and gave him over to another. and there beheaded.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. a i. took his seat there. cattle. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains.they had all been slain already . till the whole were slain . who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. . it is sharp. He replied. another biographer. . He received to each inquiry the same reply . 4 Party after party they were thus led out. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. “But what hath a become of all our chiefs . . ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer.land.” S¯bit refused. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. . from his share of these. pp. . and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. of Huwey. but she declined. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage.of K¯b.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . Having sated his revenge. . “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. . Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. in exchange for horses and arms. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. of female slaves and servants. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. He invited her to be his wife. For Zoheir. Tabari a i. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. The booty was divided into four classes . I. . of Ozz¯l.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. I entreat thee. . strike high and hard. and chose to remain (as. The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. . who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. and butchered in cold blood.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up. chattels.But slay me also. and slaves.
a Jewish leader. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. God’s command is right. before dying. Akhatab. . . A book and a decree. Rauzat-us-Safa. . Thus. and has made me thy judge. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h. part II. They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. 464. but God the most High has given thee victory. . They must become a participants in its blood-rites. II. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. p. and there is no remedy . ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee .’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. 7 In fact. 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. ’Aisha says of her.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction. p. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed.94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Huyayy b.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. p.” He too was brought before Muhammad. saying. . vol. The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. his head was struck oﬀ.” Then he sat down. and at a signal from Muhammad. A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. . RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. 465. p. ¯ ¯ . 752. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. He who forsakes God will be forsaken . . Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope. 476. Besides the aged Zoheir.
10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. pp. 484-486). Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. A little later. Shu’ba. “O God.. pp. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. therefore. 12 ibid. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. and. in A. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. 9. 544. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. ¯ ira. Umro b.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. . to demolish the idol of All at. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. their goddess. who were from Medina. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. p. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. Deserted by Her servants.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. When you meet them tomorrow.” he prayed to All¯h. a u a a and Sa’d b. pp. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. I. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. Kh¯lid b. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. He took Mecca by surprise. . We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. one of u a ira their kin. I. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . and not to the Emigrants. 480. His people killed him. H. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology. . if. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. wipe them out. i a ¯ vol. In ﬁghting the Meccans. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. 546. struck the idol with his pickaxe.
. Spiritual darkness. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. and His Messenger. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. a Volunteered one Muhammad b. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness.96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. went to Ka’b’s house at night. and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. in egoistic life (aham.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . whether Jehovah or All¯h. has a source deep in our being. self-discovery. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. u Similarly. Through them. asmit a). he lured his intended victim outside. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. the Exalted. True. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). like jih¯d. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology. The permission was given. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. Wonderful! To say the least. a more psychological and mystical religion. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). a After the conquest of Mecca. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397). Then the assassin. self-shedding. selfa a churning. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. accompanied by some accomplices. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. or falsehood.” said Muhammad. According to the Yogas. Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. “Who will kill Ka’b b. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. ASSASSINATION Assassination. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars.
14 . 15 ibid. Very soon. Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet. On learning this. Maslama and his foster brother. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty. pp. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374).” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event.97 like the voice of murder. ¯ ¯ ibid. Sabit. p. Another Ka’b. p. the unlucky victims of his aggression. travelling by night a with their light swords. describes the assassins “bold as lions. 368-369.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. he should respond to the call.” He went down and was killed (4436).” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there. u Some. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life..” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b.. 369. a poet. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. 368. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. another poet. Ab¯ M¯’ila. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. 13 Hass¯n b. He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. as we have seen.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. Further details are available in various other accounts. fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i.
The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). . ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. (4472).98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger. and a both were polytheists. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology. When the man said he did not. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. For example. According to the translator. Safw¯n b.
with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. marriage. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . dress. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. So in a Muslim polity. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. non-Muslims. In Isl¯m.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). zak¯t. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). food. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). general morality. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. political and intellectual. Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. and so on. in all matters. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. and pilgrimage. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. is. rather. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs.
though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. and Ruler of the Faithful.” Muhammad says (4476). A branch of them. Thanks to Muhammad. for six hundred years. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. a . who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. They were warriors. the Saiyids. ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them . shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. and i.be Thou kind to him. are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. emerged in Egypt.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). the holy lands of Isl¯m). and the disbelievers among them. D. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. Successor of the a a Apostle of God. may one day revive this idea.100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . “O God. Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. helped by petrodollars. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world. necessary foundations. ﬁnancial tycoons. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. In another version. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. the Prophet’s daughter. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst. rulers. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). his wife F¯tima. and scholars. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis. The present-day Sauds. Later. 1299-1326).” says Muhammad (4473-4474). though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad.be Thou hard upon him. a As a result. put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully.
His Apostle. This is a big loophole which was fully used. Very thorough. “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. a Some exceptions are mentioned. War booty is sacred. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568).” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). and should appeal to me for help. and this is a gift presented to me. it is a religious obligation. . Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). If the electors choose someone unanimously. but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). As he lay dying.101 There are other conventional exhortations. a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. have to invoke God at every step. In fact. then that person is designated as the . and to his moral and spiritual sense. a Qur¯n 4:59). except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. for as we know. gifts are given to the oﬃce. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar. OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. “O you a who believe. But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . not to the oﬃcer. obey All¯h. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. . but they end by establishing the tyranny of men.
Ghaﬀari. ’Umar. “Kill him.” Under the circumstances. you should listen and obey” (4554). A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr.102 Khal¯ ifa. Shiaism. then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. men of authority. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). . A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. ¯ CHAPTER 10. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). 4. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. his own son and one of the electors. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. p.” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. then the dissenter should immediately be killed. 68. then those two should be killed. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). 1 All four points are taken from S. 3. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders. If there is an equal division. WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched. answering a follower. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader.
The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. That decided the issue. the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a . Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. Similarly. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. when he was ﬁfteen. For example. there will appear a number of impostors. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). or pregnancy (note 2331). which is also an a important subject of this book. You are to guard against them” (4483). nocturnal emission. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). Yet again. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. strength consists in a is archery.” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). The next year. and this time he was accepted. But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is. “Beware. Again. for purposes of marriage. but the Prophet did not accept him. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you. This is understandable. he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq. a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult. ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again.
a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated.104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. and being uprooted from their old loyalties. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. his body will not decay. . Having no home and no livelihood. “I love to ﬁght in the . they became desperate. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. So the rules were changed. when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca.” In fact. Muhammad had the same desire for himself. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. if he dies in the Way of All¯h. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d. Without jih¯d.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). but since this is not always practical. After a the conquest of Mecca. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). . GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state. Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year. there is no Isl¯m. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630). According to some ﬁqh schools. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted . and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood.
And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. . if after embracing Isl¯m.” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. and going on pilgrimage. and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. praying. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id). The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer. One said: “I do not care. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). . had¯ 4638). [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. . a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat]. . ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues. ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . . Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. What is that act? . but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. . Therefore. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). . . a such as fasting. All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645).105 way of All¯h and be killed. Muhammad was consulted.
” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. Another puzzle seeking a solution.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. In the engagement. . Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. Two men. he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). go to hell but never “gathered together. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). . a stone struck him and he died a martyr. p. Two men. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. . So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. one the slayer and the other the slain. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. 519 ¯ ¯ . We may give here another paradox. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. without having had the time to say a single prayer. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678). taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. both go to Paradise. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. Asked to explain why. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah.
and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. Homely wisdom. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. is . Give them time to separate. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. i. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. In such instances. Two men did not heed this command. let them not be taken by surprise.107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. had¯ 571).” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. II.
GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .108 ¯ CHAPTER 10.
¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. some mub¯h (permitted). and softened them a good deal. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. a a a However. a its ﬂesh is not lawful. All¯h is great”). and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. with the help of a particular incantation. provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734). Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 .” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). When slaughtering an animal. When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog. one should draw the knife across its throat. cutting the windpipe. even if the game is killed. a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h.Chapter 11 Hunting. “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you.” says the Qur¯n (2:172). GAME There are similar restrictions on game. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you.
They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). “When you shoot your arrow. Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . . for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). But if it cannot be avoided. During the journey.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). then wash them before using them” (4743). except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting .” for a month till they grew bulky. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. “three hundred of them. do not eat from their utensils. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. HUNTING. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians].” J¯bir tells us. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat. . for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). . But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777).a falcon. .” and as they were hard pressed. There is a story behind this particular permission.” he says. CHAPTER 11. ASSES It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). they ate a a even the dead animal. a cheetah. It fed them. The beast was dead. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes. “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. recite the name of All¯h. The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar.
” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. Shadd¯d b. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. . To illustrate. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. a a HORSES The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. narrated by R¯ﬁ b. we give another tradition. slaughter in a good way. “Throw away your pots. caught and slaughtered it. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847).” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). so when you kill. nor do I prohibit it. The eating of locusts is permissible. . KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800). The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). He did not accept it. saying: “I neither eat it. as is legally required” (4768). the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. LIZARDS. .” came the order. HARES The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). So every one of you should sharpen his knife. and he accepted them” (4801). but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). LOCUSTS. u a u Similarly. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses.
THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food. too. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce. I.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). had¯ 1392). the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h.” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29). which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols. and from things strangled. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. and from blood. i. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. HUNTING. and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead.” Muhammad tells us. which means “to injure the jugular vein”.” Another word used is nahr. before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi). Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. compassion for all living beings is a strong element. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837).112 CHAPTER 11. is But in order to be meritorious. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. In many religious traditions. except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. In Muhammad’s lifetime. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. . which means “to split or pierce. In Isl¯m. are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h. Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced.
in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. but more than six months’ age]” (4836). the translator explains.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. “Give me the large knife. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs. so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. . he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378). “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845). we have made for you as among the symbols from God . and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone. unless it is diﬃcult for you. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him.) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. he took the knife and the ram. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow.” He then said to ’Aisha. for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels. Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. According to Ab¯ Huraira. PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did. accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). While sacriﬁcing. The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). is “As for the nail. but we have no knives with us. and when they are a . Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. . it is bone. This is understandable.” When she did. O All¯h.
’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). DRINKS The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). esting story. Ka’b drinking. “It is not their meat nor their blood. Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. Jabal. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. narrates an interi. a a Let it be so if you like. and came out” (4881). the Prophet’s uncle. people said. HUNTING. . and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. but when he returned. Baiad¯. .114 CHAPTER 11. “Hamza’s eyes were red. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. Ab¯ Duj¯na. We experience a new togetherness. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. Mu’¯z b. who put on his mantle. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad. a new reverence for all living beings. and he a i a brought his camels along. We made animals subject to you. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. a and he thus turned upon his heels.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. Liquor was forbidden. Ab¯ Ubaida. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. and Ubayy b. FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. In animal sacriﬁce. it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37).” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. . We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. went to where Hamza i was. and began to reprimand him. that reaches All¯h. Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. . ’Abd al-Muttalib. He tied them up outside. the ﬂesh comes to us. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. all this changes.
a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant. green pitchers. the Prophet’s cousin. . there is not even a disapproval. In another tradition. a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. it is not forbidden. he tells ’Umar. How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. . together (4896-4912). They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. or hollow stumps (4913-4995). mention the name of All¯h. . We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971). Ibn ’Abb¯s.115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz. gourds. MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). .” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010).
and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it. if one drinks water standing. HUNTING. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. but it is permissible for other Muslims. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. ’Abdullah b. FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). A laudable practice. . so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067).116 CHAPTER 11. a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. Still. a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). thanks for the farmer who produced it. It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. he ate it and if he did not like it. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. one “must vomit” (5022). he left it” (5121). and thanks for the mothers. DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). thanks for the elements that have gone into making it. with the blessing of the Prophet. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. sisters and wives. In ordinary course. In fact. because Muhammad did so (5072). for feeding 130 persons (5105). and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040).
Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. That way we really profane Him. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal.117 However. Be a meat-eater if you like. ¯ a negate Him. .” Let us pray that this bread is also honest. no God can legitimize it. Similarly. but one ought not to feel so pious about it.
FOOD AND DRINK . HUNTING.118 CHAPTER 11.
he promised to wash them. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). Magic. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). Greetings. It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). General Behavior. SILK Silk is also forbidden. were considered excellent (5179-5180). The mantles of Yemen. for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). on the other hand. ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. Visions. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. Poetry. “Do not wear silk. But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). These were striped and made of coarse cloth. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189).Chapter 12 Clothing. 119 . Decorations.
But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251).” reports Maim¯na. . In fact. “Then on that very morning. . Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). CLOTHING. a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. They eﬀectively keep out the angels. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. . POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. . [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255). The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. GREETINGS. On seeing portraits on a curtain.120CHAPTER 12. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). MAGIC. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . so oppose them” (5245). The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). the father of Ab¯ Bakr. J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). DECORATIONS.” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. HAIR Not only clothes. whether of birds or animals or men. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248).
Barra means “pious. or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed. ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. Muhammad also disapproved of qaza.” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310).e. and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). the son of ’Umar. a . But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). He forbade women to add false hair to their head. having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven. and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”). He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334).121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. i. Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”)..” and it is a perfectly good name. tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. Rab¯h (“proﬁt”). he “would have never slept with her in the bed. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. ’Abdullah. GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). Yas¯r (“wealth”). having the same meaning (5338).” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h. The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298).
He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). Q¯sim. the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. .122CHAPTER 12. it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). “he should come back” (5354). He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. CLOTHING. When a man seeks permission three times. Muhammad called for some dates. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316). MAGIC. DECORATIONS. POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). . J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). . DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. and it is not granted. gave birth to a baby. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. a a When other Muslims objected. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. . Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. Asm¯. All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. GREETINGS. a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety.
and when he falls ill visit him. “All¯h. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. And all should greet the children (5391-5392). “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women. but Muhammad did not respond. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. . Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). One day. When you meet him. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’.” His hope was fulﬁlled. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). . and when he dies follow his bier” (5379).” says ’Aisha a (5397). VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil.’ you say.123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . “Husband’s brother is like death.” “But what about the husband’s brother. went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself. when he invites you to a feast accept it. and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). the Exalted and Glorious. Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388). “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389).” the Prophet replied a (5400). or if that cannot be helped. . The Prophet himself followed this practice. who was tall in stature. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil.” an ans¯r asked. when he seeks your counsel give him. oﬀer him greetings. FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian. then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). Also. we recognize you. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”.
the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. 1 Tabaq at. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. it had no power over him (5430). He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton.. 1 On another occasion. CLOTHING. by All¯h.e.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. medicine. or. p. As the knots were untied.” and that “it was Lab¯ b. practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113). and deposited at the bottom of a well. Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. the Prophet got well. but. and according to some traditions.” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. GREETINGS. of course. A’sam id [who cast the spell]. 156. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q. During this period. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. poisons. I. vol. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. and the way they did it. those who had brought it about. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428). POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classiﬁcation.124CHAPTER 12. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. This saved him for the time being. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters.e. MAGIC. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. it caused his last illness. In fact.” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact.. DECORATIONS. spells. and incantations. ¯ . a u In the same S¯ra. you should take a bath” (5427). tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. “could not come at his wives.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads.
Muhammad also taught that there is no infection.” and “no star promising rain. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. It has a sexual potential. NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell.” Muhammad says (5484). i.125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457). which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. so you may go” (5541). Cool it down with water. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. NO HAMA. don’t run out of it” (5493). he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite. . no epidemic disease. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. Among others. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). it is a wonder drug. ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions.” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). He says that according to some Muslim scholars. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. According to the Arab belief of that time. reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459). The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457). and when it has broken out in the land where you are. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. On another occasion. and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. don’t go to it. LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers. no ghouls.. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury.e. the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444).
nature. soothsayers.e. no divination. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain.” he says (5519).” the translator assures us (note 2603). But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. i.. but good omens please me.126CHAPTER 12.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. GREETINGS. MAGIC. The two worlds . but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. Muhammad corrected . personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. including India. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. epidemic] disease. the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. and the law of causality. All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins. About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. “There is no transitive [i. a belief found in the lore of many countries. CLOTHING. the woman and the house” (5526). According to the translator. and fortune-tellers. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29).” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does.e. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable. then it is in a horse. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination. augurs.. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). DECORATIONS. he believed in good omens and luck.are very diﬀerent.
and Jinn (72:8-10). next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. had¯ 1963). First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. Their sight ﬁlled him with fear.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n.” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other.” So they too should be killed (5545). then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. the jinn has his chance.127 this belief and provided another explanation. dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely. . a is SNAKES. And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). the Exalted and the Glorious. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing. Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. Like snakes. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18).” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. ANTS. S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10). Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind.
Ka’b b. POE Ants fared better. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). the daughter of a Marw¯n. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. even by the method of assassination. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. “O Apostle. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik. then get to some safe place. VISIONS The next three books are very small. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. The book ends on a compassionate note.128CHAPTER 12. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42). If you do not do that. At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. CORRECT WORDS. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. One relates to the use of correct words. Ab¯ Wahb. This taught many of the a u others to behave better. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. POETRY. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. GREETINGS. . CLOTHING. who was already a convert. . “Catch the Satan. Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. his brother. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. True. p. MAGIC. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). he did not think highly of them. The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. DECORATIONS. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. ¯ ¯ .” he advised. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611).” Muhammad commanded. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). “An ant had a bitten a prophet . according to Ibn Ish¯q. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. 597. “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. a u had already ﬂed in all directions. When Mecca was conquered. the only status he cared to claim.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. however. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes.” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). embrace Isl¯m.133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain.” the recipient said (5730). the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. ’Aisha. He punishes it through His living Apostle. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. The man was overwhelmed. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. Ummaya. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. This was called his charitable disposition. I would give you so much. many of them by Anas. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. He found Muhammad most valorous. most courageous. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come. “He asked me to count them. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717). a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. provided it was no sin” (5752). who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. . but when it did.” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats. All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred.
Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads. a is He used to part his hair. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. a is complexion. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. Rob Peter to pay Paul. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. and even heels. and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. He a also found his face very handsome. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771).134 CHAPTER 13. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770). “Do not be angry. the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. or charity.” His body a was also fragrant. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. the other sadaqa. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). hair. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). so All- . eyes. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. The Prophet’s body was soft. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. His perspiration “shone like pearls. appearance. a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. “He put on a red mantle over him. The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. One is called jih¯d.
The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. younger u than he. that a revelation was involved in the matter. . to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. when a revelation descended upon Muhammad.135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. According to Ub¯da. according to the translator. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). under its inﬂuence. ’Abdullah b. Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). J¯bir. He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). His hair was collected. . THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). “his forehead perspired” (5764). In fact. and his head was lowered (5767). Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. . in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. . Muhammad’s wife. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. Another man. . Umm i. Salama. Furthermore. ” (5765). . i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber.
people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. a practical man. It suﬃced him .” As a result. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it..e. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). he said: “If there is any use of it. then they should do it. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. On another occasion.136 CHAPTER 13. I do not think this approach can go very far. Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. for it was just a personal opinion of mine. then do accept it. learned this. a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. i. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley. Muhammad a gave his decision. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. by the Lord. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65. I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h. In one place. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. is. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. had¯ 5817). The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. Sometimes. Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. When Muhammad. “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. and do not go after my personal opinion. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). who was the Prophet’s a cousin .his father’s sister’s son. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. in another three hundred (5658). Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve.
He knew his own people. During the dispute.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). But when he failed in his bid. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. Muhammad’s world was not very large. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. he oﬀered his leadership. however. the Jew said: “By All¯h. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. Therefore. But he could not . PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. Recognizing the other prophets. a dispute rose. the tribes allied with them. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. served a still greater purpose. though on his own terms. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book. On the battleﬁeld. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. a is Abraham. having diﬀerent mothers.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. on the day of Uhud. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. Their religion is. narrated the whole story. a Jew was selling goods. the Arab Bedouins. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. and supplicated him. Speaking of himself and Jesus. and Moses. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him. For example.” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. Who chose Moses amongst mankind.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854).” The Jew went a to Muhammad. To the Jews and Christians. the neighboring Jews and Christians. “Had you not weighed it. and therefore they were as good as apostates.
. for they are all part of one human brotherhood.138 CHAPTER 13. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs. an attitude of either/or. for one is also the other. An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. seldom both. don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. for they all express the same Truth. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too.
like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. ’Al¯ Hasan. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. D. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. members of his family like F¯tima. To be saved. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). he answered: “ ’Aisha. but he soon came to be known by another name. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. and ’Usm¯n. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. it is enough to be subservient. ’Umar. Salama. and Zainab.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. ’Aisha’s 139 . and some loyal ans¯rs and ija.” Muhammad said u a (5873).Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Husain.” the maiden being ’Aisha. and u a a i. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. “the father of the maiden. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend. The followers need have no other. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues.
when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. her father. 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. I said.” ’Umar threatened them. Even ’Aisha. The next day. Eventually. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. and ’Umar in that order” (5876). “Either take the i. even half-believingly. one of their own tribesmen. with a sword in his hand. I. 527-528).” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. 529). Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. Ab¯ Bakr.140 CHAPTER 14. as the u a a chief. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. ‘God kill him. u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.” Muhammad answered (5878). ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. made the most of his dead body. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. u so that he might write a document. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. struggle for power began in earnest. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him. The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. his favorite wife. and you are our Wazeers. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. was kept in the dark about it . As soon as Muhammad died. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr. 1 2 . p. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. Outside. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. we jumped on Sa’d b. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m.she was sleeping in another hut at this time. and her brother too. ’Ali a respectively. pp.. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father. u Zubair. “In doing this. p. 279. ’Ub¯da. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879).” He told them: “We are the Ameers. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. “To Ab¯ u Bakr.
I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger.” Muhammad observed (5885). modestly mentions a only three. and ’Umar that they be a killed. Later on. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace.” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. ’Umar wept when he was told about it. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. narrow-minded. The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. Badr” (5903). the place of the Jewish Temple. . KHATTAB ’Umar b. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land . he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. by a divine injunction. whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904). And lo. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. ’Umar was fanatical. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners. the direction was changed to Mecca. Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. In fact.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. ’Umar. however. for they rejected God and His Apostle. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. . are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. Once. . a But Muhammad persisted. ’Abb¯s. Had it not been for a previous . and in case of the prisoners of a im. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad.” When he inquired. nor stand at his grave. while asleep. and strong in his hatred. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84). as he prayed.
He forged new instrumentalities. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power. you are beaten now. 3 On another occasion. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. vol. on another occasion. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68).” said Muhammad (5890-5896). his name appears only once. In the Muslim annals. Life of Mahomet. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. provided a new taste for booty. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. a True. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. himself drawing water from a tank. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength.” he said (4360). III. but u he drew only “two buckets”. as we have already seen. the son of Soheil. He put every Arab. even including newborn babes. he made it clear. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. by L¯t and Uzza. a new incentive. An Arab.” The man said. on the state’s payroll. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. p. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head. a continuing motive. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. an ideology. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable. “Nay.142 CHAPTER 14. He met Mabad ibn Wahb.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. These ah¯d¯ we are told. But after him. and the necessary religious rhetoric. there was also “weakness in his drawing. a i.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. and said to him tauntingly. 110. a founder par excellence. spread of Muslim hegemony. its real founder was Muhammad himself. who provided it with a theory. tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld. “Well.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h. it was something to be proud of.” he told Muhammad. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head.
al-’As. “O Ab¯ Hafs. releasing him without any ransom.” he said aloud. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. in Russia and even in China. who was taken prisoner i. a ¯ ’USMAN B. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. Hash¯m b. did not like this. 507. u According to Muslim tradition. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. After she died.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma. the family to which u a he belonged. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. Rauzat-us-Safa.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. But there is nothing unusual about it. p. al-Mugh¯ a ira. in the Battle of Badr. 739. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. part II. p. and also to spare his uncle. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. vol. he was much troubled. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. al-’Abb¯s. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy.” he said. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. Only a few decades ago. 301. But one Muslim. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. whom he married. ¯ ¯ . “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. Umm Kuls¯m. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. the man is a false Muslim. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. p. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. Ab¯ Huzayfa. who replied. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. II. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. In the same battle. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression. so contrary to human nature and custom. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them.
[and] the members of a my household. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. did not agree with this conclusion. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. From the arguments advanced on both sides.” he said (5915). the Book of All¯h . they are my i. . the order of truth it deals with. “O All¯h. am leaving behind you two weighty things: .” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died. . in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. was a burdened with work that was too heavy. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b.” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family. Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913). I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. is receiving a visitor. at the hands of his brethren in faith. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait). and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. therefore. . and its way of arriving a at truth. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered.” Other doctors of theology and law. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. ’ALI B. with great ingenuity. In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. But when ’Usm¯n came.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. and Husain. . Hasan. a convert from the proletarian strata. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. a a family.144 CHAPTER 14. It can be subtle about nothing[s]. saying.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. it was Ab¯ Bakr. reclining against a pillow . Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children. is such that it excluded .
thou hast deceived me. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command.” (Tabaq at.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. therefore. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. II. involving a complaint of a similar nature.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. When Muhammad was dying. On the day of Khaibar. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning.e. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. his uncle. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle. 456. p. vol. ’Abb¯s. At one i point in the contest. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. 5918). it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar].” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. had¯ 1582). 521). ’Amr i b. 7 . ¯ ¯ ikh i. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate. ’Abdu Wudd. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. i saying: “I shall never do it. All¯h is partial. vol. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. II. “his face becoming red with anger.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. command. ’Al¯ is from me. for if he says ‘no’ to us now. Let us. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. and applied i. 8 On another occasion. I. thy brother i is coming behind thee. 9 After Muhammad’s death. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). Wal¯ the second-ina id.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception. his own saliva as a cure. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man.” ’Umar says (5917). He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. Kh¯lid b.” But ’Al¯ declined.. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. i. During the Battle of the Ditch. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. i i” i. he took a slave-girl i.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. Ja’far. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. vol. pp.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. people will never give us the Caliphate again. Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. a man of ninety years. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. 292-293. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. II. a i. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. The Prophet was furious. II. had¯ 1569).” The story is given by Mirkhond. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. complained to Muhammad. p. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim.” at the complaint. part II.
AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. and when the night set in. obey them not” (29:8. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . following the old Arab custom. who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. Until now. 112). was the old polytheistic morality. ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads. Though the whole matter caused a great scandal. but after this marriage. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight. After he was appointed to this responsibility. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. We give one example. But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. 10 ¯ SA’D B. This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). he was also his executioner. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions.146 CHAPTER 14. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. . 477-478. He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. by order of his lordship i the apostle . he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. . he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. eight hundred strong. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. . HARIS Zaid b. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. . He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place.. however. had¯ 5933). ’Aisha tells us.” This. pp.
developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. had¯ 5956). She was turned out. 147-164). a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. The marriage was consummated when she was nine. I il ate from it. just as Mary. A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. was the best of the women of her time (5965). Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. and food. the marriage was not consummated.147 natural father. At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. According to Muhammad. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness.” (Tabaq at. Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. pp. For example. ¯ . and his Lord . she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty. THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. Salama.” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. ija. dispatched home. II. she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission.” Muhammad said (5966). This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. I often heard him praise her. Muhammad himself says that “women. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. perfumes. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971). Once. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. i With some women. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. his ﬁrst wife. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. vol. Another woman. . He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). the daughter of Imran. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. in a ﬁt of jealousy. and Zainab. therefore. newly married. though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years. . Ibr¯h¯ died.
a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. but all very convenient.” Muhammad made no answer. though a strict code might call this bribery. to him.” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. and having been thus silenced. I will never talk a to him about this matter.148 CHAPTER 14. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979). they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. . . Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me . “Where I would be . But. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). . Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. she went back. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. you say: ‘No. When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima.” a as ’Aisha puts it. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. On another occasion. Once. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). his daughter. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him. She said yes. Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. Even during his last illness. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h. verily. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy.’ and when you are annoyed with me.” ’Aisha narrates. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. as luck would have it. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. in the words of ’Aisha.” About Muhammad’s own behavior.” “O daughter. A time-honored a practice. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected.” ’Aisha generously agreed.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. by the Lord of Muhammad. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. A rule within a rule. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991).” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her. ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story.
’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. In fact. for my daughter is part of me. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter]. During his last illness.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. meaning “masters.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. his wife. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. on my day. After Mecca was conquered. here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings. is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. ¯ ¯ 12 . 678-679. and in my bosom. “the virgin. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. and even. “The Prophet died in my room. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. put it in her mouth. She had two surviving sons. and they agreed.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. Hasan and Husain.149 tomorrow. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. if. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. his cousin. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). i. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. pp. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha. I would not allow them. Fat¯ u u ima. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. He Just before Muhammad died. known as the Saiyids. I. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels. p.” ’Aisha adds. ’Aisha took the hint. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. Muhammad looked at it intently. our salivas mingled. just a few days before his death. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). Tabaq at. took the twig from her brother’s hand. 282). Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. complained about it to Muhammad. “And when it was my turn. in the last moment of his death.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. vol. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired.
THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). even though she was very much older than Muhammad. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. Therefore. she was his only wife while she lived. ¯ There are other traditions about him. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. Thanks to his political connections. In the case of Khad¯ ija. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. In the battle over the succession that raged later on. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938).150 CHAPTER 14. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). Hakam in revenge. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. sitting on a camel. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence. Sa’d was a a fat man. During the Battle of Uhud. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. MU’AZ When Sa’d b.a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha. Mu’az. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. THE MERITS OF SA’D B. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). the third Khal¯ a ifa. one Marw¯n b. 469. but his bier was very light to carry. p. Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen. ¯ ¯ . some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves .
Seen through less-believing a eyes.” he added. a carrying coats of mail” which. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners. he “had looted.” he replied.” Muhammad said to him. the Aus. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). “Yes. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. Umayya b. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. . tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. Umayya. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. The next a day. He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. the poet. an important Companion.. 301. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. Khalaf. Mu’az. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. Khalaf and his son. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. he said. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. p. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. in Mecca. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. On the day of the Battle of Badr.” he said. Consistent with his lowly position. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. more kind a and compassionate. according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. “By God. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b.
¯ ¯ W. IV. the son of Ab¯ Jahl.” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. Umayya a b. “By God. p. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. Just then. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this.” In later days. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld. father. vol. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. decided to become a Muslim.” The Muslims gathered. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. They bring no change in the individual. Bil¯l kept shouting. Life of Mahomet. There is a telling example. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. 18 In fact. pp. When Mecca was conquered. often they make him worse. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. ’Akrama. after the great carnage of the day. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya. a strong opponent of Isl¯m. Muir. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. At the Battle of Khaibar.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. But organized conversions are now. 68. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). and brother had just been murdered. II.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. part of an aggressive politics. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. 611-612). They cried in pain and horror.152 CHAPTER 14. 16 17 . pp. whose husband. now his prisoners. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. as they have always been. 302-303. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. I will. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. Sim¯k b. by their hands. vol. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners.
. and commissioned them to write satires. . give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. . M¯lik. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. . . . Muhammad sent for two poets. I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a .” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” And to All¯h Himself. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . and Huraira. u a which he knew very well. According to her. . One of them was the son of ’Umar. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions. S¯bit. the daughter of Bakr. I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. . Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. Sabit. Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. . the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. Gabriel is with you” (6074). On another occasion. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish. Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. . Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”. The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. .” he said to Muhammad.” With that end in view. Understanding the intricacies. he petitioned: “O All¯h.
“Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. 6081). ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. 110). who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. then those nearest to them” (6150). At the end of the book. H. then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n). . a u Muslim divines have not been idle.” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). According to one important opinion.” says ’Aisha (6079. it was a diﬀerent matter. I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour. Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. 170). 120 years.” she said a a (6075). as the last Companion died in A. the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. 220). “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims.. Then those nearest to them. but as they proceed further away from him. H. . the Prophet comes ﬁrst. then come his Companions. and they have worked out the exact period of each era. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . .e. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything. though all the participants were ﬂogged. In this ranking and ordering. do not revile my Companions” (6167). As things converge toward Muhammad. the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. H. Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n.154 CHAPTER 14. they become better. but when they were in his service.
. stand by each other. In short. if his head aches. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. Good Manners. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . . Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. the whole 155 . “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). If he suﬀers pain. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). his wealth and his honour” (6219). and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). even to the extent of stepping on a thorn. and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”.Chapter 15 Virtue. And. All Muslims are one body. “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. the one supporting the other” (6257). the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. . “When a Muslim falls ill. his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). Monday and Thursday. Knowledge. of course. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. all Muslims should help each other. Destiny. it is a reward. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. “The believers are like one person. “A believer is like a brick for another believer. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. and feel for each other. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood.
1 . a Similarly. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). and 6306). “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). 6265. NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. VIRTUE. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39). 1 The face should be avoided because. as the Prophet himself explains. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims.156 CHAPTER 15. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). All¯h would a meet his needs. in fact. and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. he should spare his face” (6325). who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. and he who meets the need of a brother. spoils. It is meritorious to speak the truth. Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. DESTINY. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. should help him. KNOWLEDGE. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264).
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
his fortune and misfortune. his deeds. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. it imposes only an outer code.All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. “This I have power to do. and prurience. II. and tribute. O Lord. ¯ . which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. theft. garbing itself in pious clothing. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. there can be no higher ethical life. p. True. . Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. 280. a DESTINY The thirty-ﬁrst book. violence. For example. Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441).” he said. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. fornications. blasphemies. his livelihood. But. it gives the theology of a Moloch . it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. Each person passes through a series of stages. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. false witness. . after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . but thou. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. war booty. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. adulteries.” As a result. as Muhammad called him. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. his death. Without inner puriﬁcation. as might be expected. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. murders.” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source. vol. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr).
“Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400).” he remonstrates with the believers. But in spite of these warnings. “Verily. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. he says” (6450). even smaller than the previous one. DESTINY. those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). of course. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No.” On the other hand. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard.” and do not dispute about it . a a “Verily. KNOWLEDGE.that is knowledge. If everything of men is decreed in advance. And. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443).162 CHAPTER 15. The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421). VIRTUE. One day. the reverse may also happen (6390). “Recite the Qur¯n. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. by seeking to explain them. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. you would follow them in this also. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. He also warns against hair-splitting. The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars. He would not be questioned as to a what He does. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. do perform good deeds.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book.
“There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. faith. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. like his moral teaching. slaves. in brotherliness. Muhammad explains” (6476). in compassion. inﬁdel. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. polytheist.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. I rush towards him” (6471). “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. the inﬁdels. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. and empire if we succeed. and so on. Muhammad’s god. in conciliation. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. conquest. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr). In the mystic tradition. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. I draw near him a by the cubit. in purity. In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness. it means walking toward the Light within. and earnestness. our reward is booty.163 away the scholars” (6462). in wisdom. he retained His audible names.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. and Paradise if we fall. In the prophetic tradition. Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. and forced conversions. And if he walks towards Me.” Muhammad a tells us (6475). Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions.
For example. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey.164 CHAPTER 15. he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock. KNOWLEDGE. and the second to ’Umar. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant. one to ’Usm¯n. the daughter of Hil¯l. VIRTUE. as a gift. DESTINY. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law. ¯ ¯ . But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Demonology is the other side of theology. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. p.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. 593.
“amongst the inmates of Paradise.” women will “form a minority” (6600). If they so wish. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). Hell. On the other hand. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. In book thirty-four. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604). 165 . Their Inmates. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand.Chapter 16 Paradise. According to another tradition. though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). they also tell us about the Day of Judgment.
B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). and of Paradise and Hell. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). . the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday.” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day . . The believer will be doubly blessed. Muhammad said. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. . . Thanks to his reward in this world. On this day.the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings. HELL. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above. PARADISE. and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. i. between afternoon and night” (6707). THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. the Exalted and Glorious. All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). THEIR INMATES. . the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). “the earth would turn to be one single bread .” he told them.166 CHAPTER 16.. will take in His grip the earth .” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”.e.
. a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suﬀering. the “moon was split into two. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). The nonbeliever will answer yes. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). Allah will ask the nonbeliever. For example. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet.167 Either way. even the one least tormented. In fact. . What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). On the Day of Resurrection. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. it is cheating. THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. it is still not a fair deal.” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. whether. no Jew . . But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. and heedless. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity].
and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man. also see 41:25). but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. Literally. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. the latter is pandaimonic or. particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. in the Sunn¯h. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. HELL.168 CHAPTER 16. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. the word means “the one in united” (pl. THEIR INMATES. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam. PARADISE. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers.” 43:36. a devil. quran¯). but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them. .” Muhammad declared (6752). “Verily. The former is pantheistic in approach and temper.” Muhammad declared (6711). the demons are only attached to inﬁdels. pandemonic. “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. a prophetic one. more precisely. In the Qura an.
moral action occupies a secondary place. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770). he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. but if you fail. which appears 76 times. The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). “Observe moderation” in your doings.121 times.169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . Then those who would be next to them. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). he advises. . CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. appears with still greater frequency . with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles.” Muhammad says (6760). Its Description. . there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). A man is justiﬁed by faith.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). In the Qur¯n. A constant Bower of Bliss. then after them others in ranks” (6796). a “In Paradise. a “the Fire. Its Bounties. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years. In the Prophet’s eschatology.” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. Paradise and Hell go together. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars . It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet. HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam). The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. O Lord. and Its Inmates”. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. An-N¯r. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds.
and the shades of the Garden will come low . nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. “All¯h. HABITATION. and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). . So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. The immeasurable is measured. The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). HELL. nor void excrement. ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. the height of Adam and even of God. his length being sixty cubits. a joy to those who drink. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . rivers of wine. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. For food. less than ih on earth.170 CHAPTER 16. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797). rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). “they will have fruits. nor will they spit” (6795). incidentally. LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food).” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). THEIR INMATES. THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. PARADISE. . any that they may desire” (56:2021). . the Exalted and a Glorious.
Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. 66:8. and others. For example. According to ’Abdullah b. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. so he will have women galore in Paradise. 52:17-24. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. a 56:15-40. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. 47:15. 4:13. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). houris with swelling bosoms. 76:12-22. 10:9-10. HOURIS Houris are promised. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. a i. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl.171 over them. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). ’Umar. for ever virgins. with whom he will make love successively. wine. retiring glances. 9:111. We can only mention the subject here. which we have already mentioned. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). 55:46-76. What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. golden vessels. the bunches of fruits will hang low. will dwell his wives. . describe the a i. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome.
every orgasm will last for six hundred years. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. though rather mathematically expressed. every room will have seventy couches. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. PARADISE. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. ’Umar. THEIR INMATES. when a believer embraces any such houri. holding the train of her robe. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. and she will have a crown on her head. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. . even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. these women will put on see-through dresses. 1980). He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. the number of slaves is ten thousand. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. four thousand virgins. and seventy-two women. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. HELL. in the Muslim Paradise. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. 112. According to another tradition. still furu ther. According to Anas. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. According to him. According to ’Abdullah b. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. p. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies.172 CHAPTER 16. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls. and eight thousand women who have known men. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id. Each houri will u have seventy garments. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves.
According to Muslim thinking. and as-s¯’iba.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity. Cam’a b. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. But as his harem swelled. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831). Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. dragging his intestines in Fire. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija. are severely punished. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. the son of Abraham. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. In the S¯ras from this period. Khinzif.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). “I saw ’Amr b. Similarly. In caloric heat. Luhayy b.D. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813). brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. . In Hell. to some up to their knees.” as the translator explains (note 2999). ira. his senior. to some up to their waists. the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. u a 4:57).
you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this . All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. And I sent the Book to you .” Muhammad revealed (6859). THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . . All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. I said: My Lord. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days.” Muhammad told him. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. . and addressing each of them by name. Verily. . Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . . said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. . . “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. they would break my head . the chapter is closed forever. . “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. THEIR INMATES. . . what I am saying to them. It begins immediately after their death.174 CHAPTER 16. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they.” somebody replied. there is no death for you. Muhammad said: “Behold. thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). . Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). O inmates of Hell. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. PARADISE. Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. . THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. HELL. and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. Then he sat by the side of the bodies. “As polytheists. . . . You would live forever therein” (6829). but they lack the power to reply. there is no death for you. The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey.
“Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. “the Fire. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. The is.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71).. each with a its own potency. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. But woe unto the unbeliever. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. i. the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). more blazing. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers. thermodegree. Hell has many names. In a . The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. naked and uncircumcised.175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha.e. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. and more scorching are conceived. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection. So hells increasingly more smoky. that should be of interest to Freudians. and inmates. even Muslims must go to Hell. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha.
inﬁdels. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. is for the Christians. THE LAST DAY order to fulﬁll the letter. like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. HELL.. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. 17:60. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. toiling. PARADISE. Christians. weary. they shall be given water like molten copper . . of All¯h’s command. It is called Jahanam. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. and never has any light. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event. THEIR INMATES. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure.” i. . the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. which shall burst their bowels . and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees. nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). i u 44:43-46). “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant. idolaters.” According to some commentators. .” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. polytheists. another terrible food. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. Similarly. 56:52. Saqar for the Magi. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. if not the spirit. hypocrites. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. .g.” There are other traditions in the same vein.e. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre. The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.176 CHAPTER 16. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. . Jah¯ for idolaters. . .. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. which shall dissolve everything in their bellies.” is mentioned. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents . “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. In other S¯ras (e. in the language of u the last S ura. the Day of Judgment). loathsome in smell. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews.
But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). but in the case of . THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891). And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah. Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. but He did not grant it” (6904. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. “He granted me two. “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. Arabia. killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. . 6906). both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world.177 and an equal number of scorpions. All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites.” he said (6881). The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. . . ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends.
a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). or the servant of All¯h. . red in complexion. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961). a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship. . “The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920).178 CHAPTER 16. ” (7039). which is painful to touch. will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. come and kill him. this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia. HELL. It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). According to the translator. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). the smoke. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West. THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009). PARADISE.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. a Before the Last Hour comes. who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. there is a Jew behind a me. blind in the left eye and a a is. “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. the Dajj¯l . a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). THEIR INMATES. ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour.
ready to do his bidding. in fact. you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger.” Then there was a competition between the two. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. Like the early Christians. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered.” the translator tells us (note 3037). According to another story. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). a a made the very same claim for himself.179 him. Pointing to a young boy. permit me that I should kill him. That gave point to his claim. “Thereupon ’Umar b.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). Muhammad “did a not like it. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. dukh. . Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. ‘He only chanted dhukh. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and.
PARADISE. THE LAST DAY . THEIR INMATES.180 CHAPTER 16. HELL.
and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins .” The servant committed yet a third sin. I We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). 181 . forgive me my sin. the Exalted and High. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. “If a you were not to commit sins. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. . It helps him as well as his Maker. All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. and All¯h responded in the same way. He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. .” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619). According to Muhammad. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). Sin is doubly blessed. It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. but now a He added: “O servant. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. forgive me my sin. do what you like. It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. and All¯h. In fact. Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h.
