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Religious Faith or Fanaticism?
Reformatted from http://www.bharatvani.org/books/uith with hyperlinked Contents entries
Voice of India, New Delhi
Isl¯m is not merely a theology, or a statement about All¯h and his relationship with a a His creatures. Besides containing doctrinal and creedal material, it deals with social, penal, commercial, ritualistic, and ceremonial matters. It enters into everything, even into such private areas as one’s dress, marrying, and mating. In the language of the Muslim theologians, Isl¯m is a “complete” and “completed” religion. a It is equally political and military. It has much to do with statecraft, and it has a very speciﬁc view of the world peopled by inﬁdels. Since most of the world is still inﬁdel, it is very important for those who are not Muslims to understand Isl¯m. a The sources of Isl¯m are two: the Qur¯n and the Had¯ (“Sayings” or “Traditions”), a a is usually called the Sunn¯h (“customs”), both having their center in Muhammad. The Qura an contains the Prophet’s “revelations” (wahy); the Had¯ all that he did or said, or ¯ is, enjoined, forbade or did not forbid, approved or disapproved. The word Had¯ singular is, in form (pl. ah¯d¯ is also used collectively for all the traditions taken together, for the a is), whole sacred tradition. Muslim theologians make no distinction between the Qur¯n and the Had¯ To them a is. both are works of revelation or inspiration. The quality and degree of the revelation in both works is the same; only the mode of expression is diﬀerent. To them, the Had¯ is the is Qur¯n in action, revelation made concrete in the life of the Prophet. In the Qur¯n, All¯h a a a speaks through Muhammad; in the Sunn¯h, He acts through him. Thus Muhammad’s life a is a visible expression of All¯h’s utterances in the Qur¯n. God provides the divine principle, a a Muhammad the living pattern. No wonder, then, that Muslim theologians regard the Quran and the Had¯ as being supplementary or even interchangeable. To them, the Had¯ is ¯ is is wahy ghair matl u (“unread revelation,” that is, not read from the Heavenly Book like the ¯ Qur¯n but inspired all the same); and the Qur¯n is had¯ mutw¯tir, that is, the Tradition a a is a considered authentic and genuine by all Muslims from the beginning. Thus the Qur¯n and the Had¯ provide equal guidance. All¯h with the help of His a is a Prophet has provided for every situation. Whether a believer is going to a mosque or to his bedroom or to the toilet, whether he is making love or war, there is a command and a pattern to follow. And according to the Qur¯n, when All¯h and His Apostle have decided a a a matter, the believer does not have his or her own choice in the matter (33:36). And yet situations do arise when the guidance is lacking. It is said of Im¯m ibn Hanbal a (b. A. H. 164, d. A. H. 241 = A. D. 780-855) that he never ate watermelons, even though he knew that the Prophet had done so, because he did not know his manner of eating them. The same story is related even of B¯yazid Bist¯n, a great S¯ﬁ, whose mystical teachings a a u
ii went against orthodox Qur¯nic theology. a Though the non-Muslim world is not as familiar with the Sunn¯h, or Had¯ as with a is, the Qur¯n, the former even more than the latter is the most important single source of a Isl¯mic laws, precepts, and practices. Ever since the lifetime of the Prophet, millions of a Muslims have tried to imitate him in their dress, diet, hair-style, sartorial fashions, toilet mores, and sexual and marital habits. Whether one visits Arabia or Central Asia, India or Malaysia, one meets certain conformities, such as the veil, polygamy, ablution, and istinj¯ a (abstersion of the private parts). These derive from the Sunn¯h, reinforced by the Qur¯n. a a All are accepted not as changing social usages but as divinely ordained forms, as categorical moral imperatives. The subjects that the Had¯ treats are multiple and diverse. It gives the Prophet’s views is of All¯h, of the here and the hereafter, of hell and heaven, of the Last Day of Judgment, of a ¯ an (faith), sal¯t (prayer), zak¯t (poor tax), sawm (fast), and hajj (pilgrimage), popularly im¯ a a known as religious subjects; but it also includes his pronouncements on jih¯d (holy war), a al-anf¯l (war booty), and khums (the holy ﬁfth); as well as on crime and punishment, on a food, drink, clothing, and personal decoration, on hunting and sacriﬁces, on poets and soothsayers, on women and slaves, on gifts, inheritances, and dowries, on toilet, ablution, and bathing; on dreams, christianing, and medicine, on vows and oaths and testaments, on images and pictures, on dogs, lizards, and ants. The Had¯ constitutes a voluminous literature. It gives even insigniﬁcant details of is the Prophet’s life. Every word from his lips, every nod or shake of his head, every one of his gestures and mannerisms was important to his followers. These are remembered by them as best as they could and passed on from generation to generation. Naturally those who came into greater contact with the Prophet had the most to tell about him. ’Aisha, his wife, Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar, his aristocratic followers, Anas b. M¯lik, his servant u a for ten years, who died at the ripe age of 103 in A. H. 93, and ’Abdullah b. ’Abb¯s, his a cousin, were fertile sources of many ah¯d¯ But another most proliﬁc source was Ab¯ a is. u Huraira, who is the authority for 3,500 traditions. He was no relation of the Prophet, but he had no particular work to do except that he specialized in collecting traditions from other Companions. Similarly, 1,540 traditions derive from the authority of J¯bir, who a was not even a Quraish but belonged to the Khazraj tribe of Medina, which was allied to Muhammad. Every had¯ has a text (matn) and a chain of transmission (isn¯d). The same text may is a have several chains, but every text must be traced back to a Companion (as-h¯b), a man a who came into personal contact with the Prophet. The Companions related their stories to their successors (t¯bi un), who passed them on to the next generation. a ¯ At ﬁrst the traditions were orally transmitted, though some of the earliest narrators must have also kept written notes of some kind. But as the Companions and the Successors and their descendants died, a need was felt to commit them to writing. There were two
Ab¯ ¯ a Muhammad at-Tirmiz¯ a u Is¯ i (A. Bukh¯r¯ laid down elaborate canons of authenticity and applied them with a ruthless ai hand. rejecting the spurious ones and committing the correct one’s to writing.000 names were mentioned in diﬀerent chains of transmission but that Bukh¯r¯ ai . 209-279=A. D. D.000 traditions but accepted only 7. orders were issued for the ifa collection of all extant traditions under the supervision of Bakr ibn Muhammad. To have one’s ancestors counted among the Emigrants or Helpers.in short. The traditions were no longer mere edifying stories. drowning the genuine one’s. but as the power of the Muslims grew and they became the masters of an extended empire. They were sources of prestige and proﬁt. and under their inﬂuence new traditions were concocted and old ones usefully edited. Spurious traditions were coming into being. H. worked up in order to promote what the fabricators thought were elements of a pious life. 204-261=A. 817-888) u a¯ and others. 819-875).000. Traditionists like Shurahb¯ b. Ab¯ D¯ud entertained only 4. There were many motives at play behind this development. under Khal¯ ’Umar II. Soon after Muhammad’s death. the Ummayads. so that the man tended to be lost in the myth. There were also more personal motives at work. D. or what they thought were the right theological views. already very high in the estimation of the early Muslims. a serious eﬀort was made to collect and sift all the current traditions. they favoured and blackmailed as it il suited them. in the practice a of the Prophet. This was found in the Sunn¯h. H. Muslim ibnu’l-Hajj¯j (A. to have them present at the Pledge of al-Aqabah or included among the combatants at the Battles of Badr and Uhud . But the Muslim world had to wait another hundred years before the work of sifting was undertaken by a galaxy of traditionists like Muhammad Ism¯¯ al-Bukh¯r¯ (A.was a great thing. particularly the Alids.800 traditions out of a total of 500. A hundred years after Muhammad. to have them mentioned in any context of loyalty and usefulness to the Prophet . There was an even more pressing reason. Some of these new traditions were merely pious frauds. Spurious traditions also arose in order to promote factional interests. Sa’d utilized their power eﬀectively. H. It is said that he collected 600. they had to seek a supplementary source of authority to take into account new situations and new customs. 202-275 = A. 810ail ai 870). The pious and the hero-worshipping mind also added many miracles around the life of Muhammad. H. The Qur¯nic injunctions were probably suﬃcient for the uncomplicated life a of the early Arabs. and later on the Abbasides. there were cutthroat struggles for power between several factions. So Traditionists who could get up right traditions were very much in demand. 824-892). In this struggle. Under these circumstances.iii other reasons. It is also u a¯ said that 40. great passions were generated.000 of them as authentic. Ab¯ D¯ud as-Sajistani (A. 194-256=A. D.
a became authentic Sah¯ ihs. the Had¯ is a collection of stories. 1958). But the Muslim mind has been taught to look at them in a diﬀerent frame of mind. In fact.iv accepted only 2. The a Qur¯n and the Had¯ are interdependent and mutually illuminating.“the two authentics. which were in vogue died away in due course. his forehead. though in our discussion we have often quoted from the Qur¯n. It ih provides the base. The Qur¯n provides a is a the text. a is Had¯ gives ﬂesh and blood to the Qur¯nic revelations. the Sih¯h Sitta as they are called. the ones by Im¯m Bukh¯r¯ and Im¯m a ai a Muslim are at the top . reveals their more earthly motives. We have also chosen the Sah¯ Muslim as the main text for our present volume. the Had¯ the context. which only the Had¯ provides. but they contain much that is factual and historical. Until now only partial English translations of some Had¯ collections were available. The ih translation of an Eastern text by an Eastern mind has one advantage: it retains the ﬂavor of the original. Guillaume is available under the title The Life of Muhammad ¯ a (Oxford. and read them with a feeling of awe and worship. It may not be in the Queen’s English and may seem rather exotic to those . H. To clarify certain points. H. or collections. As a result of the labor of these Traditionists. 85 and died in A. narrated. we have also quoted here and there from the Prophet’s traditional biographies. a S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by A. Of these. about a man. that he trembled as he narrated a had¯ sweat often breaking out all over is. Within three hundred years of the death of Muhammad. Muhammad Ashraf). is a and provides them with the necessary locale. The believers have handled. To the inﬁdel with his critical faculty still intact. 768) a in Baghdad. As the distance grows. we must thank Dr. a Companion and a great Traditionist (authority for 305 traditions). and At-Tabar¯ An English translation of Ish¯q’s a i. Other biographers of note who succeeded him and who amply made use of his labors were Al-W¯qid¯ Ibn Hish¯m. The of the Had is. Muslim believers are expected to read the traditions in the same spirit and with the same mind. H. almost the very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography was that of Ibn Ish¯q. the Qur¯n cannot be understood without the aid is a ¯ for every Qur¯nic verse has a context. D. There is still a good deal of the miraculous and the improbable in them. The lapse of time helps the process. rather all too human. the hero looms larger. It is said of ’Abdullah ibn Mas¯d (died u at the age of seventy in A. the Had¯ acquired is substantially the form in which it is known today.000 as genuine. which are no more than ordered traditions arranged chronologically around events in the life of the Prophet. Abdul Hamid iqi us a full-scale translation of the Sah¯ Muslim (Lahore: Sh. 32). Over a thousand collections. 151 (A. Apart from several magh¯z¯ books (books about a i the Prophet’s campaigns) which went before. who was born in Medina in A. a i. and only six collections. is rather unedifying.” they are called. the chaotic mass was cut down and some order and proportion were restored. is ¯ Sidd¯ ¯ for ﬁlling up this gap and giving Therefore.
. In ih a is. a a countries where Isl¯m dominates. it is diﬃcult to assimilate Muslim minorities into the national mainstream of a country. but the full fury of their interference is to be seen in countries of Asia and Africa which are economically poor and ideologically weak. Thanks to the new oil wealth of the Arabs. is again a on the march. The oil-rich Arabs are assuming responsibility for Muslims everywhere. we have also quoted from the notes . their mission was even more pretentious for it was commanded by All¯h Himself. The Arabs are still militarily weak and dependent on the West. because the notes are set in a well-established scholarly lore. addition to clarifying obscure points and references. Their money is active throughout the Muslim world. They buy local politicians. When we read Dr. the notes give us an authentic taste of traditional Muslim scholarship. He has provided copious iqi explanatory notes. These were accidental terrestrial rewards for disinterested celestial labors.about forty-ﬁve times . Muslims wielded their a swords to root out polytheism. a i. dethrone the gods of their neighbors. with a large Muslim population. They have bought the conversion of the presidents of Gabon and the Central African Empire. a Even in the best of circumstances. They have adopted the Muslim minorities of D¯ru’l Harb. If anything. looking after their spiritual needs as well as their more temporal interests. or “countries of peace. having been dormant for several centuries. It was this support which was behind the rebellion of the Moro Muslims in the Philippines.to give the reader a sampling of Isl¯mic scholarship. in Pakistan and Bangladesh. a Now a word about how the present volume came to be written. and even India.” i.e. Here and there.e. In fact.that it is the handmaid of the Qur a ¯ unmotivated by any seeking of its own. All¯h. Isl¯m.081 footnotes. and install in their place their own godling. inﬁdel countries which have not yet been fully subdued by Muslims. Indonesia. They are using these minorities to convert these countries into D¯ru’l Isl¯m. there is a continuing Muslim problem that refuses solution despite the division of . In a Sah¯ containing 7. we felt that it contained important material about Isl¯m which iqi’s a should be more widely known. In India.v whose mother tongue is English. They show that the role of scholarship in Isl¯m is secondary . A kind of “Muslim Cominform” is taking shape in Jidda.. but it is faithful and reproduces the atmosphere of the original. Here they work from the bottom as well as from the top. Sidd¯ ¯ has done more than translate the original work. in Malaysia. they could be an important subject of treatment in their own right. That they received plunder and established an empire in a the process is another matter. Dr. Arab support has made the task still more diﬃcult. the old mission is being revived.190 ah¯d¯ he provides 3. Even before the Europeans came on the scene. ¯ even brilliance within its self-chosen role of justifying and defending. the Muslims had their own variation of the “white man’s burden” of civilizing the world. Sidd¯ ¯ translation. but capable of cleverness and an and the Had is.
Whether this fundamentalism is considered resurgence or reversal and the threat of the reappearance of an old imperialism will depend on one’s point of view. and it feels justiﬁed in imposing its beliefs and behavior patterns on others. it is these very elements of Isl¯m a a that Muslims ﬁnd most fascinating. one had¯ is stands for a number of ah¯d¯ and to quote one had¯ is really to quote a whole chapter. And. dictatorship comes in its wake. and thus. But anything that throws light on any aspect of the problem will be a great contribution.vi the country. motivated by a compulsive atavism. It gives a living picture of Isl¯m is a at its source and of Isl¯m in the making. While we have in this way touched on many points. it resists any change.190 traditions divided into 1. we have discussed none in full. derived from the available symbols of their culture. was unavoidable. similarly. against the materialist and bourgeois values of the West. On the other hand. This we ﬁnd the Had¯ literature most ﬁtted to do. Fundamentalism and authoritarianism are twins. But on calm reﬂection. throwing up leaders like Khomeini and Mu’ammar Qaddaﬁ. It has one drawback. and this fundamentalism in a turn is aggressive in character. which has the adih vantage of being available in an English translation. Isl¯m claims to have deﬁned human thought and behavior a for all time to come. though. it is also something more. Another 700 of the ah¯d¯ we have quoted are group ah¯d¯ or their summaries. in many cases. this fundamentalism is nothing but a search by Muslims for self-identity and self-assertion. but we have tried to overcome it here and there by going beyond the conﬁnes of this particular Sah¯ ih. we have chosen as our guide the Sah¯ Muslim. this self-limitation is no great disadvantage. Indeed. Since most Had¯ collections contain is the same core material. it is also their dream of recapturing the grandeur of their old imperial days. According to some thinkers. A new fundamentalism is sweeping over the Muslim world. For this purpose. we have quoted about 675 individual had¯ having this representative is character. Wherever it triumphs. is In this volume.243 chapters. It gives us 7. and we have a quoted extensively and faithfully from it. a is. Arab interference has complicated matters still further. the Sah¯ Muslim remains ih a very comprehensive and informative source on Isl¯mic beliefs and behavior. it fruitfully deﬁnes the ﬁeld of our study and inquiry. providing an intimate view of the elements that a constitute orthodox Isl¯m in their pristine purity. Therefore. since we have followed the lead of the Sah¯ Muslim. a is a is . It is a weapon of self-defense. both of commission and omission. they repeatedly appeal to them and revert to them. Isl¯m is by nature fundamentalist. some matters quite important in themselves remain ih undeveloped and even untouched because they are not treated in the Sah¯ This problem ih. In many instances the same text is reported in several chapters with only minor variations but with diﬀerent chains of transmission. In spite of the limitations of the procedure we have adopted.
To them morality derives from the Prophet’s actions. The Sah¯ Muslim. the moral is whatever he did.” In devout Isl¯mic literature. The picture that emerges is hardly ﬂattering. In our quotations from this literature. generation after generation. There is no makeup. Most of the discussion lacks inwardness. containing 583 traditions. no posturing for posterity. an impressionistic view that makes him seem more a living. Here one comes to know him. An inﬁdel in his fundamental misguidance may ﬁnd the Prophet rather sensual and cruel . breathing person than the portrayals given in his more formal biographies. a It was in this way and by this logic that Muhammad’s opinions became the dogmas of Isl¯m and his personal habits and idiosyncrasies became moral imperatives: All¯h’s a a commands for all believers in all ages and climes to follow.but the believers look at the whole thing diﬀerently. For example. a it is accompanied by a standard blessing. dispensing justice. The answer is that the believers are conditioned to look at the whole thing through the eyes of faith.vii Portions that deal with mere rituals and ceremonies and have no particular importance to non-Muslims we omitted altogether. hating. Muhammad’s acts were not ordinary acts. comprising 180 traditions. could have found this story so inspiring. in the long “Book of Pilgrimage” (Kit¯b al-Hajj). mating. in the “Book of Jih¯d and Campaigns”. “may peace be upon him. “may All¯h be pleased with him. there is not a single one that remotely suggests a the idea of the “inner pilgrimage” about which mystics speak so much. eating. and one is left wondering why in the ﬁrst instance it was reported at all and whether it was done by his admirers or enemies. not through his pompous deeds and thoughts.” accompanies the mention of any of his more important a Companions. also gives very intimate glimpses of the ih is life of the Prophet. The Prophet is caught as it were in the ordinary acts of his life-sleeping. there is hardly anything that a would suggest the sentiment of jih¯d’l-akbar. “the greater warfare” directed against one’s a own lower nature (nafs). praying. In regard to the title of the book. like other Had¯ collections. but through his more workaday ideas and actions. Similarly.” A similar formula. we have omitted these formulas in the interest of smoother reading. but his actions determine and deﬁne morality. whenever the name or the title of the Prophet is mentioned. . One is also left to wonder how the believers. it could equally justly (Sah ih a be called “Isl¯m in the Words of Had¯ a is. but since a good deal of Isl¯m is Mohammadism.and certainly many of the things he did do not conform to ordinary ideas of morality . although such instances are rather rare. they were All¯h’s own acts. Morality does not determine the Prophet’s actions. no cosmetics. but we readily included anything that had a deeper ring. planning expeditions and revenge against his enemies. the Had¯ gives such a spontaneous and realistic view is of the Prophet that it could most faithfully be called “Muhammad in the Words of Had¯ is ¯ Muslim)”.
both have to be learned by ear. We have also used a a two diacritical marks: a macron (¯) over a vowel sound to indicate that it is long. For example. Sisir Kumar Ghose. Shri H. The apostrophe generally is used to render another sound called hamza. we have rendered the letters of the Arabic alphabet by their nearest English equivalents in sound-value.viii Diacritical marks are necessary in specialist works. Shri P. Shri A. The present edition is due entirely to two Indian friends. and Mrs. I thank them all gratefully. C. Jain. and zw¯d by z. RAM SWARUP . Shri L. a by the English s. Rajappan Achary typed out the manuscript. but these could be disregarded by non-Arabian readers. the Arabic alphabet’s se. P. I also thank the editors and publishers of Exposition Press for their appreciation and cooperation from the very beginning and for bringing out a very presentable edition of this book. ain. Dr. C. but they do not have the same usefulness in books of a more general nature. and an apostrophe ( ’ ). one from Bengal and the other from Andhra Pradesh. te (soft dental) and toe by t. they have preferred to remain anonymous. Therefore. ze. Francine Ellison Krishna read the manuscript in that order and suggested many improvements. z¯l. now both resident in America. Lohia and Shri Sita Ram Goel were associated with the manuscript at every stage of its writing. but we have made it do also for another sound. for they do not aﬀect the substance of the book. s¯ and sw¯d have been uniformly rendered in. Shri Kaidar Nath Sahani. in order to avoid them as far as possible. Gupta.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MORAL VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BODILY FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS . . ix 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 8 9 9 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents ¯ a 1 Faith (Im¯n) ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a ABLUTION (Wuz u) . . . THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TATH IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ CLEANSING THE NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) . . . . . . . THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN . . . . . . . EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JESUS . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND SPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONSERVING BODY HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DINNER BEFORE PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE IM AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 26 SOILED CLOTHES . . . . . DANCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WOMEN AND MOSQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUSIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSTURE DURING PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a ¯ AZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURSE ON THE JEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MENSTRUATION (Haiz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA . . FRIDAY PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS CONTENTS . . . . . . BATH (Ghusl) . . SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS . . . . PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER . . . . . . . . FOOD AND ABLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TAYAMMUM . . . . . . . . . . . PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . DEEPER ASPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS . . AN IDOLATROUS IDEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) FASTS . . . . . . SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FASTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AN UNPOPULAR TAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISSATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WEEPING OVER THE DEAD . . . . . . . . . FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MERITS OF FASTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PILGRIMAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVINE SANCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 26 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URGINGS AND PLEADINGS . . . . . . . . THEFT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WAR BOOTY . . . . . . . . ¯ THE KHWARIJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAPTIVE WOMEN . . . . . WOMEN’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TASTAHIDDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA . . . . . . . CASTING THE PEBBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SAF¯ IYYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZAINAB BINT JAHSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii CONTENTS ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NIGHT SESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS . . . COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) . CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE ORIGINAL SIN . . . . . PROHIBITIONS . . . . . ANIMAL SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MARRYING A VIRGIN . . . . . . . . . . . DIVORCE (Tal¯q) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 46 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 57 58 58 59 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h and Al-Tal¯q) a a TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES . . . . . 7 Business Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BARTER DISAPPROVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inheritances. . . . . . . . OUTBIDDING . . . . . . . . . . . . DEBTS . GIFTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INHERITANCES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE . . . . . . . WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? . . . . . . TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bequests. . . WAQF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ RIBA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABROGATION OF AN OATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIFTS. Vows and Oaths SPECULATION FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL . . . . AND BEQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gifts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENANCY . . . . . . . . . . . VOWS AND OATHS . . . . . . . . . . . a EMANCIPATING A SLAVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IMPROPER EARNINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER DISABILITIES . . . . . . OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii 59 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 68 68 68 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qis¯s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SLAVE ADULTERESS . . . . . . JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES . . . . . . .xiv CONTENTS THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY . . . . . . . A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODEL PERSECUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPOILS OF WAR . ¯ QIS AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRIME WITH IMPUNITY . . A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Had ud) a a ¯ ¯ QASAMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD . . . JUDICIAL DECISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAID WITHOUT WARNING . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ TA’Z IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDEMNITY (DIYAT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a THREE OPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING . . . . . 72 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUNISMENT FOR THEFT . . . . . . . ¯ HAD UD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADULTERY AND FORNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASSASSINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 WARNING AGAINST SCHISM . . THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAIDS AND BATTLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv 85 86 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 95 96 97 97 99 99 ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD’S SHARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 HORSES AND ARCHERY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . 101 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 THE AGE OF MAJORITY . . . . . 100 OBEDIENCE TO RULERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE CONQUEST OF MECCA . 103 ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD . . . . 102 WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 ¯ JIHAD . . . . 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 RULERS . . . . . EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS . . .
. . . . . . . 116 GARLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 AN EARTHLY NOTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greetings. 116 DO NOT FIND FAULT . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 POT AND PIETY . . . . . . 113 PROPER AGENCY . . . . . . . . . HARES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING . . . 110 FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 PROPER AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 BRAIN-TEASERS . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS ¯ THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR THE MUJAHID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 12 Clothing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Magic. . . . . . . . . . . Poetry. . . . . . . 115 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ¯ NABIZ . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 MIRACULOUS FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 THE STORY OF A MARTYR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 SACRIFICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 HORSES . . . . . . 115 TABLE MANNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 11 Hunting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 ASSES . . . . . . LOCUSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decorations. . . . . . . 115 PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food and Drink 109 GAME . . . . . 113 SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY . 114 DRINKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 LIZARDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vi- . . . . . . . 109 DOS AND DON’TS . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POETRY. . 127 SNAKES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ¯ TAHNIK . . . . 123 FIRST GREETINGS VEIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 PICTURES AND STATUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS sions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 MUHAMMAD’S DREAMS . . 123 MAGIC AND SPELLS . . . 125 LUCK . . . . . . . . . . Dreams xvii 119 SILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 CORRECT WORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 LEPROSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ¯ KAHINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 PERSONAL NAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . VISIONS . . . 120 DOGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 VISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 CURES BY INCANTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE . . . . . NO INFECTION . . . . . . . . . . 125 ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. . . . . . . 130 13 Muhammad on Muhammad 131 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO HAMA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 SANDALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 HAIR . . . . . 121 NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 WINDS AND CLOUDS . . . . . . . . . . . CATS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 CHESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 OTHER APOSTLES . . . . ’AFFAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B¯ AL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 ADULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE . . . . 150 THE MERITS OF SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . 137 PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’) . . . . . . . . . 137 14 The Prophet’s Companions 139 ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ . . . . 149 THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 ¯ ’USMAN B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE . . . . . . . . 132 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE . . . . . . 147 THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 IJA THE MERITS OF ’AISHA . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. . . . . . . . 134 THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD . . . . . . 144 I ¯ SA’D B. . . . . . . . . . . . 131 THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MU’AZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 ’ALI B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 MIRACLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 IL ¯ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY . . . . 146 I THE MERITS OF ZAID B. . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ TALIB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HARIS . . . . . . . . . . AB¯ WAQQAS . . . . . . . . . . . 134 THE PROPHET’S HAIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY . . . KHATTAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xviii CONTENTS SELF-ESTIMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 159 LACK OF UNIVERSALITY . 161 KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 LACK OF INWARDNESS . 156 RETRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Remembrance of God 155 OTHER VIRTUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 ¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY . . . 161 DESTINY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. . . . . . 166 THE DESTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 NONBELIEVERS . . . . . . . . . . . SABIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 THE CREATION . . . . . . 156 NONVIOLENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xix ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA . . . . . . . . . . 154 15 Virtue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 16 Paradise. . . . 165 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Destiny. . Their Inmates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Last Day 165 THE POOR . . . . . . . . 157 THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS” . . . . . 157 THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . 156 SUBJECT PEOPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP . . .
. .“The Garden”) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 SPOUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 CALVINISM . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT . . . 170 HOURIS . . 168 PARADISE (Al-Janna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 SATAN AND THE PROPHET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN . 175 ¯ THE QURANIC HELL . . . . . . . . . . LAVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx CONTENTS ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE . . . . . . . 169 GOD’S HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 MUHAMMAD’S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 VOYEURISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 HIERARCHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NUMBER OF HOURIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 OTHER TRADITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 HABITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN . 173 ETERNAL DAMNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 NUMBER OF SLAVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 THE LAST HOUR . . . 174 THE POLYTHEISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 MUHAMMAD’S CURSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS . . . . 175 THE SEVEN REGIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 THE JEWISH SCHOLARS . . . . . . . . . 167 THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 198 . . . . . 193 PERMANENT WAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) 195 MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M¯lik) a 187 ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 18 Repentance. . . . . . . . . . . . . I 181 SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING . . . . . . . . . . 197 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 KA’B SPEAKS . . 178 ¯ DAJJAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 THE NECKLACE AFFAIR . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xxi THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED . . . . . . . . 197 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION . . . . . . . . . . . 191 KA’B’S ORDEAL . . . . . . . . II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. . . 178 ¯ IBN SAYYAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 KA’B PARDONED . 178 17 Repentance (Tauba). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 ASSASSINATION OF POETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT . . . . . . . . . . 181 ¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL . . . . . . . .
. 205 BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD . . . . . . . . . 201 INTIMIDATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL . . . . . 200 ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” . . . . 204 20 Bibliography 205 ¯ HADIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED . . . . . . . . . 206 GENERAL REFERENCE . . . .xxii CONTENTS ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY . . . . . . 203 ¯ THE LAST S URA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 SHIAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 ¯ QURAN . .
A delegation of the tribe of Rab¯ visits Muhammad. ifa. It must be accompanied by belief in the aposa tleship of Muhammad. and in the payment of the poor tax (zak¯t) and the observance of fast (Ramza an) and pilgrimage. So also are the notes and comments of the translator. It ih a im¯ ¯ divided into ninety-two chapters. 1 This is the very ﬁrst had¯ narrated by ’Umar.” Later on. Someone comes to Muhammad from a great distance. 1 1 . in the resurrection. He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion” (1). ih In quoting them. observe the a a fast of Ramz¯n [Ramadan] and perform pilgrimage. and you establish prayer. in His angels. the future Khalis ¯ through several chains of narrators. pay Zak¯t.” The Messenger of a All¯h replies: “Al-Isl¯m implies that you testify that there is no god but All¯h and that a a a Muhammad is the Messenger of All¯h. and says: “Muhammad. ¯ ¯ ALLAH IS NOT ENOUGH Belief in All¯h alone in not suﬃcient. faith in His Book. in the hereafter. faith in a a Muhammad as His Messenger. when the inquirer is gone.Chapter 1 ¯ a Faith (Im¯n) The very ﬁrst book of the Sah¯ Muslim is the “Book of Faith” (Kit¯b al-¯ an). a Muhammad tells ’Umar: “He was Gabriel.” and then asks them: “Do you a know what belief in All¯h really implies?” Then he himself answers: “It implies testimony a to the fact that there is no god but All¯h. Al-Isl¯m is faith in All¯h. He tells i’a the delegates: “I direct you to aﬃrm belief in All¯h alone. and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Alla All traditions in the Sah¯ are serially numbered. we give their numbers in parentheses. This theme runs through hundreds of ah¯d¯ a is. It discusses questions contains 431 traditions (ah¯d is) a regarding faith. yet without any sign of fatigue. inform me about al-Isl¯m.
rather. Hell. Thus without having faith in Isl¯m we cannot serve a a our Master and Lord according to His Will . and many teachers. . . and they establish prayer. then tell them that All¯h has made Zak¯t a a a obligatory for them” (27).” Other things mentioned are prayer.” Muhammad tells the believers (71). jih¯d (holy war against a polytheists. We shall hear more about war booty in its proper place. that Muhammad is a the Messenger of All¯h. All¯h a becomes concrete in His threats and punishments of Hell. Muhammad and his God . zak¯t. “I have been commanded to ﬁght against people till they testify that there is no god but All¯h.prayer. whom he sends out as governor of Yemen: a “First call them to testify that there is no god but All¯h. jih¯d and war booty have played a more a a important role than even pilgrimage or zak¯t. and pay Zak¯t and if they do it. zak¯t. Isl¯m too has provided its a characteristic answers. is. All¯h and his Messenger . The acts of virtue may be good in their own way but it is by coming within the fold of Isl¯m that these become signiﬁcant and a meaningful in the eyes of the Lord” (note 218). Abdul Ham¯ Sidd¯ ¯ the translator of the id iqi. . and khums (the holy one-ﬁfth). many philosophies. war booty (ghan¯ a imah). that I [Muhammad] am the a Messenger of All¯h. There is a still clearer statement of Muhammad’s mission.2 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. their a a blood and property are guaranteed protection on my behalf” (33).) jizy¯ (the poll tax paid by polytheists). his father and the whole mankind. Muhammad retails the word “All¯h” profusely. Similarly. but there are times when even All¯h a a occupies a backseat. Sah¯ Muslim. This can be conﬁdently known only through the Prophet’s and is embodied in Isl¯m. It tells us that good deeds are not a matter of indiﬀerence but must be coupled with the choice of the right religion. FAITH (IM AN) ah. Ramz¯n. a a a and pilgrimage are sometimes called the “ﬁve pillars” of Isl¯m. but there are other beliefs a and institutions no less important which recur again and again in the Had¯ These are. in the history of Isl¯m. In the same vein. Paradise. But to be truly pious and virtuous it is quite essential to have the correct understanding of the Will of God. These are the staples of the religion preached by Muhammad. . and “that you pay one-ﬁfth of ¯ a a the booty” (23). GOOD AND EVIL DEEDS What are good deeds and what are bad deeds? These questions have been the concern of many religions. All of these concepts will come up for review a in this study in their proper places. to name the more important ones. Muhammad tells Mu’¯z. gives the Isl¯mic view in the following words: “The good deeds performed ih a in the state of ignorance (outside the fold of Isl¯m) are indicative of the fact that a man is a inclined towards piety. “None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child. and if they accept this. and in His promises and rewards of Paradise. Doomsday. Ramz¯n.
a His Messenger and for the leaders and general Muslims” (98). Isl¯m) as in a “sincerity and well-wishing.” but who were ready to join him. Muhammad gave this assurance to some polytheists who “had committed a large number of murders and had excessively indulged in fornication. But on being asked. “Jih¯d. But in Isl¯m. Muhammad tells us: “Gabriel came to me and gave me tidings: Verily he who died amongst your Ummah [sect. Muhammad at one place deﬁnes al-d¯ (“the religion. “Sincerity and well-wishing for whom?” he replies: “For All¯h. and a future ones hold no great terror. Jar¯ b. even if he committed adultery and theft” (171). a wrong theology is worse than wicked deeds. but these do not doom the oﬀender to the a eternal hell. by the same token. group] without associating anything with All¯h would enter paradise.e.” i.” To kill your child and to commit adultery with the wife of your neighbor are a second and third in gravity according to Muhammad (156). If polytheism is the worst of crimes.” Once one accepts a a the theological belief in All¯h and His Messenger. But no morally wicked act . Muhammad is asked about “the best of deeds. spoils. A Muslim owes everything to the ummah. He has no obligations.” he replies (148). sincerity is a universal human value. “Which sin is the gravest in the eyes of All¯h?” he replies: “That you associate a partner a with All¯h. Muhammad replies: “Yes. is the best of virtues.” In a ¯ asks Muhammad whether this is true even clariﬁcation.” a “What next?” he is asked. moral or spiritual. and we should exercise it a in our relations with one another irrespective of creed and nationality. . toward non-Muslims as part of the human race.3 In the eyes of Muhammad.. In fact. except to convert them by sword.not even adultery and theft .” He replies: “Belief in All¯h. Muhammad said: “Are you not aware of the fact that Isl¯m wipes out all the previous a misdeeds?” (220). only a wrong theology can keep a Muslim out of Paradise. but moral values are not altogether neglected. monotheism. Muhammad retained these values but gave them a sectarian twist. MORAL VALUES Muhammad’s religion is predominantly theological. .can prevent his entry. To another person who felt a sense of guilt about his past. nation. and jizy¯. the narrator of the had is. When asked. ’Abdullah reports ir that he “pledged allegiance to the Apostle of All¯h on sincerity and well-wishing for every a .” which should be a good deﬁnition for any religion. In Muslim theology the formula a “belief in All¯h” of course means “belief in All¯h and His Messenger. it is a limited to Muslims. The translator clariﬁes the point further: He says that adultery and theft “are both serious oﬀences in Isl¯m . very little to others. u if the man committed adultery and theft. His Book. one’s past crimes are obliterated.” but polytheism or associating any god “with the Lord is an unpardonable crime and the man who commits it is doomed to Hell” (notes 169 and 170). The pre-Muslim Arabs believed in many moral values common to all mankind. For example. Ab¯ Zarr.
and the universal is turned into the sectarian. but if he embraces Isl¯m. Everything good began with Muhammad. that like the two pieces of lace the man had stolen. a . . a God-ordained mission. They describe it as morally depraved and utterly lacking in any sense of a chivalry and generosity. Another had¯ tells us that he is “freed one hundred slaves and donated one hundred camels” in this state (225). other moral values are given the same twist. This means. THE PRE-MUSLIM ARABS Muslim theologians and writers are in the habit of painting a very dark picture of preIsl¯mic Arabia. a revelation. and the whole complexion of his acts is changed. THEOLOGY DISTORTS MORALS No wonder that such a sectarian and preponderantly theological approach should now and then teach us topsy-turvy morals. One of them who had presumably committed a similar act of pilfering. I found them a on the day of Khaibar [name of a battle]. ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. despoiling a whole people is meritorious if they are polytheists.” On hearing this. it is a a diﬀerent story. Thanks to this approach. there will be two columns of ﬁre like unto these waiting for him in the hereafter. A slave of Muhammad died in a holy war. FAITH (IM AN) Again. Men driven by ordinary temptations indulge only in petty crimes and small lapses. thus automatically earning a place in Paradise as a martyr.4 Muslim” (102). came to Muhammad “with a lace or two laces and said: Messenger of All¯h. H¯ ¯ is im izam did “many deeds of religious puriﬁcation . in the state of ignorance” (222). The Holy Prophet remarked: This is a lace of ﬁre or two laces of ﬁre” (210). We are told that one Hak¯ b. They are no longer wasted. But Muhammad saw “him in the Fire for the garment or cloak that he had stolen from the booty. but stealing booty once it is in the possession of Muslims is a mortal sin. Muhammad assures Hak¯ : “you im have accepted Isl¯m with all the previous virtues that you had practised” (223). referring to this period of history as the “state of ignorance or barbarism” (jahil¯ iyya). as another text puts it. . they become fruitful and are credited to his account. To rob a whole people is piety. but committing real enormities needs the aid of an ideology. Muhammad tells his followers: “Abusing a Muslim is an outrage and ﬁghting against him is unbelief” (122). but to remove a paltry something from a looted treasure is moral depravity of a magnitude that deserves eternal ﬁre. Ordinarily such good acts do not avail a polytheist. But there are many ahad¯ which prove the contrary. some people were greatly perturbed.
Muhammad tells her: “You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. Jesus spoke of “lusting with the eyes” regarding it as bad as lust in its more visible form. But Muhammad gave greater latitude to his followers: “Verily All¯h forgave my people a the evil promptings which arise within their hearts as long as they did not speak about them or did not act upon them” (230). “O womenfolk . and there will be no one left for Paradise to receive except the Muslims. His past is forgotten a unless it is good. I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. and many things are permissible for him that are not permissible for a polytheist or even for a Jew or a Christian. incidentally. MUHAMMAD HAS THE LARGEST FOLLOWING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT Muhammad tells us that he “will have the greatest following on the Day of Resurrection” (283).we should not harp too obsessively on our lapses. The hellﬁre will be busy consuming the opponents of Muhammad. they will also act as proxies for any Muslims who happen to be sent there. The Jews and Christians will suﬀer in hell not only for their own unbelief in Muhammad. he shall be but one of the denizens of Hell-Fire” (284). his future is assured. . Muhammad tells us: “He who amongst the community of Jews and Christians hears about me. “There would come people amongst the Muslim on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain. Another important segment of the infernal population is made up of women. “the a .” When a woman asks him why it should be so. but does not aﬃrm his belief in that with which I have been sent and dies in this state of disbelief. I have seen none [like them] lacking in common sense and failing in religion but robbing the wisdom of the wise. And understandably so. for the hellﬁre is on his side.” the translator tells us (note 2967).5 EVIL THOUGHTS AND EVIL DEEDS A Muslim is All¯h’s prodigal son as well as His spoiled child. and All¯h would forgive them and he would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. Muhammad says. This would also. but should dwell more lovingly on the Divine within us. This idea is expressed with less partiality and in more universal terms in the Indian spiritual tradition. the Peoples of the Book. God knows that man is weak and forgives his lapses and failure but supports his strength and multiplies his good. The less theistic but not less exalted yogic systems would put this idea somewhat diﬀerently and in more psychological terms . solve the problem of space in heaven: “Space in paradise would be provided by Christians and Jews being thrown into Hell-Fire.” The “proof of the lack of common sense” in them is the fact that in All¯h’s law promulgated by Muhammad himself. .” a Muhammad tells us (6668).
is mentioned a a over three hundred times in the Qur¯n. (6) a lesser share in inheritance. as shown by Mirza Hairat in his Mukaddma Tafs¯ iru’l Furqan. (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house. 2 THE DAY OF JUDGMENT The Day of Judgment (qiy¯mat). He be praised. did not observe some fasts “due to the regards for the Apostle of All¯h” (2550). Ratlam. (3) separation from parents and marriage to a stranger. is that “you spend some nights and days in which you do not oﬀer prayer and in the month of Ramz¯n you do not observe fast” (142). as he tells them. (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives. (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative. is an indispensable a a prop of Muslim theology. 2 A woman’s social and legal disabilities. (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house. a work in Hindi (author and publisher. deaf and dumb as the rulers of the earth . (16) the fact that if women are proﬂigate they will be given only half as much torment as the rest of the community at the Resurrection Day. (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components. says that “All ah. when you see barefooted. or of “standing up” (qiy¯mah). naked. ’Aisha. the word qiy¯mat appears seventy times and in a a addition has seventy-ﬁve synonyms. In short. 1971. and even her diﬀerential biological constitution and functions. but for a woman to have only one husband. a the very merit of women turns into its opposite: predestined damnation. . Deva ¯ Prakash. or of “separation” (fasl).that is one of the signs of Doom. it seems. when the poor and the deprived inherit the earth. (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce.that is one sign.that is one of the signs of Doom” (6). In his Counsel for ¯ Kings. and the proof of their failing in religion. Al-Ghazz¯l¯ (A. 164-165). the Prophet’s wife. Paradise and Hell. (18) the fact that if their husbands divorce them they must observe a waiting period of three months or three menstrual periods before remarrying (Nas¯ ihat Al-Mul uk. FAITH (IM AN) evidence of two women is equal to one man”. Women sometimes abstained a from voluntary fasts because the Prophet had commanded that it was more meritorious for them to do their duty by their husbands than to fast. And when you see the shepherds of the black camels exult in buildings . (5) not having control over her own person. are interpreted in terms of her moral inferiority for which All ah has rightly punished her. 1058-1111). ai ¯ punished women with eighteen things”: (1) menstruation. a The arrival of the Last Day will be announced by many signs. while nine hundred and ninety-nine are attributable to men. In the Qur¯n. (2) childbirth. it pops up from practically every page of the Had¯ too. the Last Day (yaumu’l-¯khir). only one of which is attributable to women. “When you see a slave woman giving birth to her master . (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast day prayers and funerals while women do not. (14) disqualiﬁcation for rulership and judgeship. (4) pregnancy. D. pp. a famous Arab divine of his time. 3 Along with its attendant concepts. The dreaded day (yaum).6 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. that is the end of it according to Muhammad. (17) the fact that if their husbands die they must observe a waiting period of four months and ten days before remarrying. London: University of Durham Publications. India). ¯ 3 All these synonyms are reproduced in Qur an Parichaya. colorfully described as the day of is “reckoning” (his¯b). (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man. But.
Muhammad a .” and “I [Muhammad] and my Ummah would be the ﬁrst to pass over it” (349). no other prophet or savior will avail except Muhammad.” He will appeal to All¯h.” All¯h will tell them. but you go to Jesus. for example. and he will say: “I am in a position to do that.” Then they will be asked what they want. and it is really hell. one wonders who will be the other half of the population of Paradise. the water is no more than a mirage. Muhammad tells us that among the apostles he has a special a is intercessory power. but go to Moses. Noah in a state of distress uttered: ‘My Lord! leave not any one of the disbelievers in the land’ (al-Qur¯n 71. All¯h “will gather people. They will say: “Thirsty we are. but every prophet showed haste in his prayer. of course. inﬁdels. O our Lord! Quench our thirst. For example. the son of All¯h.” a a “bridge would be set over the hell. I have. “I am not ﬁt to do this. they will ﬁnd that they have been misguided. for “no Apostle amongst the Apostles has been testiﬁed as I have been testiﬁed” (383). Thanks to his special role. “You tell a lie. Then they will “fall into the Fire” and perish (352). however. but go to Ibr¯h¯ for he is the friend of All¯h. for he is the Spirit of All¯h and His Word. People will come to Adam and say: “Intercede for your progeny.26). and All¯h will ask: a “Why don’t you go there to drink water?” When they go there. and polytheists are strictly kept out.7 There is a vivid account of the Day of Resurrection in eighty-two ah¯d¯ at the end a is of the “Book of Faith.” He will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. If this is true. and that the entry of Jews and Christians also is prohibited. How did Muhammad acquire this special intercessory power? Muhammad himself answers this question: “There is for every Apostle a prayer which is granted.” Muhammad tells us that on this day. a But with every Apostle there is one request which may be called decisive with regard to his Ummah. The translator makes this statement clearer for us. but he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this.” They will go to Ibr¯h¯ but he will reply: a im. for he is All¯h’s Interlocutor. Unbelievers. and he will reply: “I am not ﬁt to do this. All¯h did not take for Himself either a spouse a a a or a son. Considering that unbelievers. “Jesus. In many ah¯d¯ (381-396). “seventy thousand persons of [my] Ummah would enter Paradise without rendering an account” (418). it gives substance to his claim that among the apostles he “would have the largest following on the Day of Resurrection” (382).” They will go to a Moses. a you better go to Muhammad. “What did you worship?” When they reply. and his intercession will be granted a (377). will be thoroughly miserable on this day but even the Jews and the Christians . On this day. Christians will be summoned and asked. a a im. and with it is decided their fate.” Then they will come to Muhammad. reserved my prayer for the intercession of my Ummah on the Day of Resurrection” (389).the Peoples of the Book-will fare no better.” They will be given a certain direction. He says: “The Apostles are dear to All¯h and their prayers are often granted.” They will go to Jesus. and Muslims “would constitute half the inhabitants of Paradise” (427).
” declares Muhammad (417). He did not use it to save even his dearest and nearest ones like his father and uncle. Would you call that much of a relief? Though Muhammad took pride in “establishing ties of relationship. but needst not go out of your way to save them. But he was somewhat more kind to his uncle. and he would be wearing two shoes of Fire which would boil his brain” (413). those who believed in All¯h to the exclusion of All¯t and ’Uzz¯.8 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. He reserved his power for saving his ummah. But even this shallowest part must have been roasting the poor uncle. Would that be of any avail to him? He said: it would be of no avail to him” (416).” THE PROPHET’S FATHER AND UNCLES We must admit. Muhammad tells us: “I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part” (409). . Ri’l Zakw¯n. Ab¯ T¯lib. On the Day of Resurrection. the son of Jud’¯n [a relation of hers and one of the a a leaders of the Quraish] established ties of relationship. About him. however. when the disbelievers are being hurled into the Fire. and a a a in his own apostleship. but this kind of cursing is quite in Muhammad’s line. a true believer should not even seek blessing on their behalf. the Prophet’s young wife. As the Qur¯n says: “It is not meet for the Prophet a and for those who believe. Regarding his father. O All¯h! curse Lihy¯n. are not my friends. that they should beg pardon for the polytheists. fed the poor. that Muhammad was consistent. reports: “I said: Messenger of All¯h. . a In any case. a a a Usayya. . For example. look at his curse against several tribes: “O All¯h! a trample severely Muzar and cause them a famine . my father and your father are in the Fire” (398). FAITH (IM AN) reserved his prayer for the Day of Resurrection and he would use it for the salvation of the believers” (note 412). God’s mind is made up with regard to the polytheists. their good works will not avail them.” he himself repudiated all ties with the generations of his forefathers and their posterity. even though they were their kith and kin. “Behold! the posterity of my fathers . he told a questioner: “Verily. after it had been known to them that they were the denizens of Hell” (9:113). therefore. u a who brought him up and protected him but who did not accept his religion. ’Aisha. Muhammad will not intercede even when he knows that no other intercession would avail: “Thou shalt not damn thy enemies. We have no means of knowing about the curse of Noah. for they disobeyed All¯h and His Messenger” (1428). . . Muhammad assures us that “among the inhabitants of the Fire Ab¯ T¯lib would u a have the least suﬀering.
Jesus will sweep out of existence this dirty and loathsome animal. and abolish jizy¯. “an animal white and long. there would have been no occasion for such a reaction about it. a One night. Adam he met in the ﬁrst heaven. larger than a donkey but a smaller than a mule. Moses in the sixth. we ﬁnd it was more a motivated belief.9 MUHAMMAD’S NIGHT JOURNEY TO HEAVEN Various other matters. meant partly to prove his own apostolic pedigree. and ﬁve will do the work of ﬁfty. Visions like this can ﬂit across the imagination of any man at any time” (note 325). or “circles” (as Dante called them). He turned Jesus into a muj¯hid (crusader) of his entourage. are also discussed in the “Book of a Faith. But on the advice of Moses. the ﬂesh of the swine is a favorite dish of the Christians. who enjoined on the Muslims ﬁfty a prayers a day. Then he met All¯h.” Muhammad proclaims a (287).” Muhammad was taken to the Temple in Jerusalem and from there to the diﬀerent regions. Jesus is regarded as a just Judge. along with his belief in the apostleship of Moses and Abraham. this belief. no more than a pale copy of Muhammad. He will break crosses. The whole of the human race would accept Isl¯m and there would be no zimm¯ left. Jesus in the second. is often cited as a proof of Muhammad’s liberal and catholic outlook. “Five and at the same time ﬁfty” .for “what has been said will not be changed” (313). and partly to win converts from among the Jews and the Christians. but Muhammad’s Companions and later on most Muslim scholars believe that the journey or ascension (mi’r¯j) was a physical.one prayer will now count for ten . The more mystic-minded explain this journey spiritually. it was not a dream! For “had it been only a dream. kill swine. Muhammad made a representation to All¯h a and the number was reduced to ﬁve. JESUS Muhammad had a belief of a sort in Jesus. Jesus will break this symbol after the advent of Muhammad. on the way meeting diﬀerent apostles. of heaven. When Jesus returns a in the Second Coming. a . Isl¯m is the d¯ (religion) of All¯h and no a in a other religion is acceptable to him. But if we look at the matter closely. How? The translator explains: “Cross is a symbol of Christianity. he will be waging war against the Christians as well as others: “The son of Mary will soon descend among you as a just judge. In any case. But our translator argues that precisely because it was not believed. riding on al-Bar¯q. his opinion of Jesus does not amount to much. In fact. and Abraham in the seventh. Many in his day scoﬀed at Muhammad and called his journey a dream. So nothing was really lost in eﬃcacy. such as Muhammad’s night journey to Jerusalem. and thus a is jizy¯ would be automatically abolished” (notes 289-290). and the coming of Dajj¯l and Jesus before the Day of Resurrection.” These are quite important in Isl¯mic lore. Similarly.
“the Shar¯ i’ah of all the earlier prophets stands abrogated with the advent of Muhammad’s Apostleship. Jesus will. For. therefore. a . FAITH (IM AN) but this only means that he will judge according to the shar¯ i’ah of Muhammad.10 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 1. as the translator explains. judge according to the law of Isl¯m” (note 288).
total ablution of the whole body after the following acts which make a person junub. He tells his followers that “cleanliness is half of faith” (432) and that their prayer will not be accepted in a state of impurity till they “perform ablution” (435). nocturnal pollution (ihtil¯m). cleansing the nose and a mouth with water (istinsh¯q). and abstersion (istinj¯) with water or dry earth or a piece a a of stone after evacuation and urination. defecation. ABLUTION (Wuz u) ¯ Muhammad emphasizes the need for bodily cleanliness. It relates not to inner purity but to certain acts of cleanliness. The main topics discussed in Muslim ﬁqh (canon law) under this heading are: (1) wuz u. the major. become ritualistically unclean. or impure: coitus (jim¯). (5) tath¯ the puriﬁcation of objects which have ir. that must be performed before reciting the statutory daily prayers. but they acquire fullness from the practice of the Prophet. a verses 4:43 and 5:6). the minor puriﬁcation with dust in a the place of water. Some broad injunctions on the subject of puriﬁcation are given in the Qur¯n (e.” but interpreted as customs of the previous prophets. prescribed before each of the ﬁve daily prayers and omitted only if the worshipper is sure that he has not been polluted in any way since the last ablution. Muhammad was a Unitarian in his theology but a Trinitarian in his ablution. (3) tayammum. literally “nature. physical and ritualistic.. But impurity here has a strictly ritualistic meaning. and childbirth (nif¯s).g.Chapter 2 Puriﬁcation (Tah¯rah) a The next book is the “Book of Puriﬁcation”. and abstersion. (4) ﬁtra. a a menses (hayz). It deals with such matters as ablution. ¯ minor ablution of the limbs of the body. including acts like the use of the toothpick (misw¯k). He 11 . (2) ghusl.
all his previous sins are expiated” (436). then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times.I would have ordered them to use the toothpick at every time of prayer. . . Muhammad says: “When any one of you awakes from sleep . then washed his left arm like that.12 ¯ CHAPTER 2. CLEANSING THE NOSE The nose should be properly cleansed. “Were it not that I might overburden the believers . The next had¯ substitutes the word is ‘ﬁre-worshippers’ for ‘polytheists’. THE FIVE ACTS (Fitra) There are nine ah¯d¯ (495-503) on ﬁve acts natural to man and proper to Isl¯m: a is a circumcision. The translator provides the rationale for this injunction: “Isl¯m created a new brotherhood on the basis of belief and good conduct . cutting the nails. This became the standard ablution. . . then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times. . For the a identiﬁcation of faces. the Prophet said: “Act against the polytheists.” and so on. then washed his left foot. shaving the pubes. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) performed his ablution like this: “He washed his hands thrice.” he said (487). then wiped his head. . About the moustache and the beard. this is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer. plucking the hair under the armpits. and clipping the moustache. trim closely the moustache and grow beard” (500). the Muslims have been ordered to trim the moustache and wear the beard. and oﬀered two rak’ahs [sections] of prayer . . . he must clean his nose three times. CLEANING THE TEETH (Misw¯k) a Muhammad loved toothpicks and used them often. He then washed his face three times. for the devil spends the night in the interior of one’s nose” (462). He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose three times. . Muhammad said that “he who performs ablution like this ablution of mine . so that they may be distinguished from the non-Muslims who grow a moustache and shave beard” (note 471). . There are twenty-one ah¯d¯ repeating a is Muhammad’s practice and thought on the subject as given above (436-457). According to Muslim canon scholars.
O stone.. There is a story explaining why the use of bones and dung is forbidden. wash it seven times.e.13 BODILY FUNCTIONS Now Muhammad takes us to the toilet. or cleansing with right hand or with less than three pebbles” (504). and one must not use “dung or bone” (505) for this purpose. When they asked him about their provision of food. i. ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h loved to start from the right-hand side in a his every act. while taking his bath. DON’T EXPOSE YOUR PRIVATE PARTS Muhammad says that “a man should not see the private part of another man. my clothes. “Moses ran after it crying: O stone. he told them: a “Every bone on which the name of All¯h is recited is your provision. Moses does not suﬀer from any ailment” (669).” nor should men lie together “under one covering” (667). The time it will fall a in your hand it would be covered with ﬂesh. ¯ TATH IR Muhammad enjoins that “when the dog licks the utensil. But God vindicated him. and the dung of the camels is fodder for your animals. and in performing ablution” (515). He forbids his followers “to face the qibla [i. They said he refrained from exposing his private parts because he suﬀered from scrotal hernia.” He therefore told his followers: “Don’t perform istinj¯ with these things for these a are the food of your brothers” (903). he also tells us that the Jews used to take their baths naked and looked at each other’s private parts. Cleansing after excretion must be done an “odd number of times” (460). a . Muhammad once spent a night with jinns (genii) reciting the Qur¯n to them. He also tells his followers: “When anyone amongst you enters the privy.” The Jews then had a chance to see Moses’ private parts. in wearing shoes. in combing. my clothes. In this connection. Once. but Moses took his bath alone. he must not touch the penis with his right hand” (512). toward the mosque at Mecca] at the time of excretion or urination. Moses put his clothes on a rock. but the rock moved away. and rub it with earth the eighth time” (551)..e. and said: “By All¯h. Instead of feeling ashamed for not following their leader’s example the Jews taunted him.
The prophet said: When you made haste and semen is not emitted. “he should wash the secretion of his wife. One of them came to ’Aisha for clariﬁcation. and then went out for a prayer in that very garment and I saw the mark of washing on it” (570). and that should be as good as ablution with water. who was sitting by him. I scratched it oﬀ with my nails” (572). and then perform ablution and oﬀer prayer” (677). wiping your hands and feet and forehead with earth. A maidservant observed this and informed ’Aisha. but it also narrates some material of Freudian signiﬁcance. Once there was a controversy on this point between some muh¯jirs (“Emigrants” or a “Refugees”) and some ans¯rs (“Helpers”). pointing to ’Aisha. In case I found that semen on the garment of the Messenger of All¯h dried a up. but ablution is binding” (676). In another had ¯ Muhammad says that when a man leaves his wife in the midst of an intercourse without is.” She said: “Had you found anything you should have washed it. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) SOILED CLOTHES ’Aisha tells us that the “Messenger of All¯h washed the semen. There is another had¯ of similar import. The translator . The man said yes.e. TAYAMMUM If water is not available. a is Once Muhammad called out an ans¯r who was in the midst of sexual intercourse. having experienced orgasm. BATHING AFTER A SEMINAL EMISSION There are a dozen ah¯d¯ (674-685) on the subject of bathing after a seminal emission. a man asked Muhammad whether a bath is obligatory for one who parts from intercourse with his wife without having had an orgasm. A is guest who was staying at ’Aisha’s house had a nocturnal seminal emission. and the circumcised parts touch each other a bath becomes obligatory” (684).. And on yet another occasion. i.” Then ’Aisha asked him: “Did you ﬁnd any mark of ﬂuid on your clothes?” He said: “No. She asked the guest: “What prompted you to act like this with your clothes?” He replied.” Then she reported what Muhammad had said on the subject: “When anyone sits amidst fore parts of the woman.14 ¯ CHAPTER 2. “I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. you can take to tayammum. But when there is a seminal emission “bath becomes obligatory” (674). a asking: “What makes a bath obligatory for a person?” She answered: “You have come across one well-informed. bathing is not obligatory for you. Muhammad said: perhaps we put you to haste. “He a came out and water was trickling down from his head. The Prophet. Next day he dipped his clothes in water for washing. replied: “I and she do it and then take a bath” (685).
So keep away from women in their course. to retain the spiritual value of ablution as a means of directing us from the mundane activities of life and directing us to the presence of the Lord” (note 579). a One had¯ tells us of the words of ’Amm¯r to ’Umar: “Do you remember. or you have touched women. . There is a verse in the Qur¯n and eight ah¯d¯ a a is (714-721) on this subject. Therefore. This chapter too. O Commander is a of the Faithful. The Qur¯n uses rather a a strong language on the subject: “They ask thee concerning women’s courses. and when it was referred to the Apostle. . in fact. in some respects. when I and you were in a military detachment and we had had a seminal emission and did not ﬁnd water for taking bath and you did not say prayer. All¯h has directed a us to perform tayammum in case water is not available . . Ablution is necessary after leaving the privy if you are going to pray but not if you are going to eat. he said: ‘It was enough for you to strike the ground with your hands and then blow the dust and then wipe your face and palms’ ” (718). but he said: Am I to say prayer that I should perform ablution?” (725). for except for coitus all . But perhaps approach here means to have sexual intercourse.15 explains why. different from what was enjoined by the revelation in the Qur¯n. does not have very much to say on menstruation as such but a great deal on ritualistic ablution and bathing after sexual intercourse. for both have to do with ritualistic purity. MENSTRUATION (Haiz) The third book is on menstruation. and the people reminded him about ablution. “The Messenger of All¯h took a meat of goat’s shoulder and oﬀered prayer and did not perform ablution” (689). “The Apostle of All¯h came out of the privy. On the subject of menstruation. . The subjects of this book and the previous one overlap. FOOD AND ABLUTION Muhammad enjoined that “ablution is obligatory for one who takes anything touched by ﬁre” (686). then betake yourself to clean earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith” (Qur¯n 4:43). but as for myself I rolled in dust and said prayer. and he was presented with a some food. Muhammad’s practice appears. “And if you be ailing or on a journey or one comes from the privy. and do not approach them until they are clean” (2:222). and you ﬁnd no water. . He says that “the main purpose behind ablution and bathing is a religious one and the hygienic one is a matter of secondary importance . But later on this command was abrogated. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution. some cross-reference is inevitable.
For example. the Messenger of All¯h asked her to tie a waist-wrapper over her and then a embraced her” (577). wash your sexual organ and then go to sleep” a (602). ’Aisha says: “When anyone amongst us menstruated. and I washed it in the state that I was a menstruating. a a Carrying the same sexual overtones taught by Freud. ’Aisha again reports: “I would drink when I was menstruating.16 ¯ CHAPTER 2. The commentator explains that this was done “so that the soul of man may be transported from the urges of the ﬂesh to its original spiritual domain” (note 511). and I would eat ﬂesh from a bone when I was menstruating. technically segregating oneself and staying in a a mosque for a certain number of days. Some Muslims wanted to go whole hog in their opposition to Jewish practice and suggested to Muhammad that he should permit sexual intercourse too since the Jews forbade it. or scriptural studies. All this was opposed to the Jewish practice. and there was a cloth between me and him” ¯ (580). Umm Salama reports the same (581). especially during the last ten days of the month of Ramz¯n. The Messenger of All¯h said to him: Perform ablution. then hand it over to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been” (590). and drink. which forbade not only sexual intercourse but also kissing and all other forms of physical contact during menstruation. besides throwing interesting sidelights on some of a is the more intimate habits of the Prophet. ’Umar once went to the Prophet and told him that “he became junbi [unclean] during the night. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) other contacts were permitted by the Prophet. Maim¯na tells us: “The Messenger of Allu ah used to lie with me when I menstruated. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h would a recline in my lap when I was menstruating. His problem was mazi (prostatic ﬂuid) and not man . Rather an unlikely a place for sv¯dhy¯ya. But Muhammad did not go that far. Other ah¯d¯ make the same point.” ’Aisha reports (584). Muhammad enjoined the same on his followers. he performed the ablution of prayer” (598). The same advice was conveyed to ’Al¯ who as his son-in-law was shy in putting i. “The Messenger of All¯h put out from the mosque his head for me as he a a was in i’tik¯f [her room opened on the mosque]. SEXUAL POLLUTION AND ABLUTION ’Aisha reports: “Whenever the Messenger of All¯h had sexual intercourse and intended a to eat or sleep. then I would hand over the vessel to the Apostle and he would put his mouth where mine had been. The Prophet would also allow ’Aisha to comb his hair when she was menstruating and he was supposed to be observing i’tik¯f. this question to Muhammad directly. and recite the Qur¯n” (591).
he then poured water with his right hand on his left hand and washed his private parts . ” (616). I. the Apostle i: walked over all his women” (vol. and sometimes he performed ablution only.” they told her (610. a There are over two dozen ah¯d¯ on the subject of Muhammad’s own custom in this a is regard. SINGLE BATH FOR MULTIPLE COITUS Unlike ablution. The translator explains: “The holy prophet is did not take a bath after every intercourse. When ’Aisha reported this to the narrator of this had¯ his pious reaction was: “Praise be to All¯h Who has made things easy” for the is. a believers (603). This practice is derived from the Qur¯nic verse: “If you are polluted. and pollutio nocturna. The same obligation lay on women. BATH (Ghusl) For the exercise of prayer. “sometimes he took a bath and then slept. Anas reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to have sexual intercourse with his wives with a a single bath” (606).” he was told (593). the narrator of this had¯ “between two acts. . “You humiliated the women. the whole body must be washed to absolve it from uncleanliness after certain acts: menses. (605). or in the colorful language of Tirmiz¯ “with one bath. “Ablution is obligatory in such a case. 611). ’Aisha says: “When All¯h’s Messenger bathed because of sexual intercourse. One Umm Sulaim went to Muhammad and asked him: “Is bathing necessary for a woman when she has a sexual dream?” Muhammad replied: “Yes. he a ﬁrst washed his hands. the bath need not be repeated after each act of intercourse. there should be an ablution” u is.” postponing the bath till the end of the night before the morning prayer. had¯ 124).17 ¯ (semen). coitus.” Muhammad’s wives were scandalized when they learned that Umm Sulaim had put a question to the Prophet which suggested that a woman too could have a sexual dream. he simply performed ablution and took a bath at the end” (note 514). In the words of Ab¯ Bakr. i Ablution was also necessary if one wanted to repeat the intercourse. then purify yourselves” (5:6). . puerperium. . when she sees the liquid [vaginal secretion]. Muhammad’s practice was that after the sexual intercourse.
The translator feels that the practice of the Prophet needs defense from the likely attacks of hostile critics. u sa’¯ Muhammad told ’Al¯ “O ’Al¯ It is not lawful for anyone except me and thee to go id. he shared with ’Al¯ According to Ab¯ i. which. and thus there was no question of their seeing each other’s bodies (note 538). I. I ‘wrapped’ him up round me even though I myself had not taken bath [and was therefore in a state of impurity]” (vol. CONSERVING BODY HEAT If one lost too much body heat during the bath. moreover. Umm Salama and Maim¯na. and though the Prophet and his wives on occasion took a bath from the same vessel.18 ¯ CHAPTER 2. it was not a tub-bath where a couple sit together. i. also report that they u and Muhammad took their baths together (581. Two other wives of Muhammad. II. Muhammad was not bound by them. is Notwithstanding all these rules and regulations. He tells us that this bath was quite a modest act. PURIFICATION (TAHARAH) BATHING TOGETHER Many ah¯d¯ narrate how the Prophet and his wives used to bathe together after sexual a is intercourse. There were no glaring lights. is . 631). had¯ 1584). According to a had¯ quoted by Tirmiz¯ ’Aisha reports: “On is i. in this case. And I and he [the Prophet] took a bath from the same vessel” (625). had¯ 108). many occasions it happened that the apostle of All¯h came back to me after the bath of a puriﬁcation with the intention of warming up. i: i! to a mosque in a state of sexual deﬁlement” (Tirmiz¯ vol. ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h took a bath from the vessel [which a contained 15 to 16 pounds of water]. it could be regained by lying again in the embrace of one’s wife. they took their bath in pitch darkness. She reports the same idea with more details in another had¯ “I and is: the Messenger of All¯h took a bath from one vessel and our hands alternated into it in the a state that we had sexual intercourse” (629). He had his Apostle’s privilege.
the prayer for protection against windstorms and other calamities. there is also one Prayer. But in all these pages. 741). problems of enduring concern for the spirituality of the Indian tradition. the place of im¯m in the system of prayers. the a number and times of the diﬀerent prayers. u were the ﬁrst mu’azzin (callers) (735. It is the longest. 19 . To make the Muslim practice diﬀerent from that of the Jews. and ’Abdullah b. others a horn. some suggested using a bell. In the beginning. prostrating and rising. Bil¯l. the system of the human voice was introduced. As there is one All¯h. and so on. Umm Makt¯m. From the titles of the 203 chapters this book contains. the prayer for rain. All these methods were ruled out. with 1. as the Christians did. who later became blind. ¯ AZAN We are told how the institution of az¯n began. one looks in vain for any reference is to such problems as self-exploration and self-knowledge. one Book. people a forgathered in the mosque without knowing when they were to pray. one Guide. in Medina. a who was very loud-throated.Chapter 3 Prayer (Sal¯t) a The fourth book is the “Book of Prayer” (Sal¯t). the prayer relating to the dead. There is not even a remote hint of diﬀerent men endowed with diﬀerent natures taking diﬀerent paths toward a divinity diﬀerently ﬁgured.398 ah¯d a a ¯ divided into 203 chapters. caught and ﬁxed in a a single formula. postures like bowing. 737. and the Fireworshippers. As a means of calling people to prayer at ﬁxed times. the a merits of prayers at diﬀerent times. the Christians. Some even suggested that a ﬁre should be lighted. one can see that they all relate to the externals: az¯n (the call to prayer). as the Jews did.
therefore.20 ¯ CHAPTER 3. Where it was heard. .” says Muhammad (747). One narrator saw a is Muhammad “raising his hands opposite the shoulders at the time of beginning the prayer and before bowing down and after coming back to the erect position after bowing. . “When Satan hears the call to prayer. it meant that everything was a not kufr (inﬁdelity). and his wives and his oﬀspring . how should we bless you?” Muhammad is asked. with Muhammad as Messenger. He who blesses me once. and with Isl¯m as a a ¯ [religion] his sins would be forgiven” (749). “The Messenger of All¯h used to attack the enemy when it was a dawn. a ATTACKS ON NON-MUSLIMS Az¯n became a great indicator. 808). so if he heard an Az¯n. There are many ah¯d¯ on the subject. which is a rank in Paradise a ila ﬁtting for only one of All¯h’s servants. BLESSINGS FOR MUHAMMAD When men hear the mu’azzin. he stopped” (745). d in In seeking blessings for himself. All¯h would a bless him ten times” (807.” a distance of 36 miles from Medina (751). Another saw his “hands lifted . POSTURE DURING PRAYER Muslim prayer is not carried on in one tranquil posture. Muhammad does not forget his wives and progeny. They should “beg from All¯h al-Was¯ for me. but he did not raise them between two prostrations” (758). He would listen to the Az¯n. PRAYER (SAL AT) Az¯n is very eﬀective. He replies: “O All¯h! a a bless Muhammad. if a man who hears a caller responds by testifying that he is “satisﬁed with All¯h as my Lord. did not allow his Companions to take the enemy unawares under the cover of darkness of night” (note 600). “Apostle of All¯h. The Holy Prophet. sitting or standing. “The greatest contribution made by the Holy Prophet in the sphere of warfare is that he elevated it from the surface of reckless murder or slaughter to the level of humanized struggle for the uprooting of evil in society. In a variation on this theme. These have been codiﬁed on the basis of the practice and precepts of Muhammad. This the a a commentator ﬁnds greatly virtuous in Muhammad. will be assured of my intercession. it is accompanied by many bodily movements. they should repeat what he says and invoke blessings on Muhammad. If any one who asks that I be given the Was¯ he a ila. he runs away to a distance a like that of Rauh¯.
when Muhammad was trying to cultivate the Jews. In the beginning. just as Muhammad appointed Ab¯ u Bakr during his last illness (832-844). Muhammad told him: “I felt as if [you were] disputing with me . Muhammad was commanded by All¯h that “he should prostrate on the seven bones a and he was forbidden to fold back the hair and clothing. . 1057). When someone once a did this. The second one was the great mosque in Jerusalem (1056. “When he prostrates. Another precaution: “People should avoid lifting their eyes towards the sky while supplicating in prayer. And when prostrated. palm to palm. and then lifted them . the knees. and taking out from my tongue what I was reciting” (783). Muhammad exhorts his followers to follow their im¯m. ¯ THE IM AM Muslim prayer is mostly group prayer. Also. he brought out his hands from the cloth. and the extremities of the feet and the forehead” (991).” He also saw that the Prophet “then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. But later on this practice was abrogated and the followers were “commanded to place them [hands] on the knees” (1086-1092). you a should also prostrate.” The seven bones are: “The hands. .21 opposite to ears. Originally the practice had been to put one’s hands together. . . He also forbids them to bow and prostrate themselves ahead of the im¯m: “Does the man a who lifts his head before the im¯m not fear that All¯h may change his face into that of a a an ass?” (860).” he tells them (817).” He answered that it was the Ka’ba. Muhammad a enjoins that “when there are three persons. those who are being led in prayer are required to keep pace with the im¯m and are forbidden to recite so loudly as to compete with him. And when he was about to bow down. one of them should lead them” (1417). otherwise their eyes would be snatched away” (863). he prostrated between the two palms” (792). you should also rise up. when there is a valid reason for doing so. But he asked his followers to “observe moderation in prostration” and not to stretch out [their] forearms on the ground like a dog” (997). when-he rises up. he prayed facing . It should be led by an im¯m. and then to put them between one’s thighs. The im¯m is authorized to appoint anyone as a his deputy. THE FIRST MOSQUE: FACING THE QIBLA Somebody asked Muhammad which was the mosque “ﬁrst set up on the earth.
PRAYER (SAL AT) their temple in Jerusalem. Another had¯ mentions Muhammad’s power of “intercession” on the Day of Judgment. my enemies hold me in such terror and awe that they surrender without ﬁghting. In Isl¯m we ﬁnd all the ideological a a ingredients of imperialism in any age: a divine or moral sanction for the exploitation of the barbarians or heathens or polytheists. . I have been sent to all mankind. Someone told them that the qibla had been changed. For example. One tradition says: “We prayed with the Messenger of All¯h towards Bait-ul-Maqdis for a sixteen months or seventeen months. The followers had no diﬃculty and adjusted to the new change with alacrity. . He lived long enough (surviving Muhammad by twenty-ﬁve years) to see u the nascent Muslim state grow into an empire and the tribute pour into the coﬀers of Medina. and the line of prophets is closed with me” (1062). It strengthened the loyalty of the Muslims to Isl¯m and the Prophet” (note 732). their land considered as a lebensraum or held as a mandate. . foe or friend. This is the idea of the world as a “mandated territory” bestowed on the believers by All¯h. Then we were made to change our direction towards the Ka’ba” (1072). 2 u is That is. Muhammad makes some interesting disclosures. This resulted from Muhammad’s terroristic methods: his assassinations and killings and the constant marauding raids by the Muslims. This wealth the followers of the Apostle “are now busy in getting them. . a We see here that European imperialism with all its rationalizations and pretensions was anticipated by Isl¯mic imperialism by a thousand years. the beheading of eight hundred members of the tribe of Quraiza in cold blood in the market of Medina must have sent a chill of terror down the spine of everyone. He does not deny that the Jews and the Christians also had their prophets but adds: “I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning. is which other prophets lack (1058). “They turned towards the new qibla in that very state” (1075). spoils have been made lawful to me . Other ah¯d¯ mention other points. 2 Ab¯ Huraira should know. It must a have made a strong appeal to Arab nationalism. The whole earth is also made a “mosque” for him and given to him as a legitimate place of prayer for him and his (1058). . . I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of the enemies). . “I have been helped a is by terror.” adds Ab¯ Huraira. Some people were praying their dawn prayer and had recited one rak’ah.22 ¯ CHAPTER 3. Immediately 1 . . the direction (qibla) was changed to Mecca. and while I was asleep I was brought the keys of the treasures of the earth. But later on. 1 . The translator assures us that “this was a change of far-reaching importance .” says Muhammad. ¯ ALLAH ALLOWS MUHAMMAD TERROR AND WAR BOOTY While giving his opinion of the ﬁrst mosques. the narrator of this had¯ (1063). they themselves regarded as the wards and special responsibility (zimma) of the civilizing masters.
for All¯h is in front of him when he is engaged in prayer” a (1116). The instruction was meant to give them time to adjust their clothing before the women lifted their heads (had¯ 883 and note 665).000 to 9. To eat onion or garlic is not har¯m (forbidden). But in a footnote explaining the standpoint of the Isl¯mic shar¯ a i’ah with regard to women joining men in prayer. The translator explains that this had¯ relates to a period when is the Companions were very poor and could not aﬀord proper clothing. pp.000 dirhams a year. but clothes having designs and markings on them are distracting and should be avoided (1131-1133). The diw an.000 dirhams a year. after Muhammad’s death during the two years of Ab¯ Bakr’s caliphate..000 dirhams. a privilege not denied to men who can aﬀord it. he “forbade spitting on the right side or in front.000 dirhams a year. 476-479. to wear shoes while praying is permissible (1129-1130). or Civil List. According to another tradition. Oﬃcers of the Arab occupation armies in the diﬀerent cantonment areas of the empire received yearly from 6. refer to the T ar¯ Tabar¯ ¯ ikh i. The Prophet commanded the believer that while praying “he should not spit in front of him. and their children. the translator says: “The fact is that the Holy Prophet deemed it preferable for women to say their prayers within the four walls of their houses or in the nearest mosque” (note 668). but Muhammad found their odors a “repugnant” (1149) and therefore forbade coming to the mosque after eating them. They were also told not to precede men in lifting their heads from prostration.23 WOMEN AND MOSQUES Women can go to the mosque but they “should not apply perfume” (893). For a fuller account of the Civil List. 5. II. For example. everyone who had converted to Isl¯m before that date. the share of every Meccan and u Medinan Muslim in the tithes received was only 9 dirhams for the ﬁrst year and 20 dirhams for the next year. established by ¯ ’Umar speciﬁed that each of Muhammad’s widows was to receive 12. is Muhammad commanded the believers to “take out unmarried women and purdahobserving ladies for ’Id prayers. But within two decades everything changed. DOS AND DON’TS There are many dos and don’ts. but it is permissible to spit on the left side or under the left foot” (1118).000 dirhams a year. 4. and he commanded the menstruating women to remain away from the place of worship of the Muslims” (1932). 2. “for the angels are harmed by the same things as men” (1145). vol. Every Muslim had a a place in this classiﬁcation. each of the more than three hundred veterans of the Battle of Badr. and every boy born in these military quarters received from his birth 100 dirhams annually. thanks to the enormous revenues received from the outlying colonial regions in the neighborhood of the Arabian peninsula. .
there are diﬀerent forms of prayer for sixteen speciﬁc dangerous situations. “When the supper is brought and prayer begins. Muslims were fortunate to have Friday as their day. . . ’Aisha reports that when the Prophet “was about to breathe his last . but All¯h diverted those who were before us from it” (1863). But though Muslims “are the last.” says Muhammad (1134). PRAYER IN TIME OF DANGER According to Muslim jurists. . they break away to it and leave you standing” (1877. “On it Adam was created. One Friday. First things ﬁrst. during a war.24 ¯ CHAPTER 3.” they “shall be the ﬁrst on the Day of Resurrection. on it he was made to enter Paradise. one should ﬁrst take food. for “he who builds a mosque for All¯h. he uncovered his face and said in this very state: ‘Let there be curse upon the Jews and the Christians that they have taken the graves of their Apostles as places of worship’ ” (1082). For example. Qur¯n a 62:11). “We were guided a aright to Friday. a caravan with merchandise from Syria arrived.” While the Jews and the Christians observe Saturday and Sunday as their respective days. All¯h would a a build for him a house in Paradise” (1034). Then this verse was revealed: “And when they see merchandise or sport. FRIDAY PRAYER Friday is a special day. PRAYER (SAL AT) CURSE ON THE JEWS It is meritorious to build a mosque. DINNER BEFORE PRAYER This rule may seem to lack piety but in some ways it is realistic. People left the Prophet and ﬂocked toward the caravan. The believer is told to prefer supper to prayer. Every ummah was given the Book before the Muslims. a An interesting story is reported in this connection. But it is forbidden to build mosques on graves and to decorate them with pictures. when the Prophet was delivering a sermon. the day prescribed by All¯h Himself for them. one group prays while the other one ﬁghts (1824-1831). on it he was expelled from heaven” (1856).
similarly there will be no new Prophet between Muhammad and the Day of Resurrection) and would further say: ‘The best of the speech is embodied in the Book of All¯h.25 MUHAMMAD AS A PREACHER J¯bir b. AND SPORTS ’Aisha reports: “The Messenger of All¯h came in my apartment while there were two a girls with me singing the song of the Battle of Bu’¯s.’ and he would join his foreﬁnger and middle ﬁnger (just as there is no other ﬁnger between these two. He lay down on the bed and turned a away his face. On the same occasion. “Thereafter. ’Umar came and wanted to drive them away by throwing pebbles at them. and his anger increased so that he was like one giving a warning against the enemy and saying: ‘The enemy has made a morning attack on you and in the evening too. I swear by All¯h that had it not been for the supplication of my brother Sulaim¯n he would have a a been bound. and made an object of sport for the children of Medina” (1106). I meant to seize him. his eyes became red. he replied: “All¯h’s enemy Ibl¯ came with a ﬂame of ﬁre to put it in my face. and the a best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad. make the most of this had¯ a is.’ He would also say: ‘The Last Hour and I have been sent like these two.” When asked to throw light on this unusual behavior. but the suﬁ schools of Isl¯m. in which music plays an important role. ’Abdullah draws for us a pen-portrait of Muhammad delivering a sermon. The Messenger of All¯h a a turned towards him and said: Leave them alone. he did not retreat. In a large measure he was indulging his child-wife ’Aisha. Then came Ab¯ Bakr and he scolded me and said: Oh! this musical u instrument of the devil in the house of the Messenger of All¯h. And the most evil aﬀairs are their innovations. Muhammad.’ ¯ a Then said: ‘I curse thee with All¯h’s curse three times. Muhammad added: “Ab¯ Bakr. And when he became unattentive I hinted them [the girls] and they went out. He a reports: “When All¯h’s Messenger delivered the sermon.’ then he stretched out his hand a as though he was taking hold of something. every people have a festival and it is our festival [so let them play on]” (1938). with ’Aisha’s head resting on his shoulder. One report says: “Allah’s Messenger stood up [to pray] and we heard him say: ‘I seek refuge in All¯h from thee. his voice a rose. MUSIC. u This is the only had¯ that can be construed as an instance of Muhammad’s approving is of music. and it was the day of Id” (1942). . But Muhammad told him: “ ’Umar. leave them alone” (1946).” a is But even though cursed. There are other eyewitness accounts of Muhammad’s sermons. DANCE. was watching some Abyssinians engage in a mock armed ﬁght. and every innovation is error’ ” (1885).
because “angels may say amen to whatever you say. ‘There is no god but All¯h.” ’Aisha a tells us. prayers for protection against windstorms or terrible dark clouds. PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD There are also prayers for the dead and the dying. who is better for me than a him [Ab¯ Salama]” (2002). u He died at Uhud. what evil it contains. He regarded clouds and winds with terror. The dying must be treated to a bit of theology. Weeping over the dying Sa’d b. “When there was on any day windstorm or dark cloud its eﬀect could be read on the face of the Messenger of All¯h. he said: “All¯h does not punish for the tears that the eye sheds or the grief a a .” Umm Salama tells us: “When Ab¯ Salama died. and he moved forward and backward in a state of anxiety. it is a good state to which you are sending him on: but if he was otherwise it is an evil of which you are ridding yourself” (2059). Ab¯ Salama has died. Ub¯da. I went to u the Apostle of All¯h and said: Messenger of All¯h. He also taught haste in the disposal of dead bodies. to whom she had borne many children. Muhammad had no friendly eye for nature. and the good of that which it was sent for. prayers to be recited at the time of a solar eclipse (1966-1972). He told me to a a u recite: ‘O All¯h! forgive me and him [Ab¯ Salama] and give me a better substitute than a u he. and the good which it contains.26 ¯ CHAPTER 3. the Apostle of All¯h used to say: O All¯h! I ask Thee a a for what is good in it. Muhammad deals with the problem with the help of an incantation. “Exhort to recite.” says a the Prophet (1996). and All¯h gave me in exchange Muhammad. and the evil of that what it was sent for” (1962). ’Aisha tells us: “Whenever the wind was stormy. supplicate for good. and Muhammad married her four months later. She further says: “I asked him the reason of this anxiety and he said: I was afraid that it might be a calamity that might fall on my Ummah” (1961). “If the dead person was good. Muhammad himself wept over the death of his loyal followers. WEEPING OVER THE DEAD Muhammad discouraged weeping over the dead: “The dead is punished because of his family’s weeping over it” (2015). PRAYER (SAL AT) PRAYERS FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS There are prayers for rain. I seek refuge with Thee from what is evil in it. When you visit the sick or the dead. u Umm Salama was the widow of Ab¯ Salama.’ to those who are dying.’ So I said this. However.
a but He did not grant it to me. had¯ 912. i. Life of Mahomet. is . also William Muir. I sought permission from Him to visit her grave. His followers tried to comfort him by reminding him of his own exhortation not to weep. meaning loud lamenting” (2010). 3 Tirmiz¯ vol. Muhammad replied: “It is not this that I forbade. but loud wailing and false laudation of the dead. Muhammad also sobbed aloud. but He punishes for this [pointing to his tongue].” 3 MUHAMMAD AND HIS MOTHER Muhammad tells us: “I sought [All¯h’s] permission to beg forgiveness for my mother. who was only eighteen months old. according to certain traditions.27 the heart feels. vol. p. This was a ﬁne gesture on Muhammad’s part after sending his mother to hell in fulﬁllment of the demand for theological consistency. 165. over his expiring child. I. IV. and He granted it to me” (2129).
PRAYER (SAL AT) .28 ¯ CHAPTER 3.
and most of them. In the begina ning. Zakat was solely meant for the brothers in faith. There was as yet no universal fellowship as such for a brother in distress. Perhaps the rhetoric on charity emanates largely from this situation. But two other items are also mentioned which deserve special attention. Much of the “Book of Zak¯t” is concerned with the question of power. The funds are to be used in “the service of All¯h” (f¯ ¯ a isab ili’llah) and for “gaining over [or reconciling.” All these are a in]. Muhammad too stresses the importance of charity. the zak¯t funds are meant for “the poor and the paupers a a [fuqar¯ and misk¯ for those in bondage and debt. or inclining] the hearts [muallafa qul ubuhum]” to ¯ ¯ Isl¯m (Qur¯n 9:60). ¯ USES OF ZAKAT FUNDS According to the Qur¯n. those who paid zak¯t were resentful. and everyone else was excluded on principle. But with him it became a tax. being migrants. In this form. no sense of a larger human brotherhood. the ﬁrst phrase. Muhammad had many followers who were needy. and for the wayfarers. conventional recipients of charity. depended a great deal on the goodwill and charity of the people of Medina. and to be spent by its representatives. or zak¯t. ¯ This has been the Muslim practice ever since. The funds are also to be used for the “bureaucracy. an a obligatory payment made by the Muslims to the new state that was forming.” those who collect and administer the funds. an old Arab practice. a a In the technical vocabulary of Isl¯m.” a a 29 . or way. “in the service. Every society preaches and to some a extent practices charity toward its less-fortunate brothers. of All¯h. and those a who spent it actually acquired a new source of power and patronage.Chapter 4 The Poor Tax (Zak¯t) a The ﬁfth book is on al-zak¯t (charity or poor tax).
. “gaining over. a But things were rougher and not as easily settled as this had¯ seems to suggest. the collection of the tithe became aggressive. Aslam. a AN UNPOPULAR TAX There is an interesting had¯ which shows that the zak¯t tax was unpopular even with is a the highest. . the uncle of a person is like his father” (2148). as it still has for his followers. The resentment against zak¯t was general. Zak¯t funds are to be spent on buying arms. ’Umar was appointed the collector. . It seems that the opposition of a section of a a the tribe of Ban¯ Tam¯ to the collection was somewhat forceful.” means “bribes” in unadorned language. on less than ﬁve camel heads and on less than ﬁve uqiyas of silver [1 uqiya = about 10 tons. it had for the Prophet.” and that of adversaries should be subverted by the same means. In the beginning of the ninth year of the Hijra (Hegira). and children back to Medina as hostages. This was an important limb of the Prophet’s religious oﬀensive and diplomacy. The faith of new converts should be strengthened with the help of generous “gifts. and after this the tax collection became smoother. parties of collectors were sent out in diﬀerent directions to realize the tax from the Kil¯b. Upon this the Messenger of All¯h said: Please your collectors” (2168). who took the tribe by surprise and brought ﬁfty men. bear in mind. It was particularly strong among the nona Medinan Arab tribes. “No Sadaqa is 4 due from a Muslim on his slave or horse” (2144). hearts. The second phrase. . a Ghif¯r. and as the Qur¯nic a verse shows. After is the conquest of Mecca. They had to be ransomed. When he reported that Khal¯ b. “No Sadaqa [zak¯t] is payable on ﬁve wasqs of a dates or grain [1 wasq = about 425 pounds]. EXEMPTIONS AND INCENTIVES There was a lower exemption limit. or reconciling. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) means religious warfare. and as for ’Abb¯s. a had refused to pay the tax. the armours and weapons for the sake of All¯h. I shall be responsible a a . The Bedouins complained to the Prophet that the “collectors of Sadaqa come to us and treat us unjustly. Also. So Muhammad sent a u im punitive force consisting of ﬁfty Arab horsemen. Faz¯r. equipment. ’Abb¯s. ’Umar. Wal¯ id id (who later became a famous Muslim general) and even the Prophet’s own uncle. and several other tribes. women. or jih¯d. or 1 pound]” (2134). There was no tax on horses meant for use in a jih¯d. “The horse which is used for riding in jih¯d is exempted from the payment a a of zak¯t” (note 1313). a heavenly sanction. Muhammad replied: “You are unjust to Khal¯ for he reserved id. a a and horses.30 ¯ CHAPTER 4. when the power of Muhammad became supreme. who shared the burden of the tax but not its beneﬁts.
” The same fate awaits the tax-defaulting owner of cows and sheep: “They will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hoofs” for the same period (2161). CHARITY SHOULD BEGIN AT HOME There was a lot of uncoerced charity in its nontax version among the Arabs of preMuhammad days. the Arab tribes rose in revolt against the infant Muslim state and had to be reconquered. “If any owner of gold or silver does not pay what is due on him. as extensive as possible.31 The Qur¯n itself is an eloquent witness to the Arab resentment against the tax. Muhammad’s response to this generosity was positive. the Arabs of that time would take their camels to a pond every six or seven days and there milk them and distribute the milk among the needy (note 1329). then on relatives and friends. for God both hears and knows” (9:98). and then on other good deeds. plates of ﬁre would be beaten out for him. When Muhammad heard this. during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years.” And for someone who owns camels and does not pay. DIVINE SANCTIONS The divine punishment for not paying the poor tax is more gruesome than any secular punishment devised by a human agency. And when these cool down. This point is brought out in many ah¯d¯ a is (2183-2195). But he taught. and they wait a turn of fortune against you. and in some ways wisely. then on one’s wife and children. For example. forehead and his back would be cauterized with them. the resentment was so great that as soon as Muhammad died. Their opposition ceased only when they became partners in the growing Muslim imperialism and their zak¯t obligation was drowned in the immense gains derived from military conquests and a colonization abroad. the process is repeated during a day the extent of which would be ﬁfty thousand years. an Arab once willed that his slave was to be freed after his death. that charity should begin at home. “a sandy plain would be set for him. . he called him and asked him if he had any other . but against them shall a turn of evil fortune be. All¯h a a warns Muhammad: “Some of desert Arabs look upon their payments as a ﬁne. Following a common practice. The order in which one should spend his wealth is this: First on one’s own self. In fact.” and his camels “will trample him with their hoofs and bite him with their mouths . . when the Day of Resurrection would come. these then would be heated in the Fire of Hell and his sides.
there is a Sadaqa . and in man’s sexual intercourse [with his wife . And. and told him: “Start with your own self and spend it on yourself. And in another had¯ “In every declaration of the gloriﬁcation of All¯h 1 [i. . of course. but it agrees with the general practice. And even then it should not conﬂict with the well-being of the family of the believer. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) property. gave the money to the owner.e. or helping him load his luggage upon it. So the morality that Muhammad taught on the question was not particularly heroic. Muhammad told her: “Had you given her to your maternal uncle. People who cannot pay in money can pay in piety and good acts. there is a Sadaqa” (2198). Everyone should give charity even if it is only half a date. Nor was it really revolutionary. When informed about it.. . And assisting a man to ride upon his beast. . and if anything is left it should be spent on your relatives. The emancipation of slaves was not a matter of justice but only of charity.the a a omission is supplied by the translator]. ¯ (2197-2204). and every step that you take towards prayer is a Sadaqa. you would have a greater reward” (2187). URGINGS AND PLEADINGS Muhammad makes an eloquent plea for aims-giving. A lady set her slave-girl free. There are some other passages of equal beauty and insight. Among those whom God aﬀords protection is one “who gives charity and conceals it so that the right hand does not know what the left hand has given” (2248). saying is: a Subh¯n All¯h]. it should be spent on your family. Muhammad then sold the slave for 800 dirhams.32 ¯ CHAPTER 4. Muhammad tells us that “if anyone gives as Sadaqa the equivalent of one date . DEEPER ASPECTS Rather unusual for the Had¯ charity in its deeper aspect is also mentioned in some is.” There is another story that makes the same point. and ¯ the gloriﬁcation of All ah must include gloriﬁcation of Muhammad too. In the same vein. and a good word is a Sadaqa. . The man replied no. ah¯d is a “Administering of justice between two men is also a Sadaqa. is a Sadaqa. the Lord would accept it with His Right Hand” (2211). Ab¯ Mas¯d reports: “We were commanded to give charity though u u we were coolies” (2223). not polytheistically or pantheistically. All ah can only be gloriﬁed monotheistically. and removing of harmful things from the pathway is a Sadaqa” (2204). and if anything is left. ¯ 1 .
For example. and a the thief might thereby refrain from committing theft. THEFT. What does this mean? The translator ﬁnds the statement truly prophetic. ﬁrst to an adulteress. This is true. is but are not visited by two angels. give him more who spends. Although he was u apprehensive of some possible mishap to the Prophet. Muhammad left him to go some other place. When Muhammad returned.” One may suppose that the man’s acts of charity had these wonderful results because they were accompanied by “praise to All¯h” (2230). Came the angel to him and said: “Your charity has been accepted. Was not the a ﬁrst part enough? Must a blessing always go along with a curse? The Prophet warns believers to make their Sadaqa and be quick about it. PARADISE Some of the material included in certain discussions in the various ah¯d¯ is not in fact a is relevant to the nominal topic of the discussion. I said: a Even if he committed fornication or theft? He said: Even if he committed fornication or theft” (2174). for instance. with praise to All¯h. although in their own way they must be reassuring to believers. One of them says: O All¯h. then to a a thief. of ah¯d¯ 2174 a is and 2175. Ab¯ u Zarr reports that while he and Muhammad were once walking together. a and the other says: O All¯h. bring destruction to one who withholds” (2205). A man is gives charity. telling him to stay where he was until he returned.33 One had¯ tells us: “There is never a day wherein servants [of God] get up at mom. then to a rich man. he remembered his command and remained where he was. a . CHARITY AND DISCRIMINATION There is a had¯ which seems to teach that charity should be indiscriminate. the rich man might perhaps learn a lesson and spend from what All¯h has given him.” For his charity might become the means whereby the adulteress “might restrain herself from fornication. which both relate to zak¯t but also treat matters that have nothing to do with a charity. who came to me and said: He who dies among your Ummah without associating anything with All¯h would enter Paradise. Muhammad replied: “It was Gabriel. for “there would come a time when a person would roam about with Sadaqa of gold but he would ﬁnd no one to accept it from him. Ab¯ Zarr sought an explanation for u the sounds. FORNICATION. By citing the male and female population ﬁgures for postwar England and showing their disproportion. he proves “the truth of the Prophetic statement” (note 1366). After a while Muhammad was out of sight but Ab¯ Zarr heard some sounds.” He also adds that “a man would be seen followed by forty women seeking refuge with him on account of the scarcity of males and abundance of females” (2207).
“The spoils of war are for All¯h and His Messenger”(Qur¯n 8:1). has two aspects. The family included ’Al¯ Ja’far. who in any case needed it less and less as they became heirs to the growing Arab imperialism. ’Abd i. and Haris b. but on the other. a Khums. but he replied: “It does not become the family of Muhammad to accept Sadaqa for they are the impurities of the people. “Sadaqa is not permissible for us. it is war booty. ’Abd al-Muttalib and Fazl b. ’Aq¯ ’Abb¯s. on preparations a a for armed raids and battles against the polytheists. Other funds at his disposal for distribution were also increasing.” said the Prophet (2340). and war spoils became the primary a source of revenue of the Muslim treasury. DISSATISFACTION Most of the properties abandoned by the Ban¯ Naz¯ were appropriated by Muhammad u ir for himself and his family. Bar¯ Muhammad’s wife’s ira. On the one hand. Charity was good enough for others but not for the proud descendants of Muhammad. In fact. a wanted to become collectors of zak¯t in order to secure means of marrying.” But he arranged marriages for the two men and told his treasurer: “Pay so much Mahr [dowry] on behalf of both of them from the khums” (2347). ’Abb¯s. WAR BOOTY Within a very short period. But though sadaqa was not permitted. or on the “Path of All¯h. presented Muhammad with a piece of meat that his own wife had given her as sadaqa. il.. but it was not to be accepted by the a family of Muhammad.” i. it is zak¯t. whether as zak¯t for the poor. and thus the “Book of Zak¯t” imperceptibly becomes a book on war spoils. When it is a acquired. or as gifts for his Companions. two young men belonging to Muhammad’s family. a al-Muttalib and their posterity. Its distribution created a lot of a . a Muhammad regards war booty as something especially his own. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) ¯ ZAKAT NOT FOR MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY Zak¯t was meant for the needy of the ummah. This new money was hardly zak¯t money but war booty. it is zak¯t. freed slave. They went a to Muhammad with their request. zak¯t became secondary.e. gifts were welcome. when it is distributed among the ummah. it is still war booty. They are put in his hands by All¯h to be a a a spent as he thinks best. or as a bribes to incline the polytheists to Isl¯m. the distinction between the two was soon lost.34 ¯ CHAPTER 4. saying: “That is Sadaqa for her and a gift for us” (2351). He took it. the one-ﬁfth portion of the spoils of war which goes to the treasury.
that is. He distributed it among four men: ’Uyaina. a . because of the fear that he [the former] may fall headlong into the ﬁre” (2300). so that I may incline them to truth. Zaid reports that “when the Messenger of All¯h conquered Hunain he distributed the booty. There are other instances of the same type. Umayya.than they got. Hisn. many of them his enemies only a few weeks before. in perfect accord with Qur¯nic teaching (9:60). Muhammad had other considerations as well. whereas someone else is dearer to me than he. He bestowed costly gifts on the Quraish and Bedouin chiefs.35 heart-rending among his followers. ’Ul¯sa or Amir b. or merit. Aqra’ b. They a received a hundred camels each from the booty. Many of them thought they deserved more . . ’Abdullah b. Muhammad did the same with the booty of some gold sent by ’Al¯ b. I often bestow something on a person. Sa’d reports that “the Messenger of All¯h bestowed gifts upon a group of people . Ulasa (2303-2314). Safw¯n u a a b. Muhammad made eﬀective a use of gifts as a means of winning people over to Isl¯m. “and the fourth one was either ’Alqama b. He would reward new converts a generously but overlook the claims of Muslims of long standing.” Sa’d drew the Prophet’s attention to this believing Muslim. he may give up Isl¯m and go back to his old religion. H¯bis. The translator and a commentator makes the point very clear by saying that it was “with a view to bringing him nearer and making him feel at home in the Muslim society that material gifts were conferred upon him by the Holy Prophet” (note 1421). Ab¯ T¯lib from i u a Yemen. and ’Alqama b.” says Muhammad (2303). both mundane and celestial.or at any rate that others deserved less . . Muhammad had to exercise considerable diplomacy. Aqra. Harb. Zaid al-Khail. like Ab¯ Sufy¯n b. ’Uyaina b. To gain hearts (mullafa qul ubhum) for Isl¯m with the help of gifts is considered impec¯ a cable behavior. “I give [at times material gifts] to persons who were quite recently in the state of unbelief. but Muhammad replied: “He may be a Muslim. He however left a person a and did not give him anything and he seemed to me the most excellent among them. . GAINING HEARTS BY GIVING GIFTS The principle of distribution was not always based on need. Tufail” (2319). and he bestowed upon a those whose hearts it was intended to win” (2313). combined with threats. Traditions have preserved the names of some of these elite beneﬁciaries. justice.
” This angered a a Muhammad. but one of them. were closer to him). he found comfort in the fact that “Moses was tormented more than this. prominent cheekbones.” he told the ans¯rs with great a a success when. i Muhammad showed favoritism.e. who would do justice if I do not do . and you should go back with the Apostle of All¯h. and his face ¯ became red”. Muhammad could not always keep his temper. And he who is let down today would not be elevated. but less than his share to ’Abb¯s b. They had grumbled: “It is strange that our swords are dripping with their blood. “Don’t you feel delighted that [other] people should go with riches. It created quite a lot of dissatisfaction among some of his old supporters. In other cases when similar complaints were made. they complained about the unjust distribution of the spoils. In its distribution. and shaven head. ’Uyaina. who had received the spoils. When some people complained. after the conquest of Mecca. whereas our spoils have been given to them [the Quraish]” (2307).36 ¯ CHAPTER 4. . Muhammad added other words of ﬂattery and told the ans¯rs that they were his “inner a garments” (i. One man complained that “this is a distribution in which the pleasure of Allah has not been sought. and Muhammad had to use all his powers of diplomacy and ﬂattery to pacify them. and he replied: “Woe be upon thee. . and Aqra. a man with deep-sunken eyes. were merely his “outer garments”. telling them that they “should show patience till they meet him at Hauz Kausar. ’Abb¯s told a a a a Muhammad: “I am in no way inferior to anyone of these persons. THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) PACIFICATION But this course was not without its problems. Muhammad “was deeply angry . MUHAMMAD RUFFLED According to another tradition. and said: “Messenger of All¯h. while the Quraish.” This silenced the men.” On hearing this. To cajolery.” a canal in heaven (2313). ¯ THE KHWARIJ ’Al¯ sent some gold alloyed with dust from Yemen to Muhammad. but he showed patience” (2315). Muhammad gave a hundred camels each to Ab¯ Sufy¯n.” Then Muhammad “completed one hundred camels for him” (2310). u a Safw¯n. The ans¯rs a were happy. Mird¯s.. stood up. whereas I am a trustee of Him Who is in the heaven? The news comes to me from the heaven morning and evening. fear All¯h and do justice. thick beard. he added theology. Muhammad demanded: “Will you not trust me.
If I were to ﬁnd them I would kill them like a ’Ad [a people who were exterminated root and branch]” (2316-2327).” . them. .37 justice?” ’Umar. Muhammad said: “From this very person’s posterity there would arise people who would recite the Qur¯n. he and his posterity were denounced. kill them. These were the anarchists and purists of the early days of Isl¯m. permit me a to kill this hypocrite. took some of the slogans of Isl¯m a a seriously. who later on were called the khw¯rij. for in their killing you would get a reward with All¯h on the Day of a Judgment” (2328). The a injunction about them was: “Pursue them as they are routed and kill their prisoners and destroy their property. according to ’Al¯ that Muhammad said: “When you meet i. These men. said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. but it would not go beyond their throat. they would kill the followers of a Isl¯m but would spare the idol-worshippers . . It was about them.” Though the man was spared. who was present.
THE POOR TAX (ZAK AT) .38 ¯ CHAPTER 4.
In Isl¯m. who ate early and broke their fasts late. Enjoined in the Qur¯n. Fasting in the Muslim tradition is rather diﬀerent from fasting in many other religious traditions. “The diﬀerence between our fasting and that of the People of the Book is eating shortly before dawn. there is no uninterrupted fasting (sawm wisal).” says Muhammad (2413). and to break the fast as soon as possible after sunset. a FASTS There are many kinds of fasts in Isl¯m. This has its disciplinary role. This approach distinguished the Muslims from the Jews and the Christians. and “the people will continue to prosper as long as they hasten the breaking of the fast” (2417). because Muhammad a forbade this practice (2426-2435) “out of mercy” for his Companions (2435). It “distinguishes the Ummah of the Isl¯m from other Ummahs. a “When there comes the month of Ramz¯n. the gates of mercy are opened. it is compulsory. One is advised to eat as late as possible before sunrise. for there is a blessing in taking meal at that time” (2412). “Take meal a little before dawn. and the gates a of Hell are locked and the devils are chained” (2361). Both of these practices are accounted among the “pillars” of Isl¯m.Chapter 5 Fasting and Pilgrimage (Sawm and Hajj) The sixth and seventh books relate respectively to fasting (al-sawm) and pilgrimage (al-hajj). waiting for the stars to appear.” a 39 . The translator explains the advantages that accrued to the ummah from maintaining this diﬀerence. but nonetheless there is an attempt to make things easy. but the fast during the month of Ramz¯n a a (Ramadan) is considered the most important. During fasts eating is prohibited in the daytime but permitted at night.
This feeling inculcates in one a spirit of humility rather than of stoic pride” (note 1491).40 CHAPTER 5. even if one gets up in a state of seminal emission and the dawn overtakes him without giving him time for the ordained bath. a poor man who violated this prohibition got his expiation at no cost to himself. ’Aisha. by observing a two-month fast or. “It is made lawful for you to go to your wives on the night of the fast. and then she [’Aisha] a smiled” (2436). Isl¯m did not a a approve this practice” (note 1502). failing that. . Women do not fast during the days of menses but are required to complete the fast the following year before the commencement of the next Ramz¯n (in the month of Sha’b¯n). In fact. a is This had¯ was checked and rechecked by Ab¯ Bakr himself. Missed fasts could be completed later on at any time of the year. and would observe fast” a (2454). Muhammad’s wives. in the month of Ramz¯n. failing that. Sexual intercourse during the daytime in the month of Ramz¯n could be atoned for a either by freeing a slave or. Hafsa.” and retracted his previous position (2451). ’Aisha and Salama. . he said. Muhammad’s wives.but during the Prophet’s lifetime. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) and “hammers” into its consciousness the sense of “its separate entity which is the ﬁrst step towards prosperity of any nation. but when the matter was clariﬁed by ’Aisha and Salama. ’Aisha narrates: “The Messenger of All¯h kissed one of his wives while he was fasting.” In addition. a a . At ﬁrst Ab¯ Huraira is u u thought diﬀerently. the man observing fast separated himself completely from his wives. “They have better knowledge. The translator elucidates: “It is one of the great favours of All¯h upon humanity that a He has guided us in every sector of our life through his Prophet Muhammad. “taking a meal late in the dawn and breaking fast early at the sunset indicate the fact that one feels the pangs of hunger . . and Salama. . Muhammad gave him a basket of dates and told him: “Go and give it to your family to eat” (2457). he should still go on with his fast. report: “The Messenger of All¯h at times got up in the morning in a state of Junub on a account of having a sexual intercourse . Prior to Isl¯m. by feeding sixty poor men . It has a divine sanction.” says the Qur¯n a (2:187). . Kissing and embracing too are permissible (2436-2450). Sexual intercourse is also permitted during the night of the fast. SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ALLOWED DURING RAMZAN The Prophet softens the rigor of the fast somewhat by proclaiming that “eating and drinking in forgetfulness does not break the fast” (2575). There are other ah¯d¯ on the same subject (2451-2456). The state of janabah (in which one is “unclean” and cannot perform a religious act or join in religious assemblies) does not break the fast. all report that the Prophet used to kiss them and embrace them while fasting.
And she should not admit any mahram in his house. “You are going to encounter the enemy in the morning a a and breaking of the fast would give you strength. in the act of jih¯d. The translator a a explains that every wife of Muhammad was “so much devoted to him that she avoided fasting lest it should stand in her way in the performance of her duty as a wife to him” (note 1546). and in the pre-Isl¯mic days.e. while the husband is present. It was not only from devotion but also because of Muhammad’s injunction that the wives did not fast. menses] during the life of the Messenger of All¯h. “Quraish used to fast on this day” (2499). .” i. The Ashur day “was one which the Jews respected and they treated it as ’Id” (2522). The translator gives us the rationale for this injunction. observed on the tenth day of Muharram. i. OTHER FASTS Several other fasts are mentioned. A mahram is a near relative with whom it is unlawful to marry. ’Aisha reports a the same about Muhammad’s other wives.e. and not to admit even those relatives of theirs in their apartments who are maharam to them so that they may not stand in the way of the husbands to satisfy their sexual urge” (note 1387). “Fast if you like and break it if you like. but a I could not do it .” Muhammad tells the believers (2486). For example. due to my duties to the Messenger of All¯h” (2549). “No woman should observe fast when her spouse is present [in the house] but with his permission. so break the fast.” Muhammad told a questioner on the subject (2488). a fast during a journey could be broken. “Such is the regard which Isl¯m a gives to the natural instinct of man that it enjoins upon women not to observe (voluntary) fasts. ’Aisha reports: “I had to complete some of the fasts of Ramz¯n.. a a she could not ﬁnd it possible to complete them so long as she had been in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger till Sha’b¯n [the eighth month] commenced” (2552). . Women sometimes abstained from fasts so that they could perform their duties to their husbands unhindered. “If one amongst us had to break fasts [of Ramz¯n due to natural reasons. but after a . A woman can feel free in his presence and thus need not observe purdah.. There is even a reward for not observing the fast if you are engaged in the “Way of All¯h. One is the Ashura fast. but with his permission” (2238).41 FASTING NOT OBLIGATORY UNDER CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES Under certain circumstances fasting was optional.
Its ninety-two chapters contain minute instructions on the rites and rituals of the pilgrimage. Muhammad asked ’Aisha for some food.” Muhammad tells us.” ’Aisha further narrates: “So I brought it to him and he ate it”. One interesting thing about these fasts is that one could declare one’s intention of observing them in the morning but break them without reason in the evening. a a a because of this day.and when the last of them has entered. He asked: “What is it?” ’Aisha said: “It is hais [a compound of dates and clariﬁed butter]. some food came as gift. there will be a gate called Rayy¯n in Paradise. through which only those a who have fasted will be allowed to enter . “Every a servant of All¯h who observes fast for a day in the way of All¯h. On the Day of a Resurrection. providing useful guidance to a hajji (pilgrim) but of dubious value to a traveler of the Spirit. All¯h would remove. Thereupon Muhammad said: “I am observing fast. but we need not go into them here. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) Muhammad migrated to Medina he made it optional for his followers. his face from the Fire of Hell to the extent of seventy years’ distance” (2570). THE MERITS OF FASTING There are many merits in observing the fasts. Even the very ﬁrst Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca under the leadership a .” After some time. or he may retain it if he so likes” (2573). “it would be closed and no one would enter it” (2569). “The breath of the observer of fast is sweeter to All¯h than the fragrance of musk. PILGRIMAGE The book on hajj (“setting out”) is full of ceremonial details which have little interest for non-Muslims. and ’Aisha oﬀered it to Muhammad.” He said: “Bring that. The recompense of one who combines fasting with jih¯d will be immense. He may spend it if he likes. One day. and then he said: “This observing of voluntary fasts is like a person who sets apart Sadaqa out of his wealth. Other voluntary fasts are mentioned. but nothing was available. But it has great social and political importance for Isl¯m.42 CHAPTER 5. AN IDOLATROUS IDEA Considered from the viewpoint of Muslim theology. the whole idea of pilgrimage to Mecca and the Ka’ba is close to being idolatrous.
a Two years later. “As the caravan moved on. In this year of victory. was declared one of the ﬁve fundamentals of Isl¯m. their response on this occasion was great. Muhammad’s power was unrivaled.” Great preparations were made for the occasion. In order to swell the number. It was to be a demonstration of the power of Muhammad. Muhammad undertook another pilgrimage. but not before and after. Even so.000 (Sah¯ Muslim. but their response was lukewarm. it reached more than 130. He headed a pilgrim force of ﬁfteen hundred men. ¯ THE STATE OF IHR AM The “Book of Pilgrimage” deals with the pilgrim’s attire and with the place where he puts on the garments of a pilgrim. unlike the last time. It was also. in a which he is forbidden to do certain things till he has completed his worship at Mecca. Two years later. The Meccans had to enter into a treaty with Muhammad. ﬁfteen hundred was an impressive number. he had appealed to the desert Arabs to join him.43 of Muhammad was perhaps more of a political demonstration and a military expedition than a religious congregation. Everyone was in a hurry to jump on the bandwagon. by a kind of delayed action. Muhammad regarded this as a victory for himself.” she adds in another had¯ (2685). For his dress. entering into the state of ihr¯m (“prohibiting”). at their own convenience and for their own gods. Thus. called the Treaty of Hodeibia. the very ﬁrst after coming to Medina.” After the fall of Mecca. or trouser or cap” (2647). Muhammad started out for Mecca to perform the ’umrah ceremony (the lesser pilgrimage). D. it turned out to be his last and is celebrated in the Muslim annals as the “Farewell Pilgrimage of the Apostle. It was meant to be more than an assembly of believers. they knew. and a victory it turned out to be. the number of participants swelled. “Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage. is .” says ’Aisha (2683). 612). a call to submission. 632. in March A. as the Qur¯n puts it. he is forbidden to “put on a shirt or a turban. or hajj. Mecca succumbed. The use of perfume is disallowed during the state of ihr¯m. according to some of the narrators. ih p. that “the Apostle and the believers a would never return to their families” (48:12).” until. and anyone could see that this was hardly a band of pilgrims. In the sixth year of the Hijra. pilgrimage. and the Bedouin tribes understood that this summons was more than an invitation to a pilgrimage of the type they had formerly performed on their own. for no booty was promised and they thought. “The best of perfume. partially armed. “I a applied perfume to the Messenger of All¯h as he became free from Ihr¯m and as he entered a a upon it.
O All¯h”). saying: “If we were not in a state of Ihr¯m. Muslim scholars argue that the Ka’ba and the Black Stone are objects of veneration and not of worship. Muhammad himself a circumambulated “on the back of his riding camel . . then makes seven circuits round the Ka’ba (taw¯f). Somebody once a presented Muhammad with the ﬂesh of a wild ass. Another important rite is that the pilgrim runs from the top of Mount al-Saf¯ to the a summit of Mount al-Marwa. At every turn. so that people should see him. Muhammad replies: “Let it be killed with disgrace” (2717). “Talbiyah. two seamless wrappers. this does not make him a Jain or a Vaishnava. rat and voracious dog. The leg of a wild ass killed by a non-muhrim Companion was presented to Muhammad. . He should now proceed toward Mecca singing the pilgrim’s song. we would have accepted it from you” (2704). he touched the Corner (Black Stone) with a stick. He hath performed His promise. a a Muhammad says that “All¯h does not complete the Hajj of a person or his ’Umra if he a does not observe Sa’i [i. For the same reason. and then kissing the stick. CIRCUMAMBULATION AND KISSING After a man has put on the pilgrim’s robe.” reports Ab¯ u Tufail (2921).e. crow.” according to the Qur¯n (2:158). he should not shave or pare his nails. and hath aided His servant a [Muhammad] and bath put to ﬂight the hosts of inﬁdels by Himself alone. .” But “what about a snake?” somebody asks.” Muhammad never relaxes. Though hunting of a sort is forbidden to a muhrim. he recites the following: “There is no deity but All¯h . After arriving a a in Mecca. “Four are the vicious beasts” he should still kill: “kite. the two “Signs of All¯h. I know that a you are a stone and if I were not to see All¯h’s Messenger kissing you. Labbaika! All¯humma!” (“I stand up for thy service. he performs ablutions in the Masjidu’l Har¯m and kisses the Black Stone (ala hajaru’l-aswad). “I saw All¯h’s Messenger circumambulating the House.44 CHAPTER 5. . . Following the lead of Christian theologians who distinguish between veneratio and adoratio. and he should be conspicuous” (2919). The practice of kissing the Stone is idolatrous.. he instills an unrelenting enmity toward the inﬁdels. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) HUNTING Hunting too is forbidden to a muhrim (one in a state of ihr¯m). but he declined it. I would not have a kissed you” (2912). “The Messenger of All¯h took a it and ate it” (2714). ’Umar said: “By All¯h. But if the animal is a killed by a non-muhrim. run between al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa]” (2923). its ﬂesh is acceptable to a muhrim. and touching a the Corner with a stick that he had with him. a Each time the pilgrim is on the top of these mounts.
” the pilgrim throws seven pebbles at Jamrat al-’Aqaba. The three pillars at Min¯ represent the three a occasions when this happened.“I saw All¯h’s a Apostle throwing stones like pelting of small pebbles” (2979). and in hatred of the Devil and his shame.” All¯h and Devil a are somehow inseparable in certain theologies. While sacriﬁcing the camel. and then sent them to the House. On the tenth a day. Their number should be odd. also known as Shait¯nu’l Kab¯ the Great Devil. the Almighty. therefore. This ceremony celebrates an ancient event when the Devil successively met Adam.” says the Prophet (2982). also the “Day of Sacriﬁce. and then he marked them. on their size and number. Cows and goats should be sacriﬁced after making them lie down. The pebbles should be small . One who cannot go for hajj can send a sacriﬁcial animal to al-Haram and earn merit thereby. While doing this. ’Aisha reports: “I wove the garlands for the sacriﬁcial animals of All¯h’s Messenger a with my own hands. and after that . There are several ah¯d¯ on the merits of throwing pebbles. a is and on the best time for throwing them. and garlanded them.45 CASTING THE PEBBLES Another important ceremony is ramyu’r-rij¯m. God.“All¯h’s Messenger ﬂung pebbles at Jamra a on the Day of Nahr after sunrise. and stayed at Medina and nothing was forbidden to him which was lawful for him before” (3036). the pilgrim casts seven stones at each of the three pillars. Its left foreleg should be tied to its hindlegs. . and was driven away by the simple method which Gabriel taught them of throwing seven small pebbles. “Odd number of stones are to be used for cleaning the private parts after answering the call of nature. ANIMAL SACRIFICE Next comes the sacriﬁce of the ’idu’l-azh¯. 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijja when the sun had declined” (2980). and the casting of pebbles at the Jamrat is to be done by odd numbers (seven). the casting of the pebbles. and the number of circuits a around the Ka’ba is also odd (seven). and the number of circuits around al-Saf¯ and al-Marwa is also odd (seven). The h¯jji (pilgrim) could sacriﬁce a goat or a a a sheep. “The Messenger of All¯h sacriﬁced a cow on behalf of ’Aisha” a (3030). he chants: “In the name of a ir. or a cow or a camel. I do this. the h¯jji should not make his camel “kneel down” but a slaughter it in a standing posture and in a fettered condition “according to the Sunn¯h of a the Holy Prophet” (3032). and Ishmael. Abraham.on the 11th . It is permissible for seven persons to join in the sacriﬁce of a cow or a camel (30243031). The best time for throwing them is after sunrise on the Day of Sacriﬁce .
DRINK Muhammad also drank water from the well of Zamzam as part of the ritual. “the total number of those a ¯ from Yemen [where he had gone on a campaign against sacriﬁcial animals brought by ’Ali the Bani Nakha] and those brought by the Apostle was one hundred” (2803). and the whole of Min¯ is a place of sacriﬁce. The orthodox pilgrims of every generation have continued the practice. Muhammad took part of the content. would be considered unhygienic by the impious. Because Isl¯m is so preponderantly Muhammadism. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) As Muhammad’s aﬄuence increased. were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you. but Muhammad’s All¯h a expresses no such sentiment. a Even Jehovah. On the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year. O Ban¯ ’Abd i al-Muttalib. That was his way of invoking a blessing on a well . . On a similar pilgrimage the next year. Thus we ﬁnd in Isl¯m none of that generous movement of the spirit a a against animal sacriﬁce that we ﬁnd in some measure in most cultures. both of them [’Al¯ and i Muhammad] took some meat out of it and drank its soup. and when it was cooked. A little further on in the same had¯ we are told that Muhammad “then went to the place of is sacriﬁce. Though the nab¯ iz. pp. Many such wells are mentioned in the traditions (Tabaq¯t. Then he gave the remaining number to ’Al¯ who sacriﬁced them . so sacriﬁce your animals at your places” (2805). he sacriﬁced seventy camels at Hodeibia. vol. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ the Prophet’s biographer. Muhammad said: “I have sacriﬁced the animals here. On his ’umrah pilgrimage in the sixth year. . nab¯ a soft drink. he took it. iz oﬀered him had been fouled by many hands. the God of the Jews. we are told by J¯bir. the scale of his sacriﬁces also increased. gives us one further detail which a a i. II. Coming to the tribe of ’Abd al-Muttalib (also his own tribe). one of a the consequences of the Prophet’s oﬀering sacriﬁces is that sacriﬁcing has become a sacred institution in Isl¯m. and not sacriﬁce” (Hosea 6:6). declining the oﬀer of a cleaner and purer one. 241-244).by spitting into it. a He also did not forgo his favorite beverage. He then commanded that a piece of ﬂesh from each i animal sacriﬁced should be put in a pot. . he sacriﬁced sixty camels. and sacriﬁced sixty-three camels with his own hands. his biographers tell us. he said: “Draw water. I would have drawn it along with you. then rinsed his mouth in the pitcher and directed that the water remaining in it should be thrown back into the well. had declared that He “desired mercy.” To his followers.46 CHAPTER 5. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it” (2803). whose Temple was a veritable slaughterhouse.
The diﬀerence is striking. whether they were wora shippers of Al-L¯h or Al-L¯t. . . A worthy habia tation for any worthwhile god is the one built by his devotees with the love of their hearts and the labor of their hands. Muslims thought that if non-Muslims were disallowed to enter Mecca. KA’BA CLOSED TO NON-MUSLIMS The Ka’ba. All ah will enrich you from His grace . the ceremony of pilgrimage concludes. 1 Most religions build houses or temples for their gods out of their own labor. . turning his right side to him.” as Ibn Ish¯q tells us (S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. and so they shall not approach the sacred House of worship from this year onward” (9:28). and follow not the religion of ¯ truth. after which he went to his lodging in Min¯. . a Now the pilgrimage is over. after which he turned his left side. Muslims were told that “when the sacred months are over. Before leaving Mecca. until they pay the tribute with willing submission and be as little ones” (9:28. which had been open to all in pre-Isl¯mic times. but Isl¯m a conquered one for its god. Before a returning home. The ¯ ¯ relevant Qur anic verses are: “If you fear poverty. the hairs became important Isl¯mic relics. Fight against ¯ ¯ such of those who have been given the scripture and believe not in All ah . Any other house is a monument of imperialist greed and aggrandizement and is not acceptable to the gods of the puriﬁed spirit. Lo! All ah is forgiving and merciful” ¯ (Qur an 9:5). their trade would be ¯ aﬀected. was closed to all except Muslims after Muhammad conquered a a Mecca. Anas reports that All¯h’s Messenger “went to Jamra and threw pebbles at a it. “After this year no polytheist may perform the Pilgrimage.” it was declared on his behalf (3125). . kill the idolaters wherever you may ﬁnd them. he should go to Medina to pay his homage at the tomb of Muhammad. He then called a for a barber and. 620). from others. and sacriﬁced the animal. There was an agreement between Muhammad and the polytheists that none should be kept back from the temple and that none should fear interference from each other during the sacred months. But a “discharge” came to Muhammad from All ah absolving him from his side of the obligation. The Qur¯n says: “O you who believe! a a those who ascribe partners to God are impure. 1 . and take them and besiege them. and the h¯jji has himself a shaved and his nails pared and his pilgrim garment removed. Shaving should begin from the right side. . He then gave these hairs to the people” (2991). he should again go round the Ka’ba seven times and throw stones at the satanic pillars at Min¯ seven times. let him shave him. All¯h. but the pilgrim should spend another three days in Mecca to rest after the hectic four days of ceremony.” Four months were given to them either to mend their ways or face death. So Muhammad proposed a poll tax on the Jews and the Christians “as a compensation for what you fear to lose by the closing of the markets.47 SHAVING: MUHAMMAD’S HAIR After the sacriﬁce. 29). This was All¯h’s own command. and prepare for them each ambush . p. that “All ah is ¯ ¯ free from obligation to the idolaters and so is His Messenger.
48 CHAPTER 5. FASTING AND PILGRIMAGE (SAWM AND HAJJ) .
another said. p. “I will not eat meat”. for it restrains eyes from casting evil glances and preserves one from immorality” (3231). a Muhammad forbids celibacy. he has no a relation with me” (3236).Chapter 6 Marriage and Divorce ( Al-Nik¯h a and Al-Tal¯q) a The eighth book is entitled the “Book of Marriage”. but not in our own selves. We are all too ready to see the devil in others. one section of it also discusses divorce (al-tal¯q). One of his Companions wanted to live in celibacy. “All¯h’s Messenger saw a a woman and so he came to his wife. A woman is a great safety valve. whereas I observe prayer and sleep too. “I will not lie down in bed.” Muhammad asked himself: “What has happened to these people that they say so and so. he is the best who has the largest a i. but Muhammad “forbade him to do so” (3239). Muhammad discouraged self-denial in general. 146). he should come home and cohabit with his wife. I marry women also? And who turns away from my Sunn¯h. so when one of you see a woman. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and returns in the shape of a devil. and yet another said. for that will repel what he feels in his heart” (3240). number of wives” (Tabaq at. Muhammad said: “In my ummah. as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. “I will not marry women”. II. he should come to his wife. ¯ 1 49 . popularly known as K¯tib a a at-W¯qid¯ the prophet’s biographer. vol. 1 In fact. but if even that fails and a man is aroused by some other woman. One of his Companions said. Zainab. According to a tradition derived from Ibn ’Abb¯s and quoted by Ibn Sa’d. I observe fast and suspend observing them. “Those among you who can support a wife should marry.
to seek out wives by means of your wealth. This is the law. and without fornication. The Shia theologians support this with a Qur¯nic verse: a “Forbidden to you also are married women. But it shall be no crime in you to make agreements over and above the law. though what is rank is diﬀerently understood by diﬀerent people. or even the sister of one’s wife if the wife is alive and not divorced (3412-3413). We said: Should a we not have ourselves castrated? The Holy Prophet forbade us to do so. 8] and then forbade it” (3251). There are many restrictions on grounds of number. the Prophet’s relatives being the highest. All¯h does not like transgressors” (3243. Under a no circumstances could a female Muslim marry a nonbeliever. And it is allowed you.50 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and do not transgress. a man cannot marry more than four free women at a time (Qur¯n 4:3)-there is no restriction a on the number of slave concubines. H. an Arab is considered higher than a non-Arab. a a J¯bir reports: “We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of dates and ﬂour a as a dower” (3249). Qur¯n 5:87). except those who are your hands as slaves . . And give those with whom you have cohabited their dowry. besides this. etc. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) TEMPORARY MARRIAGE (Mut’ah) Muhammad allowed temporary marriages. on the authority of his father. and a male Muslim could then marry a Jew or a Christian (Qur¯n 5:5). IYas b. consanguinity. Also. He then granted us permission that we should contract temporary marriage for a stipulated period giving her a garment [for a dowry]. but it is not entirely so. we had been beneﬁting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. . Generally speaking. It is also forbidden to marry the daughter of one’s foster brother. God is knowing. Later on. one cannot marry one’s wife’s father’s sister nor her mother’s sister (3268-3277). One who had committed a portion of the Qur¯n to memory was considered a qualiﬁed match a . religion. It is also forbidden to marry an unbeliever (Qur¯n 2:220-221). He told another group: “Yes. ’Abdullah b. with modest conduct. . Salama reports. this restriction a was relaxed. and during the time of Ab¯ u Bakr and ’Umar” (3248). Verily. Wise” (Qur¯n 4:24). “that Allah’s Messenger gave sanction for contracting temporary marriage for three nights in the ¯ year of Aut¯s [after the Battle of Hunain. Marriage is also disallowed when the parties are not equal in rank or status (kafa’ah). rank. a PROHIBITIONS The law appears to be quite indulgent. Mas’ud reports: “We were on an expedition with All¯h’s Messenger and we had no women with us. For example.” At this ’Abdullah felt happy and remembered the Qur¯nic a verse: “The believers do not make unlawful the good things which All¯h has made lawful a for you. aﬃnity. a Sunni theologians regard this form of marriage as no longer lawful. A. but the Shias diﬀer and still practice it in Persia.
he was sexually weak). A divorcee married but then decided to go back to her old husband. One should also not marry when one has put on the ritual garb of pilgrimage. 2 . “Your wives are your tilth. But man is inventive. The man said yes. Shigh¯r marriage is also prohibited (3295-3301). not even an iron ring for a dowry. p. “A Muhrim should neither marry nor make the proposal of marriage.” he told her (3354). part II. A couple must realize that the marital relationship is a serious one and must think twice (in fact. . . “A believer is the brother of a believer. I. Seeking the Prophet’s permission. the latter said: u “He has rejected thy request” (Mirkhond. Aﬀ¯n.” But the man possessed nothing. the latter in turn waited on him for the hand of his daughter. F¯timah. But Muhammad a replied: “I am waiting for a revelation. The new dispensation led to another abuse. marry her to me if you have no a need for her. but made no decision” about her. Then Muhammad decided and said: “Go. so it is not lawful for a believer to outbid his brother.51 by Muhammad himself. which was sometimes lightly undertaken because reunion was easy. and in exchange I will give you in marriage my daughter or sister. 269).” When Ab¯ Bakr reported these words to ’Umar. He was turning away in disappointment when Muhammad asked him if he knew any verses of the Qur¯n and could recite them. It gave rise to the institution of the temporary ¯ husband. The Prophet “laughed” but withheld the permission.e.” reports Usm¯n b. Then a Companion who was there stood up and said: “Messenger of All¯h. thrice) before severing it. go then unto your tilth as you may desire” (3363). 3 THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS A husband has complete sexual rights over his wife. Ab¯ u Bakr’s daughter. and he disposes what Allah proposes. she told Muhammad that all the new husband possessed was “like the fringe of a garment” (i. hired by the ﬁrst husband from among the ugly ones. The same idea is also found in the Qur¯n a Is the prohibition connected with some event in the Prophet’s life? When He married ’Aisha. a a quoting the Prophet (3281).. But this point is controversial. to make the new contact unpleasant to the wife. Rauzat-us-Safa. 2 This is the marriage which says: a Marry me your daughter or sister. for Muhammad himself “married Maim¯na while he was a Muhrim” (3284). He “cast a glance at her from head to foot . 3 We are told that this injunction was laid down to discourage divorce. vol. A woman came to him and entrusted herself to him. a I have given her to you in marriage for the part of the Qur¯n which you know” (3316). u One cannot remarry one’s divorced wife unless she subsequently married someone else and the new husband had sexual intercourse with her and then divorced her (3354-3356). and he should not propose an agreement when his brother has thus proposed until he gives it up” (3294). “You cannot do that until you have tasted his [the new husband’s] sweetness and he has tasted your sweetness. a One should also not outbid one’s brother.
WOMEN’S RIGHTS In return. CAPTIVE WOMEN Adultery and fornication are punished according to Muhammad’s law. and took some excellent Arab women. She can a ¯ claim it when divorced. Theoretically.52 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. or what the Qur¯n in some verses (4:24. “When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband. but we also desired ransom for them. and we desired them . but it should be through one hole” (3365). for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born” (3371). . which means vagina only.” that is. she can seek a divorce. but in practice it is her nearest kinsman.” They consulted Muhammad. and he advised: “It does not matter if you do not do it. if the husband fails to provide it. the angels curse her until morning” (3366). 33:50) calls her “hire” (uj urat). And a virgin should also be consulted. ¯ According to some schools. Another had¯ in the same group tells the husband that “if he likes he may have is intercourse being on the back or in front of her. as the commentators tell us. It is the duty of a wife to be responsive to all of her husband’s overtures.” by a guardian other than her father or grandfather can seek dissolution of the marriage when she attains her majority. “A woman who has been previously married (Sayyib) has more right to her person than her guardian. but not if you commit them with the “women that your right hands possess. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) (2:223). a woman has her rights. a minor girl given in marriage even called “compelling wal is. . Ab¯ Sirma reports: “We went out with All¯h’s Messenger a u a on the expedition . for that is in the hand of All¯h. COITUS INTERRUPTUS (Al-’azl) Coitus interruptus is permitted. She is also entitled to a dowry (mahr). . a Muslim woman is entitled to make the marriage contract herself. She is also to be consulted in the choice of her partner. She is entitled to a lawful maintenance (nafaqah). . and her silence implies her consent” (3307). the guardian (wal¯ who does it. . So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing ’azl. The father and the grandfather are i). but it is useless if the object is to prevent conception. . those women.
“For four Uqiyas. She told him: “I seek refuge with All¯h from you. . sent down a [the above verse]” (3432). or holy war. Ab¯ Sa’¯ reports that “at the Battle of Hunain All¯h’s Messenger sent u id a an army to Aut¯s .” the man replied. the a Companions of All¯h’s Messenger seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive a women because of their husbands being polytheists. so he commanded an oﬃcial of his named Ab¯ Usaid to send a messenger to the woman. All¯h. . She was “sitting with her head downcast. based on an old moral code.” They saw each other. Having overcome them [the enemies] and taken them captives. for there is something in the eyes of the Ans¯rs. “For four Uqiyas? It seems as if you dig out silver from the side of the mountain (that is why you are prepared to pay so much dower).” Muhammad inquired. serve us drink” (4981).” “For what dower did you marry her. An Arab woman named ’Umra. We have nothing which we should give you. “was mentioned before All¯h’s Messenger. He told her: “I have decided to keep you away from me. but All¯h now gave a new one. Most High. and Muhammad talked to her.” a Meanwhile the Prophet had arrived at his own conclusion. A a Qur¯nic verse fortiﬁes this position: “Also prohibited are women already married except a those whom your right hands possess” (4:24).” Then Muhammad retired with his host and told him: “Sahl.53 whether married or unmarried.” The man was sent on an expedition marching against the Ban¯ u ’Abs (3315). The followers had a feeling of delicacy in the matter. She was brought and she “stayed in u the fortresses of Ban¯ S¯’idah. The a man replied: “Yes.” By now a the Prophet was an important man in Arab politics. the daughter of one Jaun. . from “head to foot”. There is a possibility that we may send you to an expedition where you may get booty.” Muhammad asked. But this permission actually originated in a diﬀerent incident. who are captured by the Muslims in jih¯d. A believer came to Muhammad. “Did you cast a a glance at her. a CAST A GLANCE AT THE WOMAN YOU WANT TO MARRY It is permissible to cast a glance at the woman one wants to marry.” All¯h’s Messenger went out until he came to her to give u a a “her a proposal of marriage”. . Then. It is in this had¯ that one ﬁnds it permissible to cast a glance at the woman whom is one intends to marry (note 2424). informing him that he had contracted a marriage with an ans¯r woman and wanted him to contribute toward the dowry payment. Ah¯d¯ 3432-3434 tell us that this verse descended on the Prophet for the beneﬁt of a is his Companions.
taunted Muhammad: “It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire” (3453). for example. and there is no blame in thee if thou invite one whose turn thou hast set aside” (Qur¯n 33:51). Eventually the rule of rotation was withdrawn altogether by a special dispensation of All¯h: “Thou may defer the turn of any of them that thou pleasest. he spent three nights with her. a believer should visit his wives by turn. There was an altercation a between the two until their voices became loud. Though a husband should divide his days equally among all his wives. and thou may receive a any thou pleasest. But while he is in bed with one of them. he is allowed to have his other wives around. and three days if she is a widow (3443-3449). Ab¯ Bakr came to get Muhammad. he said: “Messenger of All¯h. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) DEPORTMENT TOWARD ONE’S WIVES Ticklish problems arise if one has more than one wife and if one marries often. ’Aisha. come u a for prayer. one of the wives of Muhammad. whereupon she [’Aisha] said: it is Zainab.54 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. . when Zainab came there. It was the night in the house of ’Aisha. When he intended to leave. Ah¯d¯ 3451-3452 tell us that when Saud¯ became old. she “caught hold of his garment”. reports that “all the wives of the Messenger of All¯h used to gather every night in the house of one where a he [the Apostle] had to come . one wife could make over her day to another. but then I shall have to stay for a week with all my wives” (3443-3445). . One wife told him: “If I had the option in this I would not have allowed anyone to have precedence over me” (3499). hearing their voices.” When the morning prayer was announced. . In order to be impartial. and throw dust in their mouths” (3450). is how many nights one should spend with one’s newly wed wife? The answer is seven days if she is a virgin. Anas. tells us that when Muhammad married her. NIGHT SESSIONS We have one important had¯ which provides another indulgence to the believers and is also throws some light on the Prophet’s sexual code. . But the Prophet told her: “If you wish I can stay with you for a week. for whose beneﬁt He really a a spoke. a But sometimes the Prophet himself would ask a wife to forgo her day. He [the Holy Prophet] stretched his hand towards her [Zainab]. she a is a made over her day to ’Aisha. one of the servants of Muhammad. Umm Salama. So All¯h’s Messenger “allotted two days to ’Aisha” (3451). All¯h’s Apostle withdrew his hand. All¯h is very accommodating. One of the problems.
or “who might amuse you and you might amuse her” (3464). THE ORIGINAL SIN “Had it not been for Eve. and the woman whose husband had been away may get herself clean. But the Prophet told them to wait till “the woman with dishevelled hair may comb it. Khaibar was invaded in the same fashion. you have the enjoyment” (3462). and when you enter. J¯bir reports: “The Apostle of All¯h said: ‘J¯bir. Anas narrates: “We encountered the people at sunrise when .” the Prophet tells us (3471). which literally means “to remove the hairs on the private parts.’ He said: ‘A virgin or one previously married?’ I said: ‘with one previously married. SAF¯ IYYA Muhammad’s wars and raids not only fed his coﬀers. Saf¯ iyya.’ whereupon he said: ‘Why did you not marry a virgin with whom you could sport?’ ” (3458). 3464). have you married?’ I said.” but it is here used metaphorically in the sense of getting ready for the husband’s company (note 1926). Once the Prophet and his party returned from an expedition rather late. was the wife of the chief of a Jewish clan inhabiting Khaibar. woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards the husband.55 ON MARRYING A VIRGIN In other ah¯d¯ the Prophet touches upon the excellence of marrying a virgin (3458a is. The translator tells us that the Arabic word for “get herself clean” is tastahidda. a beautiful girl of seventeen years. TASTAHIDDA Muhammad also made eﬀective use of what are known in literary criticism as vulgar expressions. they also swelled his harem. a a a ‘yes. and his Companions wanted to hurry to their homes. MUHAMMAD’S MARRIAGES Some incidents relating to the Prophet’s marriages with Saf¯ iyya (3325-3329) and Zainab hint Jahsh are mentioned (3330-3336). Muhammad’s custom was to make surprise attacks.
Muhammad kept her as his Kin¯na was tortured in order to make him reveal his hidden treasure. and the Lord your God gives them into your hands. 515). and her people. and you have desire for her and would take her for yourself as wife. and till recently she was in unbelief. 517). The latter “kindled a ﬁre with ﬂint and steel a on his chest until he was nearly dead. “Torture him until you extract a what he has. Kin¯na. Ab¯ Ayy¯b took it upon himself u u to guard him. a In any case.” Muhammad prayed for him: “O God. before them evil will be the morning for those who were warned” (Qur¯n 37:177). and shall remain in your house and bewail her father and mother a full month. in violation of his own command. you shall let her go where she will. Her husband. Gabriel or no Gabriel. Saf¯ iyya. Muhammad saw him and asked him what he was doing there. preserve Ab¯ Ayy¯b as he spent the night preserving me” (S¯ u u irat Ras ul All ah. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they had come out with their axes. He replied: “I was afraid for you with this woman for you have killed her father. her husband. p. After her husband was beheaded in cold blood along with eight hundred u other male members of her tribe in the genocide at Medina. if you have no delight in her. Dihya was strikingly handsome. Then the apostle delivered him to Muhammad b. and many others were taken prisoners. al-’Aww¯m. There is even a Qur¯nic verse relating to a Muhammad’s sudden sweep on the valley and the fate of its people: “But when it descends [nazala] into the open space. and you take them captive. the chief of the Quraiza and al-Naz¯ was one ir. then you shall bring her home to your house. and there were gathered the prisoners of war.” (Incidentally. was more considerate. Muhammad took her away from Dihya. and even took her to his bed the same night her husband was killed. “We took Khaibar by force. Muhammad used to see Gabriel in his form. whom Muhammad often followed. you shall not treat her as a slave. the daughter of Huyayy b. In the morning. and be her husband. The Mosaic law is: “When you go forth to war against your enemies. among them Rih¯na and Juwair¯ a iya. Many other women. p. which enjoined the believers to wait until the beginning of the next menstrual cycle in their captive women. ¯ ¯ 5 In a case like Saf¯ iyya’s even Moses.” Muhammad ordered al-Zubayr b. When the Prophet was passing the night with Saf¯ iyya in a tent.) But Anas adds that people “praised her in the presence of All¯h’s Messenger and said: ‘We have not a seen the like of her among the captives of war’ ” (3329). Akhtab. and she shall be your wife. was put to a cruel death (3325). so I was afraid for you on her account. And she shall put oﬀ her captive’s garb.56 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. 4 a Anas continues: “She ﬁrst fell to the lot of Dihya in the spoils of war. ¯ ¯ 4 . but you shall not sell her for money. after that you may go in to her. of them. Maslama and he struck oﬀ his head” (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. They shouted in surprise: Muhammad has come along with his force! The Messenger of All¯h a said: Khaibar shall face destruction” (4438). and she shall shave her head and pare her nails. Rih¯na was a Jewish girl of the a Ban¯ Quraizah.” according to Anas. many people were butchered. Then. spades and strings driving their cattle along. were taken in and treated as part of the war booty. since you have humiliated her” (Deuteronomy 21:10-14). and see among the captives a beautiful woman. 5 ¯ RIHANA AND JUWAIR¯ IYA Saf¯ iyya was no exception.
and He revealed His plan. She poisoned the roasted lamb she was ordered to prepare for Muhammad. she fell to the lot of S¯bit ibn Qays. She was captured in the ﬁfth or sixth year of the Hijra along with two hundred other women. 493. At this point All¯h spoke and decided the matter (Qur¯n 33:36-40). as good as his own daughter-in-law. according to some authorities (Tabaq¯t. She was the wife of Muhammad’s adopted son. and uncle killed. and was aroused. He set her ransom a price at nine ounces of gold. “Retain thou in wedlock thy wife. but it is more ﬁtting that thou should fear God”.” and for hiding in his heart “that which God was about to make manifest. in the eyes of the Arabs. vol. Muhammad spat out the very ﬁrst morsel. II. ¯ ¯ . Juwair¯ was at that time about twenty. Mustaliq. when a matter has been decided by God and His Apostle to have any option about their decision. ’Aisha’s reaction when she saw this beautiful girl being led into the presence of Muhammad is recounted in these words: “As soon as I saw her at the door of my room. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq while they were a u unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water. On that very day.” 6 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he oﬀered to divorce her. beyond the power of her relatives to pay. to Muhammad thus: “We joined her in marriage to thee. There was another girl. who had seen her father. and she was immediately put to death. in order that in future there may be no diﬃculty to the believers in the matter of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons. he is indeed clearly on a wrong path. iya and she became the seventh wife of the Prophet. and therefore. saw her in a state of seminudeness.” All¯h told Muhammad: “Thou feared the a people.57 concubine. husband. a pp.” He now also addressed Himself to the Muslims of all generations: “It is not ﬁtting for a believer. If anyone disobeys God and His Apostle. I detested her. present and future. p. We shall touch upon this massacre again in our discussion of jih¯d. named Zainab. told him to keep his wife for himself. again Jewish. When Zaid heard about it. iya a In the division of the booty. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others. The whole story is given by Ibn Ish¯q. 252-255). fearing a public scandal. Zaid. Suspecting something wrong.” And indeed. was the daughter of the chief of the Banu’l iya. a 6 the Prophet’s biographer. ZAINAB BINT JAHSH Here we shall mention another Zainab. when Muhammad saw Juwair¯ iya he paid her ransom and took her for his wife. man or woman. he captured Juwair¯ bint al-H¯ris” (4292). He chided a a Muhammad for telling Zaid. but Muhammad. whose aﬀair was not cruel but scandalous. for I knew that he [Muhammad] would see her as I saw her. a Juwair¯ another of these unfortunate girls. Muhammad went to her house when her husband was away. He was saved.
“All¯h’s Messenger a gave no better wedding feast than the one he did on the occasion of his marriage with Zainab” (3332). MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) Thus reassured.” but in Isl¯mic law. after three successive menses. Somewhat later. When ’Umar mentioned this to ifa. the latter ordered: “He [’Abdullah] should take her back. the divorce becomes operative. The other believers are allowed only four wives at a time.some say ninety . Muhammad made Zaid himself go to his wife with his marriage proposal. People in his day called him the Divorcer. who do not count. once a man says the word tal¯q a a three times. . the Prophet had twenty-two wives. and when she is pure he may divorce her” (3485). Wives were constantly replaced. Hasan. ’Abdullah. but that was a special divine dispensation for him alone. “traditions are not lacking in which three pronouncements at one sitting were held as irrevocable divorce even during the time of the prophet” (note 1933). Ab¯ Bakr. Yet there are certain restrictions. adviser. the son of ’Umar. it now means annulment a a of marriage by the pronouncement of certain words. With such easy conditions of divorce. The total of four wives at one time cannot be exceeded. ’Abdar-Rahm¯n. “All¯h’s Messenger said to Zaid to make a mention to her about him” (3330). Muhammad. The procedure is not diﬃcult.times. DIVORCE (Tal¯q) a Tal¯q literally means “undoing the knot. it is forbidden to divorce a woman during her menstrual period (3473-3490). married seventy . the limitation of wives to four at a time was not unduly self-denying. But opinions diﬀer as to whether it has to be pronounced on three separate occasions. had children by sixteen u wives besides those from concubines. but individual wives can be replaced through tal¯q. the future Khal¯ divorced his wife while she was in a state of menses. The marriage and divorce laws of Isl¯m derive from the Prophet’s own practice and a pronouncements. For example. a senior Compana ion. The a marriage ordered from above was celebrated with unusual festivity. THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS The word tal¯q has to be pronounced three times before tal¯q becomes operative (3491a a 3493). two of whom were bondswomen. According to the translator. or whether three times at one sitting is enough. the son of ’Al¯ and grandson i of Muhammad. According to the Shias.58 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. and friend of Muhammad. exclusive of slave concubines. and ’Umar.
’Abdar-Rahm¯n was adopted a ¯ as a brother in faith-in accordance with the arrangement made by by Sa’d. the two forms of separation died away in Isl¯m. the believers are indeed fortunate in having a “model pattern” in an example provided by the Prophet. ¯a There was another form of separation called Il¯’ (“to swear”). The purpose of the abstinence could be penitential or devotional. In the pre-Isl¯mic period. . Muhammad to join every Emigrant to an ans¯r in brotherhood. the host said: “Behold my two wives and choose one you like the best. a ¯a the Arabs regarded Il¯ as a form of divorce. pp. if not. ¯a The oath of Il¯ was sometimes taken to penalize the wife and extort ransom from her. In zih¯r. In this sense of the term. the marriage was ipso facto legally dissolved at the end of four months. a MUHAMMAD’S SEPARATION FROM HIS WIVES ¯a Il¯’ is a temporary separation from one’s wife. which in this case is either a fast for two months or the feeding of sixty poor men and women. son of Rabi. Muir. Muhammad condemned divorce by zih¯r (Qur¯n 58: 1-5) and allowed a husband who had taken the vow to go a a back to his wife. The broken vow could be expiated. or the vow might be taken in a ﬁt of anger. There is in the Messenger of All¯h a model pattern for you” (3494-3495). The broken vow could be expiated by making a kaﬀ¯rah (literally. a a i. a In due course. .” One wife was divorced on the spot and gifted away 7 ¯ ¯ ¯ ZIHAR AND ILA’ There were two other forms of separation not amounting to legal divorce prevalent ¯a among the Arabs at the time of Muhammad: zih¯r and Il¯’. “When a man declares his wife as unlawful for himself that is an oath which must be atoned . the husband swore an oath to abstain from sexual intercourse with his wife. Wives could be easily disposed of by gifting or divorce. Muslims also took it during the period of fasting. The same formula was also used as a form of divorce. vol. This was a customary vow of abstinence among the Arabs. Muhammad forbade this (Qur¯n 2:226). on emigrating to Medina. 272-273. the husband vowed a a that his wife would be unto him as the back (zahr) of his mother and then stayed away from her for a speciﬁed period. and according to some traditions. .59 It is no wonder that women had no sanctity. For example. . Muhammad himself had to undergo separation from his wives for a period which lasted 7 K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ quoted by W. As they sat together at a supper. Life of Mahomet. “that a which covers a sin”). but it did not fully dissolve the marriage. In this form. A man who had taken such a vow was to go a back to his wife without any blame to himself. II.
seek permission for me from All¯h’s a a Messenger. and soon the news was aﬂoat that he was divorcing them all. and jeering. and found the people striking the ground with pebbles and saying: All¯h’s Messenger has divorced his wives. He was admitted.60 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. So our women began to learn from their women.” ’Umar next sought out Hafza and chided her.” ’Umar decided a to ﬁnd out what was actually happening. but he insisted. “I went on talking to him until the signs of anger disappeared . I think that All¯h’s Messenger is under the impression that I have come for a the sake of Hafza. told ’Aisha. but he wanted Hafza to keep the incident a secret. His angels. You should look to your own receptacle [Hafza].” he told her. verily All¯h is with you. a “I have nothing to do with you. and a if you had divorced them. however. Soon the harem was ﬁlled with gossip. In visiting his numerous wives. the beautiful Coptic concubine. He separated himself from them. excitement. and very soon everybody knew about it. we take them up. who had even given Muhammad a son.” ’Aisha told him to mind his own business. In a long had¯ ’Umar b. The Sah¯ Muslim narrates this incident in several ah¯d¯ but before ih a is. Mika’il. trying to pacify her. he saw “the signs of anger on his [Muhammad’s] face.” she shouted. Muhammad was very angry. a a I would certainly do that. Muhammad’s doorman. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) twenty-nine days. Muhammad observed a rough-and-ready rule of rotation.” he told Rah¯b. First he asked ’Aisha if she had “gone to the extent of giving trouble to All¯h’s Messenger. Hafza was furious. Then ’Umar sought permission to be admitted into the presence of Muhammad. “O Rah¯b. what trouble do you feel from your wives. a As ’Umar entered. “You know that All¯h’s Messenger does not love a you. I entered the mosque. Hafza. but instead she found him with Mary. In fact. and had I not been your father he would have divorced you. promised never to visit Mary again.” so he tried to calm him down. One day Muhammad was supposed to be with Hafza. She wept bitterly. a a kept himself away from his wives. if All¯h’s Messenger would command me to strike her neck. “In my room. the days in his life were known by the name of the wife he was visiting. on my day and in my own bed. Muhammad’s Quraish wives detested Mary and were jealous of the servile wretch.” Muhammad relaxed. Muhammad. I and Ab¯ a u Bakr and the believers are with you. By All¯h.” He also told him: “Messenger of All¯h. Gabriel. in the eyes of the believers this rumor was more newsworthy and signiﬁcant than the reports that Medina was soon to be attacked by Ghass¯n (the Arab auxiliaries of a Byzantium). let us provide some background information. In fact. The request was disregarded. He told him “how we the people of Quraish had domination over women but when we came to Medina we found people whom their women dominated. and he told his wives that he would have nothing to do with them. al-Khatt¯b (Hafza’s father) reports: “When All¯h’s Apostle is.
and he laughed. ‘Enter the Fire with those who enter’ ” (Qur an 66:1-10). freeing him from his oath respecting Mary. u went to ’Aisha and slapped her on the neck. and the righteous of the a believers. On this occasion. to which Muhammad replied: “At times. and it was said.” Then Ab¯ Bakr “got up. But if they had only referred it to the Apostle. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza.” All¯h also told them that if they a misbehaved. and the angels after that will back him up. These must have occurred in the early days at Medina. and ’Umar stood up and slapped Hafza” (3506).61 on his face .for your hearts have swerved! . they broadcast it. All¯h has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths. threatening his wives with divorce. in the following terms: “If ye both a turn repentant unto God. had¯ 3507).” All¯h warned them.” All¯h also told the Prophet’s wives in no uncertain a terms that “his Lord if he divorces you will give him in exchange wives better than you. when Muhammad lacked funds. craving to please thy wives? . . “Why do you prohibit thyself what God a has made lawful to you. Now ’Umar stood at the door of the mosque and called out at the top of his voice: “The Messenger of All¯h has not divorced his wives. the proper investigators would indeed know it” (Qur¯n 4:83.but if you back each other up against him. and they became his wives again. some of them centering round money.” ’Umar narrates. the Prophet also gave his wives the option of a goodly departure if . All¯h.” He told the two fathers: “They [his wives and their daughters] are around me as you see. a is OPTION OF DIVORCE DIFFERENT FROM DIVORCE It seems there were other occasions of domestic discord. the famous verses descended on the Prophet. the month consists of twenty-nine days” (3507-3511). ¯ The matter blew over. .” ’Aisha mischievously reminded the Prophet that it was not yet one month but only twenty-nine days. verily. . but they betrayed them: and they availed them nothing against God. “God strikes out a parable to those who misbelieve: the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. . and incorporating ’Umar’s assurance that all the angels and believers supported him: “O Prophet!” said All¯h. In this new mood. The Holy Prophet “had taken an oath of remaining away from them [his wives] for a month. . or to those charged with authority among them.” A verse chiding his followers for so a readily believing in rumors also descended on Muhammad: “And if any matter pertaining to peace or alarm comes within their ken. and Gabriel. asking for extra money. being the Prophet’s wives would avail them nothing on the Day of Judgment. [but] he visited them. and by now only twenty-nine days had passed. they were under two of our righteous servants. Once Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar went to Muhammad and found him “sitting sad and u silent with his wives around him. He is the sovereign.
e. u a Muhammad advised against them both. Having to provide an allowance for four months at the most was not very diﬃcult. ‘It is not permissible for a woman believing in a All¯h and the Hereafter to mourn for the dead beyond three days. and the latter was poor. the son of his slave and adopted son. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) they “cared more for this world and its adornments than for All¯h and His Apostle and a the abode of the Hereafter” (Qur¯n 33:28-29). I need no perfume but for a the fact that I heard All¯h’s Messenger say. MOURNING A woman whose husband dies must abstain from all adornment during the ’idda period. She had two suitors. She sent for some perfume and rubbed it on her cheeks. The wives chose the latter. a Later on a more generous sentiment prevailed. the father of Umm Hab¯ a iba. “We cannot abandon the Book of All¯h and the Sunn¯h of our a a a Apostle for the words of a woman” (3524).62 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. but mourning for other relatives should not last for more than three days (3539-3552). since husbands had almost no fear of any future burden. Once ’idda has ended. but when it is really intended. ’Idda is a period of waiting during which a woman cannot remarry.” a She was very angry and went to Muhammad.” NO MAINTENANCE ALLOWANCE FOR A DIVORCEE F¯tima hint Quais was divorced by her husband “when he was away from home. . one of Muhammad’s wives. Zaid (3512). and could get rid of their wives so easily. the threat of divorce hung heavily on Muslim women. Zaid. Thus. a The moral of these ah¯d¯ (3498-3506) as drawn by the translator is that “mere giving a is option to women to divorce does not make the divorce eﬀective. died.. Ab¯ u Sufy¯n.” But he mercifully helped her to ﬁnd another husband. In their place. who told her: “There is no lodging and maintenance allowance for a woman who has been given irrevocable divorce. It normally lasts four months and ten days but ends sooner if the woman gives birth to a child. for the former did “not put down his staﬀ from his shoulder” (i. ’Umar ruled that husbands should provide their divorced wives with a maintenance allowance during the period of ’idda on the ground that the true purpose of the Prophet’s words had been misunderstood by F¯tima. but in the case of the a death of the husband it is permissible for four months and ten days’ ” (3539). a mere woman. he beat his wives). the woman can contract another marriage (3536-3538). Ab¯ Jahm and Mu’¯wiya. observing: “By All¯h. he proposed the name of Us¯ma b.
a close companion of the Prophet. Modern Muslim writers trying to boost Isl¯m as a humane ideology make much of the a sayings of Muhammad on the emancipation (’itq) of slaves. and they are wife and husband no more (3553-3577). A husband’s solitary evidence can be accepted if he bears witness four times with an oath by All¯h that he is solemnly telling the truth and then invokes the curse of All¯h a a upon himself if he is lying. and if he keeps quiet. the wife can solemnly deny the accusation four times and then invoke the wrath of All¯h on herself if her accuser is telling the truth. both male and female. you would lash him. but this closes the chapter.63 INVOKING CURSE (Li’¯n) a If a man ﬁnds his wife in adultery. and booty became the main props of the new Arab aristocracy. And a a verse descended on him (Qur¯n 24:6) which gives us the practice of li’¯n. Slaves continued to suﬀer under the same old disabilities. you will kill him.” Muhammad supplicated God: “All¯h. and if he speaks about it. But the fact remains that Muhammad. . An ans¯r posed the problem to a Muhammad: “If a person ﬁnds his woman along with a man. Similarly. he shall have to consume anger. or it may be that the subject really belongs to the next book. a few chapters at the end of the book dealing with marriage and divorce are on slaves.a slave. and if he kills. solve this problem” (3564).” but technically it stands for that particular form of oath which brings about separation between husband and wife with the help of four oaths and one curse. he cannot kill the adulterous man. The Prophet himself possessed at least ﬁfty-nine slaves at one stage or another. Mirkhond. for unless he has four witnesses. never imagined that the institution of slavery could take on such massive proportions. after all. he receives eighty stripes for making a false accusation against the chastity of a woman. sanctioned slavery on an unprecedented scale. One of a them must be lying. The fact is that slavery. or it may be that emancipating a slave was considered a form of tal¯q. by introducing the concept of religious war and by denying human rights to non-Muslims. Pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. But if the witnesses are not always forthcoming. which is most likely in such a case. nor can he make an accusation against his wife. what should he do? This was the dilemma confronting the believers. was no more than a chattel. The word a a literally means “oath. even in a their wildest dreams. which is on business transactions . besides thirty-eight servants. names them all in his Rauzat-us-Safa. for that is forbidden. Zubair. This may be due to a faulty method of classiﬁcation. They were the property of their master (saiyid). EMANCIPATING A SLAVE For some unexplained reason. tribute. the Prophet’s ﬁfteenth-century biographer. owned one thousand slaves when he died. which literally a means “freeing” or “undoing the knot”.
When Muhammad was consulted.” says Muhammad (129).64 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. Muhammad’s response to the practice was positive. Someone once slapped his maid-slave in anger and then. lending them. 4:25.” according to him (4). mortgaging them. In the ﬁrst. a practice which was opposed in some cases by Muhammad because he did not want such emancipations to take place at the expense of the heirs and relatives of the masters. Slaves had no property rights. wanted to free her. they were not entitled to the spoils of war according to Muslim religious law. Whatever they acquired became the property of their masters. the freeing of a slave was an act of charity on the part of the master. hiring them out. 4:24. the master declared that on his death his slaves would be free. and a very common one. On the other hand. Another was when a master granted his slave a free and unconditional emancipation (’itq). In any case. We have already seen how Hak¯ b. 23:6) permitted this. “The slave who ﬂed from his master committed an act of inﬁdelity so long as he would not return to him. Muhammad asked her: “Where is All¯h?” She a replied: “He is in the heaven. however.” Muhammad asked: “Who am I?” “Thou art the Messenger . And though the slaves fought for their Muslim masters. There were two other forms of emancipation: tadbir and kitabah. in contrition. EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES The emancipation of slaves was not unknown in pre-Isl¯mic Arabia. To Muhammad. inheritance. On the whole. he saw the time when the meek and the lowly would inherit the earth as a portent of the approaching end of the world. One way. In the second. Hiz¯m “freed one hundred slaves” (225) even im a before he became a Muslim. was that they were ransomed by their relatives. a slave should not seek his emancipation by running away. but this did not make him into a Messiah of the slaves. when the naked. he said: “Bring her to me.” She was brought. The a Qur¯n (S¯ra 4:3. Slaves could gain a their freedom in several ways.these are some of the signs of Doom. not a matter of justice. and marriage. “When the slave-girl will give birth to her master. of course. We have also observed that it was an old custom among the Arabs of more pious disposition to will that their slaves would be freed at their death. gifting them away. barefooted would become the chiefs of the people . selling them. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) who could dispose of them as he liked. WHICH SLAVES DESERVE EMANCIPATION? Only a believing slave deserves freedom. slaves who were not ransomed by their relatives obtained their master’s permission to earn their ransom by work. Slavery was interwoven with the Isl¯mic a u a laws of sale. The master had the right to live in concubinage with his female slaves if they confessed Isl¯m or belonged to the “People of the Book”.
though ready to free her for cash money. All¯h will save from Fire every limb of his for every limb of the slave. and the slave “will be required to work to pay for his freedom. . “When a slave looks to the welfare of his master and worships All¯h well. a SLAVERY HAS ITS OWN REWARD Beyond all that may be said or done. WHO INHERITS A SLAVE’S PROPERTY? Even if a slave’s person was freed. and emancipate her. One “who took the freed slave as an ally without the consent of his previous master. He cannot seek any new alliance. he a has two rewards for him” (4097). Thus there is merit in freeing a slave. there is upon him the curse of All¯h and that of His angels and that of the whole mankind” (3600). the condition of a slave is no great evil.” she answered. “A Muslim who emancipates a Muslim [slave]. For the rest a fair price for the slave was to be ﬁxed. a OTHER DISABILITIES A freed slave is subjected to several other disabilities. Bar¯ ira. One could also emancipate a jointly owned slave to the extent of one’s share in him.” But the owner. ’Aisha was ready to help a slave-girl. It has its own reward.65 of All¯h.” Muhammad then admonished: “What has happened to the people that they lay down conditions which are not found in the Book of All¯h” (3585). any property he might have or come to have was inherited by the emancipator (3584-3595). Muhammad gave his judgment in favor of ’Aisha: “Buy her. nor can he oﬀer himself as an ally without the permission of his former owner. for the right of inheritance vests with one who emancipates. Muhammad gave his verdict: “Grant her freedom. wanted to retain the right of inheritance for himself. she is a a believing woman” (1094). even his private parts a for his” (3604). but must not be overburdened” (3582). to purchase her freedom on the condition that “I shall have the right in your inheritance.
’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. . i. and it also records the words of the prophet . . . He who innovates or gives protection to an innovator. of All¯h and the Sah¯ [a small book or pamphlet that was tied to the scabbard of a ifa his sword] tells a lie. This Sah¯ contains problems pertaining to the ages of the camels ifa and the recompense of injuries.66 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 6. there is a curse of All¯h and that of his angels a and that of the whole humanity upon him” (3601). who thinks that we [the members of the Prophet’s family] read anything else besides the book. says: “He is. MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE ( AL-NIK AH AND AL-TAL AQ) PROPER READING FOR MUHAMMAD’S DESCENDANTS We close the “Book of Marriage and Divorce” by quoting one of the very last ah¯da ¯ It is on a diﬀerent subject but interesting. .
Transactions with the help of documents (probably the hundi or bill of exchange system). a 67 . During Muhammad’s own lifetime. SPECULATION FORBIDDEN Muhammad forbids speculation. were also made unlawful. so his views on the subject should be of interest.Chapter 7 Business Transactions. The injunction was implemented with the help of the police.” reports Sulaim¯n (3652). Inheritances. Muhammad also disallowed “futures” transactions. Vows and Oaths The ninth book is the “Book of Business Transactions” (al-Buyu’). ’Abdullah im reports: “I saw people being beaten during the lifetime of All¯h’s Messenger in case they a bought the food grain in bulk and then sold them at that spot before taking it to their places” (3650). as the control of Arabia passed into his hands. “I saw the sentinels snatching these documents from the people. “He who buys food grains should not sell it until he has taken possession of it” (3640). Because of their speculative nature. Bequests. Sal¯ b. He forbade “selling ahead for years and selling of fruits before they become ripe” (3714). his injunctions became state policy. Gifts. Let us remind ourselves that Muhammad in his pre-prophetic days was a merchant.
68CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
Muhammad also forbade outbidding. “A person should not enter into a transaction when his brother is already making a transaction and he should not make a proposal of marriage when his brother has already made a proposal except when he gives permission” (3618). He also forbade brokerage, “the selling of goods by a townsman on behalf of a man of the desert” (3621).
Muhmmad recognized the contract system. Unless otherwise laid down in the contract, “he who buys a tree after it has been fecunded, its fruits belongs to one who sells it . . . . and he who buys a slave, his property belongs to one who sells him” (3704).
Muhammad also forbade the leasing of land. “He who has land should cultivate it, but if he does not ﬁnd it possible, he should lend it to his Muslim brother, but he should not accept rent from him” (3719).
THE PROPHET AS A LANDLORD
Several ah¯d¯ (3758-3763) show that Muhammad’s own business practices could be a is sharp. ’Abdullah, the son of ’Umar, reports that “when Khaibar had been conquered, it came under the sway of All¯h, that of his Messenger and that of the Muslims” (3763). a Muhammad made an agreement with the Jews of Khaibar that they could retain the datepalms and the land on the condition that they worked them with their own wealth (seeds, implements) and gave “half of the yield to All¯h’s Messenger” (3762). Out of this half, a “All¯h’s Apostle got the ﬁfth part,” and the rest was “distributed” (3761). This lends a credence to the common observation that those who control the funds, whether in the name of All¯h or the state or the poor, are apt to spend them ﬁrst on themselves. a These acquisitions enabled Muhammad to give each of his wives 100 wasqs (1 wasq = about 425 English pounds), 80 wasqs of dates, and 20 wasqs of barley per year. When ’Umar became the Khal¯ he distributed the land and gave the wives of All¯h’s Apostle ifa a the option of taking the land or the yearly wasqs. Their reactions to this oﬀer diﬀered. ’Aisha and Hafza, two wives of the Prophet, “opted for land and water” (3759).
Muhammad also “forbade the charging of price of the dog, and earnings of a prostitute and sweets oﬀered to a K¯hin [soothsayer]” (3803). He said that “the worst earning is the a earning of a prostitute, the price of a dog and the earning of a cupper” (3805). Muhammad had a great dislike for dogs. He said: “It is your duty to kill the jet-black [dog] having two spots [on the eyes], for it is a devil” (3813). ’Abdullah, ’Umar’s son, tells us that the Prophet “ordered to kill dogs, and he sent men to the corners of Medina that they should be killed . . . . and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill” (3810, 3811). Later on, on representation, an exception was made in the case of dogs meant for hunting and for protecting the herds. With the exception of these dogs, anyone who kept a dog “lost two q¯ at [the name of a measure] of reward every day” (3823). ir¯ Muhammad also forbade the sale of wine, carcasses, swine, and idols. “May All¯h the a Exalted and Majestic destroy the Jews; when All¯h forbade the use of fat of the carcass a for them [see Leviticus 3:17], they melted it, and then sold it and made use of its price” (3840).
In some matters, the Prophet was modern. He disapproved of the barter system and in its place stood for money-exchange. The collector of the revenues from Khaibar once brought Muhammad some ﬁne dates. Muhammad asked whether all the dates of Khaibar were of such ﬁne quality. The collector said: “No. We got one s¯ [of ﬁne dates] for two a s¯ s [of inferior dates].” Muhammad disapprovingly replied: “Don’t do that; rather sell the a inferior quality of dates for dirhams [money], and then buy the superior quality with the help of dirhams” (3870).
Muhammad also forbade rib¯, which includes both usury and interest. He “cursed the a accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses”; and he said: “They are all equal” (3881). Though he forbade interest, Muhammad himself sent Ab¯ Bakr to the Qainuq¯ tribe u a of Medina with a message bidding them to “lend to God at good interest,” using the very words of the Qur¯n, “to lend to God a goodly loan” (5:12). When they rebuﬀed him, their a fate was sealed, and they were driven away from their homes.
70CHAPTER 7. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS, INHERITANCES, GIFTS, BEQUESTS, VOWS AND OA
INHERITANCES, GIFTS, AND BEQUESTS
The next three books are the “Book of Inheritances” (al-fara’id), the “Book of Gifts” (al-hib¯t), and the “Book of Bequests” (al-was¯ a iyya). In some ways, they are interrelated. The laws deriving from them are complicated, and we need not go beyond mentioning them here.
Anything given as a gift or charity should not be taken back. ’Umar had donated a horse in the Path of All¯h (i.e., for jih¯d). He found that the horse was languishing in a a the hands of the recipient, who was very poor, and considered buying it back. “Don’t buy it back . . . for he who gets back the charity is like a dog which swallows its vomit,” Muhammad told him (3950).
Muhammad favored waqf, i.e., the dedication of the corpus of a property to All¯h. a ’Umar told Muhammad: “I have acquired land in Khaibar [the land of the defeated Jews, which had now been conferred on the Companions]. I have never acquired property more valuable for me than this, so what do you command me to do with it? Thereupon, All¯h’s a Apostle said: If you like, you may keep the corpus intact and give its produce as sadaqa . . . . ’Umar devoted it to the poor, to the nearest kin, and to the emancipation of slaves, and in the way of All¯h and guests” (4006). a
TWO-THIRD FOR LEGAL HEIRS
The estate of a deceased person can be distributed after certain obligations, such as funeral expenses and debts incurred by the deceased, have been met. A person who professes a religion other than Isl¯m cannot inherit anything from a Muslim, and vice versa a (3928). Another principle of inheritance is that “the male is equal of the portion of two females” (3933). Muhammad says that one can will only one-third of one’s property; the remaining twothirds must go to the legal heirs. Muhammad visited Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s, on his deathbed. i a Sa’d had only one daughter. He wanted to know whether he could will two-thirds or half of his property in sadaqa (charity). The Prophet replied: “Give one third, and that is quite
71 enough. To leave your heirs rich is better than to leave them poor, begging from people” (3991).
Muhammad was scrupulous about the debts of the deceased. That was the ﬁrst charge on the property of a deceased person after the funeral expenses. In cases where the property was not suﬃcient to meet the debt obligations, money was raised through contributions. But when Muhammad became rich through conquest, he himself met these charges. “When All¯h opened the gateways of victory for him, he said: ‘I am nearer to the believers than a themselves, so if anyone dies leaving a debt, its payment is my responsibility, and if anyone leaves a property it goes to his heirs’ ” (3944).
MUHAMMAD’S LAST WILL
On a certain Thursday when his illness took a serious turn, Muhammad said: “I make a will about three things: Turn out the polytheists from the territory of Arabia; show hospitality to the foreign delegations as I used to do.” The third the narrator forgot (4014). Muhammad also wanted to write a will in his last moments. “Come, I may write for you a document; you would not go astray after that,” he said, asking for writing materials. But ’Umar, who was present, said that the people already had the Qur¯n. “The Book a of All¯h is suﬃcient for us,” he asserted, and thus it was unnecessary to tax Muhammad a in his critical state. When those who were gathered around his bed then began to argue among themselves, Muhammad told them to “get up and go away” (4016). ’Umar might have been moved by genuine concern for the dying man, but the supporters of ’Al¯ later claimed that Muhammad in his last will had wanted to appoint ’Al¯ as his i i successor, and that ’Umar, in league with Ab¯ Bakr, had prevented him from doing so by u a dirty trick.
VOWS AND OATHS
The twelfth and thirteenth books, on vows (al-nazar) and oaths (al-aiman), respectively, can be treated together. Muhammad discourages taking vows, for a vow “neither hastens anything nor defers anything” (4020). All¯h has no need of a man’s vows. A man once a took a vow to walk on foot to the Ka’ba, but Muhammad said that “All¯h is indiﬀerent a to his inﬂicting upon himself chastisement,” and “commanded him to ride” (4029).
“He who took an oath.72CHAPTER 7.” observes Muhammad. But he allows you to swear by God. One day he said. Some hold that such a vow should be a fulﬁlled if it is not against the teachings of Isl¯m. Some people once asked Muhammad to provide them with mounts. “He who has to take an oath.e. before one embraces Isl¯m) is binding or not. and she gave birth to a premature child. I would break the vow and expiate it and do that which is better” (4044). “God has already ordained for a you the dissolution of your oaths” (Qur¯n 66:2). I cannot provide you a a mount. a ABROGATION OF AN OATH All¯h Himself allowed abrogation of oaths if need be. should do that which is better and break his oath. “Do not a a swear by idols.. In other ah¯d¯ about the same story. something which Jesus forbade. the a is number of wives increases from sixty to seventy and then to ninety (4066-4070). INHERITANCES. BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS. BEQUESTS. . but if later on.” But only one of them became a pregnant. a A vow which is in disobedience to All¯h or which is taken for un-Isl¯mic ends is not to a a be fulﬁlled.” Muhammad says (4038). I would see better than it. the vow a a must be fulﬁlled. GIFTS. “I will certainly a have intercourse with them during the night and everyone will give birth to a male child who will all be horsemen and ﬁght in the cause of All¯h. THE “GOD WILLING” CLAUSE If one includes the proviso “God willing” (Insh¯ All¯h) when taking an oath. VOWS AND OA Muhammad also forbids believers to swear by L¯t or ’Uzz¯ or by their fathers. a An oath can be broken. if He so wills. by All¯h. Sulaim¯n (Solomon) had sixty wives. Muhammad swore: “By All¯h. he called them back and oﬀered them camels to ride. he must take it by All¯h or keep quiet.” says Muhammad (4057). Muhammad explained: “So far as I am concerned. nor by your father. particularly if the oath-taker ﬁnds something better to do. Muslim jurists diﬀer as to whether a vow taken during the days of ignorance (i.” But immediately after they were gone. a I would not swear. “But if he had said Insh¯’ All¯h he a a would have not failed.” says Muhammad (4043). but he found something else better than that.
they are not entitled to qis¯s according to most Muslim faq¯ (jurists). a fornication (Qur¯n 24:2-5). accusing her of adultery. mutilated. and the punishments resultant from having committed them. The law also permits qis¯s. As slaves and unbelievers are inferior in status to Muslims. a ¯ Qis¯s. and taz¯ Hadd a ir. but since a slave is a piece of property.e. But the heir can forgo this right and accept the blood-price (diyah) in exchange. or retaliation. ﬁfteenth. For the death of a woman. but according to one school. Had ud) a The fourteenth. and sixteenth books all relate to the subject of crime: the forms and categories of crime. the right of revenge belongs to the victim’s heir. Muslim ﬁqh (law) divides punishment into three heads: hadd. a ihs In cases of murder. his heirs are not entitled to qis¯s and indemnity. one hundred lashes for is. cutting a oﬀ of feet and hands for highway robbery.. cutting oﬀ the right hand for theft (sariqah. If a slave is killed. or killed another. a his owner must be compensated with his full value. Had ud) comprises punishments that are prescribed and deﬁned in the Qur¯n and the ¯ a Had¯ These include stoning to death (rajm) for adultery (zin¯). eighty lashes for a a drinking wine (shurb). death for apostatizing from Isl¯m (irtid¯d). (pl. Though the Qur¯n a 73 . only half of the blood-price is due. The same applies to the death of a Jew or a Christian. eighty lashes for slandering an “honorable” woman (husun). It is permitted only in cases where someone a has deliberately and unjustly wounded.Chapter 8 Crime and Punishment (Qas¯mah. Qur¯n 5:38-39). only one-third is permissible in such cases. and death by sword or cruciﬁxion for robbery accompanied by murder. and only if the injured and the guilty hold the same status. qis¯s. a i. the procedure of investigating them. The Muslim law on crime and punishment is quite complicated.
for to torture by ﬁre is All ah’s prerogative’ ¯ ” (Sah¯ Bukh ar¯ Shar¯ sah¯ 1219).” but in the terminology of the shar¯ i’ah. He commanded us to burn two men of the Quraish if we encountered them. and Muhammad adopted a it. The Mosaic law prescribes that when a man is found slain in open country. a a DEATH PENALTY FOR APOSTASY REBELLION One can accept Isl¯m freely. When Ibn ’Abb¯s heard a a about it. he said. Eight men of the tribe of ’Ukl became Muslims and emigrated to Medina. it is an oath of a particular type and taken under particular conditions. He gave us their names. and the identity of his killer is unknown. the Had¯ alone provides a living source and image. the elders of the town nearest to the slain man take a young heifer to a running brook. but one cannot give it up with the same freedom.” They replied: “All¯h’s a Messenger. wash their hands over the heifer. HAD U D) gives the broad outline. I would have put them to sword for I have heard the apostle say. I. Muhammad allowed them “to go to the camels of sadaqa 1 This injunction is based on the Old Testament. The a punishment for apostasy . and the identity of his slayer is unknown. This establishes their innocence.is death. Kill an apostate but do not burn him for Fire is All¯h’s agency for a punishing the sinners” (Tirmiz¯ vol. Once a Muslim was found slain.74 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. Then Muhammad told them that “the Jews will exonerate themselves by ﬁfty of them taking this oath. is ¯ QASAMAH The fourteenth book is the “Book of Oaths” (al-qas¯mah). 1357).for giving up Isl¯m .” They declined to take the oath since they had not witnessed the murder. ih . ﬁfty persons from the nearest district take an oath that they neither killed the man nor knew who did it. and he would be surrendered to you. neither did our eyes see it shed” (Deuteronomy 21:1-9). For example. 2 i. His relatives accused the neighboring Jews. Muhammad told them: “Let ﬁfty persons among you take oath for leveling the charge of murder against a person among them. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. ‘Don’t burn them in ﬁre but put them to sword. ih ¯ i if. “Once a a group of men apostatized from Isl¯m. he said: If I had been in his place. ’Ali burnt them to death. and testify: “Our hands did not shed this blood. But when we went to him to take his leave. when a man is found slain. Another had¯ speciﬁcally tells us that All¯h’s Messenger “retained the practice of is a Qas¯ma as it was in the pre-Isl¯mic days” (4127). 2 Abu Huraira tells us: “The Apostle sent us on a raiding mission. 1 This was apparently the practice among the pre-Isl¯mic Arabs. how can we accept the oath of unbelieving people?” Then Muhammad paid the bloodwite of one hundred camels for the slain man out of his own funds (4119-4125). Qas¯mah literally means a a “taking an oath. The climate of Medina did not suit them. QIS AS. break its neck. though not by burning.
The translator gives us the verse from the Qur¯n according to which these men were a punished: “The just recompense for those who wage war against All¯h and His Messenger a and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered. a ¯ QIS AS Qis¯s literally means “tracking the footsteps of an enemy”. in Muslim a law. or they should be exiled” (Qur¯n 5:36). . The translator a tells us that there is almost a consensus of opinion among the jurists that apostasy from Isl¯m must be punished with death. or if he has killed someone (i. but they were not given water” (4132). Those who think such a punishment is barbarous a should read the translator’s justiﬁcation and rationale for it (note 2132).” can be punished with the death penalty only a if he is a married adulterer. it is retaliatory punishment. an eye for an eye. When the case was brought to Muhammad. a The Prophet sent twenty ans¯rs after them with an expert tracker who could follow their a footprints. and I a [Muhammad] am the Messenger of All¯h. and put out their eyes. Muhammad commanded that a his head be crushed between two stones (4138).. according to many jurists). someone who is a Muslim.e. A Jew smashed the head of an ans¯r girl and she died. or if he is a deserter from Isl¯m (4152-4155). or cruciﬁed or their hands and their feet should be cut oﬀ on opposite sides. they killed the shepherds. She had broken someone’s teeth. Another had¯ adds that while on the stony ground “they were asking for is water. bloodwite was allowed. The apostates were brought back. took the camels and turned away from Isl¯m. But in another case. “He [the Holy Prophet] got their hands cut oﬀ. but technically. he told her that “Qis¯s [retaliation] was a a command prescribed in the Book of All¯h. It is the lex talionis of the Mosaic law.” She made urgent pleas and was allowed to go a free after paying a money compensation to the victim’s next of kin (4151). and their feet.75 and drink their milk and urine” (urine was considered curative). and threw them on the stony ground until they died” (4130). Away from the control of the Prophet. which involved the sister of one of the Companions. A MUSLIM AND THE DEATH PENALTY A Muslim who “bears testimony to the fact that there is no God but All¯h.
The Had¯ merely conﬁrms the Qur¯n. Thus. a interceded in her behalf. a a The translator.” ’Aisha adds (4188). who was just Eke a nonentity?” Muhammad brushed aside his objection. a hundred stripes for fornication. arguing: “Should we pay indemnity for one who neither ate. he ﬁxed “a male or female slave of best quality” as the indemnity “for what was in her womb. eighty stripes for falsely accusing a married woman. which also prescribes: “And as for the man is a who steals and the woman who steals. ¯ HAD UD Had ud. stoning to death for adultery. nor made any noise. causing her to have a miscarriage. and death for apostasy. HAD U D) INDEMNITY (DIYAT) Muhammad retained the old Arab practice of bloodwite (4166-4174). QIS AS. saying that the man was merely talking “rhymed phrases like the rhymed phrases of desert Arabs” (4170). Zaid. as we have already seen. in a long two-page note. Although Us¯ma b. her hand was cut oﬀ. is dealt with in the ﬁfteenth book. a woman committed some theft. and steals a a rope and his hand is cut oﬀ” (4185).76 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. a a The punishments include the amputation of limbs for theft and simple robbery. ’Aisha reports a similar case. . and also for drinking wine. an exemplary punishment from All¯h. Ab¯ Huraira reports the Prophet as saying: “Let there be in¯ u the curse of All¯h upon the thief who steals an egg and his hand is cut oﬀ. At the time of the victorious expedition to Mecca. PUNISMENT FOR THEFT ’Aisha reports that “All¯h’s Messenger cut oﬀ the hands of a thief for a quarter of a d¯ ar and upwards” (4175). CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. The translator assures us that after the punishment “There was a wonderful change in her soul” (note 2152). “Hers was a good repentance. and All¯h is Mighty and Wise” (5:38). tells us that “it is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Isl¯m that the Qur¯n imposes the severe sentence of a a hand-cutting as deterrent punishment for theft” (note 2150).” An eloquent relative of the woman pleaded for the cancellation of the indemnity. when a woman struck her pregnant co-wife with a tent-pole. cut oﬀ their hand as a punishment for what they have done. the beloved of Muhammad. the penal law of Isl¯m. The ah¯d¯ in ¯ a a is this book relate to measures of punishment deﬁned either in the Qur¯n or in the Sunn¯h.
one of you lagged behind and shrieked like the bleating of a a a male goat. ‘We do not ﬁnd the punishment of stoning in the Book of All¯h. A fellow named M¯’iz came to Muhammad and told a him that he had committed adultery.” says J¯bir b. the people may forget it and may say. with the lapse of time. In this sense. as we set out for Jih¯d in the cause of All¯h.” ’Umar is emphatic because in the Qur¯n there is no punishment for adultery as a such. ’Umar adds his own emphasis: “Verily All¯h sent Muhammad with truth and He sent a down the Book upon him. Confessing four times stands for the four witnesses who are required to testify in case of adultery. a branch of Azd. Therefore. She was spared till she had given birth to her child. is After this incident Muhammad harangued his followers: “Behold. He repeated his confession four times. . .77 ADULTERY AND FORNICATION Adultery is severely punished. And the punishment provided for both is one hundred stripes and not stoning to death as enjoined in the Sunn¯h for adultery. By All¯h. the term includes adultery as well as fornication. Upon ﬁnding that the man was married and also not mad. and gave a small quantity of milk. receive teaching from me. Stoning is a duty laid down in All¯h’s Book for a a married men and women who commit adultery” (4194). and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. And in case of a married male committing adultery with a married female. All¯h has ordained . ’Abdullah. a Flog each of them with a hundred stripes. I shall a certainly punish him” (4198). a woman of Gh¯mid. When an unmarried male a commits adultery with an unmarried female. . “The whore and the whoremonger. ’Ub¯da reports the Prophet as saying: “Receive teaching a from me. the a narrator of this had¯ (4196).’ and thus go astray by a abandoning this duty prescribed by All¯h. they shall receive one hundred lashes and be stoned to death” (4191). he said quite emphatically: “I am afraid that. though there is one for the larger category of zin¯. which means sexual intercourse a between parties not married to each other. came to Muhammad and told him a that she had become pregnant as a result of fornication. SELF-CONFESSED ADULTERY There are some gruesome cases. Similarly.” preaches the Qur¯n (24:2). Muhammad ordered him to be stoned to death. the Prophet means sexual lust and semen. they should receive one hundred lashes and banishment for one year. a ’Umar was apprehensive that people might neglect the Sunn¯h and appeal to the Book a as grounds for a lenient punishment for their adultery. An ans¯r took the responsibility of suckling the infant and “she was a . “I was one of those who stoned him. in case I get hold of him. The translator explains that by the metaphor of goat and milk.
FORNICATION AND ADULTERY JOINED In a case of zin¯ in which one party is married and the other party unmarried. he judged it “according to the Book of All¯h. The stoning is begun by the witnesses.78 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. “Allah’s Messenger made pronouncement about her and she was stoned to death” (4029).” the a Qur¯n urges while prescribing punishment for the fornicators. His father gave one hundred goats and a slave-girl in ransom. as no such hole was dug for M¯’iz. The Old Testament prescribes it for adultery and fornication (Deuteronomy 22:19-23). just as was done in the case of Ghamd¯ (the woman of iya Gh¯mid). No such hole need be dug for a man. Another had¯ tells us how it was done. “She was put in a is ditch up to her chest and he [Muhammad] commanded people and they stoned her” (4206). and also for those who “serve other gods” (Deuteronomy 13:10). ¯ MODEL PERSECUTION These cases provide a model for all future persecutions. But in the case of a self-confessed criminal. And then the multitudes follow. iya. . and let a party of the believers witness their torment. Muhammad retained it for adultery but prescribed death by other means for crimes like apostasy. but when the case was brought before Muhammad. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. “Do not let pity for them take hold of you in All¯h’s religion . When a woman is to be stoned. participating believers.” He ordered the a slave-girl and the goats to be returned and punished the young man for fornication “with one hundred lashes and exile for one year. HAD U D) then stoned to death” (4025). QIS AS. a the self-confessed adulterer whose case we have just narrated. followed by the im¯m or q¯z¯ and then by the a a i. a chest-deep hole is dug for her. Ab¯ Huraira narrates one u such case involving a man and woman belonging to desert tribes. enjoin the believers to a a both watch and actively participate in the execution. in fact. The Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. the ﬁrst stone is cast by the im¯m or q¯z¯ following the example of the Prophet in the case of Ghamd¯ a a i. the a former is punished for adultery and the latter for fornication.” The woman was punished for adultery. so that her nakedness is not exposed and the modesty of the watching multitude a is not oﬀended. A young bachelor found employment as a servant in a certain household and committed zin¯ with the master’s a wife. a A MOSAIC PRACTICE REVIVED The punishment of stoning to death (rajm) is Mosaic. . . Other traditions tell us that the Prophet himself cast the ﬁrst stone.
if he commands you to blacken the face and award ﬂogging as punishment. then avoid it. FLOGGING COULD BE POSTPONED If a woman has just delivered and there is an apprehension that ﬂogging might kill her. ’Al¯ says: “O people. by the time of Muhammad. was not to be stoned to death. telling their chiefs: “Go to Muhammad. stoning had fallen into disuse.79 Among the Jews themselves. So I mentioned that to All¯h’s Messenger and he said ‘You have done well’ ” (4224). then accept it. then ﬂog her and if she commits adultery again. a Jew and a Jewess who had committed adultery were brought to Muhammad. those who i are married and those not married. impose the prescribed punishment upon your slaves. The Jews sent the two is accused to Muhammad. He asked the Jews what their Torah prescribed for such oﬀenses. All¯h also told him that “they who a a do not judge in accordance with what All¯h has revealed they are indeed wrongdoers. But All¯h comforted him: “O Messenger. then ﬂog her and then sell her even for a rope of hair” (4221). even if she was married. The Jews replied: “We darken their [the culprits’] faces and make them ride on a donkey with their faces turned to the opposite direction.” says ’Abdullah. I am the ﬁrst to revive thy command a a when they had made it dead” (4214). they a are the iniquitous” (5:45.” Muhammad was grieved at this softening of the Scriptures. but if he gives verdict for stoning. The man and woman were stoned to death at Muhammad’s order. A SLAVE ADULTERESS A more lenient view was taken in cases of adultery involving slave-women. and he committed me to ﬂog her. According to one tradition. and he was happy and thanked All¯h: “O All¯h. The Prophet was a merciful a man. .” Muhammad said: “Bring the Torah. A slavewoman. If a slave-girl is unprotected (unmarried) and “commits adultery.” The prescribed punishment was found to be stoning to death. the behaviour of those who vie with one another in a denying the truth should not grieve you” (Qur¯n 5:41). for a slave-woman belonging to All¯h’s Messenger had a committed adultery. 47). and if she was unmarried. she may be spared “until she is alright” (4225).” he adds (4211). and I saw him [the Jew] protecting her [the Jewess] with his body. “I was one of those who stoned them. So “All¯h’s Messenger a pronounced judgment about both of them and they were stoned. Another had¯ gives more details about the same incident. she was liable to half the penalty (ﬁfty strokes). the son of ’Umar. But she had recently given birth to a child and I was afraid that if I ﬂogged her I might kill her.
but this one [forty stripes] is dearer to me” (4231). It is small in size and discusses such matters as the qualities of a good judge and a good witness. ’Al¯ in turn ordered Hasan and then ’Abdullah b. Muhammad prescribed “forty stripes with two lashes. a ¯ TA’Z IR Had ud punishments are prescribed by the Qur¯n and the Had¯ But there is another ¯ a is.80 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. he still has . QIS AS. depending on the physical condition of the oﬀender. CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. PUNISHMENT FOR DRINKING The punishment for drinking is equally harsh. They hold that the number of stripes is to. but ’Umar came and prescribed eighty stripes (4226). While ’Abdullah was ﬂogging the victim. and ’Umar gave eighty stripes. class of punishment. In such ir. If he does his best and also gives the right judgment. Muhammad assures the believer that if he committed a crime. All¯h’s Messenger gave forty stripes. that is his expiation for that sin” (4237). JUDICIAL DECISIONS The sixteenth book deals with judicial decisions (aqdiyya). A judge “should not judge between two persons when he is angry” (4264). “none should be given more than ten lashes” (4234). HAD U D) On the basis of this had¯ Muslim jurists conclude that ﬂogging can be spread over is. If he does his best but errs. Ja’far ’Usm¯n ordered ’Ali a i to lash him. and ¯ to lash him. and all these fall under u the category of the Sunn¯h. u A man charged with drinking was brought before ’Usm¯n. PUNISHMENT HAS ITS REWARD At the end. he has two rewards. and i a Ab¯ Bakr also gave forty stripes. the ﬂogging can be postponed until he recovers. and upon him is “imposed the prescribed punishment and that is carried out. ’Al¯ counted the stripes. and if he is sick. But the majority of later Muslim jurists think diﬀerently. cases. the third Khal¯ a ifa. several days. ’Al¯ said: “Stop now. When the i number forty was reached.” So did Ab¯ Bakr. called ta’z¯ in which the judge can use his own discretion. be determined on the basis of the enormity of the crime.
the evidence of a woman is not ¯ considered at all. and bread. November 15. Fresh vegetables. is as good as a manual on how to steal a ¯ without attracting extreme penalties under Isl¯mic law. is not covered by Isl¯mic law. a fruit and ﬁrewood. Christians. The excellent witness is he “who produces his evidence before he is asked for it” (4268). such as books. and carpets from mosques. cement. meat and chicken and musical instruments can be stolen with impunity. Muhammad says that one should show hospitality to guests but wisely adds that “hospitality extends for three days. recently published in Pakistan. Also exempt are bricks. a A few other matters that are not connected with judicial decisions. and unbelievers considered in a strictly Isl¯mic law court. and loaded camels and merchandise from trade centers (PTI. In a dispute regarding property or debt. Nor is the testimony of Jews. . birds. Hashmi says that the theft of many a articles. According to some. mats. According to the Qur¯n. the evidence of two men or of one man and two women is required. but a apparently this is not really so. Maulana Mohammad Matin Hashmi’s book Isl¯mic Had ud. In cases involving had ud. are also discussed in this book. and what is beyond that is Sadaqa [charity]” (4286). a woman’s testimony (shahadah) has half the weight of a a man’s (2:282). marble. 1981). such as hospitality. CRIME WITH IMPUNITY The Isl¯mic laws on crime and punishment seem to be foolproof and ironclad.81 one reward (4261). glass.
82 ¯ ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 8. HAD U D) . CRIME AND PUNISHMENT (QAS AMAH. QIS AS.
a Jih¯d is a divinely ordained institution in Isl¯m. . . All¯h. it was an imperialist urge masked in religious phraseology. . seek All¯h’s help and ﬁght them” (4294). the spoils of war.Chapter 9 Religious Wars (Jih¯d) a The seventeenth book is the “Book of Religious Wars and Expeditions” (Kit¯b a al-Jih¯d Wa’l-Siyar). if they respond to you. Historically.” He also told them to oﬀer their enemies three options or courses of action: “Invite them to accept Isl¯m.. If they refuse to accept Isl¯m. THREE OPTIONS Muhammad told those whom he made chiefs of his raiding par-ties: “Fight in the name of All¯h and in the way of All¯h. If they refuse to migrate. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muh¯jirs [i. . By many authorities it is counted a a as one of the pillars of Isl¯m. Medina. Theologically. . it is an intolerant idea: a tribal god. . 83 . a in the early days of Muhammad’s stay in Medina. if they do so. living there was a sign of acceptance of Isl¯m and loyalty to Muhammad]. but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fa’i a . a a trying to be universal through conquest. All¯h. Fight against those who disbelieve in All¯h. If they refuse to a a pay the tax. Make a holy a a a war. the jizy¯ a a a all beautifully and proﬁtably interwoven. accept it from them a . . they shall have all a the privileges and obligations of the Muh¯jirs. tell them that a they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of All¯h like other Muslims.e. demand from them the Jizy¯ . do not embezzle the spoils. and inform them that. . . .
and was the linchpin in the economy of the ummah for centuries. it is lawful and pure. had¯ 4324). “war is a stratagem” (4311). All is fair in love and war. Muhammad cut down and burned the celebrated vineyards of the enemy at at-T¯’if in the eighth year of the Hijra. this shocked the Arabs. we kill the a a children of polytheists during the night raids.” CHILDREN OF THE POLYTHEISTS In jih¯d.” Since destroying palm trees was something of a sacrilege in Arabia. JUSTIFICATION OF BURNING TREES Muhammad surrounded a Jewish tribe called Ban¯ Naz¯ residing in the vicinity of u ir. but Muhammad “disapproved a of the killing of women and children” (4319). RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) RAID WITHOUT WARNING It is not always necessary to give warning or oﬀer options in advance. this requirement can be waived. all arms-bearing males of the enemy are killed. But if they are killed.84 ¯ CHAPTER 9. unknown to the Arabs before. or. They are generally taken prisoners and then enslaved or sold or released after ransom is exacted. Jass¯ma said to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. He [Muhammad] said: ‘They are from them’ ” (4323). So All¯h hastened to a speak through Muhammad: “Whatever trees you have cut down or left standing on their trunks. “cunning. it is with the permission of All¯h so that he may disgrace the evil-doers” (Qur¯n a a 59:5. He killed those who fought and imprisoned others” (4292). no song need be made about it. al-Madina. “Eat ye the spoils of war. is Fortiﬁed by this revelation. If need be. “The Messenger of All¯h made a raid upon Ban¯ Mustaliq a u while they were unaware and their cattle were having a drink at the water.” says the Qur¯n a . Religious conversion is likely to ensue from a military victory followed by pillage and plunder. as some others have translated it. SPOILS OF WAR The plundering of inﬁdels and polytheists is a central concept in the Muslim religion. As the Prophet a says. That was another contribution by a Muhammad to the new ethics of war. and ordered their date-palms “to be burnt and cut. particularly a war fought in the Way of All¯h. Sa’b b. All¯h made war booty a lawful for the Muslims.
He reminded the believers of how they “slew a part [of their enemies] and another part made captive”.” The recalcitrant should earn their reward the 1 ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ trans. DIVISION Essentially. and their property a for an inheritance” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). The lure of plunder was a great motivating force. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ translator and commentator of the Qur¯n. The translator explains: “A muj¯hid ﬁghts to uphold the cause of righteousness and a for the supremacy of Isl¯m. i. He says that “booty taken in a lawful and just war does not belong to any individual. Say: “The spoils of war are for All¯h and the Apostle” (Qur¯n 8:1). the desert Arabs did not participate in his expedition to Hudaibiyeh. all the more powerful because of the religious phraseology. providing opportunities for easy booty was Muhammad’s way of rewarding his followers. windfalls from the bounty of the Commander. In fact. he a a is given a share in it. Denying such opportunities to the lukewarm was his way of punishing them. a this verse puts the matter still more eloquently. But a a since the muj¯hid does not live by All¯h alone.. and their dwellings. in this case the cause of God. “They ask thee concerning the a spoils of war. “Permit us to follow you. where resistance was expected to be stiﬀ. they would say. One had¯ tells us that the spoils were made lawful especially for the ummah. It belongs to the Cause. “The is spoils of war were not lawful for any people before us. and how All¯h gave them “their [enemies’] land.85 (8:69). Any portion given out to individuals are accessory gifts. it is an a extra favour to him” (note 2229). as administered by his Apostle.” but he would answer. If he fought for such accessory rewards. “Ye shall by no means follow us. Glorious Qur an (Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. in commenting on i. he fought from wrong motives. ¯ . a In fact. and also as a favor and extra incentive. Muhammad told them that the next time. when it would be easy to win booty. This is because All¯h saw our a weakness and humility and made them lawful for us” (4327). the spoils belong to All¯h and His Apostle. For example. and if in this ﬁght he gets a share in the spoils of war. material incentives had to be provided. 1934).” 1 A GREAT MOTIVATING FORCE Despite the pious rhetoric. Muhammad fully satisﬁed this motive and constantly appealed to it.
The distribution of the booty was always a passionate issue. “If you come to a township which has surrendered without a formal war and you stay therein. after the capture of Hunain. he shall. and they have no interest for us now” (note 472). surrounding a Muhammad “until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was tom from him. You have not found me niggardly or cowardly or false.” 2 ¯ AL-GHANIMAH AND FAI’ There are two forms of war gains: al-ghan¯ imah and fai’. ’Abdullah Yusuf ’Al¯ assures us that “those low suspicions were never a i. MUHAMMAD ACCUSED OF CONCEALING SPOILS The spoils of war were most welcome. restore what he misappropriated. and was full of claims.” the muj¯hids demanded. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) hard way. The ﬁrst includes spoils which fall to the lot of the Muslims after an armed conﬂict. recriminations. pretty rough. the other accrues when the non-Muslims surrender without oﬀering resistance. but Muhammad distributed it only among those who had accompanied him on the previous occasion. but the process of allocating the plunder was rarely easy sailing. Within a few months. suspicion.” said All¯h (3. . he set out on an expedition against Khaibar. If any person is so false. The atmosphere was charged with expectation and excitement. All¯h will give you a goodly hire” (Qur¯n 48:16). Commenting on this verse. Ibn Ish¯q reports that a on one such occasion. a a Muhammad was as good as his word. . 594. II. is to take place in order to quiet the suspicion. “It is not for a prophet to cheat or be false to his trust. “Divide our spoil of camels and herds among us. The booty was very large. Even Muhammad was once accused of concealing spoils (Tirmiz¯ vol. All¯h Himself directed Muhammad to “say to the desert Arabs who lagged a behind” that “ye shall be called out against a people given to vehement war . The occasions when the spoils were distributed were. .” He cried: “Give me back my mantle. and accusations.-161). on the Day of Judgment. then if you obey. I swear by All¯h that if I had as many sheep as the a trees of Tilham I would distribute them among you. 2 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah.86 ¯ CHAPTER 9. believed in by any sensible person. and supernal intervention had i. you have a share [in the form of an award] in [the properties obtained from] it. Muhammad was mobbed by the men. p. had¯ 868). in fact. ¯ ¯ . which he took by surprise. If a town disobeys All¯h and the Messenger a [and ﬁghts against the Muslims] one-ﬁfth of the booty seized there from is for All¯h and a His Apostle and the rest is for you” (4346). the translator of the a Glorious Qur¯n. grievances.
the rules relating to the distribution of booty and the disposal of fai’ were codiﬁed by the various ﬁqh schools. This will be a source of strength to us against the inﬁdels. Alh¯ris. belongs wholly to the Prophet. his family. to His Apostle. the poor.” (8:41). to the Muslims in general. the Apostle exclaimed: “I thank All ah that He has caused thee to be slain. . all prisoners. women. the orphans. they were allowed for some time to continue cultivating their Most male prisoners were released on the payment of ransom money. pp. but Muhammad exclaimed: “O All ah. and a the traveller” (59:7). During a retreat. I. . The fai’. The economic view prevailed. whether men. who had “uttered two distichs” (couplets) when Muhammad ﬂed Mecca. Muhammad consulted Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar u about their treatment. I think you should release them after getting from them ransom. i fellow was Utbah. Such property must be carried away and four-ﬁfths of it distributed among the soldiers. the poor. on the other hand. One of these was Nassar b. Thus prisoners were a rich source of revenue. provided that they paid tribute and became tenants on their own land. Muqd¯d. gains from a war not actively fought.” which ’Al¯ readily did. for they were “leaders of the disbelievers and veterans amongst them” (4360). When the Jews of Khaibar were defeated. Another unfortunate i. or children. The very word and the principle of its disposal derive from the Qur¯n: “What All¯h gives [afa’a] to His Apostle a a of the people of the cities belongs to All¯h. orphans. This is based on the divine principle that all the possessions of the unbelievers must revert to Muhammad and his family and. vol. and has thereby gladdened my ¯ eyes” (Mirkhond. From the beginning of Muhammad’s sojourn in Medina. A Muslim combatant. at least in this case. his family. including the cattle. He advised that they should be put to death. This provision was supported by Muhammad’s own example. His Apostle. But ’Umar took a view that was more theological and also more cruel. if thou slayest me who will take care of my children and little ones?” “The ﬁre of hell!” Muhammad replied.” he advised. 3 A Muslim chief who conquered a territory was at liberty to leave the land in the possession of the conquered. “They are our kith and kin. When seventy men were captured in the Battle of Badr. tried to save him by claiming him a a as his prisoner. In due course. any such property that cannot be carried away. as the victim’s head was struck oﬀ.87 The Qur¯nic sanction for this principle of the division of the booty is contained in a the following verse: “Know that of that which you seize as spoils [ghan¯ imah]. According to this code. They were either distributed among the believers as slaves or sold into slavery or held against payment of ransom by their relatives. part II. it was unlawful for a Muslim conqueror to leave anything in the hands of the inﬁdels. 3 . deprive by Thy bounty Muqd¯d of the reward of ¯ a his worship. a ﬁfth-part [khums] belongs to All¯h. when they are no more. the traveller a . except for a few who were killed. . And at his command. Utbah pleaded with Muhammad: “O Muhammad. Ab¯ Bakr took a view that was more economic and also more u humane. should be destroyed. were regarded as legitimate items of plunder. Along with the khums. it is entirely at his disposal. 338-339). O ’Al¯ arise and strike oﬀ his [Nassar’s] head.
“In abasement” is an active clause and includes a many humiliating provisions. until they pay the tribute [jizy¯] in abasement” (9:29). those to whom the Book has been brought. It was a poll tax levied on a all unbelievers of certain categories and on payment of this tax they were allowed freedom in the exercise of their faith. they are not to give oﬀense to the Muslims by ringing church or temple bells.” “Then they got up and killed him and took away his goats” (vol. II. such a as their public prayers and festivals. Tirmiz¯ tells i ¯ once passed by a group of the Companions us that a goatherd belonging to the Ban¯ Salim u of the Apostle. they are to wear a special kind of girdle (zunn¯r) and are to fasten a piece a of colored cloth (ghiy¯r) . . Another imposition. The institution of jizy¯ derives from the Qur¯n: “Fight those who believe not in God a a and in the last day. These peoples were called zimm¯ “responsibility” of the Muslims. The zimm¯ are to carry no weapons. p. called jizy¯. language in every age. The land was considered fai’ and declared to be part of the public domain. a Ab¯ Qat¯da reports that while accompanying the Prophet on an expedition in the year u a of the Battle of Hunain. He gave the belongings of anyone who was killed to the Muslim who killed him as “a sort of encouragement to the Muslims to participate in jih¯d. they are not to do anything that would display their inﬁdelity in the face of the tokens of Isl¯m. the main source of livelihood for his Companions for quite some time was loot from raids on non-Muslim tribes. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) land on the payment of half the harvest (3762).on their clothes to a make it easy to distinguish them from Muslims. and . and kept as a permanent source of income for future generations. he killed a polytheist enemy and was awarded his belongings. At ﬁrst this beneﬁt was limited to the Jews and Christians. though they can repair old ones. and mosques). “I sold the armour (which was a part of my share of the booty) and brought with the sale proceeds a garden in the street of Ban¯ Salam. they cannot engage in public worship. they said among themselves: “This man has saluted us in this way with a view to protect himself. There are many other disabilities of the same kind. it was extended to other subject peoples. Muhammad sent out his men to waylay non-Muslim tribes and to make raids on them. in short. It was used in the interest of the whole Muslim community (for the payment of troops and oﬃcers. as the Muslim empire grew. also belongs to the fai’. 889). THE MAIN SOURCE OF LIVELIHOOD After Muhammad established himself in Medina. but more often this was not done. The chief was also at liberty to distribute the land among his soldiers. and for the building of bridges. They are not to build new churches and temples. When he greeted them in the Muslim fashion.” as the translator puts it (note 2230). but later on. they are not to ride is on horseback. forts.88 ¯ CHAPTER 9. This was the ﬁrst property I acquired u .Jews a yellow one and Christians a blue one . . Imperialism has the same is.
“a person placed at his [Muhammad’s] disposal some date-palms . the Muh¯jirs [Emigrants] returned to the Ans¯rs a a [Helpers] all the gifts they had given them” (4375). Khaibar was a populous valley inhabited by the Jews. These properties were particularly meant for the Holy Prophet. They were raided and captured and their property conﬁscated. and would spend what remained for purchasing horses and weapons as preparation for Jihad’ ” (4347). . Muhammad and the other Emigrants became rich enough to pay the ans¯rs for their help and gifts. which according to some were bestowed on him by a Jew named Mukhayr¯ but iq. He u ir.89 after embracing Isl¯m. As a chief. ¯ One plot of land from the conﬁscated properties Muhammad turned into what is known as the “summer garden of Mary. They got a large number of camels as booty. So did the others. He also had seven other gardens in Medina. part of the spoils that accrued to him when the Jewish community there was defeated. “When the Messenger of All¯h a had ﬁnished the war with the people . a but kept a large part for himself. “As ’Umar says: ‘The properties abandoned by Ban¯ u ¯ were the ones which All¯h bestowed upon His Apostle for which no expedition was Nazir a taken either with cavalry or camel. He would meet the annual expenditure of his family from the income thereof. MUHAMMAD’S SHARE In the distribution of the booty. until the lands of Quraiz and Naz¯ were conquered. a property more valuable than anything he had ever possessed (4006). Then he began to return to him ir whatever he had received” (4376).” his Coptic slave-wife. Eleven or twelve camels came to the lot of every ﬁghter and each one of them also got one extra camel” (4330). Anas reports that after Muhammad’s a migration to Medina. As the amount of war booty increased. whether slaves or women or property. . he had properties at Khaibar. . were conﬁscated by Muhammad. The properties of the exiled Ban¯ Naz¯ a Jewish tribe of Medina. ’Umar tells us: “The prophet sent an expedition a to Najd and I was among the troop. he also had the ﬁrst choice in everything. He also tells us that he acquired land in Khaibar that had belonged to the defeated Jews. . Spoils obtained without a battle went entirely to him. according to others were a portion of the conﬁscated estates of the Ban¯ Naz¯ Similarly. u ir.” he says (4340). the Prophet received a ﬁfth of all the spoils taken from the enemy. to the exclusion of the ans¯rs. distributed some of them among his Quraish followers. .
“Twentysix are the Ghazw¯t in which the Holy Prophet himself participated and ﬁfty-six are the a Sariya” (note 2283). i]. ’Aisha sided with her father’s faction and not with her co-wives.90 ¯ CHAPTER 9. 4465). Arqam. the Prophet’s daughter. the Battle of Badr a (4394). So a Muhammad’s share of the booty must have been considerable. the Battle of Azh¯b. the Battle of T¯’if (4393). or as it is popularly known. that she never spoke to Ab¯ a a u Bakr again for the rest of her life (4352). In due course. what we leave behind is charity” (4351). It was not much of charity. for as Ab¯ Bakr says.” a RAIDS AND BATTLES The book refers to many forays. are described by name. who had succeeded Ab¯ Bakr as Khal¯ u ifa. two every three months during Muhammad’s stay in Medina. raids. the properties were placed under the joint management of ’Abb¯s.” But. the number a was twenty-one. Instead. According to J¯bir b. the Prophet personally led nineteen expeditions. for example. treacherous. ghazw¯t and sariya. a sariya is one led by his appointed lieutenant. the Battle of the Ditch (4412). u Prophet. of this property so angered F¯tim¯. The total number of expeditions was eighty-two. in seventeen of which the narrator himself participated (4464. ’Abb¯s and ’Al¯ themselves quarreled over the property which they jointly a i managed. Nine of the twenty-six ghazw¯t expeditions were armed conﬂicts. ’Aisha tells us that Muhammad’s other wives sent ’Usm¯n. more or less in conﬁrmation of the above. there was a quarrel over the inheritance of his property. A ghazw¯t is a military expedition led by the ras ul or im¯m a a ¯ a himself. and he himself participated in nineteen of them (4466). the Battle of Hunain (4385-4392). She told them what Muhammad is supposed to have said: “We prophets do not have any heirs. though. decide between me and this sinful. not always in the order in which they were fought. “the household of the Mesu senger of All¯h will [continue to] live on the income from these properties. the Prophet’s uncle. and the Battle of Khaibar (4437-4441). a the Battle of Uhud (4413-4419). According to Zaid b. These are of two kinds. and battles of the Muslims. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) THE QUARREL OVER MUHAMMAD’S PROPERTIES After Muhammad died. the son-in-law of the Prophet and a a future Khal¯ “to Ab¯ Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy ifa. u a Many battles. Another narrator participated in “seven military expeditions led by the Messenger and nine led by his lieutenants including Ab¯ Bakr and Us¯ma b. “Commander of the Faithful. dishonest liar [’Al¯ petitioned ’Abb¯s (4349). The denial a i. There are other traditions too. Zaid (4469). The conquest of . They took their dispute to ’Umar. ’Abdullah.” but there was a no formal transfer of ownership. and ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law.
accomplish for a a me what Thou hast promised to me. accept Isl¯m and you will be safe. On many an occasion. ’Abdullah slaughtered a young goat and placed its ﬂesh in a a pot. p. numbering one thousand men. a Thou will not be worshipped on this earth” (4360).” When the answer a . Muhammad stretched out his hands and supplicated All¯h in these words: “O All¯h. Ibn Salama tells us that when they arrived at Hudaibiya “fourteen hundred in number. angels came and fought on the side of the Muslims.91 Mecca is also mentioned (4395-4396). We drank and watered the beasts as well” (4450). Another tradition in the same vein is quoted by Mirkhond. J¯bir b. O All¯h. . I would do that. EXPULSION OF THE JEWS AND CHRISTIANS “I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslims. II. then ground one measure of barley into ﬂour and leavened it. The Messenger of All¯h called a out to them: O ye assembly of Jews.” they found that the water in the local well was insuﬃcient for such a large company. part II. Muhammad’s own role was planning and praying. several miracles are mentioned. During the Battle of the Ditch. . and invited Muhammad to a humble repast. a The water welled up. and thy Lord has sent me to thee . We went out . Ab¯ Huraira reports: “We were sitting in the mosque when the Messenger of All¯h u a came and said: Let us go to the Jews.” and the meat and the loaves suﬃced for the whole assembly (Rauzat-us-Safa. at the Battle of Badr. the angel in charge of the mountains greeted the Prophet and said: “I am the Angel in charge of the mountains. author of the Prophet’s Persian biography. 467). To the consternation of J¯bir and his family.” Muhammad declared to ’Umar (4366). If thou wishest that I should bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Mecca to crush them in between. On another occasion. vol. . In most of the battles. if this small band of Muslims is destroyed. . “The Messenger of All¯h sat on the brink of the well. when people failed to respond to Muhammad’s call to become Muslims. Muhammad came with a the whole army. . People who accompanied the Prophet on these expeditions report several miracles.” This was told to ’Aisha by the Prophet himself (4425). throwing into each of them some of the saliva of his Kausarlike mouth. For example. MIRACLES In the accounts of these battles. But Muhammad “approached in his holy person the pot and leaven. . Either he prayed or spat into the well.
. [they] spent the night in prayer. repeating passages from their scriptures. until they too fought against him. we have arrived. ¯ THE BANU QURAIZA The fate of the Ban¯ Quraiza was rather gruesome. and the Jews of Ban¯ H¯risa and every other Jew who u a u a was in Medina. . the son of ’Umar (4364).” They surrendered unconditionally and were taken captive.” we are told by ’Abdullah. and distributed their women. He told them: “O ye brothers of monkeys and swines. vol. . . the Prophet had hardly laid down his arms after returning from the Battle of the Ditch when Gabriel appeared and told him: “You have laid down arms. . Mahomet. . So march against them. And He made you heirs of their lands.92 ¯ CHAPTER 9. a Commanded by All¯h through Gabriel. 276-279: The men and women were penned up for the night in separate yards . a where they had gathered for shelter. . their women and children taken prisoners and their properties distributed among Muslims” (4370). himself a spectator of the tragedy. . All¯h has disgraced you and brought His vengeance upon you. We give the story as summarized by W. he told them: “You should know that the earth belongs to All¯h and a His Apostle. [so that] some ye slew. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) was unsatisfactory. those of them who can a ﬁght [were] killed. During the night graves or trenches . . . By God. when these were ready in the morning. He played on their hopes and fears and took them one by one. they surrendered . and exhorting one another in constancy. A Qur¯nic verse put All¯h’s seal on the fate of this tribe of the People of the Book: a a “God did take them down from their strongholds. Muhammad’s expulsion plan began with the Jews of Medina and was implemented with great cruelty. Each company was made to sit down . Ban¯ Qainuq¯. According to ’Aisha. So u the Messenger of All¯h fought against them . Muhammad said that All¯h had u a commanded him to destroy the Quraiza. gave command that the captives should be brought forth in companies of ﬁve and six at a time. and their goods” (Qur¯n 33:26-27). and some ye made prisoners. Traditions and the pious biographies of the Prophet tell gleefully and in detail about the fate of the prisoners. .” a The Apostle “besieged them for twenty-ﬁve nights until they were sore pressed and God cast terror into their hearts. Then he killed their men. and I wish that I should expel you from this land” (4363). The Messenger of All¯h turned out all the a Jews of Medina. were dug in the market-place . we haven’t laid down ours. He ﬁrst “expelled Ban¯ Naz¯ and allowed Quraiza to stay on. Then Gabriel “pointed to the Ban¯ Quraiza. III. pp. Muhammad approached the fort of the Quraiza.” “Where?” Muhammad asked. and granted favour to them u ir. and cast terror into their hearts. . their houses. . children and properties among the Muslims . Muir in his Life of Mahomet.
“But what hath a become of all our chiefs . The booty was divided into four classes . strike high and hard. Tabari a i.” Ibn Ish¯q adds. she had no alternative) his slave or concubine.” “This went on until the Apostle made an end of ¯ them. “Will you never understand? Don’t you see the summoner never stops and those who are taken away never return? By All ah it is death. and Muhammad took a ﬁfth of each. who had saved some of his allies of the Bani Aus . Muhammad himself had “deep trenches dug up.” The whole story in all its gruesomeness is narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. and therefore were u 4 The victims remained in the dark about their fate till the end. . There were (besides little children.” 5 T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. they asked Ka’b what he thought would be done with them. 303-304.But slay me also. of Huwey. and ’Al¯ and Zubair i did the killing in his presence. Ibn Ish¯q tells a touching story. ¯ ikh i. pp. the son of Samuel?” a a asked the old man .land. of female slaves and servants. and drenched the market-place with the blood of eight hundred victims. Here take my sword.”Then of what use is life to me any longer? Leave me not to that bloodthirsty man who has killed that are dear to me in cold blood . from his share of these. who under ’Al¯ orders a i’s beheaded the aged man. till the whole were slain . indeed. S¯bit intervened and procured a pardon . . He replied. . . He invited her to be his wife. One of his stories shows how Muhammad utilized local conﬂicts to his own advantage. The Quraiza were allied to the Aus. who were counted with their mothers) a thousand captives. “Mahomet made certain presents to his friends. and then sent the rest of the women and children to be sold among the Bedouin tribes of Najd. an aged Jew. of Ozz¯l. and gave him over to another. for he kept steadily in view the advantage of raising around him a body of eﬃcient horses. and butchered in cold blood. another biographer. . whose husband and all whose male relatives had just a perished in the massacre. and chose to remain (as. His people loved him and said that his “face was like a Chinese mirror in which the virgins of the tribe could see themselves. I. For Zoheir.93 by the brink of the trench destined for its grave. in exchange for horses and arms. a Ka’b was one of the chiefs of the Quraiza. cattle. . Tabar¯ and Mirkhond. When a the men were being taken out in batches to the Apostle. She also declined the summons to conversion and continued in the Jewish faith.” 5 Ibn Hish¯m. and slaves. Having sated his revenge. . . The two most important non-Jewish tribes of Medina were the Aus and the Ban¯ Khazraj. having refused marriage. chattels.of K¯b. . and there beheaded. took his seat there.they had all been slain already .” S¯bit refused. Mahomet returned from the horrid spectacle to solace himself with the charms of Rih¯na. and having given command for the earth to be smoothed over their remains. a i. . it is sharp. but she declined. . I entreat thee. 4 Party after party they were thus led out. provides some material a omitted in the other accounts. He received to each inquiry the same reply . to the eﬀect that Muhammad’s biographers. . ¯ quotes W¯qid¯ an earlier biographer.
Muhammad exultantly told him: “O enemy of All¯h.” and “the prince of the desert and the sown. to take oﬀ my robe from my body. he told ’Al¯ his executioner: “I beseech thee not i. p. saying. 7 In fact. He had come in a shirt so torn and tattered that it was not worth taking as a spoil. 752. A calamity worse than that which fell Ban u al-Naz¯ befell them ¯ ir The day that God’s Apostle came to them like a brilliant moon. . part II. . 6 7 Sirat Ras¯l All ah. a Jewish leader. The Apostle saw that the faces of Khazraj showed pleasure. and at a signal from Muhammad. They must learn to have a conscience equal to their prescribed part and acts and to be worthy of their new role. 465. . They must become parties to an act which is eﬀective in the measure that it is compromising. p.” He too was brought before Muhammad. with his hands bound to his neck with a rope.” 8 There is a similar tale about a woman who was beheaded in the same fashion. Akhatab. . . A man who still has some integrity is un-safely independent. was known aﬀectionately among his people as “the grandee of the town.” “the friend of the destitute and the poor. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) not well liked by the Ban¯ Khazraj. but there was no such indication on the part of the Aus. . 464. In any case the followers should not be allowed to feel superior and to refrain from an act simply because they regard it as iniquitous or cruel. p.” 9 Muhammad’s court poets duly celebrated his victory. Rauzat-us-Safa. and he suspected that that was because of the alliance that had existed between them and Ban¯ Quraiza. God’s command is right. ¯ ¯ . when Muhammad ordered the Jews beheaded. II.’ ” 6 Those who follow the Prophet must become new men with a new conscience and new loyalties. and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. ‘Let so-and-so strike him and so-and-so ﬁnish him oﬀ. He who forsakes God will be forsaken . When there were only twelve of them left he gave them over to Aus. They must become a participants in its blood-rites. but God the most High has given thee victory. his head was struck oﬀ. Thus. They must be hardened in the diﬃcult school of Isl¯m. Hass¯n sang: a Quraiza met their misfortune And in humiliation found no helper. Huyayy b.94 ¯ CHAPTER 9. 9 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. and there is no remedy . vol. u assigning one Jew to every two of Aus. ¯ ¯ 8 Mirkhond. 476. ’Aisha says of her. Besides the aged Zoheir.” Huyayy replied: “I do not blame myself for having borne enmity to thee . u the “Khazraj began to cut oﬀ their heads with great satisfaction.” Then he sat down. A book and a decree. . at last a the Most High and Glorious has given thee into my power. “I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and loud laughter when all the time she knew that she would be killed. and has made me thy judge. p. before dying. u ¯ S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Ibn Ish¯q and Mirkhond mention another case touching in its a bravery.
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. 434-435) ¯ ikh i. Eventually Muhammad entered the city and destroyed the idols around the Ka’ba. they submitted to the authority of Muhammad. and stealthily advanced on Mecca with ten a thousand men. A little later. They lay prostrate with vultures circling round them. who were from Medina. Shu’ba. Wal¯ was sent to Nakh¯ to destroy the idol of a id i Al-’Uzz¯. take eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise. ¯ ira. pp. in A. (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. the women of Saq¯ came out with their heads uncovered mourning and if saying: 11 10 We weep for our Protector. As Al-Mugh¯ protected by his soldiers on all sides. a who were themselves Meccans and therefore might be somewhat inhibited. ¯ ¯ 12 ’Al¯ was chosen to destroy the idols (which he did by mounting the shoulders of Muhammad) and i ’Umar the pictures on the walls of the Ka’ba. We left them with the blood upon them like a pool They having accomplished nothing. therefore. pp. Then they took counsel among themselves and concluded that they could not ﬁght the Arabs around them. . a to his people to persuade them to become Muslims. the a a Quraish were completely ignorant of the fact and did not even know what he was doing. 11 Muhammad knew how to use men and utilize their psychology.” But on representation by Ab¯ Sufy¯n. do you see the ruﬃans of the Quraish? a a . the tutelary goddess of Ban¯ Kin¯n and the Quraish. the deity of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj (Tabaq at. Ibn Ish¯q tells us that when the Apostle reached Marr al-Zahar¯n. In ﬁghting the Meccans. if. struck the idol with his pickaxe. he made secret preparations to invade Mecca. i a ¯ vol. “O God. 12 ibid. Umro b.95 With fresh horses bearing horsemen like hawks. pp.” Ab¯ Huraira adds: “Whoever was seen u by them that day was put to death. one of u a ira their kin. 544. their goddess. he gave the pride of place to the ans¯rs. He called the ans¯rs and said to them: “O ye Assembly of Ans¯rs. Muhammad sent ’Urwa. a chief of the tribe of Saq¯ and a convert to Isl¯m. 484-486). I. a u a a and Sa’d b. 9. Zaid al-Ashahal¯ to destroy Al-Man¯t. Muhammad u a dealt with them leniently. I. to demolish the idol of All at. 10 THE CONQUEST OF MECCA Though Muhammad and the Meccans had entered into a ten-year truce.” he prayed to All¯h.. so much so that the ans¯rs murmured: “After all the man has a been swayed by tenderness towards his family and love for his city” (4396). He took Mecca by surprise. and. Al’as to destroy the idol of Suw¯. . Muhammad sent Ab¯ Sufy¯n along with Al-Mugh¯ b. 480. 546. H. When you meet them tomorrow. and not to the Emigrants. Deserted by Her servants. wipe them out. Who did not show enough manliness in defending Her. His people killed him. . Kh¯lid b. Other men were sent to the neighboring areas for the same purpose and for looting the temple treasuries. p.
Ashraf? He has maligned All¯h. like jih¯d. Then the assassin. whether Jehovah or All¯h. asmit a). the demolition of the false gods that reside in conceited theologies. and in a deeper nescience (avidy¯). ASSASSINATION Assassination. Muhammad declared: “No Quraishite will be killed bound hand and foot from this day until the Day of Judgment” (4399). Ka’b’s wife warned: “I bear a voice which sounds This destruction and pillage of other people’s temples and images set the tone for the Muslims of the future. has a source deep in our being. a more psychological and mystical religion. A gentle god-form which exists in harmony with other god-forms is to be preferred to a Leviathan-God. it is rooted in the dualities of the mind (dvandva). or what the Yogas call the m¯dha and the vikshipta consciousness. Truth cannot be ushered in by replacing one godling with another. To win something of the spiritual light requires self-work. particularly those who questioned his apostolic inspiration and had the ability to put their opposition into poetry and satire. it is not that easy to get over “falsehood” according to Hinduism. Maslama: “Messenger of All¯h. u Similarly. or falsehood. the Exalted. But this did not save the Meccans from other forms of killing as sure and disgraceful as this one. a Volunteered one Muhammad b.” said Muhammad. It takes more than an invading army of crusaders or a demolition squad with sledgehammers to establish the domain of Truth.” Then the assassin sought Muhammad’s permission to talk to the intended victim as he thought best . and that too at the hands of their fellow Muslims. say Al-L¯t with Al-L¯h. The permission was given. It is easy to demolish stone or copper gods on the ¯ a altars. Muhammad a had at his disposal a band of hatchet men ready to do his bidding. in pretentious revelations and fond beliefs. went to Ka’b’s house at night. Through them. Wonderful! To say the least. According to the Yogas. do you wish that I should a kill him?” The Prophet replied: “Yes. a After the conquest of Mecca. “Who will kill Ka’b b. he lured his intended victim outside. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) declaring: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (4397).96 ¯ CHAPTER 9. accompanied by some accomplices. . The enemy on the path is not the multiplicity of god-symbols but the unregenerate heart and the wanderings of a diﬀused mind. spiritual demolition involves the demolition of the desire-gods and the ego-gods. the real diﬀerence is not between “one god” and “many gods” but between an ordinary mind and an awakened mind. the sentiment was merely optimistic and lacked true spiritual insight. A ﬁxed and fanatic idea of God is worse than a plurality of god-forms. in egoistic life (aham. True. and His Messenger. Spiritual darkness. but more diﬃcult to demolish false gods enshrined in one’s own heart. he got inconvenient elements eliminated. self-discovery. Posing as a disgruntled follower of the Prophet. is an extension of a fanatic creed and psychology.even to talk ill of the Prophet in order to win his conﬁdence. self-shedding. selfa a churning.
Sword in hand we cut him down By Muhammad’s order when he sent secretly by night Ka’b’s brother to go to Ka’b. such as the Sah¯ Bukh¯ri. Ka’b’s head was ﬂung at the feet of the Prophet.. 368-369. Ab¯ M¯’ila. the unlucky victims of his aggression. pp. 15 ibid. Maslama and his foster brother. u Some. 13 Hass¯n b.” who made the victim taste his death “with their deadly swords. a poems written by Muhammad’s court poets to celebrate the event.” But Ka’b replied: “It is only Muhammad b. On learning this. and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear his life. a poet. and ih a the biographies of Muhammad by Ibn Ish¯q and Tabar¯ Ibn Ish¯q also quotes from the a i. travelling by night a with their light swords.” He went down and was killed (4436). fearing that the time for the prayer might be over. as we have seen. ¯ ¯ ibid. p. Others did not say it at all for fear of losing time and not u reaching the spot in time. Very soon. said the prayer before reaching the street of the Ban¯ Quraiza. sang: Of them Ka’b was left prostrate there.” Muhammad asked 13 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. he should respond to the call. ¯ HELP FROM A POLYTHEIST IN JIHAD The last had¯ of this book is about a man who approached Muhammad and said: “I is have come so that I may follow you and get a share from the booty.. 369. Further details are available in various other accounts.” 14 Another tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q a says that “our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews. When a gentleman is called at night even if to be pierced with u a a spear. recited when the sun has begun to decline) but in the quarters of the Ban¯ Quraiza. describes the assassins “bold as lions. Muhammad announced that nobody would say a his zuhr prayer (the afternoon prayer.97 like the voice of murder.” 15 ¯ JIHAD TAKES PRECEDENCE OVER PRAYER Returning from the Battle of Azh¯b. seeking victory for the religion of their prophet. Another Ka’b. p. Sabit. Muhammad “did not blame anyone from the two groups” (4374). He beguiled him and brought him down with guile. 368. another poet. 14 .
According to the translator. and a both were polytheists. The translator makes an interesting comment on this had¯ He says that it apparently is. Muhammad a declined his oﬀer till he corrected his theology. and Quzm¯n was present on the day of Uhud. Ummaya fought a on his side at the Battle of Hunain. When the man said he did not. . ¯ from which we learn that the Holy Prophet accepted help contradicts some other ah¯d is a oﬀered by non-Muslims in his military campaigns. (4472). “these two instances go to prove that the help of a non-Muslim can be accepted when it is essential” (note 2285). For example.98 ¯ CHAPTER 9. Safw¯n b. RELIGIOUS WARS (JIH AD) him if he believed in All¯h and His Messenger.
The spirit and informing principles are very diﬀerent. the “Book on al-Im¯ra” esa is a tablishes the supremacy of the Quraish. A closed politics or civics is a a necessary corollary of a closed theology. and so on. God has given a prototype for imitation in Muhammad. the concept of ummah dominates over a the concept of man or mankind. It is not a treatise a on the theory and practice of government as understood today. zak¯t. “We [All¯h] put thee [Muhammad] in the right way concerning aﬀairs” (Qura an 14:17). Has not ¯ a All¯h sent “His apostle with guidance and the religion of Truth.Chapter 10 Government (Al-Im¯ra) a The eighteenth book is the “Book on Government” (al-im¯ra). food. general morality. the tribe to which Muhammad belonged. dress. An Isl¯mic state is necessarily a theocracy. with which we have been making acquaintance to some extent in these pages. It includes all his beliefs and aﬀairs. in all matters. The function of a truly Isl¯mic government a a is not merely to maintain law and order but to enforce the law of shar¯ i’ah. rather. The function of an Isl¯mic state is to enforce this model as best it can. THE SUPREMACY OF THE QURAISH At the very beginning. a An Isl¯mic state is totalitarian in the philosophic sense. to make it prevail over a every other religion”? (Qur¯n 9:33). and pilgrimage. marriage. in thirteen ah¯d¯ (4473-4484). “People are subservient to the Quraish: the Muslims 99 . if they are allowed to exist at all as a result of various exigencies. only Muslims have full political rights in any sense of the term. In Isl¯m. non-Muslims. are zimm¯ second-class citizens. it enters intimately into a every detail of the believer’s life: his modes and manners. So in a Muslim polity. Shar¯ i’ah does not pertain merely to prayer. is. political and intellectual.
Then it passed on to the Turkish Sult¯n Usm¯n (A. the a grandson of Genghis Khan. and i.be Thou kind to him. emerged in Egypt. a .100 ¯ CHAPTER 10. 1299-1326). Successor of the a a Apostle of God. being subservient to the unbelievers among them. “people are the followers of Quraish in good as well as evil” (4475). ¯ ONLY A QURAISH MAY BE KHAL IFA “The Caliphate will remain among the Quraish even if only two persons are left on the earth. may one day revive this idea. They were warriors. shorn of temporal power yet still Quraish. who happens to acquire some kind of control over the aﬀairs of my people and is hard upon them . RULERS Isl¯mic rulers should be just to the ummah and follow Muhammad’s shar¯ a i’ah faithfully. the holy lands of Isl¯m). are held in very high esteem and their persons are considered sacred. helped by petrodollars.” Muhammad says (4476). Later. though the center of power of Isl¯m shifted from a Mecca to Damascus to Baghdad. This principle has been held very high in the Muslim world.” Muhammad prays to All¯h (4494). put to death the last Khal¯ at Baghdad. D. though the Shias limit the oﬃce still further to the descendants of Muhammad.” says Muhammad (4473-4474). the Arabian Quraish became a most durable caste with not many parallels in history. At present they are busy laying the ﬁrst.be Thou hard upon him. a As a result. strengthening fundamentalism and pan-Isl¯mism. “O God. and scholars. and Ruler of the Faithful. ﬁnancial tycoons. the Caliphate remained with the Quraish till Hal¯ku. and the disbelievers among them. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) among them being subservient to the Muslims among them. and speciﬁcally to the branch descended from ’Al¯ the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. a shadowy ifa Caliphate. In another version. who added to his many titles three others: a a Protector of the Two Lands (al-Hij¯z and Syria. the Prophet’s daughter. for six hundred years. Thanks to Muhammad. the Saiyids. rulers. There can be no Arab Caliphate (a euphemism for Arab imperialism) without Muslim fundamentalism. and he who acquires control over the aﬀairs of my people and is kind to them . The present-day Sauds. But the sentiment that the Khal¯ should be a Quraish or at least an Arab was so ifa strong that the Sult¯n of Turkey was never given universal recognition by Muslim theoloa gians. who are supposed to be descendants of the Prophet. necessary foundations. A branch of them. his wife F¯tima. and buying up political support in Muslim countries and among a Muslim populations. Muslim fundamentalism feeds pan-Isl¯mism under the a Arab aegis.
not to the oﬃcer. If the electors choose someone unanimously. a is WARNING AGAINST SCHISM Muhammad tells his followers that after him there will be no prophet but many Khal¯ ifas. and those in authority from amongst you” (4517. His Apostle. “I shouldn’t ﬁnd that any of you should come on the Day of Judgment . Very thorough. But other ah¯d¯ try to ﬁll this gap. An oﬃcial should not accept “gifts” (4509-4516). . but misappropriation of booty is a serious oﬀense. and whoso disobeys the commander disobeys me” (4518). “O you a who believe. “When oath of allegiance has been taken for two Khal¯ ifas. “It is obligatory upon a Muslim that he should listen to the ruler appointed over him and obey him whether he likes it or not. except that he is ordered to do a sinful thing” (4533). In fact.” Muhammad told him: “Why didn’t you remain in the house of your father and mother to see whether gifts were presented to you or not?” (4510). OBEDIENCE TO RULERS Closed theologies claiming a perfected revelation and denying a place to man’s everliving reason. Muhammad establishes the following chain of command: “Whoso obeys the commander [appointed by me] obeys me. Somebody asks him what to do when there are more Khal¯ ifas than one. but they end by establishing the tyranny of men. This injunction was followed to the letter by ’Umar.101 There are other conventional exhortations. A man in charge of sadaqa comes to Muhammad and says: “This wealth is for you. kill the one for whom the oath was taken later” (4568). . This is a big loophole which was fully used. it is a religious obligation. A man should not seek a “position of authority” (4487-4492). and to his moral and spiritual sense. gifts are given to the oﬃce. War booty is sacred. All¯h Himself enjoins this chain. Some of the guiding principles ifa he laid down for the council were: 1. then that person is designated as the . a Some exceptions are mentioned. obey All¯h. and this is a gift presented to me. for as we know. he appointed a board of six electors to choose the new Khal¯ after him. As he lay dying. a Qur¯n 4:59).” Muhammad warns misappropriators of booty (45054507). Muhammad says: “The one to whom allegiance is sworn ﬁrst has a supremacy over the others” (4543). have to invoke God at every step. and should appeal to me for help.
then the dissenter should immediately be killed. These include not ¯ a only its administrators but its divines. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) 2. a single leader in order to ensure solidarity. ’Umar. A crisis psychology indispensable for any dictatorship. Ghaﬀari. you should kill him who seeks to undermine your solidarity or disrupt your unity” (4567). “Kill him.” enjoins the next had¯ Hold on to is. ¯ CHAPTER 10. men of authority. you should listen and obey” (4554). If there is an equal division. WARNING AGAINST BAD TIMES Muhammad warns against the coming bad days when people will arise “who will adopt ways other than mine and seek guidance other than mine” and yet “they will be a people having the same complexion as ours and speaking our language. Shiaism. even if your back is ﬂogged ir and your wealth is snatched. If any four of them agree on one person and two disagree. answering a follower.” What should a believer do if he lives in those times? He “should stick to the main body of the Muslims and their leader” (4553). then the deciding vote would be that of ’Abdullah b. his own son and one of the electors. then those two should be killed. 1 SOLIDARITY AND SINGLE LEADERSHIP “Anyone who tries to disrupt the aﬀairs of this Ummah while they are united you should strike him with the sword” (4565). p. In those days “there will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and will not adopt my ways. 1 All four points are taken from S. Muhammad says: “You will listen to the Am¯ [ruler] and carry out his orders. If any ﬁve of them agree on one man and the sixth disagrees. A theology which teaches unceasing war against the peoples of the D¯ru’l Harb (territories not held by Muslims) makes a a complete somersault and now teaches patient submission to the authorities of D¯ru’l Isla am (territories under Isl¯m) and to all its Ulu’l-amr. “When you are holding to one single man as your leader. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings.102 Khal¯ ifa. 68.” Under the circumstances. . 4. 3.
for jih¯d is central to ¯ a a .” Muhammad repeated thrice in a sermon from the pulpit (4711). Again. “Beware. and this time he was accepted. but the Prophet did not accept him. “There is almost a consensus of opinion amongst the jurists that it is an act of great piety to break the horses for Jih¯d and for other useful purposes and there is no harm if there a is a competition of race in them” (note 2335). But the translator tells us that in Isl¯mic law the age of majority diﬀers with diﬀerent a conditions and circumstances. “Lands shall be thrown open to you and All¯h would suﬃce you. which is also an a important subject of this book.103 There is also a warning not only against schismatics and innovators but also against false prophets. among them two on horse racing (4610-4611). The translator assures us that it was not a horse race used for betting as in modern times. Similarly. The next year. Yet again. “Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us or he has been guilty of disobedience to All¯h’s Apostle” (4714). the puberty of a boy is established by other criteria. The son of ’Umar went to ﬁght in the Battle of Uhud when he was fourteen. a is Muhammad used to have a horse race between two particular points six miles apart. or pregnancy (note 2331). ¯ JIHAD Jih¯d appears again. Is not Muhammad the ﬁnal prophet? But “before the Day of Judgment. That decided the issue. but none of you should give up a playing with his arrows” (4712). You are to guard against them” (4483). there will appear a number of impostors. One of ﬁfteen years is considered an adult. the puberty of a girl is established by menstruation. a THE AGE OF MAJORITY Let us take up one or two more small items before we turn to jih¯d. when he was ﬁfteen. and one below ﬁfteen is a minor (4605). ad and muj¯hids (crusaders) and martyrs. HORSES AND ARCHERY There are sixteen ah¯d¯ on horses. There are also some ah¯d¯ on archery (4711-4714). For example. he went to ﬁght in the Battle of Khandaq. such as nocturnal emission and his capacity for impregnation. strength consists in a is archery. nocturnal emission. for purposes of marriage. This is understandable. In a book on government containing 358 ah¯d¯ 92 are on jiha a is.
a a “Paradise is under the shadows of the swords. Having no home and no livelihood. his body will not decay. So the rules were changed. it is enough if he keeps his army in preparedness and trains it for jih¯d. He is committed to His care and He will either admit him to Paradise or bring him back to his home with a reward or booty” (4626). and being uprooted from their old loyalties. a ¯ THE MERITS OF JIHAD “All¯h has undertaken to look after the aﬀairs of one who goes out to ﬁght in His way a believing in Him and aﬃrming the truth of His Apostles. when you are asked to set out [on an expedition under-taken for the cause of Isl¯m] you should [readily] do so” (4597). Muhammad had the same desire for himself. All lands not belonging to the territory of Isl¯m ¯ a (d¯r al-isl¯m) must be conquered by the Muslims. there is no Isl¯m. they became desperate. Jiha a a a ad is a religious duty of a Muslim state.” Muhammad tells his followers (4314). . and the colour [of its discharge] will be the colour of blood. “Every wound a received by a Muslim in the Way of All¯h will appear on the Day of Judgment in the same a condition as it was when it was inﬂicted . Without jih¯d. But it is left to the discretion of the im¯m to decide when the attack a a should begin. there must have been a rush of people wanting to become Muslims. Muhammad told someone a who intended to settle in Medina: “There is no Hijra now. prospective converts to Isl¯m used a to come to Medina to swear ﬁdelity to him and as a proof of their sincerity would leave their hometowns and settle in Medina. but since this is not always practical. They eat the fruits of Paradise from wherever they like. and are therefore called the “territory a a of war” (d¯r al-harb). “Think not of those who are slain in All¯h’s way as dead. one campaign at least must be undertaken against the unbelievers every year.” In fact.” They have no other desire except to be reborn so that they can be “slain in Thy [All¯h’s] way a once again” (4651). Jih¯d for the spread of Isl¯m is most meritorious and the easiest gateway to Paradise. According to some ﬁqh schools. a ¯ JIHAD AS PROOF OF TRUE CONVERSION After Muhammad migrated to Medina from Mecca. “I love to ﬁght in the . but only Jih¯d and sincerity a of purpose. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) Isl¯m and muj¯hids are its Army of Liberation. but its smell would be smell of musk” (4630).104 ¯ CHAPTER 10. . if he dies in the Way of All¯h. and motivated soldiers of Isl¯m. After a the conquest of Mecca. when the power of Muhammad was fully vindicated. “the souls of the a martyrs live in the bodies of green birds who have their nests in chandeliers hung from the throne of the Almighty. The proof of a sincere conversion was no longer migration but jih¯d.
. “Leaving for a jih¯d in the way of All¯h in the morning or in the evening will merit a reward better than a a the world and all that is in it” (4639). Jih¯d in the way of All¯h! a a Jih¯d in the way of All¯h” (4645). or the maintainers of the Sacred Mosque equal to the believers in All¯h and the Last Day [yaum’l-¯khirat].105 way of All¯h and be killed. Therefore. I do not do any good except distributing drinking water among the a pilgrims. to ﬁght and again be killed and to ﬁght and again be killed” a (4626). . a is There is more reward in jih¯d than in anything this world has to oﬀer. . . Muhammad was consulted.” Another thought that maintainers of service to the mosque were superior. “One who goes out for jih¯d is like a a person who keeps fasts. What is that act? . had¯ 4638). a such as fasting. and going on pilgrimage. a Isl¯m as his religion and Muhammad as his Apostle is necessarily entitled to enter Paradise a . All¯h sent him a verse: a a “Do ye make the givers of drink to pilgrims. ¯ THE SUPERIORITY OF JIHAD TO OTHER ACTS The spiritual merits that accrue to the believer for participating in jih¯d are equal to a the merits he can obtain by performing all the other religious duties required by Isl¯m. praying. The Prophet said: “Whoever cheerfully accepts All¯h as his Lord. Yet a third wanted only to be a muj¯hid. One said: “I do not care. THE HIGHEST GRADE OF HEAVEN IS RESERVED FOR ¯ THE MUJAHID The rewards of being a Muslim are great. stands in prayer constantly and obeys All¯h’s verses in the Qura an” (4636). but the rewards of being a muj¯hid are a immensely greater. . [yet] there is another act which elevates the position of a man in Paradise to a grade one hundred [higher]. and the elevation between one grade and the other is equal to the height of the heaven from the earth . And God guides not those who do wrong” (Qur¯n 9:19. the martyr “will desire to return to this world and be killed ten times for the sake of the great honour that has been bestowed upon him” (4635). and the crusaders [j¯hid] in a a a the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God. ¯ Some people disputed the excellence of diﬀerent virtues. if after embracing Isl¯m. . . . But even the delights of this grade of paradise are no a a attraction to a martyr (Shah¯ id).
both go to Paradise. Muhammad visited his corpse and delicately averted his face. go to hell but never “gathered together. . Two men. Then All¯h turns in mercy to a a a the murderer who embraces Isl¯m. one believer asked Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h. A a man goes to the Muslim Paradise without ever having oﬀered a single Muslim prayer! He was Al-Aswad. again one of them a slayer and the other the slain. the book ends on a more down-to-earth note. BRAIN-TEASERS Muslim theology is not without its brain-teasers. The man threw away the dates he had in his hand and fought until he was killed” (4678).” “Who are they?” the Companions ask Muhammad. where shall I be if I am killed? He [Muhammad] a replied: In paradise. without having had the time to say a single prayer. We may give here another paradox. But there is still a great diﬀerence between the two.” 2 AN EARTHLY NOTE After all this Paradise-mongering. taken from tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. He answers: “A disbeliever and a believer” (4661-4662). But how? The translator clariﬁes: A believer goes to hell for some great sin. In the engagement. one the slayer and the other the slain. Asked to explain why. So a believer “would not be kept a there [in hell] for ever as is the case with the disbeliever. he said: “He has with him now his two wives from the dark-eyed houris. a stone struck him and he died a martyr.106 ¯ CHAPTER 10. [and also] a disbeliever would be made to occupy the most terrible place in Hell. A sinful believer and a disbeliever are not the same in the eyes of All¯h. he too ﬁghts in the Way of All¯h and dies a martyr” a a (4658-4659). When we came back a 2 Sirat Ras ul All ah. GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) THE STORY OF A MARTYR The promise of heaven was tempting. On the way to the Battle of Uhud. p. Another puzzle seeking a solution. and a disbeliever goes there as a matter of course. Two men. whereas the sinful believer would be in a comparatively less tormenting situation and thus they would not be together in Hell” (note 2348). The Companions ask Muhammad: “How?” He replied: “One is slain in the Way of All¯h [in jih¯d] and dies a martyr. 519 ¯ ¯ . . J¯bir a reports: “We accompanied the Messenger of All¯h on an expedition. a shepherd who was called to participate in jih¯d as soon as he became a a Muslim. .
107 to Medina and were going to enter our houses. II. Give them time to separate. i. and thus their a wives may be with their paramours. Homely wisdom. let them not be taken by surprise. had¯ 571). and let there be no avoidable breaking of homes. One interpretation is that the muj¯hids have been away so long that their return is not expected. is .” according to Ibn ’Abbas (Tirmiz¯ vol. And the result: “they both found their wives with other men. he said: ‘Wait and enter your houses in the later part of the evening so that a woman with dishevelled hair may have used the comb. Another tradition forbids a muj¯hid to “come to his family like an unexpected night a visitor doubting their ﬁdelity and spying into their lapses” (4730). In such instances. and a woman whose husband has been away may have removed the hair from her private parts’ ” (4727). Two men did not heed this command.
GOVERNMENT (AL-IM ARA) .108 ¯ CHAPTER 10.
and softened them a good deal. a its ﬂesh is not lawful. if an animal is slaughtered in this way by an idolater or an apostate from Isl¯m. One must a also recite All¯h’s name over the dog that one sets oﬀ to catch a game animal (4732-4734).Chapter 11 Hunting. cutting the windpipe. and at the same time repeat the words Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar (“In the name of All¯h. then eat what these a hounds have caught for you. Food and Drink The nineteenth book is the “Book of Game and the Animals Which May Be Slaughtered and the Animals That Are to Be Eaten. a a a However. ¯ a Animals that are “clean” must be hunted and slaughtered in a particular way. one should draw the knife across its throat. and do not know which of them caught [the game]?” Muhammad answers: 109 .” Muhammad did not set much store by the many Jewish restrictions on the subject of food (tam¯m). provided the hunting dog has not eaten any part of the game” (4733). and some were altogether har¯m (forbidden). repeating the sentiment a in another verse (5:87). for their ﬂesh to be lawful food. When slaughtering an animal. All¯h is great”). a “When you set oﬀ your trained dogs having recited the name of All¯h. When someone asks: What “if I ﬁnd along with my dog another dog. Yet some ritualistic restrictions were still there from the very beginning. It is not enough to recite the formula Bi’smillahi All¯hu akbar over game caught and killed by one’s trained dog before eating it. some ¯ a makr uh (disapproved but not penalized). some mub¯h (permitted). “O ye who believe! eat of the good a things wherewith we have pro-vided you. GAME There are similar restrictions on game. Some animals were considered hal ul (lawful). even if the game is killed. with the help of a particular incantation.” says the Qur¯n (2:172).
The test of a trained dog is that it catches a game animal three times without eating it. and sliced from its compact piece of meat equal to a bull . recite the name of All¯h. The test of a trained hawk is that it returns to its master in response to his call. then wash them before using them” (4743).” and as they were hard pressed. HUNTING. .a falcon. DOS AND DON’TS “If you are in the land of the People of the Book [Jews and Christians].” for a month till they grew bulky. FOOD AND DRINK What applies to the hunting dog applies to any animal used for hunting . The same holds true for game animals shot with an arrow. . It fed them. But as they were “sent by the Messenger of All¯h in the path of All¯h. for in that case you do not know whether it is water that caused its death or your arrow” (4742). for they “are loathsome or impure” (4778). Ab¯ ’Ubaid [the chief] called u forth thirteen men from us and he made them sit in the cavity of its eye. a cheetah. There is a story behind this particular permission. “Is there any piece of meat left with a you?” Muhammad inquired. FLESH LAWFUL AND UNLAWFUL The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and of all birds having talons is prohibited (4748-4755). During the journey. he said that it “was a special provision which All¯h had brought forth” for them. a When they came back and mentioned this to Muhammad. J¯bir gives us an eyewitness account. except when a you ﬁnd it [the prey] fallen into water.” J¯bir tells us. CHAPTER 11. supplies ran short and they were on starvation rations when they saw rising before them on the coast of the sea “something like a big mound. but it is permissible to eat water animals even if they die of natural causes. They gave him one “and he ate it” (4756). . “three hundred of them.110 “Then don’t eat it” (4734). do not eat from their utensils. . and their ﬂesh “is a loathsome evil of Satan’s doing” (4777). “I saw how we extracted pitcher after pitcher full of fat from the cavity of its eye. The beast was dead.” It was a whale called al-’Anbar. But if it cannot be avoided. ASSES It is unlawful to eat the ﬂesh of domestic asses (4763-4778). they ate a a even the dead animal. “When you shoot your arrow. a “All¯h’s Messenger sent us on an expedition so that we might intercept a caravan of the a Quraish. and if the arrow killed [the game] then eat.” he says.
” His reason for not eating it: “It is not found in the land of my people. as is legally required” (4768). . nor do I prohibit it. The eating of locusts is permissible. so when you kill. HARES The ﬂesh of lizards is not forbidden. Shadd¯d b. Some persons amongst us made a ij: haste and boiled the ﬂesh of goats and camels in their earthen pots. and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably” (4810). Anas reports that he and his companions chased a hare. Some thought at ﬁrst that the prohibition was temporary. the ﬂesh of hares is lawful. but a it is not allowed in D¯r-ul-Isl¯m” (note 2388). “We went on seven expeditions with All¯h’s a Messenger and ate locusts. a a HORSES The ﬂesh of a horse is lawful (4779-4782). when the earthen pots of the Companions were boiling with the ﬂesh of domestic asses. u a u Similarly. and “sent its haunch and two hind legs to All¯h’s a Messenger . The point is that no personal use can be made of any spoils of war unless the booty has been properly distributed and one-ﬁfth made over to the treasury. slaughter in a good way. “Throw away your pots. . saying: “I neither eat it. narrated by R¯ﬁ b. but to eat it is “against the high standard of piety” (4783-4800).” report Ibn Ab¯ Auf¯ and Ab¯ Bakr (4801-4803). So every one of you should sharpen his knife.111 The prohibition came on the day of Khaibar. Khad¯ “We got hold of goats and camels. The translator tells us that “it is permissible to make use of these spoils in D¯r-ul-Harb [in the territory of the enemy]. To illustrate.” came the order. A roasted lizard was sent to the Prophet. and I feel that I have no liking for it” (4790). and he accepted them” (4801). He did not accept it. “since one-ﬁfth of the booty has not been given to the treasury. He [the Prophet] then commanded and these were turned over” (4847). Aus reports: “Two are the things a which I remember All¯h’s Messenger having said: Verily All¯h has enjoined goodness to a a everything. LOCUSTS. kill in a good way and when you slaughter. we give another tradition. caught and slaughtered it. KILL WITH A GOOD ATTITUDE The Prophet was not without compassion. LIZARDS. .
” The Holy Ghost wanted to lay upon them no greater burden than was necessary (Acts 15:28-29).” Muhammad tells us. FOOD AND DRINK SACRIFICES Intimately connected with the above is the next book. People “should not sacriﬁce an animal before All¯h’s Messenger had sacriﬁced [his animal]” a (4837). animal sacriﬁce is highly meritorious. is But in order to be meritorious. many slaughtered their animals before Muhammad had said his prayer. In many religious traditions. are those a “who sacriﬁced for anyone besides All¯h. Muhammad tells his Companions a that “there is reward annexed to every hair of the animal sacriﬁced. i. a The Qur¯n uses many words for animal sacriﬁce. Some portions of the Old Testament read almost like a manual of animal slaughter. HUNTING. I. But this feeling and this vision are rather conspicuous by their absence in Semitic religions. and from things strangled. the sacriﬁce should be made to All¯h. Let only theology change but facts remain the same for this a a miracle to happen. Az¯hi itself derives from the root a a zabh. and hence derivatively for the sacriﬁce itself. Some people talk glibly about what the Holy Ghost wants or what All¯h wills but are a deaf to the voice of conscience and compassion within the human heart. the word stands for stabbing the breast of a camel as in a sacriﬁce. which means “to split or pierce.112 CHAPTER 11. . which itself has its basis in a deeper vision of the unity of all ﬁfe. THE PROPER TIME FOR SACRIFICE The proper time for sacriﬁcing an animal on the day of ¯ idu’l Az¯ is after the morna ing prayer (4818-4835). They were only required to “abstain from meats oﬀered to idols. too. In Isl¯m. and from blood. verily its blood reacheth the acceptance of God. the “Book of Sacriﬁces” (Kit¯b a al-Az¯hi).” Another word used is nahr. had¯ 1392). which means “to injure the jugular vein”. They were asked to slaughter other ones in their stead. Among the people whom “All¯h cursed. except for ﬂesh of a particular kind and ﬂesh obtained in a particular way. The menu of the early Christians also did not exclude ﬂesh food. In Muhammad’s lifetime. compassion for all living beings is a strong element.” and those “who accommodated an innovator in a religion” (4876-4878). not to Al-L¯t a a or Al-’Uzz¯ or Al-Man¯t. before it falleth upon the ground” (Tirmiz¯ vol.
This is understandable. Another had¯ adds that when is Muhammad sacriﬁced rams. he took the knife and the ram. “he placed it on the ground and then sacriﬁced it” (4845). PROPER AGENCY It is meritorious to sacriﬁce the animal with one’s own hand as Muhammad did.” and told her to “sharpen it on a stone.” (The knives were not required for use against the enemy but for slaughtering the animals which might fall to their lot as spoils of war. for is not animal sacriﬁce All¯h’s own command? All¯h ordains: a a “The sacriﬁcial camels.” When she did. accept [this saca a riﬁce] on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and the Ummah of Muhammad” (4845). we have made for you as among the symbols from God . [and along with it] the name of All¯h is also to be recited” (4846). The proper instrument for slaughtering an animal is a sharp knife. . so there is also a proper age for the sacriﬁcial animal. “he placed his foot on their sides” (4841). and when they are a .) The Prophet answered: “Make haste or be careful [in making arrangements for procuring knives] which would let the blood ﬂow. but we have no knives with us.113 PROPER AGE As there is a proper time for sacriﬁcing. Muhammad recited: “In the name of All¯h. then pronounce the name of All¯h over them as they line up for sacriﬁce. in which case sacriﬁce a ram [of less than a year. unless it is diﬃcult for you. According to Ab¯ Huraira. it is bone. Muhammad is informed by a Companion: “All¯h’s Messenger. Muhammad “commanded that a ram with black legs.” SACRIFICE IS COMPULSORY The translator in a note quotes a had¯ to show that animal sacriﬁce on the day of ¯ is idu’l Az¯ is compulsory for every Muslim adult. black belly and black circles round the eyes should be brought to him. “Sacriﬁce only a grown-up animal. the translator explains. we are going to encounter the enemy a tomorrow. While sacriﬁcing. a The same had¯ tells us that no nail or bone should be used in slaughtering an animal. but more than six months’ age]” (4836). O All¯h.” He then said to ’Aisha. is “As for the nail. and the bone is the knife of the Abyssinians. . “Give me the large knife. Muhammad said: a u “He who can aﬀord sacriﬁce but does not oﬀer it. he should not come near our place of worship” (note 2378).
and began to reprimand him. and then lifted his eyes and cast a glance at his waist and then lifted his eyes and saw his face. a and he thus turned upon his heels. . Hamza and “he is in this i house dead drunk in the company of the Ans¯rs with a singing girl. Ab¯ Ayy¯b. .114 CHAPTER 11. a new reverence for all living beings. that you may be grateful” (Qur¯n 22:36). and came out” (4881). it is your piety” (Qur¯n 22:37). esting story. But when a deeper consciousness dawns. HUNTING. the Prophet’s uncle. FOOD AND DRINK down on their sides eat of them . Mu’¯z b. . We made animals subject to you. Ab¯ Ubaida. all liquors in the various stages of fermentation. the ﬂesh comes to us. that reaches All¯h. DRINKS The twenty-ﬁrst book is the “Book of Drinks” (Ashriba). Muhammad forbade all intoxicating liquors. We realize that this unregenerate piety is not good enough. “Hamza’s eyes were red. In animal sacriﬁce. And then Hamza said: ‘Are you anything but the slaves of my father?’ All¯h’s Messenger came to know that he was intoxicated.” When ’Al¯ asked who had done this. Liquor was forbidden. “It is not their meat nor their blood.” Some business took ’Al¯ to the house of an ans¯r. Many ah¯d¯ in this book show Ab¯ Talha. a POT AND PIETY On the ordinary level of consciousness on which religions operate. people said. ’Al¯ the Prophet’s son-in-law. The worst case is that of Hamza a u b. He tied them up outside. but when he returned. Ab¯ Duj¯na. Baiad¯. and Ubayy b. a a Let it be so if you like. We realize that an animal sacriﬁce can never be a ﬁtting and acceptable oﬀering to any god worthy of man. He cast a glance at All¯h’s a Messenger and then looked towards his knees. a is u u u u a a Sahil b. Ka’b drinking. and All¯h’s Messenger gave me another on that day out of the khums [the ﬁfth reserved a for All¯h and His Messenger]. Jabal. It seems that the habit of drinking was quite popular with the Companions of Muhammad.” a ’Al¯ reported the matter to Muhammad. ’Abd al-Muttalib. and we like to believe that the piety of the act (whatever it may be) goes to God. narrates an interi. there is nothing exceptionable in the Muslim institution of sacriﬁce. We oﬀer to our gods what we ourselves eat. “There fell to my lot a she-camel out of the spoils of war on the day of Badr. . he found their “humps were chopped oﬀ and their haunches had been cut oﬀ and their livers had been taken out. and he a i a brought his camels along. went to where Hamza i was. who put on his mantle. We experience a new togetherness. all this changes.
. for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with that hand” (5010). . or hollow stumps (4913-4995). So long as nab¯ does not turn into liquor. there is not even a disapproval. gourds. If anything was left out of that he gave it to his servant.” reports Ab¯ Bakr (4983). it is not forbidden. In another tradition. MILK Muhammad approved of drinking milk. a is iz ’Aisha reports: “We prepared nab¯ for him [Muhammad] in a waterskin . .” For Im¯m iz a Ab¯ Han¯ and Q¯zi Ab¯ Y¯suf. and he would drink it in the morning” (4977). green pitchers. u TABLE MANNERS Etiquette relating to eating and drinking is also given. he tells ’Umar. Muhammad says: “None of you should eat with his left hand and drink with the left hand. a reports: “Nab¯ was prepared for All¯h’s Messenger in the beginning of the night and he iz a would drink it in the morning and the following night and the following day and the night after that up to the afternoon. the son of his wife Umm Salama by her ﬁrst husband: “Boy. “I milked for him [the Prophet] a small quantity of milk and brought it to him and he drank it. MUHAMMAD AND DRINKING There are many ah¯d¯ to show that the Prophet himself drank nab¯ (4971-4982). together (4896-4912). mention the name of All¯h. Ibn ’Abb¯s. the Prophet’s cousin. We prepared iz nab¯ in the morning and he drank it in the evening and we prepared the nab¯ in the iz iz night. Muhammad also forbade its preparation in varnished jars. . but the prohibition “was u ifa a u u valid only in the early period of Isl¯m when the people had to be trained for the prohibition a of liquor” (note 2409). How to reconcile the Prophet’s prohibition with his indulgence? The theologians are not at a loss. They say: “This prohibition is not a complete prohibition but it implies disapproval. and eat with your right hand and eat from a what is near you” (5012). or gave orders for it to be poured out” (4971).115 ¯ NABIZ Also forbidden was nab¯ a kind of wine made by mixing fresh dates and unripe dates iz.
. for feeding 130 persons (5105). and thanks for the mothers. Still. he left it” (5121). but one could do so with water from Zamzam (the well-known well within the precincts of the mosque at Mecca) as Muhammad himself did (5023-5027). It is also meritorious to lick one’s ﬁngers after taking one’s food. sisters and wives. A laudable practice. Ka’b reports that “the Messenger of All¯h used to eat food with three ﬁngers. Anas reports: “I saw All¯h’s Messenger going after the pumpkin a round the dish. and cooks who lovingly cooked it and served it.116 CHAPTER 11. In fact. it should be avoided when one has to talk to eminent persons. because Muhammad did so (5072). The roasted a liver of one sheep and two cups containing soup and meat suﬃce. PUMPKINS AND CUCUMBERS It is meritorious to eat pumpkin (5067-5069) and also cucumber with dates. and he licked a his hand before wiping it” (5040). Ab¯ Ayy¯b Ans¯r¯ tells us that the “holy prophet did not take garlic as he was visited by u u ai angels who brought him the message of All¯h” (5099). In ordinary course. thanks for the farmer who produced it. GARLIC Muhammad himself did not eat garlic because of its odor (5097). one “must vomit” (5022). so I have always liked the pumpkin since that day” (5067). a MIRACULOUS FEEDING Miraculous feeding after the fashion of Jesus is repeated in Isl¯m too. DO NOT FIND FAULT Do not ﬁnd fault with the food served to you. but it is permissible for other Muslims. FOOD AND DRINK One should not drink water while standing (5017-5022). he ate it and if he did not like it. HUNTING. ’Abdullah b. if one drinks water standing. The injunction is: “When anyone of you eats food he should not wipe his hand until he had licked it or got it licked by someone else” (5038). a man should eat with thankfulness in his heart-thanks for the gods that reside in his food. It is said about the Prophet that “if he liked anything. with the blessing of the Prophet. thanks for the elements that have gone into making it.
. Food derived from the spoils ¯ a of war and tribute is a negation of this insight. ¯ a negate Him. Though we may placate Him with soulful praises and pious thanks. Similarly. it is self-deception to believe that we adore or glorify God by reciting All ah-o-Akbar (“All¯h is Great”) while killing an animal. but one ought not to feel so pious about it. That way we really profane Him. Be a meat-eater if you like. no God can legitimize it. What Lord Buddha calls Right Livelihood (samyak ajiviik¯) is a great spiritual truth. it is not enough to thank “our Father who art in heaven” for giving “us this day our daily bread.” Let us pray that this bread is also honest.117 However.
HUNTING.118 CHAPTER 11. FOOD AND DRINK .
were considered excellent (5179-5180). It is also not permissible for a man to wear clothes of yellow color (5173-5178). Visions. A man was wearing clothes dyed in saﬀron. Decorations. 119 . on the other hand. These were striped and made of coarse cloth.Chapter 12 Clothing. for “these are the clothes usually worn by the non-believers” (5173). ﬁnding that the Prophet disapproved of them. “He who drinks in the vessel of silver in fact drinks down in his belly the ﬁre of Hell” (5126). he promised to wash them. Poetry. “Do not wear silk. The mantles of Yemen. It is permissible to use carpets (5188-5189). Greetings. Dreams The twenty-second book pertains to clothing and decorations (Kit¯b al-Lib¯s wa’la a Z¯ inah). The book begins with ah¯d¯ which forbid the use of gold and silver vessels (5126a is 5140). for one who wears it in the world will not wear it in the Hereafter” (5150). But Muhammad said: “Burn them” (5175). SILK Silk is also forbidden. General Behavior. Magic.
” reports Maim¯na. . J¯bir reports that “during an expedition in which we all a participated. ’Aisha tells us: “We had a curtain which had portraits of birds upon it . whether of birds or animals or men. MAGIC. so oppose them” (5245). They eﬀectively keep out the angels.120CHAPTER 12. [they a bring] to my mind [the pleasures on the worldly life” (5255).” the Prophet said: “Make a general practice of wearing sandals. . a veteran u aa u old man of one hundred years. the father of Ab¯ Bakr. for a man is riding as it were when he wears sandals” (5230). But why this change or dyeing at all? The Prophet gives the reason: “The Jews and Christians do not dye their hair. he [Muhammad] commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed. . DECORATIONS. but the hair too should not be dyed in saﬀron (5241). Gabriel himself told this to the Prophet. he told ’Aisha: “The most grievous torment from the Hand of All¯h on the Day of Resurrection would be for those who imitate All¯h in the act a a of His creation” (5261). DOGS Many ah¯d¯ tell us that “angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog” (5246a is 5251). On seeing portraits on a curtain. u PICTURES AND STATUES The same is true of statues and pictures in any form. “Then on that very morning. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. Ab¯ Quh¯f¯. one of the wives of the Prophet (5248). In fact. GREETINGS. On that day All¯h would ask these imitators: “Breathe soul into a what you have created” (5268). The Messenger of All¯h said to me: Change them. POE SANDALS Sandals are recommended. On the day of the conquest of Mecca. HAIR Not only clothes. His head and his beard were white like hyssop. met the Prophet to pledge his loyalty to him. The Prophet said: “Change it with something but avoid black” (5244). . but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive ﬁelds [or big gardens]. The angel had promised a rendezvous with Muhammad but did not turn up because meanwhile a puppy had gotten into his house and was sitting under a cot. CLOTHING.
tells us that if he found any of these things in his wife. But he forbade giving the following ¯ a a four names to servants: Aﬂah (“successful”).. He changed the name of ’Umar’s daughter ’Asiya (“disobedient”) to Jam¯ (“good and handsome”) (5332). This may have been an old ritualistic practice or a thoughtless current fashion (5289-5292). GENERAL BEHAVIOR AND SALUTATIONS The twenty-third and twenty-fourth books are the “Book of General Behavior” (al-Ad ab ) and the “Book on Salutations and Greetings” (as-Salam). The Prophet “cursed the woman who adds false hair and the woman who asks for it” (5298). Muhammad also disapproved of qaza. Rab¯h (“proﬁt”). those who pluck hair from their faces and those who make spaces between their teeth for beautiﬁcation changing what God has created” (5301). But he also changed the name of one of his wives ila from Barra to Juwair¯ (5334). Barra means “pious. the book on Ad¯b starts with personal names. iya Muhammad said that the dearest names to All¯h are Subh¯n All¯h (“Hallowed be All a a a ah”). he “would have never slept with her in the bed.” and it is a perfectly good name. He said that ugly personal names should be replaced with good ones (5332-5334).121 FALSE HAIR AND FACIAL CULTURE Some of Muhammad’s prohibitions relate to practices which are surprisingly modern. ’Abdullah.” So is the appela a lation Shahinsh¯h.e. Muhammad took great a interest in this matter. a . having a part of a boy’s head shaved and leaving a part unshaven.” Muhammad tells us also of women wearing see-through dresses: “women who would be dressed but appear to be naked will not enter paradise” (5310). i. or to pluck their eyebrows (5295-5309). having the same meaning (5338). ¯ PERSONAL NAMES Curiously. the son of ’Umar. He forbade women to add false hair to their head. and al-Hamidulill¯h (“praise be to All¯h”) (5329). “The vilest name in All¯h’s sight is Malik al-Aml¯k (king of kings). Yas¯r (“wealth”). and N¯ﬁ a a a (“beneﬁcial”) (5327). We are also told that “All¯h has cursed those women who tattooed and who have a themselves been tattooed.
who was using a pointed object of some kind to arrange a the hair on his head. MAGIC. and it is not granted. He [’Abdullah] went to him [the Holy Prophet] when he had attained the age of seven or eight years in order to pledge allegiance to All¯h’s Messenger” (5344). All¯h’s Messenger said to him: “If I were to know that you had been a peeping. The baby was taken to a u Muhammad. “he should come back” (5354). He then rubbed him and blessed him and gave him the name of ’Abdullah. it is permissible for them to put out his eyes” (5370). the daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. I would have thrust it into your eyes” (5367). but not his kunya (a name descriptive of some quality or attribute). and some chewed dates are rubbed over its a palate. The ﬁrst thing that entered his stomach was the saliva of All¯h’s a Messenger . . Muhammad called for some dates. . DECORATIONS. a a When other Muslims objected. a ASKING PERMISSION BEFORE ENTERING A HOUSE One should not enter anybody’s house without his permission. Az¯n and ik a Iq¯ma are recited in its right and left ears. gave birth to a baby. a ¯ TAHNIK Tahn¯ is the practice of blessing a newborn infant with religious piety. DON’T PEEP INTO ANOTHER MAN’S HOUSE It is forbidden to peep into the house of another person. POE NAMING INFANTS AFTER MUHAMMAD People who wanted to name their sons after Muhammad were only allowed to use his personal name (Muhammad). CLOTHING. “chewed them and then put his saliva in his [the infant’s] mouth. Then Muhammad pronounced: “He who peeped into the house of people without their consent. When a man seeks permission three times. he went to Muhammad for clariﬁcation. . GREETINGS. Muhammad said: “Give him my name but do not give him my kunya. A man peeped through a hole in the door at All¯h’s Messenger.122CHAPTER 12. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. Asm¯. . Q¯sim. J¯bir narrates that a man named his newborn babe Muhammad. for I am Q¯sim in the sense that I a distribute [the spoils of war] and the dues of Zak¯t amongst you” (5316).
when he invites you to a feast accept it. then revealed the verses pertaining to veil. then “give the path its due right” (5375-5377). . we recognize you.” the Prophet replied a (5400).” an ans¯r asked. ‘May All¯h show mercy to a a you’. “Husband’s brother is like death. . FIRST GREETINGS “The rider should ﬁrst greet the pedestrian. went out to the a ﬁelds in the dark to ease herself. and when he sneezes and says: ‘All praise to All¯h. the Exalted and Glorious. One day. when the Prophet’s wife Saud¯.” He did so a “with the hope that the verses pertaining to veil would be revealed. or if that cannot be helped. Also. When the People of the Book (Jews and Christians) oﬀer you salutations. Muhammad also taught his followers to “avoid sitting on the paths”. when he seeks your counsel give him. But it is diﬀerent with the People of the Book. ’Umar called out: “Saud¯. you should say: “The same to you” (5380). “Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it” (5389). and the pedestrian the one who is seated” (5374). who was tall in stature. When you meet him. “All¯h. oﬀer him greetings. And all should greet the children (5391-5392).” His hope was fulﬁlled. and when he falls ill visit him. but Muhammad did not respond.” says ’Aisha a (5397).’ you say. VEIL ’Umar wanted Muhammad to ask his women to wear the veil. . Muhammad teaches his followers to respond by saying: “Let it be upon you” (5380-5388).” “But what about the husband’s brother. Some Jews once made a pun and greeted Muslims by saying as-s¯m-u-’alaikum (“death be upon you”) instead of the usual as-sal¯m-u-alaikum a a (“peace be upon you”). and when he dies follow his bier” (5379).123 SALUTATIONS AND GREETINGS “Six are the rights of a Muslim over another Muslim . The Prophet himself followed this practice. “beware of getting into the houses and meeting women.
the “Book of Salutations and Greetings” also contains many ah¯d¯ on magic. GREETINGS.e. POE MAGIC AND SPELLS With rather slovenly classiﬁcation. As the knots were untied. tied in eleven knots around a palm branch. In fact.” A bath is prescribed as its remedy. it had no power over him (5430). Muhammad also believed in witchcraft. She poisoned the mutton she was asked to cook for Muhammad. The angels told Muhammad that “the spell has aﬀected him. The Jewish woman was none other than the unfortunate victim who had seen her father and husband killed in the Prophet’s raid on Khaibar and whom he was now contemplating to marry. 156. it caused his last illness. This saved him for the time being. the Prophet also seeks refuge “from the mischief of darkness as it u overspreads. its [the well’s] water was yellow like henna a and its trees [i. those who had brought it about.. CLOTHING. The eﬀect of the charm was transmitted “by the comb and by the hair stuck to the comb and the spathe of the date-palm . and incantations.. a u In the same S¯ra. poisons. he also felt “that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. you should take a bath” (5427). “could not come at his wives. but the poison had a delayed eﬀect.[and that it was] in the well of Zi Arw¯n. vol. He had just taken a morsel and ﬁnding the taste unusual spat it out. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. p. he lost his appetite and even became impotent. medicine. or. and according to some traditions. of course. and deposited at the bottom of a well.” a Muhammad sent his men there and they found it at the very spot revealed by the angels. Muhammad told ’Aisha: “ ’Aisha. a is The Prophet believed that “the inﬂuence of an evil eye is a fact. and the way they did it. “When you are asked to take a bath from the inﬂuence of an evil eye. a Jewish woman gave Muhammad poisoned mutton. 1 Tabaq at. in the language of Ibn Ish¯q.” But two angels came and revealed everything: the nature of the sickness. by All¯h. I.” a And under the inﬂuence of the charm. he believed that he himself had once been put under a spell by a Jew and his daughters. DECORATIONS. He sought “refuge with the Lord of the Dawn from the mischief of women who blow on knots [i.e. the Prophet got well. the trees around the well] were like heads of the devils” (5428).” and that “it was Lab¯ b. 1 On another occasion. MAGIC.124CHAPTER 12. During this period. but. ¯ . practice the secret art of casting spells]” (Qur¯n S¯ra 113).” The angels explained that hairs combed from the head of the Prophet had been stolen. spells.” Has this prayer to do with his fear of darkness? His biographers say he was afraid of the dark and would not sit in a dark room unless a lamp was brought for him. A’sam id [who cast the spell].
no epidemic disease. don’t go to it. which invoked the name of Al-L ah but not of Al-L at. According to the Arab belief of that time.125 CURES BY INCANTATION Muhammad used to “cure” people with the help of incantations (5442-5457).” There is also no h¯ma (5507-5516). reinforced by the application of his saliva (5459).e. A delegation that included a leper once came to pay homage to Muhammad. NO HAMA. LEPROSY Don’t mix with lepers. On another occasion. which kept crying for the blood of the a slayer until the slayer was killed. 3 ¯ a ¯ NO EVIL OMEN. a The translator extends the area from the Prophet’s four walls and household to the whole of Medina. don’t run out of it” (5493). and when it has broken out in the land where you are.” Muhammad says (5484). it is a wonder drug. i. and it also has the power to confer great spiritual merit. the soul of a a slain man took the form of a bird known as h¯ma. . NO INFECTION Muhammad said that there are “no ill omens. It has a sexual potential. He says that according to some Muslim scholars. Cool it down with water. The fever is due to “the intense heat of the Hell. The Prophet would not meet the leper but sent him a message: “We have accepted your allegiance. the Apostle of All¯h placed his foreﬁnger upon the ground and then lifted a it by reciting the name of All¯h and said: ‘The dust of our ground with the saliva of any a one of us would serve as a means whereby our illness would be cured with the sanction of All¯h’ ” (5444). 2 He saw “no harm in the incantation which does not smack of polytheism” (5457).” and “no star promising rain. He even granted the sanction of treating snakebite with incantation to a family of ans¯rs (5443). ¯ ¯ 3 Saliva exists in many modes and performs many functions. the word “dust” in the had¯ “refers to the sacred dust of Medina on which had fallen the saliva of the pious is Muslims” (note 2579). Muhammad also taught that there is no infection. so you may go” (5541). as several ah ad¯ ¯ is show. he treated cases of “evil eye” and snakebite.. About the plague he said: “When you hear that it has broken out in a land. no ghouls. Among others. a Companion of the Prophet cured a man bitten by a poisonous scorpion with the help of S ura al-F¯tiha. 2 a ’Aisha reports: “When any person fell ill with a disease or he had any ailment or he had any injury.
The pre-Muslim Arabs believed that meteors symbolized the death or birth of a great man. ¯ a nor one possessed or mad [majn un]” (Qur¯n 52:29). a belief found in the lore of many countries. nature. soothsayers. i. “There is no transitive [i.are very diﬀerent. The a reason for this opposition was personal as well as ideological. epidemic] disease. ¯ a His other ground of opposition was of a more general nature. a ¯ KAHINS Muhammad was against k¯hins. POE LUCK Though Muhammad did not believe in divination.. The two worlds . About luck he says: “If a bad luck is a fact. no divination. MAGIC. But the source of the knowledge of a k¯hin is the jinn. CLOTHING. but that does not make him a rationalist as we understand the word today.e. a knowla a a edge which he steals from heaven but mixes up with lies.” the translator assures us (note 2603). Muhammad believed that Gabriel was the true source of the knowledge of the unseen world now contained in the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h. including India. and fortune-tellers.” Muhammad a a replies: “That is a word pertaining to truth which a jinn snatches away and then cackles into the ear of his friend [the k¯hin] as the hen does. “the unluckiness of a horse is that the horse is used not for Jih¯d but for evil designs” (note 2602). then it is in a horse.. DECORATIONS. the woman and the house” (5526). GREETINGS. GENERAL BEHAVIOR.126CHAPTER 12. And then they [the jinns] mix in it a more than one hundred lies” (5536). All a ah had assured him that “by the favour of the Lord. There is an interesting had¯ on is shooting stars which tells us what Muhammad believed about the world. he believed in good omens and luck. METEORS Muhammad did not believe in a star promising rain.” he says (5519). the Qur¯n and the Sunn¯h are the source. thou art neither a soothsayer [k¯hin]. According to the translator.the world of Muhammad and that of the modern rationalist . and the law of causality. “All other avenues of knowledge of the a a unseen world are limited and thus not fully authentic and reliable.e. ’Aisha puts it to Muhammad: “Messenger of All¯h! they [k¯hins] at times tell us things which we ﬁnd true. augurs. Muhammad corrected . For pure and unadulterated knowledge of the occult world. but good omens please me. personal because he himself was accused of being no better than a k¯hin but wanted to be known as a prophet. and incidentally about how the jinns steal their knowledge of the heavens.
and Jinn (72:8-10). the Exalted and the Glorious. then sing dwellers of the heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in this heaven of the world. I am afraid that there may be a calamity in it.” So they too should be killed (5545). for it aﬀects eyesight and miscarries pregnancy” (5542). And when the angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. Then the dwellers of heaven of the world seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. It seems that Muhammad believed in the hierarchy of angels. Their sight ﬁlled him with fear.” When these diﬀerent orders communicate with each other.” She asked him: “I ﬁnd people being happy when they see the dark cloud in the hope that it would bring rain. had¯ 1963). Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask those supporters of the Throne: What has your Lord said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. WINDS AND CLOUDS The fact is that the world of Muhammad is as weird and full of imps and jinns as the world of the k¯hins and has little in common with the world as moderns understand it. ANTS. Muhammad explains: “All¯h. but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it” (5538). for it may be like the people of ’Ad who saw a cloud formation and thought ‘It is a cloud which would give us rain. CATS ’Aisha reports that the Prophet “commanded the killing of a snake having stripes over it. The snatching of the heavenly news by the jinn is referred to in several places in the Qur¯n. . but I ﬁnd that when you see that [the cloud] there is an anxiety on your face. S¯ﬀ¯t (37:7-10). a is SNAKES. the third group lives in the “heaven of the world. As a we have already seen in the chapter on sal¯t (see page 31) Muhammad’s approach even to a phenomena so close to home as clouds and rain and wind was neither scientiﬁc nor even poetic but magical and superstitious. If they narrate which they manage to snatch that is correct. a ¯ a a Mulk (67:5). Then the angels supporting the Throne sing His glory. In this process of transmission the jinn snatches what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends.127 this belief and provided another explanation. issues a Command when He decides to do a thing.” He replied: “ ’Aisha. ’Aisha tells us that when he “saw dark clouds or wind. the jinn has his chance. the signs of fear were depicted on his face. Like snakes. next come the “dwellers of the heaven”. First in rank are the “supporters of the Throne”. His view is a little complicated but worth quoting. The interested reader may look up the S uras Hijr (15:16-18). dogs too “cause miscarriage and aﬀect the eyesight adversely.’ but were destroyed by it” (Qur¯n 46:24.
the only status he cared to claim. he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. Muhammad also employed and honored some of the more pliable poets. 4 a Ka’b took his brother’s advice and one day appeared before Muhammad without revealing his identity. When Mecca was conquered. Muhammad once saw a poet reciting a poem. a Muhammad took a utilitarian view of poets. then get to some safe place. it is not the speech of a poet nor of a soothsayer. who was already a convert. He himself was described by some as a poet but declined the honor because it detracted from the dignity of apostleship. as in the cases of ’Asm¯. “Catch the Satan.128CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING. Ka’b b. among them Ka’b ibn M¯lik.” he vehemently insisted (Qur¯n 69:40-42).” the Messenger of All¯h added (5611).” he advised. And All¯h a revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sing My praise” (5567). It is also meritorious to supply water to thirsty animals (5577-5579). and the third is on visions (kit¯b al-r uy¯). ¯ ¯ . “If you have any use for your life then come quickly to the Apostle. and Ka’b ibn Ashraf. Ab¯ Wahb. “This is the speech of an honoured Apostle. even by the method of assassination. “O Apostle. p. warned him of the fate suﬀered by many other opponents of Isl¯m and advised him to either submit or seek asylum somewhere else. The lasta a a mentioned was the son of a famous poet of his times. 597. he did not think highly of them. and Ka’b ibn Zuhair. the centenarian poet Ab¯ ’Afak. a a ¯ a At a place known as ’Arj. VISIONS The next three books are very small. according to Ibn Ish¯q. It is forbidden to kill a cat (5570-5576). Zuhair has come to ask security from you as a repentant Muslim. his brother. He a wrote Ka’b that the Apostle had killed some of the men in Mecca who had satirized him and that the Quraish poets who were left. a This is only a part of the story and does not represent the positive side of the Prophet’s attitude toward poets. a u had already ﬂed in all directions. GENERAL BEHAVIOR. . This taught many of the a u others to behave better. Hass¯n ibn S¯bit. like Ibn al-Ziba’r¯ and Hubayra b. At ﬁrst Ka’b ibn Zuhair put himself under the ban by writing poems unfavorable to the Muslims. Would you accept him as such if he came to you?” Ka’b inquired of the 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. DECORATIONS. CORRECT WORDS. . GREETINGS. the daughter of a Marw¯n. The book ends on a compassionate note. True. One relates to the use of correct words. “An ant had a bitten a prophet . The more inconvenient ones he had eliminated. MAGIC. but this was due to the intervention of All¯h Himself. POETRY. POE Ants fared better. for he does not kill anyone who comes to him in repentance. “Filling the belly of a person with pus is better than stuﬃng his brain with poetry.” Muhammad commanded. another is on poetry (kit¯b al-shi’r). If you do not do that.
129 Prophet. Receiving an aﬃrmative answer, he said, “I am Ka’b, the son of Zuhair.” Some of the people around Muhammad wanted his permission to kill him, but he was spared. Then Ka’b sought the Prophet’s permission to recite a qas¯ in his praise. The perida mission was readily given. He began reciting: He surpassed all the prophets in constitution and disposition, Nor did any approach him either in knowledge or nobleness. But when he came to the lines, Indeed, the Prophet is a Light providing guidance to the world And a drawn sword from the armoury of All¯h [suy uf All¯h] a ¯ a the Prophet was so delighted that he took oﬀ his mantle and bestowed it on Ka’b. The poem came to be known in the Muslim world as the “Poem of the Mantle” (Qas¯ idatul-Burda). The mantle became a precious heirloom of the poet’s family and was bought from one of his descendants by a future Khal¯ Mu’awiyah, for 40,000 dirhams. The ifa, khirqai-shar¯ (holy mantle) became successively the property of the Ummayads and then if of the Abbasides. Some say it was burned when Baghdad was sacked by the Tartars; others believe that it passed into the hands of the Ottoman caliphate. Whether real or fake, the Ottoman mantle is taken out as a national standard in times of great emergency.
Playing chess is also forbidden. “He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the ﬂesh and blood of a swine,” says Muhammad (5612).
The next book, again very small, is on visions and dreams. A bad dream is called hulm, an ordinary one man¯m and al-r uy¯ is a heavenly vision. a ¯ a Muhammad says that good dreams come from All¯h and bad ones from Satan (5613). a If one has a bad dream (hulm), he should do two things: “he should spit thrice on his left side” (5615-5616) and “not disclose it to any one” (5618). But a good dream one may reveal to his beloved friends (5618-5619). Muhammad says that “the vision of a believer is the forty-sixth part of prophecy” (5622-5630); in other ah¯d¯ it becomes “the seventieth part” (5632-5634). The diﬀera is
130CHAPTER 12. CLOTHING, DECORATIONS, GENERAL BEHAVIOR, GREETINGS, MAGIC, POE ence between the forty-sixth and the seventieth parts “depends upon the diﬀerence in the standard of piety” of the dreamer, as the translator explains (note 2618). Here too is some bad news for professional psychoanalysts. “Do not narrate to the people the vain sporting of Satan with you in your sleep,” Muhammad advises his followers (5641). Muhammad also makes a very self-satisﬁed statement: “He who saw me in a dream in fact saw me, for the satan does not appear in my form” (5635).
Muhammad also narrates some of his own dreams and gives their interpretations. Once in a dream, he was made to wear “two bangles” on his hands. At this he felt “a sort of burden” upon him (for a “bangle is the ornament of women,” the translator explains); Muhammad then was made to blow upon them and they both disappeared. “I interpreted the two bangles as the two great liars who would appear after me and the one amongst them was ’Anas¯ the inhabitant of San’a and the other one was Musailima the inhabitant i of Yam¯ma,” Muhammad says (5650). a Both of these men lived at the time of the Prophet. Both claimed prophethood; Musailima al-Kazz¯b (“the greater liar” as he is called by Muslim theologians) even claimed a a joint share in the prophethood of Muhammad. ’Anas¯ and Musailima both led revolts i and were killed.
Muhammad on Muhammad
The twenty-eighth book pertains to the “Excellent Qualities of the Prophet” (Kit¯b a al-Faz¯’il). a
The book opens with the Prophet’s own self-estimation. “Verily All¯h granted eminence a to Kin¯n from amongst the descendants of Ism¯’il and He granted eminence to the Quraish a a amongst Kin¯ns and He granted eminence to Ban¯ H¯shim amongst the Quraish and He a u a granted me eminence from the tribe of Ban¯ H¯shim” (5653). u a “I recognize the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognize that even now” (5654). So it seems that a stone can pay but not receive salutations. Idolatry in reverse. “I shall be preeminent among the descendants of Adam on the Day of Resurrection and I will be the ﬁrst intercessor and the ﬁrst whose intercession will be accepted” (5655). Muhammad uses an eﬀective simile to show the diﬀerence between himself and the ﬁve or six Apostles that he recognized as having preceded him. The religion of the other apostles is like a building “imposing and beautiful” but for one brick. “I am that ﬁnal brick,” he says (5673-5676). With his coming, the ediﬁce of religion becomes perfect, and there is no room or use left for any future prophet. “I have come to ﬁnalize the chain of Apostles,” he says (5677). With him the old religions are abrogated and the possibility of any new one is exhausted. So any new religion or revelation must be a mischievous innovation. Muhammad uses another simile to characterize three types of people who receive his 131
CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD
message, which itself is like “rain falling upon the earth”. The ﬁrst are like “a good piece of land which receives the rainfall eagerly” and produces “herbage and grass abundantly.” These people absorb the message of the Prophet and develop understanding about it and become a source of beneﬁt to others. The second ones are like a “land hard and barren,” which itself grows nothing but retains water for the beneﬁt of others. These people have no deep understanding of the message but “acquire knowledge of religion and impart it to others.” The third type is like a barren land which neither absorbs nor retains the rainwater. These people do not “accept the guidance of All¯h with which I [Muhammad] a have been sent” (5668). In yet another simile, Muhammad tells the believers that while he is trying to save them from the hellﬁre, they are rushing headlong into it. “My example and your example is that of a person who lit the ﬁre and insects and moths begin to fall in it and he would be making eﬀorts to take them out, and I am going to hold you back from ﬁre, but you are slipping from my hand” (5672).
THE NAMES OF MUHAMMAD
A little further in the book, Muhammad says: “I am Muhammad and I am Ahmad, and I am al-M¯hl [the obliterator] by whom unbelief would be obliterated and I am H¯shir a a [the gatherer] at whose feet mankind will be gathered, and I am ’Aqib [the last to come] after whom there will be no prophet.” He is also Muqaﬀ¯ (the last in succession), and also i the Prophet of Repentance as well as the Prophet of Mercy (5810-5813). The statement will have Vedantic echoes for some ears; and many Hindus, predisposed to ﬁnd “synthesis” and not caring whether it is a false one, may seize on this had¯ to is “prove” that Vedantism and Prophetism are the same. But in fact the two approaches are widely apart in spirit.
MUHAMMAD AT THE HEAVENLY CISTERN
We learn from thirty-three ah¯d¯ (5680-5712), on Muhammad’s own assurance, that a is he will be at the Cistern in heaven waiting to receive his followers. “I shall be there ahead of you at the Hauz Kausar,” he tells them (5712). The Hauz Kausar, or Cistern, is a great water reservoir in Paradise, requiring “a month’s journey to go around it” (5684). All the followers of Muhammad will be presented to him here except those who disobeyed the Prophet and made “innovations” in his religion. According to some authorities quoted by the translator, these are the people “who turned apostates after the death of the Holy Prophet and were killed by the army of Hazrat Ab¯ Bakr” (note 2630). u
embrace Isl¯m. He promised someone: “In case we get wealth from Bahrain. “He [Muhammad] was the most detested person amongst people in my eyes. Anas adds that this man “embraced Isl¯m for a the sake of the world but later he became Muslim until Isl¯m became dearer to him than a the world” (5729). All¯h “destroys it [the a Ummah] as the Apostle witnesses it and he cools his eyes by destruction as they had belied him and disobeyed his command” (5679). Ummaya. But he continued giving to me until now he is the dearest of people to me. “He asked me to count them. ADULATION The book also tells us what Muhammad’s followers thought of him. MUHAMMAD’S GENEROSITY Muhammad gave freely from his war booty not only to his followers but also to other important chiefs to “incline” them to Isl¯m. tells us that whenever the Prophet “had to choose between two things he adopted the easier one. . a Anas says that the Prophet never failed to give when “asked for anything in the name of Isl¯m. This was called his charitable disposition.” But when God intends to cause destruction to an ummah. The man was overwhelmed. I counted them as ﬁve hundred dinars and he [Ab¯ u Bakr] said: Here is double of this for you. provided it was no sin” (5752).133 A PROPHET’S DOUBLE ROLE When an ummah is safe from the wrath of God. He punishes it through His living Apostle. He found Muhammad most valorous. who was the Prophet’s servant for nine or ten ¯ is years. Ab¯ Bakr gave the man a handful u of coins. many of them by Anas. “He a went back to his people and said: My people. “sublimest among people and the most generous amongst them and he was the bravest of men” (5715-5717).” A person came and Muhammad gave him a large ﬂock of sheep and goats.” the beneﬁciary tells us (5731). Muhammad’s promises of booty were fulﬁlled even posthumously. It gives many ahad¯ on this subject. but when it did. however. He then gave him another a hundred and yet another hundred.” The Prophet died before the wealth arrived from Bahrain. I would give you so much. He calls back his Messenger as “a harbinger and recompense in the world to come.” the recipient said (5730). the is a Prophet gave one hundred camels to Safw¯n b. ’Aisha. Another had¯ tells us that after he was granted a victory at Hunain by All¯h. for Muhammad gives so much a charity as if he has no fear of want” (5728). most courageous.
The hair grew in the lobes of his ears. “Do not be angry. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD Even prophets are not above using material inducements to win converts. or what Mahatma Gandhi calls in another context “rice Christians”. or charity. for I give property to the M ulfat Qul ub. In their new mission work in India and other countries of Asia and Africa. THE PROPHET’S APPEARANCE Al-Bar¯ says that Muhammad was “neither very tall nor short-statured” (5771). a THE PROPHET’S HAIR There are many ah¯d¯ on the Prophet’s hair. One is called jih¯d. His perspiration “shone like pearls. This is done in order “to rivet their hearts to faith” more securely. eyes. She told Muhammad: “That is your sweat which we mix in our perfume and it becomes the most fragrant perfume” (5761). The m ulfat qul ub are nominal ¯ ¯ Muslims. Anas “never touched brocade or silk and found it as soft as the body of All¯h’s Messenger” (5759). and All¯h’s Messenger liked to conform his behaviour to a the People of the Book in matters in which he received no command from God. ¯ ¯ according to a tradition quoted in Mirkhond’s Persian biography of the Prophet. Ibn ’Abb¯s says the following on the subject: “The People of the a Book [Jews and Christians] used to let their hair fall on their forehead and the polytheists used to part it on their heads.134 CHAPTER 13. In the prophetic theology both acts are meritorious. the other sadaqa. His mother collected the Prophet’s sweat a in a bottle. and even heels. a is He used to part his hair. they are convinced by more palpable economic and political advantages. “He put on a red mantle over him. Rob Peter to pay Paul. a THE PROPHET’S BODILY CHARACTERISTICS: FRAGRANCE There are many ah¯d¯ about the Prophet’s bodily characteristics: his face. appearance. the oil-rich sheikhs are following a holy and hoary tradition. He a also found his face very handsome. and never have I seen anyone more handsome than All¯h’s Apostle” (5770).” His body a was also fragrant. Anas “never smelt musk or ambergris and found its fragrance as sweet as the fragrance of All¯h’s Messenger” (5760). a is complexion. hair. The Prophet’s body was soft.” Muhammad tells his faithful followers. so All- .
once saw Gabriel talking to Muhammad and mistook the angel for Dihya Kalb¯ (6006). Umm i. according to the translator. PHYSICAL CHANGES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WAHY According to ’Aisha. In fact. J¯bir. under its inﬂuence. . Muhammad’s wife. . . That the Prophet reverted to the ways of the polytheists after following the Jewish practice shows. THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD His followers believed that Muhammad carried the “seal of prophethood” even physically as a protuberance on his back. i Muhammad was commissioned as a prophet by All¯h when he was forty years old. Salama. to him the had¯ is a “clear proof of the fact that All¯h’s Messenger received is a wahy [revelation] from the Lord. dyed their hair “with pure henna” (5779-5789). that a revelation was involved in the matter. ’Abdullah b. . Sarjis says that he “saw the seal of Prophethood between his shoulders on the left side of his shoulder having spots on it like moles” (5793). Furthermore. in addition to what is contained in the Qur¯n. “his forehead perspired” (5764). and at times an Angel in the form of a human being comes to me and speaks . Muhammad himself says that at times wahy “comes to me like the ringing of a bell and that is most severe for me . He stayed in Medina for ten years (5799-5809). his Companions came round him and they eagerly wanted that no hair should fall but in the hand of a person” (5750). . Anas reports that when the Prophet “got his hair cut by the barber. the “colour of his face underwent a a change” (5766). and then he began to part it after this” ¯ (5768). and his head was lowered (5767).135 ah’s Messenger let fall his hair upon his forehead. According to Ub¯da. ” (5765). when a revelation descended upon Muhammad. Muhammad had some white hair but he did not dye it. His hair was collected. Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. a and he died at the age of sixty-three (5794-5798). The reference is to Dihya Kalb¯ a young follower of his of striking beauty. and he a acted according to it” (note 2639). Another man. also saw it “on his back as if it were a pigeon’s egg” a (5790). younger u than he. .
then they should do it. the Exalted and Glorious” (5830). a This is the only instance of its kind but a godsend for Muslim reformers who seek the emancipation of secular thought from the clutches of the ulemas. and therefore it was obligatory for the believers to follow him obediently. On another occasion. they will not really believe until they make thee a judge of what is in dispute among them. but the ans¯r openly said that it favored Zubair. When this reaction was conveyed to the Prophet. the Prophet gives someone half a wasq of barley.” the irrepressible Anas tells us (5657). I have the best knowledge amongst them” (5814). he said: “If there is any use of it. It suﬃced him . Once there was a dispute between Zubair and an ans¯r. Sometimes. but Muslim reformers and “innovators” have to make the best of it. i. is. Muhammad said: “I do not ﬁnd it of any use. who was the Prophet’s a cousin . people no longer grafted their trees and the yield declined. he tells us that their number was “between ﬁfty and eighty” (5656). by the Lord. in which the Prophet strikes a more modest note. for I do not a attribute lie to All¯h. learned this. The Prophet’s color changed and All¯h sent him this a verse: “Nay. then do accept it. and ﬁnd in this no dislike of what thou decidest and submit with full submission” (Qur¯n 4:65.e. When Muhammad. A small quantity of water was brought to Muhammad. In one place. combining the male with the female tree for a larger yield. and do not go after my personal opinion. in another three hundred (5658). Muhammad did or said something that some of the Companions did not approve. for it was just a personal opinion of mine.his father’s sister’s son. I do not think this approach can go very far.136 CHAPTER 13. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET HAD THE BEST KNOWLEDGE The Prophet had the best knowledge. But he has two options to oﬀer about the number of people seeking ablution. Muhammad once passed by as some people were grafting date-palm trees. a The test of true faith in All¯h is for the believer to submit willingly to every decision a made by His Apostle. a practical man.” As a result. but when he placed his hand in the vessel. he stood up and delivered an address: “What has happened to the people to whom there was conveyed on my behalf a matter for which I granted permission and they disapproved it and avoided it? By All¯h. but when I say to you anything on behalf of All¯h.. Muhammad a gave his decision. mostly patterned after those of Jesus. MIRACLES The book also reports many miracles. “I saw water spouting from his ﬁngers and the people performing ablution until the last amongst them performed it. everyone was enabled to perform ablution. had¯ 5817). a is But there is one had¯ rather unusual.
a dispute rose. Their religion is. Who chose Moses amongst mankind.” Muhammad chided the ans¯r and a told him: “Don’t make distinction amongst the Prophet’s of All¯h” (5853-5854).” The Jew went a to Muhammad. Muhammad’s world was not very large.” The ans¯r gave him a blow on the face. Muhammad says: “Prophet’s are brothers in faith. the neighboring Jews and Christians. Therefore. PEOPLE OF THE COVENANT OR OBLIGATION (Al-zimma’ Some ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of Moses reveal an interesting fact: the zimm¯ did a is is not originate with ’Umar but were already there in the time of the Prophet. Sa’d saw Gabriel and Michael on the right and left sides of the Prophet “in white clothes” (5713-5714). Muhammad comes as the last of the apostles and abrogates all previous revelations. he made another use of these apostles-he used them against their own followers. served a still greater purpose. What he spoke was not merely the voice of All¯h but also the voice of all the apostles that had come a before him. and supplicated him. “Had you not weighed it. But when he failed in his bid. there are ah¯d¯ on the “merits” of other apostles like Jesus. and in making that bid adopted some of their beliefs and practices and also gave recognition to their apostles. Speaking of himself and Jesus. He knew his own people. a This is the liberalism we have found from Muhammad at his rare best. For example. narrated the whole story.137 and his family and his guests till the curious one weighed it. the Arab Bedouins. on the day of Uhud. It provided him with an apostolic lineage. a a chiding him for invoking Moses when “All¯h’s Messenger is living with us. But he could not . the tribes allied with them. you would be eating out of it and it would have remained intact for you. one and there is no apostle between us [between Jesus and himself]” (5836). he oﬀered his leadership. and therefore they were as good as apostates. During the dispute. and Moses. when an ans¯r oﬀered a a price that was not acceptable to him. the Jew said: “By All¯h. those who did not believe in him did not in fact believe in their own apostles. OTHER APOSTLES At the end of the book. On the battleﬁeld.” J¯bir heard a Muhammad telling him (5661). having diﬀerent mothers. a Jew was selling goods. To the Jews and Christians. Recognizing the other prophets. The Jews were already second-class citizens and were treated roughly by the believer-hoodlums in Muhammad’s own day. though on his own terms. however. I a am a Zimmi [thus need your protection] by a covenant. saying: “Abu’l-Q¯sim. a is Abraham.
for they are all part of one human brotherhood. MUHAMMAD ON MUHAMMAD arrive at the still larger truth which declares: Don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent ummahs. for one is also the other. . An exclusive concept of God leads to an exclusive a a concept of ummah. This is so with other religions of Semitic origin too.138 CHAPTER 13. don’t make a distinction between diﬀerent gods. don’t make a distinction between AlL¯h and Al-L¯t. for they all express the same Truth. an attitude of either/or. seldom both.
like the Battle of Badr and the “Oath of Allegiance under the Tree” (Bay’at al-Rizw¯n) at Hodeibia in March A. D. When Muhammad was asked whom he loved best. “the father of the maiden.” Muhammad said u a (5873). his wives like Khad¯ ’Aisha. Ab¯ i a u Bakr. faith and loyalty to the leader are the supreme virtues. members of his family like F¯tima. ’Aisha’s 139 . but he soon came to be known by another name. Muhammad changed his u iq name to ’Abdu’llah Ibn Ab¯ Quh¯fa. In totalitarian ideologies and creeds. Salama. “If I were to choose as my bosom u friend I would have chosen the son of Ab¯ Quh¯fa as my bosom friend.” the maiden being ’Aisha. and u a a i. and ’Usm¯n.” his lieutenants and relatives ¯ like Ab¯ Bakr. whom Muhammad betrothed when she was six and married when she was nine. Muhammad had a high regard for Ab¯ Bakr’s services. ’Umar. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU BAKR SIDD¯ IQ The original name of Ab¯ Bakr Sidd¯ was ’Abdu’l Ka’bah. a other men associated with events and occasions important in the eyes of the Muslims of the days of the Prophet. he answered: “ ’Aisha. ’Al¯ Hasan.Chapter 14 The Prophet’s Companions The twenty-ninth book is on the “Merits of the Companions” (Kit¯b Faz¯’il Al-Sah a a abah) of the Prophet. All of these people are praised not because they had a larger vision or a deeper humanity or a wider sense of justice than others but solely on one basis: their loyalty and utility to Muhammad’s person and cause. Husain. The followers need have no other. and some loyal ans¯rs and ija. it is enough to be subservient. Ab¯ Bakr became Isl¯m’s ﬁrst Khal¯ u a ifa after Muhammad. 628 (those who took this oath were a promised by Muhammad that they would never enter the ﬁre of hell). To be saved. It praises Muhammad’s “Companions. and Zainab.
and ’Umar in that order” (5876). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS father. they hurried to the spot with their own u supporters. p. Even ’Aisha.” When this drew a protest from the ans¯rs. with a sword in his hand. ’Aisha’s report is even more to the point: “All¯h’s a Messenger in his last illness asked me to call Ab¯ Bakr. 527-528). u ifa a S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. When Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar got wind of this. Outside. struggle for power began in earnest. and her brother too..” He told them: “We are the Ameers. walked toward him but his foot got entangled in the carpet. one of their own tribesmen. or I shall put this house to ﬁre and burn you all. the u e ¯ and ’Abb¯s. “Either take the i. and Ab¯ Bakr was “chosen” as u the Ameer of Isl¯m. I. Ab¯ Bakr came to power through a coup d’´tat. her father. made the most of his dead body. 1 2 . during the conﬂict around the question of succession that arose after Muhammad’s death. and you are our Wazeers. ’Ub¯da. u There are ah¯d¯ justifying the succession of Ab¯ Bakr that may have been manufaca is u tured by their authors. even half-believingly. his favorite wife. ¯ ¯ ’Umar with his party also went to the house of ’Al¯ where H¯shimites had forgathered.she was sleeping in another hut at this time.” Muhammad answered (5878). 1 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ 2 i. As soon as Muhammad died.” and that the “Arabs will recognize authority only in this clan of Quraish. as the u a a chief. a vow of obedience to Ab¯ Bakr.’ ” ’Umar reports according to Ibn Ish¯q. ’Ali a respectively. p. u so that he might write a document. I said. “In doing this. The next day. ’Umar’s men jumped on him and brought him under control (T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol. they kept it to themselves and allowed no one else to take a hand in preparing it for burial. They locked the room from inside and secretly buried the body during the night in the very room in which he had died. A woman came to Muhammad during his last sickness and asked him whom she should go to when he was no longer there. 279. Ab¯ Sufy¯n taunted him that “only two ignoble things would bear u u a their beatings and injustice so patiently: A tent nail and a village donkey” (Ibid. was kept in the dark about it . when ’Al¯ ¯ ikh i. the struggle raged between the ans¯rs and the Emigrants. for he feared that someone else might be desirous of succeeding him” (5879). The ans¯rs met a a in the hall of Ban¯ S¯’ida to choose Sa’d b. u Zubair. i submitted to Ab¯ Bakr’s Caliphate. the Prophet’s cousin and uncle. Ab¯ Bakr told the Medinans that the Quraish were the “best of the Arabs u in blood and country. ‘God kill him.140 CHAPTER 14. Eventually. 529). Ab¯ Bakr. ’Ub¯da and someone said that a a we killed him.” ’Umar threatened them. “To Ab¯ u Bakr. we jumped on Sa’d b. Ab¯ Bakr declared himself the Khal¯ of Isl¯m. But this was not acceptable to the Meccan party. it was proposed that each party should choose its own separate a Ameer. pp.
. and strong in his hatred. ’Umar wept when he was told about it. Once. the place of the Jewish Temple. ’Khatt¯b and Ab¯ Bakr were an inseparable pair. Once Muhammad was persuaded to oﬀer a funeral prayer for someone whom the Muslims called a hypocrite. nor stand at his grave.” Muhammad observed (5885). whereas All¯h has forbidden to oﬀer prayer for him?” (5904). and ’Umar that they be a killed. “Could I at all feel any jealousy about you?” he said to Muhammad (5898). In fact All¯h vindicated ’Umar more than once. Muhammad found himself “in Paradise and a woman performing ablution by the side of a palace. ’Abb¯s. “My Lord concorded with my Judgments on three occasions. So Muhammad thought of ’Umar’s feelings and turned back and went away. while asleep. Bakr had advised that they be freed for ransom. during the ﬁrst ﬁfteen months of their stay in Medina. one of whom was the Prophet’s uncle. ’Umar. . as he prayed. I entered and there entered too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar.141 ¯ THE EXCELLENT QUALITIES OF ’UMAR B. The ﬁrst instance refers to the fact that Muhammad and his followers prayed facing Jerusalem. And lo. by a divine injunction. Muhammad accepted Bakr’s advice in this particular case. All¯h revealed the following verse: “Nor a do thou ever pray for one of them that dies. Isl¯m carried its a a hatred of its enemies even beyond the grave. and in case of the prisoners of a im. All¯h chided the Prophet and told him that a greed for gain in the shape of ransom should have no part in his calculations. In case of the Station of Ibr¯h¯ in case of the observance of the veil. We have already recounted the incident about the veil in our discussion of the “Book of Salutations and Greetings. a But Muhammad persisted. I went u u out and there went out too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. The third incident refers to the Quraish prisoners.” When he inquired. KHATTAB ’Umar b. however. he was told that it (it is not clear whether it stands for the woman or the palace or both) was for ’Umar. for they rejected God and His Apostle. modestly mentions a only three. a course which ’Umar had advocated even earlier. Had it not been for a previous . the direction was changed to Mecca. The Muslim doctors mention ﬁfty cases a in which ’Umar’s ideas became Qur¯nic revelations. Later on. “I came and there came a u too Ab¯ Bakr and ’Umar. ’Umar “caught hold of the clothes of All¯h’s Messenger and said: All¯h’s Messenger. ’Umar was fanatical. but All¯h concorded a with the general approach of ’Umar. . are a a you going to oﬀer prayer. Badr” (5903). In fact. narrow-minded. and that his ﬁrst duty as a Prophet was to engage in slaughter in the land: “It is not for a Prophet to have captives until he has made slaughter in the land .” and shown how the divine injunction merely corroborated what ’Umar already stood for. u ’Umar was loyal to Muhammad. and died in a state of perverse rebellion” (Qur¯n 9:84).
In the lists of the slayers of the polytheists in the Battles of Badr and Uhud. as we have already seen. These ah¯d¯ we are told.” said Muhammad (5890-5896).142 CHAPTER 14. “Hand them over to us so that we may cut oﬀ their heads. a ’Umar is highly honored in Isl¯mic history for his role in the spread of Arab imperialism. then ’Umar was quite brave with his sword. If one killed a parent or a brother or a cousin for the sake of All¯h. In the Muslim annals.” he said (4360). p. the son of Soheil. Then Ab¯ Bakr took hold of the leather bucket. He met Mabad ibn Wahb.” Then ’Umar took over with real strength. you are beaten now. its real founder was Muhammad himself. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ordainment from All¯h. An Arab. vol. a founder par excellence. “Well.” This was also the most eﬀective way of proving one’s loyalty to the new creed and the new leader. to kill his own father because the father was merely one u of the “idolators whose blood is equivalent to that of dogs. a i. a severe penalty would have reached you for the ransom you took” a (Qur¯n 8:67-68). But after him. by L¯t and Uzza. there was also “weakness in his drawing. but u he drew only “two buckets”. it was something to be proud of. himself drawing water from a tank. and i’s i hand over such and such relative to me that I may cut oﬀ his head. which weakened a man’s old ties and strengthened his new ones as a means of increasing his “ummah consciousness. a Meccan who was captured in the Battle of Badr. a new incentive. spread of Muslim hegemony. provided a new taste for booty. a continuing motive. He put every Arab. It was a feather in one’s ideological cap.” he told Muhammad. a True. and said to him tauntingly. But if a man was a captive or was otherwise in his power.” The man said. even including newborn babes. He forged new instrumentalities. and the necessary religious rhetoric. had no other function except to be a coloniser and a soldier of Isl¯mic imperialism. . tried to persuade Ab¯ Jandal. he made it clear. on the state’s payroll. a This role of ’Umar’s is brought out in several ah¯d¯ In a dream Muhammad saw a is. “Nay. Life of Mahomet. III. his name appears only once.” “Is a that the manner of speech for a captive inﬁdel towards a Believer?” asked ’Umar as he cut oﬀ his head with his sword. 3 On another occasion. on another occasion. refer to ’Umar’s future role in the a is. Killing captives in cold blood was cruel enough. a The same psychology was at work when ’Umar. who provided it with a theory. 110. “Give ’Aqil [’Al¯ brother] to ’Al¯ that he may cut oﬀ his head. ’Umar’s contribution too was considerable.” The story is quoted in full in 3 W¯qid¯ quoted in Muir. But why should a man be made to slay his own kith and kin so pointedly? This agreed with the requirements of the new creed. we ﬁnd that ’Umar needed no great provocation to ﬂourish his sword but was no great warrior on the battleﬁeld. “I did not see a person stronger than he drawing water. an ideology. successfully working out a grand model for his successors to imitate. ’Umar advised similar treatment for seventy other prisoners.
Muhammad also ordered his followers not to kill any member of the Ban¯ H¯shim. Similar ideologies and attitudes lead to similar values and usages.” he said. he was much troubled. al-Mugh¯ a ira. whom he married. if I a a meet him I will ﬂash my sword in him. When the Emigrants a 4 5 Mirkhond. one of the daugha a a ters of Muhammad. 739. a u “I never felt safe after my words that day. trying to correct Sa’¯ mistaken impression.” Those who indulged in such unﬁlial behavior were honored as heroes.” He was killed as a martyr in the Battle of al-Yam¯ma.143 Mirkhond’s biography of the Prophet. But one Muslim. al-’As. who a u had participated in the slaying of his own father. Rauzat-us-Safa. vol. ¯ ¯ . 507. he was more considerate toward his living kinsmen. The only man he was able to slay in the Battles of Badr and Uhud was his maternal uncle. When this reached the ears of Muhammad. in the Battle of Badr. “You are under the impression that I killed your father. II. 5 id’s It is diﬃcult to accept this attitude. did not like this. ’Aﬀ¯n converted to Isl¯m because of his love for Ruqayya. members of the Party were encouraged to denounce their parents and close relatives and inform on them. al-Rab¯ his son-in-law. 301. Umm Kuls¯m. Muhammad gave him another of his daughters. This story is narrated a 6 by Ibn Ish¯q. p. Hash¯m b. I was always afraid unless martyrdom atoned for them. Only a few decades ago. releasing him without any ransom. ’Usm¯n was somewhat of a dandy. the man is a false Muslim. al-’Abb¯s. The same things have taken place in our own time under Communism. ’AFFAN ’Usm¯n b.” Ab¯ Huzayfa used to say. the family to which u a he belonged. Ab¯ Huzayfa. ¯ ¯ 6 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. “O Ab¯ Hafs. who was taken prisoner i. And though he sent his parents and uncle to hellﬁre. 4 ’Umar was fortunate in this respect. u According to Muslim tradition. so contrary to human nature and custom. in Russia and even in China. “As a matter of fact I killed my maternal uncle id al-’As b. who replied. “Let me oﬀ with his head! By All¯h. a ¯ ’USMAN B. p. In the same battle.” he said aloud.” ’Umar said to Sa’¯ b. and also to spare his uncle. But there is nothing unusual about it. p. After she died. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. It was supposed to strengthen their “class consciousness. “Are we to kill our fathers and sons and our brothers and our families and leave al-’Abb¯s? By All¯h. part II. ought u the face of the apostle’s uncle to be marked with the sword?” he said to ’Umar. The ethics of this practice was valid for the followers but not necessarily for the Prophet. He was kind to Abu’l ’As b.
Hasan.” ’Umar and ’Usm¯n also visited the Prophet u a under the same circumstances and received the same tidings (5909). In a mubahala (trial by prayer and curses) with the Christians. According to another had¯ almost on his deathbed Muhammad told the believers: “I is. “the thigh of a person is not that part of the body which should be necessarily covered. Here we have in one had¯ the trinity of successive Khal¯ is ifas with the promise of Paradise in store for each.a person came asking for the gate to be opened. “All¯h’s Messenger was in is a one of the gardens of Medina [he had seven]. with great ingenuity. AB¯ TALIB I ’Al¯ b. But when ’Usm¯n came. in the tradition of many other Muslim Khal¯ ifas. therefore. as the is rightful heirs of at least his secular powers. Muhammad had said: “Let us summon our children and your children.144 CHAPTER 14. he arranged his clothes and a covered his thigh and shank. There were several i i ah¯d¯ to support the claim that the supreme position in Isl¯m rightfully belonged to a is a him and his family by inheritance. ’ALI B. and Husain. a convert from the proletarian strata. . . From this had¯ some Muslim doctors have derived a rule of decorum that when one is. saying. ’Usm¯n became the third Khal¯ of Isl¯m and a ifa a died. the order of truth it deals with. it was complained that he shirked manual work while one ’Amm¯r. am leaving behind you two weighty things: . THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS went to Medina and built their mosque with voluntary labor. From the arguments advanced on both sides. is such that it excluded . did not agree with this conclusion. I remind you of your duties to the members of my family. at the hands of his brethren in faith.” he said (5915).” For his part the Prophet called ’Al¯ F¯tima. ’Aisha reports that the Prophet would receive Bakr and ’Umar while lying in bed with his thigh or his shank uncovered. reclining against a pillow . Another had¯ tells us whom Muhammad regarded as his family and. Ab¯ Talib was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. was a burdened with work that was too heavy. and its way of arriving a at truth. There is another interesting had¯ given under this head. . It can be subtle about nothing[s]. one can get the feel of Isl¯mic scholarship at work. [and] the members of a my household. a a family. “Should I not show modesty to one whom even the Angels show modesty” (5906). is receiving a visitor. whereupon he said: Open it for him and give him glad tidings of Paradise and lo. they are my i. . “O All¯h. it was Ab¯ Bakr.” or “people of the house” (ahlul-bait).” Other doctors of theology and law. and its concerns are mostly with triﬂes. Muhammad had once told ’Al¯ “You are in the same i: position with relation to me as Aaron [Harun] was in relation to Moses but with this explicit diﬀerence that there is no prophet after me” (5913).” The deﬁnition of “the members of my family. the Book of All¯h .
” ’Umar says (5917). i i” i. At one i point in the contest. was i not the Prophet symbolically granting him the future leadership of Isl¯m. p. he took a slave-girl i. ’Abb¯s.e. Acts of omission and commission which were punished in others were overlooked in ’Al¯ After a battle fought under his general command. Kh¯lid b. Ja’far. a i.” (Tabaq at. a Another had¯ also “proves” ’Al¯ claim. had¯ 1569). for if he says ‘no’ to us now. is 9 Rauzat-us-Safa. therefore.” Then he called ’Al¯ whose eyes were inﬂamed. had¯ 1582). Wal¯ the second-ina id. ’Al¯ ites are sure that he meant to bestow the Caliphate on ’Al¯ but ’Al¯ i. 9 After Muhammad’s death. involving a complaint of a similar nature. 292-293. people will never give us the Caliphate again. i. I. II.” ’Amr exclaimed: “Boy. 8 On another occasion. ’Amr i b. and applied i.” The story is given by Mirkhond..” ’Al¯ a i accepted the responsibility and told the Prophet: “I will ﬁght them until they are like us” (5915. Let us. command. thou hast deceived me. a serious lapse inviting secular as well as divine punishment. The Prophet was furious. pp. his own saliva as a cure. to the exclusion of Bakr and ’Umar. ’Al¯ “snatched an opportunity to strike i that accursed man. for himself even before the holy one-ﬁfth had been made over to the Apostle’s exchequer. ’Abdu Wudd. 521). Muhammad said in anger: “Indeed. for “ ’Al¯ loves All¯h and His Messenger. On the day of Khaibar. T ar¯ Tabar¯ vol.” at the complaint. complained to Muhammad.145 the Prophet’s wives but included those for whom zak¯t was forbidden. ¯ ¯ ikh i. 456. I know how the faces of the sons of ’Abdul-Muttalib look when they are on the verge of death. 8 What would you say of the state of justice when the authorities is refuse even to record the ﬁrst report? In a battle. Then the Prophet told him: “Fight with them until they bear testimony to the fact that there is no god but All¯h and Muhammad is his prophet. took ’Al¯ a i aside and told him: “In three nights you will come under the sway of their rod. II.” But ’Al¯ declined. a man of ninety years. i himself was not so sure while the Prophet lived. II. and All¯h and His Messenger love ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ i a a i” i. Muhammad said he is i’s would give the standard to a person who “loves All¯h and His Messenger and All¯h and a a His Messenger love him too. it appears to me that the Prophet will not survive. 7 a leadership a which ’Umar coveted in his heart? “Never did I cherish for leadership but on that day [the day of Khaibar]. All¯h is partial. ’Al¯ said to ’Amr: “Have we not agreed that no one should come to i my or to thy aid. i saying: “I shall never do it. and ’Al¯ agreed to meet in single combat. thy brother i is coming behind thee. ’Al¯ is from me. ’Al¯ ’Aqil. part II. vol. The fact that He and His Messenger loved ’Al¯ made many things a i diﬀerent for him. II.” But the “lord and receptacle of victory exclaimed: War is a deception.” ’Amr asked: “Then what has happened?” ’Al¯ replied: “See. 5918). and ’Abb¯s and their oﬀspring (5920). 7 . During the Battle of the Ditch. Now in granting ’Al¯ the banner of victory. When Muhammad was dying. p. vol. go to him and ask him who should inherit the Caliphate.” As ’Amr looked to his rear. vol. his uncle. ’Al¯ was both brave and cunning. He would not even entertain such an accusation against ’Al¯ i. “his face becoming red with anger. and I am from ’Al¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol.
. he again began to be called by the name of his 10 ibid.146 CHAPTER 14. 112).” This. But All¯h now taught a new code and revealed the following verse of the Qura an: “We have enjoined on man kindness to parents: but if they strive to force thee to join ¯ with Me anything of which thou hast no knowledge. While i Muhammad awarded the punishments. and when the night set in. obey them not” (29:8. AB¯ WAQQAS I Sa’d b. the lamp of life of those who yet remained [to be i executed] was extinguished by torchlight.” Mirkhond records in his Persian biography of the Prophet. His mother a took an oath that “she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith. 477-478. pp. by order of his lordship i the apostle .. On that day ’Al¯ and Zubair were till the evening engaged in slaying the i Ban¯ Quraiz. Until now. he got Zaid to divorce her and married her. Ab¯ Waqq¯s joined Muhammad when he was only thirteen and accompanied i a him on almost all his campaigns. But the most gruesome case was that of the captives of the Ban¯ Quraiza. and as they [the prisoners] were brought out in squads . He was one of those ten men who had been promised Paradise during their own lifetime by Muhammad. Haris was the adopted son of Muhammad and participated in most of his expeditions. he also beheaded people on the orders of the Apostle (6676). . however. and she neither ate nor drank and said: All¯h has commanded you to treat well your parents and a I am your mother and I command you to do this. he was also his executioner. was the old polytheistic morality. . following the old Arab custom. 10 ¯ SA’D B. “The apostle of God i ordered a trench to be dug in a suitable place. . who were all beheaded in a single u day in the market of Medina by ’Al¯ and Zubair (see above p. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS ’Al¯ was not only Muhammad’s best general. ’Aisha tells us. He was i asked to ﬂog people found guilty of drinking (4231) or of fornication (4225). This was facilitated by the descent of a revelation from the High Heaven (Qur¯n a 33:36-40). We give one example. Muhammad saw Zaid’s wife half-uncovered and felt a great attraction for her. a Sa’d was also the impetus for several Qur¯nic verses. is THE MERITS OF ZAID B. “All¯h’s Messenger slept such a sound sleep that I heard the noise of his snoring” (5925). ’Al¯ and Zubair set about striking oﬀ their heads. ’Al¯ was often chosen to execute them. Zaid was socially known as the son of Muhammad. After he was appointed to this responsibility. . He worked as a doorman or sentinel for Muhammad during the night. HARIS Zaid b. but after this marriage. eight hundred strong. . had¯ 5933). Though the whole matter caused a great scandal.
A daughter of Ab¯ Bakr. the daughter of Imran. she was betrothed to u Muhammad when she was six years old and he was ﬁfty. ¯ . Mirkhond gives us an account of eleven wives and four concubines. He told her sentimentally: “I saw you in a dream for three nights when an angel brought 11 Muhammad married many women. Once. I il ate from it. and his Lord . Muhammad says: “Jibr¯ came to me with a pot. . At-Tabar¯ mentions twenty-three names besides ﬁve more to whom proposals were made but without success. II.” Muhammad said (5966). The marriage was consummated when she was nine. ’Aisha says: “Never did I feel jealous of any woman as I was jealous of Khad¯ She had ija. perfumes. died three years before he [Muhammad] married me. vol. “The excellence of ’Aisha as compared to women is that of Thar¯ [a dish of very thin bread soaked in a broth of id meat and sometimes vegetables which Muhammad very much relished] over all other food. Muhammad had a very soft spot for her. developed doubts about the apostleship of Muhammad when his a infant son. one Asma’bint Alna’man was found leprous and. Muhammad also married a sister of Dihy¯ Kalb¯ whose a im. had¯ 5956).” Another tradition makes him prefer women to everything else. his ﬁrst wife. She was turned out. Muhammad himself says that “women. and the perfumes are the only delights of the world that I care about. According to Muhammad. For example. a a is THE MERITS OF KHAD¯ IJA In the list of merits. I often heard him praise her. only four wives of the Prophet are mentioned: Khad¯ ’Aisha. This too was dictated by a revelation from All¯h: “Call them by the name a of their fathers. Ibr¯h¯ died. probably a Quraiza or a Kin¯na. and Zainab. Khad¯ was the best of the women of her ija time. and food. and whenever he slaughtered a sheep he presented its meat to her female companions” (5971).147 natural father. ’Aisha tells us that the Prophet loved three things foremost: women. and I was granted the strength of forty men for coition. 11 Khad¯ was Muhammad’s ﬁrst employer and. Another woman. had commanded him to give her the glad tidings of a palace of Jewels in Paradise. Shanba’ hint ’Umar alghafaria. This is more equitable with All¯h” (Qur¯n 33:5. . in a ﬁt of jealousy.” (Tabaq at. she was also the ﬁrst to encourage him in his apostolic mission. dispatched home. newly married. though senior to ija him in age by ﬁfteen years. pp. ija. THE MERITS OF ’AISHA The chapter on ’Aisha is the longest. i With some women. 147-164). therefore. ’Aisha told Muhammad: “Why do you remember one of those old women of the Quraish with gums red and who is so long dead-while All¯h has a given you a better one in her stead?” (5976). was the best of the women of her time (5965). Salama. a i youthful beauty had made such an impression on the Prophet that even Gabriel used to come to him in his likeness. just as Mary. the marriage was not consummated.
Muhammad was thinking of ’Aisha. don’t you love whom I love?” u a Muhammad replied with a counterquestion. When people want to please an oﬃcial or any person in authority. you say: ‘No. The translator explains that though ’Aisha’s position was eminent and exalted. Muhammad received her “in the same very state when Fat¯ ima entered. Once. Even during his last illness. “People sent their gifts when it was the is turn of ’Aisha seeking thereby the pleasure of All¯h’s Messenger” (5983). On another occasion.” Then they chose Zainab to represent them.148 CHAPTER 14. She said yes. Hafsa and ’Aisha were selected. Then I exchanged hot words until a I made her quiet. I will never talk a to him about this matter. The wives wanted her to go again but she said: “By All¯h.” About Muhammad’s own behavior. “she u a [Zainab] then came to me and showed harshness to me and I was seeing the eyes of All ah’s Messenger whether he would permit me. he says that “in journey it is not compulsory to observe perfect equity amongst women in all respects” (note 2734). A time-honored a practice. by the Lord of Ibr¯h¯ ” (5979).” But Hafsa asked a ’Aisha if she would agree to change seats with her.” a as ’Aisha puts it.” ’Aisha generously agreed. she went back.’ and when you are annoyed with me. a im’ According to a had¯ on ’Aisha’s own authority. Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger smiled and said: She is the daughter of a Ab¯ Bakr” (5984). as luck would have it. but all very convenient. for then “you would see what you do not generally see and I would see what I do not generally see. . his daughter. . they try to please his son or his wife or even his butler. by the Lord of Muhammad. someone “who was somewhat equal in rank with me in the eyes of All¯h’s Messenger. Zainab went on until I came to know that ¯ All¯h’s Messenger would not disapprove if I retorted. verily. she was yet a woman and “thus could not be absolutely free from envy. Muhammad saw her when “he was lying with me in my mantle. The other wives of Muhammad sent Fat¯ ima. “When it was night All¯h’s Messenger used to travel on camel with ’Aisha. in the words of ’Aisha.” Muhammad made no answer. he told her: “I can well discern when you are pleased with me and when you are annoyed with me .” She too told him that the other wives had sent her to seek ”equity in the case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. A rule within a rule. your wives have sent me to you in order to ask you to observe ¯ equity in case of the daughter of Ab¯ Quh¯fa. but when she saw Hafsa and the Prophet together she fell into a tantrum (5991). though a strict code might call this bribery.” “O daughter.” ’Aisha narrates. “Where I would be . . When you are pleased with me you say: ‘No. and having been thus silenced. Fat¯ ima told Muhammad: “Allah’s Messenger. But. to him. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS you to me in a silk cloth and he said: Here is your wife” (5977). ’Aisha also narrates what modern newsmen would call a human-interest story. Zainab too was a favorite wife of Muhammad. ’Aisha reports that “when All¯h’s Messenger set out on a a journey. u Another had¯ throws some more light on Muhammad’s conjugal life and also on the is life of the women around him. he used to cast lots amongst his wives” to determine which of them would accompany him.
He Just before Muhammad died. During his last illness.” The Apostle smiled and then his pain overcame him as he was going the round of his wives. ¯ ¯ 12 . Fat¯ u u ima. chewed it to make it soft and gave it to the Prophet. vol. thinking that the turn of ’Aisha was not near. for my daughter is part of me. She had two surviving sons. our salivas mingled. “The Prophet died in my room. He cleansed his teeth and then he died. Muhammad found a ’Aisha crying with headache. After Mecca was conquered. 678-679. ’Al¯ sent a is ima i a proposal of marriage to the daughter of the late Ab¯ Jahl. All¯h called him to his heavenly home and his head a was between my neck and chest. 12 Once Muhammad told her: “ ’Aisha.149 tomorrow. There is an interesting story narrated by Ibn Ish¯q. ’Aisha took the hint. meaning “masters. “And when it was my turn. an adversary of Muhammad u and important chief of the Ban¯ Makhz¯m. in the last moment of his death. his wife.” and added: “He sees what I do not a see” (5997). i. known as the Saiyids. 282). is ¯ 13 ¯ S irat Ras ul All ah. took the twig from her brother’s hand.” says ’Aisha counting these things as “gifts and blessings from All ah” (Sahih Bukh¯r¯ ¯ a i Shar¯ had¯ 1650. p. just a few days before his death. One may wonder whether she always believed in Muhammad’s angels.” ’Aisha tells us (5985). In fact. pp. but certainly she enjoyed her role as the Prophet’s favorite wife. THE MERITS OF FAT¯ IMA Fat¯ ima was Muhammad’s daughter by his ﬁrst wife. where I would be tomorrow?” he inquired. He then “called his wives and asked their permission to be nursed in u my house.” u The ah¯d¯ on Fat¯ tell us an interesting story. Muhammad looked at it intently. Muhammad himself called her al-bat¯l. until he was overpowered in the house of Maim¯na. Khad¯ She was married to ’Al¯ ija. Tabaq at.” She replied: “Let there be peace and blessing of All¯h upon him. on my day. the translator assures us that Fat¯ ima “is undoubtedly the chief of the ladies of Paradise and her two sons Im¯m Hasan and Husain a are the chiefs of the young people of Paradise” (note 2751). here is Gabriel oﬀering you greetings. put it in her mouth. 13 And there Muhammad died in her bosom. if.” ’Aisha adds. and they agreed. Muhammad said to her: “Would it distress you if you were to die before me so that I might wrap you in your shroud and pray over you and bury you?” ’Aisha replied: “Methink I see you if you had done that returning to my house and spending a bridal night therein with one of your wives. and even. complained about it to Muhammad. and in my bosom. ’Aisha knew her Prophet a little too well. from whom are descended the posterity of Muhammad. I would not allow them.” Stating the position of Muslim theology. his cousin. Muhammad put his foot down on the proposal and declared from the pulpit: “I would not allow them. ’Aisha’s brother came in the room holding a green twig in his hand. I. Hasan and Husain. “the virgin. the only alternative is that ’Al¯ should i divorce my daughter [and then marry their daughter].
a number unknown in pre-Muslim Arabia. Mu’az. but his bier was very light to carry. ¯ There are other traditions about him. the third Khal¯ a ifa. It was only after her death that Muhammad started on his practice of polygamy. but some regard it as a metaphor denoting All ah’s joy at receiving a beloved friend in His heavenly home. she had the inﬂuence in her own right and as an employer held all the strings in her hands. In the case of Khad¯ ija. her husband could not marry another woman in spite of the custom of polygamy. for it was alleged that he had a hand in the murder of a ’Usm¯n. Slavery in earnest and on such a large scale began with the advent of Isl¯m. MU’AZ When Sa’d b. Therefore. led rebel forces against ’Al¯ Talha was murdered by i). and subsequently he took part in all the campaigns led by Muhammad. During the Battle of Uhud. Thanks to his political connections. He was Muhammad’s cousin a and Ab¯ Bakr’s son-in-law. even though she was very much older than Muhammad. ¯ ¯ . Zubair fought against ’Al¯ with the help of ’Aisha and was killed at the age of sixty-four by one of the partisans i of ’Al¯ i.150 CHAPTER 14. Muhammad said that unseen angels were giving him their shoulder. p. He was the proud owner of a thousand slaves . Muhammad said that “the Throne of the most Gracious shook at his death” (6033-6035). THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS who disturbs her disturbs me and he who oﬀends her oﬀends me” (5999). In the battle over the succession that raged later on. Sa’d was a a fat man. she was his only wife while she lived. Mu’az died as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Badr. he later became the richest u person in Arabia. THE MERITS OF SA’D B. Talha saved the life of Muhammad. some of them recorded by Ibn Ish¯q. sitting on a camel. On the day of the Battle of the Camel (in which ’Aisha.” 14 Sa’d was a chief of the Ban¯ Aus. Most Muslim traditionalists take this literally. a About Zubair Muhammad said: “For every prophet there is a helper and my helper is Zubair” (5938). who u 14 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. THE MERITS OF ZUBAIR AND TALHA Zubair embraced Isl¯m when he was ﬁfteen or sixteen. 469. So it seems that if the father of a woman had suﬃciently strong inﬂuence. Hakam in revenge. On the same occasion he also said: “Every wailing woman lies except the one who wept Sa’d b. one Marw¯n b.
a We are glad that Bil¯l escaped his alleged persecution. for I am more valuable than the coats of mail which you 15 ibid. the Aus. “You seem to dislike what the people are doing. Bil¯l a replied that he had done nothing so deserving except that “I perform complete ablution during the night or day I observe prayer with that puriﬁcation what All¯h ordained for me a to pray” (6015). He also played a prominent part in causing the slaughter of eight hundred men of the Ban¯ Quraiza. was worked out in consultation with Sa’d b.” Muhammad said to him. a state which would give him protection and from which a he could be redeemed by paying an appropriate ransom. but what does this “conversion a to Isl¯m” mean? Did he become a better man? Did he became more forgiving. p. Mu’az. He was an Abyssinian slave who was persecuted by his master. 301.. it is the ﬁrst defeat that God brought on the inﬁdel and I would rather see them slaughtered than left alive. tells us a story which is narrated by Ibn a Ish¯q and repeated by Tabar¯ On the day of the Battle of Badr. he asked him to narrate the act by which he hoped to receive such a good reward. an important Companion.151 embraced Isl¯m at Medina after the ﬁrst pledge at Al-’Aqaba. Khalaf and his son. a carrying coats of mail” which. He watched with displeasure a as the Muslim soldiers laid their hands on the prisoners.” he said. the erstwhile allies of his own tribe. Seen through less-believing a eyes. Khalaf. The next a day. in Mecca.” he added. We would have skipped over him altogether but for the fact that he exempliﬁes a certain moral. Umayya b. a ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. Umayya. he was ransomed by Ab¯ Bakr and then converted u to Isl¯m. he was treacherous and a fanatical sadist. he was guarding Muhammad’s hut along with some other ans¯rs. 15 a The conspiracy to murder Ka’b ibn Ashraf. who belonged to the routed army of the Quraish. saw that he might have a chance of saving his life if he fell into the hands of ’Abdul-Rahm¯n as a prisoner. On the day of the Battle of Badr.” he replied. Consistent with his lowly position.” Just at that time he encountered his old friend Umayya b. more kind a and compassionate. a “won’t you take me a prisoner. he “had looted. “By God. this is all the notice Bil¯l receives in the “Book of a the Companions” (in fact it is the shortest notice in the whole book). less of a persecutor in his own turn? The brief references we have to him in the annals of early Isl¯m hardly give us that impression. “O ’Abdul-Rahm¯n. . according to a tradition quoted by Ibn Ish¯q. Since the Arab custom allowed manumission. the poet. he said. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n “was a i. u B¯ AL IL ¯ One night Muhammad heard the sound of Bil¯l’s steps before him in Paradise. “Yes.
often they make him worse. Bil¯l saw his old persecutor and began to shout: “The arch-inﬁdel. I shall disburse two for the promotion thereof. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS have. I shall slay two of His foes” (Mirkhond. ¯ ¯ W. the young wife of the chief of the vanquished tribe. Muir. which was littered with the corpses of their kith and kin. Khalaf! May I not live if he lives. pp. “By God. father. pp. Just then. They bring no change in the individual. vol. Bil¯l brought her and her a cousin across the battleﬁeld. Muhammad ordered Bil¯l to bring to him Saf¯ a iyya.” In later days. he “wished to a see their grief and anger stirred up. 302-303. They cried in pain and horror. When Mecca was conquered. 18 Most conversions are of this kind. Muhammad found nothing exceptionable in this. 18 In fact. Umayya a b. I lost my coats of mail and he deprived me of my prisoners. and that for every one of the friends of God the Most High whom I have murdered during the time of my inﬁdelity. Kharasha Ab¯ Duj¯na said: I am here to take it and fulﬁl a u a its rights. now his prisoners. There is a telling example. ’Abdul-Rahm¯n used to say. He took it and struck the heads of the polytheists” (6040). the son of Ab¯ Jahl. ’Akrama. decided to become a Muslim. a “God have mercy on Bil¯l. vol. He [All¯h’s Apostle] said: Who would take it in order to fulﬁl its rights? Then the people a withdrew their hands. and the Muslims “hewed them to a pieces with their swords until they were dead. Life of Mahomet. as they have always been. ¯ THE MERITS OF ABU DUJANA Anas reports: “All¯h’s Messenger took hold of his sword on the Day of Uhud and said: a Who would take it from me? Everyone present stretched his hand saying: I would do it. 611-612). Sim¯k b. whose husband. a strong opponent of Isl¯m.” Then he threw away the coats of a mail and took his friend and his friend’s son. IV. II.” The Muslims gathered. part of an aggressive politics. I will. Bil¯l kept shouting. by their hands.” 16 a There is another instance of the same kind denoting a sadistic pleasure in cruelty for its own sake. 16 17 .” ’Abdul-Rahm¯n in turn replied. In vain did ’Abdul-Rahm¯n a claim immunity for his prisoners. S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. after the great carnage of the day. Bil¯l explained that he did it on purpose. At the Battle of Khaibar.152 CHAPTER 14. But organized conversions are now. and brother had just been murdered. 68. He promised Muhammad: u a “I swear by God that for every dirham I spent during the time of ignorance to obstruct the religion of God the Most High.” 17 Most conversions carried out by the soldiers and priests of proselytizing religions are of this nature. p.
he petitioned: “O All¯h. Sabit. Muhammad said to him: “Write satire against the unbelievers. . The body of ’Abdullah ibn Zubair was found hanging outside Medina on the road to Mecca (6176). . Understanding the intricacies.” And to All¯h Himself. M¯lik.” he said to Muhammad. the daughter of Bakr. S¯bit. Muhammad’s servant and bodyguard for ten years. u a which he knew very well. ’Umar after contriving to murder him. . Muhammad had said: “Satirise against the Quraish. Unsatisﬁed with their compositions. I was a poor man and I served All¯h’s Messenger . for Muhammad and Ab¯ Sufy¯n shared u a the same lineage? Ab¯ Bakr was appointed to help Hass¯n with the lineage of the Quraish.” With that end in view. But there was a diﬃculty: how could it be u a done successfully without involving the Prophet. whereas the immia grants remained busy with transactions in the bazaar . On another occasion. help him with R¯h-ul-Qudus [the holy ¯ a a u spirit]” (6073). One of them was the son of ’Umar.153 THE TWO ’ABDULLAHS The names of two ’Abdullahs also appear on the merit list. I shall tear them with my tongue as the leather is torn. and commissioned them to write satires.” He then declared his intention to satirize Ab¯ Sufy¯n. and Huraira. . . Both were killed by the Umayyad general Hajj¯j. the other was the son of Zubair by Asma. the a Prophet next sent for Hass¯n b. . for the satire is more grievous to them than the hurt from an arrow. SABIT An interesting person on the merit list is Hass¯n b. “Permit me to write satire u a against Ab¯ Sufy¯n. . ifa THE MERITS OF ANAS AND HURAIRA On the list of merits also appear the names of Anas. . . I never forgot anything that I heard from him [Muhammad]” (6083). Hass¯n then went to Muhammad a . give a reply on behalf of the Messenger of All a ah. ’Aisha gives us a fuller version of the story. ¯ THE MERITS OF HASSAN B. a poet whom Muhammed a a employed for replying to the lampoons against him by unbeliever poets. to whom we owe a disproportionately large number of traditions. Muhammad sent for two poets. Muhammad told him: “Hass¯n. Ibn Raw¯ha and Ka’b a b. . The general even led the funeral prayer for ’Abdullah a b. Gabriel is with you” (6074). He explains: “You are under the impression that Ab¯ Huraira transmits so many ah¯d¯ from All¯h’s u a is a Messenger . He died when he was seventy-two after having been a Khal¯ of a sort for nine years. who told him: “Now you have called for this lion a who strikes the enemies with his tail . According to her. . Huraira in his own lifetime was known as “Huraira the Liar”.
According to one important opinion. .” says ’Aisha (6079. the second period extends till the life of the successors of the Companions (UP to A. He tells his followers: “I am a source of safety and security to my Companions . and my Companions are a source of security for the Ummah” (6147). but as they proceed further away from him. they decline in status as well as in quality and authenticity. “The best of my Ummah would be those of the generation nearest to mine. the ﬁrst period is coextensive with the life of the Companions (i. MUHAMMAD AT THE CENTER Muhammad is at the center of everything. H. the Prophet comes ﬁrst. Muhammad was grateful to Hass¯n. 170). I shall draw out from them your name as hair is drawn out from the ﬂour.e. THE PROPHET’S COMPANIONS and assured him: “By Him Who has sent you with Truth. it was a diﬀerent matter. then come his Companions. 6081). then come the successors of the Companions (t¯bi’¯n).” Hass¯n gave Muhammad complete satisfaction. In this ranking and ordering.. then those nearest to them” (6150). “I heard All¯h’s Messenger saying: a a Hass¯n satirised against them and gave satisfaction to the Muslims and disquieted the a non-Muslims. but when they were in his service. ’Aisha was the ﬁrst to excuse Hass¯n. As things converge toward Muhammad. a u Muslim divines have not been idle. . At the end of the book. 120 years. as the last Companion died in A. do not revile my Companions” (6167). 220). and they have worked out the exact period of each era.154 CHAPTER 14. . the Prophet warns the coming generations of Muslims: “Do not revile my Companions. H.” she said a a (6075). Muhammad was opposed to poets and poetry. Then those nearest to them. H. though all the participants were ﬂogged. “Leave him for he defended All¯h’s Messenger. who was not altogether cut when he later took an a active part in the scandal against ’Aisha. 110). and the third is coextensive with the life of those who followed the successors (till A. they become better.
“The believers are like one person. Destiny. . stand by each other. of course. it is a reward. if his head aches. and then every servant of All¯h is granted pardon who a does not associate anything with All¯h except the person in whose heart there is rancour a against his brother” (6222). Monday and Thursday. the whole 155 . While the Muslim has a permanent quarrel with polytheists. he must not feel enmity toward a fellow Muslim. the sickness of a Muslim is no sickness. . all Muslims should help each other. All Muslims are one body. . “A believer is like a brick for another believer. In short. If he suﬀers pain. Remembrance of God The thirtieth book is on “Virtue. “It is not lawful for a Muslim that he should keep his relations estranged with his brother beyond three days” (6205). “All¯h elevates him in rank or eﬀaces his sins because a of that” (6238). “When a Muslim visits his brother in Islam he is supposed to remain in the fruit garden of Paradise until he returns” (6229). his wealth and his honour” (6219). Knowledge. And. and feel for each other. Many of the principles enunciated in this book are good except that they have a sectarian orientation. Good Manners. A Muslim should visit his sick brother. “When a Muslim falls ill. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him . and the Joining of the Ties of Relationship”. the one supporting the other” (6257). his compensation is that his minor sins are obliterated” (6235). This idea runs through many ah¯d¯ (6233-6245) a is Believers should not nurse mutual rancor. “A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for his brother in faith: his blood. “The gates of Paradise are not opened but on two days. even to the extent of stepping on a thorn.Chapter 15 Virtue.
Therefore a Muslim should not oppress another Muslim and. “All¯h created Adam in His own image” (2872). All¯h would conceal his follies on the Day of Resurrection” (6250). and he who did not expose the follies of a Muslim. and holy war was allowed by a some believers toward the nonbelievers too. for “truth leads one to Paradise” (6307). VIRTUE. 1 The face should be avoided because. It is meritorious to speak the truth. 6265. “When any one of you ﬁghts with his brother. RETRIBUTION If we could forget All¯h’s partiality for Muslims. and he who meets the need of a brother. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD body aches with fever and sleeplessness” (6260). who a This is the nearest we have from Muhammad to Jesus’ teaching: “Whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek. and 6306). When Hish¯m saw “the farmers of Syria. OTHER VIRTUES Charity and forgiveness are recommended (6264). KNOWLEDGE. DESTINY. the following could be considered an a eloquent rendering of the law of retribution: “The claimants would get their claims on the Day of Resurrection so much so that the hornless sheep would get its claim from the horned sheep” (6252). Abuse and backbiting and talecarrying are censured (6263. “A Muslim is the brother of a fellow-Muslim. 1 . All¯h would relieve him from a hardships to which he would be put on the Day of Resurrection. should help him. if a man goes to a bazaar or a mosque with arrows. for bringing reconciliation amongst persons and the narration of the words of the husband to his wife. he should take care of their “pointed heads so that these might not do any harm to a Muslim” (6332). and he who relieves a Muslim from hardship. in fact. he should spare his face” (6325). a SUBJECT PEOPLE Such benevolence as is compatible with jizy¯. as the Prophet himself explains. All¯h would a meet his needs. and the narration of the words of a wife to her husband” (6303). spoils. a Similarly. NONVIOLENCE Nonviolence of a sort is also preached. He should neither commit oppression upon him nor ruin him. But lying is permissible in three cases: “In battle. turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39).156 CHAPTER 15.
157 had been made to stand in the sun . . . [and] detained for jizy¯”, he was reminded of the a Prophet’s words: “All¯h would torment those who torment people in the world” (6328). a Obviously, Hish¯m extended the deﬁnition of “people” to include men other than Muslims. a
¯ THE PROPHET’S COVENANT WITH ALLAH
Muhammad was somewhat more indulgent toward his own lapses. If he ill-treated his followers, that brought him no blame, secular or divine, and, in fact, turned into a blessing for the suﬀerers. “ O All¯h, I make a covenant with Thee against which Thou wouldst a never go. I am a human being and thus for a Muslim whom I give any harm or whom I scold or upon whom I invoke curse or whom I beat, make this a source of blessing, puriﬁcation and nearness to Thee on the Day of Resurrection” (6290). One would think that to err is human, not apostolic; at least, not in such grave matters.
THE “BOOK OF PIETY AND SOFTENING OF HEARTS”
The subject of virtue is also discussed in the fortieth book, pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (al-zuhd wa al-raq¯iq). a Here are mentioned certain acts which are considered pious and meritorious. Widows, orphans, and the poor should be treated benevolently (7107-7108). Charity should be given to the poor and the wayfarer (7112-7113). The merit of building mosques is stressed. “He who builds a mosque for All¯h, All¯h would build for him a house in Paradise” (7110). a a Any ostentatious display of one’s deeds is deplored. “If anyone makes a hypocritical display, All¯h will make a display of him” (7115). Therefore, one should not publicize one’s a lapses and omissions. “All the people of my Ummah would get pardon for their sins except those who publicize them” (7124). The great theological sin of polytheism does not go unmentioned. All¯h the Most High a and Exalted states: “I am the One, One who does not stand in need of a partner. If anyone does anything in which he associates anyone else with Me, I shall abandon him with one with whom he associates All¯h” (7114). This is the ﬁrst time that All¯h lets a man oﬀ so a a lightly and does not seize him and roast him in hellﬁre for the great sin of polytheism. Muhammad also disapproved of sneezing and yawning. “The yawning is from the devil,” he said (7129).
158 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD
THE VANITY OF WORLDLY RICHES
Several ah¯d¯ at the very beginning of the book show the “vanity of worldly possesa is sions”, and how worldly wealth perishes and only good deeds remain. Muhammad sent Ab¯ Ubaida to collect jizy¯ from the tribes of Bahrain. As soon as the u a news of his return came, the ans¯rs gathered round Muhammad. Muhammad smiled and a said: “I think you have heard about the arrival of Ab¯ Ubaida with goods from Bahrain.” u They said: “Yes.” Muhammad now did some thinking out loud and said that the new riches might corrupt them. “By All¯h, it is not the poverty about which I fear in regard a to you but I am afraid in your case that the worldly riches may be given to you as were given to those who had gone before you and you begin to vie with one another for them as they vied for them, and these may destroy you as these destroyed them” (7065). This sentiment was duplicated by ’Umar while distributing the ‘holy one-ﬁfth’ amongst the Medinans, part of a booty valued at thirty million dirhams (besides many maidens and a vast number of ﬁne Persian horses, nine falling to the lot of every combatant) won at the Battle of Jalola under the generalship of Sa’d, from an outlying province of Persia. The sentiment sounded pious and it still does. It has come down the corridor of history ‘proving’ the great ‘piety’ of ’Umar. But the basic question about the whole business of holy war, burning, pillage, booty, jizy¯, and how these can become legitimate and moral a has really never bothered Muslim theologians and scholars or even the Suﬁs. They can strain at a gnat but are ready to swallow a camel. Several ah¯d¯ show that the holy war against the inﬁdels was not only a pious act a is but a proﬁtable business. Utba b. Ghazw¯n tells us: “I was the seventh amongst seven 2 a who had been with All¯h’s Messenger and we had nothing to eat but the leaves of the tree a . . . We found a sheet which we tore in two and divided between myself and Sa’d b. Malik. I made the lower garment with half of it and so did Sa’d . . . and today there is none amongst us who has not become the governor of a city” (7075).
The phrase seventh amongst seven refers to a party of seven men sent by Muhammad under the leadership of ’Abdullah ibn Jahsh to waylay a caravan of the Quraish during the second year of his stay in Medina. In order to disarm the apprehensions of the men in charge of the caravan, one of the raiders shaved his head so that they would be taken for pilgrims. When the caravan-men were oﬀ guard and cooking their food, the raiders rushed upon them, killing one man, taking two prisoners, and securing spoils. This killing took place during the sacred month of the Arabs when, according to their tradition, no blood could be spilled. That was, however, only the old polytheistic morality. But Utba was hardly the seventh of the seven, though he was one of the raiding party, for when the action was taking place, he had fallen behind to search for his camel, which he later said had wandered away.
THEOLOGY DOMINATES MORALITY
The Prophet’s moral teaching is dominated by theology. For example, the “Book of Virtue and Good Manners” opens with ah¯d¯ which enjoin the believers to accord benevoa is lent treatment to their parents and to obey them. Who among the people is most deserving of good treatment? “Your mother, again your mother, again your mother, then your father, then your nearest relatives according to the order of nearness,” replies Muhammad (6181). But if morality conﬂicts with Muslim theology, the latter prevails. We have already seen how All¯h Himself ordered Sa’d b. Ab¯ Waqq¯s not to obey his parents if they stood a i a for polytheism (Qur¯n 29:8, 31:15). a Not merely to disobey them, but if necessary to oppose them in more active ways. The son of ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, an ans¯r, tells Muhammad: “If you really want him [his a father] killed, command me to do it and I will bring you his head . . . [but] if you order another to kill him, I shall not afterwards be able to bear the sight of his murderer . . . I shall kill him - and then I shall have killed one of the faithful for an inﬁdel, and I shall go to hell.” What a combination of piety and ﬁlial duty! 3 Similarly, there are several traditions which boast how Ab¯ Hozayfa, an Emigrant, u helped Hamza to kill his own father by giving him a cut with his sword at the Battle of Badr. Muhammad is praised in Islamic lore for “joining of the ties of relationship”. But the fact is that the believers were encouraged to rebel against these very ties in order to disorient them altogether from the old life and to strengthen their exclusive loyalty to the new leader and the new ummah. For the assassination of a poetess of Medina, Asma hint Marw¯n, one ’Umayr ibn ’Adi, a man of her own clan, was chosen. That helped him a to prove his zeal and loyalty to the cause of Islam. After driving his sword through the sleeping woman with one of her children still at her breast, he came to Muhammad to inform him. “You have done a service to All¯h and His Messenger,” the Prophet told him a gratefully.
MUHAMMAD’S MOTHER IN HELL
For the same theological reason, Muhammad was ready to consign his father, his noblehearted uncle Ab¯ T¯lib, and even his mother to the ﬂames of hellﬁre. u a In this respect, the polytheists, who were not theological, were better than the Muslims.
The story is given in Ibn Ish¯q and repeated in Tabar¯ The version here is from S¯ a i. irat Ras ul All ah, ¯ ¯ pp. 491-492.
160 CHAPTER 15. VIRTUE, DESTINY, KNOWLEDGE, REMEMBRANCE OF GOD After the conquest of Mecca, when Muhammad became supreme in Arabia, and the smaller tribes had to pay homage to his power and prophethood, two brothers, chiefs of a tribe inhabiting Yemen, came to Muhammad and showed their willingness to embrace Islam. They were converted. They hated to eat the heart of an animal but were made to do so in order to prove that their break with their old polytheism was genuine. Later on, during a conversation with Muhammad, their late mother came in for a mention, and Muhammad told them that she was in hell. Both turned away from him in anger. “Come back, my own mother too is there with yours,” Muhammad cried in an unsuccessful eﬀort to entice them back. As they departed the two brothers said: “This man has not only made us eat the heart of the animals, but said that our mother is in hell: who would follow him?” 4
LACK OF UNIVERSALITY
Another feature of the Prophet’s teaching on morals, inevitably ﬂowing from its predominantly theological nature, is its lack of universality. Faith, equity, justice are only for the Muslims in their mutual relationships. To the inﬁdels and unbelievers another code, another set of rules, is applied. 5 The lives of their males are forfeit; their women are legitimate objects of concubinage and bondage; their children are meant for slavery; and their wealth and property for pillage and booty. A sectarian attitude informs all matters large or small. When two Muslims meet, they are to greet each other. “The better of the two is one who is the ﬁrst to give a greeting” (6210). But Muhammad advises his followers not to greet Jews and Christians ﬁrst (5389). Similarly, if you meet a Muslim on the road, you are to be courteous and step aside to give him the way (5376), but if you meet a Jew or a Christian, you are to push him aside (5389). When a Muslim dies, fellow Muslims should “follow his bier”. in fact, this is one of the ﬁve or six “rights of a Muslim over another Muslim” (5379). And in the same vein, a Muslim should oﬀer a prayer of mercy for a fellow Muslim. But All¯h forbids this courtesy a toward non-Muslims (Qur¯n 9:84). It is another matter that some Muslims do not live a up to the Prophet’s teachings. But Muhammad himself was very particular about keeping away from the funerals of non-Muslims. According to Muslim tradition, one Mukhayr¯ a iq, learned Jewish priest, recognized Muhammad as the promised prophet and even bestowed seven gardens on him (according to some traditions, they were part of the war booty seized from the Jews of Medina). He also fought alongside Muhammad on the day of Uhud, though it was a Sabbath, and died in the battle. But though his corpse was allowed to be buried near the Muslims, Muhammad did not attend his funeral or pray for him.
Tabaq at, vol. II, p. 100; also W. Muir, Life of Mahomet, vol. IV, pp. 228-229. ¯ The Qur an frankly teaches this discriminatory ethic. “Muhammad is All ah’s apostle. Those who follow ¯ ¯ him are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to one another,” it says (48:29).
his livelihood. O Lord. theft. “This I have power to do. it gives the theology of a Moloch . Jesus had preached that “out of the heart proceed evil thoughts. his fortune and misfortune. a The lack of a philosophy and praxis of inner culture fails to bring about any real sublimation. True. garbing itself in pious clothing. 280.161 Mukhayr¯ was “the best of the Jews”. though the Buddhist inﬂuence had been penetrating the Middle East for many centuries. there can be no higher ethical life. contains only ﬁfty-one ah¯d¯ a is (6390-6441). . blasphemies. murders. p. his death. vol. .” But Muhammad failed to beneﬁt from this source. he found it burdensome to observe this practice. Even piety is no substitute for purity and for inner self-understanding and inner self-culture and aspiration. his deeds. war booty. which in turn are rooted in the separative ego and in nescience. The fact is that he founded a very outward religion. An unpuriﬁed heart merely rationalizes man’s lusts. are the master over that of which I have no power [love for each]. Muhammad could not have heard of Indian Yoga. II. For example. Without inner puriﬁcation.” he said. but thou. a DESTINY The thirty-ﬁrst book. leading to a reluctant and even rebellious conformity. “The constituents of one of you are collected for forty days in his mother’s womb in the form of blood. Muhammad customarily visited his wives in rotation. fornications. it gives an ethics of jih¯d. the “Book of Destiny” (Qadr). “Evil one is he who is evil in his mother’s womb” (6393). after which it becomes a lump of ﬂesh and forty days later All¯h sends His angel to it with a instructions concerning four things . it imposes only an outer code.” As a result. Muhammad believes that everything is predetermined. Each person passes through a series of stages. 6 So All¯h had to intervene with more accommodating revelations. as Muhammad called him. as might be expected. LACK OF INWARDNESS Muhammad’s moral teaching also lacks inwardness. adulteries. and prurience. But. and tribute. It does not seem to know that man’s acts emanate from his thoughts and desires. but this idea was not entirely unknown to Semitic traditions which he knew and in some ways had made his own. false witness.All¯h demanding the blood of the a inﬁdels. but he was still not iq entitled to a Muslim funeral prayer. violence. ¯ . it may even happen that a very good man who deserves Paradise and is only a cubit away from Paradise will suddenly be overcome by what destiny has 6 Tabaq at.
The Prophet assures us that “All¯h has ﬁxed the very portion of adultery which a man a will indulge in” (6421).” he remonstrates with the believers. is the “Book of Knowledge” (Ilm). a a “Verily. KNOWLEDGE The thirty-second book. He also warns against hair-splitting. “Verily. This brings in the usual riddle: how to reconcile destiny with freedom of action. he says” (6450). Muhammad also warns against people who believe that certain portions of the Qur¯n a are mere allegories and try to read their own meanings into them. you would follow them in this also. of course. One day. even smaller than the previous one.” On the other hand. “You would tread the same path as was trodden by those before you inch by inch and step by step so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard. If everything of men is decreed in advance. The book also includes a ﬂattering reference to scholars. but they [His creatures] would be questioned” (6406). It means the knowledge that we ﬁnd in the Qur¯n. Those who “have a yearning for error go after the allegorical verses seeking to cause dissension. the Prophet warns the believers” (6443). those “who are sound in knowledge say: We aﬃrm our faith in everything which is from our Lord” (6442). “Recite the Qur¯n. the peoples before you were ruined because of their disputation in the Book. The word ‘knowledge’ here has a special connotation.that is knowledge. Muhammad is still apprehensive about his followers and feels that they will take to the path of the Jews and the Christians. All¯h does not take a away knowledge by snatching it from the people but he takes away the knowledge by taking . REMEMBRANCE OF GOD written and begin to act like a denizen of hell. KNOWLEDGE. for everyone is facilitated in that for which he is created” (6400). the reverse may also happen (6390). DESTINY. why not depend upon our destiny?” Muhammad replied: “No.” and do not dispute about it . Muhammad told his followers that “there is not one amongst you who has not been allotted his seat in Paradise or Hell. by seeking to explain them. And.162 CHAPTER 15. then “would it not be an injustice to punish them?” Muhammad replies: “Everything is created by All¯h and lies in His power. do perform good deeds. VIRTUE. “Ruined are those who indulged in hair-splitting. But in spite of these warnings.” They logically asked: “Why then should we perform good deeds. Here is another theological riddle and another answer. He would not be questioned as to a what He does.
In this holy war which we are asked to wage with zeal. Muhammad explains” (6476). conquest. I draw near him a by the cubit. they are tearful about God but are quite dry-eyed and even cruel-hearted toward their fellow mortals. and earnestness. in purity. Muhammad’s All¯h is a tribal god trying to be universal through jiha ad. And if he walks towards Me. faith. “walking toward Me” means walking in truth. where it has a meaning very diﬀerent from the one given to it in certain prophetic traditions. the inﬁdels. he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Some theologians ‘exalt’ God but denigrate man.” So F¯tima came to the Holy Prophet in the expectation a . Muhammad’s god. slaves. inﬁdel. Our own role a is compliance and conformity and obedience to a revelation which is not ours. in conciliation. and Paradise if we fall. and so on. and empire if we succeed. Though Muhammad rebelled against a the idea that All¯h had visible forms. in brotherliness. We should be wary of such theologians and their theologies. he retained His audible names. In the mystic tradition. The statement is taken from the mystic lore. I rush towards him” (6471).” Muhammad a tells us (6475). polytheist. “had a corn in her hand i a because of working at the hand-mill.163 away the scholars” (6462). Why ninety-nine? “God is odd [witr] and He loves odd numbers. in conformity to the commands conveyed by All¯h through revelation to some favored fellow. ¯ RECITING ALLAH’S NAME BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP ’Al¯ tells us that F¯tima. it means walking toward the Light within. and forced conversions. our reward is booty. In the prophetic tradition. in wisdom. his wife and the Prophet’s daughter. All¯h tells us that if a believer “draws near Me by the span of a palm. in compassion. whom they give all kinds of names: heathen. like his moral teaching. There is no God but all¯h and Muhammad is the ¯ a prophet of this godling is the true import of the Muhammadan kalimah (creed). “There are ninety-nine a names of All¯h. is sectarian and lacks both universality and true inwardness.” They heard that “there had fallen to the lot of All¯h’s a Apostle some prisoners of war. a a The believers are exhorted to remember All¯h. the phrase means walking in enmity toward the polytheists. ¯ REMEMBRANCE OF ALLAH The thirty-third book is on “Remembrance of All¯h” (Kit¯b al-Zikr).
ask All¯h for His favour as it sees Angels and when you listen to the braying of a the donkey. p. and the second to ’Umar. KNOWLEDGE. 7 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. a Muhammad’s other son-in-law.” Muhammad tells the a believers (6581). one to ’Usm¯n. you should recite Takb¯ [All¯h-o-Akbar] thirty-four times and Tasb¯ ir a ih [Subh¯n All¯h] thirty-three times and Tahm¯ [al-Hamdu li-All¯h] thirty-three times and a a id a that is better than the servant for you” (6577). so he told F¯tima: “May I not direct you to something better than what you have asked for? When a you go to your bed. ¯ ¯ . he gave ’Al¯ a captured girl named Rayta. REMEMBRANCE OF GOD of acquiring a slave for herself. For example. 7 ¯ SUPPLICATE ALLAH AND FLEE FROM SATAN IN THE MORNING We may quote one more had¯ which is apropos: “When you listen to the crowing of is the cock.164 CHAPTER 15. as a gift. VIRTUE. who in turn gave her to his son ’Abdullah. Demonology is the other side of theology. seek refuge in All¯h from the Satan for it sees Satan. But Muhammad had none to spare at the time. the tribe of Muhammad’s u foster mother. i a She was part of the war booty won from the Ban¯ Haw5zin. the daughter of Hil¯l. 593. Two other girls from the same booty were given as gifts. DESTINY. The Prophet was a in the habit of giving prisoners of war to his favorite believers as slaves and concubines. All¯h’s name did not always suﬃce as a substitute for a servant.
though Paradise may be no more than an “opiate” of the poor. the Communists can claim Muhammad as their own. So avoid the allurement of women: verily. “I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women” (6604).Chapter 16 Paradise. “I had a chance to look into Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor” (6597). In book thirty-four.” women will “form a minority” (6600). the Last Day The next four books tell us something about Paradise and Hell and their respective inhabitants. called the “Book of Heart-Melting Traditions” (al-Riq¯q). they also tell us about the Day of Judgment. On the other hand. he tells his ummah: “The world is sweet and green [alluring] and verily All¯h is going to install you as Viceregent in it in a order to see how you act. Muhama mad tells us that he “stood upon the door of Fire [Hell] and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women” (6596). Muhammad says that he has solved all the problems of the believers except the problems created by women. According to another tradition. Hell. If they so wish. and the Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour. THE POOR The poor fare better at Muhammad’s hand. 165 . “amongst the inmates of Paradise. the ﬁrst trial for the people of Israel was caused by women” (6606). Their Inmates.
giving a description of the a a Day of Judgment. “the nonbelievers would be made to assemble by crawling on their faces” (6737). All¯h “would confer upon him His blessings in this a world and would give him reward in the Hereafter” (6739). THE DESTRUCTION The Last Day .the day of the destruction of the world-is also described. Muhammad tells us that on the Last Day “All¯h. PARADISE. and of Paradise and Hell. HELL. THEIR INMATES.” Then he laughed “until his molar teeth became visible”. where are the sovereigns of the world?” (6703). B¯l¯m is “ox aa aa and ﬁsh from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat” (6710). THE CREATION Muhammad tells us that All¯h “created the clay on Saturday and He created the a mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He created the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam after ’Asr [the afternoon prayer] on Friday. THE LAST DAY THE DAY OF JUDGMENT In book thirty-seven (Al-Qiy¯ma wa’l Janna wa’n-N¯r). On this day.166 CHAPTER 16. between afternoon and night” (6707).e. the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday. Muhammad said. the Exalted and Glorious.” “With b¯l¯m and ﬁsh. .” he told them. “the earth would turn to be one single bread . All¯h rewards the nonbeliever in this a a world and the believer in the hereafter (6740). It would be a feast in honour of the people of Paradise. NONBELIEVERS On the Day of Resurrection. But the next had¯ suggests is a more balanced distribution of All¯h’s blessings.. will take in His grip the earth . and roll up the sky a in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord. the nonbeliever “ﬁnds no virtue for which he should be rewarded in the Hereafter” (6739). . . . i. The believer will be doubly blessed. and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. then he asked his audience whether they would also like to be informed “about that with which they would season it [bread]. Thanks to his reward in this world. while the inmates of Paradise are feasting on the fare described above. .
On the Day of Resurrection. MUHAMMAD’S CURSES All¯h may be patient but not His Prophet. but “it would be said to him: You have told a lie. THE JEWISH SCHOLARS While Muhammad had power over nature. a Partnership is associated to Him [polytheism]. and heedless. even the one least tormented. Muhammad had other miraculous powers at his command. For example. . But what can All¯h do? a The nonbeliever is a bad cost accountant. THE SPLITTING OF THE MOON Besides the power to curse. Muhammad told his companions: “Bear witness to this” (6725). a ¯ ALLAH’S PATIENCE All¯h is long-suﬀering. He shows “patience at listening to the most irksome things. . What is this world compared to the hereafter? Not even “a gnat” (6698). Allah will ask the nonbeliever. it is cheating. “When All¯h’s Messenger saw people turning back from religion” he said: a ”O All¯h. and fatherhood of a child is attributed to Him [Christianity]. In fact. it is still not a fair deal.167 Either way. . aﬄict them with seven famines as was done in the case of Yusuf. the “moon was split into two. so they were a aﬄicted with famine by which they were forced to eat everything until they were obliged to eat the hides and the dead bodies because of hunger ” (6719). “If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me.” one part of it behind the mountain and the other part on this side of the mountain. Muhammad simply could not stand the a nonbelievers. this power failed him when it came to persuading the Jewish scholars. no Jew . whether. but in spite of this He protects them [people) and provides them sustenance” (6731). The nonbeliever will answer yes. he would like to secure his freedom from the awaiting ﬁre by paying all that gold. if he possessed all the ¯ gold of the earth. what had been demanded from you was quite easier than this [the belief in the Oneness of All¯h] but you paid no heed to it” (6733-6736). What are all the pleasures of the earth compared to even one distant feel of the hellﬁre? Nothing.
This concept is known as qar¯ in Islamic theology. pandemonic. also see 41:25). a devil. PARADISE. the word means “the one in united” (pl. The Companions said: All¯h’s Messenger. the latter is pandaimonic or. ¯ EVERYONE HAS HIS OWN DEVIL: QARIN Muhammad did not believe that everyone has his own god but he did believe that everyone has his own devil. THE LAST DAY would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam.168 CHAPTER 16.” 43:36. but All¯h helps me against him and so I am safe from his hand a and he does not command me but for good” (6757). . The former is pantheistic in approach and temper. quran¯). “There is none amongst you with whom is not an attache from amongst the jinn [devil]. Mas’¯d tells us that “All¯h’s Messenger did not deliver us sermons on u a certain days fearing that it might prove to be boring for us” (6775). particularly in the matter of sowing dissension among the believers. In the Qura an. HELL. more precisely. they are intimately joined to ¯ a Muslims also. “Verily. Literally. the demons are only attached to inﬁdels. a The concept is mentioned in the Qur¯n (“We assign unto him a devil who would be his a mate. with you too? a Thereupon he said: Yes. A Gnostic theology sees a secret Godhead in man. but it ﬁnds its full development in the Sunn¯h. in the Sunn¯h. MODERATION IN GIVING SERMONS ’Abdullah b. but he is hopeful that he would sow the seed of dissension amongst them.” Muhammad declared (6752). a prophetic one. the Satan has lost all hopes that the worshippers would worship him in the peninsula of Arabia. SATAN AND THE PROPHET Muhammad robbed Satan of his divinity but evidently not of his power for mischief. THEIR INMATES. A practice worthy of emulation by most sermonizers. and it refers to the demon that is joined inseparably to every man.” Muhammad declared (6711).
The ranking in Paradise will follow the ranking on earth. Its Bounties.169 PARADISE (Al-Janna . HIERARCHY Paradise is not without its hierarchy. . when Thou hast given us what Thou hast not given to any of Thy creatures?” (6787). . A man is justiﬁed by faith. . The inhabitants of Paradise show their happiness by telling All¯h: “Why should we a not be pleased. Paradise and Hell go together. with rather exclusive quarters for the apostles. there is a tree under the shadow of which a rider of a ﬁne and swift-footed horse would travel for a hundred years without covering the distance completely” (6784). but if you fail. but two-thirds of it really is on Hell and its inmates. The pleasure of seeing others denied Paradise is in fact greater than the pleasure of seeing even one’s own self rewarded. less than the word “Hell” (jahnam).121 times. and Its Inmates”. he is already one of God’s elect or damned long before he is even born. An-N¯r. moral action occupies a secondary place. the word “Paradise” (jannat) a appears 64 times. “Observe moderation” in your doings. “try to do as much as you can do and be happy for none would be able to get into paradise because of his deeds alone” (6770).” the Qur¯n’s pet name for Hell. a street to which the inhabitants “would come every Friday. The north wind will blow and would scatter fragrance on their faces and on their clothes and would add to their beauty and loveliness” (6792). “The ﬁrst group of my Ummah to get into paradise would be like a full moon in the night. appears with still greater frequency . he advises. a “In Paradise. a “the Fire. O Lord. Paradise has its own version of a beauty salon. then after them others in ranks” (6796). The inhabitants of the lower regions of Paradise “will look to the upper apartment of Paradise as you see the planets in the sky” (6788). Its Description. Then those who would be next to them. CALVINISM In religions where theology is supreme. they would be like the most signiﬁcantly glittering stars . which appears 76 times. “None amongst you would attain salvation purely because of his deeds. It is not God’s grace that wins salvation but either the atoning death of His only son or the intercessory power of His last Prophet.“The Garden”) The thirty-eighth book is called “The Book of Paradise. Muhammad anticipates Luther and Calvin by a thousand years.” Muhammad says (6760). In the Qur¯n. In the Prophet’s eschatology. A constant Bower of Bliss.
170 CHAPTER 16. . The Qur¯n promises the believers and muj¯hids “rivers of water incorruptible. nor void excrement. Let us therefore ih add a few more details to the scanty picture of Paradise by referring to the Qur¯n and a some other traditions and commentaries. “they will have fruits. HABITATION. the Exalted and a Glorious. but they will be so beautiful that “the marrow of their shanks would be visible through the ﬂesh” (6797). and the shades of the Garden will come low . The inhabitants of Paradise will eat and drink but they will “neither pass water. HELL. less than ih on earth. .” Muhammad adds that the people who came after Adam “continued to diminish in size up to this day” (6809). nor will they spit” (6795). PARADISE. They will be “reclining on raised thrones. The immeasurable is measured. LAVATION For his habitation in Paradise. nor will they suﬀer from catarrh. created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits . rivers of wine. “They will belch and sweat (and it would be over with their food). So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam. any that they may desire” (56:2021). rivers of a a milk whose taste does not change. For food. incidentally. the height of Adam and even of God. a joy to those who drink. . rivers of honey pure and clear” (47:15). THEIR INMATES. Then what will happen to the food they eat? The whole catabolic process will change. “Their combs would be made of gold and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall” (6796). ¯ THE QURANIC PARADISE The Sah¯ Muslim is rather niggardly in its description and promise. THE LAST DAY GOD’S HEIGHT Muhammad tells us the height of the inhabitants of Paradise and. the believer will have a “tent of a single hollowed pearl. “All¯h. SPOUSES The Sah¯ Muslim allows the believers only two spouses each in Paradise. the breadth of which would be sixty miles from all sides” (6805). and their sweat would be that of musk” (6798). his length being sixty cubits.
golden vessels. beloved and equal in age” (56:33-40). which we have already mentioned. ’Umar. but apparently any restrictions in the matter were irksome. . but for a fuller account the reader can refer to the following verses in the Qur¯n: 2:25. HOURIS Houris are promised. 47:15. 9:111. Young slaves (ghilm¯n) a like “hidden pearls” will wait on them (52-54). a 56:15-40. and there would be a fountain called Salsb il. A man will be able to procure any beautiful woman he desires from that market. they will drink of a cup of wine mixed with Zanjab¯ il ¯ And around them will be youths of [ginger]. retiring glances. Q¯dar¯ and the Tafseer Haqq¯n¯ and reproduced in the Qur¯n Parichaya. a sensual delights of the celestial region with greater abandon. upon them will be green garments of ﬁne silk and heavy brocade. Paradise will have a bazaar for the exclusive sale and purchase of beauty and beautiful faces. The believers will recline on lofty couches (according to some commentators. According to ’Abdullah b. OTHER TRADITIONS Other traditions. One would have thought that the believer?s provision of women in this world was pretty generous. on lofty sofas and of a rare creation. will dwell his wives. for ever virgins. 66:8. ‘couches’ means ‘women’). What is denied on earth is promised in Paradise: silk dresses. with whom he will make love successively. so he will have women galore in Paradise. We can only mention the subject here. youths of such beauty that you would think a ¯ them scattered pearls. 55:46-76. 52:17-24. 4:13. perpetual freshness [vilud¯num mukhalad un]. houris “unfailing and unforbidden. in every corner of the believer’s tent of a single hollowed pearl. 76:12-22. And amongst them will be passed round vessels of silver and goblets of crystal.171 over them. wine. and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver” (76:13-21). houris with swelling bosoms. For example. 10:9-10. and others. a i. describe the a i. quoted in commentaries like the Tafseer Mazahar¯ the Tafseer i. the bunches of fruits will hang low.
and she will have a crown on her head. Each houri will u have seventy garments. four thousand virgins. and eight thousand women who have known men. but her lover will be able to look through all of them and see the marrow of the bones of her legs. every room will also have seventy tables laid out. p. According to a tradition mentioned by Aldous Huxley. PARADISE. every inhabitant of Paradise will have at his disposal ﬁve hundred houris. when a believer embraces any such houri. and a houri will be sitting on each carpet. every Muslim will own a mansion of pearls.” NUMBER OF HOURIS Anas stinted on women. Moksha (London: Chatto & Windus. Ab¯ Huraira increases the number. THE LAST DAY NUMBER OF SLAVES According to a tradition narrated by the same authority. every mansion will have seventy houses of rubies. He will have the strength to have intercourse with them all. and every couch will be covered with seventy carpets of every color. the number of slaves is ten thousand. 112. every house will have seventy rooms of emeralds. and seventy-two women. THEIR INMATES. each of them will have seventy thousand boys waiting on her. Every believer will have the capability of copulating with each of these houris and maids. According to Ab¯ Sa’id. According to another tradition. Gibbon says that Muhammad did not give any speciﬁcs about the male companions of the 1 Aldous Huxley. According to ’Abdullah b. 1 NO SIMILAR REWARDS FOR WOMEN It has been observed that faithful Muslim females are denied the analogous reward. every room will also have seventy maid-slaves. and on every table there will be seventy dishes of seventy colors. even the least of the inhabitants of Paradise will have one thousand slaves waiting on him. 1980). . holding the train of her robe. in the Muslim Paradise. According to him. still furu ther. According to Anas. ’Umar.172 CHAPTER 16. “the least amongst the people u of Paradise shall have eighty thousand slaves. HELL. though rather mathematically expressed. the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and the west. these women will put on see-through dresses. every room will have seventy couches. every orgasm will last for six hundred years. SEE-THROUGH GARMENTS According to Ab¯ Sa’id.
In Hell. There are two kinds of the animals to be dedicated: al-bah¯ animals which are left unmilked except for the idols. In caloric heat. 200) who set up idols brought from Syria. the son of Abraham. The hunger of Hell is inexhaustible. . Luhayy b. the legendary progenitor of the Arabs. “I saw ’Amr b. “There would be among them those to whom Fire will reach up to their ankles. Cam’a b. “The sinners would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more?” (6825). to some up to their knees. Those who tampered with the pure religion of Ishmael. and to some up to their collar-bones” (6816). the houris of old are replaced by “pure wives” (Qur¯n 2:25. Stones will hurtle down on the inmates of Hell with great force.” Muhammad tells Ab¯ u u Huraira (6838). Khinzif. Ab¯Harair reports: u “We were in the company of All¯h’s Messenger when we heard a terrible sound. The idea of investing the unbeliever with such a thick skin is that he “should be able to suﬀer the torment of the Hell-Fire for a long time.D. the ﬁre we know here on earth is only “one-seventieth part of the Fire of Hell” (6811). Muhammad also “saw ’Amr b. to some up to their waists. dragging his intestines in Fire. Similarly. Sir William Muir makes the psychologically signiﬁcant observation that Muhammad’s more voluptuous accounts of heaven derive from the period when he was living in a monogamic relationship with Khad¯ a woman of threescore years and also ﬁfteen years ija.173 female elect because he did not want to arouse the jealousy of the husbands or to disturb their felicity by inducing them to have suspicions about everlasting marriages in Paradise. “the molar teeth of an unbeliever will be like Uhud [a hill just outside Medina] and the thickness of his skin a three nights’ journey” (6831). and as-s¯’iba. his senior. In the S¯ras from this period.” He was the ﬁrst to dedicate animals to deity. HELL Muhammad’s accounts of Hell are equally intimate. a animals which are not loaded and are let loose for the deities (6839). the sexual delights and orgies became subdued. brother of Ban¯ Ka’b. u a 4:57). But as his harem swelled. According to Muslim thinking. are severely punished. ira.” as the translator explains (note 2999). ’Amr was the ﬁrst Khozaite king (A. Thereupon a All¯h’s Apostle said: Do you know what is this? We said: All¯h and His Messenger know a a best. Amir al-Khuz¯’i dragging his intestines in a Fire. Thereupon he said: This is a stone which was thrown seventy years before in Hell and it has been constantly slipping down and now it has reached its base” (6813).
what I am saying to them. you ﬁght against them and We shall help you in this . .174 CHAPTER 16. . The Prophet and his Companions sighted ﬁve or six graves during a journey. It begins immediately after their death. And I sent the Book to you . and All¯h said: you turn a them out as they turned you out. All¯h looked towards the people of the world and He showed hatred for the Arabs and the a non-Arabs. I said: My Lord. THE LAST DAY ETERNAL DAMNATION After the believers and the unbelievers are sifted and sent to their respective abodes. You send an army and I would send an army ﬁve times greater than that. even you cannot hear more distinctly than they. the chapter is closed forever. Fight against those who disobey you along with those who obey you” (6853). . and ’Umar wondered how the Prophet could hold a discourse with them. And He said: I have sent thee [Muhammad] in order to put you to test and put those to test through you. but they lack the power to reply. . there is no death for you. Verily. Then he sat by the side of the bodies. .” Muhammad revealed (6859). there is no death for you.” Muhammad told him. but with the exception of some remnants from the People of the Book. “All¯h would admit the inmates of Paradise into Paradise a and the inmates of Hell into Hell. O inmates of Hell. . THEIR INMATES. Muhammad said: “Behold. said: “Have you not found what your Lord had promised you to be correct?” The bodies had decayed. and addressing each of them by name. HELL. . . . Then the Announcer would stand between them and say: O inmates of Paradise. You would live forever therein” (6829). thrown into the well of Badr” (6869-6870). “By Him in Whose Hand is my life. . they would break my head .” somebody replied. PARADISE. MUHAMMAD’S MISSION While delivering a sermon one day. “These people are passing through the ordeal in the graves. . Then he had the bodies (twenty-four in number) of the “non-believers of Quraish . . . All¯h commanded me to burn [kill] a the Quraish. my Lord commanded me that I should teach you which you do not know and which He has taught me today . “As polytheists. Muhammad let the dead bodies of the unbelievers who fought and died at Badr lie unburied for three days. Muhammad asked if anyone knew in what state their occupants had died. THE POLYTHEISTS The punishment of the unbelievers does not wait till the day of Resurrection. .
175 VOYEURISM There is a had¯ narrated by ’Aisha.” Seven other names are also frequently mentioned. each with a its own potency. that should be of interest to Freudians. Hell has many names. will the male and the female be together on the Day and would be looking at one another?” The Prophet sagaciously replied: ’Aisha. thermodegree. Though Muhammad does not refrain from holding out the threat of hellﬁre to his followers. a and the scholars of the Qur¯n turned them into seven separate regions of Hell. those who disbelieve in his apostleship and mission. “Not one of you but must enter it [Hell]. “He who is examined thoroughly in reckoning is undone” (6874). THE SEVEN REGIONS Curiously enough. more blazing. In a . Though the least of these hells would burn any man a thousand times over. and similarly the Qur¯nic Hell is more sizzling than the a ih a ¯ Hell of the had is.. The easy reckoning is merely formal and is for the believers. Prophet revealed: “The people would be assembled on the Day of Resurrection barefooted. ¯ THE QURANIC HELL As was also noted in regard to Paradise. The name he most loved to call it by is An-N¯r. for his accounts will be closely a scrutinized. So hells increasingly more smoky. “the Fire. i. naked and uncircumcised. that is not considered good enough punishment for many degrees of inﬁdelity and unbelief. or perhaps in mischief: “All¯h’s Mesa senger. even Muslims must go to Hell.e. this is Lord’s decree that must be accomplished. whose faults All¯h wants to overlook.” ’Aisha asked in alarm. and inmates. and the Prophet dwells on them lovingly. the treatment of Hell is more detailed in the Qur¯n than in the Sah¯ Muslim. there will be two kinds of reckoning: an easy one and a thorough one. hell is essentially a place reserved for the unbelievers.” reveals the Qur¯n (19:71). the matter would be too serious for them to look to one another” (6844). The is. THE RECKONING ON THE DAY OF JUDGMENT On the Day of Resurrection. But woe unto the unbeliever. and more scorching are conceived.
17:60. in the language of u the last S ura. which leaves nothing a unconsumed. and never has any light. Some commentators have explained that the men and stones referred to in the verse are none other than the polytheists and the idols they worship. a region in Hell is conceived a which is least oppressive. it “will boil in their [eaters?] inside like molten brass. The ﬁre in Hell knows no rival in ﬁerceness.” There are other traditions in the same vein. and burnt another thousand years till it became black and dark. and polytheists of diﬀerent hues and degrees. .” is mentioned. there is Sa’¯ for the Sabians. of All¯h’s command. they shall be given water like molten copper . of ﬁre so wide that it would take forty years to traverse the distance. and ir im H¯wiyah for the hypocrites. 56:52. . the Day of Judgment). nor leaves anything alone” (74:28). Saqar for the Magi. the “Tree of Zaqq¯m.176 CHAPTER 16. toiling. The blazing ﬁre of Laz¯. like the boiling of ¯ scalding water. i u 44:43-46). Similarly. if not the spirit. weary. “If the inﬁdels complain of thirst. In other S¯ras (e. “Has the tidings reached thee of the Overwhelming Event? Some faces that Day will be humiliated. Christians. Muslim theologians a assure us that it will be pretty cool and pleasant for Muslims unless they have committed some great sins. Jah¯ for idolaters. In the S ura Gh¯shiya (“The Overwhelming ¯ a Event.. It is Hell only in name and is in fact a purgatory for Muslims. It is called Jahanam. each tree there having seventy thousand branches. polytheists.” This had¯ derives from Ab¯ Huraira and is quoted in the Tafseer is u ¯ According to the same commentary. and which is a prepared for those who reject Faith” (2:24). . . PARADISE. “It burnt a thousand years so that it became red. loathsome in smell. which shall burst their bowels . THE LAST DAY order to fulﬁll the letter. . HELL. The real regions of Hell and their real torments are reserved for unbelievers. is for the Christians. idolaters. the water is so hot that even a drop of it is capable of melting away all the mountains of the world. They paid him only the prudential homage due to one who is powerful. Muhammad promises a sorry plight indeed for unbelievers of all shades: Jews. THEIR INMATES. the still more intense ﬁre of Hutamah is for the Jews. Zar¯ is a bitter and thorny plant.. every branch will house seventy thousand serpents .g. which shall dissolve everything in their bellies.” According to some commentators. inﬁdels. No food will there be for them but a bitter zar¯ which will neither nourish nor i satisfy hunger” (88:1-7). The Qur¯n asks you to “fear the Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones.e.” i. Another tradition tells us that Hell will have seventy thousand jungles. Muhammad is very ready to send unbelievers to hellﬁre. . ﬁre which “permits nothing to endure. The last are those who saw through Muhammad and no a longer believed in his mission but were afraid to admit it openly. the inﬁdels will be surrounded by a wall Mazahar i. another terrible food. hypocrites. even a passage or bridge (sir¯t) to heaven. .
“He granted me two. 6906). but in the case of . killing another believer is heinous and earns the punishment of hellﬁre. And I begged my Lord that my Ummah should not be destroyed by drowning [deluge] and He granted me this. . . But this does not apply to the early Muslim heroes who engaged in internecine wars. The subject is closely related to Paradise and Hell. THE LAST HOUR The thirty-ninth book pertains to the “Turmoils and Portents of the Last Hour” (AlFitan wa Ashr¯t as-S¯’ah). Hell is an important limb of Islamic theology. The translator assures us: “This rule does not apply in case of the confrontation between Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents. “There is destruction in store for Arabia because of turmoil which is at hand. And I begged my Lord that there should be no bloodshed among the people of my Ummah.” After this apocalyptical vision Muhammad asked All¯h three things and. ‘Rainfall’ here means ‘catastrophe’. I begged my Lord that my Ummah a should not be destroyed because of famine and He granted me this. In these texts the misanthropy and hatred of Muslim theology for mankind has found a free scope. In some ah¯d¯ he prophesies the destruction of a is.177 and an equal number of scorpions. a a One is not sure whether by the Last Hour the Prophet means the last hour of Arabia or of the ummah or of the whole world. While killing unbelievers is meritorious and wins Paradise for the believers. He climbed up a battlement and told the Medinans: “You do not see what I am seeing and I am seeing the places of turmoil between your houses as the places of rainfall” (6891).” he said (6881). “When two Muslims confront each other with their swords. Both the slayer and the slain are doomed to Hell-Fire only i when the enmity is based on personal grudges and material interests. . referred to throughout the Qur¯n and a other Islamic canonical literature. both the slayer and slain are doomed to Hell-Fire” (6899). All these are the tormentors of the inﬁdels and the hypocrites. but He did not grant it” (6904. a And I have seen its eastern and western ends. THE DESTRUCTION OF THE UMMAH Muhammad tells us: “All¯h drew the ends of the world near one another for my sake. He prophesied for them a period “in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than the one who walks and the one who walks will be better than the one who runs” (6893). Arabia. The swelling of one bite of a scorpion will last for forty years.
“The Last Hour would not come unless the Euphrates would uncover a treasure of gold” (6920). who was believed a to be Dajj¯l by the Companions of Muhammad. . a Before the Last Hour comes. with the word k¯ﬁr inscribed on his forehead. . there is a Jew behind a me. He disputed Muhammad’s apostleship. He “would be followed a by seventy thousand Jews of Isfah¯n wearing Persian Shawls” (7034). red in complexion. SOME SIGNS OF THE LAST HOUR The great turmoil “which would emerge like the mounting waves of the ocean” (6914) will be preceded by many signs. ” (7039). come and kill him. Another sign of the approaching Hour will be that “the sun would rise from the West” (7039). PARADISE.” Only a very thorny tree known as the gharqad. It will not come a “until the people have [again] taken to the worship of L¯t and ’Uzza” (6945). “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will ﬁght against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them and until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim. HELL. a Dajj¯l is mentioned in many ah¯d¯ He is a kind of Antichrist. the Dajj¯l . this refers to either the Christians or the polytheists of Abyssinia.178 CHAPTER 16. It will not come “until ﬁre emits from the earth of Hij¯z which would illuminate the necks of the camels of Busra” (6935). or the servant of All¯h. which is painful to touch. “for it is the tree of the Jew” (6985). THEIR INMATES. ¯ DAJJAL Muhammad prepares Muslims for the coming Hour. the “Ka’ba would be destroyed by an Abyssinian having two small shanks” (6951). a “Don’t you bear witness that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Muhammad demanded of a . According to the translator. blind in the left eye and a a is. Before this Hour jizy¯ will stop coming and the people of a Iraq will “not send their qaf¯ and dirhims [their measures of foodstuﬀs and their money]” iz (6961). the smoke. THE LAST DAY Hazrat ’Al¯ and his opponents it was the higher ideal which actuated most of them to come i into conﬂict with one another” (note 3009). will be loyal to the Jews and not reveal their identity. a ¯ IBN SAYYAD A very interesting story is told about one Ibn Sayy¯d (6990-7004). “Hasten to do good deeds before six things happen: the rising of the sun from the West.
” Then there was a competition between the two. dukh. he told his followers: “If this young boy lives. According to another story. a a made the very same claim for himself.” the translator tells us (note 3037). you will not be a able to kill him” (6990). he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you” (7052). ‘He only chanted dhukh. Muhammad “did a not like it. and the hollowness of his claim a stood exposed. Sayy¯d could only say dhukh when the word in Muhammad’s mind a was really dukh¯n (smoke). Muhammad expected the Last Hour to come at any time. Muhammad and his Companions met Sayy¯d sitting in a the company of some children. . “Thereupon ’Umar b. But he replied: “I bear witness to the fact that you are the Messenger of the unlettered. don’t you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of All¯h?” Sayy¯d denied this and. Khatt¯b said: All¯h’s Messenger. Like the early Christians.” and he said to him: “May your nose be besmeared with dust.179 him. That gave point to his claim. permit me that I should kill him.” a a Muhammad replied: “If he is that person who is in your mind [Dajj¯l]. asking Muhammad to bear witness to his status. The children stood up but not Sayy¯d. Sayy¯d had to guess what was in a Muhammad’s mind. Pointing to a young boy. Muhammad had many toughs at his beck and call. ready to do his bidding. in fact.
THE LAST DAY .180 CHAPTER 16. THEIR INMATES. HELL. PARADISE.
It helps man to realize his creaturely nature and All¯h to realize His lordly and merciful essence. forgive me my sin. do what you like.Chapter 17 Repentance (Tauba). pertaining to “Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance” (Kit¯b al-Tauba). Psychologists tell us that the joys of a sinning are great but the joys of repentance are even greater. and All¯h responded in the same way. “If a you were not to commit sins. and then asked forgiveness from All¯h. Sin is doubly blessed. It helps him as well as his Maker. It helps the believer to realize that he is a creature and provides an opportunity for All¯h to exercise a His mercy. According to Muhammad. a All¯h loves repentance in a believer. . He again committed a sin and said: My Lord. 181 . All¯h loves to see the believer repent more than He hates to see him sin. and All¯h said: My servant committed a sin and then a a he came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives the sins . All¯h would have swept you out of existence and would have a replaced you by another people who have committed sin. said: My a servant committed a sin and then came to realize that he has a Lord who forgives his sin. In fact. It is not an accident a that theologies of man’s sinful nature have also sought a God of mercy. the Exalted and High. All¯h said: “A servant committed a sin and he a said: O All¯h. I We now take up the thirty-ﬁfth book. and All¯h. forgive me my sin.” The servant committed yet a third sin. I have granted you forgiveness” (6642). It blesses him who sins and Him Who forgives. SIN IS DOUBLY REWARDING A man’s sinning is doubly rewarding. He is “more pleased with the repentance of His a servant than an Arab who found his lost camel in the waterless desert” (6610-6619).” the Prophet told his ummah (6620-6622). . but now a He added: “O servant.
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
¯ ALLAH’S WRATH AND MERCY
All¯h says: “My mercy predominates my wrath” (6626). Of this mercy, He bestows a a one-hundredth part “upon the Jinn and human beings and the insects,” the part with which they love one another; but He “has reserved ninety-nine parts for His servant on the Day of Resurrection” (6631). This reserve of mercy will be handy on this Day for saving the Muslims from the ﬁre of hell, which is also needed for dealing with the inﬁdels, or k¯ﬁrs. ‘God’s wrath’ is an important concept in Semitic religions. a
GOOD DEEDS TAKE AWAY BAD ONES
A Muslim came to Muhammad and said: “All¯h’s Messenger, I sported with a woman a in the outskirts of Medina . . . [and] committed an oﬀence short of fornication . . . Kindly deliver verdict about me.” The man wanted Muhammad to impose the penalty of hadd (a category of punishments deﬁned in the Qur¯n or in the had¯ on him. Ab¯ Bakr and a is) u ’Umar felt that the man had committed a serious oﬀense, but according to some traditions, ’Umar gave him the oft-repeated advice of the Prophet, which is both worldly-wise as well as pious: “All¯h concealed your fault. You had better conceal it yourself also.” a Meanwhile, Muhammad had a revelation: “And observe prayer at the ends of the day and in the ﬁrst hours of the night. Surely good deeds take away evil deeds” (Qur¯n a 11:115). Following this he dismissed the man, telling him: “All¯h has exempted you from a the imposition of hadd, or from your sin.” Someone who was present at the time asked Muhammad whether the promise of pardon related only to that individual alone. “No, but the people at large,” Muhammad said reassuringly to all the believers (6655-6661). The two prayers mentioned are the morning and evening prayers. The one destroys the sins of the night, and the other the sins of the day. And, presumably, after reciting them the believer is refreshed and ready for his next bout of sin. Such is human nature.
NONBELIEVERS AS REPLACEMENTS FOR BELIEVERS IN HELL
The next ﬁve ah¯d¯ (6665-6669) are very interesting. All¯h does not exactly forgive a is a the sins of the believers but visits them on the unbelievers. He punishes the unbelievers for the sins of the believers. In this way, both His wrath and His mercy are established. “When it will be the Day of Resurrection All¯h would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire,” Muhammad tells his followers (6665). All¯h’s sense of fairness and justice is no better than that of the believers. Thus a
183 the believers create All¯h in their own image. a Muhammad also promises his followers that on the Day of Reckoning, All¯h will tell the a Muslims: “I concealed them [your sins] for you in the world. And today I forgive them.” But as for the nonbelievers, their sins will be exposed before the whole world and “there would be general announcement about them before all creation,” and it will be advertised that they “told lies about All¯h” (6669). a
THE NECKLACE AFFAIR
The book contains a long had¯ which relates to a scandal involving ’Aisha, the [childis ]wife of the Prophet. It happened in the ﬁfth year of the Hijra (December A.D. 626), when Muhammad was returning to Medina after defeating the tribe of Ban¯’l-Mustaliq u in a surprise attack and taking many prisoners, including Juwair¯ iyya. ’Aisha, who was thirteen years old at the time, had accompanied the Prophet on the expedition, together with another co-wife, Umm Salama. ’Aisha reports: “Whenever All¯h’s Messenger intended to set out on a journey he cast a lots amongst his wives and took one with him in whose favour the lot was cast.” Luck favored her (as it did suspiciously too often), and she accompanied the Prophet on the expedition. During the last, leg of the return journey, ’Aisha was left behind. In the early morning, she had gone out into the ﬁelds to relieve herself. Returning to the camp, she discovered that she had dropped her necklace, so she went back to recover it. While she was away, the caravan started for Medina. Apparently no one realized that she had been left behind because the camel carrying her haudaj was with the caravan. The bearers, thinking she was inside it, had placed the haudaj on the camel. “The women in those days were light of weight and they did not wear much ﬂesh, as they ate less food; so they did not perceive the weight of my haudaj as they placed it on the camel,” ’Aisha explains. When ’Aisha returned to the camp after ﬁnding her necklace, she discovered that the caravan had left. So she waited and even slept at the same spot, calculating that they would come to fetch her once the mistake was discovered. “I was overpowered by sleep and slept,” she says. Then a young soldier, Safw¯n b. Mu’attal Sulam¯ Zakw¯n¯ who had also a i a i, lagged behind for some reason, saw her, recognized her, and gave her a ride back. “By Allah, he did not speak to me a word and I did not hear a word from him except Inna lill¯ ahi [Innalill¯hi wainna ilaihi r¯ji’ un, “we are for All¯h and to Him we have to return”] ¯ a a ¯ a and I covered my head with my headdress. He made his camel kneel down and I mounted the camel . . . and he moved on leading the camel by the nosestring on which I was riding,” ’Aisha says. Under everyone’s gaze, ’Aisha and Safw¯n returned together. This started gossip, a which soon developed into a scandal. The participants in the gossip were not merely peo-
CHAPTER 17. REPENTANCE (TAUBA), I
ple who were lukewarm toward Muhammad, such as ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a member of the Kh¯zrajite clan of ’Awf and a leading citizen of Medina, who had come to distrust Muhama mad; they also included supporters of the Prophet, such as the poet Hass¯n, Hamna, the a daughter of Jahsh and sister of the Prophet’s wife Zainab, and Mistah, a relative and dependent of Ab¯ Bakr, the father of ’Aisha. u Muhammad was much disturbed and perhaps had his own suspicions. He turned cold toward ’Aisha, so much so that she sought his permission to go to her father’s house. The permission was given. ’Aisha’s mother tried to console her, saying: “By All¯h, if there is a a handsome woman who is loved by her husband and he has co-wives also they talk many a thing about her.” Muhammad consulted his close relatives, particularly ’Al¯ and Us¯ma b. Zaid. Us¯ma i a a said: “All¯h’s Messenger, they are your wives and we know nothing else about them but a goodness.” ’Al¯ advised Muhammad to divorce ’Aisha: “All¯h has not put any unnecessary i a burden upon you in regard to your wives. There are a number of women besides her.” ’Al¯ i also suggested that ’Aisha’s maid be questioned. Bar¯ the maid, was sent for. ’Al¯ struck ira, i her (showing that the manners of the Prophet’s family were quite feudal and no better than those of the unbelievers), and warned her to speak the truth. Bar¯ could throw no light ira on the incident in question but said that she had never found any wrong in ’Aisha except that “she goes to sleep while kneading the ﬂour and the lamb eats that.” Thus a month passed. Now Muhammad went to the pulpit and reprimanded his followers for their scandalmongering. “Who would exonerate me from imputations of that person [was the reference to ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy or to Hass¯n the poet, another Kh¯zrajite?] who a a has troubled me in regard to my family? By All¯h, I ﬁnd nothing in my wife but goodness,” a he appealed. This touched a loyal chord in the hearts of Sa’d b. Mu’az and Usaid b. Huzair. They stood up and promised to punish any delinquent, if the Prophet so wanted it. “I defend your honour . . . If he [the delinquent] belongs to the tribe of our brother Kh¯zraj a and you order us we would comply with your order,” Sa’d b. Mu’az, the chief of the Aus, told Muhammad. A quarrel now broke out between him and the chief of Kh¯zraj, Sa’d a b. Ub¯da, but Muhammad paciﬁed them for the time being. a Next Muhammad went to Ab¯ Bakr’s house, determined to put an end to the matter. u He again asked ’Aisha to confess if she had done anything wrong. “’Aisha, this is what has reached me about you and if you are innocent, All¯h would Himself vindicate your a honour, and if accidently there has been a lapse on your part seek forgiveness of All¯h,” a Muhammad told her. But ’Aisha maintained her innocence. And Lo! Then and there a revelation descended on Muhammad establishing ’Aisha’s innocence, even to her own great astonishment. “I was innocent but I did not expect that All¯h would descend wahy matlu [a Qur¯nic revelation] in my case as I did not think myself a a so much important . . . I only hoped that All¯h would in vision give an indication of my a innocence to All¯h’s Messenger,” ’Aisha says. a
185 Coming out of his prophetic ﬁt or trance, Muhammad announced the news: “ ’Aisha, there is glad tiding for you. Verily All¯h has vindicated your honour.” Everybody was a happy. ’Aisha’s mother wanted her to get up and thank the Prophet. But she refused: “I shall not thank him and laud him but All¯h who has descended revelation vindicating my a honour” (6673). God in this revelation not only vindicated ’Aisha’s innocence but ordered punishment for those who spread unproved calumnies against chaste women. “And those who launch charges against chaste women, and produce not four witnesses to support their allegation, ﬂog them with eighty stripes and reject their evidence ever after, for such men are wicked transgressors” (Qur¯n 24:4). And the revelation also took to task those Muslims who had a given ear to the scandal. “And why did not the believers, men and women, when ye ﬁrst heard of the aﬀair, put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, ‘This charge is an obvious lie’ ? And why did they not bring four witnesses to prove it? When they had not brought the witnesses, such men, in the sight of All¯h, stand forth themselves as a liars” (Qur¯n 24:12-13; also see 24:16). a In obedience to All¯h’s injunction, all the calumniators, including the poet Hass¯n, a a Ab¯ Bakr’s relative Mistah, and even Hamna, the sister of Muhammad’s favorite wife, u Zainab, received eighty stripes each. Zainab had not joined her sister in calumniating ’Aisha, though ’Aisha says that “she was the only lady who amongst the wives of All¯h’s a Messenger used to vie with me [i.e., ’Aisha]” (6673). But it was not all punishment. Perhaps to buy their silence, the punishments were judiciously mixed with rewards. A valuable castle called B¯ H¯, in the vicinity of Medina, ir a was bestowed on Hass¯n the poet. Muhammad even gave Hass¯n a slave-girl named Shir¯ a a in, one of the two Coptic sisters sent him by the Egyptian governor as gifts, retaining the other, Mary, for his own harem. 1 As a result, the poet, who until now had been writing lampoons on Safw¯n, began writing verses in praise of ’Aisha’s purity, slimness, and grace. ’Aisha a also forgave him. “ ’Aisha did not like that Hass¯n should be rebuked in her presence, and a she used to say: It was he who wrote this verse also: Verily, my father and my mother are all meant for defending the honour of Muhammad” (6674). After this incident Ab¯ Bakr wanted to withdraw his support from Mistah, his indigent u relative. In the language of ’Aisha, “Ab¯ Bakr used to give to Mistah some stipend as u a token of kinship with him and for his poverty and he said: By All¯h, now I would not a spend anything for him.” But a special revelation from All¯h came to Mistah’s rescue. a “Let not those among you who are endowed with grace and amplitude of means resolve by oath against helping their kinsmen, those in want and those who have left their homes in God’s cause” (Qur¯n 24:22). a Regarding Safw¯n, the chief male character in the story, Hass¯n had lampooned him a a
S¯ irat Ras ul All ah, pp. 498-499. ¯ ¯
p. Safw¯n gave him a sword wound. According to another tradition. ¯ ¯ .” said All¯h (Qur¯n 33:30. in Whose hand is my life. by One. I in a poem. The demand for four witnesses in cases of adultery made it diﬃcult to prove such charges in an Islamic court. according to ’Aisha. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. when he left on the expedition to Tab¯k. 499. a a Muhammad also instituted a more careful watch over his household after this event. he left ’Al¯ behind to keep an eye on u i his household in his absence. your punishment would be doubled and that is easy for All¯h.” 3 a Though All¯h exonerated ’Aisha in this particular case. I have never unveiled any a woman.186 CHAPTER 17. 33). p. she a a added that people found that Safw¯n “was impotent.” The system of purdah was also made more stringent. 2 Hass¯n’s relatives captured a a him and in spite of Muhammad’s intervention kept him as a prisoner till Hass¯n’s wound a was healed. and though young he died soon a after. 2 Safw¯n sang: a Here’s the edge of my sword for you! When you lampoon a man like me you don’t get a poem in return. 498). Apparently Umm Salama replaced her as Muhammad’s companion on subsequent expeditions. and make not a dazzling display. REPENTANCE (TAUBA). He did not refrain from ada ministering an admonition to all the wives of the Prophet: “O Women of the Prophet! if any one of you should be guilty of unseemly conduct. Of course. In retaliation. ¯ ¯ 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. we no longer ﬁnd ’Aisha mentioned as accompanying Muhammad on any expedition after this aﬀair. For example. “And a stay quietly in your houses. Also. Safw¯n denied the allegation hotly. like that of the former times of Ignorance. “Hallowed be All¯h. She further says that “then he died as a martyr in the cause of All¯h” (6674-6675). quoted by Ibn Ish¯q.” he said.
He used the carrot as well as the stick. the indiﬀerent. as some scholars and propagandists would have us believe. We cannot reproduce it in full here or put it to an adequately searching analysis. and the disloyal.110 002). II (The Self-Criticism of Ka’b b. M¯lik) a We shall continue with the “Book of Repentance”. and ideological untouchability. The fear of divine hellﬁre was distant. more secular appeals. constia is. but the reader will do well to read it carefully and give it serious thought. 1 The monotheism of prophetic Islam is particularly shallow and barbarous. it was combined with other. ih tutes a very interesting psychological document. but the For a fuller discussion. for it is an illuminating story with a family likeness to the notorious ‘confessions’ and ‘self-criticism’ of Communist countries. see our book The Word as Revelation (Publishers Impex India. Besides the usual breast-beating and protestations of loyalty to the leader. The sword and its threat were frequent arbiters. but more sophisticated psychological pressures were equally in use.” This had¯ the longest in the Sah¯ Muslim. spiritually speaking. Even in Muhammad’s time. Social cohesion and political and ideological compliance were secured by means of social ostracism. M¯lik. Islam was not all theology. Apostasy was severely punished. political boycott. it also indicates to a discerning reader some of the psychological factors that make the members of the ummah or the party fall in line and keep together. 1 187 . New Delhi .Chapter 18 Repentance. Monotheism does not have the superiority per se that fanatics often ascribe to it. and visited palpable punishments of varying degrees on the lukewarm. The Prophet rewarded loyalty and obedience with war spoils. the appeal of a so-called superior monotheism against an idolatrous and superstitious polytheism. 2/18 Ansari Road. But from the beginning. negative as well as positive. In it appears a long had¯ entitled is “The Repentance of Ka’b b.
This could be a very coercive phenomenon. And why? Because it was the safe thing to do. I got to him ﬁrst with tongue and hand.) ¯ ¯ . sometimes he would go north when his intended destination was south. and so on. now others do the same in turn.¯ 188 CHAPTER 18. 630. for the expedition was to take them to the very frontiers of Arabia and might embroil them with the garrisons of the Byzantine Empire. They gave generously. or party. gifting one a thousand din¯rs. Umayar. the toughs of the ummah. Sa’d. besides inviting more concrete punishments. it was his largest and also his last. He collected tithes from the tribes. contractors. was ever present. ’Abdullah a ibn Oneis 2 and company. and traders. REPENTANCE. and the weather was dry and hot. As Muhammad was planning for the biggest campaign of his life. one also invited a pervasive social boycott.but even worse. Prophet’s swordsmen and hangmen. and appealed for donations and gifts from his followers. They had become governors. In oﬀending the Prophet. the enemy was far away (300 miles to the north). the Tab¯k campaign was also called the u “Campaign of Diﬃculties”. MALIK) fear of the strongman. You also had to be on guard against the treacherous daggers of his assassins. which were now reduced to submission. S¯lim b. for he died soon afterward. Muhammad ibn Maslama. 789. Because of its unusually arduous nature. is. Muheiasa. you not only oﬀended All¯h . In planning other campaigns. D. ’Usm¯n. If one invited the Prophet’s displeasure. ’Amr ibn Omeya. One had oneself played safe in the past. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. he used to keep the time and the target of attack to himself in order to eﬀect the maximum surprise. But before we quote from the had¯ let us provide some background information.an oﬀense which many could take a in stride . generals. Talha. But this campaign was to be of long duration.the i. he directed his adherents and allies and the Bedouin tribes to gather in great numbers. p. ’Abdullah . you oﬀended ’Umar. a lordly sum. These funds were used to provide mounts for the poorer a 2 He sang: Whenever the Prophet gave thought to an unbeliever. Perspicacious readers will be able to detect a close resemblance between the atmosphere described in the following had¯ and the more familiar (but only a little more familiar) is atmosphere that obtains under the Communist regimes of our own time. One’s own relatives and best friends deserted one. ’Al¯ Zubair. ¯ THE TABUK CAMPAIGN Muhammad planned an expedition for the autumn Of A. the boss. (S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. in fact. who were now rich and powerful. his own son-in-law. so this time he gave advance warning to his followers so that they could prepare and equip themselves adequately.
if ye but knew” (Qur¯n 9:41).’ they turned back their eyes streaming with tears” (Qur¯n 9:92). and when you said. ‘Go not forth in the heat. All¯h will punish you a with a grievous penalty and put others in your place. That is best for you.” All¯h said of them (9:97). with your goods and your persons. these men were subsequently a remembered with honor as “Weepers”. they would all without doubt have followed thee. and strive and struggle. and journey easy. a a The Prophet warns these recalcitrants that “unless ye go forth. All¯h spoke later on in several Qur¯nic verses: “Those who were a a left behind [in the Tab¯k expedition] rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the u Apostle of God. many had to be sent away for lack of funds. Both were condemned by All¯h in the Qur¯n: “The Arabs of the a a desert are the worst in unbelief and hypocrisy. if only they could understand” (9:81). Thou knowest them not. He also took more secular measures. They hated to strive and ﬁght with their goods and their persons in the Cause of God: they said. For All¯h has power over all things” (Qur¯n 9:39). Though they were sent back. so they put forward many excuses for not going. their spirit was considered praiseworthy.” All¯h tells Muhammad (Qur¯n 9:42). These Arabs were not exempted from the general conscription and were forced into the march. They are obstinate in hypocrisy. For example.’ Muhammad. whether equipped lightly or heavily. Muhammad made an appeal to all and sundry in the Muslim world. which now included. a a OPPOSITION TO THE CAMPAIGN Many people were lukewarm to the appeal and unwilling to undertake such an arduous and risky journey and in such hot weather. “Go ye a forth. . but We know them. But even so. in the cause of All¯h.189 soldiers. ‘I can ﬁnd no mounts for you. and there was even a revelation about them from All¯h: “Nor is there blame on those who come to thee to be provided with a mounts. Twice shall we punish them. His appeal was All¯h’s own appeal. a a But Muhammad did not leave matters with divine threats. Ibn Hish¯m’s biography of Muhammad tells us that when a Muhammad learned that certain men opposed to the expedition were meeting at the house . and many Medinans put forward all kinds of excuses. But Him you would not harm in the least. the whole Arab world. The worst oﬀenders were the Arabs of the desert as well as the Arabs settled in neighborhood of Medina. Of such people. And again He a warned His Prophet thus: “Certain of the Arabs round about you are hypocrites . and in addition shall they be sent to grievous penalty” (9:101). “If there had been immediate gain in sight. at least nominally. In the Islamic tradition. say to them that the Fire of Hell is ﬁercer in heat. . But there was opposition in Medina itself amongst the ans¯rs under the very nose of a the Prophet.
so go back and represent me in my family and yours. But eventually he did not go. one-third of which was cavalry. the leader of the ‘doubters’ or ‘hypocrites’ of the Qur¯n. although many of its members were still disgruntled. Believe. Muhammad paciﬁed him by saying: “They lie. MALIK) of Suwaylim the Jew. the a expedition was thirty thousand strong. until I have fought against you and taken captive your little ones and slain the elders. p. ’Al¯ to stand to me as Aaron stood to Moses?” i. ’Al¯ was left behind to maintain order among Muhammad’s wives and possibly also i to keep a watch on Medina. 3 A LARGE ARMY GATHERED Eventually a large army gathered and encamped in the outskirts of Medina.¯ 190 CHAPTER 18. Al-Dahh¯k. Are you not content. sang: a My salams to you. it found there was not much to do. To Yuhanna b. because the Byzantine army. For I am the Apostle of the Lord in truth. he wrote the following: “Peace be on you! I praise God for you . or else pay tribute. According to some traditions. So to occupy his time during the ten days he stayed in Tab¯k. was nowhere in sight. 783. Ru’ba. probably for reasons of old age (he died a few months later).” The prince readily submitted and became a tributary. This eﬀectively dealt with them. I left you behind because of what I had left behind. which was easily done with such a large show of force. One of the victims. He whom ﬁre surrounds is burned. And be obedient unto the Lord and his Prophet and the messengers of His Prophet. ’Abdullah ibn Ubayy. I’ll ne’er do the like again I’m afraid. Honour them and clothe them with excellent vestments . This satisﬁed ’Al¯ i. the Christian prince of Ayala. 3 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. was also there in consida erable force. . But if you oppose and displease them. ’Al¯ i was angered and came out with his armor on. . The ans¯rs too were not very numerous. . ¯ ¯ . REPENTANCE. . . which supposedly had been assembling on the frontiers. those who assembled but stayed back were as numerous as those who actually went. I will not accept from you a single thing. Muhammad u accepted the submission of three Jewish settlements and two Christian princes. I will not ﬁght against you until I have written thus unto you. Specially clothe Zaid with excellent garments . But some people insinuated that he was being left behind because he would have been more of a liability than an asset on such an expedition. he sent Talha with some men to burn the house. According to some traditions. . SOME CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH TRIBES SUBMIT When the expedition reached its destination.
” Ka’b had no excuse for remaining behind. Of the many who had remained behind. expressed his repentance for not joining the Tab¯k expedition.” Though eminently qualiﬁed to participate. Hil¯l. he kept it as a secret. he decided to speak the truth.” Protesting his loyalty to the Prophet. Ka’b. three were ans¯rs who had been loyal followers of Muhammad: Mur¯ra. “Never did I possess means enough and my circumstances more favourable than at this occasion . I had never before this expedition simultaneously in my possession two rides. neither age nor health nor lack of means. he was determined to deal ﬁrmly with those who had failed to accompany him. a place near Min¯ in Mecca. to his dismay. According to him: “I never remained behind All¯h’s u a Messenger from any expedition which he undertook except the Battle of Tab¯k and that u of the Battle of Badr. he says the expedition was big. that the Prophet had departed. where seventy-three a men and two women of Medina took a pledge in A. D. So far as the Battle of Badr is concerned. “All¯h’s Messenger set out for this expedition in extremely hot season.” But this expedition was a diﬀerent thing. nobody was blamed for remaining behind as All¯h’s Messenger and the Muslims did not set out for attack but for a waylaying the caravan of the Quraish. the Byzantine Empire]”. and “those who had remained behind began to put forward their excuses and to take an oath before him and they were more than eighty This is a reference to the second Pledge of ’Aqabah.e. who was a poet. the a journey was long and the land [which the army had to traverse] was waterless and he had to confront a large army. Ka’b says: “I had the honour to be with All¯h’s a Messenger on the night of ’Aqaba when we pledged our allegiance 4 to Islam and it was more dear to me than my participation in Battle of Badr. so that they should adequately equip themselves for his expedition.” But later. the “holy prophet had in his mind the idea of threatening the Christians u of Arabia in Syria and those of Rome [i. “I was shocked to ﬁnd that I did not ﬁnd anyone like me but the people who were labelled as hypocrites or the people whom All¯h granted exemption because of their incapacity. “When this news reached me that All¯h’s Messenger was on his way back from Tab¯k I was greatly perturbed. the subject a a a of our discussion in this chapter. “more than ten thousand people.” he says.191 KA’B SPEAKS When Muhammad returned to Medina. so he informed the Muslims about the actual situation.. but it was All¯h Who made them confront their a enemies without their intention to do so. Ka’b went on postponing his preparations till one day he found. The next day Muhammad arrived. 4 . a Now he waited with dread for the return of Muhammad.” He also tells us that “when All¯h’s Messenger a intended to set out on an expedition. I thought a u of fabricating false stories and asked myself how I would save myself from the anger of the following day. . “Nothing could save me but the telling of truth.” he said to himself. and Ka’b. .” Ka’b tells us that in undertaking this journey to Tab¯k. 620 to shelter and protect Muhammad in Medina.
and repeatedly protested his love for the Messenger of All¯h. They could not compliment him for his “inability to put forward an excuse” as others did. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. “All¯h’s Messenger forbade the Muslims to talk with three of a us . “No. and he was my cousin. . he sent his wife . .” Ka’b says. so I burnt it. He says: “When the harsh treatment of the Muslims towards me extended to a considerable time. MALIK) persons. and I had the greatest love u a for him. We spent ﬁfty nights in this very state and my two friends conﬁned themselves within their houses and spent most of their time in weeping. Ummayya al-Q¯qif¯ “have a ia i a a i) met the same fate as has fallen to you and they have made the same statement as you have made. a While he was enduring this mental torture. “As I was a scribe I read that letter. saying that he should wait till “All¯h gives a decision in your a case. .” Their excuses as well as their allegiances were accepted. The people began to avoid us and their attitude towards us underwent a change and it seemed as if the whole atmosphere had turned hostile against us . but “he looked at me and when I cast a glance at him he turned away his eyes from me.” Ka’b repeatedly a adjured him by All¯h.) Later. “Verily. “By All¯h. KA’B’S ORDEAL Then the ordeal began. or turn in mercy” [9:106].” This comforted him somewhat. “As I read that letter I said. and the same verdict has been delivered in their case. I never possessed so good means . some of Ka’b’s friends came to him in sympathy. Muhammad asked him what had kept him back. They also told him that two other “pious” persons (Mur¯ra b.” When forty days had thus passed.” “Should I a divorce her?” Ka’b asked the message-bearer. .” (In the language of the Qur¯n: “There are others held in suspense for the command a of God. whether He would punish them. When Ka’b’s turn came. he did not respond to my greetings. All¯h’s Messenger has commanded you to remain separate from your wife. He replied. ar-Rab¯ Amir¯ and Hil¯l b.” a Muhammad dismissed him. This also is a calamity. I walked until I climbed upon the wall of the garden of Ab¯ Qut¯da. I greeted him but. by All¯h.” This communication could be very incriminating.¯ 192 CHAPTER 18. as I had when I stayed behind. a message came from Muhammad to Ka’b.” As Ka’b was young. The letter said: “It has been a conveyed to us that your friend [Muhammad] is subjecting you to cruelty and All¯h has a not created you for a place where you are to be degraded and where you cannot ﬁnd your right honour. Was it lack of a mount? But Ka’b spoke the truth. . but only remain separate from her and don’t have sexual contact with her. REPENTANCE.” Ka’b himself went to the mosque for prayer to catch the Prophet’s eye. Ka’b received a letter from the King of Ghass¯n. . but a a Qut¯da “kept quiet”.” Even his close relatives and friends avoided him.
also Tabaq at. IV. even until Antichrist appear. And they perceived that there is no ﬂeeing from God and no refuge but to Himself. Meanwhile. ¯ . “By All¯h. Life of Mahomet.193 away to her parents’ house to be on the safe side. They wanted to enjoy their new wealth in peace. But Hil¯l’s wife got the Prophet’s permission to remain with her husband. “I shall keep with me that part of my property which fell to my lot on the occasion of the expedition of Khaibar” (the booty won at Khaibar was quite large and considerably enriched Muhammad and his Companions).” Muhammad told her. 505. The Prophet advised him to keep some ¯ for his own use. M¯lik. His followers heaved a sigh of relief. Then He turned to them. he said: “There shall not cease from the midst of my people a party engaged in crusades for the truth. as he was a “a senile person”. Ka’b obediently followed the advice. p. p. there is glad a tiding for you.” What other glad tiding was left for him in the world? Ka’b understood at once. “I fell down in prostration and came to realize that there was relief for me. By All¯h. Ka’b submitted (6670-6672). when Muhammad heard this. he has no a such instinct in him. vol. The same message was sent to the other two. other friends hurried with the glad tidings. that they might repent. 201. and so did their souls become straitened within them. Muir. The self-abasement of the three men and their consequent pardon by All¯h is celebrated a in the Qur¯n thus: “All¯h turned in mercy also to the Three who were left behind. saying: “The wars of faith are now over. a KA’B PARDONED At last the dark days ended.” he says. vol. For God is easy to reconcile and Merciful” (9:118). he spends his time in weeping. and the latter received him with a smiling face.” Ka’b went to Muhammad in gratefulness. I. Prophet’s biographer. Some of them even began to sell their arms.” she replied. PERMANENT WAR The Arabian peninsula had then come under Muhammad’s sway.” According to Al-W¯qid¯ the a i. an announcer came “from the peak of the hill of Sal saying at the top of his voice: Ka’b b. They a a felt guilty to such a degree that the earth for all its spaciousness became constrained to them.” 5 5 W. “But don’t go near him. Ka’b sought his permission to give away his wealth in charity in thankfulness to Allah for the new life that had been bestowed on him. On the morning of the ﬁftieth day. “A person galloped his horse and came from the tribe of Aslam and his horse reached me more quickly than his voice.
I. she was never treated with equality by the other wives of Muhammad. 504.” there is a brief but interesting had¯ Anas is. who belonged to the Quraish blue blood. with a male Coptic slave to help her in fetching wood and water. (Where are the four witnesses?) When i ¯ arrived on the scene with sword in hand.¯ 194 CHAPTER 18. (T¯r¯ Tabar¯ vol. he found that his sexual organ had been cut. We have already mentioned the incident which caused so much commotion and scandal in the harem. But the wives of Muhammad took their revenge by spreading rumors that the two Egyptians were having illicit relations. ’Ali took hold of his hand and brought him out. This is an interesting had¯ and conceals as much as it reveals. Mary. but in order to avoid further complications. particularly ’Aisha and Hafza. MALIK) THE EXONERATION OF THE PROPHET’S SLAVE-GIRL At the end of the “Book of Repentance. ’Al¯ went to the a i: i ¯ said to him: Come out. REPENTANCE. he discovered that the slave was a eunuch. a Thereupon All¯h’s Messenger said to ’Al¯ Go and strike oﬀ his neck. he has not even the sexual organ with him” (6676). p. . Peace was eventually restored. II (THE SELF-CRITICISM OF KA’B B. and as he person and found him in a well cooling his body. Mary was kept separately in a distant lodging in the upper quarter of Medina. He came to All¯h’s Apostle and said: All¯h’s i a a Messenger. the center of great jealousy in the harem. Muhammad felt uneasy and jealous and sent ’Al¯ to punish him. ’Ali This saved the poor man’s life. reports: “A person was charged with fornication with the slave-girl of All¯h’s Messenger.) a ikh i. Hazrat ’Al¯ refrained from striking his neck. The slave-girl it menis tions is none other than Muhammad’s own Coptic concubine.
The Qur¯nic scholars coming after him put them in the hottest region of Hell. the Fire of Hell. men of incomplete faith. and some out of spite for the Meccans. Muhammad repeatedly threatens the hypocrites with blazing a hellﬁre. containing a a a in a ¯ but in some ways it is important. Doubting Muhammad’s prophetic mission was hypocrisy. Their Characteristics and Command Concerning Them” (Kit¯b Sif¯t al-Mun¯ﬁq¯ wa Ahk¯mihim). and the rejecters of Faith. Some of them murmured to each other: “See what we have done to ourselves.Chapter 19 Hypocrites (Mun¯ﬁq¯ a in) The thirty-sixth book is on the “Hypocrites. a H¯wiyah. We have laid open our lands to them and have shared 195 . a bottomless pit of scorching ﬁre. named after ¯ ¯ them. For them is the curse of All¯h and an enduring punishment. They were doubters. therein shall they dwell . skeptics. MEDINANS DOWNGRADED IN THEIR OWN CITY Many Medinans had oﬀered Muhammad and his followers refuge and protection in their city . The Qur¯n refers to the hyponly twenty-one ah¯d is. called Mun¯ﬁq in. men who began to entertain questions about the apostleship of Muhammad as they came to know him somewhat better. But in the peculiar theology of Islam. “All¯h has promised the hypocrites. others out of chivalry. men and a a women.some out of conviction. . . such doubts were morally the most heinous. and there is a whole chapter. But very soon the refugees became stronger than the citizens. that they were being reduced to a second-class status in their own hometown. with pain and alarm but also with increasing helplessness. So those Muslim converts of Medina who became doubters were regarded as hypocrites. or S ura. a a ocrites very often (twenty-ﬁve times). It is a small book.” as the Qur¯n says (9:68). Some of the citizens saw. a a The name ‘hypocrites’ does not derive from any moral category but was applied to people who no longer believed in the prophethood of Muhammad in their hearts but were afraid to admit it openly in public.
a centenarian poet u belonging to the Khazrajite clan. D. belonging to the Ban¯ Aws. The opposition could now be intimidated. and Khazraj in the name of their old heroes. For now Muhammad was strong and they were weak. They could put their ideas into verses.196 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 1973). Auf. Now that Muhammad had been in town with them for some days. Those who no longer believed in him had come to fear him. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) with them all that we possessed. 2 Muhammad was much perturbed. “You obey a a stranger who does not belong among you. p. If we had kept our own for ourselves. Some of the members of the opposition were gifted. But the result was the same: paralysis of will and action. 1 . INTELLECTUAL OPPOSITION The opposition to Muhammad did not emanate only from mun¯ﬁq¯ the disillusioned a in. the Medinans were also able to arrive at a better estimate of him. 624 brought him the opportunity. Do you expect good from him after the killing of your chiefs Like a hungry man waiting for a cook’s broth? Is there no man of pride who would attack him by surprise And cut oﬀ the hopes of those who expect aught of him? (Ibn Ish¯q. for though they did not believe in Muhammad. ¯ ¯ 2 Maxime Rodinson. they a would have gone somewhere else.” The Medinans gave Muhammad and his followers an inch. and much of it could also be bought.” she sang. His success against the Quraish gave him a new power in Medina. 157-158. But the realization came too late. and lay in wait for an opportunity to deal with them eﬀectively. 1 Ab¯ ’Afak. The equation with respect to both local supporters and local adversaries changed appreciably to his advantage. then by All¯h. appealed to the a a i Medinan tribes of M¯lik. It was the proverbial story of the camel and the old woman in a hut. related to Aws Man¯t. “Yet there is a rider come among them who divided them. Some of them thought that he was no better than a religious humbug. He seized the opportunity and struck fast. The poets of that time were like the journalists of our age. said in a poem that the diﬀerent a tribes of Medina were good neighbors and loyal allies. pp. It also came from those who had never given up their ancestral faith or surrendered their judgment and had not been swept oﬀ their feet by the new religious fad. Muhammad detested them. many of them believed in war spoils. His victory at Badr in January A. A woman poet named ’Asm¯ hint Marw¯n. Muhammad (Pelican Books. and soon they seized a whole yard.” Some of these verses are quoted by Ibn Hish¯m and W¯qid¯ and a a i reproduced by Maxime Rodinson. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. First he dealt with the poets whom he feared the most. 676). converts.
a new equation. “Have you slain the daughter of Marw¯n?” Muhammad inquired eagerly when Omayr returned from his mission. 676. . p. The assassin openly boasted of his act even before the ﬁve sons of ’Asm¯. 3 The same fate overtook Ab¯ ’Afak the very next month. . They were too cowed. Muhammad commended him to his Companions. “Who will rid me of this u scoundrel?” Muhammad uttered aloud. oﬀered to assassinate her. Fear is more potent than a sentimental humanist psychology would like to believe. including the two assassins named above. S¯lim ibn ’Umayr of Ban¯ Amr. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ish¯q. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. “The 3 4 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Fear speaks louder and strikes home quicker than many other modes of communication. Muhammad treated it in his usual way . And again there was a ready assassin at hand. There was something new in the atmosphere. such willful murders demanded tribal vengeance. p. but nothing a happened.” he told the departing assassins. Omayr ibn ’Ad¯ a i. 368. W. a blind man and a fanatic convert from her own clan. 4 A NEW FEAR DESCENDS According to ancient Arab custom. “Lord. Hardly had six months elapsed when the blow fell on another inﬂuential half-Jewish poet. One of the conspirators had received a wound by accident. look ye here. 132. a new apprehension. stabbed the man one night while he was sleeping. Muhammad met them at the very gate of the mosque in welcome. Muir. When he a replied in the aﬃrmative. p. Life of Mahomet. which he did while she was asleep with her child in her arms. This turned out to be only too true. and when they returned after fulﬁlling their task. III. The assassin had a powerful patron. Muhammad made a special petition to All¯h for his elimination. But this was not to be thought of under the new circumstances. Also.he spat on it and it was healed.” he prayed. “If you desire to see a man that has assisted the Lord and His Prophet. vol. This they did by these perﬁdious acts. ¯ ¯ . the a assassin had asked Muhammad if he would have to bear any penalty.” Muhammad had assured him. had not fought at Badr. After ’Asm¯’s assassination. deliver me from the son of Ashraf a . because of his open sedition and verses. “Not two goats shall come to blow for her.” he told them.197 ASSASSINATION OF POETS “Who will rid me of this pestilential woman?” he said about ’Asm¯. the people with whom Ab¯ ’Afak had cast his lot and a i u lived. We have already mentioned his case. So they still had to prove their loyalty in action to the Prophet and to the new creed. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf. Most of the local converts. “Go with the blessings of All¯h a and assistance from high.
the doubters among the local converts.198 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. 676. p. 622. . he began to come out more and more openly against the lukewarm. u mutual help in private but withdrew when the time for this came. All¯h began to demand from them a a more unquestioning submission to the authority of His Apostle and issued more frequent warnings against them. a Muslim convert. u leaped upon and killed Ibn Sunayna. D. . a 5 6 ibid. . and within two years he was already having his adversaries eliminated with impunity. As his power increased. Huwayyisa. 369. The Apostle said: “Kill any Jew that falls into your power. did you kill him when much of the fat on your belly comes from his wealth?” Muhayyisa answered: “Had the one who ordered me to kill him ordered me to kill you. 6 THE DEMAND FOR MORE COMPLETE SUBMISSION Muhammad took care to give the local converts no unnecessary oﬀense in the beginning. They are as worthless and hollow as pieces of timber propped up. They have made their oaths a screen . a common ideology and passion. Muhammad entered Medina in April A. so beware of them” (Qur¯n 63:1-4). but the opposition was badly divided. it had no ideology but only certain grievances. 5 a The same author gives us another story to the same eﬀect. they say. But this period of caution did not last long. A seal is set on their hearts .” Thereupon Muhayyisa b. The killer’s brother. a religion which can bring you to this is marvellous!” and he became a Muslim. I would have cut your head oﬀ. a THE OPPOSITION DIVIDED AND DEMORALIZED Muhammad’s party had a common command. Ibn Ish¯q. He exclaimed. it said one thing and did another. .” says Ibn Ish¯q. . now the Ban¯ Naz¯ now the Ban¯ Quraizah. Mas’¯d.” This was the beginning of Huwayyisa’s acceptance of Islam. “By God. .. p. chided him: “You enemy of God. . HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) day after Bint Marw¯n was killed. The demoralization was complete. a Jewish merchant. . ‘we bear witness that thou art indeed the Apostle’ . Furtive in action. The Qur¯n speaks contemptuously of the Medinans. They had promised each other a u ir. “When the Hypocrites come to thee. a common goal. but they are indeed liars . ¯ ¯ . the men of Ban¯ Khatma [her husband’s tribe] became a i Muslims because they saw the power of Islam. now the Ban¯ u Qaynuq¯. All¯h told Muhammad that the ‘doubters’ scoﬀed at him in pria vate while they paid him homage in public and that they were worthless fellows. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. common interests. They are enemies. Muhammad picked diﬀerent groups of the opposition and struck at them one by one.
He was a Medinan chief of the Khazrajite clan of Awf who became an early convert to Islam. . When they surrendered. If they be driven forth. This was in February A. Four hundred men without mail and three hundred mailed protected me from all mine enemies. leaving their goods behind to the victor. (See pp. Muhammad yielded on condition that the tribe depart within three days. 624. D. a As early as the second year of the Hijra. but the traditions have preserved the name of Ibn Ubayy as the epitome of them all. D. and their bodies were thrown into trenches dug in the marketplace of Medina. Muhammad was advised by his best friends to treat Ibn Ubayy with circumspection. and loyalty are qualities. ¯ ¯ . p. he was not an unworthy man. but if patriotism. Thou dost reckon them as one body. and if you be fought against we will help you . I will not let you go until you deal kindly with my clients [allies]. But after the arrival of Muhammad. . by God.” But ’Abdullah insisted and said: “No. He saved the Jewish tribe of Medina known as Qaynuq¯ from execution. We have already mentioned the story somewhat more fully. a new force entered the scene. in March-April A. when the same fate overtook another Jewish tribe of Medina known as Quraizah. It is because they are a people devoid of intelligence” (Qur¯n 59:11-15). the apostle was so angry that his face became almost black. 363. the Medinan opposition had already lost its inﬂuence and Muhammad had a ﬁeld day. I am a man who fears that circumstances may change.” Muhammad also makes a keen observation about the opposition while fortifying his followers by telling them: “Ye indeed are a keener source of fear in their hearts than God . He “thrust his hand into the collar of the apostle’s robe. . his supporters were trying to make him the king of Medina. independence of judgment. But Ibn Ubayy intervened forcefully. Three years later. . and his importance declined fast. 627. But God bears witness that they are liars. and if they be fought against. a ’ABDULLAH IBN UBAYY There must have been many people opposed to Muhammad’s growing power. would you cut them down in one morning? By God. . He was once the leading citizen of Medina. . It is said that just before Muhammad came.” 7 Ibn Ubayy was still inﬂuential in the aﬀairs of Medina. But even then. Muslim traditions have blackened Ibn Ubayy’s name. and his appeal was also a threat. these will not help them. 92. Eight or nine hundred men were led out in groups of ﬁve or six with their hands tied behind their backs and were beheaded. Muhammad besieged this tribe. their hands were tied behind their backs and they were taken out for execution. but their hearts are separated.) 7 Ibn Ish¯q. because of his inﬂuence. these will not go forth with them. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah.199 who were promising their Jewish allies that “if ye be driven forth we will go forth with you . and if to save is better than to kill.
Huzair. at a more opportune moment. a fanatic Muslim. With all the proposals and consultations. and a a the quarrel soon spread to others. he consulted Usaid b. an Arau bian tribe inhabiting a region about eight days’ march from Medina. 8 Ibn Ish¯q. S¯ a irat Ras ul All ah. with his usual weakness.200 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19. All¯h conﬁrmed it openly a in a Qur¯nic verse (63:7-8). On this occasion. when confronted with this statement. a THE ASSASSINATION OF ’ABDULLAH PROPOSED ’Umar counseled Muhammad to have Ibn Ubayy killed. Ibn Ubayy. He went to Muhammad and oﬀered to kill his father with his own hands. Hoping to play on the rivalry between the two Medina tribes. he gave it serious thought. Jihj¯ struck Sin¯n. p. Muhammad was returning after looting the Ban¯ Mustaliq. but it rankled in his mind. Muhammad did not want to pick a quarrel at the time. an Awsite chief and a staunch Muslim. You have let them occupy your country. two thousand camels. denied it. the idea of ’Abdullah’s assassination was so much in the air that his own son. who was a chief of the Khazrajites. “Command ’Abb¯d ibn Bishr a to kill him. Tempers were frayed on both sides. Ibn Ubayy referred to the insolence of the refugees: “This is what you have done to yourselves. also heard about it. ¯ ¯ . I think that between us and ‘these vagabonds of a Quraish’ it is like saying ‘Feed a dog and it will devour you. he was spared. The booty included two hundred families. a a who was a servant of ’Umar. On the way back. dissension had u broken out between the citizens and the refugees in which it was proved that the citizens were already the losing party. and later. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) DISSENSION BETWEEN THE CITIZENS AND THE REFUGEES Only some months after the tragedy of the Ban¯ Quraizah was enacted.” But though he refrained from executing the idea immediately. and you have divided your property among them . a quarrel broke out between a citizen named Sin¯n and a refugee named Jihj¯. .” 8 Later. and his assassination would have unnecessarily jeopardized Muhammad’s own position. He had an image to protect. Since ’Abdullah was an inﬂuential citizen. They are trying to outdo us seeking to outnumber us in our own land! By All¯h. the stronger will drive out the weaker. 491. and ﬁve thousand sheep and goats. . But wiser counsels prevailed. Muslim traditions and histories tell this story with great pride. about ’Abdullah. so he accepted the denial. But Muhammad was cautious.’ But when we return to the Medina city.” he advised. He did not want people “to say that Muhammad kills his own followers. Aws and Khazraj. But even he advised Muhammad to deal with ’Abdullah gently and cautiously.
Muhammad replied exultantly: “If I had killed him on the day you advised me to. and he died two or three months after Tab¯k. 492. Some of the persons who were with them came back.” Zaid reported the matter to Muhammad. but a revelation later descended on him (63:1) attesting that Zaid had told the truth and establishing ’Abdullah as a liar (6677). and he was isolated from his people and allies. which took place in the third year of the Hijra (January-February A. with this background. The ¯ 9 S¯ irat Ras ul All ah. Whatever u opposition was still left in Medina evaporated with him. they heard ’Abdullah b. at his a is son’s request. according to Ibn Ish¯q. 9 The story a is repeated by Tabar¯ too. S¯bit reports: “Alla ah’s Apostle set out for Uhud. Arqam reports that while returning from a journey in which they “faced many hardships” (after sacking Ban¯ Mustaliq). the Prophet. i The last we hear of Ibn Ubayy is in connection with Tab¯k. other Medinan chiefs would have been furious. Muhammad at ﬁrst accepted this denial at its face value. ih ’ABDULLAH INCITES THE MEDINANS Zaid b. placed him on his knee and put his saliva in his mouth. Ubayy tell his friends: i “Do not give what you have in your possession to those who are with All¯h’s Messenger until a they desert him. on oath. who narrates the whole story.” ’Umar submitted. when ’Abdullah’s position became weak through his own vacillation and temporizing. let us turn once more to the Sah¯ Muslim. denied having said any such thing. “gave him his shirt which he would use as a coﬃn for his father.” Muhammad also came to his grave and “brought him out from that.D.” “I know the Apostle’s order is more blessed than mine. Now.” They also heard him say that on their return to Medina. ¯ ¯ .” He also prayed for him even against the protest of ’Umar. By this time. But now they themselves would do it if I commanded them. INTIMIDATION Intimidation of the opposition began as early as the Battle of Uhud. Zaid b. who questioned ’Abdullah.201 Later on. the “honourable would drive out the meaner therefrom. PRAYER FOR DEAD UNBELIEVERS FORBIDDEN The next two ah¯d¯ (6679-6680) tell us that when ’Abdullah died. The latter. he had u already become a back number. p. ’Umar confessed the wisdom of Muhammad’s decision. 625).
this hill. when Muhammad was returning from Tab¯k. who refused to take the “pledge of the Tree. but the earth again threw him out. and he remained busy in ﬁnding out his lost thing” (6691). This tradition is given here in a rather garbled form. . who was forbidden to divulge the information. J¯bir reports: “All¯h’s a a a . . this should not be done” (6684). his sins would be obliterated. the owner of a red camel.202 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19.” All were pardoned except one man. Then All¯h spoke: a “Why should ye be divided into two parties about the hypocrites?” So the ranks of the loyal were closed. At last they left him unburied” (6693). . so far as I am concerned the ﬁnding a of something lost is dearer to me than seeking of forgiveness for me by your companion [the Holy Prophet]. but the message was successfully conveyed to the future laggards. A Muslim who transcribed for Muhammad “ran a away as a rebel and joined the People of the Book. The Sah¯ Muslim does not give us this man’s name. There is also a had¯ which shows that those who were unacceptable to Muhammad is were unacceptable to All¯h even in death. Thus intimidation had started quite early. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) Companions of All¯h’s Apostle were divided in two groups. and the other one said: No. all veiled and only half-glimpsed. but apparently he was a stout and ih wise soul.” When he died “they dug the grave and buried him therein.” and was called a ‘hypocrite’ by the believers. the hill of Mur¯r. Muhammad knew their identity but told no one except Huzaifa. and it was one of the methods of securing compliance and participation in Muhammad’s ‘holy’ wars. and “there was a ceaseless ﬂow of persons. but the earth again threw him out . People went to him and advised him that he too should go and obtain pardon. One group said: We would a kill them. Was he a Zen philosopher who lived one day at a time? Suﬃcient unto the day is the work of the day. they were twelve men. Qays. The Prophet cursed them all (6690). All¯h both saves and kills for the pleasure of His Prophet. certain of u his opponents in ’Aqaba formed a group with the intention of killing him by throwing him over a cliﬀ. They again dug the grave . AN ATTEMPT ON THE PROPHET’S LIFE According to certain traditions. The hereafter will take care of itself.” Many took advantage of this a divine amnesty. . . Other traditions identify him as Harr b. But the man replied: “By All¯h. but they found to their surprise that the earth had thrown him out over the surface. According to Huzaifa. They again dug . Either you ﬁght for us or we ﬁght you. AN OUTSTANDING ARAB J¯bir gives us an interesting had¯ One day Muhammad declared: “He who climbed a is. .
u The man whose death the storm caused or proclaimed was Ruﬀaa. who had already chosen his pastures. and all such details of little larger spiritual signiﬁcance. . and as he reached Medina a notorious hypocrite from amongst the hypocrites had died” (6684). incidents in the life of the Prophet. but that the trances of a passionate. it does not elucidate but merely lays down and prescribes. She goes to one at one time and to the other at another time” (6696). It does not deal with the ‘heavenly order’ of the Gnostic traditions (the rta of the Vedas or the Ma¯t of ancient Egypt).behind them often a . Muhammad was returning to Medina after his attack on the Ban¯ Mustaliq. sensuous copy of the here. It tells us about the time.e. reports Muhammad as saying: “The similitude of a hypocrite is that of a sheep which roams aimlessly between two ﬂocks. angry. for it is very diﬀerent from them in a temper and subject matter. stands a lunatic or a malevolent criminal. a chief of the Ban¯ i Qainuq¯. The Qur¯n deals with ‘accidents’. a Jewish tribe of Medina that was one of the ﬁrst tribes to suﬀer at the hands a of Muhammad. Ibn ’Umar. but with the a . DESCRIPTION OF A HYPOCRITE The last two ah¯d¯ of this book describe those who have neither the support of a a is fanatic faith nor the light of a higher philosophy and who are subject to the doubts and temptations of ordinary men. The Yogas tell us that trance is possible at every level of the mind. merely an exaggerated.203 Messenger came back from a journey and as he was near Medina. Qur¯nic verses often relate to external events. the circumstances of their revelation. The “Book of Commentary” gives equally external information about some of these verses. india a vidual men. The Qur¯n cannot be read like other scriptures. All¯h’s Messenger said: This wind has a perhaps been made to blow for the death of a hypocrite. and moha) are not to be trusted . Ruﬀaa had been the ﬁrst to receive ’Umar and oﬀer him hospitality when the latter came to Medina. it threatens and promises. there was such a violent gale that the mountain seemed to be pressed. and deluded mind (i. the place. dvesa.. of a mind characterized by k¯ma. According to other traditions. “THE BOOK OF COMMENTARY” The forty-ﬁrst and last book of the Sah¯ Muslim is called the “Book of Commentary” ih (Kit¯b al-Tafs¯ a ir). hereafter. It is feverish in tone. The Qur¯nic verses are reputed to have come from a mind in trance. but that in itself a gives them no true spiritual validity.
¯ the very last. that S ura Tauba (“Repentance”). then in her forties. that S ura al-Hashr (“The Gathering”. had¯ 899). II. a completed favour upon you. the majority of men and women in the world. on the Day of Resurrection. was revealed id ¯ a ¯ on the occasion of the Battle of Badr. I yield my turn to ’Aisha. “was revealed in connection with the tribe of Ban¯ Naz¯ and ¯ u ir.” Muhammad agreed. ¯ condemnation. The same with another Qur¯nic verse: “And if a woman fears ill-treatment from her a husband or desertion. and adds nothing essential to its subject. the eighth S ura. Resurrection Day was far oﬀ. It was in this context that this verse was revealed” (7165). . It is entirely ﬁtting that a S ura of such bitterness. The information throws no particular light on this revelation.according to Sir William Muir. Jubair reports that S ura Anf¯l (“Spoils of War”). It contains only ﬁfty traditions.” a a ’Umar reports (7154). it is no sin for them twain if they make terms of peace between themselves” (4:128). But I want to be there. the ﬁfty-ninth S ura. and intention should be the last inspiration of a life that breathed such pathologic theological hatred toward the nonbelievers who constituted then. ¯ THE LAST S URA Sa’¯ b. “was meant ¯ ¯ a to humiliate the non-believers and the hypocrites” (7185). is a a i a that Muhammad wanted to divorce his wife. In the Qur¯n this appears as a the ninth S ura. and do even now. K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ also tells us in his Tabaq¯t a i. but she went to him and said: “I am not asking you to sleep with me. For example. retain me [as wife in your house] and you are permitted to live with another wife. Who were the characters mentioned by ’Aisha? They were the Prophet himself and his wife Saud¯ (Tirmiz¯ vol. among your wives. which makes such a tall claim. and have chosen for you al-Isl¯m as your religion” (5:4). or “Banish¯ ment”). ’Aisha tells us that “it was revealed in case of a woman who had long association with a person [as his wife] and now he intends to divorce her and she says: Do not divorce me. also known as S ura Bar¯at (“Immunity”). It a “was revealed on the night of Friday and we were in ’Araf¯t with All¯h’s Messenger. but chronologically it is one of the last . in the ﬁrst ﬁve ah¯d¯ of the book we are told when and where was a is revealed the following Qur¯nic verse: “This day I have perfected your religion for you. but in its present form it is sketchy and discusses an important subject in a superﬁcial manner. This is understandable. HYPOCRITES (MUN AFIQ IN) This book would have been very important if it were comprehensive and gave essential information.204 ¯ ¯ CHAPTER 19.
Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. Sah¯ Bukh¯ri Shar¯ Churiwalan. 1973.. Urdu translation in 2 vols. Cairo: Daral-Kitab al Masri. Qur¯n Majeed.edu/dept/MSA/reference/searchhadith. 1980. Muhammad Ashraf. and Toronto: Oxford a University Press. Delhi: Kitab Khana. Lahore: Sh. English translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi in four volumes.html] Sah¯ Muslim. ¯ QURAN The Kor¯n. Lal Kuan. Delhi: Rabbani Book Depot. New York. Tirmiz¯ Shar¯ Urdu translation in 2 vols. Rampur: Maktab Al-Hasnat. London.usc. i if. ih a if. popular and much in use. Abridged Urdu ih a i. translation. English translation with the original Arabic text by ’Abdullah Yusuf a ’Ali. English a translation by Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall.Chapter 20 Bibliography ¯ HADIS [The following website of the University of Southern California has extensive collections: http://www. Seven-hundred-year-old collection of Had¯ very a ih is. Ishaitu’l Isl¯m. Hindi and English translations with original text in Arabic. a Mishk¯tu’l-Masb¯ [Niche of Lamps]. Muhammad Ashraf. Glorious Qur¯n. H. Sah¯ Bukh¯r¯ Only partial translations in English available in India. Lahore: ih Sh. James Robson. 205 . Palmer. Translation by E. Reprint of English translation by Dr. 1973-1975.
1885. The very ﬁrst deﬁnitive biography and the source of ¯ a a subsequent ones. Ali Raza. New York. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHIES OF MUHAMMAD S¯ irat Ras ul All¯h by Ibn Ish¯q. The next most important source on the life of the Prophet and the a Companions. ¯ died in A. London: Smith. 1976. and the history of a the Khal¯ ifas up to his own time. Ghaﬀari. Mohammad by Maxime Rodinson. Khavendshah b. Tehran: World Organization for Isl¯mic Services. Elder & Co. Ibn Sa’d. Scholarly and pioneering study. H. 1861. T¯r¯ Tabar¯ or Annals. S¯ iras: The Biography of the Prophet. At-Tabari irat al-Nab¯ is an i authoritative source of Muhammad’s subsequent biographies. trans. Mahmud. S¯ a ikh i. by Tabar¯ The ﬁrst volume. Karachi: Nafees Academy. English translation. and his S¯ of Muhammad. popularly known as Mirkhond. Urdu translation in 11 vols. 922). Oxford. Edinburgh and New York: T. D. Urdu translation in 8 vols. 1973. GENERAL REFERENCE Dictionary of Isl¯m by Thomas Patrick Hughes. reprinted. by Syed a i. English translation under the title The Garden of Purity. edited by James Hastings. Clark. Selections from sermons. Tehatsek. Tabaq¯t Ibn Sa’d. & T. 4 vols.. 1893. E. London: Royal Asiatic Society. Tehran: Shahpur Square. vols. The Rauzat-us-Safa by Muhammad b. Encyclopaedia of Religions and Ethics. The Life of Muhammad. and Delhi: Oxford University Press. The Life of Mahomet by Sir William Muir. popularly known as K¯tib al-W¯qid¯ composed ﬁfteen volumes on a a i. 3rd ed. 1976. New Delhi: Oriental a Books Reprint Corporation. Now being reprinted by Idarahi Adbiyati Delhi. SHIAISM Nahj al-Bal¯ghah. India. and sayings of ’Al¯ trans. A ﬁfteenth-century Persian biography which takes into account many preceding traditions.206 CHAPTER 20. Scholarly. a Shiaism by S. 1980. translated and edited by A. Guillaume. . letters.. diﬀerent classes (tabaq¯t) of Muhammad’s Companions and Successors. irat al-Nab¯ is a biography i. Karachi: Nafees Academy. Pelican Books. i. Delhi-6. 1 and 2. 310 (A.
2005. S. New Delhi: Impex India. reprinted. Among other things. The volumes are a badly printed and lack modern critical aids. All¯habad: R. The Word as Revelation: Names of Gods by Ram Swarup. Ratlam (M. New Delhi. 1897. 1980. Publishing House. Rupa & Co. Books available at Arya Samaj Dayanand Marg. a [The World of Fatwas or the Shariah in Action by Arun Shourie.. 1st ed. Hindi publication in 3 vols. discusses monotheism vis-`-vis polytheism.P.)-India. The author was a a great scholar of the Arabic language and Isl¯mic religious literature. a Qur¯n Parichaya by Deva Prakash.] .207 GENERAL The Mohammedan Controversy and Other Indian Articles by Sir William Muir. 3rd impression.