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Science Form1 Chapter 1

Science Form1 Chapter 1


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Published by: Che Norasiykin on Dec 30, 2010
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CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Science

Chapter 1: Introduction to Science Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 What is Science? 1.1 What is Science?
1) Science is the systematic study of natural Phenomena and how it effects us and the environment. 2) Science is studied through observation and scientific investigation. 3) Natural Phenomena that happen in the environment can be explained through science. Examples: a) the melting of ice b) the birth of a baby c) lightning d) Earthquake (gempa bumi)

4) Science has the following uses and benefits: a) it helps us to understand things around us. b) it make our lives easier, healthier and comfortable. c) it helps us to improve the environment. d) it trains us to think logically and creatively.

5) Science covers a very wide area of study:
a) BIOLOGYb) PHYSICSThe study of living things. The study of interaction of motion and forces.

c) CHEMISTRY- The study of chemical properties, their reactions and uses. d) GEOLOGY- The study of rocks and minerals. e) ASTRONOMY- The study of the stars and planets. f) METEOROLOGY - The study of weather and climates.

Chemist. Architect. Pharmacist. Computer programmer. Veterinarian.6) Careers in Science including: Doctor. astronomer. Biologist.1 page 4) –exercise book . scientist. pilot. (Exercise 1. dentist forensic. Engineer. chemist and etc…….

1) A natural phenomenon is an occurrence that involves only non living things 2) Science is an arrangement of knowledge about the environment 3) Knowledge of science can only be obtained through experiments 4) Computer programming is a career in science .Mark (/) for true statements or (x) for false statement.

8 and 9). .2 Science Laboratory *Laboratory Safety Rules and Precautions (See text book pg 5). *Common laboratory apparatus (see text book pg 7.1.

• Outline drawing for laboratory apparatus (Pg 10) Retort stand and clamp Gas jar Test tube Round-bottom flask Beaker Conical flask .

Hazard symbols 1) Hazard symbols are recognizable symbols designed to warn about hazardous materials or locations Corrosive (mengakis) .

Highly flammable (mudah terbakar) Explosive (mudah meletup) .

Toxic/Poisonous (Toksik/beracun) Harmful/Irritant (Berbahaya/merengsa) .

Radioactive (Radioaktif) See also textbook page 11 Exercise 1.2 (page 12) .

1.3 Steps in Scientific Investigation Identify the Problem Propose a Hypothesis Making Conclusion Plan the Experiment Analyse and interpret the data Write a Report Collect Data Control the variable (experiment) PHECDACR .

3 (page 16) .• Exercise 1.

5 : Scientific Investigation (pg 14) . the shorter the time taken for 10 oscillation. string. Variables : a) Constant b) Manipulated c) Responding : Mass of the pendulum bob : Length of the thread : Periods of oscillation Apparatus : Pendulum bob. metre ruler and stop watch .REPORT Date Problem : ___________ : How does the length of a simple pendulum affects its period of oscillation? Hypothesis : The shorter the length of pendulum. retort stand and clamp.Activity 1.

Retort stand String Pendulum bob One complete swing meaning A swing to B and swing back to A .

then it is released.Steps: 1) A pendulum with a 10cm long thread is prepared. . 3) The time taken for 10 complete oscillation is recorded in a table. 2) The pendulum is pulled to one side. 4) The experiment is repeated using a pendulum of different lengths as shown in the table.

0 18.0 .4 20.Results: Experiment Length of simple pendulum (cm) Time taken for 10 complete oscillation (s) Reading 1 Reading 2 Average 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 8.2 16.8 13.

Plot a graph: 20 16 12 8 4 ) s( nekat e m T i 0 10 20 30 40 50 Length of the pendulum (cm) .

. Conclusion : The time taken for the simple pendulum to make one complete oscillation increase with the length of the pendulum. The hypothesis is accepted.Analysis : From the data. we can say that the pendulum with a longer string takes longer time to oscillate.

Question : Which of the following is not one of the steps in using the scientific method? A)Making a hypothesis B) Collecting a data C) Identify a problem D) Making a theory .

4 Physical Quantities and Their Units 1) A physical quantity is a quantity which can be measured. Physical quantity SI Unit/symbol Measuring instrument Length Metre (m) Metre rule Mass Kilogram (kg) Beam balance Time Second (s) Stop watch Temperature Kelvin (K) Thermometer Electric current Ampere (A) Ammeter Table 1.1: The SI units and measuring instruments .1.

3) SI units is the abbreviation of the French term “Le systeme International d unite” = International System 4) SI units are used as standard units all over the world 5) Prefixes are used in the SI unit to state a very small or a very big value. .2) Physical quantities are measured in SI units.

4 symbols and values for prefixes (Pg 17) Prefix Symbol Numerical Value Value 6 mega kilo centi milli micro M k C m µ 1 000 000 1 000 0.000001 10 3 10 -2 10 -3 10 -6 10 .01 0.001 0.Table 1.

Example: Value of physical quantity Prefix form • 5 000 000 k • 3 300 g= • 0.3 kg 8.1 mm 6µm 5 Mk • 0.000 006 A= .081m = = 3.

007 A 9 500 m 0.Try it! 0. ……………. 2cm 4kg 7mA 9.02 m 4 000 g 0.5 km 8 mm . …………….008 m = = = = = 2 cm 4 kg …………….

3) The SI unit – Newton (N) 4) Measuring weight. 2) The weight of an object change depends on the gravitational force that acts on the object at the place. 3) The SI unit.beam balance. chemical balance .Kilogram (kg) 4) Measuring mass. compression balance (pg 18) Mass 1) The quantity of matter in the object.Weight 1) The pull of earth’s gravity on that object.spring balance. Lever balance and electronic balance. 2) The mass of an object is constant everywherebecause the quantity of matter in an object is the same wherever the object is.

Beam balance – measure mass .

Measuring length 1) Length is the distance between 2 points 2) The SI unit for length – metre (m) 3) Short lengths are measured in cm or mm while long distance measured in km .

a) Measuring the length of straight line 1) A metre ruler can be used. 2) The correct reading obtained only when the eyes vertically above the mark on ruler 3) Parallax error occurs if the position of the eye is wrong when taking the reading 4) Measuring tape can be used to measure The length of long straight lines .

2) using opisometer Measuring curve line Measuring curve line using an opisometer .b) Measuring the length of curved line 1) A piece of thread and a metre ruler can be used.

2) Measuring the diameter of object The diameter of an object can be measured using calipers and ruler The external calipers is used to measure the external diameter of an object The internal calipers is used to measure the internal diameter of an object External calipers Internal calipers .

Measurement area Mark (/) on each square that is fully covered. half covered or more than half covered .

12 unit2 .

a b c d .

30) = 15 cm3 stone .Measuring Volume of the object = Water displacement method 45 ml 30 ml What is the volume of the stone? Volume of the stone = (45 .

Measuring Volume object less dance than water 55.5 -45) = 10.5 cm3 45 cm 30 cm3 3 Object x load What is the volume of x? Volume of object x = (55.5cm3 .

Volume of stone .

How to read the volume of liquid .


We can increase the accuracy: a) using suitable measuring tools b) using right technique – avoid parallax error c) taking several readings – take the average .Measurement Skill 1) 2) 3) The measurement is accurate if it is very close to the actual value Inaccurate measurement may lead a scientific investigation to make a wrong conclusion to an experiment.

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