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
In retaliation.186 CHAPTER 17. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent. like that of the former times of Ignorance. by One. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. “And a stay quietly in your houses. in Whose hand is my life. Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions.” he said. 499. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. and though young he died soon a after. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. “Hallowed be All¯h. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. I in a poem. He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. According to another tradition. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. ¯ ¯ . Also. Of course.” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. according to ’Aisha. quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. 33). 498). p. p. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. I have never unveiled any a woman.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. For example. and make not a dazzling display.
The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. political boycott. 2/18 Ansari Road. M¯lik. He used the carrot as well as the stick. it was combined with other.Chapter 18 Repentance.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. Islam was not all theology. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. Even in Muhammad’s time. but the For a fuller discussion. constia is. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. the indiﬀerent. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. But from the beginning. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. negative as well as positive.110 002). The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. New Delhi . the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. Apostasy was severely punished. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. 1 187 . and the disloyal. spiritually speaking. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. more secular appeals. and ideological untouchability. II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b.
the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. and traders. In oﬀending the Prophet. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. MALIK) fear of the strongman. in fact. Umayar. ’Usm¯n. He collected tithes from the tribes. the toughs of the ummah. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. ’Al¯ Zubair. who were now rich and powerful. p. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. 789. contractors. a lordly sum. one also invited a pervasive social boycott. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. the boss. In planning other campaigns. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information. is. Muheiasa. you oﬀended ’Umar. ’Abdullah . REPENTANCE. Talha. you not only oﬀended All¯h . for he died soon afterward. ’Amr ibn Omeya. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. and so on. One had oneself played safe in the past. Because of its unusually arduous nature. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. This could be a very coercive phenomenon. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately. Sa’d.the i. sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. it was his largest and also his last. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. which were now reduced to submission. generals. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand. S¯lim b. Muhammad ibn Maslama. They had become governors. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. and the weather was dry and hot. D. his own son-in-law. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. was ever present. 630.but even worse. But this campaign was to be of long duration.) ¯ ¯ . besides inviting more concrete punishments. or party. They gave generously. now others do the same in turn.
at least nominally. in the cause of All¯h. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. For example. But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet. Thou knowest them not. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42).189 soldiers. . And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. But Him you would not harm in the least.” All¯h said of them (9:97). Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. That is best for you. and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). their spirit was considered praiseworthy. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. and strive and struggle. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God.’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). But even so. ‘Go not forth in the heat. whether equipped lightly or heavily. Of such people.’ Muhammad. but We know them. Though they were sent back. “Go ye a forth. He also took more secular measures. they would all without doubt have followed thee. Twice shall we punish them. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you. and when you said. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. which now included. In the Islamic tradition. with your goods and your persons. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. “If there had been immediate gain in sight. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. the whole Arab world. if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41). if only they could understand” (9:81). many had to be sent away for lack of funds. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . and journey easy. so they put forward many excuses for not going. .
” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. . those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. one-third of which was cavalry. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . the Christian prince of Ayala. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. According to some traditions. was nowhere in sight. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . it found there was not much to do. sang: a My salams to you. To Yuhanna b. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . . MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. p. I left you behind because of what I had left behind. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. 783. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina. . ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later). Al-Dahh¯k. . ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. REPENTANCE. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. According to some traditions. Ru’ba. which was easily done with such a large show of force. I will not accept from you a single thing. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. . But if you oppose and displease them. because the Byzantine army. This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i. was also there in consida erable force. which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. Believe. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. One of the victims. or else pay tribute. so go back and represent me in my family and yours. although many of its members were still disgruntled.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. But eventually he did not go. Are you not content. . The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. This eﬀectively dealt with them. ¯ ¯ .
According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr.” But later. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him. he kept it as a secret. Of the many who had remained behind. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. .” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing. who was a poet. to his dismay.e. “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth.” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. he says the expedition was big. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . . 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina. Hil¯l.” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. D. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. “more than ten thousand people. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation. The next day Muhammad arrived. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. the Byzantine Empire]”.” he said to himself. neither age nor health nor lack of means. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army.” he says. and Ka’b. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition.. Ka’b. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. 4 . that the Prophet had departed. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. he decided to speak the truth. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so.
When Ka’b’s turn came. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. REPENTANCE. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b. but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me. he sent his wife . II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b. “Verily. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did.” When forty days had thus passed. I never possessed so good means .” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God. I greeted him but. a While he was enduring this mental torture. he did not respond to my greetings. He replied.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. “As I read that letter I said.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. . “No.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h.” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted.” As Ka’b was young. some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b. .” This communication could be very incriminating. whether He would punish them. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. . The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. . The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us .” a Muhammad dismissed him.” This comforted him somewhat. . by All¯h. but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. or turn in mercy” [9:106]. We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. “By All¯h.) Later. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n.” Ka’b says. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. so I burnt it. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. .” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him. This also is a calamity. MALIK) persons. and he was my cousin. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began. as I had when I stayed behind. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. and I had the greatest love u a for him.
“I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions). The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway. Then He turned to them.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. IV. and so did their souls become straitened within them. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). also Tabaq at. he spends his time in weeping. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. Meanwhile. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. p. he has no a such instinct in him.” 5 5 W. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. 201. “By All¯h. other friends hurried with the glad tidings.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side.” she replied. ¯ . Life of Mahomet. when Muhammad heard this. vol. “But don’t go near him.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them. there is glad a tiding for you. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118).” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. Muir. and the latter received him with a smiling face. The same message was sent to the other two. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. p. Some of them even began to sell their arms. Prophet’s biographer. M¯lik. 505. By All¯h. I. that they might repent. vol. as he was a “a senile person”.” Muhammad told her. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband.” he says. even until Antichrist appear. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice.
II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. Mary. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. 504. REPENTANCE. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. he found that his sexual organ had been cut.) a ikh i. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. Peace was eventually restored. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger. but in order to avoid further complications. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. . particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. I. the center of great jealousy in the harem. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck. p. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out.
Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). .Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times). and there is a whole chapter. Some of the citizens saw. . and some out of spite for the Meccans. skeptics. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. men of incomplete faith. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre. But in the peculiar theology of Islam. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves. or S ura. The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. It is a small book. and the rejecters of Faith. men and a a women.some out of conviction. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. called Mun¯ﬁq in. such doubts were morally the most heinous. a H¯wiyah. They were doubters. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . named after ¯ ¯ them. therein shall they dwell . a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. the Fire of Hell. others out of chivalry. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown.
converts. Auf. His victory at Badr in January A. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. 624 brought him the opportunity. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. p. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. then by All¯h. D. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. and soon they seized a whole yard. pp. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. Muhammad (Pelican Books. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. The opposition could now be intimidated. related to Aws Man¯t. Muhammad detested them. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. 157-158. They could put their ideas into verses. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 676). 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson.” she sang. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. But the realization came too late. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. they a would have gone somewhere else. many of them believed in war spoils. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. 1 . 1973).” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. If we had kept our own for ourselves. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. and much of it could also be bought. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut.
