The Best of TlROS On April 1, 1960, TlROS I the world's first weather satellite, transmitted its , first picture

of the earth's surface. During i t s lifetime, 22,592 pictures were read out and interpreted. Hundreds of thousands of pictures have been received from subsequent TlROS satellites. From these photographs, this selection of the more interesting pictures has been made i n response to requests from educators and students. Most TlROS photographs are taken by the bass drum-sized satellite from a The on-board near circular orbit at an altitude of approximately 400 miles. television cameras photograph areas of varying size dependent upon the exact altitude, the field of view of the camera lens, and the "look angle" of the satellite. The crossed lines on the pictures are produced by reference marks, called fiducial lines, ruled on the face of the television vidicon tube. The orbit numbers give the orbit during which the satellite was read out and the orbit in which the picture was taken. For example, 381 1 R/O 3810 is read as "orbit 381 1 reading out orbit 3810 .Ii The TlROS satellites can be programmed for several modes of operation. The pictures can be stored i n the satellite on magnetic tape for later transmission to ground stations (mode: tape); read out directly on command as the pictures are taken (mode: direct); or obtained by a continual direct transmission process cal led "automatic picture transmission" (APT). The time i s given i n Greenwich Mean Time, sometimes called "Zulu" ( Z ) . The first pair of digits designates the hour, the second pair minutes, and the third pair seconds. For additions l informa tion regarding the TlROS satel lite, FACTS, Volume II, Number 12. refer to NASA

r ,

This globnl photo mosaic was assembled from 450 individual pictures taken by TlROS IX during the 24 hours of February 13, 1965. The horizontal white line marks the equator. Special photographic processing was used to increase the contrast between maior land areas, outlined i n white, and the surrounding oceans. The brightest features on the photographs are clouds. Ice i n the antarctic, and snow i n the north are also very bright. The clouds are associated with many types of weather patterns. The scalloping at the bottom shows how the earth's horizon appears i n individual pictures.

/I

STORM OFF NEW ZEALAND TIROS VII ORBIT 381 1 R/O 3810 DATE 3-3-64 AT 043100 Z MODE: TAPE

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPAGE FLIGHT CENTER

TYPHOON HARRIET EAST OF THE PHlLLlPlNE ISLANDS TIROS IX ORBIT 2207 R/O 2206 DATE 7-24-65 AT 001557 Z MODE: TAPE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

FRONTAL SYSTEM OFF THE COAST OF CALIFORNIA TlROS VII ORBIT 5255 DATE 6-8-64 AT 210900 Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

VORTEX - OVER ATLANTIC OCEAN AT 48' N, 2 2 O W - WITH FRONTAL BAND TIROS VII ORBIT 5296 DATE 6-1 1-64 AT 140900 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

HURRICANE ETHEL, OFF SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES, CENTER NEAR 27.5N, 65.5W TIROS VII ORBIT 6644 DATE 9-1 0-64 AT 203000 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

GULF OF ST. LAWRENCE AND NEWFOUNDLAND TIROS VII ORBIT 4276 DATE 4-3-64 AT 141900 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

BAJA CALIFORNIA TIROS VIII, APT CAMERA DATE 2-64

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

EASTERN SEABOARD FROM CAPE COD TO CHESAPEAKE BAY TIROS VII ORBIT 0063 DATE 6-23-63 AT 163820 Z MODE: DIRECT

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

GREAT LAKES WITH CLOUD STREETS TIROS VII ORBIT 0034 DATE 6-21 -63 AT 173130 Z MODE: DIRECT

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

FLORIDA A N D GULF OF MEXICO TlROS V l l l ORBIT 1990 DATE 5-6-64 AT 161100 Z MODE: DIRECT

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPAGE FLIGHT CENTER

STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR TlROS VII ORBIT 4746 DATE 5-5-64 AT 080200 Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

VIEW OF ISRAEL, DEAD SEA, SlNAl PENINSULA, RED SEA AND NILE RIVER AND ITS DELTA TIROS I 1 ORBIT 01 14 1

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS AND LAKES OF TIBET TIROS VII ORBIT 5588 DATE 7-1 -64 AT 083400 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

COAST OF PERU AND CHILE LAKE TITICACA VISIBLE TIROS VII ORBIT 627 DATE 7-31 -63 AT 180000 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

MOUTH OF THE AMAZON TlROS Vlll ORBIT 5296 DATE 12-20-64 AT 154200 Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

ITALY AND SICILY TIROS VII ORBIT 4569 R/O 4568 DATE 4-23-64 AT 101830 Z MODE: TAPE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

ANTARCTICA SHOWING ROSS SEA ICE SHELF A N D LITTLE AMERICA TIROS 1 ORBIT 0022 X DATE 1-23-65

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

KAMC HATKA PEN1NSULA TIROS VII ORBIT 4509 R/O 4503 DATE 4-19-64 AT 004130 Z MODE: TAPE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

ALASKA A N D THE ALEUTIAN CHAIN TlROS VII ORBIT 7680 R/O 7679 DATE 11-19-64 AT 215900 Z MODE: TAPE

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODMRD SPACE FLIGK CENTER

NILE RIVER AND R D S A E E TIROS X ORBIT 0104 DATE 7-9-65 MODE: T P AE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

CASPIAN SEA TlROS V ORBIT 1176

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

J T STREAM CLOUDS SOUTH E OF CAPE BLANC TIROS V l l l ORBIT 4671 R/O 4670 T DATE 1 1-7-64 A 1 34030 Z MODE: TAPE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

CLOUDS ASSOCIATED WITH JET STREAM OVER PACIFIC TIROS VII ORBIT 3677 AT 200600 Z

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

ACTINO FORM CLOUDS IN TROPICAL SOUTH PACIFIC TIROS V l l l ORBIT 2966 R/O 2963 DATE 7-1 2-64 AT 203400 Z MODE: TAPE

TIROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

EDDY PATTERNS SOUTHEAST OF THE CANARY ISLANDS TlROS V ORBIT 0188

>

Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

I S THERE LIFE O N EARTH? SNOW CLOGGED LOGGING ROADS CUT IN A CANADIAN LUMBER FOREST, COC HRANE, CANADA PICTURE CENTER IS 49' N, 81' W TlROS II, NARROW ANGLE CAMERA DATE 4-4-61

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

FOG VISIBLE IN RIVER VALLEYS OF SOUTHEAST BRAZIL TlROS V 1 ORBIT 4880 R/O 4879 1 DATE 5-14-64 AT 1 13200 Z MODE: TAPE

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

FOG A N D STRATUS OVER THE BRITISH ISLES TlROS IV ORBIT 920 DATE 4-13-62 AT 131900 Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FblGW CENTER

SNOW OVER CANADIAN ROCKY MOUNTAINS TlROS VII ORBIT 5581 DATE 6-30-64 AT 210500 Z

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

CONTRAILS SOUTHWEST OF SAN DIEGO TlROS V ORBIT 3343 D T 5-5-63 A 095100 Z AE T MODE: T P AE

ROS PHOTOGRAPH
GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

Goddard Space Flight Center

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful