Antenna and Microwave Engineering

half wave resonator . 13) To measure the radiation pattern of wireless link using horn antenna and parabolic reflector. b) To study the radiation pattern of end-fire antenna array with the spacing between the two elements is λ/2 and length of the dipoles is λ.Experiment list 1) To set up the Antenna trainer with motorized control. b) To study Ring resonator. c) Comparison of 5-element Yagi-Uda antenna with 3-element Yagi-Uda antenna for active element is folded dipole. 9) To measure the calibration of the given attenuator. b) Comparison of 5-element Yagi-Uda antenna with 7-element Yagi-Uda antenna for active element is half wave dipole. 15) a) To study microwave antennas like log periodic dipole antenna. 10) To measure the polar diagram of a wave-guide horn. 2) a) To study the radiation pattern of λ/2 dipole. 7) Obtain the field pattern of helical antenna. b) To study the radiation pattern of 3λ/2 dipole. 3) To study the radiation pattern of folded dipole. 5) a) To study the radiation pattern of 7-element Yagi-Uda antenna for active element Is half wave dipole. 8) To Study the Microwave Test bench and Various Microwave Components. patch antenna inset fed and patch antenna transformer fed. 11) To Determine the Standing Wave Ratio and Reflection Coefficient. 6) To study the radiation pattern of log periodic dipole array. 12) To determine the frequency of reflex Klystron. 4) a) To study the radiation pattern of end-fire antenna array with the spacing between the two elements is λ/2. log spiral antenna. 14) To study about the microstrip Trainer.

Equipments: • Antenna Trainer ST2261. . Connect the output of the tone generator to the input of the RF modulator in the Antenna Trainer ST2261 with the help of patch cord as shown in the figure. 7. 3. Install the given software in your PC. Connect the RS232 cable with your PC and the other end to the Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A as shown in the figure. Switch on both the unit.e.EXPERMENT:-1 Objectives: • To set up the Antenna trainer with motorized control. Patch cord. with the BNC cable as shown in the figure. Connect the output of the detector to the Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. CRO probes. 5. with 5 pin DIN cable as shown in the figure. 6. Procedure: 1. Connect the supply cable of both the unit and adaptor of the detector unit. Connect the RF output of the Antenna Trainer ST2261 to the Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. • Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. ST2261A and detector units. 5pin DIN cable) Figure: Set-up for the ST2261. 4. • Accessories (i. 2.

• To measure its directive gain.e. centre-fed antenna of length L. Figure: Half Wave Dipole Theory: It is assumed that the antennas are symmetrically fed at the centre by a balanced two wire transmission line. Thus the sinusoidal current distribution approximates the natural distribution on these antennas. • To conclude its application(s). • To measure its front to back ratio. • To measure its half power beamwidth. The retarded value of the current at any point z on the antenna referred to a point at a distance s is [ I ] = Io sin[2π/ λ (L/2±z) ] ejw[t-(r/c)] . linear. The antennas may be of any length. i. • Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. Current distribution measurements indicate that this is a good assumption provided that the antenna is thin. but it is assumed that the current distribution is sinusoidal. when the conductor diameter is less than say λ/100. Equipment: • Antenna Trainer ST2261. Referring to figure let us now proceed to develop the far field equations for a symmetrical. thin.EXPERIMENT:-2 PART-A Objectives: • To study the radiation pattern of λ/2 dipole. • λ/2 dipole.

9. 4. 3. Arrange the Set up as given in Experiment: 1. Bring the detector assembly near to main unit and adjust height of both transmitting and receiving antenna same. 12. PART-B Objectives: • To study the radiation pattern of 3λ/2 dipole. 6. • To measure its front to back ratio. pipes. Adjust RF level and detector level so that the display in detector meter is approximately 30-35 μA. . • To measure its half power beamwidth. 8. 5. Mount λ/2 dipole on the transmitting mast. Click Plot button in the software and save the pattern with appropriate name. Ensure that there is no reflector sort thing in the vicinity of the experiment such as steel structures. What is the effect on the radiation pattern if the length of the dipole is changed? 2. Click Configure and Reset button in the software. Draw the current and the voltage distribution for the half wave dipole. Increase RF level gradually and see that there is display in the detector meter. Keep the RF level and FS Adjust to minimum and directional coupler switch to FWD. 10. 3. cables etc. Run necessary Software. Measure the various parameters of the pattern with the help of software. 11. HΦ = j[Io]/2 πr [{cos[(βL cosθ)/2]-cos(βL/2)}/sinθ] Eθ = j60[Io]/r [{cos[(βL cosθ)/2]-cos(βL/2)}/sinθ] Procedure: 1. • To measure its directive gain. Conclusion: Draw your own conclusion(s) based on the objectives. Keep detector level control in the centre approximately. and align both of them. Assignment: 1. 2.Far fields of center-fed dipole. 13. • To conclude its application(s). Keep detector assembly away from main unit approximately 1.5 in. Align arrow mark on the disk with zero of the goniometer scale. Draw the current and voltage distribution for the end fed dipole antenna. 7.

• Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. and align both of them. Run necessary Software. cables etc. 4. Arrange the Set up as given in Experiment: 1. Keep the RF level and FS Adjust to minimum and directional coupler switch to FWD. Thus the sinusoidal current distribution approximates the natural distribution on these antennas. linear. Keep detector assembly away from main unit approximately 1. Ensure that there is no reflector sort thing in the vicinity of the experiment such as steel structures. thin. The retarded value of the current at any point z on the antenna referred to a point at a distance s is [ I ] = Io sin[2π/ λ (L/2±z) ] ejw[t-(r/c)] Far fields of centre-fed dipole. The antennas may be of any length. Bring the detector assembly near to main unit and adjust height of both transmitting and receiving antenna same.5 in. pipes. 6. Theory: It is assumed that the antennas are symmetrically fed at the centre by a balanced two wire transmission line. Current distribution measurements indicate that this is a good assumption provided that the antenna is thin. 5. Figure: Radiation pattern and current distribution of 3λ/2 dipole.Equipment: • Antenna Trainer ST2261. but it is assumed that the current distribution is sinusoidal. 3. • 3λ/2 dipole.e. when the conductor diameter is less than say λ/100. centre-fed antenna of length L. i. . Mount 3λ/2 dipole on the transmitting mast. HΦ = j[Io]/2 πr [{cos[(βL cosθ)/2]-cos(βL/2)}/sinθ] Eθ = j60[Io]/r [{cos[(βL cosθ)/2]-cos(βL/2)}/sinθ] Procedure: 1. 2. Referring to figure given in the Experiment: 2 let us now proceed to develop the far field equations for a symmetrical.

Measure the various parameters of the pattern with the help of software. 12.7. Draw the current and voltage distribution on the 3λ/2 dipole antenna. Click Plot button in the software and save the pattern with appropriate name. 9. Click Configure and Reset button in the software. Draw the radiation pattern of 5λ/2 dipole antenna. Conclusion: Draw your own conclusion(s) based on the objectives. 13. 8. Increase RF level gradually and see that there is display in the detector meter. Keep detector level control in the centre approximately. 3. Assignment: 1. Adjust RF level and detector level so that the display in detector meter is approximately 30-35 μA. Align arrow mark on the disk with zero of the goniometer scale. 10. What is the effect on the major lobe of radiation pattern if the length of dipole is increased? . 11. 2.

a high resistance.EXPERIMENT:-3 Objectives: • To study the radiation pattern of folded dipole. while the reactance of the LC circuit becomes inductive. not affecting the total impedance seen by the transmission line. • Folded dipole. Below this resonant frequency the antenna reactance becomes capacitive. • To measure its directive gain. This compensation is both improved and widened when the Q of the resonant circuit is lowered. Moreover. and the tuned circuit capacitive. • Motorised Antenna Unit ST2261A. The LC circuit is parallel-resonant at the half wave dipole resonant frequency. • To measure its front to back ratio. • To conclude its application(s). therefore. Over a small frequency range near resonance. the antenna becoming inductive. Above the resonant frequency the opposite is true. it can be achieved just as easily with a short-circuited quarter wave . • To measure its half power beamwidth. Figure: Current distribution over the folded dipole Theory: A simple compensating network for increasing the bandwidth of a dipole antenna is shown in figure. Equipment: • Antenna Trainer ST2261. At this frequency its impedance is. there is thus a tendency to compensate for the variations in the antenna reactance. and the total impedance remains resistive in situations in which the impedance of the antenna alone would have been heavily reactive.

13. 7. The folded dipole is a single antenna. in two elements folded dipole with equal diameter arms input impedance is 4x72 = 288 Ohms. Mount folded dipole on the transmitting mast. 5. The folded dipole provides the same type of compensation as the transmission line version of this network. What are the advantages of the folded dipole over the simple dipole? 2. It has many another advantages like greater bandwidth and impedance matching. 4. Increase RF level gradually and see that there is display in the detector meter. and align both of them. What will be the impedance of the folded dipole with the tree elements? . The first is fed directly while the second is coupled inductively at the ends. Adjust RF level and detector level so that the display in detector meter is approximately 30-35 μA.transmission line. pipes. Measure the various parameters of the pattern with the help of software. Assignment: 1. Align arrow mark on the disk with zero of the goniometer scale. 3. 6. Conclusion: Draw your own conclusion(s) based on the objectives. 2. Click Plot button in the software and save the pattern with appropriate name. Run necessary Software. Keep detector level control in the centre approximately. Arrange the Set up as given in Experiment: 1. Ensure that there is no reflector sort thing in the vicinity of the experiment such as steel structures. Keep detector assembly away from main unit approximately 1. 10. Click Configure and Reset button in the software. Bring the detector assembly near to main unit and adjust height of both transmitting and receiving antenna same. but its input impedance is greater. The radiation pattern of the folded dipole is the same as that of a straight dipole. Keep the RF level and FS Adjust to minimum and directional coupler switch to FWD. 11. 9.5 in. 8. cables etc. 12. but it consists of two elements. Procedure: 1.