S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. but nothing a happened. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. III. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. . Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high.” he told them.” he prayed. 368. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom.” he told the departing assassins. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet. 676. . look ye here. had not fought at Badr. ¯ ¯ . including the two assassins named above. p. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. Most of the local converts. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. because of his open sedition and verses. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . We have already mentioned his case. This they did by these perﬁdious acts.he spat on it and it was healed. and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. p. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. a new apprehension. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. Life of Mahomet. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. “Lord. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. And again there was a ready assassin at hand. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her. vol. This turned out to be only too true. oﬀered to assassinate her. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. a new equation. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. There was something new in the atmosphere. p. The assassin had a powerful patron. W. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Also. 132. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . They were too cowed. Muir. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed.” Muhammad had assured him.
a 5 6 ibid. They have made their oaths a screen . 676. the doubters among the local converts. they say. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. . . but they are indeed liars . Muhammad entered Medina in April A. Mas’¯d. . But this period of caution did not last long. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. I would have cut your head oﬀ. .198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. . a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. As his power increased. and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. it said one thing and did another. a common ideology and passion. They had promised each other a u ir.” says Ibn Ish¯q. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. . Huwayyisa. but the opposition was badly divided. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. 622.” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. p. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. Ibn Ish¯q. chided him: “You enemy of God. He exclaimed.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. a Muslim convert. Furtive in action. a Jewish merchant. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. ¯ ¯ . did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one. . 369. A seal is set on their hearts . They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. p. a common goal. They are enemies. common interests. ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. “By God. the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. . The killer’s brother. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect.. D. The demoralization was complete.
in March-April A. and if to save is better than to kill. leaving their goods behind to the victor. 92. D. because of his inﬂuence. he was not an unworthy man. ¯ ¯ . . When they surrendered. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. . 363. by God. 627. Thou dost reckon them as one body. Three years later.) 7 Ibn Ish¯q. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. (See pp. . He was once the leading citizen of Medina. these will not help them.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina. This was in February A. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. these will not go forth with them. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. 624. independence of judgment. He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. and his importance declined fast. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. but their hearts are separated. But after the arrival of Muhammad. and loyalty are qualities. Muhammad besieged this tribe. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. . D. and if they be fought against. It is said that just before Muhammad came. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. . We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. But God bears witness that they are liars. a new force entered the scene. and his appeal was also a threat. But even then. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. but if patriotism. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. and if you be fought against we will help you . If they be driven forth. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. . and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. p. I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies].” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God .199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded.
You have let them occupy your country. he gave it serious thought. But Muhammad was cautious. the stronger will drive out the weaker. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. On the way back.” 8 Later. he was spared. On this occasion. Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. Tempers were frayed on both sides. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. With all the proposals and consultations. .’ But when we return to the Medina city. with his usual weakness. so he accepted the denial. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. He had an image to protect. a fanatic Muslim. All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). when confronted with this statement. Ibn Ubayy. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and later. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. about ’Abdullah. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. ¯ ¯ . 491. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands. But wiser counsels prevailed. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. but it rankled in his mind. Huzair. a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. a a who was a servant of ’Umar.” he advised. p. and you have divided your property among them . two thousand camels. Aws and Khazraj. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. The booty included two hundred families. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. also heard about it. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. he consulted Usaid b. . at a more opportune moment. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. denied it. I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position.
S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. who questioned ’Abdullah. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom.” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. according to Ibn Ish¯q. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. p. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value. and he was isolated from his people and allies.201 Later on. Zaid b. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father. the Prophet. Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq).” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that. they heard ’Abdullah b. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him.D.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. The latter. denied having said any such thing. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. at his a is son’s request. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. By this time. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. on oath. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. with this background. 492. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). he had u already become a back number. who narrates the whole story. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. Now. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. 625).” ’Umar submitted. ¯ ¯ . Some of the persons who were with them came back.
who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. They again dug . There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. and the other one said: No. People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. They again dug the grave . . and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. Qays. But the man replied: “By All¯h. this hill. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day. . According to Huzaifa. At last they left him unburied” (6693). his sins would be obliterated.” All were pardoned except one man. . the hill of Mur¯r. . AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. they were twelve men. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. Thus intimidation had started quite early. The hereafter will take care of itself. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul. the owner of a red camel. . One group said: We would a kill them. certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. Other traditions identify him as Harr b. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. this should not be done” (6684).202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a . but the earth again threw him out . The Prophet cursed them all (6690). but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). . Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. who was forbidden to divulge the information. but the earth again threw him out. all veiled and only half-glimpsed.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form.
203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. It tells us about the time. DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. the circumstances of their revelation. angry.behind them often a . the place. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. sensuous copy of the here. but that the trances of a passionate. According to other traditions. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt). and moha) are not to be trusted . She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad. . india a vidual men. Ibn ’Umar. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). hereafter. and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684).. it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa.e. it threatens and promises. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. and deluded mind (i. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. dvesa. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. but with the a . merely an exaggerated. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks. incidents in the life of the Prophet. who had already chosen his pastures. It is feverish in tone.
but chronologically it is one of the last . II. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). which makes such a tall claim. ¯ the very last. a completed favour upon you. The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”).204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. and adds nothing essential to its subject. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. Resurrection Day was far oﬀ. on the Day of Resurrection. For example. This is understandable. It contains only ﬁfty traditions.” Muhammad agreed. ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. the eighth S ura. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. and do even now. among your wives. the majority of men and women in the world. had¯ 899). It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. But I want to be there.according to Sir William Muir. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). . it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128).” a a ’Umar reports (7154). I yield my turn to ’Aisha. ¯ condemnation. the ﬁfty-ninth S ura. The information throws no particular light on this revelation. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). then in her forties. or “Banish¯ ment”). “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir. in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr.
Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Lal Kuan. 1980. Delhi: Kitab Khana. Palmer. ih a if.html] Sah¯ Muslim. Reprint of English translation by Dr. Muhammad Ashraf. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n. Lahore: Sh.. New York. 205 . Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. popular and much in use. Qur¯n Majeed. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols.usc. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. London. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes. Translation by E. Abridged Urdu ih a i. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. H. i if.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Muhammad Ashraf. Lahore: ih Sh. Urdu translation in 2 vols. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. 1973-1975. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. translation. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. James Robson. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. Glorious Qur¯n. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. 1973. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m.
1980. edited by James Hastings. 1976. 1976. Clark. by Syed a i. 1 and 2. a Shiaism by S. 310 (A. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. Oxford. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. and his S¯ of Muhammad. Scholarly. Pelican Books. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. vols. Mahmud. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. 1885. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. Ghaﬀari. Edinburgh and New York: T. popularly known as Mirkhond. The Life of Muhammad. English translation. London: Smith.206 CHAPTER 20. 4 vols. H. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. Urdu translation in 8 vols. 1861. 1973.. Scholarly and pioneering study. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. . reprinted. The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. & T. Delhi-6. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. trans. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. Karachi: Nafees Academy. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. S¯ a ikh i. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. ¯ died in A. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. Guillaume. Ibn Sa’d. D. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. New York. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. 922). New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Khavendshah b. India. Urdu translation in 11 vols. translated and edited by A. i. Ali Raza. Tehatsek. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. E. 1893. London: Royal Asiatic Society. Elder & Co. A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. Tehran: Shahpur Square. Karachi: Nafees Academy.. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. 3rd ed. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. letters. Selections from sermons.
Rupa & Co. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie. 1980.207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. New Delhi: Impex India. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism. 1st ed. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. S. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. reprinted. 1897. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature.] .P. New Delhi. 3rd impression. Among other things. Hindi publication in 3 vols.)-India. Publishing House. All¯habad: R. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash. 2005. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids. Ratlam (M..
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